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1

Neon-20 depth-dose relations in water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dose from heavy ion beams has been calculated using a one-dimensional transport theory and evaluated for 670 MeV/amu 20 Ne beams in water. The result is presented so as to be applicable to arbitrary ions for which the necessary interaction data are known. The present evaluation is based on thar Silberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters augmented with light fragment production from intranuclear cascades, recently calculated nuclear absorption cross sections, and evaluated stopping power data. Comparison with recent experimental data obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory reveals the need for more accurate fragmentation data.

Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Howard, J.

1984-01-01

2

In-air fluence profiles and water depth dose for uncollimated electron beams  

PubMed Central

Advanced electron beam dose calculation models for radiation treatment planning systems require the input of a phase space beam model to configure a clinical electron beam in a computer. This beam model is a distribution in position, energy, and direction of electrons and photons in a plane in front of the patient. The phase space beam model can be determined by Monte Carlo simulation of the treatment head or from a limited set of measurements. In the latter case, parameters of the electron phase space beam model are obtained by fitting measured to calculated dosimetric data. In the present work, data for air fluence profiles and water depth doses have been presented for electron beams without an applicator for a medical linear accelerator. These data are used to parameterize the electron phase space beam model to a Monte Carlo dose calculation module available in the first commercial (MDS Nordion, now Nucletron) Monte Carlo treatment planning for electron beams. PMID:19893707

Toutaoui, Abedelkadar; Aichouche, Amar Nassim; Adjidir, Kenza Adjidir; Chami, Ahmed Chafik

2008-01-01

3

The LNE-LNHB water calorimeter for primary measurement of absorbed dose at low depth in water: application to medium-energy x-rays.  

PubMed

Water calorimeters are used to establish absorbed dose standards in several national metrology laboratories involved in ionizing radiation dosimetry. These calorimeters have been first used in high-energy photons of (60)Co or accelerator beams, where the depth of measurement in water is large (5 or 10 cm). The LNE-LNHB laboratory has developed a specific calorimeter which makes measurements at low depth in water (down to 0.5 cm) easier, in order to fulfil the reference conditions required by the international dosimetry protocols for medium-energy x-rays. This new calorimeter was first used to measure the absorbed dose rate in water at a depth of 2 cm for six medium-energy x-ray reference beams with a tube potential from 80 to 300 kV. The relative combined standard uncertainty obtained on the absorbed dose rate to water is lower than 0.8%. An overview of the design of the calorimeter is given, followed by a detailed description of the calculation of the correction factors and the calorimetric measurements. PMID:23562978

Rapp, B; Perichon, N; Denoziere, M; Daures, J; Ostrowsky, A; Bordy, J-M

2013-05-01

4

Absolute depth-dose-rate measurements for an {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy source in water using MOSFET detectors  

SciTech Connect

Reported MOSFET measurements concern mostly external radiotherapy and in vivo dosimetry. In this paper, we apply the technique for absolute dosimetry in the context of HDR brachytherapy using an {sup 192}Ir source. Measured radial dose rate distributions in water for different planes perpendicular to the source axis are presented and special attention is paid to the calibration of the R and K type detectors, and to the determination of appropriate correction factors for the sensitivity variation with the increase of the threshold voltage and the energy dependence. The experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo simulated dose rate distributions. The experimental results show a good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations: the discrepancy between experimental and Monte Carlo results being within 5% for 82% of the points and within 10% for 95% of the points. Moreover, all points except two are found to lie within the experimental uncertainties, confirming thereby the quality of the results obtained.

Zilio, Valery Olivier; Joneja, Om Parkash; Popowski, Youri; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Chawla, Rakesh [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Physique des Reacteurs et de Comportement des Systemes, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Physique des Reacteurs et de Comportement des Systemes, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory of Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Radio-oncology Division, University of Geneva Hospital, CH-1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522 Australia (Australia); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Physique des Reacteurs et de Comportement des Systemes, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory of Reactor Physics and Systems Behaviour, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

2006-06-15

5

Experimental determination of depth-scaling factors and central axis depth dose for clinical electron beams.  

PubMed

Depth-scaling factors rho(eff) for clear polystyrene and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantoms have been determined experimentally as a function of nominal electron-beam energy in the range 6 to 22 MeV. Values of rho(eff) have been calculated from the ratio rho(eff) = R(wat)(50) / R(med)(50), where R(wat)(50) and R(med)(50) are the measured depths of 50% ionization in electron solid water and plastic (clear polystyrene and PMMA) phantoms, respectively. Measurements were made using an Attix chamber in an electron solid water phantom, a Holt chamber in a clear polystyrene phantom, and a Markus chamber in a PMMA phantom. The average value of measured rho(poly)(eff) was found to be 0.999 +/- 0.009. This is higher than the value of 0.975 recommended by Task Group 25 (TG-25) of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) by 2.5%. Depending on energy, the maximum differences between the AAPM TG-25-recommended and the measured values lie in the range 1% to 3.5%. Similarly, the average value of measured rho(PMMA)(eff) was found to be 1.168 +/- 0.023. This is higher than the AAPM TG-25-recommended value of 1.115, by 5%. Depending on energy, the maximum differences between the AAPM TG-25-recommended and the measured values lie in the range 3% to 8%. Central axis depth dose curves in water were generated for 6, 15, and 20 MeV electron beams from measured depth-ionization data in PMMA and clear polystyrene phantoms following the recommendations of the AAPM TG-25 report and using both TG-25-recommended and experimentally determined values of depth-scaling factors rho(eff). For both phantoms, either the TG-25-recommended value or the experimentally determined values of rho(eff) yielded agreement to within about 2 mm among all depth doses in water at the depths of clinical relevance. PMID:11474497

Huq, M S; Yue, N; Suntharalingam, N

2001-08-20

6

Absorbed dose water calorimeter.  

PubMed

Advantage was taken of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the imperviousness of polyethylene film to water to construct a calorimeter for directly measuring absorbed dose in that medium. An ultrasmall bead thermistor was sandwiched between two thin films stretched on polystyrene rings and immersed in an unregulated water bath. Ten cobalt-60 irradiation runs were made with a precision of 0.5% mean error of the mean at a dose rate of 66 mGy/s. Further development is directed toward a standard instrument that can be used in a medical therapy beam. PMID:7382919

Domen, S R

1980-01-01

7

Determination of depth-dose curves in beta dosimetry.  

PubMed

In beta dosimetry, the absorbed dose rate changes rapidly with the depth in a given medium. Its knowledge is essential for the full characterisation of the beta reference fields and the evaluation of the response of beta detectors. This work presents a general formalism for the precise determination of beta depth-dose curves by means of ionisation chamber measurements. An extrapolation chamber is not required. The formalism is appropriate for the determination of the full range depth-dose curve of up to 10 mm depth and more, when all electrons are stopped. Particular care was taken for the determination of the correction factors for the ISO 6980 reference fields, which are the most common beta reference fields. The formalism is proved experimentally: The depth-dose curves of all beta sources available at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) were determined and compared with the curves published in ISO 6980, yielding an excellent agreement. The presented formalism reflects the state-of-the-art of depth-dose measurements at the PTB. PMID:22267273

Brunzendorf, Jens

2012-08-01

8

High-energy neutron depth-dose distribution experiment.  

PubMed

A unique set of high-energy neutron depth-dose benchmark experiments were performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center/Weapons Neutron Research (LANSCE/WNR) complex. The experiments consisted of filtered neutron beams with energies up to 800 MeV impinging on a 30 x 30 x 30 cm3 liquid, tissue-equivalent phantom. The absorbed dose was measured in the phantom at various depths with tissue-equivalent ion chambers. This experiment is intended to serve as a benchmark experiment for the testing of high-energy radiation transport codes for the international radiation protection community. PMID:14756177

Ferenci, M S; Hertel, N E

2003-01-01

9

Calculated depth dose tables for californium-252 sources in tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth dose tables for 252Cf sources of various designs currently available for use in radiotherapy have been calculated. Tables are presented for 5 cm along the transverse axis and 5 cm along the source axis in steps of 0.5 cm. Gamma-dose due to the primary gamma -rays includes a correction for the self-absorption in the platinum- iridium wire on which

V. Krishnaswamy

1972-01-01

10

The nth root percent depth dose method for calculating monitor units for irregularly shaped electron fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study outlines an improved method for calculating dose per monitor unit values for irregularly shaped electron fields using the nth root percent depth dose method. This method calculates the percent depth dose and output factors for an irregularly shaped electron field directly from the measured electron beam percent depth dose curves and output factors for circular fields. The percent

Than S. Kehwar; M. Saiful Huq

2008-01-01

11

Verification of percentage depth dose of MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter with electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work investigation of the normoxic MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter has been undertaken. Using MRI, the formulation to give the maximum change in the transverse relaxation rate R2 was determined to be 8% gelatin, 0.5% agarose, 9% methacrylic acid, 0.0352% ascorbic acid, 0.0015% CuSO4.5H2O, 0.002% hydroquinone and 82.3% HPLC(Water).When the preparation of final polymer gel solution is completed, it is transferred into phantoms and allowed to set by storage in a refrigerator at about 4C°. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be 1 day. The R2-dose response was linear to 4000cGy. The response of the MAGICA gel is very similar in the lower dose region and The R2-dose response for doses less than 250cGy is not exact. The R2-dose response of the MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter is linear between 500 to 1750 cGy with R2-dose sensitivities of 0.0020 and 0.0023S-1 cGy-1 when imaged at 1and 8 days post-irradiation respectively. In this study, the percentage depth dose (PDD) of MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter is determined and different phantoms of MAGICA gels was irradiated to 1000cGy of doses by 6, 8, 12 and 18MeV electrons and The maximum percentage depth dose (PDD) is located at the depths of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3cm.

Adinehvand, K.; Aghamiri, M. R.; Zahmatkesh, M. H.; Akhlaghpor, S. H.

2009-05-01

12

Measurement of depth-dose of linear accelerator and simulation by use of Geant4 computer code  

PubMed Central

Radiation therapy is an established method of cancer treatment. New technologies in cancer radiotherapy need a more accurate computation of the dose delivered in the radiotherapy treatment plan. This study presents some results of a Geant4-based application for simulation of the absorbed dose distribution given by a medical linear accelerator (LINAC). The LINAC geometry is accurately described in the Monte Carlo code with use of the accelerator manufacturer's specifications. The capability of the software for evaluating the dose distribution has been verified by comparisons with measurements in a water phantom; the comparisons were performed for percentage depth dose (PDD) and profiles for various field sizes and depths, for a 6-MV electron beam. Experimental and calculated dose values were in good agreement both in PDD and in transverse sections of the water phantom. PMID:24376926

Sardari, D.; Maleki, R.; Samavat, H.; Esmaeeli, A.

2010-01-01

13

Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial base-line field test performance results of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the bathymetry mode are presented. Flight tests over the Atlantic Ocean yielded water depth measurements to 10 m. Water depths to 4.6 m were measured in the more turbid Chesapeake Bay. Water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat were

F. E. Hoge; Robert N. Swift; Earl B. Frederick

1980-01-01

14

ToF-SIMS Depth Profiling of Trehalose: The Effect of Analysis Beam Dose on the Quality of Depth Profiles  

PubMed Central

In static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) experiments, an analysis dose of 1012 ions/cm2 typically produces optimum results. However, the same dose used in dual beam depth profiling can significantly degrade the signal. This is because during each analysis cycle a high-energy beam is rastered across the same x-y location on the sample. If a sufficient amount of sample is not removed during each sputter cycle, the subsequent analysis cycle will sample a volume degraded by the previous analysis cycles. The dimensionless parameter R’ is used to relate the amount of damage accumulated in the sample to the amount of analysis beam dose used relative to the etching beam. Depth profiles from trehalose films spin-cast onto silicon wafers acquired using Bi1+ and Bi3+ analysis beams were compared. As R’ increased, the depth profile and the depth resolution (interface width) both degraded. At R’ values below 0.04 for both Bi1+ and Bi3+, the shape of the profile as well as the depth resolution (9 nm) indicated that dual beam analysis can be superior to C60 single beam depth profiling. PMID:22016576

Muramoto, Shin; Brison, Jeremy; Castner, David

2011-01-01

15

Photometric and polarimetric mapping of water turbidity and water depth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Digital Photometric Mapper (DPM) was used in the Fall of 1971 in an airborne survey of New York and Boston area waters to acquire photometric, spectral and polarimetric data. The object of this study is to analyze these data with quantitative computer processing techniques to assess the potential of the DPM in the measurement and regional mapping of water turbidity and depth. These techniques have been developed and an operational potential has been demonstrated. More emphasis is placed at this time on the methodology of data acquisition, analysis and display than on the quantity of data. The results illustrate the type, quantity and format of information that could be generated operationally with the DPM-type sensor characterized by high photometric stability and fast, accurate digital output. The prototype, single-channel DPM is suggested as a unique research tool for a number of new applications. For the operational mapping of water turbidity and depth, the merits of a multichannel DPM coupled with a laser system are stressed.

Halajian, J.; Hallock, H.

1973-01-01

16

Nuclear-interaction correction of integrated depth dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In treatment planning of charged-particle therapy, tissue heterogeneity is conventionally modeled as water with various densities, i.e. stopping effective densities {?\\text{S}}, and the integrated depth dose measured in water (IDD) is applied accordingly for the patient dose calculation. Since the chemical composition of body tissues is different from that of water, this approximation causes dose calculation errors, especially due to difference in nuclear interactions. Here, we propose and validate an IDD correction method for these errors in patient dose calculations. For accurate handling of nuclear interactions, {?\\text{S}} of the patient is converted to nuclear effective density {?\\text{N}}, defined as the ratio of the probability of nuclear interactions in the tissue to that in water using a recently formulated semi-empirical relationship between the two. The attenuation correction factor ? \\text{w}\\text{p}, defined as the ratio of the attenuation of primary carbon ions in a patient to that in water, is calculated from a linear integration of {?\\text{N}} along the beam path. In our treatment planning system, a carbon-ion beam is modeled to be composed of three components according to their transverse beam sizes: primary carbon ions, heavier fragments, and lighter fragments. We corrected the dose contribution from primary carbon ions to IDD as proportional to ? \\text{w}\\text{p}, and corrected that from lighter fragments as inversely proportional to ? \\text{w}\\text{p}. We tested the correction method for some non-water materials, e.g. milk, lard, ethanol and water solution of potassium phosphate (K2HPO4), with un-scanned and scanned carbon-ion beams. In un-scanned beams, the difference in IDD between a beam penetrating a 150?mm-thick layer of lard and a beam penetrating water of the corresponding thickness amounted to ?4%, while it was +6% for a 150?mm-thick layer of 40% K2HPO4. The observed differences were accurately predicted by the correction method. The corrected IDDs agreed with the measurements within ±1% for all materials and combinations of them. In scanned beams, the dose estimation error in target dose amounted to 4% for a 150?mm-thick layer of 40% K2HPO4. The error is significantly reduced with the correction method. The planned dose distributions with the method agreed with the measurements within ±1.5% of target dose for all materials not only in the target region but also in the plateau and fragment-tail regions. We tested the correction method of IDD in some non-water materials to verify that this method would offer the accuracy and simplicity required in carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning.

Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Hara, Y.; Furukawa, T.

2015-01-01

17

SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE OF ALFALFA GROWN UNDER DIFFERENT WATER TABLE DEPTHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to determine the growth response and water use effeciency of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown in the field under four water table levels and two rates of water supply under the climatic condition of Al-Hassa oasis in Saudi Ara- bia. The potential use and management of water table depth, to function as sub-irrigation

Y. Y. Aldakheel; A. H. Assaedi; M. A. Al-Abdussalam

18

Low energy electron generator design and depth dose prediction for micro-superficies tumors treatment purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate deposited energy and linear energy transfer (LET) of low energy ejection electrons in air and water layers of a generator design via a plasma source. A structured model of a concave cold cathode electron generator was designed and simulated by using Monte Carlo n-particle version X 2.7.0 (MCNPX) code. A negative dc high voltage was applied to a concave cathode up to -12 kV to determine electron energy activity. Results determined that the geometric dimensions of field size toward the anode increased in relation to the angle of the conic beam, widening the accumulated bulks. The increased field size increased the anode current, which also resulted in an increase of electron energy, a reduction in LET, a stretched build-up area and a dose curve that shifted to a higher depth. The biological effect of low energy electron radiation can be increased with an increase of LET; as the depth dose decreased, the electron energy increased at the same time. The study of electron irradiation as a conic beam from an electron generator may provide an accurate investigation of the indirect effect of low energy electrons on bystander cells.

Khorshidi, Abdollah; Rajaee, Azimeh; Ahmadinejad, Marjan; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Ettelaee, Mehdi

2014-09-01

19

Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW30013, NACP-02, and Roos chambers agreed well with that of water by using the optimal EPOM. Therefore, the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers can be expected for PDD measurements in clinical electron beams.

Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan)

2011-08-15

20

ConcepTest: Ice Sheets and Water Depth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ice sheets covered much of the Northern Hemisphere one million years ago during part of the last ice age. How did this affect the depth of water in the oceans? a. Oceans were shallower than today b. Oceans were ...

21

A depth-dependent formula for shallow water propagation.  

