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1

Neon-20 depth-dose relations in water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dose from heavy ion beams has been calculated using a one-dimensional transport theory and evaluated for 670 MeV/amu 20 Ne beams in water. The result is presented so as to be applicable to arbitrary ions for which the necessary interaction data are known. The present evaluation is based on thar Silberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters augmented with light fragment production from intranuclear cascades, recently calculated nuclear absorption cross sections, and evaluated stopping power data. Comparison with recent experimental data obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory reveals the need for more accurate fragmentation data.

Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Howard, J.

1984-01-01

2

In-air fluence profiles and water depth dose for uncollimated electron beams  

PubMed Central

Advanced electron beam dose calculation models for radiation treatment planning systems require the input of a phase space beam model to configure a clinical electron beam in a computer. This beam model is a distribution in position, energy, and direction of electrons and photons in a plane in front of the patient. The phase space beam model can be determined by Monte Carlo simulation of the treatment head or from a limited set of measurements. In the latter case, parameters of the electron phase space beam model are obtained by fitting measured to calculated dosimetric data. In the present work, data for air fluence profiles and water depth doses have been presented for electron beams without an applicator for a medical linear accelerator. These data are used to parameterize the electron phase space beam model to a Monte Carlo dose calculation module available in the first commercial (MDS Nordion, now Nucletron) Monte Carlo treatment planning for electron beams.

Toutaoui, Abedelkadar; Aichouche, Amar Nassim; Adjidir, Kenza Adjidir; Chami, Ahmed Chafik

2008-01-01

3

Controllability of depth dose distribution for neutron capture therapy at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Research Reactor.  

PubMed

The updating construction of the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor has been performed from November 1995 to March 1996 mainly for the improvement in neutron capture therapy. On the performance, the neutron irradiation modes with the variable energy spectra from almost pure thermal to epi-thermal neutrons became available by the control of the heavy-water thickness in the spectrum shifter and by the open-and-close of the cadmium and boral thermal neutron filters. The depth distributions of thermal, epi-thermal and fast neutron fluxes were measured by activation method using gold and indium, and the depth distributions of gamma-ray absorbed dose rate were measured using thermo-luminescent dosimeter of beryllium oxide for the several irradiation modes. From these measured data, the controllability of the depth dose distribution using the spectrum shifter and the thermal neutron filters was confirmed. PMID:12408308

Sakurai, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Tooru

2002-10-01

4

Absolute depth-dose-rate measurements for an {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source in water using MOSFET detectors  

SciTech Connect

Reported MOSFET measurements concern mostly external radiotherapy and in vivo dosimetry. In this paper, we apply the technique for absolute dosimetry in the context of HDR brachytherapy using an {sup 192}Ir source. Measured radial dose rate distributions in water for different planes perpendicular to the source axis are presented and special attention is paid to the calibration of the R and K type detectors, and to the determination of appropriate correction factors for the sensitivity variation with the increase of the threshold voltage and the energy dependence. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulated dose rate distributions. The experimental results show a good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations: the discrepancy between experimental and Monte Carlo results being within 5% for 82% of the points and within 10% for 95% of the points. Moreover, all points except two are found to lie within the experimental uncertainties, confirming thereby the quality of the results obtained.

Zilio, Valery Olivier; Joneja, Om Parkash; Popowski, Youri; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Chawla, Rakesh [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Physique des Reacteurs et de Comportement des Systemes, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Physique des Reacteurs et de Comportement des Systemes, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory of Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Radio-oncology Division, University of Geneva Hospital, CH-1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522 Australia (Australia); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Physique des Reacteurs et de Comportement des Systemes, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory of Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2006-06-15

5

Application of the high-temperature ratio method for evaluation of the depth distribution of dose equivalent in a water-filled phantom on board space station Mir.  

PubMed

A water-filled tissue equivalent phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems. Moscow. Russia. It contains four channels perpendicular to each other, where dosemeters can be exposed at different depths. Between May 1997 and February 1999 the phantom was installed at three different locations on board the Mir space station. Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed at various depths inside the phantom either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. The high-temperature ratio (HTR) method was used for the evaluation of the TLDs. The method was developed at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities. Vienna, Austria, and has already been used for measurements in mixed radiation fields on earth and in space with great success. It uses the changes of peak height ratios in LiF:Mg,Ti glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer (LET), and therefore allows determination of an 'averaged' LET as well as measurement of the absorbed dose. A mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent can be calculated according to the Q(LETinfinity) relationship proposed by the ICRP. The small size of the LiF dosemeters means that the HTR method can be used to determine the gradient of absorbed dose and dose equivalent inside the tissue equivalent body. PMID:12382930

Berger, T; Hajek, M; Schöner, W; Fugger, M; Vana, N; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V; Kartashov, D

2002-01-01

6

Absorbed dose water calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated

Domen

1982-01-01

7

Water depth estimation with ERTS-1 imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contrast-enhanced 9.5 inch ERTS-1 images were produced for an investigation on ocean water color. Such images lend themselves to water depth estimation by photographic and electronic density contouring. MSS-4 and -5 images of the Great Bahama Bank were density sliced by both methods. Correlation was found between the MSS-4 image and a hydrographic chart at 1:467,000 scale, in a number of areas corresponding to water depth of less than 2 meters, 5 to 10 meters and 10 to about 20 meters. The MSS-5 image was restricted to depths of about 2 meters. Where reflective bottom and clear water are found, ERTS-1 MSS-4 images can be used with density contouring by electronic or photographic methods for estimating depths to 5 meters within about one meter.

Ross, D. S.

1973-01-01

8

Dose distributions at extreme irradiation depths of gamma knife radiosurgery: EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of the dose planning system (Leksell GammaPlan), used in Gamma Knife (type B) radiosurgery at extreme irradiation depths, was verified using the Monte Carlo technique. EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were employed to calculate the dose distribution along the x, y and z axes for an irradiation relatively shallow in a spherical bony cavity water phantom. Two different sizes

J. Y. C. Cheung; K. N. Yu; C. P. Yu; R. T. K. Ho

2001-01-01

9

Estimated depth to water, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

Eimers, Jo Leslie; Terziotti, Silvia; Giorgino, Mary J.

2001-01-01

10

Central axis depth dose curve for electron beams  

SciTech Connect

In this article an analytical equation for electron depth dose is proposed for electron energies from 6--20 MeV. The equation contains four parameters and it fits the build-up region, fall-off region as well as the bremsstrahlung background region. The calculated values from this equation fit within 1,5% of the measured data in the build-up region and in the fall-off region within 0,5 mm for the energy range 5--10 MeV and within 1 mm for the range 12--20 MeV. This equation can be applied beyond the practical range.

Strydom, W.J. (Department of Medical Physics, Medical University of Southern Africa, P.O. Medunsa 0204 (Republic of South Africa))

1991-11-01

11

Orthovoltage radiation of normal canine nasal passages: assessment of depth dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frozen heads of 9 clinically normal dogs were irradiated with orthovoltage x-rays. Surface doses and nasal cavity depth doses were measured, and the percentage of surface dose (depth dose) was calculated at random depths from the dorsal cutaneous surface in transverse planes through the medial and lateral canthi. Depth dose of 2 orthovoltage x-ray beams having half-value layers of 1.5

D. A. Feeney; G. R. Johnston; J. F. Williamson; C. R. Jessen

1983-01-01

12

Anchoring International sets new water depth record  

SciTech Connect

Santa Barbara Channel has a history steeped in firsts in techniques for the production of offshore oil. Landscaped drilling and production islands, production piers, and directional drilling from land rigs to production under the channel, to name a few. The latest such project was handled by Anchoring International, Inc., a pipe line anchoring company headquartered in Houston, Texas. Contracted by Healy Tibbets Construction Company, prime contractor, Anchoring was commissioned to handle a new deep water record breaking anchoring job. The job was to anchor J-tube extensions in 820 feet of water--the deepest pipe line anchoring job ever undertaken. In most shallow water pipe line anchoring jobs, anchors and anchor installation unit placement over the pipe line is handled from a crane topside with visual assist from divers. However, due to the extreme depth of this project, the installation unit with anchors had to be modified for submersible operator-assisted placement capability. Anchoring International handled the anchor design and installation equipment, and submersible operator assistance was furnished by Oceaneering, International. WASP and JIM atmospheric diving systems were used. All ocean bottom activities were monitored topside with the JERED video-equipped remote controlled vehicle. Since the weight of the anchor sets and power installation unit are minimum, the entire operation was conducted from a small boat sufficient to carry dive equipment and the anchor installation unit power supply. A small pedestal crane was used to lower and retrieve the anchor installation unit.

Noble, H.J.

1983-07-01

13

Depth-dose relations for heavy ion beams  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation transport of heavy ions in matter is of interest to radiological protection in space and high-altitude aircraft. In addition, heavy ion beams are expected to be of advantage in radiotherapy since their characteristic Bragg curve allows a relative reduction of the dose in reaching a tumor site and the near elimination of exposure beyond the tumor region as the beam exits the body. Furthermore, the radioresistance of tumorous cells due to their hypoxic state may be reduced or eliminated by the high specific ionization of heavy ion beams. The depth-dose distribution of heavy ion beams consists of energy deposited by the attenuated primary beam with its characteristic Bragg curve and a relatively unstructured background due to secondary radiations produced in nuclear reactions. As the ion mass increases, the secondary contribution becomes more structured and may add significantly to the Bragg peak of the primary ions. The result for heavy ions (z greater than 20) is a greatly broadened Bragg peak region, especially in comparison to straggling effects, which may prove to be of importance in radiotherapy and biomedical research.

Wilson, J. W.

1977-01-01

14

Dose distributions at extreme irradiation depths of gamma knife radiosurgery: EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations.  

PubMed

The accuracy of the dose planning system (Leksell GammaPlan), used in Gamma Knife (type B) radiosurgery at extreme irradiation depths, was verified using the Monte Carlo technique. EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were employed to calculate the dose distribution along the x, y and z axes for an irradiation relatively shallow in a spherical bony cavity water phantom. Two different sizes of the collimator helmets, 8 and 18 mm, of the Leksell Gamma Knife Unit were studied. The results of GammaPlan showed good consistency with the Monte Carlo results. Furthermore, small dose enhancements were observed in the skull bone where accurate dose measurements are difficult due to the presence of the air-phantom interface. Therefore, the results of this project can promote confidence to all Gamma Knife centres in the world when using the Leksell GammaPlan. PMID:11214882

Cheung, J Y; Yu, K N; Yu, C P; Ho, R T

2001-03-01

15

Transport calculations of depth-dose distributions for gadolinium neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

Depth-dose distributions were calculated for thermal and epithermal neutron fluence and capture gamma ray dose rates using a two-dimensional neutron-coupled gamma-ray transport code (DOT 3.5) for gadolinium neutron capture therapy. The results show that (i) a capture gamma-ray dose rate of 10 Gy h-1 was obtained with a thermal neutron fluence rate of 1.5 x 10(9) cm-2 s-1 in a simulated tumour containing 5000 PPM gadolinium placed near the surface of a water phantom, (ii) deep-seated tumours may be treated with epithermal neutrons, and (iii) gadolinium neutron capture therapy appears to achieve comparable dose distributions to those of boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:1741420

Matsumoto, T

1992-01-01

16

Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial base-line field test performance results of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the bathymetry mode are presented. Flight tests over the Atlantic Ocean yielded water depth measurements to 10 m. Water depths to 4.6 m were measured in the more turbid Chesapeake Bay. Water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat were

F. E. Hoge; Robert N. Swift; Earl B. Frederick

1980-01-01

17

Photometric and polarimetric mapping of water turbidity and water depth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Digital Photometric Mapper (DPM) was used in the Fall of 1971 in an airborne survey of New York and Boston area waters to acquire photometric, spectral and polarimetric data. The object of this study is to analyze these data with quantitative computer processing techniques to assess the potential of the DPM in the measurement and regional mapping of water turbidity and depth. These techniques have been developed and an operational potential has been demonstrated. More emphasis is placed at this time on the methodology of data acquisition, analysis and display than on the quantity of data. The results illustrate the type, quantity and format of information that could be generated operationally with the DPM-type sensor characterized by high photometric stability and fast, accurate digital output. The prototype, single-channel DPM is suggested as a unique research tool for a number of new applications. For the operational mapping of water turbidity and depth, the merits of a multichannel DPM coupled with a laser system are stressed.

Halajian, J.; Hallock, H.

1973-01-01

18

Depth dose dependence of the mouse bone using kilovoltage photon beams: A Monte Carlo study for small-animal irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the dose enhancement due to the presence of mouse bone irradiated by the kilovoltage (kV) photon beams. Dosimetry of the bone associated with soft and lung tissue was determined by Monte Carlo simulations using the EGSnrc-based code in millimeter scale. Two inhomogeneous phantoms with 2 mm of bone layer sandwiched by: (1) water and lung (bone-lung phantom); and (2) water (bone-water phantom), were used. Relative depth doses along the central beam axes in the phantoms and dose enhancement ratios (bone dose in the above inhomogeneous phantoms to the dose at the same point in the water phantom) were determined using the 100 and 225 kVp photon beams. For the 100 kVp photon beams, the depth dose gradient in the bone was significantly larger compared to that in a water phantom without the bone. This is due to the beam hardening effect that some low-energy photons were filtered out in the deeper depth, resulting in less photoelectric interactions and hence energy depositions in the bone. Moreover, dose differences between the top and downstream (bottom) bone edges at depths of 1-5 mm were 168-192% and 149-166% for the bone-lung and bone-water phantom, respectively. These differences were larger than 21-27% (bone-lung) and 12-23% (bone-water) for the 225 kVp photon beams. The maximum dose enhancement ratio in the bone for the bone-lung and bone-water phantoms in various depths was about 5.7 using the 100 kVp photon beams. This ratio was larger than two times of that (2.4) for the 225 kVp photon beams. It is concluded that, apart from the basic beam characteristics such as attenuation and penumbra, which are related to the photon beam energy in the mouse irradiation, the bone dose is another important factor to consider when selecting the beam energy in the small-animal treatment planning, provided that the bone dose enhancement is a concern in the preclinical model.

Chow, James C. L.

2010-05-01

19

Determination of Snow Depth and Water Equivalent by Remote Sensing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This exploratory study was designed to investigate the possibilities of using inexpensive aerial remote sensing methods to measure the snowpack and its water content. The relation of snow depth and elevation on the same aspect (north or south) was definit...

H. W. Steinhoff A. H. Barnes

1976-01-01

20

Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW30013, NACP-02, and Roos chambers agreed well with that of water by using the optimal EPOM. Therefore, the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers can be expected for PDD measurements in clinical electron beams.

Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan)

2011-08-15

21

Composite depth dose measurement for total skin electron (TSE) treatments using radiochromic film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total skin electron (TSE) radiotherapy is routinely used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphomas and can be implemented using a modified Stanford technique. In our centre, the composite depth dose for this technique is achieved by a combination of two patient positions per day over a three-day cycle, and two gantry angles per patient position. Due to patient morphology, underdosed regions typically occur and have historically been measured using multiple thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). We show that radiochromic film can be used as a two-dimensional relative dosimeter to measure the percent depth dose in TSE radiotherapy. Composite depth dose curves were measured in a cylindrical, polystyrene phantom and compared with TLD data. Both multiple films (1 film per day) and a single film were used in order to reproduce a realistic clinical scenario. First, three individual films were used to measure the depth dose, one per treatment day, and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed a reasonable agreement. Secondly, a single film was used to measure the dose delivered over three daily treatments and then compared with TLD data; this comparison showed good agreement throughout the depth dose, which includes doses well below 1 Gy. It will be shown that one piece of radiochromic film is sufficient to measure the composite percent depth dose for a TSE beam, hence making radiochromic film a suitable candidate for monitoring underdosed patient regions.

Gamble, Lisa M.; Farrell, Thomas J.; Jones, Glenn W.; Hayward, Joseph E.

2003-04-01

22

Depth dose comparison of measured and calculated dose for the Eclipse virtual carbon couch top models with air gap variation.  

PubMed

This study assessed the accuracy of Eclipse™ (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) treatment planning system (TPS) dose calculations when using virtual couch top models to account for couch presence in patient treatments. The Flat panel and Unipanel couch tops for the Varian Exact Couch were used in this study. Assigned Hounsfield unit (HU) for the virtual couch tops were varied and TPS calculated dose was compared to measured data to determine an optimal assigned HU. Air gaps of up to 10 cm were introduced between couch and phantom to assess the ability of the models to replicate dose in this situation, commonly seen clinically. Dose was measured at a range of depths, for each air gap thickness, in order to assess the model both near surface and at various depths beyond the dose maximum. Optimal HU was taken to be that which had the best agreement between measured and calculated dose over the range of gaps and depths tested. For the Flat panel couch top this was found to be -500 HU and for the Unipanel couch top, -200 HU. Default HU parameters originally set in the models was found to be not optimal for the whole range of depths studied. With optimal HU parameters set, there was good agreement between calculated and measured dose for depths greater than 0.5 cm, but discrepancies were still observed near surface. When implementing virtual couch top models, users could improve dose calculation accuracy by determining the optimal HU from comparisons over several clinical depths rather than a single depth. PMID:24132584

Foo, Jacqueline; Stensmyr, Rachel

2013-12-01

23

Development of a fibre-optic dosemeter to measure the skin dose and percentage depth dose in the build-up region of therapeutic photon beams.  

PubMed

In this study, a fibre-optic dosemeter (FOD) using an organic scintillator with a diameter of 0.5 mm for photon-beam therapy dosimetry was fabricated. The fabricated dosemeter has many advantages, including water equivalence, high spatial resolution, remote sensing and real-time measurement. The scintillating light generated from an organic-dosemeter probe embedded in a solid-water stack phantom is guided to a photomultiplier tube and an electrometer via 20 m of plastic optical fibre. Using this FOD, the skin dose and the percentage depth dose in the build-up region according to the depths of a solid-water stack phantom are measured with 6- and 15-MV photon-beam energies with field sizes of 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm(2), respectively. The results are compared with those measured using conventional dosimetry films. It is expected that the proposed FOD can be effectively used in radiotherapy dosimetry for accurate measurement of the skin dose and the depth dose distribution in the build-up region due to its high spatial resolution. PMID:22764176

Kim, K-A; Yoo, W J; Jang, K W; Moon, J; Han, K-T; Jeon, D; Park, J-Y; Cha, E-J; Lee, B

2013-03-01

24

Depth.  

PubMed

Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space-a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues. PMID:23145244

Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

2011-01-01

25

Depth  

PubMed Central

Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space—a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues.

Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

2011-01-01

26

Modulational instability and wave amplification in finite water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modulational instability of a uniform wave train to side band perturbations is one of the most plausible mechanisms for the generation of rogue waves in deep water. In a condition of finite water depth, however, the interaction with the sea floor generates a wave-induced current that subtracts energy from the wave field and consequently attenuates the instability mechanism. As a result, a plane wave remains stable under the influence of collinear side bands for relative depths kh ≤ 1.36 (where k is the wavenumber of the plane wave and h is the water depth), but it can still destabilise due to oblique perturbations. Using direct numerical simulations of the Euler equations, it is here demonstrated that oblique side bands are capable of triggering modulational instability and eventually leading to the formation of rogue waves also for kh ≤ 1.36. Results, nonetheless, indicate that modulational instability cannot sustain a substantial wave growth for kh < 0.8.

Fernandez, L.; Onorato, M.; Monbaliu, J.; Toffoli, A.

2014-03-01

27

Basic dosimetry of radiosurgery narrow beams using Monte Carlo simulations: a detailed study of depth of maximum dose.  

PubMed

In radiosurgery narrow photon beams, the depth of maximum dose d(max), in the beam central axis increases as the size of the additional collimator increases. This behavior is the opposite of what is observed in radiotherapy conventional beams. To understand this effect, experimental depth dose curves of the additional collimators were obtained for a Siemens KD2 linear accelerator in 6 MV photon mode and the shift of d(max) varied from 11.0 +/- 0.6 mm for the 5 mm collimator to 14.5 +/- 0.6 mm for the 23 mm collimator. Monte Carlo simulations showed that the photons that had no interactions in the additional collimators, contributing more than 90% to the total dose in water, were responsible for the shift in d(max). Monte Carlo simulations also showed that electrons originated from these photons and contributing to the dose deposit in water in the beam central axis could be divided in two groups: those that deposit energy far away from their point of origin (the point of the first photon collision in water) and those that deposit energy locally (originated at more than one photon collision in water). Applying a simplified model based on the fact that the photons originating Compton electrons (at the first and subsequent collisions) have similar characteristics in air for all the additional collimators, it was shown that these electrons were also responsible for the shift of d(max) in the beam central axis. Finally, it was shown that the changes in the initial gradients of the depth dose curves of the additional collimators were mainly due to electrons originated from the first photon collision in water. PMID:14655937

Chaves, A; Lopes, M C; Alves, C C; Oliveira, C; Peralta, L; Rodrigues, P; Trindade, A

2003-11-01

28

Transport calculations of depth-dose distributions for gadolinium neutron capture therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth-dose distributions were calculated for thermal and epithermal neutron fluence and capture gamma ray dose rates using a two-dimensional neutron-coupled gamma-ray transport code (DOT 3.5) for gadolinium neutron capture therapy. The results show that (i) a capture gamma-ray dose rate of 10 Gy h-1 was obtained with a thermal neutron fluence rate of 1.5*109 cm-2 s-1 in a simulated tumour

T. Matsumoto

1992-01-01

29

Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system.  

PubMed

Initial base-line field test performance results of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the bathymetry mode are presented. Flight tests over the Atlantic Ocean yielded water depth measurements to 10 m. Water depths to 4.6 m were measured in the more turbid Chesapeake Bay. Water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat were taken at the same time as the aircraft overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. Beam attenuation coefficient a and depth d product alphad was established early in the program as the performance criterion index. A performance product of 6 was determined to be the goal. This performance goal was successfully met or exceeded in the large number of field tests executed. Included are selected data from nadir-angle tests conducted at 0 degrees , 5 degrees , 10 degrees , and 15 degrees . Field-of-view data chosen from the 2-, 5-, 10-, and 20-mrad tests are also presented. Depth measurements obtained to altitudes of 456 m are given for additional comparison. This laser bathymetry system represents a significant improvement over prior models in that (1) the complete surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape at a rate of 400 pulse waveforms/sec, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using the 30 degrees full-angle conical scanner. Space does not allow all the 5,000,000 laser soundings to be included. Qualified interested users may obtain complete data sets for their own in-depth analysis. PMID:20220950

Hoge, F E; Swift, R N; Frederick, E B

1980-03-15

30

Monte Carlo simulation of depth dose distribution in several organic models for boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate depth-dose distributions for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ICRU computational model of ADAM & EVA was used as a phantom to simulate tumors at a depth of 5 cm in central regions of the lungs, liver and pancreas. Tumors of the prostate and osteosarcoma were also centered at the depth of 4.5 and 2.5 cm in the phantom models. The epithermal neutron beam from a research reactor was the primary neutron source for the MCNP calculation of the depth-dose distributions in those cancer models. For brain tumor irradiations, the whole-body dose was also evaluated. The MCNP simulations suggested that a lethal dose of 50 Gy to the tumors can be achieved without reaching the tolerance dose of 25 Gy to normal tissue. The whole-body phantom calculations also showed that the BNCT could be applied for brain tumors without significant damage to whole-body organs.

Matsumoto, T.

2007-09-01

31

Multi-temporal water depth mapping by means of Landsat TM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water depth in coastal areas was assumed to be linear with the first principal component of the logarithms of the detected signals within the spectral bands of the satellite sensor. Hence, relative water depths (digital counts) were computed. Charts of absolute water depths were then derived by the application of several calibration points with known water depth. The charts

W. van Hengel; D. Spitzer

1991-01-01

32

Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

1980-01-01

33

Diffuse reflectance of oceanic shallow waters: Influence of water depth and bottom albedo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used simplifying assumptions to derive analytical formulae expressing the reflectance of shallow waters as a function of observation depth and of bottom depth and albedo. These formulae also involve two apparent optical properties of the water body: a mean diffise attenuation coefficient and a hypothetical reflectance which would be observed if the bottom was infinitely deep. The validity of

STÉPHANE MARITORENA; ANDRÉ MOREL; BERNARD GENTILI

1994-01-01

34

Turbid water measurements of remote sensing penetration depth at visible and near-infrared wavelength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Remote sensing of water quality is dicussed. Remote sensing penetration depth is a function both of water type and wavelength. Results of three tests to help demonstrate the magnitude of this dependence are presented. The water depth to which the remote-sensor data was valid was always less than that of the Secchi disk depth, although not always the same fraction of that depth. The penetration depths were wavelength dependent and showed the greatest variation for the water type with largest Secchi depth. The presence of a reflective plate, simulating a reflective subsurface, increased the apparent depth of light penetration from that calculated for water of infinite depth.

Morris, W. D.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.

1980-01-01

35

Experimental and simulated XPS depth profiles of low-energy high dose nitrogen implanted into aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper the XPS measurements of aluminium samples implanted with low energy, high dose nitrogen ions are presented. The experimental results are compared with those obtained from a Monte-Carlo computer simulation. The influence of collisions atomic mixing and ion-bombardment-induced segregation on the distortion of the measured depth profile of implanted ions is discussed.

JL Sullivan; Z Wronski; SO Saied; J Sielanko

1995-01-01

36

Measurements of relative depth doses and Cerenkov light using a scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter with Co-60 radiotherapy source.  

PubMed

In this study, we fabricated a scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter, which consists of an organic scintillator and a plastic optical fiber, for radiotherapy dosimetry. To select an adequate kind and length of scintillator for ?-rays generated from a Co-60 source, scintillating light from various kinds and lengths of organic scintillators is measured. Using a scintillating fiber-optic dosimeter, the ?-rays generated from a Co-60 therapy unit are measured and relative doses are obtained according to the field size of the ?-ray beam and the depth in a water phantom. Also, Cerenkov light generated by the interactions of primary or secondary electrons and the plastic optical fiber is measured with different field sizes and depths of a water phantom using a background optical fiber. PMID:21889353

Jang, Kyoung Won; Yoo, Wook Jae; Moon, Jinsoo; Han, Ki Tek; Park, Jang-Yeon; Lee, Bongsoo

2012-01-01

37

Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite.  

PubMed

Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day-1 have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) of U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. manufacture. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness. PMID:11537508

Akatov YuA; Dudkin, V E; Kovalev, E E; Benton, E V; Frank, A L; Watts, J W; Parnell, T A

1990-01-01

38

Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp -1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

1995-01-01

39

Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day-1 have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) of U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. manufacture. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Watts, J. W. Jr; Parnell, T. A.

1990-01-01

40

Simulation of depth-dose distributions for various ions in polyethylene medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of depth-dose distributions for intermediate energy ion beams in tissue-like media such as polyethylene (CH2)n provides a good platform for further improvements in the fields of hadrontherapy and space radiation shielding. The depth-dose distributions for 12C ions at various energies and for light and intermediate ion beams (3He, 16O, 20Ne and 28Si) as well as for heavy ions 56Fe in polyethylene were estimated by using simulation toolkit: Geant4. Calculations were performed mainly by considering two different combinations of standard electromagnetic (EM), binary cascade (BIC), statistical multifragmentation (SMF) and Fermi breakup (FB) models. The energies of the ion beams were selected to achieve the Bragg peaks at predefined position (˜60 mm) and as per their availability. Variations of peak-to-entrance ratio (from 7.44 ± 0.05 to 8.87 ± 0.05), entrance dose (from 2.89 ± 0.01 to 203.71 ± 0.63 MeV/mm) and entrance stopping power (from 3.608 to 208.858 MeV/mm, calculated by SRIM) with atomic number (Z) were presented in a systematic manner. The better peak-to-entrance ratio and less entrance dose in the region Z = 2 to 8 (i.e. 3He to 16O) may provide the suitability of the ion beams for hadrontherapy.

Kumar, Ashavani; Jalota, Summit; Gupta, Renu

2012-06-01

41

Preliminary analysis of a high-energy neutron depth-dose experiment  

SciTech Connect

Dosimetry at intermediate- and high-energy particle accelerators, such as the proposed Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) facility, is a complex problem because of a multiplicity of radiation components and the wide energy range involved. Neutrons generally produce the largest contribution to the dose equivalent because they are among the most abundant particles and have the greatest biological effect. A high-energy neutron depth-dose experiment will be performed at Los Alamos Neutron Scattering Center/Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE/WNR) complex as part of a continuing effort to meet APT dosimetry needs. This experiment will provide an opportunity to test the validity of MCNPX in calculating high-energy neutron dose conversion coefficients. Future work includes estimation of the scattered flux from the phantom for radiation protection purposes and a comparison of experimental results with MCNPX calculations.

Sutton, M.R.; Hertel, N.E; Wang, C.K.C. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Waters, L.S.; Haight, R.C.; Ullman, J.L.; Walker, L.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-12-31

42

An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields.  

PubMed

For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 × 10 cm(2) fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 × 50 × 50 cm(3) water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%. PMID:23787215

Ding, George X; Krauss, Rob

2013-07-21

43

Calculated and measured depth dose profiles in a phantom exposed to neutron radiation fields  

SciTech Connect

An accurate evaluation of doses caused by external sources of neutron radiation depends on knowledge of the transport of radiation inside the human body. Health physicists use two primary methods for studying this radiation transport: computer calculations and measurements. Both computer calculations and measurements were performed under well controlled, nearly identical conditions to determine the extent of their agreement. A comparison of the dose profiles predicted by both measurements and calculations was thus possible. The measurements were performed in a cylindrical phantom made of tissue equivalent plastic. The phantom size, 61 cm high and 30 cm in diameter, was chosen to approximate the human torso and to match the dimensions of cylindrical phantoms used by previous calculations. Holes were drilled down through the phantom to accommodate small tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) at various depths in the phantom. These counters were used to measure the neutron dose inside the phantom when it was exposed to various sources of neutrons. The holes in the phantom could also accommodate miniature Geiger-Mueller detectors to measure the gamma component of the dose. Neutron and gamma dose profiles were measured for two different sources of neutrons: an unmoderated /sup 252/Cf source and a 733-keV neutron beam generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator. 14 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

Scherpelz, R.I.; Tanner, J.E.; Sigalla, L.A.; Hadlock, D.E.

1989-05-01

44

Limiting Gravity Waves in Water of Finite Depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progressive, irrotational gravity waves of constant form exist as a two-parameter family. The first parameter, the ratio of mean depth to wavelength, varies from zero (the solitary wave) to infinity (the deep-water wave). The second parameter, the wave height or amplitude, varies from zero (the infinitesimal wave) to a limiting value dependent on the first parameter. For limiting waves the wave crest ceases to be rounded and becomes angled, with an included angle of 120 degrees. Most methods of calculating finite-amplitude waves use either a form of series expansion or the solution of an integral equation. For waves nearing the limiting amplitude many terms (or nodal points) are needed to describe the wave form accurately. Consequently the accuracy even of recent solutions on modern computers can be improved upon, except at the deep-water end of the range. The present work extends an integral equation technique used previously in which the angled crest of the limiting wave is included as a specific term, derived from the well known Stokes corner flow. This term is now supplemented by a second term, proposed by Grant in a study of the flow near the crest. Solutions comprising 80 terms at the shallow-water end of the range, reducing to 20 at the deep-water end, have defined many field and integral properties of the flow to within 1 to 2 parts in 106. It is shown that without the new crest term this level of accuracy would have demanded some hundreds of terms while without either crest term many thousands of terms would have been needed. The practical limits of the computing range are shown to correspond, to working accuracy, with the theoretical extremes of the solitary wave and the deep-water wave. In each case the results agree well with several previous accurate solutions and it is considered that the accuracy has been improved. For example, the height:depth ratio of the solitary wave is now estimated to be 0.833 197 and the height:wavelength ratio of the deep-water wave to be 0.141 063. The results are presented in detail to facilitate further theoretical study and early practical application. The coefficients defining the wave motion are given for 22 cases, five of which, including the two extremes, are fully documented with tables of displacement, velocity, acceleration, pressure and time. Examples of particle orbits and drift profiles are presented graphically and are shown for the extreme waves to agree very closely with simplified calculations by Longuet-Higgins. Finally, the opportunity has been taken to calculate to greater accuracy the long-term Lagrangian-mean angular momentum of the maximum deep-water wave, according to the recent method proposed by Longuet-Higgins, with the conclusion that the level of action is slightly above the crest.

Williams, J. M.

1981-08-01

45

Final Aperture Superposition Technique applied to fast calculation of electron output factors and depth dose curves  

SciTech Connect

The Final Aperture Superposition Technique (FAST) is described and applied to accurate, near instantaneous calculation of the relative output factor (ROF) and central axis percentage depth dose curve (PDD) for clinical electron beams used in radiotherapy. FAST is based on precalculation of dose at select points for the two extreme situations of a fully open final aperture and a final aperture with no opening (fully shielded). This technique is different than conventional superposition of dose deposition kernels: The precalculated dose is differential in position of the electron or photon at the downstream surface of the insert. The calculation for a particular aperture (x-ray jaws or MLC, insert in electron applicator) is done with superposition of the precalculated dose data, using the open field data over the open part of the aperture and the fully shielded data over the remainder. The calculation takes explicit account of all interactions in the shielded region of the aperture except the collimator effect: Particles that pass from the open part into the shielded part, or visa versa. For the clinical demonstration, FAST was compared to full Monte Carlo simulation of 10x10,2.5x2.5, and 2x8 cm{sup 2} inserts. Dose was calculated to 0.5% precision in 0.4x0.4x0.2 cm{sup 3} voxels, spaced at 0.2 cm depth intervals along the central axis, using detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the treatment head of a commercial linear accelerator for six different electron beams with energies of 6-21 MeV. Each simulation took several hours on a personal computer with a 1.7 Mhz processor. The calculation for the individual inserts, done with superposition, was completed in under a second on the same PC. Since simulations for the pre calculation are only performed once, higher precision and resolution can be obtained without increasing the calculation time for individual inserts. Fully shielded contributions were largest for small fields and high beam energy, at the surface, reaching a maximum of 5.6% at 21 MeV. Contributions from the collimator effect were largest for the large field size, high beam energy, and shallow depths, reaching a maximum of 4.7% at 21 MeV. Both shielding contributions and the collimator effect need to be taken into account to achieve an accuracy of 2%. FAST takes explicit account of the shielding contributions. With the collimator effect set to that of the largest field in the FAST calculation, the difference in dose on the central axis (product of ROF and PDD) between FAST and full simulation was generally under 2%. The maximum difference of 2.5% exceeded the statistical precision of the calculation by four standard deviations. This occurred at 18 MeV for the 2.5x2.5 cm{sup 2} field. The differences are due to the method used to account for the collimator effect.

Faddegon, B.A.; Villarreal-Barajas, J.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94143-1708 (United States); Mt. Diablo Regional Cancer Center, 2450 East Street, Concord, California (United States)

2005-11-15

46

Altitude and configuration of the water table, and depth to water near Cheyenne, Wyoming, May 1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Altitude and configuration of the water table and depth to water were determined for an area near the southwestern corner of Francis E. Warren Air Force Base which is adjacent to the city limits of Cheyenne, Wyoming. Water levels in the Ogallala Formation, of late Miocene age, generally are less than 20 ft below land surface in this area where there are many private residences on small-acreage lots. Landowners rely on their own wells for water supply and have installed their own septic systems. (USGS)

Crist, Marvin A.

1985-01-01

47

Correction for depth biases to shallow water multibeam bathymetric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical errors often present in multibeam swath bathymetric data. They are mainly sourced by sound refraction, internal wave disturbance, imperfect tide correction, transducer mounting, long period heave, static draft change, dynamic squat and dynamic motion residuals, etc. Although they can be partly removed or reduced by specific algorithms, the synthesized depth biases are unavoidable and sometimes have an important influence on high precise utilization of the final bathymetric data. In order to confidently identify the decimeter-level changes in seabed morphology by MBES, we must remove or weaken depth biases and improve the precision of multibeam bathymetry further. The fixed-interval profiles that are perpendicular to the vessel track are generated to adjust depth biases between swaths. We present a kind of postprocessing method to minimize the depth biases by the histogram of cumulative depth biases. The datum line in each profile can be obtained by the maximum value of histogram. The corrections of depth biases can be calculated according to the datum line. And then the quality of final bathymetry can be improved by the corrections. The method is verified by a field test.

Yang, Fan-lin; Li, Jia-biao; Liu, Zhi-min; Han, Li-tao

2013-04-01

48

Regression analysis of growth responses to water depth in three wetland plant species  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Plant species composition in wetlands and on lakeshores often shows dramatic zonation, which is frequently ascribed to differences in flooding tolerance. This study compared the growth responses to water depth of three species (Phormium tenax, Carex secta and Typha orientalis) differing in depth preferences in wetlands, using non-linear and quantile regression analyses to establish how flooding tolerance can explain field zonation. Methodology Plants were established for 8 months in outdoor cultures in waterlogged soil without standing water, and then randomly allocated to water depths from 0 to 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth differed between the three species, and were non-linear. Phormium tenax growth decreased rapidly in standing water >0.25 m depth, C. secta growth increased initially with depth but then decreased at depths >0.30 m, accompanied by increased shoot height and decreased shoot density, and T. orientalis was unaffected by the 0- to 0.50-m depth range. In P. tenax the decrease in growth was associated with a decrease in the number of leaves produced per ramet and in C. secta the effect of water depth was greatest for the tallest shoots. Allocation patterns were unaffected by depth. Conclusions The responses are consistent with the principle that zonation in the field is primarily structured by competition in shallow water and by physiological flooding tolerance in deep water. Regression analyses, especially QRA, proved to be powerful tools in distinguishing genuine phenotypic responses to water depth from non-phenotypic variation due to size and developmental differences.

Sorrell, Brian K.; Tanner, Chris C.; Brix, Hans

2012-01-01

49

Variation in bioturbation with water depth on marine slopes: a study on the Little Bahamas Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconstructing the paleoceanography of intermediate-depth waters is dependent on sedimentary records preserved on marine slopes. But knowledge of bioturbation processes in such slope environments is much poorer than for the deep sea. In this study, 210Pb profiles were measured for the upper ?20 cm of sediment from five box cores taken on the slopes of the Bahamas in water depths

Gideon M. Henderson; Fara N. Lindsay; Niall C. Slowey

1999-01-01

50

Assessing rooting depths of an Austrian pine stand by inverse modeling soil water content maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rooting depths in a forested stand (0.11 ha) were estimated indirectly by inverse modeling maps of soil water contents from time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements at 150 points. These maps were described with a calibrated one-dimensional soil water flow model, with specific values for the rooting depth, van Genuchten's [1980] alpha parameter, and throughfall fraction at each point. At about

P. A. D. Musters; W. Bouten

1999-01-01

51

Changes in photosynthetic pigment concentration in seaweeds as a function of water depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study of the relationship between changes in photosynthetic pigment content and water depth in Great Harbor near Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, on the green algae Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile and the red algae Porphyra umbilicalis and Chondrus crispus. A calibrated underwater photometer equipped with spectral band filters measured light attenuation by the water column. The depth

J. Rarnus; S. I. Beale; D. Mauzerall; K. L. Howard

1976-01-01

52

Depth dose distributions measured with thermoluminescence detectors inside the anthropomorphic torso of the MATROSHKA experiment inside and outside the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA MATROSHKA (MTR) facility was realized through the German Aerospace Center, DLR, Cologne, as main contractor, aiming for the determination of skin and organ doses within a simulated human upper torso. MTR simulates, by applying an anthropomorphic upper torso, as exact as possible an astronaut performing either an extravehicular activity (EVA) (MTR Phase 1) or an astronaut working inside the International Space Station (MTR Phase 2A). It consists of a human phantom, a Base Structure and a Carbon fibre container - simulating the astronaut‘s space suit. The phantom itself is made up of 33 slices composed of natural bones, embedded in tissue equivalent plastic of different density for tissue and lung. The Phantom slices are equipped with channels and cut-outs to allow the accommodation of active and passive dosemeters, temperature and pressure sensors. Over 4800 passive detectors (thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors) constitute the radiation experiments which are beside inside the phantom also located on top the head of the phantom, in front of the belly and around the body as part of a Poncho and a Hood. In its 1st exposure phase (MTR 1: 2004 - 2005) MTR measured the depth dose distribution of an astronaut performing an EVA - mounted outside the Zvezda Module. In its 2nd exposure phase the phantom was positioned inside the ISS to monitor the radiation environment and measure the depth dose distribution in dependence on the inside shielding configurations. The majority of the TLDs provided for the determination of the depth dose distribution was provided by IFJ-PAN, ATI and DLR. Data of "combined" depth dose distribution of the three different groups will be shown for the MTR-1 exposure (outside the ISS) and the MTR-2A (inside the ISS). The discussion will focus on the difference in depth dose as well as skin dose distribution based on the different shielding thickness provided by the two experimental phases.

Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hajek, Michael; Bergmann, Robert; Bilski, Pawel; Puchalska, Msc. Monika

53

Estimation of Missing Water-Level Data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 Update.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-leve...

M. D. Petkewich P. A. Conrads

2013-01-01

54

Water Samples from Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Robert Sanders, with Temple University, is collecting water samples from the CTD. Both Robert and Rebecca Gast, with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, were using the samples to study microorganisms in the Arctic Ocean....

2008-12-09

55

A quantile count model of water depth constraints on Cape Sable seaside sparrows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. A quantile regression model for counts of breeding Cape Sable seaside sparrows Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis (L.) as a function of water depth and previous year abundance was developed based on extensive surveys, 1992-2005, in the Florida Everglades. The quantile count model extends linear quantile regression methods to discrete response variables, providing a flexible alternative to discrete parametric distributional models, e.g. Poisson, negative binomial and their zero-inflated counterparts. 2. Estimates from our multiplicative model demonstrated that negative effects of increasing water depth in breeding habitat on sparrow numbers were dependent on recent occupation history. Upper 10th percentiles of counts (one to three sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth from 0 to 30 cm when sites were not occupied in previous years. However, upper 40th percentiles of counts (one to six sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth for sites occupied in previous years. 3. Greatest decreases (-50% to -83%) in upper quantiles of sparrow counts occurred as water depths increased from 0 to 15 cm when previous year counts were 1, but a small proportion of sites (5-10%) held at least one sparrow even as water depths increased to 20 or 30 cm. 4. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model provided estimates of conditional means that also decreased with increasing water depth but rates of change were lower and decreased with increasing previous year counts compared to the quantile count model. Quantiles computed for the zero-inflated Poisson model enhanced interpretation of this model but had greater lack-of-fit for water depths > 0 cm and previous year counts 1, conditions where the negative effect of water depths were readily apparent and fitted better with the quantile count model.

Cade, B. S.; Dong, Q.

2008-01-01

56

Effect of anode angle on photon beam spectra and depth dose characteristics for X-RAD320 orthovoltage unit  

PubMed Central

Background In radiation therapy with orthovoltage units, the tube design has a crucial effect on its dosimetric features. Aim In this study, the effect of anode angle on photon beam spectra, depth dose and photon fluence per initial electron was studied for a commercial orthovoltage unit of X-RAD320 biological irradiator. Materials and methods The MCNPX MC code was used for modeling in the current study. We used the Monte Carlo method to model the X-RAD320 X-ray unit based on the manufacturer provided information. The MC model was validated by comparing the MC calculated photon beam spectra with the results of SpekCalc software. The photon beam spectra were calculated for anode angles from 15 to 35 degrees. We also calculated the percentage depth doses for some angles to verify the impact of anode angle on depth dose. Additionally, the heel effect and its relation with anode angle were studied for X-RAD320 irradiator. Results Our results showed that the photon beam spectra and their mean energy are changed significantly with anode angle and the optimum anode angle of 30 degrees was selected based on less heel effect and appropriate depth dose and photon fluence per initial electron. Conclusion It can be concluded that the anode angle of 30 degrees for X-RAD320 unit used by manufacturer has been selected properly considering the heel effect and dosimetric properties.