PubMed

In shallow water propagation, the sound field depends on the proximity of the receiver to the sea surface, the seabed, the source depth, and the complementary source depth. While normal mode theory can predict this depth dependence, it can be computationally intensive. In this work, an analytical solution is derived in terms of the Faddeeva function by converting a normal mode sum into an integral based on a hypothetical continuum of modes. For a Pekeris waveguide, this approach provides accurate depth dependent propagation results (especially for the surface decoupling) without requiring complex calculation methods for eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions. PMID:25096092

Sertlek, Hüseyin Özkan; Ainslie, Michael A

2014-08-01

22

Linking carbon and nitrogen metabolism to depth distribution of submersed macrophytes using high ammonium dosing tests and a lake survey  

PubMed Central

Strategies of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilisation are among the factors determining plant distribution. It has been argued that submersed macrophytes adapted to lower light environments are more efficient in maintaining C metabolic homeostasis due to their conservative C strategy and ability to balance C shortage. We studied how depth distributions of 12 submersed macrophytes in Lake Erhai, China, were linked to their C-N metabolic strategies when facing acute dosing. dosing changed C-N metabolism significantly by decreasing the soluble carbohydrate (SC) content and increasing the -N and free amino acid (FAA) content of plant tissues.The proportional changes in SC contents in the leaves and FAA contents in the stems induced by dosing were closely correlated (positive for SC and negative for FAA) with the colonising water depths of the plants in Lake Erhai, the plants adapted to lower light regimes being more efficient in maintaining SC and FAA homeostasis.These results indicate that conservative carbohydrate metabolism of submersed macrophytes allowed the plants to colonise greater water depths in eutrophic lakes, where low light availability in the water column diminishes carbohydrate production by the plants.

Yuan, Guixiang; Cao, Te; Fu, Hui; Ni, Leyi; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Wei; Song, Xin; Xie, Ping; Jeppesen, Erik

2013-01-01

23

Shallow water table depth algorithm in SWAT: Recent developments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of the shallow water table depth (wtd) is crucial in many studies including determination of optimum irrigation and drainage management systems for agricultural production, farm machine trafficability, and water quality due to agricultural chemical transport and soil salinity. Therefore, i...

24

On cusped solitary waves in finite water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that the Camassa-Holm (CH) equation admits both of the peaked and cusped solitary waves in shallow water. However, it was an open question whether or not the exact wave equations can admit them in finite water depth. Besides, it was traditionally believed that cusped solitary waves, whose 1st-derivative tends to infinity at crest, are essentially different from peaked solitary ones with finite 1st-derivative. Currently, based on the symmetry and the exact water wave equations, Liao [1] proposed a unified wave model (UWM) for progressive gravity waves in finite water depth. The UWM admits not only all traditional smooth progressive waves but also the peaked solitary waves in finite water depth: in other words, the peaked solitary progressive waves are consistent with the traditional smooth ones. In this paper, in the frame of the linearized UWM, we give, for the first time, some explicit expressions of cusped solitary waves in finite water depth, and besides reveal a close relationship between the cusped and peaked solitary waves: a cusped solitary wave is consist of an infinite number of peaked solitary ones with the same phase speed, so that it can be regarded as a special peaked solitary wave. This also well explains why and how a cuspon has an infinite 1st-derivative at crest. Besides, it is found that, when wave height is small enough, the effect of nonlinearity is negligible for the interaction of peaked waves so that these explicit expressions are good enough approximations of peaked/cusped solitary waves in finite water depth. In addition, like peaked solitary waves, the vertical velocity of a cusped solitary wave in finite water depth is also discontinuous at crest (x=0), and especially its phase speed has nothing to do with wave height, too. All of these would deepen and enrich our understandings about the cusped solitary waves.

Liao, Shijun

2015-03-01

25

Measurement of the dose deposition characteristics of x-ray fluoroscopy beams in water.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize the x-ray dose distribution of fluoroscopy beams by measuring their percent depth dose curves and lateral dose profiles in a water phantom. Percent depth dose curves were measured near the surface with an Attix parallel plate chamber and deep within the water phantom with a Farmer-type cylindrical chamber. Percent depth dose curves were compared to published data where applicable. Lateral dose profiles were measured at depths of 2, 5, 10, and 15 cm in phantom with a Farmer chamber. Pulsed, 50 mA x-ray beams with peak tube potentials of 60, 80, 100, and 120 kV and half value layers of 1.89, 2.52, 3.20, and 4.09 mm Al, respectively, were investigated. PMID:11243345

Fetterly, K A; Gerbi, B J; Alaei, P; Geise, R A

2001-02-01

26

Shallow water depth retrieval from space-borne SAR imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on shallow water bathymetry synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging mechanism and the microwave scattering imaging model\\u000a for oceanic surface features, we developed a new method for shallow water depth retrieval from space-borne SAR images. The\\u000a first guess of surface currents and winds are estimated from the normalized radar crossing section (NRCS) profile of shallow\\u000a water bathymetry SAR imagery, according

Kaiguo FanWeigen; Weigen Huang; Hui Lin; Jiayi Pan; Bin Fu; Yanzhen Gu

27

Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties  

E-print Network

Hyperspectral remote sensing for shallow waters: 2. Deriving bottom depths and water properties very well in retrieving in-water optical properties and bottom depths from above-surface hyperspectral, and the optical properties of the water col- umn have to be known or derived. In earlier studies1­8 values

Lee, Zhongping

28

Mapping water table depth using geophysical and environmental variables.  

PubMed

Despite its importance, accurate representation of the spatial distribution of water table depth remains one of the greatest deficiencies in many hydrological investigations. Historically, both inverse distance weighting (IDW) and ordinary kriging (OK) have been used to interpolate depths. These methods, however, have major limitations: namely they require large numbers of measurements to represent the spatial variability of water table depth and they do not represent the variation between measurement points. We address this issue by assessing the benefits of using stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR) with three different ancillary data sets to predict the water table depth at 100-m intervals. The ancillary data sets used are Electromagnetic (EM34 and EM38), gamma radiometric: potassium (K), uranium (eU), thorium (eTh), total count (TC), and morphometric data. Results show that MLR offers significant precision and accuracy benefits over OK and IDW. Inclusion of the morphometric data set yielded the greatest (16%) improvement in prediction accuracy compared with IDW, followed by the electromagnetic data set (5%). Use of the gamma radiometric data set showed no improvement. The greatest improvement, however, resulted when all data sets were combined (37% increase in prediction accuracy over IDW). Significantly, however, the use of MLR also allows for prediction in variations in water table depth between measurement points, which is crucial for land management. PMID:18793206

Buchanan, S; Triantafilis, J

2009-01-01

29

Monte Carlo simulation of depth dose distribution in several organic models for boron neutron capture therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate depth-dose distributions for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ICRU computational model of ADAM & EVA was used as a phantom to simulate tumors at a depth of 5 cm in central regions of the lungs, liver and pancreas. Tumors of the prostate and osteosarcoma were also centered at the depth of 4.5 and 2.5 cm in the phantom models. The epithermal neutron beam from a research reactor was the primary neutron source for the MCNP calculation of the depth-dose distributions in those cancer models. For brain tumor irradiations, the whole-body dose was also evaluated. The MCNP simulations suggested that a lethal dose of 50 Gy to the tumors can be achieved without reaching the tolerance dose of 25 Gy to normal tissue. The whole-body phantom calculations also showed that the BNCT could be applied for brain tumors without significant damage to whole-body organs.

Matsumoto, T.

2007-09-01

30

Depth  

PubMed Central

Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space—a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues. PMID:23145244

Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

2011-01-01

31

A comparison of depth dependence of dose and linear energy transfer spectra in aluminum and polyethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A set of four tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), with their detector heads at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 7 and 9-inch-diameter aluminum spheres, were flown on Shuttle flight STS-89. Five such detectors at the centers of polyethylene spheres were flown 1 year earlier on STS-81. The results of dose-depth dependence for the two materials convincingly show the merits of using material rich in hydrogen to decrease the radiation exposure to the crew. A comparison of the calculated galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates using the radiation transport code HZETRN with nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 and the measured GCR absorbed dose rates and dose-equivalent rates shows that they agree within root mean square (rms) error of 12.5 and 8.2%, respectively. However, there are significant depth-dependent differences in the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. A comparison for trapped protons using the proton transport code BRYNTRN and the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model shows a systematic bias, with the model underpredicting dose and dose-equivalent rates. These results show the need for improvements in the radiation transport and/or fragmentation models.

Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.

2000-01-01

32

Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system.  

PubMed

Initial base-line field test performance results of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the bathymetry mode are presented. Flight tests over the Atlantic Ocean yielded water depth measurements to 10 m. Water depths to 4.6 m were measured in the more turbid Chesapeake Bay. Water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat were taken at the same time as the aircraft overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. Beam attenuation coefficient a and depth d product alphad was established early in the program as the performance criterion index. A performance product of 6 was determined to be the goal. This performance goal was successfully met or exceeded in the large number of field tests executed. Included are selected data from nadir-angle tests conducted at 0 degrees , 5 degrees , 10 degrees , and 15 degrees . Field-of-view data chosen from the 2-, 5-, 10-, and 20-mrad tests are also presented. Depth measurements obtained to altitudes of 456 m are given for additional comparison. This laser bathymetry system represents a significant improvement over prior models in that (1) the complete surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape at a rate of 400 pulse waveforms/sec, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using the 30 degrees full-angle conical scanner. Space does not allow all the 5,000,000 laser soundings to be included. Qualified interested users may obtain complete data sets for their own in-depth analysis. PMID:20220950

Hoge, F E; Swift, R N; Frederick, E B

1980-03-15

33

Adsorption depth profile of water on thermoplastic starch films  

SciTech Connect

It is well known that petroleum derived polymers are primary environmental contaminants. The study of new packing biodegradable materials has been the object of numerous papers in past years. Some of these new materials are the thermoplastic films derived from wheat starch. In the present paper, the authors study some of properties of wheat starch thermoplastic films, with various amounts of absorbed water, using photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The absorption depth profile of water in the starch substrate is determined for samples having a variable water level.

Bonno, B.; Laporte, J.L.; Paris, D.; D'Leon, R.T.

2000-01-01

34

Mechanisms of wave transformation in finite-depth water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mechanisms of wave transformation in finite-depth water are investigated. The linear mechanisms examined are percolation, bottom motion, shoaling, and refraction. The nonlinear mechanisms examined are wave-wave interaction and bottom friction. New exact computations of the nonlinear transfer for finite-depth waves are presented for some directional wave spectra. These mechanisms are found to explain satisfactorily wave decay observations obtained at several sites with different bottom sediment properties. The decay rates at these sites are found to be dominated by different mechanisms which are determined by the bottom conditions. As an example, detailed calculations are presented for data obtained at the Jonswap site.

Shemdin, O. H.; Hsiao, S. V.; Carlson, H. E.; Hasselmann, K.; Schulze, K.

1980-01-01

35

Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp -1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

1995-01-01

36

Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite  

SciTech Connect

Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp {minus}1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD`s) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

Watts, J.W. Jr.; Parnell, T.A.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Benton, E.V.; Frank, A.L. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation); [San Francisco Univ., CA (United States)

1995-03-01

37

Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day-1 have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) of U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. manufacture. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.; Watts, J. W. Jr; Parnell, T. A.

1990-01-01

38

Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

1980-01-01

39

Comparison of water depth detection results with SAR and TM images in Taiwan Shoal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water depth of the shallow water area can be reflected in SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) imagery and TM imagery. The water depth can be detected by SAR and by TM. The water depth SAR detection is based on the mathematical model describing the movement of tidal current and the interaction between the Radar's microwave and the micro-scale waves in the sea surface. The water depth TM detection is based on the relation between the water depth and the gray value of TM image. In order to testify the capability of the water depth detection by SAR and by TM, one area in Taiwan Shoal, which locates in 118.55°~118.75°E, 23.0°~23.3°N, is taken as the study area for the water depth detection by SAR and by TM. The detection results shows that SAR image and TM image also can be used in the water depth detection, but the detection results by SAR is better than by TM and the largest water depth detected by SAR is larger than by TM. The water depth TM detection result based on several typical real water depths includes the large-scale information of underwater topography, and this can be used in the water depth SAR detection as the initial water depth. A new water depth detection method combing SAR image, TM image and several typical real water depths is concluded.

Yang, Jungang; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Junmin

2007-11-01

40

Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

2010-08-01

41

Compact water depth sensor with LPFG using the photoelastic effect and heat-shrinkable tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a compact water depth sensor with a long period fiber grating (LPFG) using a heat-shrinkable tube. The pressure property of the LPFG is investigated experimentally to confirm the feasibility of the water depth sensor. Moreover, the water depth in the 2m long water-filled pipe is successfully estimated by the proposed water sensors.

Takama, Shinya; Kudomi, Takamasa; Ohashi, Masaharu; Miyoshi, Yuji

2011-12-01

42

Calculated and measured depth dose profiles in a phantom exposed to neutron radiation fields  

SciTech Connect

An accurate evaluation of doses caused by external sources of neutron radiation depends on knowledge of the transport of radiation inside the human body. Health physicists use two primary methods for studying this radiation transport: computer calculations and measurements. Both computer calculations and measurements were performed under well controlled, nearly identical conditions to determine the extent of their agreement. A comparison of the dose profiles predicted by both measurements and calculations was thus possible. The measurements were performed in a cylindrical phantom made of tissue equivalent plastic. The phantom size, 61 cm high and 30 cm in diameter, was chosen to approximate the human torso and to match the dimensions of cylindrical phantoms used by previous calculations. Holes were drilled down through the phantom to accommodate small tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) at various depths in the phantom. These counters were used to measure the neutron dose inside the phantom when it was exposed to various sources of neutrons. The holes in the phantom could also accommodate miniature Geiger-Mueller detectors to measure the gamma component of the dose. Neutron and gamma dose profiles were measured for two different sources of neutrons: an unmoderated /sup 252/Cf source and a 733-keV neutron beam generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator. 14 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

Scherpelz, R.I.; Tanner, J.E.; Sigalla, L.A.; Hadlock, D.E.

1989-05-01

43

An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 × 10 cm2 fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%.

Ding, George X.; Krauss, Rob

2013-07-01

44

First experimental-based characterization of oxygen ion beam depth dose distributions at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decades, the application of proton and heavy-ion beams to external beam radiotherapy has rapidly increased. Due to the favourable lateral and depth dose profile, the superposition of narrow ion pencil beams may enable a highly conformal dose delivery to the tumour, with better sparing of the surrounding healthy tissue in comparison to conventional radiation therapy with photons. To fully exploit the promised clinical advantages of ion beams, an accurate planning of the patient treatments is required. The clinical treatment planning system (TPS) at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) is based on a fast performing analytical algorithm for dose calculation, relying, among others, on laterally integrated depth dose distributions (DDDs) simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. Important input parameters of these simulations need to be derived from a comparison of the simulated DDDs with measurements. In this work, the first measurements of 16O ion DDDs at HIT are presented with a focus on the determined Bragg peak positions and the understanding of factors influencing the shape of the distributions. The measurements are compared to different simulation approaches aiming to reproduce the acquired data at best. A simplified geometrical model is first used to optimize important input parameters, not known a priori, in the simulations. This method is then compared to a more realistic, but also more time-consuming simulation approach better accounting for the experimental set-up and the measuring process. The results of this work contributed to a pre-clinical oxygen ion beam database, which is currently used by a research TPS for corresponding radio-biological cell experiments. A future extension to a clinical database used by the clinical TPS at HIT is foreseen. As a side effect, the performed investigations showed that the typical water equivalent calibration approach of experimental data acquired with water column systems leads to slight deviations between the experimentally determined and the real Bragg peak positions. For improved accuracy, the energy dependence of the stopping power, and herewith the water equivalent thickness, of the material downstream of the water tank should be considered in the analysis of measured data.

Kurz, C.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.

2012-08-01

45

Remote sensing of water depths in shallow waters via artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of the water depths in coastal zones is a common requirement for the majority of coastal engineering and coastal science applications. However, production of high quality bathymetric maps requires expensive field survey, high technology equipment and expert personnel. Remotely sensed images can be conveniently used to reduce the cost and labor needed for bathymetric measurements and to overcome the difficulties in spatial and temporal depth provision. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methodology is introduced in this study to derive bathymetric maps in shallow waters via remote sensing images and sample depth measurements. This methodology provides fast and practical solution for depth estimation in shallow waters, coupling temporal and spatial capabilities of remote sensing imagery with modeling flexibility of ANN. Its main advantage in practice is that it enables to directly use image reflectance values in depth estimations, without refining depth-caused scatterings from other environmental factors (e.g. bottom material and vegetation). Its function-free structure allows evaluating nonlinear relationships between multi-band images and in-situ depth measurements, therefore leads more reliable depth estimations than classical regressive approaches. The west coast of the Foca, Izmir/Turkey was used as a test bed. Aster first three band images and Quickbird pan-sharpened images were used to derive ANN based bathymetric maps of this study area. In-situ depth measurements were supplied from the General Command of Mapping, Turkey (HGK). Two models were set, one for Aster and one for Quickbird image inputs. Bathymetric maps relying solely on in-situ depth measurements were used to evaluate resultant derived bathymetric maps. The efficiency of the methodology was discussed at the end of the paper. It is concluded that the proposed methodology could decrease spatial and repetitive depth measurement requirements in bathymetric mapping especially for preliminary engineering application.

Ceyhun, Özçelik; Yalç?n, Ar?soy

2010-09-01

46

Studies on depth-dose-distribution controls by deuteration and void formation in boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed

Physical studies on (i) replacement of heavy water for body water (deuteration), and (ii) formation of a void in human body (void formation) were performed as control techniques for dose distribution in a human head under neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were performed for a human-head-size cylindrical phantom using a two-dimensional transport calculation code for mono-energetic incidences of higher-energy epi-thermal neutrons (1.2-10 keV), lower-energy epi-thermal neutrons (3.1-23 eV) and thermal neutrons (1 meV to 0.5 eV). The deuteration was confirmed to be effective both in thermal neutron incidence and in epi-thermal neutron incidence from the viewpoints of improvement of the thermal neutron flux distribution and elimination of the secondary gamma rays. For the void formation, a void was assumed to be 4 cm in diameter and 3 cm in depth at the surface part in this study. It was confirmed that the treatable depth was improved almost 2 cm for any incident neutron energy in the case of the 10 cm irradiation field diameter. It was made clear that the improvement effect was larger in isotropic incidence than in parallel incidence, in the case that an irradiation field size was delimited fitting into a void diameter. PMID:15379019

Sakurai, Yoshinori

2004-08-01

47

Limiting Gravity Waves in Water of Finite Depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progressive, irrotational gravity waves of constant form exist as a two-parameter family. The first parameter, the ratio of mean depth to wavelength, varies from zero (the solitary wave) to infinity (the deep-water wave). The second parameter, the wave height or amplitude, varies from zero (the infinitesimal wave) to a limiting value dependent on the first parameter. For limiting waves the wave crest ceases to be rounded and becomes angled, with an included angle of 120 degrees. Most methods of calculating finite-amplitude waves use either a form of series expansion or the solution of an integral equation. For waves nearing the limiting amplitude many terms (or nodal points) are needed to describe the wave form accurately. Consequently the accuracy even of recent solutions on modern computers can be improved upon, except at the deep-water end of the range. The present work extends an integral equation technique used previously in which the angled crest of the limiting wave is included as a specific term, derived from the well known Stokes corner flow. This term is now supplemented by a second term, proposed by Grant in a study of the flow near the crest. Solutions comprising 80 terms at the shallow-water end of the range, reducing to 20 at the deep-water end, have defined many field and integral properties of the flow to within 1 to 2 parts in 106. It is shown that without the new crest term this level of accuracy would have demanded some hundreds of terms while without either crest term many thousands of terms would have been needed. The practical limits of the computing range are shown to correspond, to working accuracy, with the theoretical extremes of the solitary wave and the deep-water wave. In each case the results agree well with several previous accurate solutions and it is considered that the accuracy has been improved. For example, the height:depth ratio of the solitary wave is now estimated to be 0.833 197 and the height:wavelength ratio of the deep-water wave to be 0.141 063. The results are presented in detail to facilitate further theoretical study and early practical application. The coefficients defining the wave motion are given for 22 cases, five of which, including the two extremes, are fully documented with tables of displacement, velocity, acceleration, pressure and time. Examples of particle orbits and drift profiles are presented graphically and are shown for the extreme waves to agree very closely with simplified calculations by Longuet-Higgins. Finally, the opportunity has been taken to calculate to greater accuracy the long-term Lagrangian-mean angular momentum of the maximum deep-water wave, according to the recent method proposed by Longuet-Higgins, with the conclusion that the level of action is slightly above the crest.

Williams, J. M.

1981-08-01

48

Depth-dose equivalent relationship for cosmic rays at various solar minima  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) pose a serious radiation hazard for long-duration missions. In designing a lunar habitat or a Mars transfer vehicle, the radiation exposure determines the GCR shielding thickness, and hence the weight of spacecraft. Using the spherically symmetric diffusion theory of the solar modulation of GCR, and data on the differential energy spectra of H, He, O, and Fe, from 1965 to 1989, it has been shown that (1) the flux is determined by the diffusion parameter which is a function of the time in the solar cycle, and (2) the fluxes in the 1954 and 1976-1977 solar minima were similar and higher than those in 1965. In this paper, we have extended the spherical solar modulation theory back to 1954. The 1954-1955 GCR flux was nearly the same as that from 1976 to 1977; the 1965 flux values were nearly the same as those in 1986. Using this theory we have obtained the GCR spectra for all the nuclei, and calculated the depth dose as a function of Al thickness. It is shown that the shielding required to stay below 0.5 Sv is 17.5 -3/+8 g/sq cm of Al, and 9 -1.5/+5 g/sq cm to stay below 0.6 Sv. The calculated dose equivalent using the ICRP 60 values for quality factors is about 15 percent higher than that calculated using the ICRP 26 value.

Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; O'Neill, P. M.

1993-01-01

49

Altitude and configuration of the water table, and depth to water near Cheyenne, Wyoming, May 1984  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Altitude and configuration of the water table and depth to water were determined for an area near the southwestern corner of Francis E. Warren Air Force Base which is adjacent to the city limits of Cheyenne, Wyoming. Water levels in the Ogallala Formation, of late Miocene age, generally are less than 20 ft below land surface in this area where there are many private residences on small-acreage lots. Landowners rely on their own wells for water supply and have installed their own septic systems. (USGS)

Crist, Marvin A.

1985-01-01

50

Estimated Depth to Ground Water and Configuration of the Water Table in the Portland, Oregon Area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reliable information on the configuration of the water table in the Portland metropolitan area is needed to address concerns about various water-resource issues, especially with regard to potential effects from stormwater injection systems such as UIC (underground injection control) systems that are either existing or planned. To help address these concerns, this report presents the estimated depth-to-water and water-table elevation maps for the Portland area, along with estimates of the relative uncertainty of the maps and seasonal water-table fluctuations. The method of analysis used to determine the water-table configuration in the Portland area relied on water-level data from shallow wells and surface-water features that are representative of the water table. However, the largest source of available well data is water-level measurements in reports filed by well constructors at the time of new well installation, but these data frequently were not representative of static water-level conditions. Depth-to-water measurements reported in well-construction records generally were shallower than measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the same or nearby wells, although many depth-to-water measurements were substantially deeper than USGS measurements. Magnitudes of differences in depth-to-water measurements reported in well records and those measured by the USGS in the same or nearby wells ranged from -119 to 156 feet with a mean of the absolute value of the differences of 36 feet. One possible cause for the differences is that water levels in many wells reported in well records were not at equilibrium at the time of measurement. As a result, the analysis of the water-table configuration relied on water levels measured during the current study or used in previous USGS investigations in the Portland area. Because of the scarcity of well data in some areas, the locations of select surface-water features including major rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands, and springs representative of where the water table is at land surface were used to augment the analysis. Ground-water and surface-water data were combined for use in interpolation of the water-table configuration. Interpolation of the two representations typically used to define water-table position - depth to the water table below land surface and elevation of the water table above a datum - can produce substantially different results and may represent the end members of a spectrum of possible interpolations largely determined by the quantity of recharge and the hydraulic properties of the aquifer. Datasets of depth-to-water and water-table elevation for the current study were interpolated independently based on kriging as the method of interpolation with parameters determined through the use of semivariograms developed individually for each dataset. Resulting interpolations were then combined to create a single, averaged representation of the water-table configuration. Kriging analysis also was used to develop a map of relative uncertainty associated with the values of the water-table position. Accuracy of the depth-to-water and water-table elevation maps is dependent on various factors and assumptions pertaining to the data, the method of interpolation, and the hydrogeologic conditions of the surficial aquifers in the study area. Although the water-table configuration maps generally are representative of the conditions in the study area, the actual position of the water-table may differ from the estimated position at site-specific locations, and short-term, seasonal, and long-term variations in the differences also can be expected. The relative uncertainty map addresses some but not all possible errors associated with the analysis of the water-table configuration and does not depict all sources of uncertainty. Depth to water greater than 300 feet in the Portland area is limited to parts of the Tualatin Mountains, the foothills of the Cascade Range, and muc

Snyder, Daniel T.

2008-01-01

51

Hydrologic evaluation using two SWAT shallow water table depth algorithms in the south fork watershed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, a new shallow water table depth (wtd) algorithm (Modified DRAINMOD) that relates drainage volume (vol) to wtd was incorporated into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a continuous-time physically-based watershed-scale hydrologic model, to improve water table depth fluctuation profi...

52

Relationship between body condition of American alligators and water depth in the Everglades, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Feeding opportunities of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in freshwater wetlands in south Florida are closely linked to hydrologic conditions. In the Everglades, seasonally and annually fluctuating surface water levels affect populations of aquatic organisms that alligators consume. Since prey becomes more concentrated when water depth decreases, we hypothesized an inverse relationship between body condition and water depth in the Everglades. On average, condition of adult alligators in the dry season was significantly higher than in the wet season, but this was not the case for juveniles/subadults. The correlation between body condition and measured water depth at capture locations was weak; however, there was a significant negative correlation between the condition and predicted water depth prior to capture for all animals except for spring juveniles/subadults which had a weak positive condition-water depth relationship. Overall, a relatively strong inverse correlation occurred at 10-49 days prior to the capture day, suggesting that current body condition of alligators may depend on feeding opportunities during that period. Fitted regression of body condition on water depth (mean depth of 10 days when condition-water depth correlation was greatest) resulted in a significantly negative slope, except for spring adult females and spring juveniles/subadults for which slopes were not significantly different from zero. Our results imply that water management practices may be critical for alligators in the Everglades since water depth can affect animal condition in a relatively short period of time.

Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, Kenneth G.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

2009-01-01

53

Depth dose distributions measured with thermoluminescence detectors inside the anthropomorphic torso of the MATROSHKA experiment inside and outside the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA MATROSHKA (MTR) facility was realized through the German Aerospace Center, DLR, Cologne, as main contractor, aiming for the determination of skin and organ doses within a simulated human upper torso. MTR simulates, by applying an anthropomorphic upper torso, as exact as possible an astronaut performing either an extravehicular activity (EVA) (MTR Phase 1) or an astronaut working inside the International Space Station (MTR Phase 2A). It consists of a human phantom, a Base Structure and a Carbon fibre container - simulating the astronaut‘s space suit. The phantom itself is made up of 33 slices composed of natural bones, embedded in tissue equivalent plastic of different density for tissue and lung. The Phantom slices are equipped with channels and cut-outs to allow the accommodation of active and passive dosemeters, temperature and pressure sensors. Over 4800 passive detectors (thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors) constitute the radiation experiments which are beside inside the phantom also located on top the head of the phantom, in front of the belly and around the body as part of a Poncho and a Hood. In its 1st exposure phase (MTR 1: 2004 - 2005) MTR measured the depth dose distribution of an astronaut performing an EVA - mounted outside the Zvezda Module. In its 2nd exposure phase the phantom was positioned inside the ISS to monitor the radiation environment and measure the depth dose distribution in dependence on the inside shielding configurations. The majority of the TLDs provided for the determination of the depth dose distribution was provided by IFJ-PAN, ATI and DLR. Data of "combined" depth dose distribution of the three different groups will be shown for the MTR-1 exposure (outside the ISS) and the MTR-2A (inside the ISS). The discussion will focus on the difference in depth dose as well as skin dose distribution based on the different shielding thickness provided by the two experimental phases.

Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hajek, Michael; Bergmann, Robert; Bilski, Pawel; Puchalska, Msc. Monika

54

Measurements of planar and depth dose distributions using a scintillating fiber-optic image sensor system for dosimetry in radiotherapeutic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a scintillating fiber-optic image sensor system (SFISS) using square plastic optical fibers (POFs), a scintillating film, a right-angle mirror, and a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image camera for dosimetry in radiotherapeutic applications. In this study, the scintillating light images were obtained for measuring two-dimensional planar dose distributions of a 6MV photon beam in a solid-water phantom. We also measured the percentage depth doses (PDDs) of 6 and 15MV photon beams using the SFISS and compared them with those obtained using conventional dosimetry films. The proposed sensor has many advantages, such as real-time readout, high-resolution measurement, and lack of corrections for temperature, pressure, and humidity. From the results of this study, it is expected that a SFISS can be developed to accurately measure the dose distribution in a small beam field for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

Shin, Sang Hun; Yoo, Wook Jae; Seo, Jeong Ki; Han, Ki-Tek; Jeon, Dayeong; Jang, Kyoung Won; Sim, Hyeok In; Cho, Seunghyun; Lee, Bongsoo

2013-03-01

55

Effect of anode angle on photon beam spectra and depth dose characteristics for X-RAD320 orthovoltage unit  

PubMed Central

Background In radiation therapy with orthovoltage units, the tube design has a crucial effect on its dosimetric features. Aim In this study, the effect of anode angle on photon beam spectra, depth dose and photon fluence per initial electron was studied for a commercial orthovoltage unit of X-RAD320 biological irradiator. Materials and methods The MCNPX MC code was used for modeling in the current study. We used the Monte Carlo method to model the X-RAD320 X-ray unit based on the manufacturer provided information. The MC model was validated by comparing the MC calculated photon beam spectra with the results of SpekCalc software. The photon beam spectra were calculated for anode angles from 15 to 35 degrees. We also calculated the percentage depth doses for some angles to verify the impact of anode angle on depth dose. Additionally, the heel effect and its relation with anode angle were studied for X-RAD320 irradiator. Results Our results showed that the photon beam spectra and their mean energy are changed significantly with anode angle and the optimum anode angle of 30 degrees was selected based on less heel effect and appropriate depth dose and photon fluence per initial electron. Conclusion It can be concluded that the anode angle of 30 degrees for X-RAD320 unit used by manufacturer has been selected properly considering the heel effect and dosimetric properties. PMID:24416546

Mesbahi, Asghar; Zakariaee, Seyed-Salman

2013-01-01

56

A comparison of observed and analytically derived remote sensing penetration depths for turbid water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The depth to which sunlight will penetrate in turbid waters was investigated. The tests were conducted in water with a single scattering albedo range, and over a range of solar elevation angles. Two different techniques were used to determine the depth of light penetration. It showed little change in the depth of sunlight penetration with changing solar elevation angle. A comparison of the penetration depths indicates that the best agreement between the two methods was achieved when the quasisingle scattering relationship was not corrected for solar angle. It is concluded that sunlight penetration is dependent on inherent water properties only.

Morris, W. D.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Guraus, E. A.

1981-01-01

57

Optimization of coagulant dosing process in water purification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the water purification plant, chemicals are injected for quick purification of raw water. The amount of chemicals intrinsically depends on the water quality such as turbidity, temperature, pH and alkalinity, etc. This paper presents the method of deriving the optimum dosing rate of coagulant in water purification system. A fuzzy model for normal condition and a neural network model

Tae-Hwan Han; Eui-Suck Nahm; Kwang-Bang Woo; C. J. Kim; Jeong-Woong Ryu

1997-01-01

58

Growth and morphological responses of four helophyte species in an experimental water-depth gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution on shorelines of four helophyte species (two gramineous species, viz. Phalaris arundinacea L. and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and two cyperacean species, viz. Scirpus maritimus L. and S. lacustris L.) was studied in relation to growth responses in the water-depth gradient. Stands of S. lacustris were found at lower depths relative to the mean water level

Hugo Coops; Fred W. B. van den Brink; Gerard van der Velde

1996-01-01

59

Estimate of maximum penetration depth of lidar in coastal water of the China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of excessive suspended matter along coastal water of the China sea, it is very important to estimate the maximum penetration depth (MPD) of lidar for developing lidar bathymetry technique in Chma.This paper gives the relation between maximum penetration depth and Secchi disc depth from the radiative transfer theory and contrast transmission theory in water, and the distribution of MPD along the East China Sea.

Liu, Zhishen

1990-09-01

60

Regression analysis of growth responses to water depth in three wetland plant species  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Plant species composition in wetlands and on lakeshores often shows dramatic zonation, which is frequently ascribed to differences in flooding tolerance. This study compared the growth responses to water depth of three species (Phormium tenax, Carex secta and Typha orientalis) differing in depth preferences in wetlands, using non-linear and quantile regression analyses to establish how flooding tolerance can explain field zonation. Methodology Plants were established for 8 months in outdoor cultures in waterlogged soil without standing water, and then randomly allocated to water depths from 0 to 0.5 m. Morphological and growth responses to depth were followed for 54 days before harvest, and then analysed by repeated-measures analysis of covariance, and non-linear and quantile regression analysis (QRA), to compare flooding tolerances. Principal results Growth responses to depth differed between the three species, and were non-linear. Phormium tenax growth decreased rapidly in standing water >0.25 m depth, C. secta growth increased initially with depth but then decreased at depths >0.30 m, accompanied by increased shoot height and decreased shoot density, and T. orientalis was unaffected by the 0- to 0.50-m depth range. In P. tenax the decrease in growth was associated with a decrease in the number of leaves produced per ramet and in C. secta the effect of water depth was greatest for the tallest shoots. Allocation patterns were unaffected by depth. Conclusions The responses are consistent with the principle that zonation in the field is primarily structured by competition in shallow water and by physiological flooding tolerance in deep water. Regression analyses, especially QRA, proved to be powerful tools in distinguishing genuine phenotypic responses to water depth from non-phenotypic variation due to size and developmental differences. PMID:23259044

Sorrell, Brian K.; Tanner, Chris C.; Brix, Hans

2012-01-01

61

MOSFET dosimeter depth-dose measurements in heterogeneous tissue-equivalent phantoms at diagnostic x-ray energies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present study was to explore the use of the TN-1002RD metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter for measuring tissue depth dose at diagnostic photon energies in both homogeneous and heterogeneous tissue-equivalent materials. Three cylindrical phantoms were constructed and utilized as a prelude to more complex measurements within tomographic physical phantoms of pediatric patients. Each cylindrical phantom was constructed as a stack of seven 5-cm-diameter and 1-cm-thick discs of materials radiographically representative of either soft tissue (S), bone (B), or lung tissue (L) at diagnostic photon energies. In addition to a homogeneous phantom of soft tissue (SSSSSSS), two heterogeneous phantoms were constructed: SSBBSSS and SBLLBSS. MOSFET dosimeters were then positioned at the interface of each disc, and the phantoms were then irradiated at 66 kVp and 200 mAs. Measured values of absorbed dose at depth were then compared to predicated values of point tissue dose as determined via Monte Carlo radiation transport modeling. At depths exceeding 2 cm, experimental results matched the computed values of dose with high accuracy regardless of the dosimeter orientation (epoxy bubble facing toward or away from the x-ray beam). Discrepancies were noted, however, between measured and calculated point doses near the surface of the phantom (surface to 2 cm depth) when the dosimeters were oriented with the epoxy bubble facing the x-ray beam. These discrepancies were largely eliminated when the dosimeters were placed with the flat side facing the x-ray beam. It is therefore recommended that the MOSFET dosimeters be oriented with their flat sides facing the beam when they are used at shallow depths or on the surface of either phantoms or patients.