Mesbahi, Asghar; Zakariaee, Seyed-Salman

2013-01-01

57

Evaluation of target dose based on water-equivalent thickness in external beam radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

In vivo dosimetry was carried out for 152 patients receiving external beam radiotherapy and the treatment sites were divided into two main groups: Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic (120 fields) and Head and Neck (52 fields). Combined entrance and exit dose measurements were performed using LiF: Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Water-equivalent (effective) thicknesses and target dose were evaluated using dose transmission data. The ratio of measured to expected value for each quantity was considered as an indicator for the accuracy of the parameter. The average ratio of the entrance dose was evaluated as 1.01 ± 0.07. In the diameter measurement, the mean ratio of effective depth divided by the contour depth is 1.00 ± 0.13 that shows a wide distribution which reflects the influence of contour inaccuracies as well as tissue inhomogeneities. At the target level, the mean ratio of measured to the prescribed dose is 1.00 ± 0.07. According to our findings, the difference between effective depth and patient depth has a direct relation to target dose discrepancies. There are some inevitable sources which may cause the difference. Evaluation and application of effective diameter in treatment calculations would lead to a more reliable target dose, especially for fields which involve Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic.

Moghaddam, Behnaz Ghanbar; Vahabi-Moghaddam, Masoud; Sadremomtaz, Alireza

2013-01-01

58

Evaluation of target dose based on water-equivalent thickness in external beam radiotherapy.  

PubMed

In vivo dosimetry was carried out for 152 patients receiving external beam radiotherapy and the treatment sites were divided into two main groups: Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic (120 fields) and Head and Neck (52 fields). Combined entrance and exit dose measurements were performed using LiF: Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Water-equivalent (effective) thicknesses and target dose were evaluated using dose transmission data. The ratio of measured to expected value for each quantity was considered as an indicator for the accuracy of the parameter. The average ratio of the entrance dose was evaluated as 1.01 ± 0.07. In the diameter measurement, the mean ratio of effective depth divided by the contour depth is 1.00 ± 0.13 that shows a wide distribution which reflects the influence of contour inaccuracies as well as tissue inhomogeneities. At the target level, the mean ratio of measured to the prescribed dose is 1.00 ± 0.07. According to our findings, the difference between effective depth and patient depth has a direct relation to target dose discrepancies. There are some inevitable sources which may cause the difference. Evaluation and application of effective diameter in treatment calculations would lead to a more reliable target dose, especially for fields which involve Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic. PMID:23532059

Moghaddam, Behnaz Ghanbar; Vahabi-Moghaddam, Masoud; Sadremomtaz, Alireza

2013-01-01

59

MOSFET dosimeter depth-dose measurements in heterogeneous tissue-equivalent phantoms at diagnostic x-ray energies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study was to explore the use of the TN-1002RD metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter for measuring tissue depth dose at diagnostic photon energies in both homogeneous and heterogeneous tissue-equivalent materials. Three cylindrical phantoms were constructed and utilized as a prelude to more complex measurements within tomographic physical phantoms of pediatric patients. Each cylindrical phantom was constructed as a stack of seven 5-cm-diameter and 1-cm-thick discs of materials radiographically representative of either soft tissue (S), bone (B), or lung tissue (L) at diagnostic photon energies. In addition to a homogeneous phantom of soft tissue (SSSSSSS), two heterogeneous phantoms were constructed: SSBBSSS and SBLLBSS. MOSFET dosimeters were then positioned at the interface of each disc, and the phantoms were then irradiated at 66 kVp and 200 mAs. Measured values of absorbed dose at depth were then compared to predicated values of point tissue dose as determined via Monte Carlo radiation transport modeling. At depths exceeding 2 cm, experimental results matched the computed values of dose with high accuracy regardless of the dosimeter orientation (epoxy bubble facing toward or away from the x-ray beam). Discrepancies were noted, however, between measured and calculated point doses near the surface of the phantom (surface to 2 cm depth) when the dosimeters were oriented with the epoxy bubble facing the x-ray beam. These discrepancies were largely eliminated when the dosimeters were placed with the flat side facing the x-ray beam. It is therefore recommended that the MOSFET dosimeters be oriented with their flat sides facing the beam when they are used at shallow depths or on the surface of either phantoms or patients.

Jones, A.K.; Pazik, F.D.; Hintenlang, D.E.; Bolch, W.E. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States)

2005-10-15

60

Measurements of planar and depth dose distributions using a scintillating fiber-optic image sensor system for dosimetry in radiotherapeutic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a scintillating fiber-optic image sensor system (SFISS) using square plastic optical fibers (POFs), a scintillating film, a right-angle mirror, and a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image camera for dosimetry in radiotherapeutic applications. In this study, the scintillating light images were obtained for measuring two-dimensional planar dose distributions of a 6MV photon beam in a solid-water phantom. We also measured the percentage depth doses (PDDs) of 6 and 15MV photon beams using the SFISS and compared them with those obtained using conventional dosimetry films. The proposed sensor has many advantages, such as real-time readout, high-resolution measurement, and lack of corrections for temperature, pressure, and humidity. From the results of this study, it is expected that a SFISS can be developed to accurately measure the dose distribution in a small beam field for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

Shin, Sang Hun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Seo, Jeong Ki; Han, Ki-Tek; Jeon, Dayeong; Jang, Kyoung Won; Sim, Hyeok In; Cho, Seunghyun; Lee, Bongsoo

2013-03-01

61

Influences of season and water depth on the clonal biology of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramet density, leaf relative growth rates, leaf chlorophyll levels, and proximate constituent levels were determined on three dates in 1988 at three water depths for aThalassia testudinum Banks ex Konig meadow in lower Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Density varied seasonally in patterns unique to each depth. Leaf relative growth rates indicated a unimodal, rather than bimodal, growth pattern at this

D. A. Tomasko; C. J. Dawes

1990-01-01

62

Temporal variations in atmospheric water vapor and aerosol optical depth determined by remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By automatically tracking the sun, a four-channel solar radiometer was used to continuously measure optical depth and atmospheric water vapor. The design of this simple autotracking solar radiometer is presented. A technique for calculating the precipitable water from the ratio of a water band to a nearby nonabsorbing band is discussed. Studies of the temporal variability of precipitable water and atmospheric optical depth at 0.610, 0.8730 and 1.04 microns are presented. There was good correlation between the optical depth measured using the autotracker and visibility determined from National Weather Service Station data. However, much more temporal structure was evident in the autotracker data than in the visibility data. Cirrus clouds caused large changes in optical depth over short time periods. They appear to be the largest deleterious atmospheric effect over agricultural areas that are remote from urban pollution sources.

Pitts, D. E.; Mcallum, W. E.; Heidt, M.; Jeske, K.; Lee, J. T.; Demonbrun, D.; Morgan, A.; Potter, J.

1977-01-01

63

Is topsoil water repellency a mechanism for improving water conservation in depth?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water repellency (WR) is widespread in forest soils under different climatic conditions, soil types and vegetation covers (Doerr et al., 2000). It is normally characterized by a high spatial variability in persistence, showing wettable and water repellent patches. This phenomenon has a special interest in semiarid areas, such as the Mediterranean ecosystems, where water resources are limited. For that reason, it is thought to be a possible mechanism for improving water conservation in soil profile, which would minimize evaporation losses from the soil surface (Doerr et al., 2000; Robinson et al. 2010). The ecological function of having a patchy hydrophobic surface might be the means of transporting water deeper into the soil profile and away from surface evaporation. In addition, it may also inhibit the growth of other vegetal species. This could increase the resistance of plants to drought by increasing water availability through reducing losses to surface evaporation or other plants. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that soil WR improves the water conservation within the soil. We have compared the temporal evolution of soil moisture between samples with repellent and wettable layers. Repellent and wettable soil samples were collected from an agricultural area in Biar (Alicante, Spain). Samples were put in 100ml plastic pots (n=30). Each one had two layers (WR and wettable or both wettable) with depth around 2.5cm for superficial and 3.5cm for deeper wettable horizon. We measured the evolution under different initial conditions of soil water content (around 20% and 9%) and soil superficial WR persistence (wettable, slight, strong and severe soil (n=5 per treatment)). Pots were kept under laboratory conditions (between 30-50% of relative air humidity and ? 20°C). Soil water content was controlled daily by weight measurement. Our results showed a clear significant difference in evaporation rates, which were higher in samples with a wettable superficial layer. However, differences in evaporation rates were not significant between samples with different WR levels of persistence nor between samples with different initial water content. Our preliminary results indicated that soil WR is a mechanism which clearly contributes to the conservation of moisture in depth, making more sense of the hypothesis of a possible ecological strategy for plants. Keywords: Soil water repellency, hydrophobicity. References: Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D., 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Sci. Rev. 51, 33-65. Robinson D.A., Lebron I., Ryel R.J., Jones S.B., 2010. Soil Water Repellency: A Method of Soil Moisture Sequestration in Pinyon-Juniper Woodland Soil Science Society of America Journal 74 (2), 624-634. Rodriguez-Iturbe, I., 2000. Ecohydrology: a hydrologic perspective of climate-soil-vegetation dynamics. Water Resour. Res., 36 (1), 3-9.

Lozano, Elena; Jiménez-Pinilla, Patricia; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Vicky; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge

2013-04-01

64

Glacial to Holocene ? 13 C variations in intermediate depth water masses of North Indian Ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thed18O andd13C compositions of glacial- to Holocene-aged benthic foraminifera in a core collected from the eastern Arabian sea (water depth 1230 m) were determined to investigate glacial—interglacial variations in the intermediate depth water chemistry of the North Indian Ocean. In addition, we determined thed13C composition of Holocene benthic foraminifera from seven cores for which thed18O andd13C of benthic foraminifera from

S. M. Ahmad; L. D. Labeyrie

1994-01-01

65

Application of Image Technique to Water Depth measurement of Dam-Break Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, dams around the world suffered from dam-break problems due to several extreme weather conditions such as typhoon events. Dam-break releases water with high velocity and rapid water level variation is found at the downstream of dam. Water depth measurement of dam-break is difficult using traditional method, such as point gauge. Recently the video device with high capture frequency is well developed. In addition, image technique is widely applied to flow measurement. Particle Tracking Velocitmetry, for instance, is popular to identify 3D position of particle with high velocity. Therefore, in this study, we apply image technique to measure water depth variation at the downstream of dam. To measure rapid water depth variation, experiments in flume are performed. The flume dimensions are presented in Figure 1. Flow of dam-break is simulated by suddenly lifting the gate. A laser beam locates at the center-line of the flume and gate. A 30-fps digital camera with a fixed angle of depression is placed at side of the flume. Coordinate transformation between image and space is first performed and image analysis is then used to identify the spatial water surface position from captured images. The validation of image technique is considered by measuring water depth using point gauge at a steady flow released from the gate. Three cases are considered in this study. The initial water depths at the upstream side of dam are 5, 10 and 15 cm and the bed is fixed at the downstream side. The measured water depth variations at x = 10 cm to ensure the measurements, numerical model, NTU-SFM2D, is used to simulate the experiments. The comparisons between experiments and simulations verify the application of image technique to rapid water depth variation at the downstream side of dam-break. Dimensions of experimental flume

Huang, C.; Lee, F.; Lai, J.; Guo, W.; Tsung, S.; Tan, Y.; Lin, G.

2013-12-01

66

Geospatial Database of Ground-Water Altitude and Depth-to-Ground-Water Data for Utah, 1971-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geospatial database of ground-water-level altitude and depth-to-ground-water data for Utah was developed. Water-level contours from selected published reports were converted to digital Geographic Information System format and attributes describing the contours were added. Water-level altitude values were input to an inverse distance weighted interpolator to create a raster of interpolated water-level altitude for each report. The water-level altitude raster was subtracted from digital land-surface altitude data to obtain depth-to-water rasters for each study. Comparison of the interpolated rasters to actual water-level measurements shows that the interpolated water-level altitudes are well correlated with measured water-level altitudes from the same time period. The data can be downloaded and displayed in any Geographic Information System or can be explored by downloading a data package and map from the U.S. Geological Survey.

Buto, Susan G.; Jorgensen, Brent E.

2007-01-01

67

Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California, showing ground-water subunits and areas, location of wells, and lines of equal depth to water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has released to the open file a map showing ground-water subunits and areas, and depth to water for spring 1978, in the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California.

Blankenbaker, G. G.

1978-01-01

68

Design and Verification of an Inexpensive Ultrasonic Water Depth Sensor Using Arduino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system that combines the arduino micro-controller, a Parallax PING Ultrasonic distance sensor and a secure digital card to log the data is developed to help monitor water table depths in multiple settings. Traditional methods of monitoring water table depths involve the use of a pressure transducer and expensive data loggers that cost upward of 1000. The present system is built for less than 100, with the caveat that the accuracy of the measurements is 1cm. In this laboratory study, we first build the arduino based system to monitor water table depths in a piezometer and compare these measurements to those made by a pressure transducer. Initial results show that the depth measurements are accurate in comparison to actual tape measurements. Results from this benchmarking experiment will be presented at the meeting.

Mihevc, T. M.; Rajagopal, S.

2012-12-01

69

The Influence of Groundwater Depth and Nutrient Limitation on Plant Water Use in Owens Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

While previous studies in Owens Valley have focused largely on the direct effects of groundwater depth on plant water stress as a control on plant community composition, particularly the abundance of grasses vs. shrubs, our results suggest that indirect effects of declining soil moisture on soil N availability are a key control. The interactions between water and N cycles may

Diane E. Pataki

70

Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul A.

2013-01-01

71

Optimization of coagulant dosing process in water purification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the water purification plant, chemicals are injected for quick purification of raw water. The amount of chemicals intrinsically depends on the water quality such as turbidity, temperature, pH and alkalinity, etc. This paper presents the method of deriving the optimum dosing rate of coagulant in water purification system. A fuzzy model for normal condition and a neural network model

Tae-Hwan Han; Eui-Suck Nahm; Kwang-Bang Woo; C. J. Kim; Jeong-Woong Ryu

1997-01-01

72

Depth Dose Distribution Study within a Phantom Torso after Irradiation with a Simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are compounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrapolation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over- or underestimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be predicted to within about a +10% accuracy using space radiation transport models for galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and trapped radiation behind shielding. However for solar particle event (SPE) with steep energy spectra and for extra-vehicular activities on the surface of the moon where only tissue shielding is present, transport models predict that there are large differences in model assumptions in projecting organ doses. Therefore experimental verification of SPE induced organ doses may be crucial for the design of lunar missions. In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field with the phantom torso. Lymphocyte cells are strategically embedded at selected locations at the skin and internal organs and are processed after irradiation to assess the effects of shielding on the yield of chromosome damage. The initial focus of the present experiment is to correlate biological results with physical dosimetry measurements in the phantom torso. Further on, the results of the passive dosimetry within the anthropomorphic phantoms represent the best tool to generate reliable data to benchmark computational radiation transport models in a radiation field of interest. The presentation will give first results of the physical dose distribution, the comparison with GEANT4 computer simulations based on a Voxel model of the phantom, and a comparison with the data from the chromosome aberration study.

Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis; Reitz, Guenther

2010-01-01

73

Maximum Age Predictions for Optical Dating on Mars Based on Dose/Depth Models and Martian Meteorite Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental need in the Mars exploration portfolio is in-situ absolute dating. Optical dating has been proposed for determining the age of Mars surface features and landforms as well as the rates of martian surface processes. On Earth, the method is employed for Quaternary studies because the technique currently has a terrestrial maximum age limit of approximately 350 ka. This maximum age limit is a function of the saturation dose of the dosimeter material (silicate sediments) and the local ionizing radiation dose rate. The sources of ionizing radiation germane to optical dating are K, Rb, U, Th in the sediment/soil environment and cosmic rays. On Mars the near surface dose rate will be dominated by cosmic rays, however, at depth the decay of radioisotopes will be the principle contributor of ionizing radiation. In this work we present an evaluation of the maximum age limits for OSL dating on Mars as a function of depth. At this time we have considered only static burial. Our calculations are based on published models of and data for: (i) Mars surface cosmic dose rate and its attenuation by martian regolith, (ii) elemental analyses of Mars meteorites, (iii) an experimental evaluation of the saturation dose for the martian soil simulant JSC Mars-1. Our analysis confirms earlier inferences that optical dating should have a greater effective age range on Mars than on Earth. At depths easily accessible by penetrators or moles (1-3 m), maximum optical ages greater than 600 ka are possible. Geochronology on this scale would include at least two stadial/interstadial cycles within Mars' last "Glacial Epoch" (synchronized insolation variations between the poles). A wide range of landforms and surface processes associated with climate variability -- e.g. outwash and lacustrine deposition, large-scale eolian activation -- could potentially be optically dated. At greater depths, that could be reached by mobile drilling rigs or cryobots (10-30m), optical age maximums of 4.5 to greater than 35 Ma appear to be possible.

Franklund, R. T.; Lepper, K.

2004-12-01

74

Application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data for improved production well construction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water production wells commonly are designed to maximize well yield and, therefore, may be screened over several water-bearing zones. These water-bearing zones usually are identified, and their hydrogeologic characteristics and water quality are inferred, on the basis of indirect data such as geologic and geophysical logs. Production well designs based on these data may result in wells that are drilled deeper than necessary and are screened through zones having low permeability or poor-quality ground water. In this study, we examined the application of flowmeter logging and depth-dependent water quality samples for the improved design of production wells in a complex hydrogeologic setting. As a demonstration of these techniques, a flowmeter log and depth-dependent water quality data were collected from a long-screened production well within a multilayered coastal aquifer system in the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura County, California. Results showed that the well yields most of its water from four zones that constitute 58% of the screened interval. The importance of these zones to well yield was not readily discernible from indirect geologic or geophysical data. The flowmeter logs and downhole water quality data also show that small quantities of poor-quality water could degrade the overall quality of water from the well. The data obtained from one well can be applied to other proposed wells in the same hydrologic basin. The application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data to well design can reduce installation costs and improve the quantity and quality of water produced from wells in complex multiple-aquifer systems.

Gossell, M. A.; Nishikawa, T.; Hanson, R. T.; Izbicki, J. A.; Tabidian, M. A.; Bertine, K.

1999-01-01

75

The effects of cutouts on output, mean energy and percentage depth dose of 12 and 14 MeV electrons  

PubMed Central

Electron field-shaping cerrobend cutouts on the linear accelerator applicator have some effects on the output and percentage depth dose. These effects which arise from the lateral scatter nonequilibrium are particularly evident in higher energies and in cutouts with smaller radius. Dose measurements for circular, square, and triangular cutouts as well as open field was performed in a 10 × 10 cm applicator, using plane parallel type ion chamber with a 100 cm source surface distance. The Percentage Depth Doses curves were drawn and the outputs were measured for each of these cutouts. The output factors, normalized to open 10 × 10 cm field, varied between 0.891 and 0.996 depending on the energy, cutout shape, and cavity area. With the use of cutouts, R100 shifted toward the surface. The shifts ranged from 9 to 0 mm and from 13 to 0 mm for 12 and 14 MeV, respectively, depending on the shape and cavity area. For R90, R80, and R50 the ranges for observed shifts narrowed down and practically no shifts were observed for R20. We present these changes in the form of predictive formulas, which would be useful in clinical applications.

Khaledy, Navid; Arbabi, Azim; Sardari, Dariush

2011-01-01

76

GROUND-WATER CONTRIBUTION TO DOSE FROM PAST HANFORD OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive ?literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work on the ground-water pathway be limited to tracking ongoing ground-water studies at the Hanford Site.

Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

1992-01-01

77

Performance study of the inverted absorber solar still with water depth and total dissolved solid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, an experimental study of inverted absorber solar still (IASS) and single slope solar still (SS) at different water depth and total dissolved solid (TDS) is presented. Experiments are conducted for the climatic condition of Muscat, Oman. A thermal model is also developed for the IASS and validated with experimental results. A fair agreement is found for the

Rahul Dev; Sabah A. Abdul-Wahab; G. N. Tiwari

2011-01-01

78

Simplified Volume-Area-Depth Method for Estimating Water Storage of Isolated Prairie Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are millions of wetlands in shallow depressions on the North American prairies but the quantity of water stored in these depressions remains poorly understood. Hayashi and van der Kamp (2000) used the relationship between volume (V), area (A) and depth (h) to develop an equation for estimating wetland storage. We tested the robustness of their full and simplified V-A-h

A. G. Minke; C. J. Westbrook; G. van der Kamp

2009-01-01

79

Relationship of life-history patterns to depth in deep-water caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Natantia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep-water shrimps, distributed on the steep outer reef slopes of tropical Pacific Islands, were obtained by setting baited traps in depths down to 850 m in the vicinity of Laucala Bay, Fiji, over the period 1979 to 1983. Life-history variables were estimated and interspecific comparisons made between Parapandalus serratifrons, Plesionika longirostris, Heterocarpus ensifer, H. gibbosus, H. sibogae, H. laevigatus (Pandalidae)

M. G. King; A. J. Butler

1985-01-01

80

DYNAMICS OF A SUBTIDAL SEAGRASS LANDSCAPE: SEASONAL AND ANNUAL CHANGE IN RELATION TO WATER DEPTH  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial heterogeneity of a subtidal marine landscape and the areal extent of both monospecific and mixed patches of seagrass species were studied in Tampa Bay, FL. Specifically, we examined the temporal dynamics of seagrass distribution and its relationship to water depth an...

81

Monte Carlo calculation of dose to water of a 106Ru COB-type ophthalmic plaque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concave eye applicators with 106Ru/106Rh or 90Sr/90Y beta-ray sources are worldwide used in brachytherapy for treating intraocular tumors. It raises the need to know the exact dose delivered by beta radiation to tumors but measurement of the dose to water (or tissue) is very difficult due to short range of electrons. The Monte Carlo technique provides a powerful tool for calculation of the dose and dose distributions which helps to predict and determine the doses from different shapes of various types of eye applicators more accurately. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX has been used to calculate dose distributions from a COB-type 106Ru/106Rh ophthalmic applicator manufactured by Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG GmbH. This type of a concave eye applicator has a cut-out whose purpose is to protect the eye nerve which makes the dose distribution more complicated. Several calculations have been performed including depth dose along the applicator central axis and various dose distributions. The depth dose along the applicator central axis and the dose distribution on a spherical surface 1 mm above the plaque inner surface have been compared with measurement data provided by the manufacturer. For distances from 0.5 to 4 mm above the surface, the agreement was within 2.5 % and from 5 mm the difference increased from 6 % up to 25 % at 10 mm whereas the uncertainty on manufacturer data is 20 % (2s). It is assumed that the difference is caused by nonuniformly distributed radioactivity over the applicator radioactive layer.

Šolc, J.

2008-02-01

82

Reverse evolution in RH1 for adaptation of cichlids to water depth in Lake Tanganyika.  

PubMed

Reverse evolution is a widespread phenomenon in biology, but the genetic mechanism for the reversal of a genetic change for adaptation to the ancestral state is not known. Here, we report the first case of complete reverse evolution of two amino acids, serine and alanine, at a single position in RH1 opsin pigment for adaptation to water depth. We determined RH1 sequences of cichlid fishes from four tribes of Lake Tanganyika with different habitat depths. Most of the species were divided into two types: RH1 with 292A for species in shallow water or 292S for species in deep water. Both types were adapted to their ambient light environments as indicated by the absorption spectra of the RH1 pigments. Based on the RH1 locus tree and ecological data, we inferred the ancestral amino acids at position 292 and the distribution of the depth ranges (shallow or deep) of ancestral species of each tribe. According to these estimates, we identified two distinct parallel adaptive evolutions: The replacement A292S occurred at least four times for adaptation from shallow to deep water, and the opposite replacement S292A occurred three times for adaptation from deep to shallow water. The latter parallelism represents the complete reverse evolution from the derived to the ancestral state, following back adaptive mutation with reversal of the RH1 pigment function accompanied by reversal of the species habitat shift. PMID:21172834

Nagai, Haruka; Terai, Yohey; Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Nishihara, Hidenori; Hori, Michio; Okada, Norihiro

2011-06-01

83

Changes in late-winter snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in Maine, 1926-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-three snow-course sites in and near Maine, USA, with records spanning at least 50 years through to 2004 were tested for changes over time in snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in March and April. Of the 23 sites, 18 had a significant decrease (Mann-Kendall test, p < 0??1) in snowpack depth or a significant increase in snowpack density over time. Data from four sites in the mountains of western Maine-northern New Hampshire with mostly complete records from 1926 to 2004 indicate that average snowpack depths have decreased by about 16% and densities have increased by about 11%. Average snowpack depths and water equivalents in western Maine-northern New Hampshire peaked in the 1950s and 1960s, and densities peaked in the most recent decade. Previous studies in western North America also found a water-equivalent peak in the third quarter of the 20th century. Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hodgkins, G. A.; Dudley, R. W.

2006-01-01

84

Studying unsaturated epikarst water storage properties by time lapse surface to depth gravity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assessment of water storage in the unsaturated zone in karstic areas is particularly challenging. Indeed, water flow path and water storage occur in quite heterogeneous ways through small scale porosity, fractures, joints and large voids. Due to this large heterogeneity, it is therefore difficult to estimate the amount of water circulating in the vadose zone by hydrological means. One indirect method consists to measure the gravity variation associated to water storage and withdrawal. Here, we apply a gravimetric method in which the gravity is measured at the surface and at depth on different sites. Then the time variations of the surface to depth (STD) gravity differences are compared for each site. In this study we attempt to evaluate the magnitude of epikarstic water storage variation in various karst settings using a CG5 portable gravimeter. Surface to depth gravity measurements are performed two times a year since 2009 at the surface an inside caves at different depths on three karst aquifers in southern France : 1. A limestone site on the Larzac plateau with a vadose zone thickness of 300m On this site measurements are done on five locations at different depths going from 0 to 50 m; 2. A dolomitic site on the Larzac plateau (Durzon karst aquifer) with a vadose zone thickness of 200m; Measurements are taken at the surface and at 60m depth 3. A limestone site on the Hortus karst aquifer and "Larzac Septentrional karst aquifer") with a vadose zone thickness of only 35m. Measurements are taken at the surface and at 30m depth Therefore, our measurements are used in two ways : First, the STD differences between dry and wet seasons are used to estimate the capacity of differential storage of each aquifer. Surprisingly, the differential storage capacity of all the sites is relatively invariant despite their variable geological of hydrological contexts. Moreover, the STD gravity variations on site 1 show that no water storage variation occurs beneath 10m depth, suggesting that most of the differential storage is taken by the epikarst. Second, we use STD gravity differences to determine the effective density values for each site. These integrative density values are compared to measured grain densities from core samples in order to obtain the apparent porosity and saturation representative to the investigated volume. We then discuss the relation between the physical characteristic of each non-saturated zone and its water storage capacity. It seems that epikarst water storage variation is only weakly related to lithology. We also discuss the reasons for specific water storage in the epikarst. Because epikarst water storage has been claimed to be a general characteristic of karst system, a gravimetric approach appears to be a promising method to verify quantitatively this hypothesis.

Deville, S.; Champollion, C.; chery, J.; Doerflinger, E.; Le Moigne, N.; Bayer, R.; Vernant, P.

2011-12-01

85

Estimation of Missing Water-Level Data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface elevation models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-2009) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for EDEN and their goal of providing quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill missing data. To minimize the occurrences of no estimation of data due to missing data for an input station, a minimum of three linear regression equations were developed for each station using different input stations. Of the 726 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 239 stations, more than 60 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 92 percent have an coefficient of determination greater than 0.70.

Conrads, Paul A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

86

Modification of the 50% maximum dose depth for 41-MeV ( p/sup +/,Be) neutrons by use of filtration and/or transmission targets  

SciTech Connect

Several target configurations for the 41-MeV ( p/sup +/,Be) reaction have been evaluated for the characteristics of the radiation field produced; depth dose, dose rate per ..mu..A. From analysis, it is concluded that to achieve the desired 13.2-cm depth for 50% of maximum dose and acceptable dose rate at a target-to-skin distance (TSD) of 125--150 cm, the neutron spectra must be filtered to preferentially absorb the lower-energy neutrons. Further increases in depth of 50% of maximum dose and a significant reduction in beryllium heating problems result if a partial transmission target is used with the terminal 30% of proton energy being deposited in a copper target backing.

Smathers, J.B.; Graves, R.G.; Earls, L.; Otte, V.A.; Almond, P.R.

1982-11-01

87

On the Relationship Between Soil Depth and Mean Water Transit Time in Zero-order Catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance prediction of the hydrologic response of ungaged basins, it is necessary to relate water transit times to easily measurable catchment properties. Groundwater transit times have been modeled for 10 sub-catchments of two small catchments in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona (USA). The two zero-order catchments are north facing with very similar drainage area, mean slope, and climate. The main difference between the two sites is bedrock geology: one is underlain by Schist and the other by Granite. The modeled water transit time distributions were obtained from hydrometric and isotopic data analysis, and were compared to a number of topographic properties such as mean slope, area, mean flow path length, curvature. None of those could explain much of the variation of the transit times. In a second step, available modeled soil depth distributions were used to relate average soil depth to mean transit time. The modeled soil depth data (Pelletier and Rasmussen, 2009) was generated using only basic climate data (mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature), high resolution digital elevation model (LIDAR) data and geologic data (parent material). These modeled soil depths were averaged over the sub-catchments. It was found that they are able to explain 80 percent of the variation of the groundwater transit times. This means that in these catchments mean soil depth is the predominant transit time control. With this knowledge it is possible to predict transit times (and therefore catchment response) by modeling soil depths, even in catchments where there is sparse hydrologic information available.

Heidbuechel, I.; Troch, P. A.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Lyon, S. W.

2009-12-01

88

Upscaling of annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in German organic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water table depth is the key parameter controlling the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from organic soils (peatlands and other organic soils). Therefore, a good estimation of the spatial distribution of water table depth is crucial in any upscaling approach for these greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is further the prerequisite to assess the effects of re-wetting measures. There are attempts to obtain maps of water table depth at large scales (e.g. national or continental) by using process-based hydrological model concepts. However, major problem of the process-based approach is the representation of the water management (ditches, tile drains, pumping and weir management), which is at the best known spatially just for the ditch patterns. Thus, this approach is hardly applicable to the diversely-drained and -used organic soils in central Europe. Here, we present an alternative, data-driven approach for upscaling annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in organic soils. Groundwater level data of a unique dataset from about 60 peatlands, 1100 dipwells and around 8000 annual data sets, is the basis of this approach. Time series were used to calculate long-term annual means, average annual amplitudes and ponding durations. In case of continuous observations, shape parameters of the annual frequency distribution of water table depths were calculated. For each well, numerous site characteristics were collected as possible explanatory variables. This collection was restricted to nationally-available data. For each dipwell, land use is taken from official land use maps (German database ATKIS), and the soil type from the national geological map (1:200.000). In case of reliable site information, maps were corrected accordingly. Additionally, from these maps, topological indicators such as the ditch distance and density, the distance to the edge of the peatland and the peatland area within different buffers were calculated. Meteorological data (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and climatic water balance) was extracted from gridded data (1x1 km) from the German Weather Service. Topographic indices were calculated using the national digital elevation model. Further, protection status (nature reserves, Natura2000, etc.) and peatland type was collected for each well. We use two data-driven models (fuzzy-logic and boosted regression trees) to analyze the influence of the site characteristics on the various water table depth target variables (mean, amplitude, etc.). First results using the fuzzy-logic approach show that a land use/vegetation and protection status categorization of the data combined with separate fuzzy models for each category can explain substantial parts of the variance seen in the data set. Variables with strong explaining power were meteorological (summer precipitation and/or climatic water balance) and topological parameters of the ditch network and the peatland body. Uncertainty of the models is evaluated using cross-validation. Models are applied with nationally-available data to generate maps of statistical measures of water table depth for the German organic soils.

Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Belting, Susanne; Laggner, Andreas; Leppelt, Thomas; Frahm, Enrico; Freibauer, Annette

2013-04-01

89

The effect of depth of step on the water performance of a flying-boat hull model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NACA model 11-C was tested with four different depths of step to obtain information as to the effect of the depth of step on the water performance. The depths of step were selected to cover the practicable range of depths and in each case the included angle between the forebody and afterbody keels was kept the same 6-1/2 degrees. Small depths of step were found to give lower resistance at speeds below and at the hump speed of the model and greater depths of step lower resistance at high speeds. For low resistance throughout the speed range of the model investigated the most desirable depth of step is from 2.5 to 4.0 percent of the beam. The change of the best trim angle caused by variation of the depth of step was not appreciable. Increased depth of step caused increases in the maximum positive trimming moments at all trim angles investigated.

Bell, Joe W

1935-01-01

90

Comments on ‘The effective depth of cylindrical ionization chambers in water for clinical proton beams’  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper (Bhullar and Watchman 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 273-86), the authors comment on data concerning the effective depth of cylindrical ionization chambers in water for clinical proton beams calculated in a previous paper (Palmans 2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3483-501) and propose different results. They present a closed-format expression for an integral in the analytical model and claim that the series expansion I used in the older paper does not converge to the correct solution. They also claim that this is the reason for the resulting values of the shift of the effective depth with respect to the chamber centre to be different in both papers. Both claims are, however, incorrect as I show in this comment. The values they present are most likely based on a mistake in the scaling coefficients to account for the non-water equivalence of wall, sleeve and central electrode materials. The better agreement which they observe between their values and the recommendation ofIAEA TRS-398 is thus a coincidence. My conclusion is that the best available data for the effective depth of cylindrical ionization chambers in water in clinicalproton beams are at present the values I published before (Palmans 2006Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3483-501) and which are supported by Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evidence.

Palmans, H.

2012-11-01

91

Nematode assemblages from the Kandalaksha Depression (White Sea, 251-288 m water depth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shallow-water nematodes of the White Sea are relatively well studied; however, information on the nematode fauna inhabiting the deepest part of this sea is very scarce. The composition of the nematode assemblages (at species and genus level) was studied in samples collected during four sampling occasions in the deepest part of the Kandalaksha Depression (the White Sea) in July 1998, October 1998, May 1999, and November 1999. Samples were collected from a depth of 251-288 m with the aid of a multicorer. In total, 59 nematode morphotypes belonging to 37 genera and 18 families were distinguished. The genera Sabatieria and Filipjeva dominated at all stations, followed by Aponema, Desmoscolex, and Quadricoma. The composition of the dominant genera can be considered typical for this depth range in temperate and Arctic waters, although Filipjeva and Aponema were among the dominant genera for the first time. The most abundant species were Sabatieria ornata, Aponema bathyalis, and Filipjeva filipjevi. In general, diversity of the nematode assemblages was lower than in the temperate and Arctic continental shelf and slope with reduced evenness and species richness. The evenness of nematode assemblages and other diversity indices decreased with increasing sediment depth. Based on the valid species and genera recorded, the nematode fauna of the Kandalaksha Depression showed a higher resemblance to that found in the shallow waters of Kandalaksha Bay.

Miljutin, Dmitry M.; Miljutina, Maria A.; Tchesunov, Alexei V.; Mokievsky, Vadim O.

2014-03-01

92

Depth-dose evaluation and optimisation of the irradiation facility for boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours.  

PubMed

Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of brain tumours was investigated using thermal neutrons generated by a middle-power research reactor such as the TRIGA-II. The spatial distributions of neutrons and gamma rays were measured using a head phantom at different collimator apertures. Total depth-dose distributions were deduced from these results and were evaluated. We also obtained an optimum condition in terms of the collimator aperture, the 10B concentration in the tumour and the ratio of 10B concentration in the tumour to that in normal tissue. We found that, under this condition, BNCT using thermal neutrons from the TRIGA-II could be successfully used to treat a deep tumour. PMID:4048274

Matsumoto, T; Aizawa, O

1985-09-01

93

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01

94

Photometric Investigations of Precipitable Water and Optical Depth Wavelength Exponents in an Urban Area.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A six-channel Volz sunphotometer was used in the St. Louis urban area during Project METROMEX 1976 to monitor aerosol loading and atmospheric precipitable water. A weighted least-square fit of photometric observations to spatially and temporarily proximate radiosonde measured precipitable water vapor has enabled determination of the exponent (1/1.993) in the precipitable water equation indicating compliance with the square-root absorption law of band models.Wavelength exponents calculated from least-square fits of water vapor transmission band optical depths to wavelengths have been found to be represented by = 1.71 ± 0.54 for a set of 70 observations. Modal values of the wavelength exponent are centered at 1.60 and 1.90. Good agreement has been found between photometrically estimated aerosol distributions and in situ aircraft measured aerosol distribution daily trends.

Yoksas, Tom

1980-05-01

95

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01

96

Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake  

PubMed Central

Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrophyte species. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in taxonomic diversity, functional identity (i.e., stem dry mass content, leaf [C] and leaf [N]), and functional diversity (i.e., floating leaf, mean Julian flowering date and rooting depth) with increasing water depth. For the multiple-trait functional diversity (FD) indices, functional richness decreased, while functional divergence increased with water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Community-weighted means (CWM) showed a two times higher explanatory power relative to FD indices in determining variations in community productivity. For nine of sixteen traits, CWM and FD showed significant correlations with community productivity, although the strength and direction of those relations depended on selected trait. Furthermore, functional composition in a community affected productivity through either additive or opposite effects of CWM and FD, depending on the particular traits being considered. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits–productivity relationships.

Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

2014-01-01

97

Direct absorbed dose to water determination based on water calorimetry in scanning proton beam delivery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this manuscript is to describe the direct measurement of absolute absorbed dose to water in a scanned proton radiotherapy beam using a water calorimeter primary standard. Methods: The McGill water calorimeter, which has been validated in photon and electron beams as well as in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy, was used to measure the absorbed dose to water in double scattering and scanning proton irradiations. The measurements were made at the Massachusetts General Hospital proton radiotherapy facility. The correction factors in water calorimetry were numerically calculated and various parameters affecting their magnitude and uncertainty were studied. The absorbed dose to water was compared to that obtained using an Exradin T1 Chamber based on the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. Results: The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on absorbed dose to water amounts to 0.4% and 0.6% in scattered and scanned proton water calorimetry, respectively. This compares to an overall uncertainty of 1.9% for currently accepted IAEA TRS-398 reference absorbed dose measurement protocol. The absorbed dose from water calorimetry agrees with the results from TRS-398 well to within 1-sigma uncertainty. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that a primary absorbed dose standard based on water calorimetry is feasible in scattered and scanned proton beams.

Sarfehnia, A.; Clasie, B.; Chung, E.; Lu, H. M.; Flanz, J.; Cascio, E.; Engelsman, M.; Paganetti, H.; Seuntjens, J. [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G-1A4 (Canada); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G-1A4 (Canada); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G-1A4 (Canada)

2010-07-15

98

Evaluation of SNODAS snow depth and snow water equivalent estimates for the Colorado Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Weather Service's SNODAS program provides daily, gridded estimates of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and related snow parameters at 1 km resolution for the conterminous United States. In this study, SNODAS snow depth and SWE estimates were compared to independent, ground-based snow survey data in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to assess SNODAS accuracy at the 1 km scale. Accuracy at the watershed scale was evaluated by comparing SNODAS model output to springtime runoff in 31 headwater basins in Colorado. Results from the snow surveys indicated that SNODAS performed well in forested areas, explaining 72% of the variance in snow depths, and 77% of the variance in SWE. However, SNODAS showed poor agreement with measurements in alpine areas, explaining 16% of the variance in snow depth and 30% of the variance in SWE. At the watershed scale, springtime runoff was moderately correlated (r-square=0.52) with SNODAS model estimates. A simple method for adjusting SNODAS SWE estimates in alpine areas was developed that uses relations between prevailing wind direction, terrain, and vegetation to account for wind redistribution of snow in alpine terrain. Results from this study indicate that SNODAS can provide reliable data for input to moderate- to large-scale hydrologic models, which are essential for creating accurate runoff forecasts.

Clow, D. W.; Nanus, L.

2011-12-01

99

Internal doses to Ukrainian populations using Dnieper River water  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of internal doses from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as a consequence of the use of Dnieper River water were calculated. Local peculiarities of municipal tap, irrigation, and fish consumption in the Ukraine were considered. The dynamics of {sup 90}Sr accumulation in human bone as a result of the use of Dnieper water is simulated. The dose predictions are based on de facto data and the stochastic forecast of radionuclide concentrations in Dnieper reservoirs. A large array of statistical data on the age-structures of exposed populations, food consumption rate, agricultural production, fish contamination, and site-specific parameters were used. Exposures are estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea Republic. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses are 1.7 x 10{sup {minus}5} and 2.7 x 10{sup {minus}5} Sv from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, respectively, due to the use of water in 1986 by members of the population in the Kievska region. Commercial fishermen on the Kievska reservoir, who consumed 360 kg y{sup {minus}1} of fish in 1986, received 4.7 x 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 x 10{sup {minus}3} Sv from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective (over 70 6) effective dose of irrigation, municipal tap water, and fish consumption for members of the general public, respectively, are 18%, 43%,39% in the Kievska region; 8%,25%,67% in the Poltavska region; 50% 50%, 0% (no Dnieper fish consumed) in the Crimea Republic. The predicted contribution of {sup 90}Sr to collective dose resulting from the use of water is 80%. The collective dose to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3,000 person-Sv, due to the use of water. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

Berkovski, V.; Ratia, G.; Nasvit, O.

1996-07-01

100

Effect of Water Table Level on Metal Mobility at Different Depths in Wetland Soils of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was set up to assess the factors affecting metal mobility in five wetland soils of the Scheldt estuary at different\\u000a sampling depths when subjecting the soils to various water table levels. Pore water metal concentrations were monitored for\\u000a 10 months at four sampling depths (10, 30, 60 and 90 cm) upon adjusting the water table level to 0, 40 and

Gijs Du Laing; Erik Meers; Marjan Dewispelaere; Jörg Rinklebe; Bart Vandecasteele; Marc G. Verloo; Filip M. G. Tack

2009-01-01

101

Modeling bulk density and snow water equivalent using daily snow depth observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bulk density is a fundamental property of snow relating its depth and mass. Previously, two simple models of bulk density (depending on snow depth, date, and location) have been developed to convert snow depth observations to snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates. However, these models were not intended for application at the daily time step. We develop a new model of bulk density for the daily time step and demonstrate its improved skill over the existing models. Snow depth and density are negatively correlated at short (10 days) timescales while positively correlated at longer (90 days) timescales. We separate these scales of variability by modeling smoothed, daily snow depth (long timescales) and the observed positive and negative anomalies from the smoothed time series (short timescales) as separate terms. A climatology of fit is also included as a predictor variable. Over half a million daily observations of depth and SWE at 345 snowpack telemetry (SNOTEL) sites are used to fit models and evaluate their performance. For each location, we train the three models to the neighboring stations within 70 km, transfer the parameters to the location to be modeled, and evaluate modeled time series against the observations at that site. Our model exhibits improved statistics and qualitatively more-realistic behavior at the daily time step when sufficient local training data are available. We reduce density root mean square error (RMSE) by 9.9 and 4.5% compared to previous models while increasing R2 from 0.46 to 0.52 to 0.56 across models. Focusing on the 21-day window around peak SWE in each water year, our model reduces density RMSE by 24 and 17.4% relative to the previous models, with R2 increasing from 0.55 to 0.58 to 0.71 across models. Removing the challenge of parameter transfer over the full observational record increases R2 scores for both the existing and new models, but the gain is greatest for the new model (R2 = 0.75). Our model shows general improvement over existing models when data are more frequent than once every 5 days and at least 3 stations are available for training.

McCreight, J. L.; Small, E. E.

2014-03-01

102

Water mass interaction at intermediate depths in the southern Rockall Trough, northeastern North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mooring time series, CTD data, and Argo float data were analysed to investigate some aspects of the circulation at the southern entrance to the Rockall Trough during 2003-2004. The in situ data are used to describe the distribution at intermediate levels of Sub-Arctic Intermediate Water (SAIW) and Mediterranean Water (MW), as well as the temporal variability in the presence of these two water masses. Salty, MW-influenced water was found in the southeastern part of the study area, near the continental slope as far north as Porcupine Bank, consistent with earlier reports. Apart from the main tongue, the distribution of MW is patchy, and MW parcels were found not only adjacent to the slope but also offshore. Further north and west, water at intermediate depths was influenced by the fresher SAIW. Unlike in some earlier studies, SAIW did not extend as far east as the continental shelf. The year-long hydrographic and current time series from a mooring on the western slope of the entrance, at the southern end of Feni Ridge, showed pulses of SAIW influenced water throughout winter and spring. In late spring, the fresh pulses almost completely ceased; throughout summer only a few weak and shortlived fresh anomalies appeared. The weakening of the SAIW signal did not seem to be caused by winter convection, which did not extend to sufficient depth that winter. The relatively weak SAIW presence during most of the study period may be linked to the near neutral state of the NAO index. The warm and saline conditions observed at the southern entrance to Rockall Trough were in agreement with the rising temperatures and salinities found over large parts of the subpolar North Atlantic in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Ullgren, Jenny E.; White, Martin

2010-02-01

103

Out-of-field dose measurements in a water phantom using different radiotherapy modalities.  

PubMed

This investigation focused on the characterization of the lateral dose fall-off following the irradiation of the target with photons, protons and carbon ions. A water phantom was irradiated with a rectangular field using photons, passively delivered protons as well as scanned protons and carbon ions. The lateral dose profile in the depth of the maximum dose was measured using an ion chamber, a diamond detector and thermoluminescence detectors TLD-600 and TLD-700. The yield of thermal neutrons was estimated for all radiation types while their complete spectrum was measured with bubble detectors during the irradiation with photons. The peripheral dose delivered by photons is significantly higher compared to both protons and carbon ions and exceeds the latter by up to two orders of magnitude at distances greater than 50 mm from the field. The comparison of passive and active delivery techniques for protons shows that, for the chosen rectangular target shape, the former has a sharper penumbra whereas the latter has a lower dose in the far-out-of-field region. When comparing scanning treatments, carbon ions present a sharper dose fall-off than protons close to the target but increasing peripheral dose with increasing incident energy. For photon irradiation, the contribution to the out-of-field dose of photoneutrons appears to be of the same order of magnitude as the scattered primary beam. Charged particles show a clear supremacy over x-rays in achieving a higher dose conformality around the target and in sparing the healthy tissue from unnecessary radiation exposure. The out-of-field dose for x-rays increases with increasing beam energy because of the production of biologically harmful neutrons. PMID:22836598

Kaderka, R; Schardt, D; Durante, M; Berger, T; Ramm, U; Licher, J; La Tessa, C

2012-08-21

104

Out-of-field dose measurements in a water phantom using different radiotherapy modalities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This investigation focused on the characterization of the lateral dose fall-off following the irradiation of the target with photons, protons and carbon ions. A water phantom was irradiated with a rectangular field using photons, passively delivered protons as well as scanned protons and carbon ions. The lateral dose profile in the depth of the maximum dose was measured using an ion chamber, a diamond detector and thermoluminescence detectors TLD-600 and TLD-700. The yield of thermal neutrons was estimated for all radiation types while their complete spectrum was measured with bubble detectors during the irradiation with photons. The peripheral dose delivered by photons is significantly higher compared to both protons and carbon ions and exceeds the latter by up to two orders of magnitude at distances greater than 50 mm from the field. The comparison of passive and active delivery techniques for protons shows that, for the chosen rectangular target shape, the former has a sharper penumbra whereas the latter has a lower dose in the far-out-of-field region. When comparing scanning treatments, carbon ions present a sharper dose fall-off than protons close to the target but increasing peripheral dose with increasing incident energy. For photon irradiation, the contribution to the out-of-field dose of photoneutrons appears to be of the same order of magnitude as the scattered primary beam. Charged particles show a clear supremacy over x-rays in achieving a higher dose conformality around the target and in sparing the healthy tissue from unnecessary radiation exposure. The out-of-field dose for x-rays increases with increasing beam energy because of the production of biologically harmful neutrons.

Kaderka, R.; Schardt, D.; Durante, M.; Berger, T.; Ramm, U.; Licher, J.; La Tessa, C.

2012-08-01

105

Multidimensional modal analysis of nonlinear sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discrete infinite-dimensional modal system describing nonlinear sloshing of an incompressible fluid with irrotational flow partially occupying a tank performing an arbitrary three-dimensional motion is derived in general form. The tank has vertical walls near the free surface and overturning waves are excluded. The derivation is based on the Bateman Luke variational principle. The free surface motion and velocity potential are expanded in generalized Fourier series. The derived infinite-dimensional modal system couples generalized time-dependent coordinates of free surface elevation and the velocity potential. The procedure is not restricted by any order of smallness. The general multidimensional structure of the equations is approximated to analyse sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth. The amplitude frequency response is consistent with the fifth-order steady-state solutions by Waterhouse (1994). The theory is validated by new experimental results. It is shown that transients and associated nonlinear beating are important. An initial variation of excitation periods is more important than initial conditions. The theory is invalid when either the water depth is small or water impacts heavily on the tank ceiling. Alternative expressions for hydrodynamic loads are presented. The procedure facilitates simulations of a coupled vehicle fluid system.

Faltinsen, Odd M.; Rognebakke, Olav F.; Lukovsky, Ivan A.; Timokha, Alexander N.

2000-03-01

106

EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan [Department of Radiation Oncology, McLaren Regional Medical Center, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada)

2012-02-15

107

Escape from water or remain quiescent? Lotus tenuis changes its strategy depending on depth of submergence  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Two main strategies that allow plants to cope with soil waterlogging or deeper submergence are: (1) escaping by means of upward shoot elongation or (2) remaining quiescent underwater. This study investigates these strategies in Lotus tenuis, a forage legume of increasing importance in areas prone to soil waterlogging, shallow submergence or complete submergence. Methods Plants of L. tenuis were subjected for 30 d to well-drained (control), waterlogged (water-saturated soil), partially submerged (6 cm water depth) and completely submerged conditions. Plant responses assessed were tissue porosity, shoot number and length, biomass and utilization of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) and starch in the crown. Key Results Lotus tenuis adjusted its strategy depending on the depth of submergence. Root growth of partially submerged plants ceased and carbon allocation prioritized shoot lengthening (32 cm vs. 24·5 cm under other treatments), without depleting carbohydrate reserves to sustain the faster growth. These plants also developed more shoot and root porosity. In contrast, completely submerged plants became quiescent, with no associated biomass accumulation, new shoot production or shoot elongation. In addition, tissue porosity was not enhanced. The survival of completely submerged plants is attributed to consumption of WSCs and starch reserves from crowns (concentrations 50–75 % less than in other treatments). Conclusions The forage legume L. tenuis has the flexibility either to escape from partial submergence by elongating its shoot more vigorously to avoid becoming totally submerged or to adopt a non-elongating quiescent strategy when completely immersed that is based on utilizing stored reserves. The possession of these alternative survival strategies helps to explain the success of L. tenuis in environments subjected to unpredictable flooding depths.

Manzur, M. E.; Grimoldi, A. A.; Insausti, P.; Striker, G. G.

2009-01-01

108

Effect of Depth of Flooding on the Rice Water Weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, and Yield of Rice  

PubMed Central

The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a semi-aquatic pest of rice and is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Adults oviposit after floods are established, and greenhouse studies have shown that plants exposed to deep floods have more eggs oviposited in leaf sheaths than plants exposed to a shallow flood. Experiments were conducted in three mid-southern states in the USA to determine if the depth of flooding would impact numbers of L. oryzophilus on rice plants under field conditions. Rice was flooded at depths of approximately 5 or 10 cm in Arkansas in 2007 and 2008 and Louisiana in 2008, and at depths between 0–20 cm in Missouri in 2008. Plants were sampled three and four weeks after floods were established in all locations, and also two weeks after flood in Missouri. On all sampling dates in four experiments over two years and at three field sites, fewer L. oryzophilus larvae were collected from rice in shallow-flooded plots than from deep-flooded plots. The number of L. oryzophilus was reduced by as much as 27% in shallow-flooded plots. However, the reduction in insect numbers did not translate to a significant increase in rice yield. We discuss how shallow floods could be used as a component of an integrated pest management program for L. oryzophilus.

Tindall, Kelly V.; Bernhardt, John L.; Stout, Michael J.; Beighley, Donn H.

2013-01-01

109

Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of the three main greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O from peat and other organic soils are strongly controlled by water table depth. Information about the spatial distribution of water level is thus a crucial input parameter when upscaling GHG emissions to large scales. Here, we investigate the potential of statistical modeling for the regionalization of water levels in organic soils when data covers only a small fraction of the peatlands of the final map. Our study area is Germany. Phreatic water level data from 53 peatlands in Germany were compiled in a new dataset comprising 1094 dip wells and 7155 years of data. For each dip well, numerous possible predictor variables were determined using nationally available data sources, which included information about land cover, ditch network, protected areas, topography, peatland characteristics and climatic boundary conditions. We applied boosted regression trees to identify dependencies between predictor variables and dip well specific long-term annual mean water level (WL) as well as a transformed form of it (WLt). The latter was obtained by assuming a hypothetical GHG transfer function and is linearly related to GHG emissions. Our results demonstrate that model calibration on WLt is superior. It increases the explained variance of the water level in the sensitive range for GHG emissions and avoids model bias in subsequent GHG upscaling. The final model explained 45% of WLt variance and was built on nine predictor variables that are based on information about land cover, peatland characteristics, drainage network, topography and climatic boundary conditions. Their individual effects on WLt and the observed parameter interactions provide insights into natural and anthropogenic boundary conditions that control water levels in organic soils. Our study also demonstrates that a large fraction of the observed WLt variance cannot be explained by nationally available predictor variables and that predictors with stronger WLt indication, relying e.g. on detailed water management maps and remote sensing products, are needed to substantially improve model predictive performance.

Bechtold, M.; Tiemeyer, B.; Laggner, A.; Leppelt, T.; Frahm, E.; Belting, S.

2014-04-01

110

Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture in the 0-cm to 4-cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop in eastern South Dakota. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the soil temperature. Corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. Shallow alluvial aquifers were located with HCMM predawn data. After correcting the data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer. A finite difference code simulating soil moisture and soil temperature shows that soils with different moisture profiles differed in soil temperatures in a well defined functional manner. A significant surface thermal anomaly was found to be associated with shallow water tables.

Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

111

A Computer Based File of X-Ray and Electron Beam Central Axis Depth Dose Data for Use in Radiation Therapy  

PubMed Central

The central axis absorbed dose data for x-ray and electron beams generated by linear accelerators in the energy range 4 thru 25 MV are being compiled. The compilation includes specific x-ray beam parameters (surface doses, output factors, percent depth doses, tissue-phantom ratios, and wedge factors) as well as electron beam parameters (percent depth doses and output factors). The compilation includes published data sets of these parameters and those obtained directly from over 100 institutions participating in the study. The data are grouped by accelerator model and input into computer files that provide a standard format suitable for intercomparisons. The software used to construct the computer files and to manipulate the data is discussed. Selected examples of the average values of parameters obtained to date with the standard deviations, the coefficients of variation, and the maximum and minimum values will be presented for several different linear accelerator models.

Purdy, James A.; Harms, William B.; Fivozinsky, Sherman

1980-01-01

112

Enhanced Migratory Waterfowl Distribution Modeling by Inclusion of Depth to Water Table Data  

PubMed Central

In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species.

Kreakie, Betty J.; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H.

2012-01-01

113

Influence of water vapour and permanent gases on the atmospheric optical depths and transmittance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the atmospheric state on the extinction of direct solar radiation has been studied by using a four layer atmospheric model. Simple analytical formulae are established for the spectral optical depths of permanent gases and water vapour. These formulae use the ground level values of air pressure, temperature and relative huniidity. An additional parameter, related to the vertical distribution of the hunmidity content, is used for a better estimation of the water vapour optical depth. Good agreement between theory and measurements is found. The paper shows the dependence of the atmospheric spectral transmittance on the above mentioned parameters. L'influence de l'état atmosphérique sur l'extinction de la radiation solaire directe a été étudiée à l'aide d'un modèle atmosphérique développé antérieurement par l'auteur. Des formules simples ont été établies pour l'épaisseur optique spectrale des gaz et de la vapeur d'eau. Ces formules utilisent les valeurs de la pression atmosphérique, de la température et de l'humidité relative, mesurées au niveau du sol. Un paramètre supplémentaire, lié à la distribution verticale du contenu d'humidité, est utilisé pour calculer l'épaisseur optique due à la vapeur d'eau. La théorie est en bon accord avec les résultats des mesures. Le travail montre la dépendance de la transmittance atmosphérique spectrale en fonction des paramètres spécifiés ci-dessus.

Badescu, V.

1991-05-01

114

Water depth and surface current retrievals from airborne optical measurements of surface gravity wave dispersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible images of nearshore ocean waves obtained from an aircraft have been utilized to estimate the surface currents and water depth below the waves. A digital framing camera was mounted in a motion-stabilized turret and used to obtain temporal sequences of high-quality optical images of shoaling ocean waves. Data on the position and attitude of the camera/turret were used to map the image data to a rectilinear coordinate system at the level of the surface, effectively separating the spatial and temporal modulations due to the waves. The resulting three-dimensional (3-D) space-time data sets were Fourier transformed to obtain frequency-wave number spectra of these modulations. These spectra contain information on the propagation characteristics of the waves, such as their wavelengths and frequencies, and their directions and speeds of propagation. The water depth and current vector have been estimated by choosing these parameters so that a "best" fit is obtained between the theoretical dispersion relation for linear gravity waves and these 3-D wave spectra. Image data sets were acquired during the Shoaling Waves Experiment (SHOWEX) along the quasi-linear coastline in the vicinity of the Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility (FRF) near Duck on the North Carolina Outer Banks. Summary wave parameters and bathymetry and current retrievals are typically within 10% of contemporaneous in situ measurements, though outliers occur.

Dugan, J. P.; Piotrowski, C. C.; Williams, J. Z.

2001-08-01

115

Robust time reversal focusing based on Maximin criterion in a waveguide with uncertain water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time reversal processing (TRP) might be regarded as matched field processing with known environmental knowledge. However, the performance of TRP is degraded in an uncertain environment. A technique based on the Maximin criterion is proposed for enhancing the robustness of TRP in a waveguide with uncertain water depth. The relationship between the water depth and the focal spot translation is examined based on the waveguide-invariant theory. Then the time reversal transmission scheme with the Maximin criterion is performed to maximize the minimum transmission power on a target of interest. At the receiving end, coherent summation operation is carried out over the received data by a reception focusing bank. If it is necessary to enhance the target echo further, the iterative time reversal can be considered where the target echo corresponding to the first time reversal transmission is regarded as a secondary source. Numerical simulations and experimental results of the target localization in a waveguide tank have verified the effectiveness of robust TRP.

Pan, Xiang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, JiangFan; Xu, Wen; Gong, XianYi

2013-10-01

116

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15

117

Soil water and vegetation responses to precipitation and changes in depth to ground water in Owens Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Vegetation on the floor of Owens Valley, California, is composed predominantly of phreatophytic desert communities that are adapted to small quantities of precipitation and alkaline soils. These plant communities are believed to be dependent on the continuing presence of a shallow water table. Maintaining existing plant communities is important to preserve the environmental quality of the valley. Proposals to pump additional quantities of ground water from the valley for export to the city of Los Angeles caused concern about the effect of pumping on the existing vegetation and how the plants would adapt to short- or long-term declines of the shallow water table. To test the ability of selected major shrub species to adapt to water-table decline, four sites were selected, pump-equipped wells were installed, and water-table drawdown was monitored. Soil samples were collected with a hand auger and analyzed by using the filter-paper method to monitor changes in soil water content and soil matric potential at test sites. Plant reactions were determined by measurements of plant cover, shoot growth, and xylem pressure potential. Results of 3 years of monitoring show that growth and cover repetition of the shrubs studied are affected greatly by the quantity of annual precipitation, especially at sites with coarse-textured soils. Plants were not affected by drying soil in the root zone until the maximum matric potential exceeded 4.3 pF (-1,950 kilopascal) at depths greater than 0.5 meter. Rabbit-brush was most sensitive to dry soil and was the only shrub species that died as the result of water stress from water-table drawdown. The change in cover repetition correlated positively with the magnitude of water-table drawdown at one site and negatively at another site. Measurements of xylem pressure potential taken before dawn correlated well with water content in the upper 1.5 meters of soil. The magnitude of water-table drawdown achieved by the pump-equipped wells was less than expected at three of the four sites. Additional water-table drawdown for a longer period of time would be needed to separate the effects of water-table drawdown from the effects caused by differences in soil textures and natural fluctuations in the quantity of precipitation.

Sorenson, Stephen K.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Branson, Farrel A.

1991-01-01

118

Measurement of the depth-dependent resonance of water-loaded human lungs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was conducted to determine the response of the human lung to water-borne sound in the range of 20 to 500 Hz. A small pool inside a hyperbaric chamber was used to simulate four ambient pressure conditions spanning the range of recreational diving depths. Ten subjects were tested on two occasions each using three separate measures to evaluate the response of the subjects' lungs. With some notable exceptions, results were consistent between subjects and between measures. These indicate that human lungs can be reasonably modeled as a lumped single-degree-of-freedom system over the lower portion of the band of interest. Here, the surrounding fluid provides the dominant mass and the dominant stiffness is provided by the entrapped air with a small additional contribution from tissue elasticity. Measured resonances increase with the square root of ambient pressure from an average of 40 Hz with a quality factor of 1.8 at near-surface pressure to 73 Hz with a quality factor of 2.6 at an equivalent depth of 36.4 m. There is evidence of other resonances within or near the band of interest that may be attributable to nonvolumetric chest/lung modes, Helmholtz resonance, and/or resonance of gastrointestinal bubbles. .

Martin, J. S.; Rogers, P. H.; Cudahy, E. A.

2005-04-01

119

On alternative energy sources - Wave power availability in water of finite depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of wave height variation due to refraction and friction at the sea bottom is adopted to estimate the amount of mechanical power available at depths ranging from 5 to 25 m, where it seems reasonable to place devices to capture and convert wave energy. The refraction theory is mathematically modelled and the computer program for the power estimation is presented. The evaluation of the wave power available at a location near the Italian coast on the southern Adriatic is presented as an application, and is found to be 3.9 kW/m at the selected point, compared to 6.4 kW/m for deep water in the southern Adriatic. The methods of analytic and numerical bathymetry are used to arrive at the result.

Bergamaschi, S.; Cossalter, V.

1982-03-01

120

Sedimentological data indicate greater range of water depths for Costistricklandia lirata in the Southern Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

Two distinct horizons of the pentamerid brachiopod Costistricklandia lirata occur in the upper part of the Red Mountain Formation (Lower Silurian) in northern Alabama. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic characteristics of the rocks associated with the brachiopods suggest water depths of 15-150 m during times of low rates of terrigenous influx. Costistricklandid assemblages from the lower horizon are composed of extremely large individuals in association with a diverse population of large corals. They are interpreted to have lived in a protected environment. In an overlying horizon, costistricklandids occur in growth position at the base of a thick siliciclastic interval. These brachiopods lived in a storm-dominated environment and were buried in situ by the rapid influx of sediment associated with a passing storm.

Bolton, J.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1990-08-01

121

On the quartet resonance of gravity waves in water of finite depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction among a quartet of resonant progressive waves in water of finite depth is considered by the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). The problem is governed by a linear PDE with a group of nonlinear boundary conditions on the unknown free surface. Convergent multiple steady-state solutions have been gained by means of the HAM. It's worth noting that, in the most cases of the quartet resonance, wave energy is often exchanged periodically among different wave modes. However, our computations indicate for the first time that there exist some cases in which energy exchange disappears and besides the resonant wave component may contain much small percentage of the total wave energy. This work verifies that the HAM is valid even for some rather complicated nonlinear PDEs, and can be used as a powerful tool to understand some nonlinear phenomena.

Xu, Dali; Lin, Zhiliang; Liao, Shijun

2012-09-01

122

Operational aspects of mooring a drilling vessel in water depths of 4,200 to 4,700 ft  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on mooring operations in deep water which require detailed planning and special techniques for oil well drilling rigs and anchor-handling vessels (AHV's). Techniques developed by a multidisciplinary task group were used successfully and safely during two mooring operations in water depths ranging from 4,200 to 4,700 ft.

Barker, J.W.; Day, R.M. (Exxon Co. U.S.A. (US))

1991-09-01

123

Quantitative relationship between water-depth and sub-fossil ostracod assemblages in Lake Donggi Cona, Qinghai Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calibration data set of 51 surface sediment samples from Lake Donggi Cona on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau was investigated\\u000a to study the relationship between sub-fossil ostracod assemblages and water depth. Samples were collected over a depth range\\u000a from 0.6 to 80 m. A total of 16 ostracod species was identified from the lake with about half of the species restricted

Steffen Mischke; Ulrich Bößneck; Bernhard Diekmann; Ulrike Herzschuh; Huijun Jin; Annette Kramer; Bernd Wünnemann; Chengjun Zhang

2010-01-01

124

Water depth-composition trends in ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin compared to those in equatorial Pacific crusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts have been used as proxies for paleo-seawater chemistry; however, element concentrations and growth rates in crusts can vary depending on the region, latitude, and water depth. Here we will look at 130 Fe-Mn crusts from seven seamounts adjacent to the California (CA) margin to explore trends in composition with water depth and latitude. Crusts were collected by ROV, resulting in a dataset with exact water depth and location coordinates. Water depth ranges from 570 to 3,934 m along a 700-km transect running roughly parallel to the CA margin. Crust samples used for comparison were collected by dredging along transects following the Gilbert Ridge and Tokelau Seamounts in the western equatorial Pacific, with water depths ranging from about 1,500 to 4,800 m. In addition to variations with latitude and water depth, element concentrations in CA margin crusts are influenced by high primary productivity in surface waters, terrestrial input, and upwelling along the continental margin. Elements associated with terrestrial input, including Na, Si, Al, K, Pb, and particularly Th, are enriched in CA margin crusts relative to crusts from the equatorial Pacific transects. Si is also associated with the biogenic phase, as are P, Ba, and Cu but these elements are lower in CA margin crusts. Ba is a proxy for primary productivity. CA margin crusts show Ba increasing with increasing water depth, while equatorial Pacific crusts show the inverse trend. In equatorial Pacific crusts, Ba correlates with decreasing latitude, which reflects increasing proximity to the high productivity zone of equatorial upwelling; additionally, local obstructional upwelling associated with primary productivity around seamounts and islands enhances the productivity signal. Cu, which is associated with the manganese oxide phase, in addition to the biogenic phase, also increases with water depth along the CA margin; this is consistent with the seawater profile for dissolved Cu. In both the CA margin and the equatorial Pacific crusts, select elements associated with the iron oxyhydroxide phase, Pb, Mo, As, Ca, P, and Th, have higher concentrations in crusts that formed in shallower water. In CA margin crusts aluminosilicate elements, Si, Al, and K increase with water depth; this is also true for Si and K in equatorial Pacific samples. Be, which can be associated with biogenic and iron oxyhydroxide phases, increases in shallower water in both data sets, however when the data are combined, Be appears to increase with water depth. This apparent increase in the combined data is due to lower Be concentrations in the CA margin crusts relative to the equatorial Pacific crusts, which may be due to an inverse correlation between Be and latitude. Both the CA margin and equatorial Pacific crust growth rates increase with increasing water depth and increasing latitude. However, these trends disappear when the data are combined. These relationships indicate that regional and geographic trends must be taken into account when using crusts for paleo-oceanographic studies.

Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.

2013-12-01

125

Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses.  

PubMed

The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th. PMID:22090413

Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan

2012-07-01

126

Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data were analyzed for variations in eastern South Dakota. Soil moisture in the 0-4 cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop (% cover ranging from 30% to 90%) with an r squared = 0.81. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the 1-mm soil temperature, r squared = 0.88. The corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the 0-4 cm soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. HCMM data were used to estimate the soil moisture for four dates with an r squared = 0.55 after correction for crop conditions. Location of shallow alluvial aquifers could be accomplished with HCMM predawn data. After correction of HCMM day data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer (r=0.8).

Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

127

Comparison of MCNP4C and EGSnrc Monte Carlo codes in depth-dose calculation of low energy clinical electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of different Monte Carlo codes for understanding their limitations is essential to avoid systematic errors in the simulation, and to suggest further improvement for the codes. MCNP4C and EGSnrc, two Monte Carlo codes commonly used in medical physics, were compared and evaluated against electron depth-dose data and experimental results obtained using clinical radiotherapy beams. Different physical models and algorithms used in the codes give significantly different depth-dose curves. The default version of MCNP4C calculates electron depth-dose curves which are too much penetrating. The MCNP4C results agree better with the experiment if the Integrated Tiger Series-style energy-indexing algorithm is used. EGSnrc uses a class II-Condensed History (CH) scheme for the simulation of electron transport. To conclude the comparison, a timing study was performed. It was noted that EGSnrc is generally faster than MCNP4C and the use of a large number of scoring voxels dramatically slows down the MCNP4C calculation. However, the use of a large number of geometry voxels in MCNP4C only slightly affects the speed of the calculation.

Jabbari, N.; Hashemi-Malayeri, B.; Farajollahi, A. R.; Kazemnejad, A.; Shafaei, A.; Jabbari, S.

2007-08-01

128

What depth should deep-sea water be pumped up from in the South China Sea for medicinal research?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, seawater was pumped up from 150, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 m in the South China Sea and analyzed to make certain what depth should deep-sea water (DSW) be pumped up for medicinal usage. The pumping depth of DSW was determined on the basis of chemical ingredients. The analyses of inorganic elements and dissolved organic matter (DOM) were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) respectively. The raw data were used for hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that seawater pumped up from 500 m and 1000 m was similar in their chemical ingredients, and was different from the seawater pumped up from other depths. These results indicated that seawater from more than 500 m depth had relatively stable chemical ingredients and could be used as DSW in the South China Sea.

He, Shan; Liu, Hongbing; Yang, Xue; Li, Chunxia; Guan, Huashi

2013-03-01

129

Operation Experiences with Polyamine Dosing to Condition Feed Water, Boiler Water and Condensate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiences from 25 plants has been collected with the following results. 1. The content of iron in condensate and feed water has decreased in most plants after start of polyamine dosing, which proves that the general corrosion in boilers and pipelines ha...

F. Persson

1985-01-01

130

Variation of Pressure with Depth of Water: Working with High-Tech and Low-Cost Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When you dive underwater, you feel the pressure on your ears and, as you dive deeper, more pressure is felt. This article presents an activity that teachers might find useful for demonstrating the relationship between water depth and pressure. (Contains 5 figures and 1 table.)

Ornek, Funda; Zziwa, Byansi Jude; Taganahan, Teresita D.

2013-01-01

131

Application of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) to Determination of Atmospheric Aerosol Optical Depth and Precipitable Water Content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper focuses on determination of the temporal and spatial gas absorption and aerosol scattering properties of the atmosphere itself including the radiative properties of clouds, specifically derivation of estimates of aerosol optical depth, atmospheric water vapor, and oxygen pressure surface altitude form upwelling near-TOA spectral radiance measurements obtained with the AVIRIS.

Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.

1993-01-01

132

Evaluation of the effects of incorporation rate and depth of water-retentive amendment materials in sports turf constructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the current laboratory study was to assess the effects of a number of amendment materials and the depth of incorporation on water retention. 300 mm rootzone profiles were established in 150 mm diameter plastic cylinders over a 50 mm gravel drainage layer. Five amendment materials (sphagnum peat, compost, zeolite, TerraCottem and Stockosorb) were mixed with a medium-coarse

Stanislav Hejduk; Stephen W. Baker; Christian A. Spring

2012-01-01

133

Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

134

Water depth related ostracod distribution and paleo-climatic significance in Pumoyum Co of southern Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Closed lakes are widely distributed on the Tibetan Plateau. Their water level fluctuations are real reflections to the supplies no matter from precipitation or melting water, which is closely linked to climatic changes. The proxies from lake core sediments are always chased by researchers to reconstruct the continuous paleo-lake level changes. In Tibet areas, ostracod assemblages based water depth reconstruction is an acceptable method for quantificationally paleo environmental studies. However, there are still lacking of data to explain internal linkages between ostracod assemblages and environmental parameters of their habitation. Therefore, we collected a series of data including ostracod assemblages existing in surface sediments and water parameters at different water depths from the Lake Pumayum Co of southern Tibet for getting more information to discuss the relationships of microbios and their host ecological environment. The results showed that 9 species of ostracods were identified from 55 surface sediments and 38 samples of gravity core. Ostracod species (except Limnocythere inopinata which is specially rare). Environmental variables, including 6 water parameters, 8 ions of water samples and 13 elements of surface sediments, were tested either online or in laboratories. The cluster analysis and correlation analysis are utilized for discussing correlations of ostracods and environmental variables. Generally, water depth, temperature, pH and photosynthetically active radiation are the main factors influencing the distribution of modern ostracods. The forward dentrended correspondence analysis (DCA), canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and partial canonical correspondence analysis (PCCA) were taken out and revealed that water depth significantly (44.56%) drive the distribution of ostracods in the lake. A water depth transfer function using a weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) model was set up to reconstruct palaeo-lake level based on relative abundance of ostracods. By using the transfer function, we reconstructed the lake level changes according to the ostrocods assemblages of a 72 cm long gravity core. The paleo-climatic changes are revealed in terms of the reconstructed water level, together with other proxies such as mean grain size, total organic carbon and total inorganic carbon of sediment core since past 6000 years. The results show that shallow lake level and cool condition during 6000-4300 aBP, warm and relative high lake level between 4300 aBP and 2000 aBP, warm and lake expanding period from 2000 aBP to present. This environmental change probably was a sensitive adaption to the weakening activities of India monsoon since mid-Holocene. Around 4300 aBP might be an important transfer period which strengthened the warm condition of Pumoyum Co area and caused rapid melting of glacial after 4300 aBP which caused the lake level increasing.

Zhu, L.; Peng, P.; Ju, J.; Frenzel, P.; Wrozyna, C.

2011-12-01

135

Specification of absorbed dose to water using model-based dose calculation algorithms for treatment planning in brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), recently introduced in treatment planning systems (TPS) for brachytherapy, calculate tissue absorbed doses. In the TPS framework, doses have hereto been reported as dose to water and water may still be preferred as a dose specification medium. Dose to tissue medium Dmed then needs to be converted into dose to water in tissue Dw,med. Methods to calculate absorbed dose to differently sized water compartments/cavities inside tissue, infinitesimal (used for definition of absorbed dose), small, large or intermediate, are reviewed. Burlin theory is applied to estimate photon energies at which cavity sizes in the range 1 nm-10 mm can be considered small or large. Photon and electron energy spectra are calculated at 1 cm distance from the central axis in cylindrical phantoms of bone, muscle and adipose tissue for 20, 50, 300 keV photons and photons from 125I, 169Yb and 192Ir sources; ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients are calculated as applicable to convert Dmed into Dw,med for small and large cavities. Results show that 1-10 nm sized cavities are small at all investigated photon energies; 100 µm cavities are large only at photon energies <20 keV. A choice of an appropriate conversion coefficient Dw, med/Dmed is discussed in terms of the cavity size in relation to the size of important cellular targets. Free radicals from DNA bound water of nanometre dimensions contribute to DNA damage and cell killing and may be the most important water compartment in cells implying use of ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers for converting Dmed into Dw,med.

Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

2013-04-01

136

An integrated 6 MV linear accelerator model from electron gun to dose in a water tank  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The details of a full simulation of an inline side-coupled 6 MV linear accelerator (linac) from the electron gun to the target are presented. Commissioning of the above simulation was performed by using the derived electron phase space at the target as an input into Monte Carlo studies of dose distributions within a water tank and matching the simulation results to measurement data. This work is motivated by linac-MR studies, where a validated full linac simulation is first required in order to perform future studies on linac performance in the presence of an external magnetic field. Methods: An electron gun was initially designed and optimized with a 2D finite difference program using Child's law. The electron gun simulation served as an input to a 6 MV linac waveguide simulation, which consisted of a 3D finite element radio-frequency field solution within the waveguide and electron trajectories determined from particle dynamics modeling. The electron gun design was constrained to match the cathode potential and electron gun current of a Varian 600C, while the linac waveguide was optimized to match the measured target current. Commissioning of the full simulation was performed by matching the simulated Monte Carlo dose distributions in a water tank to measured distributions. Results: The full linac simulation matched all the electrical measurements taken from a Varian 600C and the commissioning process lead to excellent agreements in the dose profile measurements. Greater than 99% of all points met a 1%/1mm acceptance criterion for all field sizes analyzed, with the exception of the largest 40x40 cm{sup 2} field for which 98% of all points met the 1%/1mm acceptance criterion and the depth dose curves matched measurement to within 1% deeper than 1.5 cm depth. The optimized energy and spatial intensity distributions, as given by the commissioning process, were determined to be non-Gaussian in form for the inline side-coupled 6 MV linac simulated. Conclusions: An integrated simulation of an inline side-coupled 6 MV linac has been completed and benchmarked matching all electrical and dosimetric measurements to high accuracy. The results showed non-Gaussian spatial intensity and energy distributions for the linac modeled.

St Aubin, J.; Steciw, S.; Kirkby, C.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

2010-05-15

137

Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits  

SciTech Connect

Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level salina on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to difference in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to {approximately} 60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

Handford, C.R. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

1990-08-01

138

Improving the buildup and depth-dose characteristics of high energy photon beams by using electron filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attributes of high energy photon beams, i.e., low surface dose, large d\\/sub max\\/ and improved %DD, are compromised with increase in field size. This is due to the relative increase with field size of the electron component in the beam, as shown by recent experiments done here using a sweeping magnet. The present study shows that the advantages can

C. Clifton Ling; Peter J. Biggs

1979-01-01

139

Comparative study of depth dose-distributions and partial fragmentation cross sections of 56Fe ions on polyethylene using GEANT4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth dose-distributions and partial fragmentation cross sections for 56Fe ions on a polyethylene medium are estimated using Geant4: a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. The models employed in the present work are the Binary Cascade, Abrasion-Ablation and Quantum Molecular Dynamics. The multifragmentation models, such as statistical multifragmentation and Fermi break-up models are used in combination with the other models to define the nuclear interactions more precisely. The partial fragmentation cross sections are calculated on the basis of charge scored in the detector. The simulated results are validated by comparing with the experimental data.

Jalota, Summit; Kumar, Ashavani

2014-06-01

140

A simulation study to identify the sea water depth for the presence of air waves in sea bed logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea Bed Logging (SBL) is an offshore geophysical technique that can give information about resistivity variation beneath the seafloor. This information is crucial in offshore oil and gas exploration. However, data collected through this technique in shallow water at low frequencies is associated with a problem termed "air wave effect". The air wave effect is a phenomena resulting from Electro-Magnetic (EM) waves produced by the antenna (source) which interact with air-sea interface to generate air waves that diffuse from sea surface to the receivers. These air wave signals dominate the receivers at far offsets to the source and consequently, the refracted signal due the target is hardly distinguishable. The refracted signals from the target being masked by the airwaves can make it difficult to identify the hydrocarbon reservoir. The aim of this study is to investigate the sea water depth for the presence of air waves. Synthetic data are generated by simulating SBL environment without Hydro-Carbon (HC) target and varying the sea water depth from 1000m to 100m with the interval of 100m. The simulated distances for the source-receiver separation (offset) are divided into five ranges. The magnitude versus offset plot together with the Friedman and Wilcoxon statistical test are used to analyze the data. Results show that the air waves are present at 400m of sea water depth and below.

Abdulkarim, Muhammad; Shafie, Afza; Yahya, Noorhana Binti; Razali, Radzuan; Ahmad, Wan Fatimah Wan

2012-09-01

141

Absorbed dose to water determination with ionization chamber dosimetry and calorimetry in restricted neutron, photon, proton and heavy-ion radiation fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absolute dose measurements with a transportable water calorimeter and ionization chambers were performed at a water depth of 20 mm in four different types of radiation fields, for a collimated 60Co photon beam, for a collimated neutron beam with a fluence-averaged mean energy of 5.25 MeV, for collimated proton beams with mean energies of 36 MeV and 182 MeV at

H. J. Brede; K.-D. Greif; O. Hecker; P. Heeg; J. Heese; D. T. L. Jones; H. Kluge; D. Schardt

2006-01-01

142

Effective upwelling irradiance depths in turbid waters: a spectral analysis of origins and fate.  

PubMed

The spectral distribution of upwelling and downwelling irradiance were used to estimate the effective upwelling irradiance depth as well as examine the angular distribution of the downwelling radiance. The effective upwelling depth was seen to undergo spectral "shifts" in wavelength maxima in relation to elevated particulate concentrations. Wavelengths of the UVA minimum and mid visible maximum depths were found to be shifted to higher wavelengths (red shifted) at high particulate concentrations, while expected minimums at chlorophyll and phycocyanin absorption peaks and in the NIR were shifted to lower wavelengths (blue shifted). By comparing upwelling and downwelling irradiance profiles, the wavelength limits of the asymptotic angular radiance distribution were found to correspond to the visible spectral domain (390-740 nm). PMID:21503026

Ma, Ronghua; Jiang, Guangjia; Duan, Hongtao; Bracchini, Luca; Loiselle, Steven

2011-04-11

143

The climate influence on the mid-depth Northeast Atlantic gyres viewed by cold-water corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition (expressed in epsilon units, $\\varepsilon$Nd) of reef framework-forming cold-water corals provides unique measures of water mass provenance and mixing within the Northeast Atlantic today and in the past. A reconstruction of near thermocline water $\\varepsilon$Nd from cold-water corals of the Gulf of Cádiz and Porcupine Seabight spanning over the past 300,000 years, now revealed that climate cooling during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7.2 and MIS 8/9 led to a retraction of the mid-depth Subpolar Gyre (mSPG) to the west. Conversely, Northern Hemisphere warming and increasing fresh water fluxes to the northwest (Labrador Sea) favor a stronger eastward extension of the mSPG blocking the northward flow of temperate Atlantic water as observed during the early MIS 1 and the early stage MIS 5.5. These changes are likely the result of large-scale south-north displacement of the westerlies similar to present-day observations that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is linked with mid-depth ocean circulation. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that further climate warming will also strengthen the mSPG leading to a salt and temperature decrease in the Northeast Atlantic whereas salinity and temperature will increase in the temperate Atlantic. However, the amplitude of such changes on North Atlantic overturning remains to be tested.

Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Frank, Norbert; Colin, Christophe; Wienberg, Claudia; Eisele, Markus

2011-10-01

144

Results from a winter 2009-2010 nearshore mooring test in 25 m water depth off Newport, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the NSF-funded Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), two surface moorings will be placed in 25 m water depth off Newport, Oregon and Grays Harbor, Washington. These moorings are intended to acquire continuous observations over the inner-shelf, where the surface boundary layer interacts continuously with the ocean bottom boundary layer. The moorings will utilize the WHOI-developed stretch hose technology

E. P. Dever; B. W. Waldorf; C. M. Risien

2010-01-01

145

Modeling scale-dependent runoff generation in a small semi-arid watershed accounting for rainfall intensity and water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed scale effects of runoff on hillslopes and small watersheds derive from complex interactions of time-varying rainfall rates with runoff, infiltration and macro- and microtopographic structures. A little studied aspect of scale effects is the concept of water depth-dependent infiltration. For semi-arid rangeland it has been demonstrated that mounds underneath shrubs have a high infiltrability and lower lying compacted or stony inter-shrub areas have a lower infiltrability. It is hypothesized that runoff accumulation further downslope leads to increased water depth, inundating high infiltrability areas, which increases the area-averaged infiltration rate. A model was developed that combines the concepts of water depth-dependent infiltration, partial contributing area under variable rainfall intensity, and the Green-Ampt theory for point-scale infiltration. The model was applied to rainfall simulation data and natural rainfall-runoff data from a small sub-watershed (0.4 ha) of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in the semi-arid US Southwest. Its performance to reproduce observed hydrographs was compared to that of a conventional Green-Ampt model assuming complete inundation sheet flow, with runon infiltration, which is infiltration of runoff onto pervious downstream areas. Parameters were derived from rainfall simulations and from watershed-scale calibration directly from the rainfall-runoff events. The performance of the water depth-dependent model was better than that of the conventional model on the scale of a rainfall simulator plot, but on the scale of a small watershed the performance of both model types was similar. We believe that the proposed model contributes to a less scale-dependent way of modeling runoff and erosion on the hillslope-scale.

Langhans, Christoph; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan; Stone, Jeffry J.; Nearing, Mark A.

2014-07-01

146

CCRI supplementary comparison of standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at radiation processing dose levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six national standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at the dose levels used in radiation processing have been compared over the range from 5 to 30 kGy using the alanine dosimeters of the NIST and the NPL as the transfer dosimeters. The standards are in agreement at the level of around 0.5%, which is significantly smaller

D. T. Burns; P. J. Allisy-Roberts; M. F. Desrosiers; V. Yu. Nagy; P. H. G. Sharpe; R. F. Laitano; K. Mehta; M. K. H. Schneider; Y. L. Zhang

2006-01-01

147

CCRI supplementary comparison of standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at radiation processing dose levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six national standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at the dose levels used in radiation processing have been compared over the range from 5 to 30kGy using the alanine dosimeters of the NIST and the NPL as the transfer dosimeters. The standards are in agreement at the level of around 0.5%, which is significantly smaller than

D. T. Burns; P. J. Allisy-Roberts; M. F. Desrosiers; V. Yu. Nagy; P. H. G. Sharpe; R. F. Laitano; K. Mehta; M. K. H. Schneider; Y. L. Zhang

2006-01-01

148

A weighted surface-depth gradient method for the numerical integration of the 2D shallow water equations with topography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite volume MUSCL scheme for the numerical integration of 2D shallow water equations is presented. In the framework of the SLIC scheme, the proposed weighted surface-depth gradient method (WSDGM) computes intercell water depths through a weighted average of DGM and SGM reconstructions, in which the weight function depends on the local Froude number. This combination makes the scheme capable of performing a robust tracking of wet/dry fronts and, together with an unsplit centered discretization of the bed slope source term, of maintaining the static condition on non-flat topographies ( C-property). A correction of the numerical fluxes in the computational cells with water depth smaller than a fixed tolerance enables a drastic reduction of the mass error in the presence of wetting and drying fronts. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed scheme are assessed by comparing numerical results with analytical and reference solutions of a set of test cases. Moreover, to show the capability of the numerical model on field-scale applications, the results of a dam-break scenario are presented.

Aureli, F.; Maranzoni, A.; Mignosa, P.; Ziveri, C.

2008-07-01

149

The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: Connecting with Ocean and Great Lakes Scientists to Investigate the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pressure increases rapidly with depth in a water body. Ocean and Great Lakes scientists often use this physical feature of water as the basis of a fun pastime performed aboard research vessels around the world: the shrinking of polystyrene cups. Depending on the depth to which the cups are deployed, the results can be quite striking! Capitalizing…

Rose, Chantelle M.; Adams, Jacqueline M.; Hinchey, Elizabeth K.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Patterson, Mark R.