Jones, A.K.; Pazik, F.D.; Hintenlang, D.E.; Bolch, W.E. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States)

2005-10-15

62

Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors  

DOEpatents

A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

2005-08-02

63

Sugarcane Response to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flooding  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help redu...

64

Water Samples from Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Robert Sanders, with Temple University, is collecting water samples from the CTD. Both Robert and Rebecca Gast, with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, were using the samples to study microorganisms in the Arctic Ocean....

65

A quantile count model of water depth constraints on Cape Sable seaside sparrows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. A quantile regression model for counts of breeding Cape Sable seaside sparrows Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis (L.) as a function of water depth and previous year abundance was developed based on extensive surveys, 1992-2005, in the Florida Everglades. The quantile count model extends linear quantile regression methods to discrete response variables, providing a flexible alternative to discrete parametric distributional models, e.g. Poisson, negative binomial and their zero-inflated counterparts. 2. Estimates from our multiplicative model demonstrated that negative effects of increasing water depth in breeding habitat on sparrow numbers were dependent on recent occupation history. Upper 10th percentiles of counts (one to three sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth from 0 to 30 cm when sites were not occupied in previous years. However, upper 40th percentiles of counts (one to six sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth for sites occupied in previous years. 3. Greatest decreases (-50% to -83%) in upper quantiles of sparrow counts occurred as water depths increased from 0 to 15 cm when previous year counts were 1, but a small proportion of sites (5-10%) held at least one sparrow even as water depths increased to 20 or 30 cm. 4. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model provided estimates of conditional means that also decreased with increasing water depth but rates of change were lower and decreased with increasing previous year counts compared to the quantile count model. Quantiles computed for the zero-inflated Poisson model enhanced interpretation of this model but had greater lack-of-fit for water depths > 0 cm and previous year counts 1, conditions where the negative effect of water depths were readily apparent and fitted better with the quantile count model.

Cade, B.S.; Dong, Q.

2008-01-01

66

Tracking water pathways in steep hillslopes by ?18O depth profiles of soil water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing temporal variations in soil water flow is important, especially at the hillslope scale, to identify mechanisms of runoff and flood generation and pathways for nutrients and pollutants in soils. While surface processes are well considered and parameterized, the assessment of subsurface processes at the hillslope scale is still challenging since measurement of hydrological pathways is connected to high efforts in time, money and personnel work. The latter might not even be possible in alpine environments with harsh winter processes. Soil water stable isotope profiles may offer a time-integrating fingerprint of subsurface water pathways. In this study, we investigated the suitability of soil water stable isotope (?18O) depth profiles to identify water flow paths along two transects of steep subalpine hillslopes in the Swiss Alps. We applied a one-dimensional advection-dispersion model using ?18O values of precipitation (ranging from -24.7 to -2.9‰) as input data to simulate the ?18O profiles of soil water. The variability of ?18O values with depth within each soil profile and a comparison of the simulated and measured ?18O profiles were used to infer information about subsurface hydrological pathways. The temporal pattern of ?18O in precipitation was found in several profiles, ranging from -14.5 to -4.0‰. This suggests that vertical percolation plays an important role even at slope angles of up to 46°. Lateral subsurface flow and/or mixing of soil water at lower slope angles might occur in deeper soil layers and at sites near a small stream. The difference between several observed and simulated ?18O profiles revealed spatially highly variable infiltration patterns during the snowmelt periods: The ?18O value of snow (-17.7 ± 1.9‰) was absent in several measured ?18O profiles but present in the respective simulated ?18O profiles. This indicated overland flow and/or preferential flow through the soil profile during the melt period. The applied methods proved to be a fast and promising tool to obtain time-integrated information on soil water flow paths at the hillslope scale in steep subalpine slopes.

Mueller, Matthias H.; Alaoui, Abdallah; Kuells, Christoph; Leistert, Hannes; Meusburger, Katrin; Stumpp, Christine; Weiler, Markus; Alewell, Christine

2014-11-01

67

Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

68

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH BY NOL RING  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH are used for the transport of drinking water. However, disinfectants in water seem to have a strong impact the ageing effect of the pipe mechanical behaviour. Inspired from the ASTM D 2290-04 standard, Nol Ring tests

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

Neutron fluence depth profiles in water phantom on epithermal beam of LVR-15 research reactor.  

PubMed

Horizontal channel with epithermal neutron beam at the LVR-15 research reactor is used mainly for boron neutron capture therapy. Neutron fluence depth profiles in a water phantom characterise beam properties. The neutron fluence (approximated by reaction rates) depth profiles were measured with six different types of activation detectors. The profiles were determined for thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons. PMID:20031426

Viererbl, L; Klupak, V; Lahodova, Z; Marek, M; Burian, J

2010-01-01

70

Feeling Pressured: Water Pressure and Depth (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two activities illustrate the relationship between water pressure and depth. They offer students an exploration of the relationship between pressure and depth, an opportunity to construct an experimental apparatus, experience in taking measurements with the apparatus, and an introduction to the impact of pressure on the lungs.

71

Artificial neural network modeling of water table depth fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of functionally different artificial neural network (ANN) models are calibrated using a relatively short length of groundwater level records and related hydrometeorological data to simulate water table fluctuations in the Gondo aquifer, Burkina Faso. Input delay neural network (IDNN) with static memory structure and globally recurrent neural network (RNN) with inherent dynamical memory are proposed for monthly water table fluctuations modeling. The simulation performance of the IDNN and the RNN models is compared with results obtained from two variants of radial basis function (RBF) networks, namely, a generalized RBF model (GRBF) and a probabilistic neural network (PNN). Overall, simulation results suggest that the RNN is the most efficient of the ANN models tested for a calibration period as short as 7 years. The results of the IDNN and the PNN are almost equivalent despite their basically different learning procedures. The GRBF performs very poorly as compared to the other models. Furthermore, the study shows that RNN may offer a robust framework for improving water supply planning in semiarid areas where aquifer information is not available. This study has significant implications for groundwater management in areas with inadequate groundwater monitoring network.

Coulibaly, Paulin; Anctil, FrançOis; Aravena, Ramon; BobéE, Bernard

2001-04-01

72

Temporal variations in atmospheric water vapor and aerosol optical depth determined by remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By automatically tracking the sun, a four-channel solar radiometer was used to continuously measure optical depth and atmospheric water vapor. The design of this simple autotracking solar radiometer is presented. A technique for calculating the precipitable water from the ratio of a water band to a nearby nonabsorbing band is discussed. Studies of the temporal variability of precipitable water and atmospheric optical depth at 0.610, 0.8730 and 1.04 microns are presented. There was good correlation between the optical depth measured using the autotracker and visibility determined from National Weather Service Station data. However, much more temporal structure was evident in the autotracker data than in the visibility data. Cirrus clouds caused large changes in optical depth over short time periods. They appear to be the largest deleterious atmospheric effect over agricultural areas that are remote from urban pollution sources.

Pitts, D. E.; Mcallum, W. E.; Heidt, M.; Jeske, K.; Lee, J. T.; Demonbrun, D.; Morgan, A.; Potter, J.

1977-01-01

73

Determination of water depth with high-resolution satellite imagery over variable bottom types  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A standard algorithm for determining depth in clear water from passive sensors exists; but it requires tuning of five parameters and does not retrieve depths where the bottom has an extremely low albedo. To address these issues, we developed an empirical solution using a ratio of reflectances that has only two tunable parameters and can be applied to low-albedo features. The two algorithms--the standard linear transform and the new ratio transform--were compared through analysis of IKONOS satellite imagery against lidar bathymetry. The coefficients for the ratio algorithm were tuned manually to a few depths from a nautical chart, yet performed as well as the linear algorithm tuned using multiple linear regression against the lidar. Both algorithms compensate for variable bottom type and albedo (sand, pavement, algae, coral) and retrieve bathymetry in water depths of less than 10-15 m. However, the linear transform does not distinguish depths >15 m and is more subject to variability across the studied atolls. The ratio transform can, in clear water, retrieve depths in >25 m of water and shows greater stability between different areas. It also performs slightly better in scattering turbidity than the linear transform. The ratio algorithm is somewhat noisier and cannot always adequately resolve fine morphology (structures smaller than 4-5 pixels) in water depths >15-20 m. In general, the ratio transform is more robust than the linear transform.

Stumpf, Richard P.; Holderied, Kristine; Sinclair, Mark

2003-01-01

74

Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California, showing ground-water subunits and areas, location of wells, and lines of equal depth to water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has released to the open file a map showing ground-water subunits and areas, and depth to water for spring 1978, in the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California.

Blankenbaker, G.G.

1978-01-01

75

Influence of water depth on the sound generated by air-bubble vibration in the water musical instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a water musical instrument that generates sound by the falling of water drops within resonance tubes. The instrument can give people who hear it the healing effect inherent in the sound of water. The sound produced by falling water drops arises from air- bubble vibrations. To investigate the impact of water depth on the air-bubble vibrations, we conducted experiments at varying values of water pressure and nozzle shape. We found that air-bubble vibration frequency does not change at a water depth of 50 mm or greater. Between 35 and 40 mm, however, the frequency decreases. At water depths of 30 mm or below, the air-bubble vibration frequency increases. In our tests, we varied the nozzle diameter from 2 to 4 mm. In addition, we discovered that the time taken for air-bubble vibration to start after the water drops start falling is constant at water depths of 40 mm or greater, but slower at depths below 40 mm.

Ohuchi, Yoshito; Nakazono, Yoichi

2014-06-01

76

Geospatial Database of Ground-Water Altitude and Depth-to-Ground-Water Data for Utah, 1971-2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A geospatial database of ground-water-level altitude and depth-to-ground-water data for Utah was developed. Water-level contours from selected published reports were converted to digital Geographic Information System format and attributes describing the contours were added. Water-level altitude values were input to an inverse distance weighted interpolator to create a raster of interpolated water-level altitude for each report. The water-level altitude raster was subtracted from digital land-surface altitude data to obtain depth-to-water rasters for each study. Comparison of the interpolated rasters to actual water-level measurements shows that the interpolated water-level altitudes are well correlated with measured water-level altitudes from the same time period. The data can be downloaded and displayed in any Geographic Information System or can be explored by downloading a data package and map from the U.S. Geological Survey.

Buto, Susan G.; Jorgensen, Brent E.

2007-01-01

77

Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present our method and experience in commissioning dose models in water for spot scanning proton therapy in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The input data required by the TPS included in-air transverse profiles and integral depth doses (IDDs). All input data were obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations that had been validated by measurements. MC-generated IDDs were converted to units of Gy mm{sup 2}/MU using the measured IDDs at a depth of 2 cm employing the largest commercially available parallel-plate ionization chamber. The sensitive area of the chamber was insufficient to fully encompass the entire lateral dose deposited at depth by a pencil beam (spot). To correct for the detector size, correction factors as a function of proton energy were defined and determined using MC. The fluence of individual spots was initially modeled as a single Gaussian (SG) function and later as a double Gaussian (DG) function. The DG fluence model was introduced to account for the spot fluence due to contributions of large angle scattering from the devices within the scanning nozzle, especially from the spot profile monitor. To validate the DG fluence model, we compared calculations and measurements, including doses at the center of spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles, and depth doses for different widths of SOBP. Dose models were validated extensively with patient treatment field-specific measurements. Results: We demonstrated that the DG fluence model is necessary for predicting the field size dependence of dose distributions. With this model, the calculated doses at the center of SOBPs as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles and depth doses for rectangular target volumes agreed well with respective measured values. With the DG fluence model for our scanning proton beam line, we successfully treated more than 500 patients from March 2010 through June 2012 with acceptable agreement between TPS calculated and measured dose distributions. However, the current dose model still has limitations in predicting field size dependence of doses at some intermediate depths of proton beams with high energies. Conclusions: We have commissioned a DG fluence model for clinical use. It is demonstrated that the DG fluence model is significantly more accurate than the SG fluence model. However, some deficiencies in modeling the low-dose envelope in the current dose algorithm still exist. Further improvements to the current dose algorithm are needed. The method presented here should be useful for commissioning pencil beam dose algorithms in new versions of TPS in the future.

Zhu, X. R.; Poenisch, F.; Lii, M.; Sawakuchi, G. O.; Titt, U.; Bues, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Ciangaru, G.; Li, H.; Taylor, M. B.; Suzuki, K.; Mohan, R.; Gillin, M. T.; Sahoo, N. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2013-04-15

78

Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To present our method and experience in commissioning dose models in water for spot scanning proton therapy in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The input data required by the TPS included in-air transverse profiles and integral depth doses (IDDs). All input data were obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations that had been validated by measurements. MC-generated IDDs were converted to units of Gy?mm2/MU using the measured IDDs at a depth of 2 cm employing the largest commercially available parallel-plate ionization chamber. The sensitive area of the chamber was insufficient to fully encompass the entire lateral dose deposited at depth by a pencil beam (spot). To correct for the detector size, correction factors as a function of proton energy were defined and determined using MC. The fluence of individual spots was initially modeled as a single Gaussian (SG) function and later as a double Gaussian (DG) function. The DG fluence model was introduced to account for the spot fluence due to contributions of large angle scattering from the devices within the scanning nozzle, especially from the spot profile monitor. To validate the DG fluence model, we compared calculations and measurements, including doses at the center of spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles, and depth doses for different widths of SOBP. Dose models were validated extensively with patient treatment field-specific measurements. Results: We demonstrated that the DG fluence model is necessary for predicting the field size dependence of dose distributions. With this model, the calculated doses at the center of SOBPs as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles and depth doses for rectangular target volumes agreed well with respective measured values. With the DG fluence model for our scanning proton beam line, we successfully treated more than 500 patients from March 2010 through June 2012 with acceptable agreement between TPS calculated and measured dose distributions. However, the current dose model still has limitations in predicting field size dependence of doses at some intermediate depths of proton beams with high energies. Conclusions: We have commissioned a DG fluence model for clinical use. It is demonstrated that the DG fluence model is significantly more accurate than the SG fluence model. However, some deficiencies in modeling the low-dose envelope in the current dose algorithm still exist. Further improvements to the current dose algorithm are needed. The method presented here should be useful for commissioning pencil beam dose algorithms in new versions of TPS in the future. PMID:23556893

Zhu, X. R.; Poenisch, F.; Lii, M.; Sawakuchi, G. O.; Titt, U.; Bues, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Ciangaru, G.; Li, H.; Taylor, M. B.; Suzuki, K.; Mohan, R.; Gillin, M. T.; Sahoo, N.

2013-01-01

79

Depth Dose Distribution Study within a Phantom Torso after Irradiation with a Simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are compounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrapolation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over- or underestimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be predicted to within about a +10% accuracy using space radiation transport models for galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and trapped radiation behind shielding. However for solar particle event (SPE) with steep energy spectra and for extra-vehicular activities on the surface of the moon where only tissue shielding is present, transport models predict that there are large differences in model assumptions in projecting organ doses. Therefore experimental verification of SPE induced organ doses may be crucial for the design of lunar missions. In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field with the phantom torso. Lymphocyte cells are strategically embedded at selected locations at the skin and internal organs and are processed after irradiation to assess the effects of shielding on the yield of chromosome damage. The initial focus of the present experiment is to correlate biological results with physical dosimetry measurements in the phantom torso. Further on, the results of the passive dosimetry within the anthropomorphic phantoms represent the best tool to generate reliable data to benchmark computational radiation transport models in a radiation field of interest. The presentation will give first results of the physical dose distribution, the comparison with GEANT4 computer simulations based on a Voxel model of the phantom, and a comparison with the data from the chromosome aberration study.

Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis; Reitz, Guenther

2010-01-01

80

ITAR: A modified TAR method to determine depth dose distribution for an ophthalmic device that performs kilovoltage x-ray pencil-beam stereotaxy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: New technology has been developed to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using 100 kVp pencil-beams that enter the patient through the radio-resistant sclera with a depth of interest between 1.6 and 2.6 cm. Measurement of reference and relative dose in a kilovoltage x-ray beam with a 0.42 cm diameter field size and a 15 cm source to axis distance (SAD) is a challenge that is not fully addressed in current guidelines to medical physicists. AAPM's TG-61 gives dosimetry recommendations for low and medium energy x-rays, but not all of them are feasible to follow for this modality. Methods: An investigation was conducted to select appropriate equipment for the application. PTW's Type 34013 Soft X-Ray Chamber (Freiburg, Germany) and CIRS's Plastic Water LR (Norfolk, VA) were found to be the best available options. Attenuation curves were measured with minimal scatter contribution and thus called Low Scatter Tissue Air Ratio (LSTAR). A scatter conversion coefficient (C{sub scat}) was derived through Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation using MCNPX (LANL, Los Alamos, NM) to quantify the difference between a traditional TAR curve and the LSTAR curve. A material conversion coefficient (C{sub mat}) was determined through experimentation to evaluate the difference in attenuation properties between water and Plastic Water LR. Validity of performing direct dosimetry measurements with a source to detector distance other than the treatment distance, and therefore a different field size due to a fixed collimator, was explored. A method—Integrated Tissue Air Ratio (ITAR)—has been developed that isolates each of the three main radiological effects (distance from source, attenuation, and scatter) during measurement, and integrates them to determine the dose rate to the macula during treatment. Results: LSTAR curves were determined to be field size independent within the range explored, indicating that direct dosimetry measurements may be performed with a source to detector distance of 20 cm even though the SAD is 15 cm during treatment. C{sub scat} varied from 1.102 to 1.106 within the range of depths of interest. The experimental variance among repeated measurements of C{sub mat} was larger than depth dependence, so C{sub mat} was estimated as1.019 for all depths of interest. Conclusions: Equipment selection, measurement techniques, and formalism for the determination of dose rate to the macula during stereotaxy for AMD have been determined and are strongly recommended by the authors of this paper to be used by clinical medical physicists.

Hanlon, Justin, E-mail: jhanlon@orayainc.com; Chell, Erik; Firpo, Michael; Koruga, Igor [Oraya Therapeutics, Inc., Newark, California 94560 (United States)] [Oraya Therapeutics, Inc., Newark, California 94560 (United States)

2014-02-15

81

Depth absorbed dose and LET distributions of therapeutic {sup 1}H, {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, and {sup 12}C beams  

SciTech Connect

The depth absorbed dose and LET (linear energy transfer) distribution of different ions of clinical interest such as {sup 1}H, {sup 4}He, {sup 7}Li, and {sup 12}C ions have been investigated using the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT. The energies of the projectiles correspond to ranges in water and soft tissue of approximately 260 mm. The depth dose distributions of the primary particles and their secondaries have been calculated and separated with regard to their low and high LET components. A LET value below 10 eV/nm can generally be regarded as low LET and sparsely ionizing like electrons and photons. The high LET region may be assumed to start at 20 eV/nm where on average two double-strand breaks can be formed when crossing the periphery of a nucleosome, even though strictly speaking the LET limits are not sharp and ought to vary with the charge and mass of the ion. At the Bragg peak of a monoenergetic high energy proton beam, less than 3% of the total absorbed dose is comprised of high LET components above 20 eV/nm. The high LET contribution to the total absorbed dose in the Bragg peak is significantly larger with increasing ion charge as a natural result of higher stopping power and lower range straggling. The fact that the range straggling and multiple scattering are reduced by half from hydrogen to helium increases the possibility to accurately deposit only the high LET component in the tumor with negligible dose to organs at risk. Therefore, the lateral penumbra is significantly improved and the higher dose gradients of {sup 7}Li and {sup 12}C ions both longitudinally and laterally will be of major advantage in biological optimized radiation therapy. With increasing charge of the ion, the high LET absorbed dose in the beam entrance and the plateau regions where healthy normal tissues are generally located is also increased. The dose distribution of the high LET components in the {sup 7}Li beam is only located around the Bragg peak, characterized by a Gaussian-type distribution. Furthermore, the secondary particles produced by high energy {sup 7}Li ions in tissuelike media have mainly low LET character both in front of and beyond the Bragg peak.

Kempe, Johanna; Gudowska, Irena; Brahme, Anders [Division of Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-01-15

82

U.S. Geological Survey Combined Well-Bore Flow and Depth-Dependent Water Sampler  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a combined well-bore flow and depth-dependent sample collection tool. It is suitable for use in existing production wells having limited access and clearances as small as 1 inch. The combination of well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data is especially effective in assessing changes in aquifer properties and water quality with depth. These are direct measures of changes in well yield and ground-water quality with depth under actual operating conditions. Combinations of other geophysical tools capable of making these measurements, such as vertical-axis current meters used with wire-line samplers, are commercially available but these tools are large and can not easily enter existing production wells.

Izbicki, John A.; Christensen, Allen H.; Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Crawford, Steven M.; Smith, Gregory A.

1999-01-01

83

Design and Verification of an Inexpensive Ultrasonic Water Depth Sensor Using Arduino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system that combines the arduino micro-controller, a Parallax PING Ultrasonic distance sensor and a secure digital card to log the data is developed to help monitor water table depths in multiple settings. Traditional methods of monitoring water table depths involve the use of a pressure transducer and expensive data loggers that cost upward of 1000. The present system is built for less than 100, with the caveat that the accuracy of the measurements is 1cm. In this laboratory study, we first build the arduino based system to monitor water table depths in a piezometer and compare these measurements to those made by a pressure transducer. Initial results show that the depth measurements are accurate in comparison to actual tape measurements. Results from this benchmarking experiment will be presented at the meeting.

Mihevc, T. M.; Rajagopal, S.

2012-12-01

84

Relations between erythemal UV dose, global solar radiation, total ozone column and aerosol optical depth at Uccle, Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Uccle, a long time series (1991-2013) of simultaneous measurements of erythemal ultraviolet (UV) dose, global solar radiation, total ozone column (TOC) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) (at 320.1 nm) is available which allows for an extensive study of the changes in the variables over time. A change-point analysis, which determines whether there is a significant change in the mean of the time series, is applied to the monthly anomalies time series of the variables. Only for erythemal UV dose and TOC, a significant change point (without any known instrumental cause) was present in the time series around February 1998 and March 1998 respectively. The change point in TOC corresponds with results found in literature, where the change in ozone levels (around 1997) is attributed to the recovery of ozone. Linear trends were determined for the different (monthly anomalies) time series. Erythemal UV dose, global solar radiation and TOC all increase with respectively 7, 4 and 3% per decade. AOD shows an (insignificant) negative trend of -8% per decade. These trends agree with results found in literature for sites with comparable latitudes. A multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to the data in order to study the influence of global solar radiation, TOC and AOD on the erythemal UV dose. Together these parameters are able to explain 94% of the variation in erythemal UV dose. Most of the variation (56%) in erythemal UV dose is explained by global solar radiation. The regression model performs well with a slight tendency to underestimate the measured erythemal UV doses and with a Mean Absolute Bias Error (MABE) of 18%. However, in winter, negative erythemal UV dose values are modeled. Applying the MLR to the individual seasons solves this issue. The seasonal models have an adjusted R2 value higher than 0.8 and the correlation between modeled and measured erythemal UV dose values is higher than 0.9 for each season. The summer model gives the best performance, with an absolute mean error of only 6%. Again, global solar radiation is the factor that contributes the most to the variation in erythemal UV dose, so there is no doubt about the necessity to include this factor in the regression models. A large part of the influence of AOD is already represented by the global solar radiation parameter. Therefore the individual contribution of AOD to erythemal UV dose is so low. For this reason, it seems unnecessary to include AOD in the MLR analysis. Including TOC however, is justified as the adjusted R2 increases and the MABE of the model decreases compared to a model where only global solar radiation is used as explanatory variable.

De Bock, V.; De Backer, H.; Van Malderen, R.; Mangold, A.; Delcloo, A.

2014-06-01

85

The effects of cutouts on output, mean energy and percentage depth dose of 12 and 14 MeV electrons.  

PubMed

Electron field-shaping cerrobend cutouts on the linear accelerator applicator have some effects on the output and percentage depth dose. These effects which arise from the lateral scatter nonequilibrium are particularly evident in higher energies and in cutouts with smaller radius. Dose measurements for circular, square, and triangular cutouts as well as open field was performed in a 10 × 10 cm applicator, using plane parallel type ion chamber with a 100 cm source surface distance. The Percentage Depth Doses curves were drawn and the outputs were measured for each of these cutouts. The output factors, normalized to open 10 × 10 cm field, varied between 0.891 and 0.996 depending on the energy, cutout shape, and cavity area. With the use of cutouts, R(100) shifted toward the surface. The shifts ranged from 9 to 0 mm and from 13 to 0 mm for 12 and 14 MeV, respectively, depending on the shape and cavity area. For R(90), R(80), and R(50) the ranges for observed shifts narrowed down and practically no shifts were observed for R(20). We present these changes in the form of predictive formulas, which would be useful in clinical applications. PMID:22228930

Khaledy, Navid; Arbabi, Azim; Sardari, Dariush

2011-10-01

86

The unique chemistry of eastern mediterranean water masses selects for distinct microbial communities by depth.  

PubMed

The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly affect microbial community structure in the Eastern Mediterranean water column. PMID:25807542

Techtmann, Stephen M; Fortney, Julian L; Ayers, Kati A; Joyner, Dominique C; Linley, Thomas D; Pfiffner, Susan M; Hazen, Terry C

2015-01-01

87

The Unique Chemistry of Eastern Mediterranean Water Masses Selects for Distinct Microbial Communities by Depth  

PubMed Central

The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly affect microbial community structure in the Eastern Mediterranean water column. PMID:25807542

Techtmann, Stephen M.; Fortney, Julian L.; Ayers, Kati A.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Linley, Thomas D.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Hazen, Terry C.

2015-01-01

88

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01

89

New shallow water table depth algorithm in SWAT2005: recent modifications  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The proximity of the shallow water table depth (wtd) to the soil surface impacts agricultural production, farm machine trafficability, and water quality due to agricultural chemical transport and soil salinity. Therefore, it is essential for hydrologic models to accurately simulate wtd. Recently, an...

90

FREE-WATER DEPTH AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Marsh plants in constructed wetlands have shown the capacity to remove unwanted pollutants from storm water runoff. The plants can be established at the site from bare roots. However, plant growth from bare roots can be restricted by the elevated water depths. Using several wa...

91

SURF0113-prevost 1 ON-BOARD ESTIMATION OF WATER DEPTH USING LOW-COST SENSORS  

E-print Network

the number of car crashes. Nevertheless, those systems can be improved. In particular, information about deals with a new way to estimate local water depths under the tires as the car is running. A direct are performed on test tracks with a real passenger car equipped to estimate spray and splash of water created

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Naturally occurring low-dose lithium in drinking water.  

PubMed

Recently, a series of ecological studies on antisuicidal properties of naturally occurring lithium contents in drinking water have sparked interest among researchers. In this issue, Ishii and colleagues present further argument for the hypothesis that even low lithium doses-or rather, doses of lithium at a supplemental level-might have their place in suicide prevention.With limitations, there is some evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) supporting lithium in therapeutic doses as a suicide preventative in individuals with unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, dysthymia, or rapid cycling. PMID:25830462

Kapusta, Nestor D; König, Daniel

2015-03-01

93

Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso after irradiation with a simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are com-pounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself. Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrap-olation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over-or under-estimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be pre-dicted to within about a +10In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field with the phantom torso. Lymphocyte cells are strategically embedded at selected locations at the skin and internal organs and are processed after irradiation to assess the effects of shielding on the yield of chromosome damage. The first focus of the pre-sented experiment is to correlate biological results with physical dosimetry measurements in the phantom torso. Further on the results of the passive dosimetry using the anthropomorphic phantoms represent the best tool to generate reliable to benchmark computational radiation transport models in a radiation field of interest. The presentation will give first results of the physical dose distribution, the comparison with GEANT4 computer simulations, based on a Voxel model of the phantom, and a comparison with the data from the chromosome aberration study. The help and support of Adam Russek and Michael Sivertz of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), Brookhaven, USA during the setup and the irradiation of the phantom are highly appreciated. The Voxel model describing the human phantom used for the GEANT4 simulations was kindly provided by Monika Puchalska (CHALMERS, Gothenburg, Sweden).

Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Reitz, Guenther

94

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01

95

A NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH TO DERIVING OPTICAL PROPERTIES AND DEPTHS OF SHALLOW WATERS  

E-print Network

,10 are proved that they can generate shallow water spectra, but it is very time consuming. We generate our data base of shallow-water remote sensing reflectance by a semi-analytical model11 , which is simple. This synthetic data base covered chlorophyll-a concentrations from 0.2 to 6 mg/m^3, water depths from 0.5 to 20

Lee, Zhongping

96

Nest survival of American Coots relative to grazing, burning, and water depths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and water-level manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common land-management practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment) on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana) nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year × treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation.

Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

97

Calculation of the dose distribution in water from  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose distribution in water from K-shell x-rays was calculated for various source configurations using both analytic and EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations. The point source kernel and the buildup factor are presented. The buildup factor for a point source in water has been found to increase up to about 1.1 as radial distance approaches 1 cm. Comparison between and shows

Sang H. Cho; Warren D. Reece; John W. Poston Sr.

1997-01-01

98

Effects of irrigation system management turnover on water table depth and salinity of groundwater.  

PubMed

In recent years, management of large, state owned irrigation projects in Turkey have been transferred to water users such as farmers cooperatives or associations in order to reduce the financial burden on the government and to increase irrigation efficiency and farmer participation. Water table depth and groundwater salinity are important factors in irrigation systems, not only for plant growth but for human health as well. The objective of this study was to determine the impact on water table depth and groundwater salinity for transferring management of the Mustafakemalpasa irrigation project (19,370 ha) in north-western Turkey to local, farmer controlled irrigation districts. Maps of water table depth and groundwater salinity were created for the month of July (averaged over several years), the month with the highest amount of applied irrigation water, based on measurements made in 200 wells in the project area before and after transfer of managerial control. Both depth of the water table and salinity decreased after transfer The area with average water table depth of 100-200 cm was 25.41% of total area before turnover and 79.45% after, and the area with water table depth 200-300 cm was 73.84% before turnover and 20.50% after Before turnover; the area with average groundwater salinity 1.5-2.0 dS/m was 26.16% of total area, and that with average salinity 2.0-2.5 dS/m was 61.73% of total area; after turnover, average groundwater salinity was 1.5-2.0 dS/m in over all areas. Both changes were the consequence of an increased amount of applied water after transfer of the control of irrigation management from the state to local irrigation districts controlled by farmers. In the short run, the farmers will get benefit from increased irrigation. However over the long term, if water table depth continues to decrease then secondary salinization could become a major hindrance to irrigation sustainability PMID:17929765

Gundogdu, Kemal Sulhi; Aslan, S Tulin Akkay

2007-04-01

99

A statistical study of the depth of precipitable water in western Texas and eastern New Mexico  

E-print Network

A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE DEPTH OF PRFCIPITABLE WATER IN WESTERN TEXAS AND EASTERN NEW MEXICO A Thesis By SAMUEL ERICK BAKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A@1 University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1969 MaJor Sub]eet: Meteorology A STATISTICAL STUDY OF THE DEPTH OF PRECIPITABLE WATER IN WESTERI4 TEXAS AND EASTERN NEW MEXICO A Thesis By SAMUEL ERICK BAKER Approved as to style and content by: ~Chairman o Committee...

Baker, Samuel Erick

1969-01-01

100

On the interpretation of shallow shelf carbonate facies and habitats: How much does water depth matter?  

E-print Network

at that water depth. Note the change in scale at ; 3 m (due to change in original bathymetric data contours). Whereas general trends related to water depth are apparent (e.g., more ‘‘patchy seagrass’’ at shallower depths), each class is present across a wide....96 0.47 0.21 0.38 0.11 0.21 Table 1B. Habitat Group H E Bare Sand Continuous Seagrass Hardbottom (Pleistocene) Patch Reef Patchy Sea Grass Platform Margin Reef 1.86 1.86 0.29 2.00 1.85 2.23 0.25 0.25 0.88 0.20 0.25 0.10 FIG. 3.—Shannon evenness (E...

Rankey, Gene C.

2004-01-01

101

Hydrogeochemistry of karst underground waters at shallow depth in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to shed light on the hydrogeochemical characteristics of karst underground waters at shallow depth\\u000a in Guiyang City, Guizhou Province with an emphasis on the geochemistry of major elements. Guiyang City bears abundant underground\\u000a waters and it is also an important representative of the karst areas throughout the world. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant

Dong Zhifen; Zhu Lijun; Wu Pan; Shen Zheng; Feng Zhiyong

2005-01-01

102

Impact of Simulated Changes in Water Table Depth on Ex Situ Decomposition of Leaf Litter  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Impact of Simulated Changes in Water Table Depth on Ex Situ Decomposition of Leaf Litter of leaf litter after 12 weeks, with 31, 19 and 6 % less remaining in the non-flooded treatment for R, with fine litter input being margin- ally greater (Mahli et al. 2011). Decomposition of leaf litter

Bermingham, Eldredge

103

A unit for collection of dissolved oxygen and water column temperature at multiple depths  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 2004 field study conducted during actual channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus harvests, and a small-scale research study conducted in 2005, required continuous collection of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature at two depths in the water column. The on-farm study required data collection...

104

Incorporation of a new shallow water table depth algorithm into SWAT 2005  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fluctuation of the shallow water table depth (WTD) is important for planning drainage systems at the plot-, field-, and watershed-scale because its proximity to the surface impacts farm machine trafficability, crop development, agricultural chemical transport, soil salinity, and drainage. Theref...

105

Comparison of shallow water table depth algorithms used in SWAT2005  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fluctuation of the shallow water table depth (WTD) is important for planning drainage systems at the plot-, field-, and watershed-scale because its proximity to the ground surface impacts farm machine trafficability, crop development, agricultural chemical transport, soil salinity, and drainage....