2013-01-01

150

Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

Maupin, Molly A.

1991-01-01

151

Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

Maupin, Molly A.

1992-01-01

152

Tow vehicle depth verification  

Microsoft Academic Search

NRL demonstrated extraction of accurate single beam and multibeam bathymetry from a towed vehicle designed to locate mines in the water column. However, biases were encountered in measuring the static pressure depth of the moving vehicle. Water depth is calculated by simply adding tow vehicle depth, measured by a pressure sensor, to the multibeam ranges from the seafloor, measured acoustically

M. M. Harris; W. E. Avera; L. D. Bibee

2002-01-01

153

Comparison of absorbed dose in bone substitute material and water using ionization measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorbed dose in a liquid substitute for bone has been compared with absorbed dose in water for 9-, 12-, and 15-MeV electron beams using ionization chamber measurements. The ionization readings were converted to dose using collisional mass stopping power ratios. The collisional mass stopping powers for the liquid substitute of bone were calculated using the Monte Carlo Code PEGS4. The

Satish C. Prasad; D. A. Bassano

1989-01-01

154

Penetration Depth and Transient Oxidation of Graphite by Oxygen and Water Vapor  

SciTech Connect

Equations are derived for the approach to equilibrium in the oxidation of graphite under assumptions of constant graphite density and linearized oxidation kinetics. A two-factor expression is assumed for the effective diffusivity. Equilibration may be estimated by observing the convergence of profiles with time or by means of an algebraic approximation. At large times, the profiles converge to the steady state. Oxidation depths show fair agreement with published measurements and follow closely the observed temperature trend.

Wichner, Robert [ORNL; Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

2009-01-01

155

Seasonal variation in light, mixing depth and primary productivity in temperate northern hemisphere waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise students work with light, temperature, and phytoplankton biomass proxy (chlorophyll a concentration) data to; Become more skilled in reading and interpreting semi log graphs, temperature profiles, and time series plots. Practice unit conversions. Gain an understanding of k, the attenuation coefficient for nondirectional light. See how the depth of the photic zone and the surface mixed layer varies seasonally at temperate latitudes and how this relates to seasonal phytoplankton productivity dynamics.

Sahl, Lauren

156

Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth  

SciTech Connect

A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion – Israel institute of technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)] [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion – Israel institute of technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2013-08-15

157

Can soil water measurements at a certain depth be used to estimate mean soil water content of a soil profile at a point or at a hillslope scale?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Profile soil water contents (?) are important for scheduling irrigation, determining root water uptake and energy partition between sensible and latent heat. Soil water content measurements for deep soil profiles are time consuming and costly. The objective of this study was to test whether ? at a certain depth at a point can be used to estimate profile ? at a point or at a hillslope scale by time stability analysis. A total of 37 datasets of ? from 0.1 m to 3.8 m depths were collected by a neutron probe at 28 locations over four years on a representative hillslope in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Time stability of vertical patterns of ? was assessed by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Soil water contents of the first two years were used to identify the time stable depth using mean absolute bias error, and ? of the second two years were used to validate if the time stable depth identified and associated mean relative difference can be used to predict mean ? of a soil profile at a point or at a hillslope scale. Results showed that vertical patterns of ? were time stable. The prediction error for mean ? varied with sampling locations and soil profile depths. At the most time stable location (location 4) in terms of vertical patterns, mean ? of soil profiles (i.e., 0-1.0 m, 0-2.0 m, 0-3.0 m, and 0-3.8 m) was predicted well by the most time stable depth, with absolute bias relative to mean <0.05 at a point scale and <0.10 at a hillslope scale. Further application of this approach in the Canadian Prairies site indicated that mean ? of 0-1.0 m soil profile at a point or a transect scale was predicted well by the most time stable depth at almost all the locations. This study verified that soil profile ? at both point and hillslope (or watershed) scales can be predicted with the ? measurements at the most time stable depth.

Hu, Wei; Si, Bing Cheng

2014-08-01

158

Chemical composition of selected Kansas brines as an aid to interpreting change in water chemistry with depth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical analyses of approximately 1,881 samples of water from selected Kansas brines define the variations of water chemistry with depth and aquifer age. The most concentrated brines are found in the Permian rocks which occupy the intermediate section of the geologic column of this area. Salinity decreases below the Permian until the Ordovician (Arbuckle) horizon is reached and then increases until the Precambrian basement rocks are reached. Chemically, the petroleum brines studied in this small area fit the generally accepted pattern of an increase in calcium, sodium and chloride content with increasing salinity. They do not fit the often-predicted trend of increases in the calcium to chloride ratio, calcium content and salinity with depth and geologic age. The calcium to chloride ratio tends to be asymptotic to about 0.2 with increasing chloride content. Sulfate tends to decrease with increasing calcium content. Bicarbonate content is relatively constant with depth. If many of the hypotheses concerning the chemistry of petroleum brines are valid, then the brines studied are anomolous. An alternative lies in accepting the thesis that exceptions to these hypotheses are rapidly becoming the rule and that indeed we still do not have a valid and general hypothesis to explain the origin and chemistry of petroleum brines. ?? 1969.

Dingman, R. J.; Angino, E. E.

1969-01-01

159

Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.  

PubMed

Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus. PMID:14982163

Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

2004-01-01

160

Variation in functional rooting depth and soil water partitioning along an elevational gradient in the southwestern U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid environments, co-existing plant species may vary in rooting depth, reflecting functional differences in water sources. In mountains of the southwestern U.S., moisture availability increases with elevation and winter and summer precipitation inputs differ isotopically. Examining variation in functional rooting depth among different plant communities and seasons is important to understanding how these communities may respond to the predicted warming and drying of the Southwest. The goal of this study was to assess the water partitioning of the woody plant community along an elevational moisture gradient using water isotopes as a proxy for rooting depth. We hypothesized that spatial and temporal water partitioning would be greatest in low elevation, moisture-stressed sites and would decrease as moisture availability increases with elevation. Five plots were established in each of five biotic communities: upland Sonoran desert, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, mixed-conifer forest, and spruce-fir forest. Soils (surface, 20 cm, 40 cm) and stem samples of dominant woody perennials were sampled during the late spring dry season and in late summer following monsoon rains, water was extracted using a cryo-vacuum line, and ?D and ?18O values were determined by off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Soil moisture content increased with elevation across all sites and increased with soil depth in the desert, pinyon-juniper, and ponderosa sites. The ?D values differed significantly among species in the desert and the ponderosa forest communities (p=0.014 and 0.039 ), while no species differences in ?D were found in the pinyon-juniper woodland or mixed-conifer forest. With the exception of the pinyon-juniper woodland, these data support our hypothesis that niche differentiation between species becomes less significant higher on the topographic moisture gradient, in the mixed-conifer forest. While spatial water partitioning mostly follows our predictions during the late spring, the lack of differentiation between species in the pinyon-juniper woodland indicates that temporal partitioning may be key to species coexistence in this system.

Guo, J.; Hungate, B. A.; Kolb, T.; KOCH, G. W.

2012-12-01

161

Depth to water table, recharge areas, drainage basins, and relief of Duval County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 3-sheet map report depicts hydrologic systems of surface water and groundwater in Duval County, Florida. The maps are from 1:20,000 and 1:62,500 quadrangles, U.S. Geological Survey. Symbols and colors describe water levels, groundwater recharge, drainage areas, and topography. (Woodard-USGS)

Causey, L. V.

1975-01-01

162

Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Nyman, J. A.; La, Peyre, M. K.; Caldwell, A.; Piazza, S.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

2009-01-01

163

Lake Level Reconstruction Using the Water Depth Related Distribution of Ostracoda in two Tibetan Lakes, Nam Co and Donggi Cona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the Asian Monsoon are reflected in paleo-lake level changes that can be reconstructed from ostracode associations of lake sediment cores. Ostracodes are one of the main micropaleontological proxies in paleolimnological research. They show high abundance and continuous presence in the often slightly saline high-altitude lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A comprehensive knowledge about the ecology and present day depth distribution of species, however, is a prerequisite for the use of this proxy. Therefore, we studied Recent ostracode associations from two lakes on the Tibetan Plateau for actualistic reference. Nam Co is situated on the south-eastern TP (30.5° N; 90.7° E) at 4719 m altitude. The surficially closed lake covers an area of 1961 km2 and has a maximum depth of 105 m. The water is slightly brackish (0.8 psu). The other lake, Donggi Cona, is located on the north-eastern TP (35.3° N; 98.9° E) at 4144 m altitude. Covering 250 km2; Donggi Cona is much smaller and shallower (38 m maximum depth) than Nam Co. Donggi Cona is a through-flow system and thus characterized by prevailing freshwater conditions. Ostracode diversity and species composition of both lakes are different; we identified six species in Nam Co and thirteen species in Donggi Cona sediments; four of the species we found in Nam Co were found in Donggi Cona as well. The most abundant species (70-95%) in Nam Co is Leucocytherella sinensis Huang, 1982, which is absent from Donggi Cona. There, Eucypris gyirongensis Huang, 1982 (shallow water indicator) and Leucocythere mirabilis (Kaufmann, 1892) (deep water indicator) are dominant. Despite these faunistic differences, our results suggest that Limnocythere inopinata (Baird, 1843) prefers shallow water and Leucocythere dorsotuberosa Huang, 1982, deep water below the thermocline in both lakes. The depth dependent distribution of ostracode species provides, together with autecological information on preferences and tolerances of species a database to establish a transfer function for the reconstruction of water depths and thus past lake levels. These transfer functions cover water depths between 3.7 m and 64 m in Nam Co, and between 0.2 m and 35 m in Donggi Cona. The standard error is approximately 7 m. Ostracodes of a 2.5 m long core and two short cores from Nam Co, for example, indicate lake levels 10 m to 20 m lower than today before 4 ka BP followed by a high stand of initially more than 10 m above the modern lake level. A distinct drop of approximately 25 m is reconstructed for the Little Ice Age. Since then until today, the lake level has been rising. Faunistic and also some ecological differences of species associations stress the need of regional modern data sets necessary for the establishment of transfer functions and their application to long sedimentary sequences from Tibetan Plateau lake systems.

Peter, F.; Mischke, S.; Bookhagen, B.; Wrozyna, C.; Schwalb, A.

2008-12-01

164

Ocean Color Patterns Help to Predict Depth of Optical Layers in Coastal Marine Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detection of single or multiple optical subsurface laminar features (e.g. , thin layers) in marine waters has many implications on ecological studies, management of fisheries, and military applications. This study has four objectives: (1) to corroborate a...

A. Weidemann J. Jolliff M. A. Montes-Hugo R. Arnone R. Gould

2012-01-01

165

Theoretical calving rates from glaciers along ice walls grounded in water of variable depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calving has been studied for glaciers ranging from slow polar glaciers that calve on dry land, such as on Deception Island (63.0-degrees-S, 60.6-degrees-W) in Antarctica, through temperate Alaskan tide-water glaciers, to fast outlet glaciers that float in fiords and calve in deep water, such as Jakobshavns Isbrae (69.2-degrees-N, 49.9-degrees-W) in Greenland. Calving from grounded ice walls and floating ice shelves

Terence J. Hughes

1992-01-01

166

Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape as a proxy for water-table depth in peatlands: validation and assessment of seasonal variability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: 1. Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape has been used in peatland ecological and hydrological studies as an inexpensive way to monitor changes in water-table depth and reducing conditions. 2. We investigated the relationship between depth of PVC tape discoloration and measured water-table depth at monthly time steps during the growing season within nine kettle peatlands of northern Wisconsin. Our specific objectives were to: (1) determine if PVC discoloration is an accurate method of inferring water-table depth in Sphagnum-dominated kettle peatlands of the region; (2) assess seasonal variability in the accuracy of the method; and (3) determine if systematic differences in accuracy occurred among microhabitats, PVC tape colour and peatlands. 3. Our results indicated that PVC tape discoloration can be used to describe gradients of water-table depth in kettle peatlands. However, accuracy differed among the peatlands studied, and was systematically biased in early spring and late summer/autumn. Regardless of the month when the tape was installed, the highest elevations of PVC tape discoloration showed the strongest correlation with midsummer (around July) water-table depth and average water-table depth during the growing season. 4. The PVC tape discoloration method should be used cautiously when precise estimates are needed of seasonal changes in the water-table.

Booth, Robert K.; Hotchkiss, Sara C.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

2005-01-01

167

Capillary waves past a flat plate in water of finite depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free-surface flow past a semi-infinite flat plate in a channel of finite depth is considered. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible, and the flow to be two-dimensional and irrotational. Surface tension is included in the dynamic boundary condition but the effects of gravity are neglected. It is shown that there is a three-parameter family of solutions with waves in the far field and a discontinuity in slope at the separation point. This family includes as particular cases the solutions previously computed by Osborn & Stump (2001, Phys. Fluids, 13, 616-623) and by Andersson & Vanden-Broeck (1996, Proc. R. Soc., 452, 1985-1997).

Tooley, S.; vanden-Broeck, J. M.

2004-06-01

168

Comparison between absorbed dose to water standards established by water calorimetry at the LNE-LNHB and by application of international air-kerma based protocols for kilovoltage medium energy x-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the absorbed dose to water for kilovoltage x-ray beams is determined from standards in terms of air-kerma by application of international dosimetry protocols. New standards in terms of absorbed dose to water has just been established for these beams at the LNE-LNHB, using water calorimetry, at a depth of 2 cm in water in accordance with protocols. The aim of this study is to compare these new standards in terms of absorbed dose to water, to the dose values calculated from the application of four international protocols based on air-kerma standards (IAEA TRS-277, AAPM TG-61, IPEMB and NCS-10). The acceleration potentials of the six beams studied are between 80 and 300 kV with half-value layers between 3.01 mm of aluminum and 3.40 mm of copper. A difference between the two methods smaller than 2.1% was reported. The standard uncertainty of water calorimetry being below 0.8%, and the one associated with the values from protocols being around 2.5%, the results are in good agreement. The calibration coefficients of some ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water, established by application of calorimetry and air-kerma based dosimetry protocols, were also compared. The best agreement with the calibration coefficients established by water calorimetry was found for those established with the AAPM TG-61 protocol.

Perichon, N.; Rapp, B.; Denoziere, M.; Daures, J.; Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.-M.

2013-05-01

169

Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters  

EPA Science Inventory

Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

170

Effect of subsurface drip irrigation on processing tomato yield, water table depth, soil salinity, and profitability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of subsurface drip irrigation of processing tomatoes to reduce subsurface drainage, control soil salinity, and increase farm profits in areas affected by saline, shallow ground water was evaluated at three fields with fine-textured, salt-affected soil along the west side of the San Joaquin Valley of California. No subsurface drainage systems were installed in these fields. Yield and quality

B Hanson; D May

2004-01-01

171

Interactions among fungal community structure, litter decomposition and depth of water table in a cutover peatland.  

PubMed

Peatlands are important reservoirs of carbon (C) but our understanding of C cycling on cutover peatlands is limited. We investigated the decomposition over 18 months of five types of plant litter (Calluna vulgaris, Eriophorum angustifolium, Eriophorum vaginatum, Picea sitchensis and Sphagnum auriculatum) at a cutover peatland in Scotland, at three water tables. We measured changes in C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the litter and used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate changes in fungal community composition. The C content of S. auriculatum litter did not change throughout the incubation period whereas vascular plant litters lost 30-40% of their initial C. There were no differences in C losses between low and medium water tables, but losses were always significantly less at the high water table. Most litters accumulated N and E. angustifolium accumulated significant quantities of P. C, N and P were significant explanatory variables in determining changes in fungal community composition but explained <25% of the variation. Litter type was always a stronger factor than water table in determining either fungal community composition or turnover of C, N and P in litter. The results have implications for the ways restoration programmes and global climate change may impact upon nutrient cycling in cutover peatlands. PMID:18430005

Trinder, Clare J; Johnson, David; Artz, Rebekka R E

2008-06-01

172

Development of a chronic noncancer oral reference dose and drinking water screening level for sulfolane using benchmark dose modeling.  

PubMed

Sulfolane is a widely used industrial solvent that is often used for gas treatment (sour gas sweetening; hydrogen sulfide removal from shale and coal processes, etc.), and in the manufacture of polymers and electronics, and may be found in pharmaceuticals as a residual solvent used in the manufacturing processes. Sulfolane is considered a high production volume chemical with worldwide production around 18 000-36 000 tons per year. Given that sulfolane has been detected as a contaminant in groundwater, an important potential route of exposure is tap water ingestion. Because there are currently no federal drinking water standards for sulfolane in the USA, we developed a noncancer oral reference dose (RfD) based on benchmark dose modeling, as well as a tap water screening value that is protective of ingestion. Review of the available literature suggests that sulfolane is not likely to be mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic, or pose reproductive or developmental health risks except perhaps at very high exposure concentrations. RfD values derived using benchmark dose modeling were 0.01-0.04?mg?kg(-1) per day, although modeling of developmental endpoints resulted in higher values, approximately 0.4?mg?kg(-1) per day. The lowest, most conservative, RfD of 0.01?mg?kg(-1) per day was based on reduced white blood cell counts in female rats. This RfD was used to develop a tap water screening level that is protective of ingestion, viz. 365 µg l(-1). It is anticipated that these values, along with the hazard identification and dose-response modeling described herein, should be informative for risk assessors and regulators interested in setting health-protective drinking water guideline values for sulfolane. PMID:22936336

Thompson, Chad M; Gaylor, David W; Tachovsky, J Andrew; Perry, Camarie; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C

2013-12-01

173

Water partitioning at 660 km depth and evidence for very low water solubility in magnesium silicate perovskite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water partitioning experiments were performed in MgO +\\/- FeO +\\/- Al2O3-SiO2-H2O systems at 24 GPa and 1400°C and 1750°C in the multi-anvil press. In high-temperature experiments, water was not detected in near-infrared spectra of perovskite. In samples synthesized at 1400°C, in Al-free systems, (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite coexisting with hydrous ringwoodite contained 1-2 ppm wt H2O. The partition coefficient Dringwoodite\\/perovskite of water

Nathalie Bolfan-Casanova; Hans Keppler; David C. Rubie

2003-01-01

174

Transverse structure of tidal and residual flow and sediment concentration in estuaries. Sensitivity to tidal forcing and water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical and a numerical model are used to understand the response of velocity and sediment distributions over Gaussian-shaped estuarine cross-sections to changes in tidal forcing and water depth. The estuaries considered here are characterized by strong mixing and a relatively weak along-channel density gradient. It is also examined under what conditions the fast, two-dimensional analytical flow model yields results that agree with those obtained with the more complex three-dimensional numerical model. The analytical model reproduces and explains the main velocity and sediment characteristics in large parts of the parameter space considered (average tidal velocity amplitude, 0.1-1 m s - 1 and maximum water depth, 10-60 m). Its skills are lower for along-channel residual flows if nonlinearities are moderate to high (strong tides in deep estuaries) and for transverse flows and residual sediment concentrations if the Ekman number is small (weak tides in deep estuaries). An important new aspect of the analytical model is the incorporation of tidal variations in the across-channel density gradient, causing a double circulation pattern in the transverse flow during slack tides. The gradient also leads to a new tidally rectified residual flow component via net advection of along-channel tidal momentum by the density-induced transverse tidal flow. The component features landward currents in the channel and seaward currents over the slopes and is particularly effective in deeper water. It acts jointly with components induced by horizontal density differences, Coriolis-induced tidal rectification and Stokes discharge, resulting in different along-channel residual flow regimes. The residual across-channel density gradient is crucial for the residual transverse circulation and for the residual sediment concentration. The clockwise density-induced circulation traps sediment in the fresher water over the left slope (looking up-estuary in the northern hemisphere). Model results are largely consistent with available field data of well-mixed estuaries.

Huijts, Karin M. H.; de Swart, Huib E.; Schramkowski, George P.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.

2011-08-01

175

Depth to and concentrations of water in large bodies of silicic magma. Progress report, July 1, 1982-June 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Large bodies of silicic magma are potential sources of geothermal energy and ore. They also pose threats of catastrophic eruptions. The depths of such bodies are related to their economic potential and probably to their eruption mechanisms. The concentrations of water in the magmas are important for their eruptive and dynamical behavior and for the development of ores. Estimates of viscosity and density of melt require knowledge of concentration of water. The concentration of water in melt before ascent and eruption can be measured in inclusions of glass which became trapped in crystals before extrusion. The depth of a magma body can be estimated or delimited if we can find out the concentrations of both carbon dioxide and water in the inclusions of glass. Initial results on the Bishop Tuff of Long Valley Caldera, California yield 4.9 +- 0.5 percent H/sub 2/O for glass included in quartz from the Plinian air fall pumice. This result is comparable to the estimates of Hildreth (1977) of about 3.5 to 4.9 percent H/sub 2/O in the lowermost part of the Bishop ash flow. From January 1982 through December 1982, analyses of inclusions of glass in two additional quartz phenocrysts from the Plinian air fall unit of the Bishop Tuff revealed variable H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/. The corresponding partial pressures range between about 2000 and 5000 atmospheres, assuming gas saturation. The variation may be natural or caused by an analytical artifact. A computerized data file has been constructed to facilitate the storage and retrieval of published and unpublished chemical analyses of glasses and minerals. Some data on the Bishop Tuff are presently stored.

Anderson, A.T.

1983-03-03

176

Hard-coral distribution and cold-water disturbances in South Florida: variation with depth and location  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Line transects were used to sample the structure and diversity of the hermatypic coral community (Scleractinia) on four shallow shelf-edge reefs in South Florida (25° 22'N to 25° 29'N). Low diversities, cover and abundance indicated that this area was a suboptimum habitat for reef-building corals. The lack of acroporids on the shallow fore-reef, the increase in total coral cover with depth and the greater abundance of Montastrea annularis in the deepest zones suggests that cooling of surface water during severe winter cold fronts is a major environmental control on the distribution of hermatypic corals with depth. Such disturbances, occurring more frequently than hurricanes, may preclude the hard-coral community from attaining higher levels of cover and abundance. The shallow zones on the reefs nearest to tidal passes, through which cooled by water enters the reef tract, had the least developed community. In the deeper reef-zones, species richness and abundance increased from north to south over a distance of 13 km.

Burns, T. P.

1985-09-01

177

Experimental study of the water depth and rainfall intensity effects on the bed roughness coefficient used in distributed urban drainage models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variability of roughness coefficients with water depth and rainfall is studied.Experimental measurements and numerical calibration are performed.Results show bed friction variations, not well captured by any standard formulation.

Fraga, Ignacio; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jerónimo

2013-11-01

178

A general model for intermediate-depth earthquakes and water transport into the mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental results on high-pressure dehydration of serpentine under stress have shown strong differences concerning whether a shearing instability does or does not develop. To address these differences we have conducted a series of experiments on serpentinized harzburgite that vary from 0% to essentially 100% antigorite. Our results are that both of the end members are ductile but that almost all intermediate compositions display dehydration embrittlement (see Xia et al., this meeting). Using these results and previous findings that subducting lithosphere is essentially dry below 400 km, we present a model that involves dehydration-induced earthquakes within subducting crust and mantle from which the water evolved escapes upwards, serpentinizing the mantle wedge immediately overlying the slab. The serpentine generated at the slab-wedge interface then potentially enables development of a ductile shear zone that could carry water downwards as a component of serpentine to conditions of higher P & T where antigorite is replaced by the 10Å phase and/or clinohumite that enables continuation of the hydrous shear zone. In this talk, we will explore the T, P, H2O conditions at the slab mantle interface that are consistent with this hypothesis.

Green, H. W.; Xia, G.

2012-12-01

179

Ecological Transport and Radiation Doses from Ground Water Borne Radioactive Matters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Turnover of radioactive matter entering the biosphere with ground water has been studied with regard to exposure and dose to critical groups and populations. The main alternatives considered for outflow of radioactive effluents to the biosphere are: outfl...

R. Bergman U. Bergstroem S. Evans

1978-01-01

180

Investigation of 1-cm dose equivalent for photons behind shielding materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ambient dose equivalent at 1-cm depth, assumed equivalent to the 1-cm dose equivalent in practical dose estimations behind shielding slabs of water, concrete, iron or lead for normally incident photons having various energies was calculated by using conversion factors for a slab phantom. It was compared with the 1-cm depth dose calculated with the Monte Carlo code EGS4. It

Hideo Hirayama; Shun-ichi Tanaka

1991-01-01

181

Evidence for a nonmonotonic relationship between ecosystem-scale peatland methane emissions and water table depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

temporal and spatial variations in peatland methane (CH4) emissions at broad scales are often related to water table (WT) using a linear relationship, a potentially complex relationship exists between these variables locally and over shorter time scales. To explore this issue, CH4 fluxes were measured using eddy covariance at the Mer Bleue bog over two summer seasons. Peak CH4 emissions (30 to 50 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1) occurred not when the WT was closest to the surface but instead, when it dropped to 40 to 55 cm below the surface. When the WT was below or above this zone, average fluxes were ~14 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1. We speculate this critical zone coincides with the necessary redox potentials and sources of fresh organic material that lead to maximum production of CH4 and/or with conditions that lead to degassing of stored CH4. However, as expected, total summer CH4 emissions were 47% lower during the drier year. This occurred in part because the WT was within the critical zone for fewer days in the drier year but also because after an extended midsummer dry period there was little recovery of CH4 emissions, even a month after rewetting.

Brown, Mathew G.; Humphreys, Elyn R.; Moore, Tim R.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Lafleur, Peter M.

2014-05-01

182

Dependence of Yb-169 absorbed dose energy correction factors on self-attenuation in source material and photon buildup in water  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Absorbed dose energy correction factors, used to convert the absorbed dose deposited in a LiF thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) into the clinically relevant absorbed dose to water, were obtained for both spherical volumetric sources and for the model 4140 HDR Yb-169 source. These correction factors have a strong energy dependence below 200 keV; therefore, spectral changes were quantified as Yb-169 photons traveled through both source material (Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and water with the corresponding absorbed dose energy correction factors, f(r,{theta}), calculated as a function of location in a phantom. Methods: Using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation program, the Yb-169 spectrum emerging from spherical Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} sources (density 6.9 g/cm{sup 3}) with radii between 0.2 and 0.9 mm were analyzed and their behavior compared against those for a point-source. The absorbed dose deposited to both LiF and H{sub 2}O materials was analyzed at phantom depths of 0.1-10 cm for each source radius and the absorbed dose energy correction factor calculated as the ratio of the absorbed dose to water to that of LiF. Absorbed dose energy correction factors for the Model 4140 Yb-169 HDR brachytherapy source similarly were obtained and compared against those calculated for the Model M-19 Ir-192 HDR source. Results: The Yb-169 average spectral energy, emerging from Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} spherical sources 0.2-0.9 mm in radius, was observed to harden from 7% to 29%; as these photons traveled through the water phantom, the photon average energy softened by as much as 28% at a depth of 10 cm. Spectral softening was dependent on the measurement depth in the phantom. Energy correction factors were found to vary both as a function of source radius and phantom depth by as much as 10% for spherical Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} sources. The Model 4140 Yb-169 energy correction factors depended on both phantom depth and reference angle and were found to vary by more than 10% between depths of 1 and 10 cm and angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. This was in contrast to that of the Model M-19 Ir-192 source which exhibited approximately 3.5%-4.4% variation in its energy correction factors from phantom depths of 0.5-10 cm. The absorbed dose energy correction factor for the Ir-192 source, on the other hand, was independent of angle to within 1%. Conclusions: The application of a single energy correction factor for Yb-169 TLD based dosimetry would introduce a high degree of measurement uncertainty that may not be reasonable for the clinical characterization of a brachytherapy source; rather, an absorbed dose energy correction function will need to be developed for these sources. This correction function should be specific to each source model, type of TLD used, and to the experimental setup to obtain accurate and precise dosimetric measurements.

Medich, David C.; Munro, John J. III [Radiation Laboratory, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Source Production and Equipment Co., Inc., 113 Teal Street, St. Rose, Louisiana 70087 (United States)

2010-05-15

183

A measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in lead at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the measurement of the neutron production rate in lead by high energy cosmic-ray muons at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent (mean muon energy of 260 GeV). A tonne-scale highly segmented plastic scintillator detector was utilised to detect both the energy depositions from the traversing muons as well as the delayed radiative capture signals of the induced neutrons. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations reproduce well the distributions of muons and detected muon-induced neutrons. Absolute agreement between simulation and data is of the order of 25%. By comparing the measured and simulated neutron capture rates a neutron yield in pure lead of (5.78-0.28+0.21)×10-3 neutrons/muon/(g/cm2) has been obtained.

Reichhart, L.; Lindote, A.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Araújo, H. M.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Bewick, A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; DeViveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Francis, V.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lopes, M. I.; Lüscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; da Cunha, J. Pinto; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

2013-08-01

184

A measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in lead at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the measurement of the neutron production rate in lead by high energy cosmic-ray muons at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent (mean muon energy of 260 GeV). A tonne-scale highly segmented plastic scintillator detector was utilised to detect both the energy depositions from the traversing muons as well as the delayed radiative capture signals of the induced neutrons. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations reproduce well the distributions of muons and detected muon-induced neutrons. Absolute agreement between simulation and data is of the order of 25%. By comparing the measured and simulated neutron capture rates a neutron yield in pure lead of (5.78{sub ?0.28}{sup +0.21})×10{sup ?3} neutrons/muon/(g/cm{sup 2}) has been obtained.

Reichhart, L.; Ghag, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh, UK and High Energy Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh, UK and High Energy Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom); Lindote, A.; Chepel, V.; DeViveiros, L.; Lopes, M. I.; Neves, F.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal)] [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Stekhanov, V. N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Araújo, H. M.; Bewick, A.; Currie, A.; Horn, M. [High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)] [High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); and others

2013-08-08

185

Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping (1:25,000) by computer analysis of LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer analysis was applied to single date LANDSAT MSS imagery of a sample coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map from this sample image containing 12 classes: 5 water depth/sediment classes, 2 shoreline/tidal classes, and 5 coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%. Unsupervised image classification was applied to a subportion of the site analyzed and produced classification maps comparable in results in a spatial sense. The results of this test indicated that it is feasible to produce such quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a LANDSAT image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

1978-01-01

186

Dose rate estimates from irradiated light-water-reactor fuel assemblies in air  

SciTech Connect

It is generally considered that irradiated spent fuel is so radioactive (self-protecting) that it can only be moved and processed with specialized equipment and facilities. However, a small, possibly subnational, group acting in secret with no concern for the environment (other than the reduction of signatures) and willing to incur substantial but not lethal radiation doses, could obtain plutonium by stealing and processing irradiated spent fuel that has cooled for several years. In this paper, we estimate the dose rate at various distances and directions from typical pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent-fuel assemblies as a function of cooling time. Our results show that the dose rate is reduced rapidly for the first ten years after exposure in the reactor, and that it is reduced by a factor of {approx}10 (from the one year dose rate) after 15 years. Even for fuel that has cooled for 15 years, a lethal dose (LD50) of 450 rem would be received at 1 m from the center of the fuel assembly after several minutes. However, moving from 1 to 5 m reduces the dose rate by over a factor of 10, and moving from 1 to 10 m reduces the dose rate by about a factor of 50. The dose rates 1 m from the top or bottom of the assembly are considerably less (about 10 and 22%, respectively) than 1 m from the center of the assembly, which is the direction of the maximum dose rate.

Lloyd, W.R.; Sheaffer, M.K.; Sutcliffe, W.G.

1994-01-31

187

Application of ANFIS for coagulant dosing process in a water purification plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is very important to optimize the turbidity of the treated water by dosing coagulant in water purification plant. The coagulant reaction to the turbidity is, however, not yet to be clarified and the amount of coagulant can not be easily calculated. In this work an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) based on conditional fuzzy c-means is employed to

Myung-Geun Chun; Keun-Chang Kwak; Jeong-Woong Ryu

1999-01-01

188

Natural radionuclides in bottled drinking waters produced in Croatia and their contribution to radiation dose.  

PubMed

Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in all Croatian bottled drinking natural spring and natural mineral water products, commercially available on the market, were determined. The samples originated from various geological regions of Croatia. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (234)U>(238)U>(226)Ra>(228)Ra>(210)Pb>(210)Po and (226)Ra>(228)Ra>(234)U>(238)U>(210)Pb>(210)Po for natural spring and mineral waters, respectively. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual effective ingestion doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for children from 7 to 12 years of age, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each type of water, as well as for each population group, were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1 mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to the European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different water types and within each water type, as well as between different age groups, where the lowest contribution was found for uranium isotopes and the highest for (228)Ra. PMID:22906977

Rožmari?, Martina; Rogi?, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Strok, Marko

2012-10-15

189

Late Quaternary water depth changes in Hala Lake, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, derived from ostracod assemblages and sediment properties in multiple sediment records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate dynamics along the marginal belt of the East Asian Summer Monsoon in China and their responses to hydrological cycles in lake basins of the Tibetan Plateau are still a matter of scientific discussion. Hala Lake, a closed 65 m deep lake basin in the western Qilian Mountains, Qinghai Province, is considered a monitor of climate-driven hydrological and environmental changes during the past 24 kyr BP. The distribution patterns of ostracod assemblages, stable isotopes, sediment-geochemical properties in four sediment records from different water depths and their combination with the unique limnological setting enabled us to reconstruct four major phases of centennial-scale water depth fluctuations from the global Last Glacial Maximum (ca 24 kyr BP) to the Present. Our results show that Hala Lake experienced a very shallow and small water body during the LGM and Lateglacial under cold and dry climate conditions. Rapid increase of water depth and contemporaneous lake expansion started at around 14 kyr BP (Phase I), most likely as a result of glacier melt due to the onset of climate warming. The lake reached >45 m water depth at around 13.5 kyr BP. Reduced water depth during the Younger Dryas spell (ca 12 kyr BP) may be attributed to a short-term return to cooler and drier conditions. During the early Holocene (Phase II), water depth increased further toward lake highstands close to its present level, with a highest lake level of up to 9 m above the present lakestand at 8.0-7.8 kyr BP. Besides continued glacier melt supply, we assume that summer monsoon effective moisture contributed to the overall water budget, but remained relatively unstable, favoring water depth fluctuations. A pronounced lower water depth falls into the period between 9.2 and 8.1 kyr BP, perhaps the result of weak monsoon influence or its complete absence, although the warming trend continued toward its optimum at ca 8-7 kyr BP. A distinct mass flow, most likely triggered by an earthquake, occurred during a lake lowstand either at ca 7.0 kyr BP or at around 8.1 kyr BP. The mid-Holocene (Phase III) was characterized by fluctuating water depths between 7.8 and 4.5 kyr BP. Conflicting trends of stable isotope data limit the validity of water depth estimations, but may show higher lake levels between 5.5 and 4.5 kyr BP, coincident with dated lake sediments in a cliff position at the northern lake shore. This positive water balance can most likely be attributed to increased westerly-derived moisture supply during autumn and late winter, although summer monsoon influence could also be of significance. Coincident with the 4.2 ka event, the lake experienced shallow water at around 4.1 kyr BP, perhaps as a result of continued cooling and drier climate conditions, supporting the arguments of a general cooling trend throughout the Holocene. The Late Holocene (Phase IV) is characterized by extremely unstable hydrological conditions with rapid fluctuations in water depth, more frequently controlled by westerly-driven effective moisture supply. Since the lake lowstand at about 1.4-1.2 kyr BP, the lake has developed toward its present level. Our research underlines the necessity for comparing multiple proxy records from different lake sites to better evaluate centennial-scale climate-driven variations throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene periods. All presented data suggest the variable influence of summer monsoon effective moisture on the hydrological budget of the lake. Water depth variations did not follow the long-term pattern of the Asian monsoon system due to a potential modulation by westerly-derived moisture impact.

Yan, Dada; Wünnemann, Bernd

2014-07-01

190

Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d(-1) for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d(-1) for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d(-1) for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. PMID:21924530

Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

2012-06-01

191

Bacterial diversity and biogeochemistry of different chemosynthetic habitats of the REGAB cold seep (West African margin, 3160 m water depth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The giant pockmark REGAB (West African margin, 3160 m water depth) is an active methane-emitting cold seep ecosystem, where the energy derived from microbially mediated oxidation of methane supports high biomass and diversity of chemosynthetic communities. Bare sediments interspersed with heterogeneous chemosynthetic assemblages of mytilid mussels, vesicomyid clams and siboglinid tubeworms form a complex seep ecosystem. To better understand if benthic bacterial communities reflect the patchy distribution of chemosynthetic fauna, all major chemosynthetic habitats at REGAB were investigated using an interdisciplinary approach combining pore water geochemistry, in situ quantification of fluxes and consumption of methane, as well as bacterial community fingerprinting. This study revealed that sediments populated by different fauna assemblages show distinct biogeochemical activities and are associated with distinct sediment bacterial communities. The methane consumption rates and methane effluxes ranged over one to two orders of magnitude across habitats, and reached highest values at the mussel habitat, which hosted a different bacterial community compared to the other habitats. Clam assemblages had a profound impact on the sediment geochemistry, but less so on the bacterial community structure. Moreover, all clam assemblages at REGAB were restricted to sediments characterized by complete methane consumption in the seafloor, and intermediate biogeochemical activity. Overall, variations in the sediment geochemistry were reflected in the distribution of both fauna and microbial communities; and were mostly determined by methane flux.

Pop Ristova, P.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Ramette, A.; Zabel, M.; Fischer, D.; Kasten, S.; Boetius, A.

2012-12-01

192

Experimental validation of a 2D overland flow model using high resolution water depth and velocity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a validation of a two-dimensional overland flow model using empirical laboratory data. Unlike previous publications in which model performance is evaluated as the ability to predict an outlet hydrograph, we use high resolution 2D water depth and velocity data to analyze to what degree the model is able to reproduce the spatial distribution of these variables. Several overland flow conditions over two impervious surfaces of the order of one square meter with different micro and macro-roughness characteristics are studied. The first surface is a simplified representation of a sinusoidal terrain with three crests and furrows, while the second one is a mould of a real agricultural seedbed terrain. We analyze four different bed friction parameterizations and we show that the performance of formulations which consider the transition between laminar, smooth turbulent and rough turbulent flow do not improve the results obtained with Manning or Keulegan formulas for rough turbulent flow. The simulations performed show that using Keulegan formula with a physically-based definition of the bed roughness coefficient, a two-dimensional shallow water model is able to reproduce satisfactorily the flow hydrodynamics. It is shown that, even if the resolution of the topography data and numerical mesh are high enough to include all the small scale features of the bed surface, the roughness coefficient must account for the macro-roughness characteristics of the terrain in order to correctly reproduce the flow hydrodynamics.

Cea, L.; Legout, C.; Darboux, F.; Esteves, M.; Nord, G.

2014-05-01

193

Seasonal changes in depth of water uptake for encroaching trees Juniperus virginiana and Pinus ponderosa and two dominant C4 grasses in a semiarid grassland.  

PubMed

We used the natural abundance of stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in soil (0.05-3 m depth), plant xylem and precipitation to determine the seasonal changes in sources of soil water uptake by two native encroaching woody species (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson, Juniperus virginiana L.), and two C(4) grasses (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Panicum virgatum L.), in the semiarid Sandhills grasslands of Nebraska. Grass species extracted most of their water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m). Soil water uptake from below 0.5 m depth increased under drought, but appeared to be minimal in relation to the total water use of these species. The grasses senesced in late August in response to drought conditions. In contrast to grasses, P. ponderosa and J. virginiana trees exhibited significant plasticity in sources of water uptake. In winter, tree species extracted a large fraction of their soil water from below 0.9 m depth. In spring when shallow soil water was available, tree species used water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m) and relied little on water from below 0.5 m depth. During the growing season (May-August) significant differences between the patterns of tree species water uptake emerged. Pinus ponderosa acquired a large fraction of its water from the 0.05-0.5 and 0.5-0.9 m soil profiles. Compared with P. ponderosa, J. virginiana acquired water from the 0.05-0.5 m profile during the early growing season but the amount extracted from this profile progressively declined between May and August and was mirrored by a progressive increase in the fraction taken up from 0.5-0.9 m depth, showing plasticity in tracking the general increase in soil water content within the 0.5-0.9 m profile, and being less responsive to growing season precipitation events. In September, soil water content declined to its minimum, and both tree species shifted soil water uptake to below 0.9 m. Tree transpiration rates (E) and water potentials (Psi) indicated that deep water sources did not maintain E which sharply declined in September, but played an important role in the recovery of tree Psi. Differences in sources of water uptake among these species and their ecological implications on tree-grass dynamics and soil water in semiarid environments are discussed. PMID:19203941

Eggemeyer, Kathleen D; Awada, Tala; Harvey, F Edwin; Wedin, David A; Zhou, Xinhua; Zanner, C William

2009-02-01

194

The difference of scoring dose to water or tissues in Monte Carlo dose calculations for low energy brachytherapy photon sources  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The goal of this work is to compare D{sub m,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in medium) and D{sub w,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in water) obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a subset of human tissues of interest in low energy photon brachytherapy. Using low dose rate seeds and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the authors quantify the large cavity theory conversion factors required. The authors also assess whether applying large cavity theory utilizing the sources' initial photon spectra and average photon energy induces errors related to spatial spectral variations. First, ideal spherical geometries were investigated, followed by clinical brachytherapy LDR seed implants for breast and prostate cancer patients. Methods: Two types of dose calculations are performed with the GEANT4 MC code. (1) For several human tissues, dose profiles are obtained in spherical geometries centered on four types of low energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 131}Cs seeds, as well as an EBS operating at 50 kV. Ratios of D{sub w,m} over D{sub m,m} are evaluated in the 0-6 cm range. In addition to mean tissue composition, compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean are also studied. (2) Four clinical breast (using {sup 103}Pd) and prostate (using {sup 125}I) brachytherapy seed implants are considered. MC dose calculations are performed based on postimplant CT scans using prostate and breast tissue compositions. PTV D{sub 90} values are compared for D{sub w,m} and D{sub m,m}. Results: (1) Differences (D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m}-1) of -3% to 70% are observed for the investigated tissues. For a given tissue, D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m} is similar for all sources within 4% and does not vary more than 2% with distance due to very moderate spectral shifts. Variations of tissue composition about the assumed mean composition influence the conversion factors up to 38%. (2) The ratio of D{sub 90(w,m)} over D{sub 90(m,m)} for clinical implants matches D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m} at 1 cm from the single point sources. Conclusions: Given the small variation with distance, using conversion factors based on the emitted photon spectrum (or its mean energy) of a given source introduces minimal error. The large differences observed between scoring schemes underline the need for guidelines on choice of media for dose reporting. Providing such guidelines is beyond the scope of this work.

Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2011-03-15

195

Empirical water depth predictions in Dublin Bay based on satellite EO multispectral imagery and multibeam data using spatially weighted geographical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal shallow water zone can be a challenging and expensive environment within which to acquire bathymetry and other oceanographic data using traditional survey methods. Dangers and limited swath coverage make some of these areas unfeasible to survey using ship borne systems, and turbidity can preclude marine LIDAR. As a result, an extensive part of the coastline worldwide remains completely unmapped. Satellite EO multispectral data, after processing, allows timely, cost efficient and quality controlled information to be used for planning, monitoring, and regulating coastal environments. It has the potential to deliver repetitive derivation of medium resolution bathymetry, coastal water properties and seafloor characteristics in shallow waters. Over the last 30 years satellite passive imaging methods for bathymetry extraction, implementing analytical or empirical methods, have had a limited success predicting water depths. Different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water column to varying depths. They can provide acceptable results up to 20 m but become less accurate in deeper waters. The study area is located in the inner part of Dublin Bay, on the East coast of Ireland. The region investigated is a C-shaped inlet covering an area of 10 km long and 5 km wide with water depths ranging from 0 to 10 m. The methodology employed on this research uses a ratio of reflectance from SPOT 5 satellite bands, differing to standard linear transform algorithms. High accuracy water depths were derived using multibeam data. The final empirical model uses spatially weighted geographical tools to retrieve predicted depths. The results of this paper confirm that SPOT satellite scenes are suitable to predict depths using empirical models in very shallow embayments. Spatial regression models show better adjustments in the predictions over non-spatial models. The spatial regression equation used provides realistic results down to 6 m below the water surface, with reliable and error controlled depths. Bathymetric extraction approaches involving satellite imagery data are regarded as a fast, successful and economically advantageous solution to automatic water depth calculation in shallow and complex environments.

Monteys, Xavier; Harris, Paul; Caloca, Silvia

2014-05-01

196

Modelling effects of seasonal variation in water table depth on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a tropical peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD) determines the balance between aggradation and degradation of tropical peatlands. Longer dry seasons together with human interventions (e.g. drainage) can cause WTD drawdowns making tropical peatland C storage highly vulnerable. Better predictive capacity for effects of WTD on net CO2 exchange is thus essential to guide conservation of tropical peat deposits. Mathematical modelling of basic eco-hydrological processes under site-specific conditions can provide such predictive capacity. We hereby deploy a mathematical model ecosys to study effects of seasonal variation in WTD on net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of an Indonesian peatland. We simulated lower NEPs (~ -2 g C m-2 d-1) during rainy seasons with shallow WTD, higher NEPs (~ +1 g C m-2 d-1) during early dry seasons with intermediate WTD and again lower NEPs (~ -4 g C mm-2 d-1) during late dry seasons with deep WTD during 2002-2005. These values were corroborated by regressions (P < 0.0001) of hourly modelled vs. eddy covariance (EC) measured net ecosystem CO2 fluxes which yielded R2 > 0.8, intercepts approaching 0 and slopes approaching 1. We also simulated a gradual increase in annual NEPs from 2002 (-609 g C m-2) to 2005 (-373 g C m-2) with decreasing WTD which was corroborated by EC-gap filled annual NEP estimates. These WTD effects on NEP were modelled from basic eco-hydrological processes including microbial and root oxidation-reduction reactions driven by soil and root O2 transport and uptake which in turn drove soil and plant C, N and P transformations within a soil-plant-atmosphere water transfer scheme driven by water potential gradients. This modelling should therefore provide a predictive capacity for WTD management programs to reduce tropical peat degradation.

Mezbahuddin, M.; Grant, R. F.; Hirano, T.

2013-08-01

197

Measurement of absorbed dose-to-water for an HDR {sup 192}Ir source with ionization chambers in a sandwich setup  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, a dedicated device for ion chamber measurements of absorbed dose-to-water for a Nucletron microSelectron-v2 HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source is presented. The device uses two ionization chambers in a so-called sandwich assembly. Using this setup and by taking the average reading of the two chambers, any dose error due to difficulties in absolute positioning (centering) of the source in between the chambers is cancelled to first order. The method's accuracy was examined by comparing measurements with absorbed dose-to-water determination based on the AAPM TG-43 protocol.Methods: The optimal source-to-chamber distance (SCD) for {sup 192}Ir dosimetry was determined from ion chamber measurements in a water phantom. The {sup 192}Ir source was sandwiched between two Exradin A1SL chambers (0.057 cm{sup 3}) at the optimal SCD separation. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water using a {sup 60}Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality conversion factor, k{sub Q}, for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir. An uncertainty estimate of the proposed method was determined based on reproducibility of measurements at different institutions for the same type of source.Results: The optimal distance for the A1SL chamber measurements was determined to be 5 cm from the {sup 192}Ir source center, considering the depth dependency of k{sub Q} for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir and the chamber positioning. The absorbed dose to water measured at (5 cm, 90°) on the transverse axis was 1.3% lower than TG-43 values and its reproducibility and overall uncertainty were 0.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The measurement doses at anisotropic points agreed within 1.5% with TG-43 values.Conclusions: The ion chamber measurement of absorbed dose-to-water with a sandwich method for the {sup 192}Ir source provides a more accurate, direct, and reference dose compared to the dose-to-water determination based on air-kerma strength in the TG-43 protocol. Due to the simple but accurate assembly, the sandwich measurement method is useful for daily dose management of {sup 192}Ir sources.

Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Ohno, Takeshi [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan); Kakei, Kiyotaka; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Kawamura, Shinji [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

2013-09-15

198

Relation of nitrate concentrations in ground water to well depth, well use, and land use in Franklin Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, 1970-85  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A water-quality data base was developed to permit the investigation of the relation of concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in ground water to well depth, well use, and land use (agricultural, residential, urban nonresidential, and undeveloped) in Franklin Township. Nitrate concentrations in water from 868 wells tended to decrease with depth. A rank-order regression model of nitrate concen- trations and land-use percentages was fitted to data from 98 shallow domestic wells. The model, which explains about 25 percent of the variance in the data, indicated that nitrate concentration increased with the percentage of developed land in a well's buffer zone. Further stratification of the data based on well use (commercial, domestic, or agricultural/irrigation) indicated that elevated nitrate concentrations were more common in water from agricultural/irrigation wells than in water from domestic or commercial wells. Concentrations of nitrate were indicative of human activities in water from about one-third of the wells sampled but exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in water from only 1 percent of the wells. A sampling strategy in which water from wells of different depths located within areas in each of the four land-use categories is sampled yearly and analyzed for nitrate and other constituents would facilitate determination of the effects of human activities on ground-water quality.

MacLeod, Cecilia Louise; Barringer, T. H.; Vowinkel, E. F.; Price, C. V.

1995-01-01

199

COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS OF ABSORBED DOSE TO WATER USING A WATER CALORIMETER AND IONIZATION CHAMBERS FOR CLINICAL RADIOTHERAPY PHOTON AND ELECTRON BEAMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of the water calorimeter direct measurement of absorbed dose in water becomes possible. This could lead to the establishment of an absorbed dose rather than an exposure related standard for ionization chambers for high energy electrons and photons. In changing to an absorbed dose standard it is necessary to investigate the effect of different parameters, among which

AMPARO EUGENIA MENDEZ DE MARLES; A. E. M

1981-01-01

200

Instrumentation for investigation of the depth-dose distribution by the Liulin-5 instrument of a human phantom on the Russian segment of ISS for estimation of the radiation risk during long term space flights.  

PubMed

Described is the Liulin-5 experiment and instrumentation, developed for investigation of the space radiation doses depth distribution in a human phantom on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). Liulin-5 experiment is a part of the international project MATROSHKA-R on ISS. The experiment MATROSHKA-R is aimed to study the depth dose distribution at the sites of critical organs of the human body, using models of human body-anthropomorphic and spherical tissue-equivalent phantoms. The aim of Liulin-5 experiment is long term (4-5 years) investigation of the radiation environment dynamics inside the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom, mounted in different places of the Russian Segment of ISS. Energy deposition spectra, linear energy transfer spectra, flux and dose rates for protons and the biologically-relevant heavy ion components of the galactic cosmic radiation will be measured simultaneously with near real time resolution at different depths of the phantom by a telescope of silicon detectors. Data obtained together with data from other active and passive dosimeters will be used to estimate the radiation risk to the crewmembers, verify the models of radiation environment in low Earth orbit, validate body transport model and correlate organ level dose to skin dose. Presented are the test results of the prototype unit. The spherical phantom will be flown on the ISS in 2004 year and Liulin-5 experiment is planned for 2005 year. PMID:15880917

Semkova, J; Koleva, R; Todorova, G; Kanchev, N; Petrov, V; Shurshakov, V; Tchhernykh, I; Kireeva, S

2004-01-01

201

Direct determination of the absorbed dose to water from 125I low dose-rate brachytherapy seeds using the new absorbed dose primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-intensity radioactive sources emitting low-energy photons are used in the clinic for low dose-rate brachytherapy treatments of tumours. The dosimetry of these sources is based on reference air kerma rate measurements. The absorbed dose rate to water at the reference depth d0 = 1 cm, \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} , is then obtained by a conversion procedure with a large relative standard uncertainty of about 5%. This paper describes a primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI to directly measure \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} due to LDR sources. The standard is based on a large-angle and variable-volume ionization chamber, embedded in a graphite phantom and operating under ‘wall-less air chamber’ conditions. A set of correction and conversion factors, based on experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, are determined to obtain the value of Dw,1 cm from measurements of increment of ionization current with increasing chamber volume. The relative standard uncertainty on \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} is 2.6%, which is appreciably lower than the current uncertainty. Characteristics of the standard, its associated uncertainty budget, and some experimental results are given for 125I BEBIG I25.S16.C brachytherapy seeds. Finally, results of the experimental determination of the dose-rate constant ?1 cm, traceable to the Dw,1 cm and the low-energy air kerma ENEA-INMRI standards, are given. The relative standard uncertainty on ?1 cm is 2.9%, appreciably lower than the typical uncertainty (4.8%) of the values available in the literature.

Toni, M. P.; Pimpinella, M.; Pinto, M.; Quini, M.; Cappadozzi, G.; Silvestri, C.; Bottauscio, O.

2012-10-01

202

Radiation dose to mouse liver cells from ingestion of tritiated food or water  

SciTech Connect

Tritium incorporated into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp that had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of 3H in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water 3H, tissue-bound 3H, and DNA-bound 3H. Carbon-14 glucose was added to food and drinking water to compare the 3H intake from food with that from water. The specific activity of 3H in tissues was then corrected by the specific activity of 14C in tissues to determine the 3H incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound 3H after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound 3H was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from 3H incorporated through food was twofold higher than from tritiated water, which was mainly from the high incorporation of 3H into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water 3H alone would under-estimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food.

Komatsu, K.; Okumura, Y.; Sakamoto, K. (Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

1990-05-01

203

ACE-Asia Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor Measured by Airborne Sunphotometers and Related to Other Measurements and Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS-14) flew successfully on all 18 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 6 and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of these AOD and extinction spectra indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the ACE-Asia aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in AATS-14 profiles analyzed to date, ~36% of full-column AOD at 525 nm was above 3 km. In contrast, only ~10% of CWV was above 3 km. Analyses and applications of AATS-6 and AATS-14 data to date include comparisons to (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements, (ii) extinction profiles derived from lidar measurements, and (iii) AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite. Other planned collaborative studies include comparisons to results from size spectrometers, chemical measurements, other satellite sensors, flux radiometers, and chemical transport models. Early results of these studies will be presented.

Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hegg, D.; Pilewskie, P.; Anderson, T.; Masonis, S.; Murayama, T.

2001-12-01

204

Bacterial diversity and biogeochemistry of different chemosynthetic habitats of the REGAB cold seep (West African margin, 3160 m water depth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The giant pockmark REGAB (West African margin, 3160 m water depth) is an active methane-emitting cold seep ecosystem, where the energy derived from microbially mediated oxidation of methane supports high biomass and diversity of chemosynthetic communities. Bare sediments interspersed with heterogeneous chemosynthetic assemblages of mytilid mussels, vesicomyid clams and siboglinid tubeworms form a complex seep ecosystem. To better understand if benthic bacterial communities reflect the patchy distribution of chemosynthetic fauna, all major chemosynthetic habitats at REGAB were investigated using an interdisciplinary approach combining porewater geochemistry, in situ quantification of fluxes and consumption of methane, as well bacterial community fingerprinting. This study revealed that sediments populated by different fauna assemblages show distinct biogeochemical activities and are associated with distinct sediment bacterial communities. The methane consumption and methane effluxes ranged over one to two orders of magnitude across habitats, and reached highest values at the mussel habitat, which hosted a different bacterial community compared to the other habitats. Clam assemblages had a profound impact on the sediment geochemistry, but less so on the bacterial community structure. Moreover, all clam assemblages at REGAB were restricted to sediments characterized by complete methane consumption in the seafloor, and intermediate biogeochemical activity. Overall, variations in the sediment geochemistry were reflected in the distribution of both fauna and microbial communities; and were mostly determined by methane flux.

Pop Ristova, P.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Ramette, A.; Zabel, M.; Fischer, D.; Kasten, S.; Boetius, A.

2012-07-01

205

Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M. D.; Rogers, T. L.; Garcia, S. P.

1995-01-01

206

Assessment of 226Ra age-dependent dose from water intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactivity in canal and ground waters collected in a 2-year long observation from the vicinity of the Rare Earth Research and Development Center (RRDC), Phathumthani Province, Thailand, was measured in order to determine the concentration of 226Ra and to estimate the age-dependent effective dose to humans due to consumption. 226Ra activities in both canal and ground waters were well

Boonsom Porntepkasemsan; Kanitha Srisuksawad

2008-01-01

207

Exposure, Dose-Equivalent and Absorbed-Dose Buildup Factors of gamma Rays for Plane Normal and Isotropic Incidences on Water, Concrete, Iron and Lead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exposure, dose-equivalent and absorbed-dose buildup factors are calculated using a discrete-ordinates direct integration code, PALLAS-PL, SP-Br, for water, concrete, iron and lead, typifying materials of low, medium, high atomic number for gamma ray sourc...

S. Tanaka K. Takeuchi

1984-01-01

208

RESIDUAL STRESS STATE AND HARDNESS DEPTH IN ELECTRIC DISCHARGE MACHINING: DE-IONIZED WATER AS DIELECTRIC LIQUID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures and results of experimental work to measure residual stresses and hardness depth in electric discharge machined surfaces are presented. Layer removal method is used to express the residual stress profile as a function of depth caused by a die sinking type EDM. Thin stressed layers are removed from machined samples by electrochemical machining. Corresponding deformations due to stress relaxation

Bülent Ekmekci; Oktay Elkoca; A. Erman Tekkaya; Abdulkadir Erden

2005-01-01

209

The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: An Investigation of the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene  

EPA Science Inventory

This activity familiarizes students with the effects of increased depth on pressure and volume. Students will determine the volume of polystyrene cups before and after they are submerged to differing depths in the ocean and the Laurentian Great Lakes. Students will also calculate...

210

Dose-rate to water calibrations for brachytherapy sources from the end-user perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Independent primary standards for brachytherapy photon-emitting source calibration in terms of dose-rate to water have been developed within the framework of the Euramet T2.J06 project. The introduction of dose-rate to water calibration presents an important change in clinical brachytherapy dosimetry that is expected to result to improved dosimetric accuracy. Nevertheless, as with any change in dosimetry for radiation therapy purposes, a phase-in period of well concerted actions aimed at precluding ambiguities and accidents at the end-user level is necessary. The overall uncertainty budget of clinical brachytherapy applications, as well as current trends in brachytherapy treatment planning system dose-calculation algorithms, also need to be considered for a realistic assessment of the net benefit of improving source calibration accuracy.

Siebert, Frank-André; Venselaar, Jack L. M.; Paulsen Hellebust, Taran; Papagiannis, Panagiotis; Rijnders, Alex; Rivard, Mark J.

2012-10-01

211

Dose to tissue medium or water cavities as surrogate for the dose to cell nuclei at brachytherapy photon energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that modern dose calculation algorithms should be able to report absorbed dose both as dose to the local medium, Dm,m, and as dose to a water cavity embedded in the medium, Dw,m, using conversion factors from cavity theory. Assuming that the cell nucleus with its DNA content is the most important target for biological response, the aim of this study is to investigate, by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the relationship of the dose to a cell nucleus in a medium, Dn,m, to Dm,m and Dw,m, for different combinations of cell nucleus compositions and tissue media for different photon energies used in brachytherapy. As Dn,m is very impractical to calculate directly for routine treatment planning, while Dm,m and Dw,m are much easier to obtain, the questions arise which one of these quantities is the best surrogate for Dn,m and which cavity theory assumptions should one use for its estimate. The Geant4.9.4 MC code was used to calculate Dm,m, Dw,m and Dn,m for photon energies from 20 (representing the lower energy end of brachytherapy for 103Pd or125I) to 300 keV (close to the mean energy of 192Ir) and for the tissue media adipose, breast, prostate and muscle. To simulate the cell and its nucleus, concentric spherical cavities were placed inside a cubic phantom (10 × 10 × 10 mm3). The diameter of the simulated nuclei was set to 14 µm. For each tissue medium, three different setups were simulated; (a) Dn,m was calculated with nuclei embedded in tissues (MC-Dn,m). Four different published elemental compositions of cell nuclei were used. (b) Dw,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dw,m) and compared with large cavity theory calculated Dw,m (LCT-Dw,m), and small cavity theory calculated Dw,m (SCT-Dw,m). (c) Dm,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dm,m). MC-Dw,m is a good substitute for MC-Dn,m for all photon energies and for all simulated nucleus compositions and tissue types. SCT-Dw,m can be used for most energies in brachytherapy, while LCT-Dw,m should only be considered for source spectra well below 50 keV, since contributions to the absorbed dose inside the nucleus to a large degree stem from electrons released in the surrounding medium. MC-Dm,m is not an appropriate substitute for MC-Dn,m for the lowest photon energies for adipose and breast tissues. The ratio of MC-Dm,m to MC-Dn,m for adipose and breast tissue deviates from unity by 34% and 15% respectively for the lowest photon energy (20 keV), whereas the ratio is close to unity for higher energies. For prostate and muscle tissue MC-Dm,m is a good substitute for MC-Dn,m. However, for all photon energies and tissue types the nucleus composition with the highest hydrogen content behaves differently than other compositions. Elemental compositions of the tissue and nuclei affect considerably the absorbed dose to the cell nuclei for brachytherapy sources, in particular those at the low-energy end of the spectrum. Thus, there is a need for more accurate data for the elemental compositions of tumours and healthy cells. For the nucleus compositions and tissue types investigated, MC-Dw,m is a good substitute to MC-Dn,m for all simulated photon energies. Whether other studied surrogates are good approximations to MC-Dn,m depends on the target size, target composition, composition of the surrounding tissue and photon energy.

Enger, Shirin A.; Ahnesjö, Anders; Verhaegen, Frank; Beaulieu, Luc

2012-07-01

212

DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE OF AN ENTEROVIRUS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The goals of this project were to determine the minimal infectious dose and medical significance of an enteric virus ingested in drinking water. The study was conducted under double-blind, placebo-controlled, random-selection conditions. A total of 149 susceptible (antibody-free)...

213

Rating curves and estimation of average water depth at the upper Negro River based on satellite altimeter data and modeled discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe objective of this study is to derive the stage-discharge relationship for 21 "virtual gauge stations" located at the upper Negro River (Amazon Basin, Brazil). A virtual station can be defined as any crossing of water body surface (i.e., large rivers) by radar altimeter satellite tracks. Rating curve parameters are estimated by fitting with a power law the temporal series of water surface altitude derived from satellite measurements and the discharge. Discharges are calculated using ProGUM, a flow routing model based on the Muskingum-Cunge (M-C) approach considering a diffusion-cum-dynamic wave propagation [Leon, J.G., Bonnet, M.P., Cauhope, M., Calmant, S., Seyler, F., submitted for publication. Distributed water flow estimates of the upper Negro River using a Muskingum-Cunge routing model based on altimetric spatial data. J. Hydrol.]. Among these parameters is the height of effective zero flow. Measured from the WGS84 ellipsoid used as reference, it is shown that the height of effective zero flow is a good proxy of the mean water depth from which bottom slope of the reaches can be computed and Manning roughness coefficients can be evaluated. Mean absolute difference lower than 1.1 m between estimated equivalent water depth and measured water depth indicates the good reliability of the method employed. We computed the free surface water slope from ENVISAT altimetry data for dry and rainy seasons. These profiles are in good agreement with the bottom profile derived from the aforementioned water depths. Also, the corresponding Manning coefficients are consistent with the admitted ranges for natural channels with important flows (superficial width >30.5 m [Chow, V.T., 1959. Open Channel Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill, New York]) and irregular section.

Leon, J. G.; Calmant, S.; Seyler, F.; Bonnet, M.-P.; Cauhopé, M.; Frappart, F.; Filizola, N.; Fraizy, P.

2006-09-01

214

Seasonal patterns in depth of water uptake under contrasting annual and perennial systems in the Corn Belt Region of the Midwestern U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

In agricultural landscapes, variation and ecological plasticity in depth of water uptake by annual and perennial plants is\\u000a an important means by which vegetation controls hydrological balance. However, little is known about how annual and perennial\\u000a plants growing in agriculturally dominated landscapes in temperate humid regions vary in their water uptake dynamics. The\\u000a primary objective of this study was to

H. Asbjornsen; G. Shepherd; M. Helmers; G. Mora

2008-01-01

215

Development of a water calorimetry-based standard for absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this article is to develop and evaluate a primary standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy based on 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimetry. Methods: The absolute absorbed dose to water was directly measured for several different Nucletron microSelectron {sup 192}Ir sources of air kerma strength ranging between 21 000 and 38 000 U and for source-to-detector separations ranging between 25 and 70 mm. The COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS software was used to accurately calculate the heat transport in a detailed model geometry. Through a coupling of the ''conduction and convection'' module with the ''Navier-Stokes incompressible fluid'' module in the software, both the conductive and convective effects were modeled. Results: A detailed uncertainty analysis resulted in an overall uncertainty in the absorbed dose of 1.90%(1{sigma}). However, this includes a 1.5% uncertainty associated with a nonlinear predrift correction which can be substantially reduced if sufficient time is provided for the system to come to a new equilibrium in between successive calorimetric runs, an opportunity not available to the authors in their clinical setting due to time constraints on the machine. An average normalized dose rate of 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a source-to-detector separation of 55 mm was measured for the microSelectron {sup 192}Ir source based on water calorimetry. The measured absorbed dose per air kerma strength agreed to better than 0.8%(1{sigma}) with independent ionization chamber and EBT-1 Gafchromic film reference dosimetry as well as with the currently accepted AAPM TG-43 protocol measurements. Conclusions: This work paves the way toward a primary absorbed dose to water standard in {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy.

Sarfehnia, Arman; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2010-04-15

216

A relative water-depth model for the Normandy Chalk (Cenomanian-Middle Coniacian, Paris Basin, France) based on facies patterns of metre-scale cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A relative water-depth model for the Chalk of the Paris Basin is proposed, based on the lateral variations of the high-frequency metre-scale cycles, which are characteristic features easily identified in the field. The studied outcrops are the Cenomanian-Middle Coniacian cliffs of Normandy. The main result of this study is to highlight the importance of storm activity in the deposition of the Chalk. The relative water-depth model is based on storm-induced shell concentrations observed within the two components of the metre-thick cycles: the depositional interval itself and the top hiatal surface. Six types of shell concentrations are defined, along with seven types of depositional facies making up the depositional units, as well as eight types of hiatal surface. Three cycle associations, differing in their thickness and the amount and type of non-carbonate constituents, can be identified in the Lower to Upper Cenomanian, the Upper Cenomanian to Lower Turonian and the Middle Turonian to Middle Coniacian. A relative water-depth profile model for all these cycles is based on the shell concentrations and a "water-depth equivalence" is proposed between the three cycle associations (lateral "facies" substitution diagram). This model is tested using palaeocological data (irregular echinoids) and by correlating field sections in terms of stacking patterns. Most of the studied deposits accumulated above the storm wave base (upper offshore zone or mid ramp).

Lasseur, Eric; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Hanot, Franck; Vaslet, Denis; Coueffe, Renaud; Neraudeau, Didier

2009-01-01

217

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from

Bartholomew M. J; R. M. Reynolds; A. M. Vogelmann; Q. Min; R. Edwards; S. Smith

2011-01-01

218

Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of a surface geophysical investigation of near-surface and deep ground water in the vicinity of the Red River Aluminum site conducted in April, 2003 to determine the possible extent and depth of salt contamination in grou...

G. P. Stanton, W. Kress, C. M. Hobza, J. B. Czarnecki

2003-01-01

219

Evaluation of different methods for the determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity for simulation of water table depth and drainage discharge using the DRAINMOD computer simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate application of the DRAINMOD computer simulation model for estimation of water table depth (W) and drainage discharge (q) by using different values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) in a subsurface drainage system in Kooshkak area in Fars province. These values of Ks were obtained from the drainage system, a direct measurement of

Nahid Nabi-Sichani; Ali Reza Sepaskhah

2012-01-01

220

Evaluation of different methods for the determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity for simulation of water table depth and drainage discharge using the DRAINMOD computer simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate application of the DRAINMOD computer simulation model for estimation of water table depth (W) and drainage discharge (q) by using different values of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) in a subsurface drainage system in Kooshkak area in Fars province. These values of Ks were obtained from the drainage system, a direct measurement of

Nahid Nabi-Sichani; Ali Reza Sepaskhah

2011-01-01

221

Doses and risks from tritiated water and environmental organically bound tritium.  

PubMed

This short review provides an explanation of the calculation and use of the ICRP protection quantities, equivalent and effective dose, including the simplifications introduced by using radiation and tissue weighting factors. It discusses the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) provided by ICRP for intakes of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT) and considers uncertainties in the human and animal data on which they are based, including information on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta particles compared to gamma and x-rays. The review also addresses the specific issue of dose coefficients for ingestion of OBT in Cardiff Bay fish. A distinction is drawn between the adequacy of the ICRP calculation of effective dose to a reference person for the purposes of planning and regulatory control, and the calculation of best estimates of dose and risk to individuals. ICRP will continue to use a radiation weighting factor of 1 for all low LET radiations in the calculation of effective dose, but specific RBE data should be used in risk estimates. Uncertainties in dose coefficients are small for HTO but greater for OBT. The generic consideration of OBT provided by ICRP may not be appropriate for specific organic forms such as OBT in fish. PMID:19690361

Harrison, John

2009-09-01

222

Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey.  

PubMed

The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross ? and ? activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11mBqL(-)(1), 169.44mBqL(-)(1) for gross ? and ? in tap water. For all samples the gross ? activity is always higher than the gross ? activity. All value of the gross ? were lower than the limit value of 500mBqL(-)(1) while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross ? activity concentrations of greater than 1000mBqL(-)(1). The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean (210)Po and (228)Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10(-)(4) or less. PMID:25048899

Gorur, F Korkmaz; Camgoz, H

2014-10-01

223

Natural radionuclides measurements and total dose indicative evaluation in drinking waters of an Italian central region.  

PubMed

A study of radioactivity content in drinking waters collected in some areas of geological interest in an Italian central region was performed to check the compliance with recent European regulations. Gross alpha and beta activities, 226Ra, 238U, 234U, 210Po and 3H concentrations were measured. Gross alpha and beta, 226Ra and 3H activities were determined using an ultra-low-level scintillation counter, 238U, 234U and 210Po by alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation. Recommended WHO guideline activity concentrations for drinking water were exceeded in 6 cases for gross alpha activity and were not exceeded in any case for gross beta activity. Tritium concentration was always lower than MDA (6.75 Bq L(-1)); the concentrations (mBq L(-1)) of 226Ra, 238U, 234U and 210Po ranged from <1.80 to 23.00, from 1.20 to 140.00, from 1.60 to 120.00 and from 0.25 to 5.90, respectively. Due to the importance of the water in human diet, the doses were calculated for children and adults using the dose coefficient factors reported by EC Directive 96/29 EURATOM and annual water intake; all samples furnished a dose lower the reference level for drinking water (0.1 mSv y(-1)). PMID:17849305

Borio, Rita; Rongoni, Alba; Saetta, Daniela; Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Feduzi, Laura

2007-09-01

224

Radiological characterization of tap waters in Croatia and the age dependent dose assessment.  

PubMed

Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in tap waters, originating from various geological regions of Croatia, were determined. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (238)U?(234)U>(228)Ra?(210)Pb>(226)Ra?(210)Po. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual internal doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for infants, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each population group were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different age groups but for each group the lowest contribution was found for (226)Ra and the highest for (228)Ra. PMID:24997928

Rožmari?, Martina; Rogi?, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Bariši?, Delko; Planinšek, Petra

2014-09-01

225

Apparent Depth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a well-known optical refraction problem where the depth of an object in a liquid is determined. Proposes that many texts incorrectly solve the problem. Provides theory, equations, and diagrams. (MVL)

Nassar, Antonio B.

1994-01-01

226

Temperature, water availability, and nutrient levels at various soil depths-consequences for shallow-rooted desert succulents, including nurse plant effects. [Agave deserti; Ferocactus acanthodes; hilaria rigida  

SciTech Connect

Soil conditions were evaluated over the rooting depths for Agave deserti and Ferocactus acanthodes from the northwestern Sonoran Desert. These succulents have mean root depths of only 10 cm when adults and even shallower distribution when seedlings, which often occur is association with the nurse plant Hilaria rigida, which also has shallow roots. Maximum soil temperatures in the 2 cm beneath bare ground were predicted to exceed 65 C, which is lethal to the roots of A. deserti and F. acanthodes, whereas H. rigida reduced the maximum surface temperatures by over 10 C, providing a microhabitat suitable for seedling establishment. Water Availability was defined as the soil-to-plant drop in water potential, for periods when the plants could take up water, integrated over time. Below 4 cm under bare ground, simulated Water Availability increased slightly with depth (to 35 cm) for a wet year, was fairly constant for an average year, and decreased for a dry year, indicating that the shallow rooting habit is more advantageous in drier years. Water uptake by H. rigida substantially reduced Water Availability for seedlings associated with this nurse plant. On the other hand, a 66-90% higher soil nitrogen level occurred under H. rigida, possibly representing its harvesting of this macronutrient from a wide ground area. Phosphorus was slightly less abundant in the soil under H. rigida compared with under bare ground, the potassium level was substantially higher, and the sodium level was substantially lower. All four elements varied greatly with depth, N and K decreasing and P and Na increasing. Based on the known growth responses of A. deserti and F. acanthodes to these four elements, growth was predicted to be higher for plants in soil from the shallower layers, most of the differences being due to nitrogen.

Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1989-10-01

227

Tracing the Influence of Mediterranean Outflow Waters on the Mid-depth Portuguese Margin Between Marine Isotope Stages 9 and 13  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calypso piston core MD03-2699 was retrieved from the Estremadura promontory north of Lisbon from a water depth of 1895 m. Nowadays, this site is bathed by Northeast Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW), whose physical properties are modified by diffusive mixing with the overlying Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW; 700-1400 m). During the last glacial maximum the MOW became denser and settled deeper in the water column and its lower core's flow strength increased on millennial time scales during the Greenland stadials of the last 50 ka. In order to reconstruct deep-water variations on the mid-depth Portuguese margin during the mid-Brunhes we generated benthic stable isotope and trace element records and measured the mean grain size <63µm for the interval from 300 to 510 ka. Because of the strong MOW derived salinity overprint on the benthic Mg/ Ca data we currently use the western Mediterranean equation (Cacho et al., 2006) to calculate bottom water temperatures (BWT). During the MIS 10 glacial inception, BWT and grain size records reveal millennial-scale oscillation in deep-water conditions with warmer MOW waters (8-10°C) bathing the site during stadials and NEADW (5-7°C) during interstadials. The lower MOW core was the dominant water mass throughout glacial MIS 10 and 12 and NEADW during interglacial MIS 9.5 and 11.31. During MIS 13.1, on the other hand, strong MOW influence on the BWT is observed nearly throughout with NEADW-level BWT occurring only between 493 and 497 ka. During termination IV the MOW/ NEADW boundary shifted upwards right at the onset of the termination, but during termination V the lower MOW core settled further up in the water column only after 408 ka. The Cd/ Ca data indicates that the glacial and stadial MOW was enriched in nutrients either by exporting nutrients from the Mediterranean Sea or by mixing with southern source waters. Overall, our records reveal that deep-water dynamics on the mid-depth Portuguese margin were very variable during the mid-Brunhes, experienced millennial-scale oscillations similar to the last glacial cycle and are driven by the density and thus settling depth of the MOW.

Voelker, A. H.; Martin, P.; Lea, D. W.; Lebreiro, S.

2008-12-01

228

Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task.

Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

1993-06-01

229

Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.  

PubMed Central

Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time.

Backer, H; Hollowell, J

2000-01-01

230

Absorbed dose to water distribution measured around an HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source by thermoluminescent dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure to directly estimate the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose rate to water, \\dot {D}_w , around an HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source. The methodology developed was based on Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in air and in water with thermoluminescent detectors. Variations in detector positioning had a significant influence near the brachytherapy source (20% at 1 cm). The method leads to a mean difference of about 7% with the CLRP TG-43 Parameter Database when the absorbed dose to water is characterized along the transverse plane to the source (from 1 cm to about 11 cm). This mean difference, however, is within an uncertainty of 7.7% over all distances. This method therefore can be used to provide direct estimates of the absorbed dose rate to water for HDR brachytherapy source irradiations which are more realistic than those which use other phantom materials. In addition, measurements are indicative of the source geometry and material composition.

Avilés Lucas, P.; Lourenço, V.; Vermesse, D.; Cutarella, D.; Aubineau-Lanièce, I.

2012-10-01

231

Variations in the depth distribution of phosphorus in soil profiles and implications for model-based catchment-scale predictions of phosphorus delivery to surface waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryThe PSYCHIC process-based model for predicting sediment and phosphorus (P) transfer within catchments uses spatial data on soil-P derived from the National Soil Inventory (NSI) data set. These soil-P values are based on bulked 0-15 cm depth and do not account for variations in soil-P with depth. We describe the depth distribution of soil-P (total and Olsen) in grassland and arable soils for the dominant soil types in the two PSYCHIC study catchments: the Avon and the Wye, UK. There were clear variations in soil-P (particularly Olsen-P) concentrations with depth in untilled grassland soils while concentrations of total-P were broadly constant within the plough layer of arable soils. Concentrations of Olsen-P in arable soils, however, exhibited maximum values near the soil surface reflecting surface applications of fertilisers and manures between consecutive ploughing events. When the soil-P concentrations for the surface soil (0-5 cm average) were compared to both the profile-averaged (0-15 cm) and the NSI (0-15 cm) values, those for the surface soil were considerably greater than those for the average 0-15 cm depth. Modelled estimates of P loss using the depth-weighted average soil-P concentrations for the 0-5 cm depth layer were up to 14% greater than those based on the NSI data set due to the preferential accumulation of P at the soil surface. These findings have important implications for the use of soil-P data (and other data) in models to predict P losses from land to water and the interpretation of these predictions for river basin management.

Owens, P. N.; Deeks, L. K.; Wood, G. A.; Betson, M. J.; Lord, E. I.; Davison, P. S.

2008-02-01

232

Water accumulation in metered dose inhaler spacers under normal mechanical ventilation conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the water accumulation in 3 types of metered dose inhaler (MDI) spacer shapes in-line in a ventilator circuit, in 2 positions over 2-, 4-, and 6-hour time periods through the use of heated- and nonheated-wire ventilator circuits. Design: The study design was prospective, quasiexperimental, and random assignment. Setting: The study was

Jonathan B. Waugh; John B. Waugh

2000-01-01

233

WAVECALC: an Excel-VBA spreadsheet to model the characteristics of fully developed waves and their influence on bottom sediments in different water depths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and growth of waves in deep water is controlled by winds blowing over the sea surface. In fully developed sea states, where winds and waves are in equilibrium, wave parameters may be calculated directly from the wind velocity. We provide an Excel spreadsheet to compute the wave period, length, height and celerity, as well as horizontal and vertical particle velocities for any water depth, bottom slope, and distance below the reference water level. The wave profile and propagation can also be visualized for any water depth, modeling the sea surface change from sinusoidal to trochoidal and finally cnoidal profiles into shallow water. Bedload entrainment is estimated under both the wave crest and the trough, using the horizontal water particle velocity at the top of the boundary layer. The calculations are programmed in an Excel file called WAVECALC, which is available online to authorized users. Although many of the recently published formulas are based on theoretical arguments, the values agree well with several existing theories and limited field and laboratory observations. WAVECALC is a user-friendly program intended for sedimentologists, coastal engineers and oceanographers, as well as marine ecologists and biologists. It provides a rapid means to calculate many wave characteristics required in coastal and shallow marine studies, and can also serve as an educational tool.

Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Demirbilek, Zeki; Brodalka, Marysia; Flemming, Burghard W.

2010-10-01

234

Supplementary comparison CCRI(I)-S2 of standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at radiation processing dose levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight national standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at the dose levels used in radiation processing have been compared over the range from 1 kGy to 30 kGy using the alanine dosimeters of the NIST and the NPL as the transfer dosimeters. The comparison was organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, who also

D. T. Burns; P. J. Allisy-Roberts; M. F. Desrosiers; P. H. G. Sharpe; M. Pimpinella; V. Lourenço; Y. L. Zhang; A. Miller; V. Generalova; V. Sochor

2011-01-01

235

LNE–LNHB air-kerma and absorbed dose to water primary standards for low dose-rate 125I brachytherapy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The devices and methods applied for the LNE–LNHB primary standards in terms of reference air-kerma and absorbed dose to water for low dose-rate brachytherapy sources are described. Both standards are based on ionometric measurements, using a circular-shaped free-in-air ionization chamber, and Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors. Results for an IBt Bebig 125I source are presented and used here to assess

I Aubineau-Lanièce; B Chauvenet; D Cutarella; J Gouriou; J Plagnard; P Aviles Lucas

2012-01-01

236

Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A depth to basement map of the Death Valley groundwater model area was prepared using over 40,0000 gravity stations as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Department of Energy to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and parts of California.

Blakely, R. J.; Ponce, D. A.

2001-01-01

237

Shipboard sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor during ACE2, and comparison with selected land, ship, aircraft, and satellite measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements acquired with NASA Ames Research Center's 6-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated aboard the R\\/V Professor Vodyanitskiy during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are discussed. Data are compared with various in situ and remote measurements for selected cases. The focus is on 10 July, when the Pelican

John M. Livingston; Vladimir N. Kapustin; Beat Schmid; Philip B. Russell; Patricia K. Quinn; Timothy S. Bates; Philip A. Durkee; Peter J. Smith; Volker Freudenthaler; Matthias Wiegner; Dave S. Covert; Santiago Gassó; Dean Hegg; Donald R. Collins; Richard C. Flagan; John H. Seinfeld; Vito Vitale; Claudio Tomasi

2000-01-01

238

Surface and depth fallout distribution of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in soils of Caceres (Spain). Dose commitments due to external irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis has been made of the surface distribution of137Cs and90Sr in soils of the province of Cáceres (Spain), of some 20.000 km2 area, situated on the frontier with Portugal. From the distribution of depth profiles of concentrations of these radionuclides and their fit to a negative exponential, determination was made of the mean values of the respective inventories and

A. Baeza; M. Del Rio; C. Miro; J. Paniagua

1993-01-01

239

Modeling water flow, depth and inundation extent over the rivers of the Contiguous US within a Catchment-based Land Surface Modeling Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With population growth and increasing demand of water supply, the need for integrated continental and global scale surface water dynamics simulation systems relying on both observations and models is ever increasing. In this study we characterize how accurately we can estimate river discharge, river depth and the corresponding inundation extent over the contiguous U.S. by combining observations and models. We present a continental-scale implementation of the Catchment-based Hydrological And Routing Modeling System (CHARMS) that includes an explicit representation of the river networks from a Geographic Information System (GIS) dataset. The river networks and contributing catchment boundaries of the Contiguous U.S are upscaled from the NHDPlus dataset. The average upscaled catchment size is 2773 km2 and the unique main river channel contained in each catchment consists of several river reaches of average length 1.6 km. We derive 18 sets of empirical relationship between channel dimension (bankfull depth and bankfull width) and drainage area based on USGS gauge observations to describe river dynamics for the 18 water resource regions of the NHDPlus representation of the United States. These relationships are used to separate the main river channel and floodplain. Modeled monthly and daily streamflow show reasonable agreement with gauge observations and initial results show that basins with fewer anthropogenic modifications are more accurately simulated. Modeled monthly and daily river depth and floodplain extent associated with each river reach are also explicitly estimated over the U.S., although such simulations are more challenging to validate. Our results have implications for capturing the seasonal-to-interannual dynamics of surface water in climate models. Such a continental-scale modeling framework development would, by design, facilitate the use of existing in situ observations and be suitable for integrating the upcoming NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission measurements for a range of studies in climate, hydrology and water management.

Liu, Z.; David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2011-12-01

240

Modeling water flow, depth and inundation extent over the rivers of the Contiguous US within a Catchment-based Land Surface Modeling Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With population growth and increasing demand of water supply, the need for integrated continental and global scale surface water dynamics simulation systems relying on both observations and models is ever increasing. In this study we characterize how accurately we can estimate river discharge, river depth and the corresponding inundation extent over the contiguous U.S. by combining observations and models. We present a continental-scale implementation of the Catchment-based Hydrological And Routing Modeling System (CHARMS) that includes an explicit representation of the river networks from a Geographic Information System (GIS) dataset. The river networks and contributing catchment boundaries of the Contiguous U.S are upscaled from the NHDPlus dataset. The average upscaled catchment size is 2773 km2 and the unique main river channel contained in each catchment consists of several river reaches of average length 1.6 km. We derive 18 sets of empirical relationship between channel dimension (bankfull depth and bankfull width) and drainage area based on USGS gauge observations to describe river dynamics for the 18 water resource regions of the NHDPlus representation of the United States. These relationships are used to separate the main river channel and floodplain. Modeled monthly and daily streamflow show reasonable agreement with gauge observations and initial results show that basins with fewer anthropogenic modifications are more accurately simulated. Modeled monthly and daily river depth and floodplain extent associated with each river reach are also explicitly estimated over the U.S., although such simulations are more challenging to validate. Our results have implications for capturing the seasonal-to-interannual dynamics of surface water in climate models. Such a continental-scale modeling framework development would, by design, facilitate the use of existing in situ observations and be suitable for integrating the upcoming NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission measurements for a range of studies in climate, hydrology and water management.

Liu, Z.; David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2013-12-01

241

Direct measurement of absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy: Water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Gafchromic film and ionometric calibration procedures for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources in terms of dose rate to water are presented and the experimental results are compared to the TG-43 protocol as well as with the absolute dose measurement results from a water calorimetry-based primary standard. Methods: EBT-1 Gafchromic films, an A1SL Exradin miniature Shonka thimble type chamber, and an SI HDR 1000 Plus well-type chamber (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) with an ADCL traceable S{sub k} calibration coefficient (following the AAPM TG-43 protocol) were used. The Farmer chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were performed directly in water. All results were compared to direct and absolute absorbed dose to water measurements from a 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimeter. Results: Based on water calorimetry, the authors measured the dose rate to water to be 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The dose rate normalized to air-kerma strength for all the techniques agree with the water calorimetry results to within 0.83%. The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43 dose rate measurement amounts to 1.90%, 1.44%, 1.78%, and 2.50%, respectively. Conclusions: This work allows us to build a more realistic uncertainty estimate for absorbed dose to water determination using the TG-43 protocol. Furthermore, it provides the framework necessary for a shift from indirect HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry to a more accurate, direct, and absolute measurement of absorbed dose to water.