106

DYNAMICS OF A SUBTIDAL SEAGRASS LANDSCAPE: SEASONAL AND ANNUAL CHANGE IN RELATION TO WATER DEPTH  

EPA Science Inventory

The spatial heterogeneity of a subtidal marine landscape and the areal extent of both monospecific and mixed patches of seagrass species were studied in Tampa Bay, FL. Specifically, we examined the temporal dynamics of seagrass distribution and its relationship to water depth an...

107

Snow-depth and water-equivalent data for the Fairbanks area, Alaska, spring 1995  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Snow depths at 34 sites and snow-water equivalents at 13 sites in the Fairbanks area were monitored during the 1995 snowmelt period (March 30 to April 26) in the spring of 1995. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted this study in cooperation with the Fairbanks International Airport, the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources-Division of Mining and Water Management, the U.S Army, Alaska, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Alaska District. These data were collected to provide information about potential recharge of the ground-and surface-water systems during the snowmelt period in the Fairbanks area. This information is needed by companion geohydrologic studies of areas with known or suspected contaminants in the subsurface. Data-collection sites selected had open, boggy, wooded, or brushy vegetation cover and had different slope aspects. The deepest snow at any site, 27.1 inches, was recorded on April 1, 1995; the shallowest snow measured that day was 19.1 inches. The snow-water equivalents at these two sites were 5.9 inches and 4.5 inches, respectively. Snow depths and water equivalents were comparatively greater at open and bog sites than at wooded or brushy sites. Snow depths and water equivalents at all sites decreased throughout the measuring period. The decrease was more rapid at open and boggy sites than at wooded and brushy sites. Snow had completely disappeared from all sites by April 26, 1995.

Plumb, E.W.; Lilly, M.R.

1996-01-01

108

Water uptake and hydraulic redistribution across large woody root systems to 20 m depth.  

PubMed

Deep water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) are important processes in many forests, savannas and shrublands. We investigated HR in a semi-arid woodland above a unique cave system in central Texas to understand how deep root systems facilitate HR. Sap flow was measured in 9 trunks, 47 shallow roots and 12 deep roots of Quercus, Bumelia and Prosopis trees over 12 months. HR was extensive and continuous, involving every tree and 83% of roots, with the total daily volume of HR over a 1 month period estimated to be approximately 22% of daily transpiration. During drought, deep roots at 20 m depth redistributed water to shallow roots (hydraulic lift), while after rain, shallow roots at 0-0.5 m depth redistributed water among other shallow roots (lateral HR). The main driver of HR appeared to be patchy, dry soil near the surface, although water may also have been redistributed to mid-level depths via deeper lateral roots. Deep roots contributed up to five times more water to transpiration and HR than shallow roots during drought but dramatically reduced their contribution after rain. Our results suggest that deep-rooted plants are important drivers of water cycling in dry ecosystems and that HR can significantly influence landscape hydrology. PMID:20716068

Bleby, Timothy M; McElrone, Andrew J; Jackson, Robert B

2010-12-01

109

Reverse evolution in RH1 for adaptation of cichlids to water depth in Lake Tanganyika.  

PubMed

Reverse evolution is a widespread phenomenon in biology, but the genetic mechanism for the reversal of a genetic change for adaptation to the ancestral state is not known. Here, we report the first case of complete reverse evolution of two amino acids, serine and alanine, at a single position in RH1 opsin pigment for adaptation to water depth. We determined RH1 sequences of cichlid fishes from four tribes of Lake Tanganyika with different habitat depths. Most of the species were divided into two types: RH1 with 292A for species in shallow water or 292S for species in deep water. Both types were adapted to their ambient light environments as indicated by the absorption spectra of the RH1 pigments. Based on the RH1 locus tree and ecological data, we inferred the ancestral amino acids at position 292 and the distribution of the depth ranges (shallow or deep) of ancestral species of each tribe. According to these estimates, we identified two distinct parallel adaptive evolutions: The replacement A292S occurred at least four times for adaptation from shallow to deep water, and the opposite replacement S292A occurred three times for adaptation from deep to shallow water. The latter parallelism represents the complete reverse evolution from the derived to the ancestral state, following back adaptive mutation with reversal of the RH1 pigment function accompanied by reversal of the species habitat shift. PMID:21172834

Nagai, Haruka; Terai, Yohey; Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Nishihara, Hidenori; Hori, Michio; Okada, Norihiro

2011-06-01

110

Transport of E. coli in a sandy soil as impacted by depth to water table.  

PubMed

Septic systems are considered a source of groundwater contamination. In the study described in this article, the fate of microbes applied to a sandy loam soil from North Carolina coastal plain as impacted by water table depth was studied. Soil materials were packed to a depth of 65 cm in 17 columns (15-cm diameter), and a water table was established at 30, 45, and 60 cm depths using five replications. Each day, 200 mL of an artificial septic tank effluent inoculated with E. coli were applied to the top of each column, a 100-mL sample was collected at the water table level and analyzed for E. coli, and 100 mL was drained from the bottom to maintain the water table. Two columns were used as control and received 200 mL/day of sterilized effluent. Neither 30 nor 45 cm of unsaturated soil was adequate to attenuate bacterial contamination, while 60 cm of separation appeared to be sufficient. Little bacterial contamination moved with the water table when it was lowered from 30 to 60 cm. PMID:24645419

Stall, Christopher; Amoozegar, Aziz; Lindbo, David; Graves, Alexandria; Rashash, Diana

2014-01-01

111

Changes in late-winter snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in Maine, 1926-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-three snow-course sites in and near Maine, USA, with records spanning at least 50 years through to 2004 were tested for changes over time in snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in March and April. Of the 23 sites, 18 had a significant decrease (Mann-Kendall test, p < 0??1) in snowpack depth or a significant increase in snowpack density over time. Data from four sites in the mountains of western Maine-northern New Hampshire with mostly complete records from 1926 to 2004 indicate that average snowpack depths have decreased by about 16% and densities have increased by about 11%. Average snowpack depths and water equivalents in western Maine-northern New Hampshire peaked in the 1950s and 1960s, and densities peaked in the most recent decade. Previous studies in western North America also found a water-equivalent peak in the third quarter of the 20th century. Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hodgkins, G.A.; Dudley, R.W.

2006-01-01

112

TOPMODEL simulations of streamflow and depth to water table in Fishing Brook Watershed, New York, 2007-09  

USGS Publications Warehouse

TOPMODEL uses a topographic wetness index computed from surface-elevation data to simulate streamflow and subsurface-saturation state, represented by the saturation deficit. Depth to water table was computed from simulated saturation-deficit values using computed soil properties. In the Fishing Brook Watershed, TOPMODEL was calibrated to the natural logarithm of streamflow at the study area outlet and depth to water table at Sixmile Wetland using a combined multiple-objective function. Runoff and depth to water table responded differently to some of the model parameters, and the combined multiple-objective function balanced the goodness-of-fit of the model realizations with respect to these parameters. Results show that TOPMODEL reasonably simulated runoff and depth to water table during the study period. The simulated runoff had a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.738, but the model underpredicted total runoff by 14 percent. Depth to water table computed from simulated saturation-deficit values matched observed water-table depth moderately well; the root mean squared error of absolute depth to water table was 91 millimeters (mm), compared to the mean observed depth to water table of 205 mm. The correlation coefficient for temporal depth-to-water-table fluctuations was 0.624. The variability of the TOPMODEL simulations was assessed using prediction intervals grouped using the combined multiple-objective function. The calibrated TOPMODEL results for the entire study area were applied to several subwatersheds within the study area using computed hydrogeomorphic properties of the subwatersheds.

Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Burns, Douglas A.

2011-01-01

113

On the Relationship Between Soil Depth and Mean Water Transit Time in Zero-order Catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to enhance prediction of the hydrologic response of ungaged basins, it is necessary to relate water transit times to easily measurable catchment properties. Groundwater transit times have been modeled for 10 sub-catchments of two small catchments in the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona (USA). The two zero-order catchments are north facing with very similar drainage area, mean slope, and climate. The main difference between the two sites is bedrock geology: one is underlain by Schist and the other by Granite. The modeled water transit time distributions were obtained from hydrometric and isotopic data analysis, and were compared to a number of topographic properties such as mean slope, area, mean flow path length, curvature. None of those could explain much of the variation of the transit times. In a second step, available modeled soil depth distributions were used to relate average soil depth to mean transit time. The modeled soil depth data (Pelletier and Rasmussen, 2009) was generated using only basic climate data (mean annual precipitation and mean annual temperature), high resolution digital elevation model (LIDAR) data and geologic data (parent material). These modeled soil depths were averaged over the sub-catchments. It was found that they are able to explain 80 percent of the variation of the groundwater transit times. This means that in these catchments mean soil depth is the predominant transit time control. With this knowledge it is possible to predict transit times (and therefore catchment response) by modeling soil depths, even in catchments where there is sparse hydrologic information available.

Heidbuechel, I.; Troch, P. A.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Lyon, S. W.

2009-12-01

114

Estimating vegetation optical depth using L-band passive microwave airborne data in HiWATER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a relationship between polarization differences of soil emissivity at different incidence angles was constructed from a large quantity of simulated soil emissivity based on the Advanced Integrated Emission Model (AIEM) input parameters include: a frequency of 1.4 GHz (L-band), incident angles varying from 1°to 60° at a 1° interval, a wide range of soil moisture content and land surface roughness parameters. Then, we used this relationship and the ?-? zero-order radiation transfer model to develop an inversion method of low vegetation optical depth at L-band, this work were under the assumption that there was no significant polarization difference between the vegetation signals. Based on this inversion method of low vegetation optical depth, we used the land surface passive microwave brightness temperature of Heihe Watershed obtained by airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) in 2012 Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) to retrieve the corn optical depth in the flight areas, then the results were compared with the measured corn LAI. Results show that the retrieved corn optical depths were consisted with the measured LAI of corn. It proved that the corn optical depth inversion method proposed in this study was feasible. Moreover, the method was promising to apply to the satellite observations.

Wang, Qi; Chai, Linna

2014-11-01

115

Effects of site characteristics on cumulative frequency distribution of water table depth in peatlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies demonstrated strong dependency of vegetation development and GHG emissions from peatlands on annual mean water table depth. It is also proposed that the duration of ponding and low water level periods are important indicators for CH4 emissions and the presence of specific plant species. Better understanding of the annual water table dynamics and the influence of site characteristics helps to explain variability of vegetation and emissions at the plot scale. It also provides essential information for a nation-wide upscaling of local gas flux measurements and for estimating the impact of regional adaption strategies. In this study, we analyze the influence of site characteristics on the cumulative frequency distribution of water table depth in a peatland. On the basis of data from about 100 sites we evaluate how distribution functions, e.g. the beta distribution function, are a tool for the systematic analysis of the site-specific frequency distribution of water table depth. Our analysis shows that it is possible to differentiate different shape types of frequency distributions, in particular left-skewed (bias towards the water table minimum), right-skewed (bias towards the water table maximum), and 'S'-shaped distributions (bias towards the mid of min and max). The shape is primarily dependent on the annual mean water table depth, but also shows dependencies on land use, peatland type, catchment size and soil properties. Forest soils are for example all characterized by a 'S'-shaped distribution. Preliminary results indicate that data sets that do not show a beta distribution are mostly from observation wells that are located close to drainage courses and/or are from sites characterized by strong water management (e.g. abruptly changing weir levels). The beta distribution might thus be a tool to identify sites with a 'non-natural' frequency distribution or erroneous data sets. Because the parameters of the beta distribution show a dependency on site characteristics, they can be used for the regionalization of threshold exceedance probabilities.

Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Frahm, Enrico; Roßkopf, Niko

2013-04-01

116

Upscaling of annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in German organic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water table depth is the key parameter controlling the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from organic soils (peatlands and other organic soils). Therefore, a good estimation of the spatial distribution of water table depth is crucial in any upscaling approach for these greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is further the prerequisite to assess the effects of re-wetting measures. There are attempts to obtain maps of water table depth at large scales (e.g. national or continental) by using process-based hydrological model concepts. However, major problem of the process-based approach is the representation of the water management (ditches, tile drains, pumping and weir management), which is at the best known spatially just for the ditch patterns. Thus, this approach is hardly applicable to the diversely-drained and -used organic soils in central Europe. Here, we present an alternative, data-driven approach for upscaling annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in organic soils. Groundwater level data of a unique dataset from about 60 peatlands, 1100 dipwells and around 8000 annual data sets, is the basis of this approach. Time series were used to calculate long-term annual means, average annual amplitudes and ponding durations. In case of continuous observations, shape parameters of the annual frequency distribution of water table depths were calculated. For each well, numerous site characteristics were collected as possible explanatory variables. This collection was restricted to nationally-available data. For each dipwell, land use is taken from official land use maps (German database ATKIS), and the soil type from the national geological map (1:200.000). In case of reliable site information, maps were corrected accordingly. Additionally, from these maps, topological indicators such as the ditch distance and density, the distance to the edge of the peatland and the peatland area within different buffers were calculated. Meteorological data (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and climatic water balance) was extracted from gridded data (1x1 km) from the German Weather Service. Topographic indices were calculated using the national digital elevation model. Further, protection status (nature reserves, Natura2000, etc.) and peatland type was collected for each well. We use two data-driven models (fuzzy-logic and boosted regression trees) to analyze the influence of the site characteristics on the various water table depth target variables (mean, amplitude, etc.). First results using the fuzzy-logic approach show that a land use/vegetation and protection status categorization of the data combined with separate fuzzy models for each category can explain substantial parts of the variance seen in the data set. Variables with strong explaining power were meteorological (summer precipitation and/or climatic water balance) and topological parameters of the ditch network and the peatland body. Uncertainty of the models is evaluated using cross-validation. Models are applied with nationally-available data to generate maps of statistical measures of water table depth for the German organic soils.

Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Belting, Susanne; Laggner, Andreas; Leppelt, Thomas; Frahm, Enrico; Freibauer, Annette

2013-04-01

117

EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan [Department of Radiation Oncology, McLaren Regional Medical Center, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada)

2012-02-15

118

Effects of Light, Temperature, and Water Depth on Growth of a Rare Aquatic Plant, Ranunculus kadzusensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ranunculus kadzusensis is an endangered aquatic plant species that commonly reproduces in the rice paddies of Korea and Japan during winter and\\u000a early spring. Here, we investigated the effects of main aquatic environmental factors—light, temperature, and water depth—on\\u000a its growth, with the goal of seeking information that will contribute to its in situ conservation. As the amount of shading\\u000a increased,

In Su Jo; Dong Uk Han; Yong Joo Cho; Eun Ju Lee

2010-01-01

119

Earthquakes induced by water injection at ?3 km depth within the Rongchang gas field, Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unwanted water, amounting more than 1 million m3, has been injected intermittently at a pumping pressure of 2.1–2.9 MPa (over hydrostatic) at 2.6–2.9 km depth within the Rongchang gas field, western Chongqing, China, since July 1988. The injections have induced more than 32,000 surface-recorded earthquakes, including 2 of ML ? 5, 14 of ML ? 4, and more than 100

Xinglin Lei; Guozheng Yu; Shengli Ma; Xueze Wen; Qiang Wang

2008-01-01

120

Simplified Volume-Area-Depth Method for Estimating Water Storage of Isolated Prairie Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are millions of wetlands in shallow depressions on the North American prairies but the quantity of water stored in these depressions remains poorly understood. Hayashi and van der Kamp (2000) used the relationship between volume (V), area (A) and depth (h) to develop an equation for estimating wetland storage. We tested the robustness of their full and simplified V-A-h methods to accurately estimate volume for the range of wetland shapes occurring across the Prairie Pothole Region. These results were contrasted with two commonly implemented V-A regression equations to determine which method estimates volume most accurately. We used detailed topographic data for 27 wetlands in Smith Creek and St. Denis watersheds, Saskatchewan that ranged in surface area and basin shape. The full V-A-h method was found to accurately estimate storage (errors <3%) across wetlands of various shapes, and is therefore suitable for calculating water storage in the variety of wetland surface shapes found in the prairies. Both V-A equations performed poorly, with volume underestimated by an average of 15% and 50% Analysis of the simplified V-A-h method showed that volume errors of <10% can be achieved if the basin and shape coefficients are derived properly. This would involve measuring depth and area twice, with sufficient time between measurements that the natural fluctuations in water storage are reflected. Practically, wetland area and depth should be measured in spring, following snowmelt when water levels are near the peak, and also in late summer prior to water depths dropping below 10 cm. These guidelines for applying the simplified V-A-h method will allow for accurate volume estimations when detailed topographic data are not available. Since the V-A equations were outperformed by the full and simplified V-A-h methods, we conclude that wetland depth and basin morphology should be considered when estimating volume. This will improve storage estimations of natural and human-impacted wetlands in the PPR. Considering more than half of prairie wetlands have been de-water though agricultural drainage, it is important to have accurate methods to estimate storage in order to assess the impact of wetland storage on watershed runoff.

Minke, A. G.; Westbrook, C. J.; van der Kamp, G.

2009-05-01

121

Comments on ‘The effective depth of cylindrical ionization chambers in water for clinical proton beams’  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a recent paper (Bhullar and Watchman 2012 Phys. Med. Biol. 57 273-86), the authors comment on data concerning the effective depth of cylindrical ionization chambers in water for clinical proton beams calculated in a previous paper (Palmans 2006 Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3483-501) and propose different results. They present a closed-format expression for an integral in the analytical model and claim that the series expansion I used in the older paper does not converge to the correct solution. They also claim that this is the reason for the resulting values of the shift of the effective depth with respect to the chamber centre to be different in both papers. Both claims are, however, incorrect as I show in this comment. The values they present are most likely based on a mistake in the scaling coefficients to account for the non-water equivalence of wall, sleeve and central electrode materials. The better agreement which they observe between their values and the recommendation ofIAEA TRS-398 is thus a coincidence. My conclusion is that the best available data for the effective depth of cylindrical ionization chambers in water in clinicalproton beams are at present the values I published before (Palmans 2006Phys. Med. Biol. 51 3483-501) and which are supported by Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evidence.