Sarfehnia, Arman; Kawrakow, Iwan; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2010-04-15

242

Hydrologic Record Extension of Water-Level Data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) Using Artificial Neural Network Models, 2000-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-present) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystem Science provides support for EDEN and the goal of providing quality assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the water-surface models, 25 real-time water-level gaging stations were added to the network of 253 established water-level gaging stations. To incorporate the data from the newly added stations to the 7-year EDEN database in the greater Everglades, the short-term water-level records (generally less than 1 year) needed to be simulated back in time (hindcasted) to be concurrent with data from the established gaging stations in the database. A three-step modeling approach using artificial neural network models was used to estimate the water levels at the new stations. The artificial neural network models used static variables that represent the gaging station location and percent vegetation in addition to dynamic variables that represent water-level data from the established EDEN gaging stations. The final step of the modeling approach was to simulate the computed error of the initial estimate to increase the accuracy of the final water-level estimate. The three-step modeling approach for estimating water levels at the new EDEN gaging stations produced satisfactory results. The coefficients of determination (R2) for 21 of the 25 estimates were greater than 0.95, and all of the estimates (25 of 25) were greater than 0.82. The model estimates showed good agreement with the measured data. For some new EDEN stations with limited measured data, the record extension (hindcasts) included periods beyond the range of the data used to train the artificial neural network models. The comparison of the hindcasts with long-term water-level data proximal to the new EDEN gaging stations indicated that the water-level estimates were reasonable. The percent model error (root mean square error divided by the range of the measured data) was less than 6 percent, and for the majority of stations (20 of 25), the percent model error was less than 1 percent.

Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A., Jr.

2007-01-01

243

Monte-Carlo calculations of radial dose and restricted-let for protons in water.  

PubMed

A new Monte-Carlo code for event-by-event simulation of the transport of energetic non-relativistic protons (approximately 0.5-10 MeV) and all their secondary electrons (down to 1 Ry) in both the vapour and liquid phases of water is presented. A unified particle-water inelastic model for both phases of water has been developed based on experimental optical data and elements of the Bethe theory. The model applies to both electrons and heavy-charged particles and is particularly suitable for extension to other media of biological relevance (organic polymers, DNA, etc.). Condensed-phase effects are included in the liquid version (MC4L) by means of the dielectric functions which, essentially, substitute the oscillator-strength used in the vapour version (MC4V). The results in the form of radial dose distributions and spatially restricted linear energy transfer are presented and compared with the literature. PMID:15353761

Emfietzoglou, D; Karava, K; Papamichael, G; Moscovitch, M

2004-01-01

244

Depth Perception  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this easy demonstration (3rd on the page), learners explore depth perception by conducting a test with two pencils. Learners hold the ends of two pencils, one in each hand at arm's-length from their body. With one eye closed, they try to touch the points of the pencils together. They will discover this task is much easier to complete with two eyes open. This experiment can also be done with fingers, but pencils make the effect a bit more dramatic.

Chudler, Eric H.

2009-01-01

245

RBS and ERDA determinations of depth distributions of high-dose carbon ions implanted in silicon for silicon carbide synthesis study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For ion beam synthesis of silicon carbide (SiC), a knowledge of the depth distribution of implanted carbon ions in silicon is crucial for successful development. Based on its simplicity and availability, we selected Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as an analysis technique for this purpose. A self-developed computer program dedicated to extract depth profiles of lighter impurities in heavier matrix is established. For control, calculated results are compared with an other ion beam analysis (IBA) technique superior for studying lighter impurity in heavier substrate i.e. elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA). The RBS was performed with a 1.7-MV Tandetron accelerator using He 2+ as the probe ions. The ERDA was performed with a 5-MV Pelletron accelerator using I 8+ as the probe ions. This work shows that the RBS-extracted data had no significant deviations from those of ERDA and simulations by SRIM2003 and SIIMPL computer codes. We also found that annealing at temperatures as high as 1000 °C had quite limited effect on the redistribution of carbon in silicon.

Intarasiri, S.; Kamwanna, T.; Hallén, A.; Yu, L. D.; Janson, M. S.; Thongleum, C.; Possnert, G.; Singkarat, S.

2006-08-01

246

Well Wishes: A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case of Well Wishes involves students in a thorough examination of the interaction among nitrogen-composed species in the septic systems and well water, which helps to clean household water. The case supports the attainment of five goals for students, and can be analyzed through classroom discussions or laboratory experiments.

Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M.

2004-01-01

247

Spatially pooled depth-dependent reservoir storage, elevation, and water-quality data for selected reservoirs in Texas, January 1965-January 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Texas Tech University, constructed a dataset of selected reservoir storage (daily and instantaneous values), reservoir elevation (daily and instantaneous values), and water-quality data from 59 reservoirs throughout Texas. The period of record for the data is as large as January 1965-January 2010. Data were acquired from existing databases, spreadsheets, delimited text files, and hard-copy reports. The goal was to obtain as much data as possible; therefore, no data acquisition restrictions specifying a particular time window were used. Primary data sources include the USGS National Water Information System, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Surface Water-Quality Management Information System, and the Texas Water Development Board monthly Texas Water Condition Reports. Additional water-quality data for six reservoirs were obtained from USGS Texas Annual Water Data Reports. Data were combined from the multiple sources to create as complete a set of properties and constituents as the disparate databases allowed. By devising a unique per-reservoir short name to represent all sites on a reservoir regardless of their source, all sampling sites at a reservoir were spatially pooled by reservoir and temporally combined by date. Reservoir selection was based on various criteria including the availability of water-quality properties and constituents that might affect the trophic status of the reservoir and could also be important for understanding possible effects of climate change in the future. Other considerations in the selection of reservoirs included the general reservoir-specific period of record, the availability of concurrent reservoir storage or elevation data to match with water-quality data, and the availability of sample depth measurements. Additional separate selection criteria included historic information pertaining to blooms of golden algae. Physical properties and constituents were water temperature, reservoir storage, reservoir elevation, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, unfiltered salinity, unfiltered total nitrogen, filtered total nitrogen, unfiltered nitrate plus nitrite, unfiltered phosphorus, filtered phosphorus, unfiltered carbon, carbon in suspended sediment, total hardness, unfiltered noncarbonate hardness, filtered noncarbonate hardness, unfiltered calcium, filtered calcium, unfiltered magnesium, filtered magnesium, unfiltered sodium, filtered sodium, unfiltered potassium, filtered potassium, filtered chloride, filtered sulfate, unfiltered fluoride, and filtered fluoride. When possible, USGS and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality water-quality properties and constituents were matched using the database parameter codes for individual physical properties and constituents, descriptions of each physical property or constituent, and their reporting units. This report presents a collection of delimited text files of source-aggregated, spatially pooled, depth-dependent, instantaneous water-quality data as well as instantaneous, daily, and monthly storage and elevation reservoir data.

Burley, Thomas E.; Asquith, William H.; Brooks, Donald L.

2011-01-01

248

Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

2012-01-01

249

Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments  

PubMed Central

Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25?cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (?2?m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1?cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20?cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

2012-01-01

250

Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments.  

PubMed

Methane (CH(4)) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2-6% of the global atmospheric CH(4) budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH(4) that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0-25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH(4) oxidation potential for these shallow (?2 m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0-1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH(4), whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15-20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH(4)-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes. PMID:22592821

He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

2012-10-01

251

Vacuum ultraviolet photodissociation and surface morphology change of water ice films dosed with hydrogen chloride.  

PubMed

Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of photofragment H atoms from the photodissociation of water ice films at 193 nm were measured for amorphous and polycrystalline water ice films with and without dosing of hydrogen chloride at 100-145 K. The TOF spectrum is sensitive to the surface morphology of the water ice film because the origin of the H atom is the photodissociation of dimerlike water molecules attached to the ice film surfaces. Adsorption of HCl on a polycrystalline ice film was found to induce formation of disorder regions on the ice film surface at 100-140 K, while the microstructure of the ice surface stayed of polycrystalline at 145 K with adsorption of HCl. The TOF spectra of photofragment Cl atoms from the 157 nm photodissociation of neutral HCl adsorbed on water ice films at 100-140 K were measured. These results suggest partial dissolution of HCl on the ice film surface at 100-140 K. PMID:17949205

Yabushita, Akihiro; Kanda, Daichi; Kawanaka, Noboru; Kawasaki, Masahiro

2007-10-21

252

Activity concentrations and population dose from radium-226 in food and drinking water in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the radioactivity of 226Ra in environmental samples in Taiwan. Fish, pork, rice, flour, chicken, vegetable, milk, fruit, egg and water samples were collected and pretreated by radiochemical procedure to extract the 226Ra, and the activity concentrations of 226Ra were determined using a liquid scintillation counter. The 226Ra content of groundwater was 12.0 mBq l-1. The 226Ra contents of the food ranged from 0.02 Bq kg-1 fresh to 0.17 Bq kg-1 fresh. The annual internal dose from ingestion of 226Ra from food and drinking water per caput was evaluated to be 7.5 microSv. PMID:9418212

Kuo, Y C; Lai, S Y; Huang, C C; Lin, Y M

1997-09-01

253

Depth to Water, Saturated Thickness, and Other Geospatial Datasets Used in the Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These datasets were compiled in support of U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 456, Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado. These datasets were developed as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Department of Agriculture. The purpose of the project was to design a 30-well network and install 20 of the 30 wells to characterize water quality in the High Plains aquifer in areas of irrigated agriculture in Colorado. The five datasets are described as follows and are further described in Data Series 456: (1) ds472_dtw: This dataset represents the depth to groundwater in the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado in 2000. This grid was used to determine areas where the depth to water was less than 200 feet below land surface. (2) Ds472_sat: This dataset represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer within Colorado in 2000. This grid was used to determine areas where the saturated thickness was greater than 50 feet. (3) Ds472_equalareas: This dataset includes 30 equal-area polygons overlying the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado having a depth to water less than 200 feet, a saturated thickness greater than 50 feet, and underlying irrigated agricultural lands. (4) Ds472_randomsites: This dataset includes 90 randomly-generated potential groundwater sampling sites. This dataset provides a first, second, and third choice placed within the 30 equal area polygons of dataset dsXX_equalareas. (5) Ds472_welldata: This dataset includes point locations and well completion data for the 20 wells installed as part of this project. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

Flynn, Jennifer L.; Arnold, L. Rick; Paschke, Suzanne S.

2009-01-01

254

Effect of the change of bottom depth on the penetration of Kuroshio water onto the East China Sea shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical problem of the penetration of a western boundary current, driven by a cross-stream sea level difference, onto a shallow basin to the west of the current is put forth to account for the penetration of the Kuroshio onto the East China Sea (ECS) shelf and formation of the Tsushima Warm Current. Different from previous studies, this study assumes that the change of bottom depth is the primary factor determining the penetration. For a given depth of the shallow basin, the penetration depends on two external parameters: speed of the western boundary current, V0, and surface elevation of the current at the edge of the shallow basin, Z0. Two penetration modes emerge, depending on the magnitude of the inertia of penetration. For sufficiently large inertia, which is favored by large Z0 and hindered by large V0, penetration occurs in the form of a free jet, mode "J." Otherwise, it is in the form of a coastal current, mode "C." Volume transport of the penetration is maximized in mode "J." In general, volume transport, width, and speed of the penetrating current increase with Z0, although the latter two are slightly more dependent on V0 in mode "C." The model considered in this study predicts that the penetration of the Kuroshio onto the ECS shelf is of mode "J," as indicated by observations. The volume transport of the penetration is somewhat overestimated, possibly because bottom friction is ignored in this model. Although this model is highly idealized, it allows one to gain insight into the behavior of the Kuroshio penetrating onto the shallow ECS shelf.

Seung, Young Ho

2007-02-01

255

Comparison of graphite-to-water absorbed-dose transfers for 60Co photon beams using ionometry and Fricke dosimetry.  

PubMed

To derive the absorbed dose to water from a standard of absorbed dose to graphite, the metrology laboratories which apply such a method usually make use of cavity ionization chambers as transfer instruments. In addition, the BNM-LPRI has tested, as such instruments, two types of Fricke dosimeter in its cobalt-60 beam. The two procedures are compared and their results are found to be in good agreement (the difference is less than 0.1%). Both procedures are then taken into account for the calculation of the reference value of absorbed dose to water. PMID:9394397

Chauvenet, B; Baltès, D; Delaunay, F

1997-11-01

256

Significance of target location relative to the depth from the brain surface and high-dose irradiated volume in the development of brain radionecrosis after micromultileaf collimator-based stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that potentially lead to brain radionecrosis (RN) after micromultileaf collimator-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. We retrospectively evaluated 131 lesions with a minimum follow-up of 6 months, 43.5% of which received prior whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). The three-tiered location grade (LG) was defined, as follows, for each target by considering mainly the depth from the brain surface: grade 1 (superficial), involving the region at a depth of ?5 mm from the brain surface; grade 2 (deep), located at a depth of >5 mm from the brain surface; and grade 3 (central), located in the brainstem, cerebellar peduncle, diencephalon, or basal ganglion. The predictive factors for RN, including high-dose irradiated isodose volumes (IIDVs) and LG, were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Symptomatic RN (S-RN) and asymptomatic RN (A-RN) were observed in 8.4% and 6.9% of cases, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that the significant factors for both types of RN were LG, V12 Gy, and V22 Gy in all cases; V22 Gy and LG for the non-WBRT cases; and V15 Gy and LG for the WBRT cases. For the non-WBRT cases, the cutoff values of V22 Gy were 2.62 and 2.14 cm(3) for S-RN and both RN, respectively. For the WBRT cases, the cutoff values of V15 Gy were 5.61 and 5.20 cm(3) for S-RN and both RN, respectively. In addition to the IIDV data, LG helps predict the risk of RN. High-dose IIDV, V22 Gy, was also significantly correlated with RN, particularly for patients treated with SRS alone. PMID:22392126

Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Shinya; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Ohe, Naoyuki; Yano, Hirohito; Iwama, Toru; Hoshi, Hiroaki

2012-05-01

257

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

2011-11-01

258

High-dose steroid treatment increases free water transport in peritoneal dialysis patients.  

PubMed

The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is the molecular counterpart of the ultrasmall pore that mediates free water transport during peritoneal dialysis (PD). Proof-of-principle studies performed in rats have shown that treatment with corticosteroids upregulates the expression of AQP1 in the peritoneal capillaries, causing a significant increase in free water transport. Whether such a beneficial effect could be observed in end-stage renal disease patients treated by PD remains unknown. Peritoneal transport parameters were evaluated in three patients on PD, shortly before and after living-donor renal transplantation and treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone (1.0-1.2 g/m(2)). As compared with pre-transplantation values, the post-transplantation test revealed an ?2-fold increase in the sodium sieving and ultrasmall pore ultrafiltration volume, suggesting an effect on AQP1 water channels. In contrast, there was no change in the parameters of small solute transport. The direct involvement of AQP1 in these changes is suggested by the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the human peritoneum and the presence of conserved glucocorticoid response elements in the promoter of the human AQP1 gene. PMID:21940485

de Arteaga, Javier; Ledesma, Fabian; Garay, Gabriela; Chiurchiu, Carlos; de la Fuente, Jorge; Douthat, Walter; Massari, Pablo; Terryn, Sara; Devuyst, Olivier

2011-12-01

259

Basis of the Massachusetts Reference Dose and Drinking Water Standard for Perchlorate  

PubMed Central

Objective Perchlorate inhibits the uptake of iodide in the thyroid. Iodide is required to synthesize hormones critical to fetal and neonatal development. Many water supplies and foods are contaminated with perchlorate. Exposure standards are needed but controversial. Here we summarize the basis of the Massachusetts (MA) perchlorate reference dose (RfD) and drinking water standard (DWS), which are considerably lower and more health protective than related values derived by several other agencies. We also review information regarding perchlorate risk assessment and policy. Data sources MA Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) scientists, with input from a science advisory committee, assessed a wide range of perchlorate risk and exposure information. Health outcomes associated with iodine insufficiency were considered, as were data on perchlorate in drinking water disinfectants. Data synthesis We used a weight-of-the-evidence approach to evaluate perchlorate risks, paying particular attention to sensitive life stages. A health protective RfD (0.07 ?g/kg/day) was derived using an uncertainty factor approach with perchlorate-induced iodide uptake inhibition as the point of departure. The MA DWS (2 ?g/L) was based on risk management decisions weighing information on perchlorate health risks and its presence in certain disinfectant solutions used to treat drinking water for pathogens. Conclusions Current data indicate that perchlorate exposures attributable to drinking water in individuals at sensitive life stages should be minimized and support the MA DEP perchlorate RfD and DWS. Widespread exposure to perchlorate and other thyroid toxicants in drinking water and foods suggests that more comprehensive policies to reduce overall exposures and enhance iodine nutrition are needed.

Zewdie, Tsedash; Smith, C. Mark; Hutcheson, Michael; West, Carol Rowan

2010-01-01

260

Evaluation of effective dose for a patient under Ga-67 nuclear examination using TLD, water phantom and a simplified model.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effective dose of Ga-67 for a patient undergoing Ga-67 citrate nuclear examination by applying thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) technique and an indigenous water phantom. The Ga-67 radionuclide remaining in the body inevitably generated a measurable internal dose even though gamma camera scanning took only minutes to complete the clinical examination. For effective simulation of the cumulated effective dose for a patient undergoing examination, 150 TLDs were placed inside the water phantom for 6 days to monitor the gamma ray dose from the distributed Ga-67 citrate solution. The inserted TLDs represented internal organs, and the effective dose was calculated according to data in the ICRP-60 report. The water phantom was designed to model the body of a healthy human weighing 70 kg, and the water that was mixed with Ga-67 citrate solution was slowly replaced with fresh feed water to yield the required biological half life of the phantom. After continuously feeding in fresh water throughout the 6 days of TLD exposure, the TLDs were analyzed to determine the effective doses from the various biological half lives of the phantom. The derived effective dose of 185 MBq Ga-67 citrate solution for male/female (M/F) was 10.7/12.2, 10.7/12.0, 8.7/9.9 and 6.0/6.8 mSv, of biological half lives of 6.0, 4.5, 3.0 and 1.5 days, respectively. Although these experimental results correlated well with earlier empirical studies, they were lower than most calculated values. The cumulated uncertainty in the effective dose was 12.5-19.4%, which was acceptable in terms of both TLD counting statistic and reproducibility. PMID:22915780

Chu, Kuang Hua; Lin, Yu Ting; Hsu, Chia Chun; Chen, Chien Yi; Pan, Lung Kwang

2012-11-01

261

Measuring cloud droplet effective radius and liquid water content using changes in degree of linear polarization along cloud depth.  

PubMed

Two important parameters of liquid clouds are the cloud effective size (CES) and liquid water content (LWC). To measure these parameters, we have used two multiple scattering depolarization effects: (1) the slope of the degree of linear polarization (SLDLP) at the cloud base, and (2) the saturated degree of linear polarization (SADLP) at infinite altitude. We used Monte Carlo simulation to validate this method, with the assumption that the water cloud droplet size follows a Gamma distribution. From our calculation, we find that although the SADLP varies with both extinction coefficient (or LWC) and the CES, the SLDLP varies only with the extinction coefficient. After extracting the extinction coefficient using the SLDLP, we can easily obtain the CES using the SADLP. As a result, we found that the CES and the LWC can be extracted from the experimental parameters of SLDLP and SADLP, which can be easily measured using a single wavelength depolarization LIDAR. PMID:24978490

Kim, Dukhyeon; Lee, Jeongsoon

2014-06-15

262

Anatomy of T Phases Recorded by An OBS at 5 km Water Depth: Effects of Local Bathymetry and SOFAR Channel Heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have deployed broadband ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) offshore eastern Taiwan in 2006 and 2007. One OBS at 5 km water depth has routinely recorded abnormal seismic phase after P and S phases. The attributes of the energy, including frequency band and arrival time, are consistent with that of a T wave. T waves are phases contained at least some acoustic paths through water bodies. It is still not clear how the T phase energy leaks out of the SOFAR channel before being recorded at depth. From regional physical oceanographic data we found heterogeneous SOFAR channel near the OBS site. Thus, some of the energy can be scattered out of the waveguide. We used an earthquake near the coast to calculate the traveltimes through different solid-earth to acoustic conversion points along the regional 1000 meter bathymetry contour line where the regional SOFAR channel axis is located. The beginning of the T wave usually travel with a path that follows Fermat's principle, instead of the shortest path. The T wave ends when there are no effective conversion points available in the regional bathymetry. The maximum amplitude of the T phase usually has a path with the least solid-earth leg. In addition, T phase amplitude decreases when a typhoon passed between the conversion points and the OBS, possibly due to the strong winds causing mixing of the upper SOFAR channel, making the waveguide less effective.

Chi, W.; Kuo, B.; Tu, T.; Lin, C.; Ando, M.; Lin, C.; Collina, J.

2008-12-01

263

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division

2013-11-05

264

Direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification using a modified EPID  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are high resolution systems that produce electronic dose maps with minimal time required for equipment setup, and therefore potentially present a time-saving alternative for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) pretreatment verification. A modified commercial EPID was investigated operated with an opaque sheet blocking the optical signal produced in the phosphor layer as a precursor to a switched mode dual dosimetry-imaging EPID system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this system for direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification. Methods: A Varian amorphous silicon EPID was modified by placing an opaque sheet between the Gd{sub 2}S{sub 2}O:Tb phosphor layer and the photodiode array to block the optical photons. The EPID was thus converted to a direct-detecting system (dEPID), in which the high energy radiation deposits energy directly in the photodiode array. The copper build-up was replaced with d{sub max} solid water. Sixty-one IMRT beams of varying complexity were delivered to the EPID, to EDR2 dosimetric film and to a 2D ion chamber array (MapCheck). EPID data was compared to film and MapCheck data using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm pass criteria. Results: The fraction of points that passed the gamma test was on average 98.1% and 98.6%, for the EPID versus film and EPID versus MapCheck comparisons, respectively. In the case of comparison with film, the majority of observed discrepancies were associated with problems related to film sensitivity or processing. Conclusions: The very close agreement between EPID and both film and MapCheck data demonstrates that the modified EPID is suitable for direct dose to water measurement for pretreatment IMRT verification. These results suggest a reconfigured EPID could be an efficient and accurate dosimeter. Alternatively, optical switching methods could be developed to produce a dual-mode EPID with both dosimetry and imaging capabilities.

Gustafsson, Helen; Vial, Philip; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia) and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney 2065 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia) and Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Sydney 2170 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia); School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2308 (Australia) and Radiation Oncology Department, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle 2310 (Australia); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2308 (Australia) and Radiation Oncology Department, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle 2310 (Australia)

2011-11-15

265

Quantitative oral dosing of water soluble and lipophilic contaminants in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative oral dosing in fish can be challenging, particularly with water soluble contaminants, which can leach into the aquarium water prior to ingestion. We applied a method of bioencapsulation using newly hatched brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii to study the toxicokinetics of five chlorinated and brominated halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), which are drinking water disinfection by-products. These results are compared to those obtained in a previous study using a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47), a highly lipophilic chemical. The HAAs and PBDE-47 were bioencapsulated using freshly hatched A. franciscana nauplii after incubation in concentrated solutions of the study chemicals for 18 h. Aliquots of the brine shrimp were quantitatively removed for chemical analysis and fed to individual fish that were able to consume 400–500 nauplii in less than 5min. At select times after feeding, fish were euthanized and the HAA or PBDE-47 content determined. The absorption of HAAs was quantitatively similar to previous studies in rodents: rapid absorptionwith peak body levels occurringwithin 1–2 h, then rapidly declining with elimination half-life of 0.3–3 h depending on HAA. PBDE-47 was more slowly absorbed with peak levels occurring by 18 h and very slowly eliminated with an elimination half-life of 281 h.

Schultz, Irv; Reed, Stacey M.; Pratt, Amanda V.; Skillman, Ann D.

2007-02-01

266

ERS-1 SAR monitoring of ice growth on shallow lakes to determine water depth and availability in north west Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images taken by the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were used to identify and to differentiate between the lakes that freeze completely to the bottom and those that do not, on the North Slope, in northwestern Alaska. The ice thickness at the time each lake froze completely is determined with numerical ice growth model that gives a maximum simulated thickness of 2.2 m. A method combining the ERS-1 SAR images and numerical ice growth model was used to determine the ice growth and the water availability in these regions.

Jeffries, Martin; Morris, Kim; Liston, Glen

1996-01-01

267

Distribution of the volume activity of man-made radionuclides in the surface waters and depth waters of the Baltic Sea in the fall of 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of man-made radionuclides fell on the Baltic Sea waters after the accident in the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station, and this resulted in a substantial increase in the volume activity in the waters near the surface. These radionuclides proved to be excellent tracers for studying physical and biohydrochemical processes in those waters. The fission products 134,137Cs, 144Ce, 9°Sr,

D. B. Styro; Zh. V. Bumyalene; G. I. Kadzhene; I. V. Kleiza; M. V. Lukinskene; R. V. Chervokas; E. V. Pogrebnyak

1992-01-01

268

The fragmentation of 670A MeV neon-20 as a function of depth in water. I. Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the final analysis of an experiment to study the interaction of a beam of 670A MeV neon ions incident on a water column set to different thicknesses. The atomic number Z (and, in some cases, the isotopic mass A) of primary beam particles and of the products of nuclear interactions emerging from the water column close to the central axis of the beam was obtained for nuclei between Be (Z = 4) and Ne (Z = 10) using a time-of-flight telescope to measure the velocity and a set of silicon detectors to measure the energy loss of each particle. The fluence of particles of a given charge was obtained and normalized to the incident beam intensity. Corrections were made for accidental coincidences between multiple particles triggering the TOF telescope and for interactions in the detector. The background due to beam particles interacting in beam line elements upstream of the detector was calculated. Sources of experimental artifacts and background in particle identification experiments designed to characterize heavy ion beams for radiobiological research are summarized, and some of the difficulties inherent in this work are discussed. Complete tables of absolutely normalized fluence spectra as a function of LET are included for reference purposes.

Schimmerling, W.; Miller, J.; Wong, M.; Rapkin, M.; Howard, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Jarret, B. V.

1989-01-01

269

An absorbed dose to water standard for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources based on water calorimetry: numerical and experimental proof-of-principle.  

PubMed

Water calorimetry is an established technique for absorbed dose to water measurements in external beams. In this paper, the feasibility of direct absorbed dose measurements for high dose rate (HDR) iridium-192 (192Ir) sources using water calorimetry is established. Feasibility is determined primarily by a balance between the need to obtain sufficient signal to perform a reproducible measurement, the effect of heat loss on the measured signal, and the positioning uncertainty affecting the source-detector distance. The heat conduction pattern generated in water by the Nucletron microSelectron-HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source was simulated using COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS software. Source heating due to radiation self-absorption was calculated using EGSnrcMP. A heat-loss correction k(c) was calculated as the ratio of the temperature rise under ideal conditions to temperature rise under realistic conditions. The calorimeter setup used a parallel-plate calorimeter vessel of 79 mm diameter and 1.12 mm thick front and rear glass windows located 24 mm apart. Absorbed dose was measured with two sources with nominal air kerma strengths of 38 000 and 21 000 U, at source-detector separations ranging from 24.7 to 27.6 mm and irradiation times of 36.0 to 80.0 s. The preliminary measured dose rate per unit air kerma strength of (0.502 +/- 0.007) microGy/(s U) compares well with the TG-43 derived 0.505 microGy/(s U). This work shows that combined dose uncertainties of significantly less than 5% can be achieved with only modest modifications of current water calorimetry techniques and instruments. This work forms the basis of a potential future absolute dose to water standard for HDR 192Ir brachytherapy. PMID:18196821

Sarfehnia, Arman; Stewart, Kristin; Seuntjens, Jan

2007-12-01

270

Effect of taxonomic resolution on ecological and palaeoecological inference - a test using testate amoeba water table depth transfer functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound taxonomy is a major requirement for quantitative environmental reconstruction using biological data. Transfer function performance should theoretically be expected to decrease with reduced taxonomic resolution. However for many groups of organisms taxonomy is imperfect and species level identification not always possible. We conducted numerical experiments on five testate amoeba water table (DWT) transfer function data sets. We sequentially reduced the number of taxonomic groups by successively merging morphologically similar species and removing inconspicuous species. We then assessed how these changes affected model performance and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction using two fossil data sets. Model performance decreased with decreasing taxonomic resolution, but this had only limited effects on patterns of inferred DWT, at least to detect major dry/wet shifts. Higher-resolution taxonomy may however still be useful to detect more subtle changes, or for reconstructed shifts to be significant.

Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Payne, Richard J.; Mazei, Yuri

2014-05-01

271

Total ozone column, aerosol optical depth and precipitable water effects on solar erythemal ultraviolet radiation recorded in Malta.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Universities of Malta and Valladolid (Spain) developed a measurement campaign, which took place in the Institute for Energy Technology in Marsaxlokk (Southern Malta) between May and October 2012, and it was supported by the Spanish government through the Project titled "Measurement campaign about Solar Radiation, Ozone, and Aerosol in the Mediterranean area" (with reference CGL2010-12140-E). This campaign provided the first ground-based measurements in Malta of erythemal radiation and UV index, which indicate the effectiveness of the sun exposure to produce sunburn on human skin. A wide variety of instruments was involved in the campaign, providing a complete atmospheric characterization. Data of erythemal radiation and UV index (from UVB-1 pyranometer), total shortwave radiaton (global and diffuse components from CM-6B pyranometers), and total ozone column, aerosol optical thickness, and precitable water column (from a Microtops-II sunphotometer) were available in the campaign. Ground-based and satellite instruments were used in the analysis, and several intercomparisons were carried out to validate remote sensing data. OMI, GOME, GOME-2, and MODIS instruments, which provide data of ozone, aerosol load and optical properties, were used to this end. The effects on solar radiation, ultraviolet and total shortwave ranges, of total ozone column, aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water column were obtained using radiation measurements at different fixed solar zenith angles. The empirical results shown a determinant role of the solar position, a negligible effect of ozone on total shortwave radiation, and a stronger attenuation provided by aerosol particles in the erythemal radiation. A variety of aerosol types from different sources (desert dust, biomass burning, continental, and maritime) reach Malta, in this campaign several dust events from the Sahara desert occurred and were analyzed establishing the air mass back-trajectories ending at Malta at several heights calculated by means of the HYSPLIT model. Hence, changes in the UV index due to atmospheric aerosol were characterized.

Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; Miguel, Argimiro

2013-04-01

272

Topic in Depth - Chlorine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Chlorine, a chemical element whose name means âÂÂpale green,â is explored from a number of angles in this informative Topic in Depth.WeâÂÂve all heard of chlorine being used in swimming pools and drinking water, but this jack-of-all-trades chemical element is also used in making everything from plastics and dry cleaning products to insecticides and pharmaceuticals.

2010-09-15

273

Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east of the site showed no saltwater contamination.

Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

2003-01-01

274

Uncertainty and variability in satellite-based water vapor column, aerosol optical depth and Angström exponent, and its effect on radiative transfer simulations in the Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water vapor column product from the MODIS instrument onboard the Terra satellite is compared with ground-based measurements at six Spanish locations (AERONET stations) in the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 443 nm and at 675 nm retrievals from the MISR instrument onboard the Terra satellite is also compared with ground-based measurements at the same locations to determine their uncertainties. Remote sensing data of water vapor and aerosol optical properties are averaged each month to obtain climatology tables and to characterize atmospheric properties at nine locations in the Iberian Peninsula. These tables are used as input in a radiative transfer model to calculate total shortwave (SW) and ultraviolet erythemal (UVER) irradiance at the nine locations. SW and UVER simulations are recalculated considering the uncertainties and the climatological variability of the input datasets. AOD uncertainty provides changes lower than 6% in most cases for both SW and UVER simulations. The propagation of water vapor uncertainty causes variations in SW simulations less than 4% for solar zenith angles below 75°.

Román, Roberto; Bilbao, Julia; de Miguel, Argimiro

2014-06-01

275

Tsunami and the Depth of the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An inquiry approach to using the celerity (=velocity) of a tsunami to measure the depth of the ocean along its path. Tsunami are shallow-water waves, because their wavelengths are so long relative to ocean depth. Shallow-water wave celerity depends on ocean depth. Students reason this out. They then determine the distance of the path of the tsunami from the epicenter of the 1964 Alaska Good Friday earthquake tsunami to various locations, use tsunami arrival times to calculate the velocity, and re-arrange the shallow-water celerity equation to calculate depth. Students evaluate the geographic distribution of water depths.

Farley, Martin

276

Investigation of 1-cm dose equivalent for photons behind shielding materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ambient dose equivalent at 1-cm depth, assumed equivalent to the 1-cm dose equivalent in practical dose estimations behind shielding slabs of water, concrete, iron or lead for normally incident photons having various energies was calculated by using c...

H. Hirayama S. Tanaka

1991-01-01

277

{open_quote}Optimism{close_quote} is watchword in deep water U.S. Gulf. Exploration, development in OCS frontiers over 1,500 feet threaten domestic drilling depth records  

Microsoft Academic Search

An air of optimism surrounds deep water drilling and field development activity in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. In a marketplace that is otherwise characterized by sagging mobile rig activity and worrisome natural gas prices, millions of dollars are budgeted in 1995 for new drilling programs and development of hydrocarbon fields in domestic record-setting water depths on the outer continental

1995-01-01

278

Variation in calculated effective source - surface distances with depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective source - surface distances (ESSD) are assessed at the depth of maximum dose in electron beams. This study investigated the variation of the ESSD with the depth of measurement. The dose was measured with the range of SSDs 100 - 130 cm, using a water-equivalent parallel-plate ion chamber in solid water. ESSDs were calculated for electron beams in the energy range 4 - 20 MeV and were found to vary with depth. The surface ESSD varied from 68 cm for 4 MeV to 82 cm for 16 MeV, but increased with depth to a maximum value, which was found at approximately half the practical range , at for 4 MeV and at for 20 MeV. Beyond this depth the ESSD decreased towards the end of the practical range. Without an electron applicator, the ESSD was higher at the surface. For smaller field sizes, the depth of the maximum ESSD increased towards , and ESSD values increased. The 20 MeV beam in the field showed a difference of 31 cm between the surface ESSD and the maximum ESSD. The ESSD calculated at the maximum dose depth may be used with reasonable accuracy for calculation of the dose in the therapeutic range, except at larger SSDs or when high-energy beams are used in small fields. Depth - dose distributions under these conditions should be compared with measured results.

Ostwald, P. M.; Kron, T.

1996-10-01

279

CORRESPONDENCE: Depth absorbed dose distributions for electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that comparisons made by Brahme et al. (see ibid., vol.20, p.39, 1975) were made with the microtron in an operating condition different from that of the MEL SL75 linear accelerator. In order to obtain results that can be more readily compared, measurements have been made on a SL75 linear accelerator using a 0.1 mm3 active volume

L. Atherton; F. J. Coleman

1975-01-01

280

The Association of Arsenic With Redox Conditions, Depth, and Ground-Water Age in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More than 800 wells in the glacial aquifer system of the Northern United States were sampled for arsenic as part of U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) studies during 1991-2003. Elevated arsenic concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per liter) were detected in 9 percent of samples. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with strongly reducing conditions. Of the samples classified as iron reducing or sulfate reducing, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 19 percent. Of the methanogenic samples, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 45 percent. In contrast, concentrations of arsenic were elevated in only 1 percent of oxic samples. Arsenic concentrations were also related to ground-water age. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 34 percent of old waters (recharged before 1953) as compared to 4 percent of young waters (recharged since 1953). For samples classified as both old and methanogenic, elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 62 percent of samples, as compared to 1 percent for samples classified as young and oxic. Arsenic concentrations were also correlated with well depth and concentrations of several chemical constituents, including (1) constituents linked to redox processes and (2) anions or oxyanions that sorb to iron oxides. Observations from the glacial aquifer system are consistent with the idea that the predominant source of arsenic is iron oxides and the predominant mechanism for releasing arsenic to the ground water is reductive desorption or reductive dissolution. Arsenic is also released from iron oxides under oxic conditions, but on a more limited basis and at lower concentrations. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relative significance of redox, ground-water age, depth, and other water-quality constituents as indicators of elevated arsenic concentrations in the glacial aquifer system. The single variable that explained the greatest amount of variation in the data was redox. Multivariate models that included a redox variable overestimated the percentage of samples with elevated arsenic concentrations because, even though elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with strongly reducing samples, not all strongly reducing samples had elevated arsenic concentrations. Arsenic concentrations and redox conditions differed among four broad areas of the glacial aquifer system. For the East, Central, and West-Central north areas, there was a trend of increasing arsenic concentrations that corresponded to an increase in reducing conditions. For the West-Central south area, arsenic concentrations in oxic samples were higher than for the other areas, possibly because of high concentrations of orthophosphate, which is linked to desorption of arsenic from iron oxides under oxic conditions. The observed differences in arsenic concentrations among broad areas of the glacial aquifer system were generally consistent with a conceptual model developed by Smedley and Kinniburg, who studied or reviewed studies of widespread arsenic contamination in Bangladesh, India, China, Vietnam, Hungary, Argentina, northern Chile and the Southwestern United States.

Thomas, Mary Ann

2007-01-01

281

GENE EXPRESSION DOSE-RESPONSE IN THE BLADDERS OF MICE EXPOSED TO ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER FOR 13 WEEKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The association between drinking water exposures to inorganic arsenic and life-threatening tumors in the human is strongest for bladder cancer. To investigate the mode of action for inorganic arsenic carcinogenicity in the bladder, a study was conducted to characterize the dose-r...

282

Estimates of Exposures to Perchlorate from Consumption of Human Milk, Dairy Milk, and Water, and Comparison to Current Reference Dose  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop an enforceable drinking water standard from a health-based reference dose, sources of exposure and relevant exposure factors across the U.S. population must be considered. Human exposures, expressed as an estimated daily exposure, can be used to evaluate the health protectiveness of a range of potential regulatory values, thus providing a scientific foundation on which decisions can be based.

Cal Baier-Anderson; Benjamin C. Blount; Judy S. LaKind; Daniel Q. Naiman; Sharon B. Wilbur; Shirlee Tan

2006-01-01

283

Estimating Snow Water Equivalent in the Swedish mountains by scaling snow depth measurements based on in situ data and local topography using passive and active remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) of the seasonal snow pack in the Swedish mountains is key information for the prediction of spring flood rates and the contribution to water reservoirs in Hydro-power production. The snow pack properties determining the SWE (snow depth and snow density) show spatial variations caused by synoptic scale weather patterns (air temperature gradients, wind and precipitation patterns) topography and vegetation. By establishing the relationship between accumulation patterns and physical parameters in the landscape a model of the spatial organization of the snow pack and its change over the season can be determined. By identifying the frequency and amplitude of topography in the Swedish mountain regions and by measuring snow accumulation in these regions we can increase the accuracy of the estimation of SWE. By using multiple parameters sampled in the snow pack from four sites in the Swedish mountains we quantify the local variability of SWE. This information will then be up-scaled to local coverage based on interpolation weighted on topography and vegetation. By validation of satellite imagery and existing snow cover products the information can be up-scaled from high-resolution field data to regional scale covering the Swedish mountain range in order to derive new satellite algorithms.

Ingvander, Susanne; Johansson, Cecilia; Brandel, Malin; Brown, Ian

2014-05-01

284

Sunphotometric Measurement of Columnar H2O and Aerosol Optical Depth During the 3rd Water Vapor IOP in Fall 2000 at the SGP ARM Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We conducted ground-based measurements with the Ames Airborne Tracking 6-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-6) during the 3rd Water Vapor IOP (WVIOP3), September 18 - October 8, 2000 at the SGP ARM site. For this deployment our primary result was columnar water vapor (CWV) obtained from continuous solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-micron band. In addition, we simultaneously measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380, 450, 525, 864 and 1020 nm. During the IOP, preliminary results of CWV and AOD were displayed in real-time. The result files were made available to other investigators by noon of the next day. During WVIOP3 those data were shown on the daily intercomparison plots on the IOP web-site. Our preliminary results for CWV fell within the spread of values obtained from other techniques. After conclusion of WVIOP3, AATS-6 was shipped directly to Mauna Loa, Hawaii for post-mission calibration. The updated calibration, a cloud screening technique for AOD, along with other mostly cosmetic changes were applied to the WVIOP3 data set and released as version 0.1. The resulting changes in CWV are small, the changes in AOD and Angstrom parameter are more noticeable. Data version 0.1 was successfully submitted to the ARM External Data Center. In the poster we will show data examples for both CWV and AOD. We will also compare our CWV results with those obtained from a GPS (Global Positioning System) slant path method.

Schmid, B; Eilers, J. A.; McIntosh, D. M.; Longo, K.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

285

Estimation of snow depth and snow water equivalent distribution using airborne microwave radiometry in the Binggou Watershed, the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimated the spatial distribution of snow depth/snow water equivalent (SD/SWE) in a mountainous watershed (Binggou, which is in the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin) by an airborne microwave radiometry observational experiment. Two microwave radiometers measuring at K band (18.7 GHz) and Ka band (36 GHz) were used to estimate the volume scatter from snowpacks and infer SD and SWE. Simultaneously, the snow physical properties (such as snow depth, density, grain size and temperature) over four sites were measured, and a simple multi-layer sample scheme was adopted to obtain the stratigraphic information. The microwave emission model of layered snowpacks (MEMLS) was used to simulate the brightness temperatures of snow cover for each measurement point. By comparing TB data that were simulated by MEMLS and observed by radiometers on the aircraft over the four sites, we obtained the retrieval algorithms of SD and SWE based on brightness temperature differences (TBD) at the K- and Ka-bands that are suitable to the local snow properties. The validation shows that the mean absolute and relative errors of SD estimates are approximately 3.5 cm and 14.8%, respectively. SWE from airborne microwave radiometers show that blowing snow and sun radiation are two main factors that determine the spatial distribution of SWE in Binggou Watershed. The local angle of incidence of the microwave radiometer observation can be influenced by mountainous topography, and a sensitivity analysis suggests that changes in the local angle of incidence (e.g., the nominal angle of incidence) will not significantly influence the estimation of SD/SWE. The snow's stratigraphic condition is not an important factor for estimating SD/SWE in this study because the snow was not very deep in the Binggou Watershed. However, the field sampling scheme should be given more attention to obtain the spatial variations of snow properties and to support pixel-by-pixel validation in next field campaign.

Che, Tao; Dai, Liyun; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Qiang

2012-07-01

286

Effect of silicone gel breast prosthesis on electron and photon dose distributions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a silicone gel breast prosthesis on the absorbed dose distribution of 9--20 MeV electron beams and 1.25--15 MV photon beams was studied. Compared to water measurements, at depths smaller than the practical range of the electron beams, the central axis depth dose values below the prothesis were lower for all energies by as much as 3.5%. However, at depths near the practical range, the central axis depth dose values for the prosthesis were greater than that of water by as much as 33%. Since this occurs near the end of the electron range, the resultant difference may not be clinically significant. Results of the effect of breast prosthesis on photon depth dose distributions reveal that no clinically significant perturbation is produced by the breast prosthesis using Co-60, 6- and 15-MV radiations.

Krishnan, L.; St. George, F.J.; Mansfield, C.M.; Krishnan, E.C.

1983-01-01

287

The effects of NMDA receptor antagonists at anticonvulsive doses on the performance of rats in the water maze task.  

PubMed

In the present study we investigated the effects of two competitive NMDA receptor antagonists, CGP 37849 (DL-(E)-2-amino-4-methyl-phosphono-3-pentonoic acid) and CGP 39551 (carboxyethyl ester of CGP 37849) as well as MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenz(a,d)cycloheptene-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate), a non-competitive antagonist, administered systemically before training, on the acquisition of a water maze task used to assess spatial learning and memory in rats. The competitive NMDA receptor antagonists dose dependently impaired water maze acquisition (increased escape distance), but did not significantly affect swimming speed in rats. MK-801 induced clear behavioral effects and impaired the acquisition of the water maze task. However, as training advanced drug-treated rats did show a decrease in distance swam per trial before encountering the platform in the water pool. This suggests that drug treatments did not abolish learning. When the anticonvulsive properties of the drugs were determined, MK-801 did not show any protection in the maximal electroshock (MES) test at doses already impairing the acquisition of the water maze task while the two competitive NMDA receptor antagonists protected the rats against seizures at doses not impairing acquisition. This result suggests a wider therapeutic range for CGP 39551 and especially for CGP 37849 than for MK-801 in the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:7768268

Ylinen, A; Pitkänen, M; Sirviö, J; Hartikainen, T; Sivenius, J; Koivisto, E; Riekkinen, P J

1995-02-14

288

Investigation of 238U content in bottled water consumed in Kuwait and estimates of annual effective doses.  