Palmans, H.

2012-11-01

122

Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 3 Plunge Depth of a 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. Phase 3 featured a composite tank head that was tested at a range of heights to verify the ability to predict structural failure of composites. To support planning for Phase 3, a test series was conducted with an aluminum tank head dropped from heights of 2, 6, 10, and 12 feet to verify that the test article would not impact the bottom of the test pool. This report focuses on the comparisons of the measured plunge depths to LS-DYNA predictions. The results for the tank head model demonstrated the following. 1. LS-DYNA provides accurate predictions for peak accelerations. 2. LS-DYNA consistently under-predicts plunge depth. An allowance of at least 20% should be added to the LS-DYNA predictions. 3. The LS-DYNA predictions for plunge depth are relatively insensitive to the fluid-structure coupling stiffness.

Vassilakos, Gregory J.

2014-01-01

123

The effect of depth of step on the water performance of a flying-boat hull model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NACA model 11-C was tested with four different depths of step to obtain information as to the effect of the depth of step on the water performance. The depths of step were selected to cover the practicable range of depths and in each case the included angle between the forebody and afterbody keels was kept the same 6-1/2 degrees. Small depths of step were found to give lower resistance at speeds below and at the hump speed of the model and greater depths of step lower resistance at high speeds. For low resistance throughout the speed range of the model investigated the most desirable depth of step is from 2.5 to 4.0 percent of the beam. The change of the best trim angle caused by variation of the depth of step was not appreciable. Increased depth of step caused increases in the maximum positive trimming moments at all trim angles investigated.

Bell, Joe W

1935-01-01

124

Water Depth Estimates Using the Volatile Content of Volcanic Glass from the AND1B Drill Core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile contents of volcanic glass from the ocean floor and subglacial environments can help determine water depth or ice thickness, respectively, owing to the pressure-dependence of volatile solubility in magma. The higher the pressure (i.e., the greater the water depth or ice thickness), the greater the concentration of volatiles dissolved in the magma. The existence of volcanic glass in the

B. I. Cameron; S. R. Krans

2009-01-01

125

Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake  

PubMed Central

Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrophyte species. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in taxonomic diversity, functional identity (i.e., stem dry mass content, leaf [C] and leaf [N]), and functional diversity (i.e., floating leaf, mean Julian flowering date and rooting depth) with increasing water depth. For the multiple-trait functional diversity (FD) indices, functional richness decreased, while functional divergence increased with water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Community-weighted means (CWM) showed a two times higher explanatory power relative to FD indices in determining variations in community productivity. For nine of sixteen traits, CWM and FD showed significant correlations with community productivity, although the strength and direction of those relations depended on selected trait. Furthermore, functional composition in a community affected productivity through either additive or opposite effects of CWM and FD, depending on the particular traits being considered. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits–productivity relationships. PMID:24967072

Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

2014-01-01

126

Revised neutron/gamma dose estimates in a water phantom for 14. 8-MeV neutrons  

SciTech Connect

Measurements have been made in a water phantom at the Gas Target Neutron Source utilizing three ionization chambers and a miniature GM counter. Results of cross-beam traverses at 3- and 15cm depths and an axial scan from 3 to 20 cm depth are reported. The two- and three-dosimeter methods reported previously were applied at each measured point to calculate neutron and gamma tissue absorbed doses. Comparison with Monte Carlo calculations indicates that the narrow-beam approximation is not valid for this experimental geometry.

Goetsch, S.J.; Attix, F.H.; Pearson, D.W.

1981-01-01

127

Evaluation of SNODAS snow depth and snow water equivalent estimates for the Colorado Rocky Mountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Weather Service's SNODAS program provides daily, gridded estimates of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and related snow parameters at 1 km resolution for the conterminous United States. In this study, SNODAS snow depth and SWE estimates were compared to independent, ground-based snow survey data in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to assess SNODAS accuracy at the 1 km scale. Accuracy at the watershed scale was evaluated by comparing SNODAS model output to springtime runoff in 31 headwater basins in Colorado. Results from the snow surveys indicated that SNODAS performed well in forested areas, explaining 72% of the variance in snow depths, and 77% of the variance in SWE. However, SNODAS showed poor agreement with measurements in alpine areas, explaining 16% of the variance in snow depth and 30% of the variance in SWE. At the watershed scale, springtime runoff was moderately correlated (r-square=0.52) with SNODAS model estimates. A simple method for adjusting SNODAS SWE estimates in alpine areas was developed that uses relations between prevailing wind direction, terrain, and vegetation to account for wind redistribution of snow in alpine terrain. Results from this study indicate that SNODAS can provide reliable data for input to moderate- to large-scale hydrologic models, which are essential for creating accurate runoff forecasts.

Clow, D. W.; Nanus, L.

2011-12-01

128

Aquila field - advanced contracting strategies for the offshore development, in 850 meter water depth  

SciTech Connect

Aquila oil field is located in 850 meters of water in the middle of the Otranto Channel, in the Mediterranean Sea, at about 45 km from the shore and is subject to both difficult sea and weather conditions. The many difficulties, mainly due to the very high water depth, imposed the use of advanced technology, that could be obtained only through the direct association of contractor companies, leaders in their own field. Such a solution safeguards the technological reliability and allows the maximum control of time and cost. The selection of an FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading) comes from a feasibility study indicating this solution as the only one, allowing the economical exploitation of the Aquila field. This paper deals with a series of technical solutions and contractual agreements with a Joint-Venture embracing two leading world contractors for developing, manufacturing and installing the FPSO {open_quotes}Agip Firenze{close_quotes}, permanently anchored at a world record 850 m water depth. The system includes flowlines and control lines. The ship, has been especially redesigned and purchased by contractors. They will use the vessel to manage the field development. Agip will provide the subsea production system: christmas tree and control system with artificial lift. The Aquila field development project aims to identify an economically viable, low risk method of producing hydrocarbons from a deep water location where previously the reserves were technologically and economically out of range.

Cerrito, E.; Ciprigno, M.

1996-12-31

129

Ocean color patterns help to predict depth of optical layers in stratified coastal waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subsurface optical layers distributed at two different depths were investigated in Monterrey Bay, East Sound, and the Black Sea based on spatial statistics of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the use of Rrs(443)/Rrs(490) (hereafter R1) skewness (?) as an indicator of vertical optical structure in different marine regions. Measurements of inherent optical properties were obtained using a remotely operated towed vehicle and R1 was theoretically derived from optical profiles. Although the broad range of trophic status and water stratification, a common statistical pattern consisting of lower ?R1--a deeper optical layer was found in all study cases. This variation was attributed to optical changes above the opticline and related to horizontal variability of particulates and spectral variations with depth. We recommend more comparisons in stratified coastal waters with different phytoplankton communities before the use of ?R1 can be generalized as a noninvasive optical proxy for screening depth changes on subsurface optical layers.

Montes-Hugo, Martín A.; Weidemann, Alan; Gould, Richard; Arnone, Robert; Churnside, James H.; Jaroz, Ewa

2011-01-01

130

Pseudomonas aeruginosa dose response and bathing water infection.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the opportunistic pathogen mostly implicated in folliculitis and acute otitis externa in pools and hot tubs. Nevertheless, infection risks remain poorly quantified. This paper reviews disease aetiologies and bacterial skin colonization science to advance dose-response theory development. Three model forms are identified for predicting disease likelihood from pathogen density. Two are based on Furumoto & Mickey's exponential 'single-hit' model and predict infection likelihood and severity (lesions/m2), respectively. 'Third-generation', mechanistic, dose-response algorithm development is additionally scoped. The proposed formulation integrates dispersion, epidermal interaction, and follicle invasion. The review also details uncertainties needing consideration which pertain to water quality, outbreaks, exposure time, infection sites, biofilms, cerumen, environmental factors (e.g. skin saturation, hydrodynamics), and whether P. aeruginosa is endogenous or exogenous. The review's findings are used to propose a conceptual infection model and identify research priorities including pool dose-response modelling, epidermis ecology and infection likelihood-based hygiene management. PMID:24229610

Roser, D J; van den Akker, B; Boase, S; Haas, C N; Ashbolt, N J; Rice, S A

2014-03-01

131

Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock - Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Amstrong, T.R.; Sutphin, D.M.

2001-01-01

132

Troll oil pipeline: High precision seabed preparation down to 540 m water depth  

SciTech Connect

Oil and Gas Developments are finding their way to increasingly deep waters and complicated seabed topography, for which until recently the feasibility was doubted. Statoil`s Troll Oil pipeline Development Project is a typical example of such a project which is characterized by strong undulating seabed geometries, poor bearing capacities of the subsoil and water depths up to 540 m. By means of gravel supports and stabilization berms, removing soft soils at water depths up to 350 m and installation of concrete lateral supports, the seabed has been prepared to enable the Troll Oil pipeline to be laid without being overstressed and avoiding geotechnical instabilities of the subsoil. These seabed preparatory works were executed by means of the three Fallpipe Vessels operated by A/S Jebsens ACZ. The paper addresses the most recent developments in the execution of high precision seabed preparatory works, called Pre-lay Intervention Works, which are performed prior to laying of the pipeline. Special attention will be given to the required accuracy during construction/execution and possible improvements for future seabed preparatory works.

Schuit, P. [A/S Jebsens ACZ, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Baldascino, G.; Canu, M. [Snamprogetti Spa, Fano (Italy); Oeverby, S.H. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

1996-12-01

133

Escape from water or remain quiescent? Lotus tenuis changes its strategy depending on depth of submergence  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Two main strategies that allow plants to cope with soil waterlogging or deeper submergence are: (1) escaping by means of upward shoot elongation or (2) remaining quiescent underwater. This study investigates these strategies in Lotus tenuis, a forage legume of increasing importance in areas prone to soil waterlogging, shallow submergence or complete submergence. Methods Plants of L. tenuis were subjected for 30 d to well-drained (control), waterlogged (water-saturated soil), partially submerged (6 cm water depth) and completely submerged conditions. Plant responses assessed were tissue porosity, shoot number and length, biomass and utilization of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) and starch in the crown. Key Results Lotus tenuis adjusted its strategy depending on the depth of submergence. Root growth of partially submerged plants ceased and carbon allocation prioritized shoot lengthening (32 cm vs. 24·5 cm under other treatments), without depleting carbohydrate reserves to sustain the faster growth. These plants also developed more shoot and root porosity. In contrast, completely submerged plants became quiescent, with no associated biomass accumulation, new shoot production or shoot elongation. In addition, tissue porosity was not enhanced. The survival of completely submerged plants is attributed to consumption of WSCs and starch reserves from crowns (concentrations 50–75 % less than in other treatments). Conclusions The forage legume L. tenuis has the flexibility either to escape from partial submergence by elongating its shoot more vigorously to avoid becoming totally submerged or to adopt a non-elongating quiescent strategy when completely immersed that is based on utilizing stored reserves. The possession of these alternative survival strategies helps to explain the success of L. tenuis in environments subjected to unpredictable flooding depths. PMID:19687031

Manzur, M. E.; Grimoldi, A. A.; Insausti, P.; Striker, G. G.

2009-01-01

134

Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of the three main greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O from peat and other organic soils are strongly controlled by water table depth. Information about the spatial distribution of water level is thus a crucial input parameter when upscaling GHG emissions to large scales. Here, we investigate the potential of statistical modeling for the regionalization of water levels in organic soils when data covers only a small fraction of the peatlands of the final map. Our study area is Germany. Phreatic water level data from 53 peatlands in Germany were compiled in a new dataset comprising 1094 dip wells and 7155 years of data. For each dip well, numerous possible predictor variables were determined using nationally available data sources, which included information about land cover, ditch network, protected areas, topography, peatland characteristics and climatic boundary conditions. We applied boosted regression trees to identify dependencies between predictor variables and dip well specific long-term annual mean water level (WL) as well as a transformed form of it (WLt). The latter was obtained by assuming a hypothetical GHG transfer function and is linearly related to GHG emissions. Our results demonstrate that model calibration on WLt is superior. It increases the explained variance of the water level in the sensitive range for GHG emissions and avoids model bias in subsequent GHG upscaling. The final model explained 45% of WLt variance and was built on nine predictor variables that are based on information about land cover, peatland characteristics, drainage network, topography and climatic boundary conditions. Their individual effects on WLt and the observed parameter interactions provide insights into natural and anthropogenic boundary conditions that control water levels in organic soils. Our study also demonstrates that a large fraction of the observed WLt variance cannot be explained by nationally available predictor variables and that predictors with stronger WLt indication, relying e.g. on detailed water management maps and remote sensing products, are needed to substantially improve model predictive performance.

Bechtold, M.; Tiemeyer, B.; Laggner, A.; Leppelt, T.; Frahm, E.; Belting, S.

2014-04-01

135

Specification of absorbed dose to water using model-based dose calculation algorithms for treatment planning in brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), recently introduced in treatment planning systems (TPS) for brachytherapy, calculate tissue absorbed doses. In the TPS framework, doses have hereto been reported as dose to water and water may still be preferred as a dose specification medium. Dose to tissue medium Dmed then needs to be converted into dose to water in tissue Dw,med. Methods to calculate absorbed dose to differently sized water compartments/cavities inside tissue, infinitesimal (used for definition of absorbed dose), small, large or intermediate, are reviewed. Burlin theory is applied to estimate photon energies at which cavity sizes in the range 1 nm-10 mm can be considered small or large. Photon and electron energy spectra are calculated at 1 cm distance from the central axis in cylindrical phantoms of bone, muscle and adipose tissue for 20, 50, 300 keV photons and photons from 125I, 169Yb and 192Ir sources; ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients are calculated as applicable to convert Dmed into Dw,med for small and large cavities. Results show that 1-10 nm sized cavities are small at all investigated photon energies; 100 µm cavities are large only at photon energies <20 keV. A choice of an appropriate conversion coefficient Dw, med/Dmed is discussed in terms of the cavity size in relation to the size of important cellular targets. Free radicals from DNA bound water of nanometre dimensions contribute to DNA damage and cell killing and may be the most important water compartment in cells implying use of ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers for converting Dmed into Dw,med.

Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

2013-04-01

136

Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth. [South Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture in the 0-cm to 4-cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop in eastern South Dakota. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the soil temperature. Corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. Shallow alluvial aquifers were located with HCMM predawn data. After correcting the data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer. A finite difference code simulating soil moisture and soil temperature shows that soils with different moisture profiles differed in soil temperatures in a well defined functional manner. A significant surface thermal anomaly was found to be associated with shallow water tables.

Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

137

An extended wide-spacing approximation for two-dimensional water-wave problems in infinite depth  

E-print Network

An extended wide-spacing approximation for two-dimensional water-wave problems in infinite depth P to two-dimensional lin- ear problems involving the scattering and radiation of water waves by structures within a range of linear water-wave problems by the neglect of evanescent fields, so

138

Evaluation of SNODAS snow depth and snow water equivalent estimates for the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The National Weather Service's Snow Data Assimilation (SNODAS) program provides daily, gridded estimates of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and related snow parameters at a 1-km2 resolution for the conterminous USA. In this study, SNODAS snow depth and SWE estimates were compared with independent, ground-based snow survey data in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to assess SNODAS accuracy at the 1-km2 scale. Accuracy also was evaluated at the basin scale by comparing SNODAS model output to snowmelt runoff in 31 headwater basins with US Geological Survey stream gauges. Results from the snow surveys indicated that SNODAS performed well in forested areas, explaining 72% of the variance in snow depths and 77% of the variance in SWE. However, SNODAS showed poor agreement with measurements in alpine areas, explaining 16% of the variance in snow depth and 30% of the variance in SWE. At the basin scale, snowmelt runoff was moderately correlated (R2 = 0.52) with SNODAS model estimates. A simple method for adjusting SNODAS SWE estimates in alpine areas was developed that uses relations between prevailing wind direction, terrain, and vegetation to account for wind redistribution of snow in alpine terrain. The adjustments substantially improved agreement between measurements and SNODAS estimates, with the R2 of measured SWE values against SNODAS SWE estimates increasing from 0.42 to 0.63 and the root mean square error decreasing from 12 to 6 cm. Results from this study indicate that SNODAS can provide reliable data for input to moderate-scale to large-scale hydrologic models, which are essential for creating accurate runoff forecasts. Refinement of SNODAS SWE estimates for alpine areas to account for wind redistribution of snow could further improve model performance. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Clow, David W.; Nanus, Leora; Verdin, Kristine L.; Schmidt, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

139

Enhanced migratory waterfowl distribution modeling by inclusion of depth to water table data.  

PubMed

In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species. PMID:22272288

Kreakie, Betty J; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H

2012-01-01

140

Enhanced Migratory Waterfowl Distribution Modeling by Inclusion of Depth to Water Table Data  

PubMed Central

In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species. PMID:22272288

Kreakie, Betty J.; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H.