PubMed

A study of the 238U content in bottled water consumed in Kuwait was performed. The bottled water samples originated from 16 different countries. Of the 41 investigated samples, 238U was detected in 23 samples in which the radionuclide's activity was determined. Consequently, it was found that activity levels of all samples were several of orders of magnitude below the guidance limits. Moreover, annual effective doses were estimated for three age groups, namely adults, children, and infants. As a result, it was found that the doses received by all age groups were several of orders of magnitude below the guideline levels. Hence, consumption of bottled water sold in Kuwait is safe for the presence of 238U. PMID:22134083

Alrefae, Tareq

2012-01-01

289

Influence of test size, water depth, and ecology on Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, ?18O and ?13C in nine modern species of planktic foraminifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg/Ca palaeothermometry in foraminiferal calcite is a widely applied tool in palaeoceanography. However, our understanding of the effects of planktic foraminiferal ecology and early diagenesis on test calcite Mg/Ca is limited. Here we report results of a study designed to shed new light on ecological, size-related and very early (water column) diagenetic controls on Mg/Ca in planktic foraminiferal calcite. We analysed Mg/Ca and stable isotopes of nine modern planktic foraminiferal species across fourteen mostly 50 ?m-window sieve fractions in a core-top sample from the North Atlantic Ocean. We also analysed Mg/Ca in four of these nine species from plankton-tow samples collected from 0 to 2500 m water depth in the North Atlantic Ocean and Arabian Sea. Our core-top study confirms that sensitivity of Mg/Ca to change in test size is species-specific but reveals an overall decrease in Mg/Ca with increasing test size in all but one species, Orbulina universa, for which Mg/Ca increases with size. These findings are broadly consistent with known ecological behaviour suggesting that the size-related signal is largely environmentally rather than calcification-rate controlled. Our results underscore the need to undertake Mg/Ca palaeothermometry on narrow size fractions of planktic foraminifers, particularly for shallow-dwelling species such as G. bulloides and G. ruber where Mg/Ca is most sensitive to test size across the size range of 200-350 ?m. Our plankton-tow data from the Arabian Sea are in agreement with in-situ temperatures. In contrast, our data from the North Atlantic Ocean reveal large variability and marked offsets (to warmer values) from in-situ temperatures that are interpreted to reflect lateral advection from the south, storm-induced vertical mixing of the water column and/or the influence of surface-water salinity on the Mg/Ca signal. None of our plankton-tow Mg/Ca data shows any evidence of test dissolution in the water column. Our study provides important verification that the Mg/Ca signal recorded during calcification does not undergo diagenetic degradation during test transport to the sea floor, thereby satisfying an important precondition of its palaeo-proxy utility.

Friedrich, Oliver; Schiebel, Ralf; Wilson, Paul A.; Weldeab, Syee; Beer, Christopher J.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Fiebig, Jens

2012-02-01

290

The PTB primary standard for the absorbed-dose to water for I-125 interstitial brachytherapy sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German national metrology institute (PTB) developed a primary standard in terms of absorbed-dose to water Dw for low-energy interstitial brachytherapy sources, which is based on an extrapolation chamber in a phantom of water-equivalent material. The method to determine Dw from extrapolation chamber measurements has been newly developed and is already described in the literature. With the chamber the absorbed-dose at 30 cm distance from the source is measured and the quantity is converted into the desired quantity, the absorbed-dose to water measured at 1 cm distance perpendicular to the source axis. In this paper, a synthesis of the work done within the EMRP Project: ‘TP2.JRP6: Increasing Cancer Treatment Efficacy Using 3D Brachytherapy’ is given and the final results and the final uncertainty budget are presented. Furthermore, an experimentally determined dose-rate constant for this seed type (BEBIG Symmetra I25.S16) is given based on the measurement of four different instances.

Schneider, T.

2012-10-01

291

Semi-3D dosimetry of high dose rate brachytherapy using a novel Gafchromic EBT3 film-array water phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need to modernise clinical brachytherapy dosimetry measurement beyond traditional point dose verification to enable appropriate quality control within 3D treatment environments. This is to keep pace with the 3D clinical and planning approaches which often include significant patient-specific optimisation away from 'standard loading patterns'. A multi-dimension measurement system is required to provide assurance of the complex 3D dose distributions, to verify equipment performance, and to enable quality audits. However, true 3D dose measurements around brachytherapy applicators are often impractical due to their complex shapes and the requirement for close measurement distances. A solution utilising an array of radiochromic film (Gafchromic EBT3) positioned within a water filled phantom is presented. A calibration function for the film has been determined over 0 to 90Gy dose range using three colour channel analysis (FilmQAPro software). Film measurements of the radial dose from a single HDR source agree with TPS and Monte Carlo calculations within 5 % up to 50 mm from the source. Film array measurements of the dose distribution around a cervix applicator agree with TPS calculations generally within 4 mm distance to agreement. The feasibility of film array measurements for semi-3D dosimetry in clinical HDR applications is demonstrated.

Palmer, A. L.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

2013-06-01

292

Treatment of steam-assisted gravity drainage water using low coagulant dose and Fenton oxidation.  

PubMed

The use of coagulation and Fenton oxidation was studied for total organic carbon (TOC) and silica removal from steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water at 800C and two different concentrations replicating the stream feeding the warm lime softening unit having 675 mg/L TOC and 350 mg/L silica and the blowdown of the once through steam generator having 3700mg/L TOC and 2585 mg/L silica. Coagulation was carried out by the addition of FeCl3, Al(NO3)3 or Ca(NO3)2. The results showed that Fe(III) salt outperformed Al(III) and Ca(II) salts. A two-stage addition of 2.5 g FeCl3 per g TOC intermediated by a filtration unit resulted in approximately 72% TOC removal and more than 80% silica removal while maintaining low solid waste. Comparing results pertaining to coagulant concentration and final pH, it can be easily concluded that silica removal is governed by the resultant pH, whereas TOC removal was accomplished through surface neutralization and localized enmeshment coagulation. Fenton oxidation is proposed to further treat the filtrate obtained from the second stage Fe(III) coagulation. An additional 10% TOC removal could be achieved; at seven times lower H202 dose in the presence of Fe2+ or Fe0 reagent. Moreover, the advanced Fenton process resulted in high silica removal as a result of adsorption onto Fe(OH)3 precipitate, which formed at the equilibrium pH of the system. PMID:24956753

Al-As'ad, Ahmad; Husein, Maen M

2014-08-01

293

Technical protocol of APMP key comparison for measurement of absorbed dose to water for 60Co (APMP.RI(I)-K4)  

Microsoft Academic Search

comparison of the standards of absorbed dose to water will be undertaken using three ionization chambers as transfer instruments. The results of the comparison will be given in terms of the calibration coefficients of the transfer chambers determined at the participating laboratories. Two of the laboratories (the ARPANSA and PTB) maintain primary standards for absorbed dose to water and their

Taiman Bin Kadni

294

The dam-break of non-Boussinesq gravity currents of various fractional depth: two-layer shallow-water results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dam-break initial stage of propagation of a gravity current released from a lock of length x0 and height h0 into an ambient fluid in a channel of height H^* is considered. The system contains heavy and light fluids, of density ?H and ?L, respectively. When the Reynolds number is large, the resulting flow is governed by the parameters R= ?L/?H and H = H^*/h0. We focus attention on non-Boussinesq effects, when the parameter R is not close to 1; in this case significant differences appear between the "light" (top) current and the "heavy" (bottom) current. Using a shallow-water two-layer formulations, we obtain "exact" analytical solutions for the thickness and speed of the current and ambient by the method of characteristics. We shown that a jump (instead of a rarefaction wave) propagates into the reservoir when H < Hcrit(R), and that propagation with critical speed occurs for some combinations of H,R. The theory is applied to the full-depth lock exchange H=1 problem, and also to more general cases H >1. Comparisons to previously published results are discussed. This is a significant extension of the Boussinesq problem (which is recovered by the present solution for R = 1), which elucidates the non- Boussinesq effects during the first stage of propagation of lock-released gravity currents.

Ungarish, Marius

2010-11-01

295

Dose of UV light required to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in distilled water, fresh brine, and spent brine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to establish the dose of UV light (253.7 nm) needed to inactivate Listeria monocytogenes in distilled water, fresh brine (9% NaCl), spent brine, and diluted (5, 35, and 55%) spent brine, using uridine as a chemical actinometer. Strains N1-227 (isolated from hot dog batter), N3-031 (isolated from turkey franks), and R2-499 (isolated from meat) were mixed in equal proportions and suspended in each solution prepared so as to contain 10(-4) M uridine. Samples were irradiated in sterile quartz cells for 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30 min. Inactivation was evaluated by serially diluting samples in 0.1% peptone, by surface plating in duplicate onto modified Oxford agar and Trypticase soy agar with yeast extract, and by enrichment in brain heart infusion broth, followed by incubation at 37 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For dose measurements, the absorbance (262 nm) was measured before and after irradiation. Differences were observed in population estimates depending on the solution (P < or = 0.05). Reductions were as follows from greatest to least: water > fresh brine > 5% spent brine > 35% spent brine > 55% spent brine > undiluted spent brine. UV light did not significantly reduce populations suspended in spent brine solutions. L. monocytogenes decreased to below the detection limit (1 log CFU/ml) at doses greater than 33.2 mJ/cm(2) in water and at doses greater than 10.3 mJ/cm(2) in fresh brine. Knowledge of UV dosing required to control L. monocytogenes in brines similar to those used for ready-to-eat meat processing will aid manufacturers in establishing appropriate food safety interventions for these products. PMID:19833038

McKinney, Julie; Williams, Robert C; Boardman, Gregory D; Eifert, Joseph D; Sumner, Susan S

2009-10-01

296

Nest survival of American Coots relative to grazing, burning, and water depths [Survie au nid chez la foulque D'Am??rique en fonction du p??turage, du br??lage et de la profondeur d'eau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and waterlevel manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common landmanagement practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment) on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana) nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year ?? treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation. ?? 2011 by the author(s).

Austin, J. E.; Buhl, D. A.

2011-01-01

297

Application of large benthic foraminifera as a tool for interpretation of paleoclimate and water depth, in the Ziyarat Formation, Alborz, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ziyarat Formation, with a total thickness of 213 m, is a shallow warm water limestone, overlies the Fajan conglomerate and is overlain by tufaceous siltstone of the Karj Formation. The age of late Paleocene- Middle Eocene was considered for the Ziyarat Formation at the type section. From late Paleocene towards Middle Eocene, temperature has increased (Scheibner et al., 2005). This rising temperature has intensified and giving way to an unprecedented expansion of Large Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) dominating Tethyan platform during Middle Eocene (Scheibner et al., 2005). ?18O paleotemperature calculation based on heaviest oxygen isotope value of micrite and ?18Ow of Eocene seawater of 0.85 SMOW shows that temperature was around 39?C in the study area. In response to continued global warming during Paleocene-Eocene Termal Maximum (PETM), some organisms (such as corals) has been declined, while at the same time, L.B.F. were increasingly favored as dominant carbonate producing organisms in oligotrophic environment (Scheibner et al., 2008). For the even warmer period of PTEM a transient rise in sea-surface temperature of 4-5?C in low latitudes and 8 to 10? C in high latitudes has been proposed based on Mg/Ca ratios of planktic foraminifera (Zachos et al., 2003; Tripati and Elderfield, 2004). Thus, L.B.F was able to exploit their niche as evidenced by their increase in size, species diversity and their overwhelming abundance. In the Ziyarat Formation, 11 microfacies were recognized from the shallower to deeper part of the platform. The lack of evidence of resedimentation, e.g. turbidite, related to steep slop, and absence of reefal facies and widespread tidal flat deposits indicate that the Ziyarat Formation was deposited in a homocline carbonate ramp environment. The evaporite facies, dolomicrite, intraclast ooid packstone to grainstone, Miliolid wackestone, and Alveolina nummulite packstone belong to inner ramp sub-environment; middle ramp microfacies composed of Nummulite packstone, red algae nummulite packstone, Discocyclina nummulite wackestone, and Nummulite discocyclina wackestone to packstone; and outer ramp microfacies consist of benthic foraminifera packstone and radiolar sponge spicule wackestone. The ramp model proposed here for the Ziyarat Formation represent an example of a foraminifera dominated ramp system. The Paleogene was a time of particular abundance and radiation of miliolid and larger hyaline foraminifera and, especially during the Eocene they occurred in rock-forming quantities. Among L.B.F typical of Early Cenozoic carbonate platforms, Nummulites occupied a broad range of open marine environments on both ramps and shelves, and was generally absent from more restricted waters. Assilina and discocyclina in relatively deep water environments, while smaller lenticular Nummulites occur in shallower, inner ramp/shelf settings, often co-existing with Alveolina. Nummulites in the Ziyarat Formation showing variation in test shape, along the paleoenvironmental gradient. Nummulites from inner ramp have robust ovate shape with thick walls, while by increasing water depth, lower temperature, decreasing light levels and water energy, the test shape becomes flatter and elongate.

Khatibi Mehr, M.; Adabi, M. H.

2009-04-01

298

Influence of Tap Water Quality and Household Water Use Activities on Indoor Air and Internal Dose Levels of Trihalomethanes  

PubMed Central

Individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. Studies indicate that activities associated with inhaled or dermal exposure routes result in a greater increase in blood THM concentration than does ingestion. We measured blood and exhaled air concentrations of THM as biomarkers of exposure to participants conducting 14 common household water use activities, including ingestion of hot and cold tap water beverages, showering, clothes washing, hand washing, bathing, dish washing, and indirect shower exposure. We conducted our study at a single residence in each of two water utility service areas, one with relatively high and the other low total THM in the residence tap water. To maintain a consistent exposure environment for seven participants, we controlled water use activities, exposure time, air exchange, water flow and temperature, and nonstudy THM sources to the indoor air. We collected reference samples for water supply and air (pre–water use activity), as well as tap water and ambient air samples. We collected blood samples before and after each activity and exhaled breath samples at baseline and postactivity. All hot water use activities yielded a 2-fold increase in blood or breath THM concentrations for at least one individual. The greatest observed increase in blood and exhaled breath THM concentration in any participant was due to showering (direct and indirect), bathing, and hand dishwashing. Average increase in blood THM concentration ranged from 57 to 358 pg/mL due to these activities. More research is needed to determine whether acute and frequent exposures to THM at these concentrations have public health implications. Further research is also needed in designing epidemiologic studies that minimize data collection burden yet maximize accuracy in classification of dermal and inhalation THM exposure during hot water use activities.

Nuckols, John R.; Ashley, David L.; Lyu, Christopher; Gordon, Sydney M.; Hinckley, Alison F.; Singer, Philip

2005-01-01

299

Variability in Cenozoic sedimentation and paleo-water depths of the Weddell Sea basin related to pre-glacial and glacial conditions of Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weddell Sea basin is of particular significance for understanding climate processes, including the generation of ocean water masses and their influence on ocean circulation as well as the dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheets. The sedimentary record, preserved below the basin floor, serves as an archive of the pre-glacial to glacial development of these processes, which were accompanied by tectonic processes in its early glacial phase. Three multichannel seismic reflection transects, in total nearly 5000 km long, are used to interpret horizons and define a seismostratigraphic model for the basin. We expand this initial stratigraphic model to the greater Weddell Sea region through a network of more than 200 additional seismic lines. Information from few boreholes is used to constrain sediment ages in this stratigraphy, supported by magnetic anomalies indicating decreasing oceanic basement ages from southeast to northwest. Using these constraints, we calculate grids to depict the depths, thicknesses and sedimentation rates of pre-glacial (145-34 Ma), transitional (34-15 Ma) and full-glacial (15 Ma to present) units. These grids allow us to compare the sedimentary regimes of the pre-glacially dominated and glacially dominated stages of Weddell Sea history. The pre-glacial deposition with thicknesses of up to 5 km was controlled by the tectonic evolution and sea-floor spreading history interacting with terrigenous sediment supply. The transitional unit shows a relatively high sedimentation rate and has thicknesses of up to 3 km, which may attribute to an early formation of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, which was partly advanced to the coast or even inner shelf. The main deposition center of the full-glacial unit lies in front of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and has sedimentation rates of up to 140-200 m/Myr, which infers that ice sheets grounded on the middle to the outer shelf and that bottom-water currents strongly impacted the sedimentation. We further calculate paleobathymetric grids at 15 Ma, 34 Ma, and 120 Ma by using a backstripping technique. Our results provide constraints for an improved understanding of the paleo-ice sheet dynamics and paleoclimate conditions of the Weddell Sea region.

Huang, Xiaoxia; Gohl, Karsten; Jokat, Wilfried

2014-07-01

300

Radiobiological effects of low doses of tritiated water on developing mouse cerebellum from 17th day post-coitum.  

PubMed

Pregnant Swiss albino mice were maintain on tritiated drinking water of the activity of 111 and 11.1 kBq/ml after a priming injection of 74 and 7.4 kBq/ml body water respectively from 17th day of gestation till parturition. Animals were autopsied on 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks postpartum and studied for cerebellar vulnerability. Cerebellum suffered from radiopathological changes in 1, 2 and 3 weeks age groups of mice in terms of degeneration and loss of Purkinje cells leading to formation of empty basquets, vacuolation in molecular layer and interfoliar connective tissue and pycnosis in granule cells of granular cell layer at 11.1 kBq dose level. Mice of 4, 5 and 6 weeks age groups, being relatively radioresistant, showed lesser changes in comparison with 1 to 3 week old mice. Though, the nature of the damage remained the same, it tended to intensify at 111 kBq dose thereby reflecting a dose dependent variation. PMID:9014529

Jain, N; Bhatia, A L

1996-09-01

301

Offsite dose calculation manual guidance: Standard radiological effluent controls for pressurized water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains guidance which may be voluntarily used by licensees who choose to implement the provision of Generic Letter 89-01, which allows Radiological Effect Technical Specifications (RETS) to be removed from the main body of the Technical Specifications and placed in the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM). Guidance is provided for Standard Effluent Controls definitions, Controls for effluent monitoring

W. W. Meinke; T. H. Essig

1991-01-01

302

Influence of increasing active-layer depth and continued permafrost degradation on carbon, water and energy fluxes over two forested permafrost landscapes in the Taiga Plains, NWT, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research suggests an increase in active-layer depth (ALD) in the continuous permafrost zone and degradation of the discontinuous permafrost zone into seasonally frozen. Increasing ALD and continued permafrost degradation will have far-reaching consequences for northern ecosystems including altered regional hydrology and the exposure of additional soil organic carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. These changes might cause positive or negative net feedbacks to the climate system by altering important land surface properties and/or by releasing stored soil organic C to the atmosphere as CO2 and/or CH4. Knowledge gaps exist regarding the links between increasing ALD and/or permafrost degradation, regional hydrology, vegetation composition and structure, land surface properties, and CO2 and CH4 sink-source strengths. The goal of our interdisciplinary project is to shed light on these links by providing a mechanistic understanding of permafrost-thawing consequences for hydrological, ecophysiological and biogeochemical processes at two forested permafrost landscapes in the Taiga Plains, NWT, Canada: Scotty Creek and Havikpak Creek in the discontinuous and in the continuous permafrost zones, respectively (Fig.). The sites will be equipped with identical sets of instrumentation (start: 2013), to measure landscape-scale net exchanges of CO2, CH4, water and energy with the eddy covariance technique. These measurements will be complemented by repeated surveys of surface and frost table topography and vegetation, by land cover-type specific fluxes of CO2 and CH4 measured with a static chamber technique, and by remote sensing-based footprint analysis. With this research we will address the following questions: What is the net effect of permafrost thawing-induced biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to the climate system? How do these two different types of feedback differ between the discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones? Is the decrease (increase) in net CO2 (CH4) exchange measured over mostly tundra sites in the continuous permafrost zone generalizable to forested landscapes in both the discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones? With this contribution, we report on the project status, present its objectives and hypotheses, and outline its timeline and sampling design.

Sonnentag, O.; Baltzer, J.; Chasmer, L. E.; Detto, M.; Marsh, P.; Quinton, W. L.

2012-12-01

303

Acute dimethyl sulphoxide therapy in experimental brain oedema, effect of dose and concentration on brain water and electrolyte content.  

PubMed

Albino rabbits with experimental brain oedema produced by a combined left hemisphere cryogenic injury and a metabolic insult by a 6-aminonicotinamide (6-ANA) were administered intravenous dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) in varying concentrations and doses in the following manner: Subgroup A (concentration response) received 1.0 g/kg bolus of a 10, 20, 30, or 40% solution. Subgroup B (dose response) received as a 20% solution a 1.0 g/kg bolus, 1.5 g/kg bolus, or 2.0 g/kg infusion. One hour following administration of the agent, the animals were killed, their brains rapidly removed by craniectomy and brain water, sodium and potassium measured. Significant decreases in brain sodium and water content in the right hemisphere were noted in both subgroups A (p less than 0.05) and B (p less than 0.005) and in the left hemisphere in subgroup B only (p less than 0.005). There is an apparent effect on brain oedema by a DMSO mediated sodium dependent water mobilization. PMID:6624558

Tsuruda, J; James, H E; Werner, R; Camp, P E; Rasmussen, G

1983-01-01

304

An analytic representation of the radial distribution of dose from energetic heavy ions in water, Si, LiF, NaI, and SiO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier representation of the radial distribution of dose about the path of a heavy ion in liquid water is modified and extended to include silicon, lithium fluoride, sodium iodide, and silicon dioxide.

Robert Katz; Kim Sum Loh; Luo Daling; Guo-Rong Huang

1990-01-01

305

Six year report: Acidification of surface water in Europe and North America. Dose/response relationships and long-term trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses The International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Acidification of Rivers and Lakes, which is designed to (1) establish degree and extent of acidification of surface waters, (2) evaluate dose/response relationsh...

B. L. Skjelkvaale A. D. Newell G. Raddum M. Johannessen H. Hovind

1994-01-01

306

Estimation of beta and gamma Radiation Doses During an Accident Occurring in a Pressurized Water Reactor for the Qualification of Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a calculation method developed to allow a realistic evaluation of the ambiant doses susceptible of being met inside the containment building of a French pressurized water reactor during a loss of primary coolant accident. The internal ...

H. Henry M. Le Meur L. Rousseau C. Diop A. Le Dieu Deville

1986-01-01

307

A new assessment in North Atlantic waters of the relationship between DMS concentration and the upper mixed layer solar radiation dose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the POMME experiment, conducted in the northeast Atlantic Ocean in 2001, were used to explore whether dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations are linked to epipelagic ecosystem exposure to solar radiation as proposed by Vallina and Simó (2007). According to the seasonal variations in the DMS-to-dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) ratio, we found that the summer surface water concentration of DMS was, on average, threefold higher than expected from the abundance of DMSP. This is in agreement with previous observations and confirms that seasonal changes in the trophic regime, from mesotrophy in winter and spring to oligotrophy in summer, are accompanied by a relative enhancement of DMS over DMSP. However, contrary to the observations carried out at Hydrostation S in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, no strong relationship between DMS and the solar radiation dose (SRD) exists in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. From a series of sensitivity tests, where different combinations of the three parameters that drive the SRD were investigated (i.e., the solar irradiance, the law of its attenuation in the sea, and the mixed layer depth), we found that the SRD accounted for only 19% to 24% of the variance associated with monthly surface DMS concentrations. Additionally, the slope of the relationship between DMS and SRD was particularly sensitive to the choice of the irradiance attenuation law. Overall, we find that the DMS versus SRD relationship is much less significant in the northeast Atlantic Ocean than in the Sargasso Sea. In addition, we suggest a large impact of algal community structure on summer DMS concentrations in the mesotrophic coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, we question the consistency between DMS versus SRD relationships at local, basin, and global scales and propose that empirical relationships relating DMS to SRD be applied with caution.

Belviso, S.; Caniaux, G.

2009-03-01

308

Effect of H2O on Upper Phase Transitions in MgSiO3: Is the Depth of the Seismic X-Discontinuity an Indicator of Mangle Water Content?  

SciTech Connect

The mantle X-discontinuity, usually assigned to positive seismic velocity reflectors in the 260-330 km depth range, has proved difficult to explain in terms of a single mineralogical phase transformation in part because of its depth variability. The coesite to stishovite transition of SiO{sub 2} matches deeper X-discontinuity depths but requires 5-10% free silica in the mantle to match observed impedance contrast. The orthoenstatite (OEn) to high-pressure clinoenstatite (HPCen) transformation of MgSiO{sub 3} also broadly coincides with depths of the X but requires chemically depleted and orthoenstatite-rich lithology at 300 km depth in order to match observed seismic impedance contrast. On the basis of high-pressure infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy, we show that 1300 ppm variation of H{sub 2}O content in MgSiO{sub 3} can displace the transition of low-pressure clinoenstatite (LPCen) to HPCen by up to 2 GPa, similar to previous quench experiments on the OEn to HPCen phase transition, where about 30-45 km (1.0-1.5 GPa) of deflection could occur per 0.1 wt% H{sub 2}O. If the mantle X-discontinuity results from pyroxene transitions in a depleted harzburgite layer, because of the strong influence of minor amounts of water on the transformation boundary, the depth of the mantle X-discontinuity could serve as a potentially sensitive indicator of water content in the upper mantle.

Jacobsen, S.D.; Ehm, L.; Liu, Z.; Ballaran T.B.; Littlefield, E.F.; Hemley, R.J.

2010-06-29

309

Contribution from the inner shell of water vapour to dose profiles under proton and alpha particle irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doubly differential cross sections for electron emission calculated using the CDW - EIS model and a simple approximation for the electron transport in the target are used to obtain dose profiles around the ion path for proton and alpha particles in water vapour. The contribution from each initial molecular orbital is determined. At large distances from the track, discrepancies are found with other models and with the well known dependence.

Olivera, G. H.; Fainstein, P. D.; Rivarola, R. D.

1996-09-01

310

Global patterns of groundwater table depth.  

PubMed

Shallow groundwater affects terrestrial ecosystems by sustaining river base-flow and root-zone soil water in the absence of rain, but little is known about the global patterns of water table depth and where it provides vital support for land ecosystems. We present global observations of water table depth compiled from government archives and literature, and fill in data gaps and infer patterns and processes using a groundwater model forced by modern climate, terrain, and sea level. Patterns in water table depth explain patterns in wetlands at the global scale and vegetation gradients at regional and local scales. Overall, shallow groundwater influences 22 to 32% of global land area, including ~15% as groundwater-fed surface water features and 7 to 17% with the water table or its capillary fringe within plant rooting depths. PMID:23430651

Fan, Y; Li, H; Miguez-Macho, G

2013-02-22

311

Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.  

PubMed

This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient. PMID:22298238

Satory, P R

2012-03-01

312

Anomalous Stereoscopic Depth Perception.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Normal or complete stereoscopic depth perception is based upon at least two and probably three mechanisms. These mechanisms may be isolated by studying depth judgments made by stereoanomalous individuals who are unable to discriminate disparities over wid...

W. Richards

1970-01-01

313

Great Lakes Waters: Radiation Dose Commitments, Potential Health Effects, and Cost-Benefit Considerations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1972, a Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement was signed by the United States and Canadian Governments. It was stipulated that the operation and effectiveness of the agreement were to be reviewed comprehensively in 1977. Aspects of the agreement concern ...

E. J. Ainsworth

1977-01-01

314

Derivation of a bisphenol A oral reference dose (RfD) and drinking-water equivalent concentration.  

PubMed

Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is due to that found in the diet, and BPA and its metabolites were detected at parts per billion (or less) concentrations in human urine, milk, saliva, serum, plasma, ovarian follicular fluid, and amniotic fluid. Adverse health effects in mice and rats may be induced after parenteral injection or after massive oral doses. Controlled ingestion trials in healthy adult volunteers with 5 mg d16-BPA were unable to detect parent BPA in plasma despite exquisitely sensitive (limit of detection = 6 nM) methods, but by 96 h 100% of the administered dose was recovered in urine as the glucuronide. The extensive BPA glucuronidation following ingestion is not seen after parenteral injection; only the parent BPA binds plasma proteins and estrogen receptors (ER). The hypothesis that BPA dose-response may be described by a J- or U-shape curve was not supported by toxicogenomic data collected in fetal rat testes and epididymes (after repeated parenteral exposure at 2-400,000 microg/kg-d), where a clear monotonic dose-response both in the numbers of genes and magnitude of individual gene expression was evident. There is no clear indication from available data that the BPA doses normally consumed by humans pose an increased risk for immunologic or neurologic disease. There is no evidence that BPA poses a genotoxic or carcinogenic risk and clinical evaluations of 205 men and women with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-verified serum or urinary BPA conjugates showed (1) no objective signs, (2) no changes in reproductive hormones or clinical chemistry parameters, and (3) no alterations in the number of children or sons:daughters ratio. Results of benchmark dose (BMD10 and BMDL10) calculations and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) inspections of all available and reproducible rodent studies with oral BPA found BMD and NOAEL values all greater than the 5 mg/kg-d NOAELs from mouse and rat multigeneration reproduction toxicity studies. While allometric and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were constructed for interspecies scaling of BPA and its interaction with ER, multigeneration feeding studies with BPA at doses spanning 5 orders of magnitude failed to identify signs of developmental toxicity or adverse changes in reproductive tract tissues; the 5-mg/kg-d NOAELs identified for systemic toxicity in rats and mice were less than the oral NOAELs for reproductive toxicity. Thus, it is the generalized systemic toxicity of ingested BPA rather than reproductive, immunologic, neurobehavioral, or genotoxic hazard that represents the point of departure. Using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uncertainty factor guidance and application of a threefold database uncertainty factor (to account for the fact that the carcinogenic potential of transplacental BPA exposure has yet to be fully defined and comprehensive neurobehavioral and immunotoxicologic evaluations of BPA by relevant routes and at relevant doses have yet to be completed) to the administered dose NOAEL results in an oral RfD of 0.016 mg/kg-d. Assuming the 70-kg adult consumes 2 L of water each day and adopting the default 20% U.S. EPA drinking water relative source contribution yields a 100 microg/L BPA total allowable concentration (TAC). PMID:18188738

Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

2008-02-01

315

Radiological dose assessment for the dismantlement and decommissioning option for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor facility at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Potential maximum radiation dose rates for a 10,000-year horizon were calculated for the dismantlement and decommissioning option for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor facility at the Savannah River Site. The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code was used. The study will help determine if it is acceptable (in terms of DOE radiation dose limits) for activated and contaminated concrete to remain in the facility, along with embedded radioactive piping and radioactive equipment. Four cases were developed to evaluate potential doses; the cases vary with regard to the definitions of the sources. Case A considers the dose from the reactor biological shield; case B considers the dose from contaminated concrete rubble; case C considers the dose from contaminated concrete rubble, the reactor biological shield, and installed equipment; and case D considers the dose from contaminated cuttings brought to the surface following the perforation of a well through the contaminated zone in case C. Site-specific parameter values were used to estimate the radiation doses. The results indicate that neither the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr nor the 15-mrem/yr dose constraint would be exceeded for any of the cases. The potential maximum dose rates for cases A, B, C, and D are 0.000028, 0.015, 0.018, and 0.17 mrem/yr, respectively. The drinking water pathway is the dominant contributor to the doses in cases A through C, and the external gamma pathway is the dominant contributor in case D. Carbon-14, uranium-234, uranium-238, and americium-241 are the principal radionuclides contributing to the doses in cases A through C. Cobalt-60, europium-152, and barium-133 are the important radionuclides in case D. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which parameters have the greatest impact on the estimated doses. 9 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Faillace, E.R.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Chen, S.Y.

1997-10-01

316

Use of depth information from in-depth photon counting detectors for x-ray spectral imaging: a preliminary simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) may improve dose-efficiency but are hampered by limited count rate. They generally have imperfect energy response. Multi-layer ("in-depth") detectors have been proposed to enable higher count rates but the potential benefit of the depth information has not been explored. We conducted a simulation study to compare in-depth detectors against single layer detectors composed of common materials. Both photon counting and energy integrating modes were studied. Methods: Polyenergetic transmissions were simulated through 25cm of water and 1cm of calcium. For PCXD composed of Si, GaAs or CdTe a 120kVp spectrum was used. For energy integrating x-ray detectors (EIXD) made from GaAs, CdTe or CsI, spectral imaging was done using 80 and 140kVp and matched dose. Semi-ideal and phenomenological energy response models were used. To compare these detectors, we computed the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the variance of basis material estimates. Results: For PCXDs with perfect energy response, depth data provides no additional information. For PCXDs with imperfect energy response and for EIXDs the improvement can be significant. E.g., for a CdTe PCXD with realistic energy response, depth information can reduce the variance by ~50%. The improvement depends on the x-ray spectrum. For a semi-ideal Si detector and a narrow x-ray spectrum the depth information has minimal advantage. For EIXD, the in-depth detector has consistent variance reduction (15% and 17%~19% for water and calcium, respectively). Conclusions: Depth information is beneficial to spectral imaging for both PCXD and EIXD. The improvement depends critically on the detector energy response.

Yao, Yuan; Bornefalk, Hans; Hsieh, Scott S.; Danielsson, Mats; Pelc, Norbert J.

2014-03-01

317

The Shoreline Management Tool, an ArcMap Tool for Analyzing Water Depth, Inundated Area, Volume, and Selected Habitats, with an Example for the Lower Wood River Valley, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shoreline Management Tool is a GIS-based program developed to assist water- and land-resource managers in assessing the benefits and impacts of changes in surface-water stage on water depth, inundated area, and water volume. In addition, the tool can be used to identify aquatic or terrestrial habitat areas where conditions may be suitable for specific plants or animals as defined by user-specified criteria, including water depth, land-surface slope, and land-surface aspect or to delineate areas for use in determining a variety of hydrologic budget components such as surface-water storage, precipitation, runoff, or evapotranspiration. The Shoreline Management Tool consists of two parts, a graphical user interface for use with ArcMap GIS software to interact with the user to define scenarios and map results, and a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel® developed to display tables and graphs of the results. The graphical user interface allows the user to define a scenario consisting of an inundation level (stage), land areas (parcels), and habitats (areas meeting user-specified conditions) based on water depth, slope, and aspect criteria. The tool uses data consisting of land-surface elevation, tables of stage/volume and stage/area, and delineated parcel boundaries to produce maps (data layers) of inundated areas and areas that meet the habitat criteria. The tool can be run in a Single-Time Scenario mode or in a Time-Series Scenario mode which uses an input file of dates and associated stages. The spreadsheet portion of the tool uses a macro to process the results from the graphical user interface to create tables and graphs of inundated water volume, inundated area, dry area, and mean water depth for each land parcel based on the user-specified stage. The macro also creates tables and graphs of the area, perimeter, and number of polygons comprising the user-specified habitat areas within each parcel. The Shoreline Management Tool is designed to be highly transferable using easily generated or readily available data. The capabilities of the tool are demonstrated using data from the lower Wood River Valley adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in southern Oregon.

Snyder, D. T.; Haluska, T. L.; Respini-Irwin, D.

2012-12-01

318

Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9  

SciTech Connect

As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

Spiegler, P.

1981-09-01

319

GENE EXPRESSION DOSE-RESPONSE IN THE MOUSE BLADDER FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO ARSENATE IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The association between drinking water exposures to inorganic arsenic and life-threatening tumors in the human is strongest for bladder cancer. Moreover, a working model for the pathogenesis of human bladder cancer has been developed. To investigate the mode of action for inorgan...

320

STRATIFIED SLAB GAMMA-RAY DOSE-RATE BUILDUP FACTORS FOR LEAD AND WATER SHIELDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ORACLE Monta Carlo code for the calculation of the penetration of ; gamma rays through stratified slabs was used to calculate a total of 512 problems ; for eight different lead and water configurations. The energy of the incident ; radiation, the angle of incidence, the thickness of the shield, and the ; percentage of lead preceding or following

L. A. Bowman; D. K. Trubey

1958-01-01

321

Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This corrigendum intends to clarify some important points that were not clearly or properly addressed in the original paper, and for which the authors apologize. The original description of the first Acuros algorithm is from the developers, published in Physics in Medicine and Biology by Vassiliev et al (2010) in the paper entitled 'Validation of a new grid-based Boltzmann equation solver for dose calculation in radiotherapy with photon beams'. The main equations describing the algorithm reported in our paper, implemented as the 'Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation Algorithm' in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system, were originally described (for the original Acuros algorithm) in the above mentioned paper by Vassiliev et al. The intention of our description in our paper was to give readers an overview of the algorithm, not pretending to have authorship of the algorithm itself (used as implemented in the planning system). Unfortunately our paper was not clear, particularly in not allocating full credit to the work published by Vassiliev et al on the original Acuros algorithm. Moreover, it is important to clarify that we have not adapted any existing algorithm, but have used the Acuros XB implementation in the Eclipse planning system from Varian. In particular, the original text of our paper should have been as follows: On page 1880 the sentence 'A prototype LBTE solver, called Attila (Wareing et al 2001), was also applied to external photon beam dose calculations (Gifford et al 2006, Vassiliev et al 2008, 2010). Acuros XB builds upon many of the methods in Attila, but represents a ground-up rewrite of the solver where the methods were adapted especially for external photon beam dose calculations' should be corrected to 'A prototype LBTE solver, called Attila (Wareing et al 2001), was also applied to external photon beam dose calculations (Gifford et al 2006, Vassiliev et al 2008). A new algorithm called Acuros, developed by the Transpire Inc. group, was built upon many of the methods in Attila, but represents a ground-up rewrite of the solver where the methods were especially adapted for external photon beam dose calculations, and described in Vassiliev et al (2010). Acuros XB is the Varian implementation of the original Acuros algorithm in the Eclipse planning system'. On page 1881, the sentence 'Monte Carlo and explicit LBTE solution, with sufficient refinement, will converge on the same solution. However, both methods produce errors (inaccuracies). In explicit LBTE solution methods, errors are primarily systematic, and result from discretization of the solution variables in space, angle, and energy. In both Monte Carlo and explicit LBTE solvers, a trade-off exists between speed and accuracy: reduced computational time may be achieved when less stringent accuracy criteria are specified, and vice versa' should cite the reference Vassiliev et al (2010). On page 1882, the beginning of the sub-paragraph The radiation transport model should start with 'The following description of the Acuros XB algorithm is as outlined by Vassiliev et al (2010) and reports the main steps of the radiation transport model as implemented in Eclipse'. The authors apologize for this lack of clarity in our published paper, and trust that this corrigendum gives full credit to Vassiliev et al in their earlier paper, with respect to previous work on the Acuros algorithm. However we wish to note that the entire contents of the data and results published in our paper are original and the work of the listed authors. References Gifford K A, Horton J L Jr, Wareing T A, Failla G and Mourtada F 2006 Comparison of a finite-element multigroup discrete-ordinates code with Monte Carlo for radiotherapy calculations Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2253-65 Vassiliev O N, Wareing T A, Davis I M, McGhee J, Barnett D, Horton J L, Gifford K, Failla G, Titt U and Mourtada F 2008 Feasibility of a multigroup deterministic solution method for three-dimensional radiotherapy dose calculations Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 72 220-7 Vassiliev O N, Wareing T A, McGhee J, Fail

Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Mancosu, Pietro; Cozzi, Luca

2011-05-01

322

Depths of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities in and around the stagnant slab beneath the Philippine Sea: Is water stored in the stagnant slab?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the depths of the 410-km and 660-km seismic discontinuities (called “410” and “660,” respectively, hereafter) beneath the Philippine Sea and the northwestern Pacific by the receiver function method; we used the broadband data obtained from broadband ocean-bottom seismographs. We found a very deep “660” at 691km in the stagnant slab beneath the Philippine Sea. In the surrounding Philippine

Mark Jellinek

2010-01-01

323

DBP formation in hot and cold water across a simulated distribution system: effect of incubation time, heating time, pH, chlorine dose, and incubation temperature.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates that disinfection byproducts (DBP) concentration profiles in heated water were quite different from the DBP concentrations in the cold tap water. Chloroform concentrations in the heated water remained constant or even decreased slightly with increasing distribution system water age. The amount of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was much higher in the heated water than in the cold water; however, the maximum levels in heated water with different distribution system water ages did not differ substantially. The levels of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in the heated water were similar to the TCAA levels in the tap water, and a slight reduction was observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. Regardless of water age, significant reductions of nonregulated DBPs were observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. For tap water with lower water ages, there were significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), chloropicrin (CP), and 1,1-dichloropropane (1,1-DCP) after a short period of heating. Heating of the tap water with low pH led to a more significant increase of chloroform and a more significant short-term increase of DCAN. High pH accelerated the loss of the nonregulated DBPs in the heated water. The results indicated that as the chlorine doses increased, levels of chloroform and DCAA in the heated water increased significantly. However, for TCAA, the thermally induced increase in concentration was only notable for the chlorinated water with very high chlorine dose. Finally, heating may lead to higher DBP concentrations in chlorinated water with lower distribution system temperatures. PMID:24044418

Liu, Boning; Reckhow, David A

2013-10-15

324

[Verification of the accuracy of Monte Carlo-based dose calculation algorithm, DPM, in homogeneous and inhomogeneous tissues].  

PubMed

The present paper is to verify the accuracy of DPM, a Monte Carlo-based dose calculation algorithm, in homogeneous and inhomogeneous tissues. DPM was applied to calculate (1) depth dose curves and off-axis ratios at a depth of 10 cm in water using a 6 MeV photon beam with a 3 cm x 3 cm field and phase space file simulated Varian 60 degrees C medical linear accelerator with a 10 cm x 10 cm field at SSD = 100 (cm); (2) depth dose curves using 6 MeV photon beam in inhomogeneous tissues, such as water (6 cm)/lung (6 cm)/water (8 cm) with a 3 cm x 3 cm field and water (6 cm)/ bone (2 cm)/water (12 cm) with a 10 cm x 10 cm field; (3) depth dose curves using 6 MeV photon beam based on the CT data of a patient's head and abdomen. The doses based on DPM are compared to the doses calculated by DOSXYZnrc under the same condition. The error was within 3% in water phantom while the error was within 3% in inhomogeneous tissues, except a few points. It has been concluded that the DPM can accurately predict the dose to homogeneous and inhomogeneous tissues. PMID:22616165

Lu, Wenting; Shi, Yinghua; Zhou, Linghong; Zhen, Xin; Liu, Yingjun; Zhang, Shuxu

2012-04-01

325

NOTE: Peripheral dose outside applicators in electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peripheral dose outside the applicators in electron beams was studied using a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator. To measure the peripheral dose profiles and point doses for the applicator, a solid water phantom was used with calibrated Kodak TL films. Peak dose spot was observed in the 4 MeV beam outside the applicator. The peripheral dose peak was very small in the 6 MeV beam and was ignorable at higher energies. Using the 10 × 10 cm2 cutout and applicator, the dose peak for the 4 MeV beam was about 12 cm away from the field central beam axis (CAX) and the peripheral dose profiles did not change with depths measured at 0.2, 0.5 and 1 cm. The peripheral doses and profiles were further measured by varying the angle of obliquity, cutout and applicator size for the 4 MeV beam. The local peak dose was increased with about 3% per degree angle of obliquity, and was about 1% of the prescribed dose (angle of obliquity equals zero) at 1 cm depth in the phantom using the 10 × 10 cm2 cutout and applicator. The peak dose position was also shifted 7 mm towards the CAX when the angle of obliquity was increased from 0 to 15°.

Chow, James C. L.; Grigorov, Grigor N.

2006-06-01

326

A practical method for determining organ dose during CT examination.  

PubMed

A practical method, based on depth dose, for determining organ dose during computed tomography (CT) examination is presented. For 4-slice spiral CT scans, performed at radii of 0, 37.5, 75.0, 112.5, and 150.0 mm, measurement of depth dose has been made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) inserted into a modified International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard dosimetry phantom and also additional TLDs placed on the surface of the phantom. A regression equation-linking dose with distance from the center of the phantom has been formulated, from which dose to a point of interest relative to the surface dose can also be calculated. The approximation reflects the attenuation properties of X-rays in the phantom. Using the equation, an estimate of organ dose can be ascertained for CT examination, assuming water equivalence of human tissue and a known organ position and volume. Using the 4-slice spiral scanner, relative doses to a patients' lung have been calculated, the location and size of the lung in vivo being found from the CT scan image, and the lung being divided into 38 segments to calculate the relative dose. Results from our test case show the dose to the lung to have been 69+/-13% of surface dose. PMID:16979343

Cheung, Tsang; Cheng, Qijun; Feng, Dinghua

2007-02-01

327

Preliminary map of the conterminous United States showing depth to and quality of shallowest ground water containing more than 1,000 parts per million dissolved solids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this atlas, mineralized ground water is viewed presently as a source of water in some areas, but in much of the country as a source for future development. Mineralized water underlies large areas of the country, and its importance will grow as present supplies of fresh water are appropriated and developed. The potential uses fall in two main categories: (1) direct use in industrial processes, such as cooling, or for irrigation, where a moderate mineral content may not be a disadvantage; and (2) use after demineralization or dilution to whatever degree may be required by the intended user. It is clearly more efficient to produce and process water of moderate mineralization at points of use, where available in adequate amounts, than it is to process ocean water and pump it many miles from the sea. The Geological Survey, as a part of its responsibility to describe the water resources of the United States, has surveyed the known occurrences of mineralized ground water in the conterminous United States. The results are shown on the maps (sheets 1 and 2). This atlas was prepared to meet needs for information on the distribution and availability of mineralized water as expressed by Government agencies, private industries, and consultants. The maps are one step in providing an inventory of mineralized water of the Nation and will serve as a planning guide for further investigations and for development. They are necessarily generalized in many places owing to the complexity of the occurrence of the mineralized water, lack of detailed information for parts of the nation, and the difficulties inherent in attempts to put threedimensional information on maps.

Feth, John Henry Frederick

1965-01-01

328

Indexes and efficiencies of N optimum dose reviewed as water- and Nitrogen- footprint  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to establish rational nitrogen (N) fertilization and reduce groundwater contamination, a clearer understanding of the N distribution through the growing season and its balance is crucial. In three successive years, a melon crop (Cucumis melo L. cv. Sancho) was grown under field conditions to determine the uptake of N fertilizer, applied by means of fertigation at different stages of plant growth. In addition, Strategies are being sought to increase water use in cropping systems and to reduce drainage. The estimation of N mineralized from soil organic matter is an essential tool to determine the amount necessary to optimize crop yield and minimize the environmental impact of excess N. In this study we propose a methodology that allows us to study fertigated management integrating several aspects: economic and environmental. Even the complexity of the system, we have reduced the number of indexes and efficiencies need to establish the framework of N management and its economical and environmental consequences. At the same time, we have translated all them into a water- and Nitrogen- footprint in each year. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work has been partially supported by INIA under Project INIA-RTA 2010-00110-C03-02

Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Cartagena, Maria Carmen; Cabello, Maria Jesus; Rivas, Francisco; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Arce, Augusto

2013-04-01

329

Changes in surface water table depth and soil physical properties after harvest and establishment of loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) in Atlantic coastal plain wetlands of South Carolina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface water table is an important factor determining soil chemical, physical and biological processes, and thus affects the functions of forested wetlands. The objective of this study was to assess surface water table dynamics from timber harvesting through early forest plantation establishment in a coastal plain wetland area located in the southeastern United States. Simulated harvesting patterns included two

Yi-Jun Xu; James A Burger; W Michael Aust; Steven C Patterson; Masato Miwa; David P Preston

2002-01-01

330

Flow Contribution and Water Quality with Depth in a Test Hole and Public-Supply Wells: Implications for Arsenic Remediation Through Well Modification, Norman, OK 2003-2006.  

EPA Science Inventory

The City of Norman, Oklahoma, is one municipality affected by a change in the Environmental Protection Agency?s National Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic. In 2006, the maximum contaminant level for arsenic in drinking-water was lowered from 50 to 10 micrograms per li...

331

TOPICAL REVIEW: Advances in the determination of absorbed dose to water in clinical high-energy photon and electron beams using ionization chambers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last two decades, absorbed dose to water in clinical photon and electron beams was determined using dosimetry protocols and codes of practice based on radiation metrology standards of air kerma. It is now recommended that clinical reference dosimetry be based on standards of absorbed dose to water. Newer protocols for the dosimetry of radiotherapy beams, based on the use of an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water, ND,w, in a standards laboratory's reference quality beam, have been published by several national or regional scientific societies and international organizations. Since the publication of these protocols multiple theoretical and experimental dosimetry comparisons between the various ND,w based recommendations, and between the ND,w and the former air kerma (NK) based protocols, have been published. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the dosimetry protocols based on these standards and of the intercomparisons of the different protocols published in the literature, discussing the reasons for the observed discrepancies between them. A summary of the various types of standards of absorbed dose to water, together with an analysis of the uncertainties along the various steps of the dosimetry chain for the two types of formalism, is also included. It is emphasized that the NK-ND,air and ND,w formalisms have very similar uncertainty when the same criteria are used for both procedures. Arguments are provided in support of the recommendation for a change in reference dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water.

Saiful Huq, M.; Andreo, Pedro

2004-02-01

332

Simulating radial dose of ion tracks in liquid water simulated with Geant4-DNA: A comparative study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate modeling of radial energy deposition around ion tracks is a key requirement of radiation transport software used for simulations in radiobiology at the sub-cellular scale. The work presented in this paper is part of the on-going benchmarking of the “Geant4-DNA” physics processes and models, which are available in the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for the low energy transport of particles in liquid water. We present for the first time radial dose distributions of incident ion tracks simulated with “Geant4-DNA”. Simulation results are compared to other results available in the literature, obtained from analytical calculations, step-by-step Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. They show a reasonable agreement with reference data.

Incerti, S.; Psaltaki, M.; Gillet, P.; Barberet, Ph.; Bardiès, M.; Bernal, M. A.; Bordage, M.-C.; Breton, V.; Davidkova, M.; Delage, E.; El Bitar, Z.; Francis, Z.; Guatelli, S.; Ivanchenko, A.; Ivanchenko, V.; Karamitros, M.; Lee, S. B.; Maigne, L.; Meylan, S.; Murakami, K.; Nieminen, P.; Payno, H.; Perrot, Y.; Petrovic, I.; Pham, Q. T.; Ristic-Fira, A.; Santin, G.; Sasaki, T.; Seznec, H.; Shin, J. I.; Stepan, V.; Tran, H. N.; Villagrasa, C.

2014-08-01

333

Depth dependence of the single chamber response function of the I'mRT MatriXX array in a 6 MV photon beam.  

PubMed

One of the factors which influence the spatial resolution of a 2D detector array is the size of the single detector, another the transport of the secondary electrons from the walls into the measuring volume. In this study, the single ion chamber dose response function of an I'mRT MatriXX array was determined by comparison between slit beam dose profiles measured with the array and with EBT2 radiochromic film in a solid water-equivalent phantom at a shallow depth of 0.5cm and at a depth of 5cm beyond the depth dose maximum for a 6 MV photon beam. The dose response functions were obtained using two methods, the best fit method and the deconvolution method. At the shallow depth, a Lorentz function and at 5cm depth a Gaussian function, both with the same FWHM of 7.4mm within limits of uncertainty, were identified as the best suited dose response functions of the 4.5mm diameter single array chamber. These dose response functions were then tested on various dose profiles whose true shape had been determined with EBT2 film and with the IC03 ionization chamber. By convolving these with the Lorentz kernel (at shallow depth) and the Gaussian kernel (at 5cm depth) the signal profiles measured with the I'mRT MatriXX array were closely approximated. Thus, the convolution of TPS-calculated dose profiles with these dose response functions can minimize the differences between calculation and measurement which occur due to the limited spatial resolution of the I'mRT MatriXX detector. PMID:24113373

Alashrah, Saleh; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Lum, Liang Soo; Cheng, Soon Keong

2013-12-01

334

Reverse water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions for use in pressurized metered-dose inhalers containing hydrofluoroalkane propellants.  

PubMed

Pulmonary administration of drugs has demonstrated numerous advantages in the treatment of pulmonary diseases due to direct targeting to the respiratory tract. It enables avoiding the first pass effect, reduces the amount of drugs administered, targets drugs to specific sites and reduces their side effects. Reverse water-in-fluorocarbon (FC) emulsions are potential drug delivery systems for pulmonary administration using pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI). The external phase of these emulsions consists of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB, perflubron), whereas their internal phase contains the drugs solubilized or dispersed in water. These emulsions are stabilized by a perfluoroalkylated dimorpholinophosphate (F8H11DMP), i.e. a fluorinated surfactant. This study demonstrates the possibility of delivering a reverse fluorocarbon emulsion via the pulmonary route using a CFC-free pMDI. Two hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) (Solkane(R) 134a and Solkane(R) 227) were used as propellants, and various solution (or emulsion)/propellant ratios (1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1/1, 3/2, 3/1 v/v) were investigated. The insolubility of water (with or without the fluorinated surfactant F8H11DMP) in both HFA 227 and HFA 134a was demonstrated. PFOB and the reverse emulsion were totally soluble or dispersible in all proportions in both propellants. This study demonstrated also that the reverse FC emulsion can be successfully used to deliver caffeine in a homogeneous and reproducible way. The mean diameter of the emulsion water droplets in the pressured canister was investigated immediately after packaging and after 1 week of storage at room temperature. Best results were obtained with emulsion/propellant ratios comprised between 2/3 and 3/2, and with HFA 227 as propellant. PMID:11996829

Butz, N; Porté, C; Courrier, H; Krafft, M P; Vandamme, Th F

2002-05-15

335

Depth weighted scatter estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

General depth weighted scatter estimators are introduced and investigated. For general depth functions, we find out that these affine equivariant scatter estimators are Fisher consistent and unbiased for a wide range of multivariate distributions, and show that the sample scatter estimators are strong and \\\\sqrtn-consistent and asymptotically normal, and the influence functions of the estimators exist and are bounded in

Yijun Zuo; Hengjian Cui

2005-01-01

336

Water-filled balloon in the postoperative resection cavity improves dose distribution to target volumes in radiotherapy of maxillary sinus carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Postoperative radiotherapy is a major treatment for patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma. However, the irregular resection cavity poses a technical difficulty for this treatment, causing uneven dose distribution to target volumes. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution to target volumes and normal tissues in postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after placing a water-filled balloon into the resection cavity. Three postoperative patients with advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma were selected in this trial. Water-filled balloons and supporting dental stents were fabricated according to the size of the maxillary resection cavity. Simulation CT scans were performed with or without water-filled balloons, IMRT treatment plans were established, and dose distribution to target volumes and organs at risk were evaluated. Compared to those in the treatment plan without balloons, the dose (D98) delivered to 98% of the gross tumor volume (GTV) increased by 2.1 Gy (P = 0.009), homogeneity index (HI) improved by 2.3% (P = 0.001), and target volume conformity index (TCI) of 68 Gy increased by 18.5% (P = 0.011) in the plan with balloons. Dosimetry endpoints of normal tissues around target regions in both plans were not significantly different (P > 0.05) except for the optic chiasm. In the plan without balloons, 68 Gy high-dose regions did not entirely cover target volumes in the ethmoid sinus, posteromedial wall of the maxillary sinus, or surgical margin of the hard palate. In contrast, 68 Gy high-dose regions entirely covered the GTV in the plan with balloons. These results suggest that placing a water-filled balloon in the resection cavity for postoperative IMRT of maxillary sinus carcinoma can reduce low-dose regions and markedly and simultaneously increase dose homogeneity and conformity of target volumes.

Zhang, Qun; Lin, Shi-Rong; He, Fang; Kang, De-Hua; Chen, Guo-Zhang; Luo, Wei

2011-01-01

337

Profiling of dynamics in protein–lipid–water systems: a time-resolved fluorescence study of a model membrane protein with the label BADAN at specific membrane depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiles of lipid-water bilayer dynamics were determined from picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectra of membrane-embedded\\u000a BADAN-labeled M13 coat protein. For this purpose, the protein was labeled at seven key positions. This places the label at\\u000a well-defined locations from the water phase to the center of the hydrophobic acyl chain region of a phospholipid model membrane,\\u000a providing us with a nanoscale ruler

Rob B. M. Koehorst; Sergey Laptenok; Bart van Oort; Arie van Hoek; Ruud B. Spruijt; Ivo H. M. van Stokkum; Herbert van Amerongen; Marcus A. Hemminga

2010-01-01

338

Profiling of dynamics in protein-lipid-water systems: a time- resolved fluorescence study of a model membrane protein with the label BADAN at specific membrane depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiles of lipid-water bilayer dynamics were determined from picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectra of membrane-embedded BADAN-labeled M13 coat protein. For this purpose, the protein was labeled at seven key positions. This places the label at well-defined locations from the water phase to the center of the hydro- phobic acyl chain region of a phospholipid model mem- brane, providing us with a

Rob B. M. Koehorst; Sergey Laptenok; Bart van Oort; Arie van Hoek; Ruud B. Spruijt; Herbert van Amerongen; Marcus A. Hemminga

2009-01-01

339

Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

1992-04-01

340

[Development of the 60Co gamma-ray standard field for therapy-level dosimeter calibration in terms of absorbed dose to water (N(D,w))].  

PubMed

A primary standard for the absorbed dose rate to water in a 60Co gamma-ray field was established at National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in fiscal year 2011. Then, a 60Co gamma-ray standard field for therapy-level dosimeter calibration in terms of absorbed dose to water was developed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) as a secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL). The results of an IAEA/WHO TLD SSDL audit demonstrated that there was good agreement between NIRS stated absorbed dose to water and IAEA measurements. The IAEA guide based on the ISO standard was used to estimate the relative expanded uncertainty of the calibration factor for a therapy-level Farmer type ionization chamber in terms of absorbed dose to water (N(D,w)) with the new field. The uncertainty of N(D,w) was estimated to be 1.1% (k = 2), which corresponds to approximately one third of the value determined in the existing air kerma field. The dissemination of traceability of the calibration factor determined in the new field is expected to diminish the uncertainty of dose delivered to patients significantly. PMID:24568023

Fukumura, Akifumi; Mizuno, Hideyuki; Fukahori, Mai; Sakata, Suoh

2012-01-01

341

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

2011-05-05

342

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

343

Topic in Depth - Gyroscopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth explores gyroscopes and gyroscopic effect, from introductory materials about how gyroscopes are used in bicycles to research and commercial applications to hypothetical uses, such as in Rosie the Robot from The Jetsons cartoon.

2010-09-14

344

In Depth Winter Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Winter Weather is an In-Depth Special Report form the National Center for Atmospheric Research. It contains articles, images, activities, video clips, and interactive graphs to inform learners about meteorology and weather in the colder seasons.

2012-01-01

345

Dissolved organic sulphur in soil water under Pinus sylvestris L. and Fagus sylvatica L. stands innortheastern Bavaria, Germany variations with seasons and soil depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organically bound species have been identified as prominent and mobile forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in soils. Since a large portion of sulphur (S) in soil is bonded to carbon (C) also dissolved organic S likely is a significant constituent in soil water. To investigate the role of dissolved organic forms in leaching and cycling of S in forest soils,

Klaus Kaiser; Georg Guggenberger

2005-01-01

346

Insight from the Depths of the Straits of Florida: Assessing the Utility of Atlantic Deep-water Coral Geochemical Proxy Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis addresses the utility of deep-water coral geochemistry and its potential to reconstruct oceanographic conditions in the Straits of Florida. Through stable isotope and elemental analyses of the carbonate skeletons and use of available geochemical proxy calibration equations, present and past environmental parameters were determined. Over the last several years, scientific expeditions to the bottom of the Straits of

Angela D Rosenberg

2011-01-01

347

Seasonal and depth-dependent variations in the size and lipid contents of stage 5 copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus in the waters of the Newfoundland Shelf and the Labrador Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the variation in energy reserves of individual C5 copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus from the Newfoundland continental shelf and the Labrador Sea collected from surface and overwintering (or bottom) depths prior to, during and after the expected timing of the onset of diapause. Overall, the trend was for a decreasing average prosome length as the year progressed for all locations although the decline was smallest in the Labrador Sea and greatest in the deep waters of the continental shelf. The size of the oil sac was closely linked to the weight of the copepodite but the form of this relationship showed substantial variations with depth and season. We show a clear increase in the relative oil sac volume for C. finmarchicus between late spring and late summer, by which time some animals had descended to diapause depths. The progressive decrease in oil sac volume of animals sampled at depth in the Labrador Sea between September and December suggests a significant loss of energy reserves during diapause. From the distribution of volumes and body sizes in December we estimate that 23-53% of individuals would not be able to meet the energetic cost of moulting and early gonad development. Overall, some of our observations appear to invalidate earlier hypotheses concerning the governing role of lipids in the life history of C. finmarchicus. However, assessment of the factors that influence entry into dormancy should be based on the relative probabilities of alternative strategies for successful reproduction (e.g. entering dormancy vs. continuing into a second generation).

Pepin, Pierre; Head, Erica J. H.

2009-06-01

348

Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water Quality Investigation. 1. Depth to Bedrock Determinations Using Shallow Seismic Data Acquired in the Straight Creek Drainage Near Red River, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In late May and early June of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired four P-wave seismic profiles across the Straight Creek drainage near Red River, New Mexico. The data were acquired to support a larger effort to investigate baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality in the Red River basin (Nordstrom and others, 2002). For ground-water flow modeling, knowledge of the thickness of the valley fill material above the bedrock is required. When curved-ray refraction tomography was used with the seismic first arrival times, the resulting images of interval velocity versus depth clearly show a sharp velocity contrast where the bedrock interface is expected. The images show that the interpreted buried bedrock surface is neither smooth nor sharp, but it is clearly defined across the valley along the seismic line profiles. The bedrock models defined by the seismic refraction images are consistent with the well data.

Powers, Michael H.; Burton, Bethany L.

2004-01-01

349

USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, owan west l.g.a edo state. Nigeria USE of seismic refraction method for the determination of the depth of water table at ozalla, Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This Project research was carried out using seismic refraction method at st Patrick catholic church( site) ozalla owan west l.g.a Edo state. Nigeria A MCSEIS- 160M Seismograph was used as the recording instrument with 12 geophones as wave detectors in series with one another, each of 1.5m Perpendicular to a firing line of of36m long. but the geophones are spread at a predetermined distance. the impact of heavy metal(about 5kg) on a flat metal plate served as the source of artificial wave generation. The wave front method of interpretation was used in interpreting the field results at fine distance . Plot reveals that the subsurface under Investigation is three layers of velocities, 208ms-1 750ms-1 and 1250ms-1 for the first, second and third layers respectively. And the depth of the first and second layer is 12 .7m and 14.0m respectively. This investigation has further revealed that at approximately 27m from the surface a possible aquifer could be encountered, this result agreed with electrical resistivity Studies carried out in the past within the studied area.

Aikpitanyi, C. U.

2012-12-01

350

Application of a snowpack dynamic model to continuous-time data-series of snow depth and snow water equivalent from three weather stations in the upper Valtellina valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italian Alps, seasonal snowpack melting generates 40% - 70% of total water in reservoirs. This clarifies how much this process is relevant in the hydrological balance of northern Italy. Located in the central part of Italian Alps, the Valtellina valley has a relevant local production of hydroelectric power, a rich agricultural production and, thanks to its glaciers and the seasonal snowpack, it feeds river discharges towards the metropolitan area of Milan and the Po river basin, especially during spring and summer. Nonetheless, mainly because of scarce instrumentation, seasonal snow dynamics in the same area have been scarcely characterized in the past. Thus, potential impacts of climatic forcings on snowpack dynamics are widely unknown. In this contribution, we apply a simple one-dimensional model of snowpack density, depth and mass content (proposed by De Michele et al. 2013) to continuous-time data from three different sites placed in the upper Valtellina valley. Sites are placed in the western val Grosina valley (Malghera), eastern val Grosina valley (Eita) and in the Cancano valley (Val Cancano). At each site, snow depth, snow water equivalent, air temperature and precipitation are automatically logged, at a resolution of 15 minutes, by means of ultrasonic depth sensors, snow pillows, thermistors and heated rain gauges. The results of this application show that the model can be useful to investigate melting dynamics in Italian Alps, especially in areas of scarce instrumentation. De Michele, C., Avanzi, F., Ghezzi, A., and Jommi, C.: Investigating the dynamics of bulk snow density in dry and wet conditions using a one-dimensional model, The Cryosphere, 7, 433-444, doi:10.5194/tc-7-433-2013, 2013.

Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Bondiolotti, Ferdinando; Della Vedova, Giacomo

2014-05-01

351

Depth estimation for ordinary high water of streams in the Mobile District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Alabama and adjacent states  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage areas for about 1,600 surface-water sites on streams and lakes in Florida are contained in this report. The sites are generally either U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations or the mouths of gaged streas. Each site is identified by latitude and longitude, by the general stream type, and by the U.S. Geological Survey 7.5-minute topographic map on which it can be located. The gaging stations are furhter identified by a downstream order number, a county code, and a nearby city or town. In addition to drainage areas, the surface areas of lakes are shown for the elevation given on the topographic map. These data were retrieved from the Surface Water Index developed and maintained by the Hydrologic Surveillance section of the Florida District Office, U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)

Harkins, Joe R.; Green, Mark E.

1981-01-01

352

Topic in Depth - Harvesting the Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rain harvesting has experienced a bit of a renaissance in recent years through the promotion and installation of rain gardens and rain barrels. These water collection mechanisms help to curb erosion and the spread of pollution; conserve precious freshwater; and support water-loving plants. This Topic in Depth presents websites and electronic publications containing instructive and descriptive information about rain gardens and barrels.

2010-09-03

353

Treatment of zinc-rich acid mine water in low residence time bioreactors incorporating waste shells and methanol dosing.  

PubMed

Bioreactors utilising bacterially mediated sulphate reduction (BSR) have been widely tested for treating metal-rich waters, but sustained treatment of mobile metals (e.g. Zn) can be difficult to achieve in short residence time systems. Data are presented providing an assessment of alkalinity generating media (shells or limestone) and modes of metal removal in bioreactors receiving a synthetic acidic metal mine discharge (pH 2.7, Zn 15 mg/L, SO(4)(2-) 200mg/L, net acidity 103 mg/L as CaCO(3)) subject to methanol dosing. In addition to alkalinity generating media (50%, v.v.), the columns comprised an organic matrix of softwood chippings (30%), manure (10%) and anaerobic digested sludge (10%). The column tests showed sustained alkalinity generation, which was significantly better in shell treatments. The first column in each treatment was effective throughout the 422 days in removing >99% of the dissolved Pb and Cu, and effective for four months in removing 99% of the dissolved Zn (residence time: 12-14 h). Methanol was added to the feedstock after Zn breakthrough and prompted almost complete removal of dissolved Zn alongside improved alkalinity generation and sulphate attenuation. While there was geochemical evidence for BSR, sequential extraction of substrates suggests that the bulk (67-80%) of removed Zn was associated with Fe-Mn oxide fractions. PMID:21864976

Mayes, W M; Davis, J; Silva, V; Jarvis, A P

2011-10-15

354

Testing of the analytical anisotropic algorithm for photon dose calculation  

SciTech Connect

The analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) was implemented in the Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems) treatment planning system to replace the single pencil beam (SPB) algorithm for the calculation of dose distributions for photon beams. AAA was developed to improve the dose calculation accuracy, especially in heterogeneous media. The total dose deposition is calculated as the superposition of the dose deposited by two photon sources (primary and secondary) and by an electron contamination source. The photon dose is calculated as a three-dimensional convolution of Monte-Carlo precalculated scatter kernels, scaled according to the electron density matrix. For the configuration of AAA, an optimization algorithm determines the parameters characterizing the multiple source model by optimizing the agreement between the calculated and measured depth dose curves and profiles for the basic beam data. We have combined the acceptance tests obtained in three different departments for 6, 15, and 18 MV photon beams. The accuracy of AAA was tested for different field sizes (symmetric and asymmetric) for open fields, wedged fields, and static and dynamic multileaf collimation fields. Depth dose behavior at different source-to-phantom distances was investigated. Measurements were performed on homogeneous, water equivalent phantoms, on simple phantoms containing cork inhomogeneities, and on the thorax of an anthropomorphic phantom. Comparisons were made among measurements, AAA, and SPB calculations. The optimization procedure for the configuration of the algorithm was successful in reproducing the basic beam data with an overall accuracy of 3%, 1 mm in the build-up region, and 1%, 1 mm elsewhere. Testing of the algorithm in more clinical setups showed comparable results for depth dose curves, profiles, and monitor units of symmetric open and wedged beams below d{sub max}. The electron contamination model was found to be suboptimal to model the dose around d{sub max}, especially for physical wedges at smaller source to phantom distances. For the asymmetric field verification, absolute dose difference of up to 4% were observed for the most extreme asymmetries. Compared to the SPB, the penumbra modeling is considerably improved (1%, 1 mm). At the interface between solid water and cork, profiles show a better agreement with AAA. Depth dose curves in the cork are substantially better with AAA than with SPB. Improvements are more pronounced for 18 MV than for 6 MV. Point dose measurements in the thoracic phantom are mostly within 5%. In general, we can conclude that, compared to SPB, AAA improves the accuracy of dose calculations. Particular progress was made with respect to the penumbra and low dose regions. In heterogeneous materials, improvements are substantial and more pronounced for high (18 MV) than for low (6 MV) energies.

Esch, Ann van; Tillikainen, Laura; Pyykkonen, Jukka; Tenhunen, Mikko; Helminen, Hannu; Siljamaeki, Sami; Alakuijala, Jyrki; Paiusco, Marta; Iori, Mauro; Huyskens, Dominique P. [7Sigma, QA-team in Radiotherapy Physics, Belgium and Clinique Ste Elisabeth, Namur (Belgium); Varian Medical Systems, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Varian Medical Systems, Helsinki (Finland); San Maria Nuova Hospital, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Clinique Ste Elisabeth, Namur (Belgium)

2006-11-15

355

The depth of hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale for measuring hypnotic depth consisting of four subtests of five units each was arbitrarily assembled from earlier scales. A standard method of trance induction was used on 57 volunteer men and women subjects. It was found that while the earlier scales are individually inadequate, they supplement each other when taken in combination. The new scale reveals a distribution

J. W. Friedlander; T. R. Sarbin

1938-01-01

356

Determination of absorbed dose to water around a clinical HDR {sup 192}Ir source using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs demonstrates an LET dependence of detector response  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Experimental radiation dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in a {sup 60}Co or megavoltage (MV) photon beam, is recommended by AAPM TG-43U1for verification of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed doses around brachytherapy sources. However, it has been shown by Carlsson Tedgren et al.[Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] that for TLDs of LiF:Mg,Ti, detector response was 4% higher in a {sup 137}Cs beam than in a {sup 60}Co one. The aim of this work was to investigate if similar over-response exists when measuring absorbed dose to water around {sup 192}Ir sources, using LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters calibrated in a 6 MV photon beam. Methods: LiF dosimeters were calibrated to measure absorbed dose to water in a 6 MV photon beam and used to measure absorbed dose to water at distances of 3, 5, and 7 cm from a clinical high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Measured values were compared to values of absorbed dose to water calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS) including corrections for the difference in energy absorption properties between calibration quality and the quality in the users'{sup 192}Ir beam and for the use of a PMMA phantom instead of the water phantom underlying dose calculations in the TPS. Results: Measured absorbed doses to water around the {sup 192}Ir source were overestimated by 5% compared to those calculated by the TPS. Corresponding absorbed doses to water measured in a previous work with lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeters by Antonovic et al. [Med. Phys. 36, 2236-2247 (2009)], using the same irradiation setup and calibration procedure as in this work, were 2% lower than those calculated by the TPS. The results obtained in the measurements in this work and those obtained using the EPR lithium formate dosimeters were, within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty, in agreement with the values derived by the TPS. The discrepancy between the results using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs and the EPR lithium formate dosimeters was, however, statistically significant and in agreement with the difference in relative detector responses found for the two detector systems by Carlsson Tedgren et al. [Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] and by Adolfsson et al.[Med. Phys. 37, 4946-4959 (2010)]. Conclusions: When calibrated in {sup 60}Co or MV photon beams, correction for the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of LiF:Mg,Ti detector response will be needed as to measure absorbed doses to water in a {sup 192}Ir beam with highest accuracy. Such corrections will depend on the manufacturing process (MTS-N Poland or Harshaw TLD-100) and details of the annealing and read-out schemes used.

Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa; Elia, Rouba; Hedtjaern, Haakan; Olsson, Sara; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun [Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Department of Radiation Physics UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2012-02-15

357

Evaluating approaches for estimating peat depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of peat depth are required to inform understanding of peatland development, functioning, and ecosystem services such as carbon storage. However, there is a considerable lack of peat depth data at local, national, and global scales. Recent studies have attempted to address this knowledge deficit by using manual probing and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to estimate depth. Despite increasing application, little consideration has been given to the accuracy of either of these techniques. This study examines the accuracy of probing and GPR for measuring peat depth. Corresponding GPR and probing surveys were carried out at a catchment scale in a blanket peatland. GPR depth estimations, calibrated using common midpoint (CMP) surveys, were found to be on average 35% greater than probe measurements. The source of disagreement was found to be predominantly caused by depth probes becoming obstructed by artifacts within the peat body, although occasionally probing rods also penetrated sediments underlying the peat. Using the Complex Refractive Index Model, it was found that applying a single velocity of 0.036 m ns-1 across a single site may also result in -8 to +17% error in estimation of peat depth due to spatial variability in water content and porosity. It is suggested that GPR calibrated at each site using CMP surveys may provide a more accurate method for measuring peat depth.

Parry, L. E.; West, L. J.; Holden, J.; Chapman, P. J.

2014-04-01

358

A Study on the Dose Distributions in Various Materials from an Ir-192 HDR Brachytherapy Source  

PubMed Central

Dose distributions of 192Ir HDR brachytherapy in phantoms simulating water, bone, lung tissue, water-lung and bone-lung interfaces using the Monte Carlo codes EGS4, FLUKA and MCNP4C are reported. Experiments were designed to gather point dose measurements to verify the Monte Carlo results using Gafchromic film, radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter, solid water, bone, and lung phantom. The results for radial dose functions and anisotropy functions in solid water phantom were consistent with previously reported data (Williamson and Li). The radial dose functions in bone were affected more by depth than those in water. Dose differences between homogeneous solid water phantoms and solid water-lung interfaces ranged from 0.6% to 14.4%. The range between homogeneous bone phantoms and bone-lung interfaces was 4.1% to 15.7%. These results support the understanding in dose distribution differences in water, bone, lung, and their interfaces. Our conclusion is that clinical parameters did not provide dose calculation accuracy for different materials, thus suggesting that dose calculation of HDR treatment planning systems should take into account material density to improve overall treatment quality.

Hsu, Shih-Ming; Wu, Chin-Hui; Lee, Jeng-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Yu, Chun-Yen; Liao, Yi-Jen; Kuo, Li-Cheng

2012-01-01

359

A study on the dose distributions in various materials from an Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy source.  

PubMed

Dose distributions of (192)Ir HDR brachytherapy in phantoms simulating water, bone, lung tissue, water-lung and bone-lung interfaces using the Monte Carlo codes EGS4, FLUKA and MCNP4C are reported. Experiments were designed to gather point dose measurements to verify the Monte Carlo results using Gafchromic film, radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter, solid water, bone, and lung phantom. The results for radial dose functions and anisotropy functions in solid water phantom were consistent with previously reported data (Williamson and Li). The radial dose functions in bone were affected more by depth than those in water. Dose differences between homogeneous solid water phantoms and solid water-lung interfaces ranged from 0.6% to 14.4%. The range between homogeneous bone phantoms and bone-lung interfaces was 4.1% to 15.7%. These results support the understanding in dose distribution differences in water, bone, lung, and their interfaces. Our conclusion is that clinical parameters did not provide dose calculation accuracy for different materials, thus suggesting that dose calculation of HDR treatment planning systems should take into account material density to improve overall treatment quality. PMID:22957078

Hsu, Shih-Ming; Wu, Chin-Hui; Lee, Jeng-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Yu, Chun-Yen; Liao, Yi-Jen; Kuo, Li-Cheng; Liang, Ji-An; Huang, David Y C

2012-01-01

360

Characterization of surface oxides on water-atomized steel powder by XPS/AES depth profiling and nano-scale lateral surface analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of oxide products on the surface of water-atomized steel powder is essential in order to determine the reducing conditions required for their removal during the sintering stage which in turn will result in improved mechanical properties. Pre-alloyed powder with 3 wt% Cr and 0.5 wt% Mo was chosen as the model material. Investigation of the powder surface characteristics with regard to composition, morphology, size and distribution of surface oxides was performed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. The analysis revealed that the powder is covered by a homogeneous (˜6 nm thick) Fe-oxide layer to ˜94% whereas the rest is covered by fine particulate features with the size below 500 nm. These particulates were further analyzed and were divided into three main categories (i) Cr-based oxides with simultaneous presence of nitrogen, (ii) Si-based oxides of "hemispherical" shape and (iii) agglomerates of the afore mentioned oxides.

Chasoglou, D.; Hryha, E.; Norell, M.; Nyborg, L.

2013-03-01

361

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Relesed to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Chronic Releases from LLNL  

SciTech Connect

DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from routine atmospheric releases of HT and HTO. DCART is a deterministic model that, when coupled to the risk assessment software Crystal Ball{reg_sign}, predicts doses with a 95th percentile confidence interval. The equations used by DCART are described and all distributions on parameter values are presented. DCART has been tested against the results of other models and several sets of observations in the Tritium Working Group of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Biosphere Modeling and Assessment Programme. The version of DCART described here has been modified to include parameter values and distributions specific to conditions at LLNL. In future work, DCART will be used to reconstruct dose to the hypothetical maximally exposed individual from annual routine releases of HTO and HT from all LLNL facilities and from the Sandia National Laboratory's Tritium Research Laboratory over the last fifty years.

Peterson, S

2004-06-30

362

Depth energy and depth force relationships in open channel flows: Analytical findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work the depth-specific energy relationship and the depth-total force relationship in open channel flows of wide rectangular cross-section are analytically inverted. The nondimensional expressions of the specific energy and of the total force, as functions of the nondimensional water depth, are considered. The inversion of such functions consists of finding the roots of third degree algebraic equations; simple analytical solutions are obtained. More specifically, for a given specific discharge and for each meaningful value of the specific energy, a subcritical and a supercritical depth are found analytically. Similarly, for a given specific discharge and for each meaningful value of the total force, a subcritical and a supercritical depth are found analytically. For both functions, it is also shown that the third root corresponds to a negative depth, which can be discarded on the basis of physics. Examples from classical open channel hydraulics and a numerical application show the consistency of these analytical solutions.

Valiani, A.; Caleffi, V.

2008-03-01

363

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary  

SciTech Connect

Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an accidental release was calculated for a release of about 1,500 Ci HTO that occurred in October 1954. The likely dose for this release was probably less than 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem), but, because of many unknowns (e.g., release-specific meteorological and accidental conditions) and conservative assumptions, the uncertainty was very high. As a result, the upper confidence limit on the predictions, considered a dose that could not have been exceeded, was estimated to be 2 mSv (200 mrem). The next highest dose, from the 1970 accidental release of about 290,000 Ci (10,700 TBq) HT when wind speed and wind direction were known, was one-third as great. Doses from LLNL accidental releases were well below regulatory reporting limits. All doses, from both routine and accidental releases, were far below the level (3.6 mSv [360 mrem] per year) at which adverse health effects have been documented in the literature.

Peterson, S

2007-09-05

364

TRACEABILITY TO ABSORBED-DOSE-TO-WATER PRIMARY STANDARDS IN DOSIMETRY OF BRACHYTHERAPY SOURCES USED FOR RADIOTHERAPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current brachytherapy practice, the procedures to determine the absorbed dose imparted to the patient are affected by an uncertainty higher than in radiotherapy with external beams. That could reduce the success of brachytherapy treatments. Most of the uncertainty is due to a lacking metrology: no absorbed-dose primary standards are so far available to assure direct traceability in dosimetry

Maurizio Bovi; Maria Pia Toni; Isabelle Aubineau-Lanièce; Jean-Marc Bordy; João Cardoso; Bruno Chauvenet; Frantisek Gabris; Jan-Erik Grindborg; Antonio Stefano Guerra

365

Resolution and Color Depth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This computer interactive lets you explore the effect of changing the number of colors and resolution of a picture. You can see the picture in high quality (72 dots per inch), low quality (10 dpi), or in-between (30 dpi). You also can change the color depth from two colors to millions. Background information and extensions are provided, including connections to paintings by artists George Seurat and Roy Lichtenstein.

Omsi

2004-01-01

366

Variable depth core sampler  

DOEpatents

A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

1996-02-20

367

Variable depth core sampler  

DOEpatents

A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

1996-01-01

368

Measurement of dose distributions using film in therapeutic electron beams  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using film dosimetry data as the input data for patient treatment planning was evaluated. The central-axis depth dose and the off-axis ratios obtained from film measurements in a solid phantom were compared with those of ion-chamber measurements in water. Two techniques were used to generate isodose distributions. The first technique used only the film data, i.e., the central-axis depth dose and the off-axis ratios used for the reconstruction were determined from the film optical density (corrected for film nonlinearity). In the second technique, the central-axis depth dose measured by an ion chamber in a water phantom was combined with the off-axis ratios measured using film in the solid water'' phantom. The resulting isodose distributions from both techniques were compared with the ion-chamber measurements in water for 7-, 12-, and 18-MeV electrons, and the second technique showed better agreement with the ion-chamber measurements than did the first technique. The differences were within a clinically acceptable range.

Shiu, A.S.; Otte, V.A.; Hogstrom, K.R. (Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (US))

1989-11-01

369

Integrated Analysis of Flow, Temperature, and Specific-Conductance Logs and Depth-Dependent Water-Quality Samples from Three Deep Wells in a Fractured-Sandstone Aquifer, Ventura County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of flow, temperature, and specific-conductance logs and depth-dependent water-quality samples collected under ambient and pumped conditions provided a preliminary delineation of flow zones and water quality in three deep abandoned water-supply wells. The integrated analysis was completed as part of the characterization of a fractured-sandstone aquifer in the mountainous setting of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory in southern Ventura County, California. In the deepest well, which was 1,768 feet deep and had the highest specific capacity (120 gallons per minute per foot), flow zones were detected at 380 feet (base of casing) and at 440, 595, and 770 feet in the open hole. Under ambient conditions, measured flow was downward from the 380- and 440-foot zones to the 595- and 770-foot zones. Under pumped conditions, most of flow was contributed by the 595-foot zone. Flow from the 380- and 440-foot zones appeared to have lower specific conductance and higher trichloroethylene concentrations than that from the 595-foot zone. In the shallowest well, which was reportedly 940 feet deep but only logged to 915 feet due to blockage, flow zones were detected behind the perforated casing and at 867 feet in the open hole. Under ambient conditions, downward and upward flows appeared to exit at a zone behind the perforated casing at 708 feet. Most of the pumped flow was contributed from zones behind the perforated casing between 565 and 708 feet. Pumped flow also was contributed by zones at 867 feet and below the logged depth. Volatile organic compounds were not detected in the ambient and pumped flows. In the third well, which was 1,272 feet deep and had the lowest specific capacity (3.6 gallons per minute per foot), flow zones were detected in the open hole above and just below the water level near 337 feet and at 615, 785, 995, and 1,070 feet. Under ambient conditions, measured flow in well was downward from the shallowmost zones to the 995-foot zone. Fracture zones at 615, 785, and 995 feet each contributed about one-third of the pumped flow measured below the pump. Volatile organic compounds were not detected in the ambient and pumped flows.

Williams, John H.; Knutson, Kevin D.

2009-01-01

370

Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage.  

PubMed

The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

Shi, Bei-Xiao; Chen, Sheng-Shui; Han, Hua-Qiang; Zheng, Cheng-Feng

2014-01-01

371

Calculation of organ doses from breast cancer radiotherapy: a Monte Carlo study.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to: a) utilize Monte Carlo simulation methods for the assessment of radiation doses imparted to all organs at risk to develop secondary radiation induced cancer, for patients undergoing radiotherapy for breast cancer; and b) evaluate the effect of breast size on dose to organs outside the irradiation field. A simulated linear accelerator model was generated. The in-field accuracy of the simulated photon beam properties was verified against percentage depth dose (PDD) and dose profile measurements on an actual water phantom. Off-axis dose calculations were verified with thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements on a humanoid physical phantom. An anthropomorphic mathematical phantom was used to simulate breast cancer radiotherapy with medial and lateral fields. The effect of breast size on the calculated organ dose was investigated. Local differences between measured and calculated PDDs and dose profiles did not exceed 2% for the points at depths beyond the depth of maximum dose and the plateau region of the profile, respectively. For the penumbral regions of the dose profiles, the distance to agreement (DTA) did not exceed 2 mm. The mean difference between calculated out-of-field doses and TLD measurements was 11.4% ± 5.9%. The calculated doses to peripheral organs ranged from 2.32 cGy up to 161.41 cGy depending on breast size and thus the field dimensions applied, as well as the proximity of the organs to the primary beam. An increase to the therapeutic field area by 50% to account for the large breast led to a mean organ dose elevation by up to 85.2% for lateral exposure. The contralateral breast dose ranged between 1.4% and 1.6% of the prescribed dose to the tumor. Breast size affects dose deposition substantially. PMID:23318389

Berris, Theocharis; Mazonakis, Michael; Stratakis, John; Tzedakis, Antonios; Fasoulaki, Anastasia; Damilakis, John

2013-01-01

372

Dose point kernels in liquid water: an intra-comparison between GEANT4-DNA and a variety of Monte Carlo codes.  

PubMed

Modeling the radio-induced effects in biological medium still requires accurate physics models to describe the interactions induced by all the charged particles present in the irradiated medium in detail. These interactions include inelastic as well as elastic processes. To check the accuracy of the very low energy models recently implemented into the GEANT4 toolkit for modeling the electron slowing-down in liquid water, the simulation of electron dose point kernels remains the preferential test. In this context, we here report normalized radial dose profiles, for mono-energetic point sources, computed in liquid water by using the very low energy "GEANT4-DNA" physics processes available in the GEANT4 toolkit. In the present study, we report an extensive intra-comparison of profiles obtained by a large selection of existing and well-documented Monte-Carlo codes, namely, EGSnrc, PENELOPE, CPA100, FLUKA and MCNPX. PMID:23478094

Champion, C; Incerti, S; Perrot, Y; Delorme, R; Bordage, M C; Bardiès, M; Mascialino, B; Tran, H N; Ivanchenko, V; Bernal, M; Francis, Z; Groetz, J-E; Fromm, M; Campos, L

2014-01-01