2012-01-01

141

Headgroup Immersion Depth and Its Effect on the Lateral Diffusion of Amphiphiles at the Air/Water Interface  

E-print Network

Headgroup Immersion Depth and Its Effect on the Lateral Diffusion of Amphiphiles at the Air/water interface to characterize the lateral mobilities of several long alkyl chain ferrocene amphiphiles strongly on the headgroup polarity, demonstrating that the immersion depth of the amphiphiles is the key

Majda, Marcin

142

Evaluation of the depth-integration method of measuring water discharge in large rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The depth-integration method oor measuring water discharge makes a continuos measurement of the water velocity from the water surface to the bottom at 20 to 40 locations or verticals across a river. It is especially practical for large rivers where river traffic makes it impractical to use boats attached to taglines strung across the river or to use current meters suspended from bridges. This method has the additional advantage over the standard two- and eight-tenths method in that a discharge-weighted suspended-sediment sample can be collected at the same time. When this method is used in large rivers such as the Missouri, Mississippi and Ohio, a microwave navigation system is used to determine the ship's position at each vertical sampling location across the river, and to make accurate velocity corrections to compensate for shift drift. An essential feature is a hydraulic winch that can lower and raise the current meter at a constant transit velocity so that the velocities at all depths are measured for equal lengths of time. Field calibration measurements show that: (1) the mean velocity measured on the upcast (bottom to surface) is within 1% of the standard mean velocity determined by 9-11 point measurements; (2) if the transit velocity is less than 25% of the mean velocity, then average error in the mean velocity is 4% or less. The major source of bias error is a result of mounting the current meter above a sounding weight and sometimes above a suspended-sediment sampling bottle, which prevents measurement of the velocity all the way to the bottom. The measured mean velocity is slightly larger than the true mean velocity. This bias error in the discharge is largest in shallow water (approximately 8% for the Missouri River at Hermann, MO, where the mean depth was 4.3 m) and smallest in deeper water (approximately 3% for the Mississippi River at Vickbsurg, MS, where the mean depth was 14.5 m). The major source of random error in the discharge is the natural variability of river velocities, which we assumed to be independent and random at each vertical. The standard error of the estimated mean velocity, at an individual vertical sampling location, may be as large as 9%, for large sand-bed alluvial rivers. The computed discharge, however, is a weighted mean of these random velocities. Consequently the standard error of computed discharge is divided by the square root of the number of verticals, producing typical values between 1 and 2%. The discharges measured by the depth-integrated method agreed within ??5% of those measured simultaneously by the standard two- and eight-tenths, six-tenth and moving boat methods. ?? 1992.

Moody, J.A.; Troutman, B.M.

1992-01-01

143

Primary and secondary particle contributions to the depth dose distribution in a phantom shielded from solar flare and Van Allen protons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calculations have been made using the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC to estimate the absorbed dose and dose equivalent distributions in astronauts inside space vehicles bombarded by solar flare and Van Allen protons. A spherical shell shield of specific radius and thickness with a 30-cm-diam. tissue ball at the geometric center was used to simulate the spacecraft-astronaut configuration. The absorbed dose and the dose equivalent from primary protons, secondary protons, heavy nuclei, charged pions, muons, photons, and positrons and electrons are given as a function of depth in the tissue phantom. Results are given for solar flare protons with a characteristic rigidity of 100 MV and for Van Allen protons in a 240-nautical-mile circular orbit at 30 degree inclination angle incident on both 20-g/sq cm-thick aluminum and polyethylene spherical shell shields.

Santoro, R. T.; Claiborne, H. C.; Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.

1972-01-01

144

Relations between erythemal UV dose, global solar radiation, total ozone column and aerosol optical depth at Uccle, Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Uccle, Belgium, a long time series (1991-2013) of simultaneous measurements of erythemal ultraviolet (UV) dose (Sery), global solar radiation (Sg), total ozone column (QO3) and aerosol optical depth (?aer) (at 320.1 nm) is available, which allows for an extensive study of the changes in the variables over time. Linear trends were determined for the different monthly anomalies time series. Sery, Sg and QO3 all increase by respectively 7, 4 and 3% per decade. ?aer shows an insignificant negative trend of -8% per decade. These trends agree with results found in the literature for sites with comparable latitudes. A change-point analysis, which determines whether there is a significant change in the mean of the time series, is applied to the monthly anomalies time series of the variables. Only for Sery and QO3, was a significant change point present in the time series around February 1998 and March 1998, respectively. The change point in QO3 corresponds with results found in the literature, where the change in ozone levels around 1997 is attributed to the recovery of ozone. A multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to the data in order to study the influence of Sg, QO3 and ?aer on Sery. Together these parameters are able to explain 94% of the variation in Sery. Most of the variation (56%) in Sery is explained by Sg. The regression model performs well, with a slight tendency to underestimate the measured Sery values and with a mean absolute bias error (MABE) of 18%. However, in winter, negative Sery are modeled. Applying the MLR to the individual seasons solves this issue. The seasonal models have an adjusted R2 value higher than 0.8 and the correlation between modeled and measured Sery values is higher than 0.9 for each season. The summer model gives the best performance, with an absolute mean error of only 6%. However, the seasonal regression models do not always represent reality, where an increase in Sery is accompanied with an increase in QO3 and a decrease in ?aer. In all seasonal models, Sg is the factor that contributes the most to the variation in Sery, so there is no doubt about the necessity to include this factor in the regression models. The individual contribution of ?aer to Sery is very low, and for this reason it seems unnecessary to include ?aer in the MLR analysis. Including QO3, however, is justified to increase the adjusted R2 and to decrease the MABE of the model.

De Bock, V.; De Backer, H.; Van Malderen, R.; Mangold, A.; Delcloo, A.

2014-11-01

145

Water-table contours and depth to water in the southeastern part of the Sweetwater River basin, central Wyoming, 1982  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This map describes the southeastern part of the Sweetwater River basin; the major aquifer consists of the upper part of the White River formations, all of Tertiary age, and to a small extent, the alluvium of the Quaternary age along the Sweetwater River. The saturated thickness of the aquifer in most of the area, but not including the alluvium ranges from 500 to 3000 ft. The maximum saturated thickness of the alluvium penetrated by test holes was 63 ft. The water-table contours and depths to water are based primarily on groundwater-level measurements made during 1982 in 104 wells, most of which are located south of the Sweetwater River. Land-surface altitudes of springs and water-surface altitudes along the Sweetwater River and perennial reaches of creeks flowing northward from the Green and Ferris Mountains also were used as control for mapping the water table. The perennial reaches shown on the map are assumed hydraulically connected with the water table. They were identified from streamflow gain-and-loss measurements made during April and May 1982. (Author 's abstract)

Borchert, William B.

1987-01-01

146

Water Flow through Widespread and Interconnected Void Spaces at Depth in a Temperate Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a suite of observations that suggest void spaces within the ice mass of Bench Glacier, Alaska are abundant, interconnected, and may offer an important means for englacial water storage and routing. During Spring of 2003, a grid of boreholes spaced 20 x 20 m were drilled to the bed of Bench Glacier, Chugach Mountains, Alaska. The boreholes extended 180 m to the bed of the glacier and totaled more than 3600 m within the 106 m3 block of temperate ice. Each borehole was inspected by video camera multiple times during a four-week period. These video observations show that open, crevasse-shaped void spaces are common in the lower two thirds of the ice depth. Upward water flow with active refreezing was observed in association with the voids. Eventual upwelling of turbid water demonstrated a connection between the voids and the bed. Slug tests and monitored drilling experiments (presented in detail elsewhere) revealed numerous englacial connections between different boreholes of the grid. For example, during the drilling process changes in water level were observed in the partially-drilled borehole that were coincident with changes in extant boreholes. Together, these observations imply that void spaces in the glacier are widespread and interconnected over many 10s of meters. They do not appear to form an aborescent network of channels. Since the voids are apparently well connected to the bed, they provide an additional dimension to the subglacial hydrological system - a place to store and route water. Hence, englacial voids may be an important component of the glacier drainage system and the linkage between hydrology and sliding dynamics.

McGee, B. W.; Harper, J. T.; Humphrey, N. F.; Pfeffer, T. W.

2003-12-01

147

Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

2012-01-01

148

The wave excitation forces on a truncated vertical cylinder in water of infinite depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When carrying out any numerical modelling it is useful to have an analytical approximation available to provide a check on the accuracy of the numerical results and to give insight into the underlying physics of the system. The numerical modelling of wave energy converters is an efficient and inexpensive method of undertaking initial optimisation and experimentation. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to determine an analytical approximation for the wave excitation forces on a floating truncated vertical cylinder in water of infinite depth. The approximation is developed by solving appropriate boundary value problems using the method of separation of variables. A graphical representation of the analytical approximation for the truncated vertical cylinder and the cylinder of infinite depth are presented and are compared to the results from a computational fluid dynamics analysis, using a commercial boundary element package. The presented analytical approximation and the computational fluid dynamics analysis results were found to be in good agreement. Furthermore, the presented analytical approximation was found to be in good agreement with independent experimental data.

Finnegan, William; Meere, Martin; Goggins, Jamie

2013-07-01

149

Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of the three main greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O from peat and other soils with high organic carbon contents are strongly controlled by water table depth. Information about the spatial distribution of water level is thus a crucial input parameter when upscaling GHG emissions to large scales. Here, we investigate the potential of statistical modeling for the regionalization of water levels in organic soils when data covers only a small fraction of the peatlands of the final map. Our study area is Germany. Phreatic water level data from 53 peatlands in Germany were compiled in a new data set comprising 1094 dip wells and 7155 years of data. For each dip well, numerous possible predictor variables were determined using nationally available data sources, which included information about land cover, ditch network, protected areas, topography, peatland characteristics and climatic boundary conditions. We applied boosted regression trees to identify dependencies between predictor variables and dip-well-specific long-term annual mean water level (WL) as well as a transformed form (WLt). The latter was obtained by assuming a hypothetical GHG transfer function and is linearly related to GHG emissions. Our results demonstrate that model calibration on WLt is superior. It increases the explained variance of the water level in the sensitive range for GHG emissions and avoids model bias in subsequent GHG upscaling. The final model explained 45% of WLt variance and was built on nine predictor variables that are based on information about land cover, peatland characteristics, drainage network, topography and climatic boundary conditions. Their individual effects on WLt and the observed parameter interactions provide insight into natural and anthropogenic boundary conditions that control water levels in organic soils. Our study also demonstrates that a large fraction of the observed WLt variance cannot be explained by nationally available predictor variables and that predictors with stronger WLt indication, relying, for example, on detailed water management maps and remote sensing products, are needed to substantially improve model predictive performance.

Bechtold, M.; Tiemeyer, B.; Laggner, A.; Leppelt, T.; Frahm, E.; Belting, S.

2014-09-01

150

Sedimentological data indicate greater range of water depths for Costistricklandia lirata in the Southern Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

Two distinct horizons of the pentamerid brachiopod Costistricklandia lirata occur in the upper part of the Red Mountain Formation (Lower Silurian) in northern Alabama. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic characteristics of the rocks associated with the brachiopods suggest water depths of 15-150 m during times of low rates of terrigenous influx. Costistricklandid assemblages from the lower horizon are composed of extremely large individuals in association with a diverse population of large corals. They are interpreted to have lived in a protected environment. In an overlying horizon, costistricklandids occur in growth position at the base of a thick siliciclastic interval. These brachiopods lived in a storm-dominated environment and were buried in situ by the rapid influx of sediment associated with a passing storm.

Bolton, J.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1990-08-01

151

Cathodic protection upgrade of the 1,050 ft water depth Cognac platform  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the steps of a cathodic protection upgrade of a three year old deep water platform (the Cognac structure, Mississippi Canyon 194A) installed in 1977/78. These steps include obtaining results from an ROV survey, using the survey data to calculate added currents needed to upgrade cathodic protection of the platform, achieving retrofit anode installation using then novel methods, and following-up with CP surveys showing the success of the upgrade. The authors calculated that 3,100 amperes of additional current applied at depths from 250 to 1,050 feet would be needed to achieve full cathodic protection of the well conductors and jacket of Cognac. Approximately 1,100 additional aluminum anodes were installed during the early 1980`s, using two novel installation methods. Installed cost was estimated at $5.4MM. Potentials since the time of the upgrade have been very satisfactory.

Goolsby, A.D. [Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, TX (United States); McGuire, D.P. [Shell Offshore Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)

1997-09-01

152

Distribution of Wading Birds Relative to Vegetation and Water Depths in the Northern Everglades of Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of Great Blue Herons ( Ardea herodias ), Great Egrets ( Casmerodius albus ), Wood Storks ( Mycteria americana ), and White Ibises ( Eudocimus albus ) to water level (index of depth) and vegetation in the north- ern Everglades of Florida was studied in two years, each with dissimilar water levels. A regression model was con- structed

G. T HOMAS; D ALE E. G AWLIK; K EN R UTCHEY

153

An estimate of the influence of sediment concentration and type on remote sensing penetration depth for various coastal waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the assumptions of collimated light, a homogenous water column, zero molecular scattering, and constant ratio of volume scattering function to scattering coefficient, estimates of the remote sensing depth parameter, Z90, are made for various coastal waters at 540 nm. Calculations indicate that sediment concentration and type have a strong influence on remote sensing depth when concentrations are below 5 mg/theta. Above 5 mg/theta, the absorption coefficient of the sediments becomes large in comparison to that of water, causing Z90 values to be less than 2 m with only small differences between various sediment types.

Whitlock, C. H.

1976-01-01

154

Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

155

Hand powered portable ultraviolet sterilizing water bottle with active UV dose sensing  

E-print Network

A portable hand powered water sterilization device was created to address a portion of the growing epidemic of global water contamination. As being more supply chain independent and having an active dose sensing component ...

Das, Chandan (Chandan K.)

2007-01-01

156

Variation of Water Quality Parameters with Siltation Depth for River Ichamati Along International Border with Bangladesh Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River is considered as one of the main sources of freshwater all over the world. Hence analysis and maintenance of this water resource is globally considered a matter of major concern. This paper deals with the assessment of surface water quality of the Ichamati river using multivariate statistical techniques. Eight distinct surface water quality observation stations were located and samples were collected. For the samples collected statistical techniques were applied to the physico-chemical parameters and depth of siltation. In this paper cluster analysis is done to determine the relations between surface water quality and siltation depth of river Ichamati. Multiple regressions and mathematical equation modeling have been done to characterize surface water quality of Ichamati river on the basis of physico-chemical parameters. It was found that surface water quality of the downstream river was different from the water quality of the upstream. The analysis of the water quality parameters of the Ichamati river clearly indicate high pollution load on the river water which can be accounted to agricultural discharge, tidal effect and soil erosion. The results further reveal that with the increase in depth of siltation, water quality degraded.

Roy, P. K.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, G.; Biswas Roy, M.; Ray, D.; Majumder, A.

2014-12-01

157

Semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model for mapping lake water depths from partially clouded satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the variability in surface water is critical to understand the impact of climate change and global water cycle. Surface water features such as lakes, or reservoirs can affect local weather and regional climate. Hence, there is a widespread demand for accurate and quantitative global observations of surface water variability. Satellite imagery provides a direct way to monitor variations in surface water. However, estimating accurate surface area from satellite imagery can be a problem due to clouds. Hence, the use of optical imagery for operational implementation has been a challenge for monitoring variations in surface water. In this research, a semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model is developed to derive lake/reservoir water levels from partially covered satellite imagery. SRTM elevation combined with bathymetry was used to derive the relationships between lake depth vs. surface area and shore line (L). Using these relationships, lake level/depth (D) was estimated from the surface area (A) and/or shore line (L) delineated from Landsat and MODIS data. The SELL model was applied on Lake Turkana, one of the rift valley lakes in East Africa. First, Lake Turkana water levels were delineated using cloud-free or partially clouded Landsat and MODIS imagery over 1993-2009 and 2002-2009 time periods respectively. Historic lake depths were derived using 1972-1992 Landsat imagery. Lake depths delineated using this approach were validated using TOPEX/Poseidon/Jason satellite altimetry data. It was found that lake depths derived using SELL model matched reasonably well with the satellite altimetry data. The approach presented in this research can be used to (a) simulate lake water level variations in data scarce regions (b) increase the frequency of observation in regions where cloud cover is a problem (c) operationally monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins (d) derive historic lake level information using satellite data.

Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.

2011-12-01

158

Understanding patterns in global water table depth: the enormous data challenges (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth to groundwater can tell us much about where societies and land ecosystems can potentially depend on this water resource, but to have a coherent picture of this variable in space and time requires real data support. Here we outline the key roles that groundwater plays in land surface processes, and present some rudimentary effort in compiling observations and building simple models, the latter as a case study to expose the vast deficiency in data and the need for community-level, and international coordination. Key challenges include the establishment of a global network of groundwater time series for syntheses and analyses of patterns and trends (e.g., the Pan-Africa effort led by Richard Taylor), and a global database of upper crustal porosity and permeability for supporting model simulations (e.g., MacroStrat led by Shanan Peters and the new Digital Crust initiative at NSF-USGS Powell Synthesis Center). Real steps must be taken to build these community data infrastructure if we are to understand the functions of groundwater in shaping terrestrial water fluxes.

Fan, Y.; Li, H.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Miguez-Macho, G.

2013-12-01

159

Modelling Contrasting Responses of Wetland Productivity to Changes in Water Table Depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth (WTD) are controlled by complex interactions among several soil and plant processes, and hence are site-specific rather than general in nature. Hydrological controls on wetland productivity were studied by representing these interactions in connected hummock and hollow sites in the ecosystem model ecosys, and by testing CO2 and energy fluxes from the model with those measured by eddy covariance (EC) during years with contrasting WTD in a shrub fen at Lost Creek, WI. Modelled interactions among coupled processes for O2 transfer, O2 uptake, C oxidation, N mineralization, N uptake and C fixation by diverse microbial, root and mycorrhizal populations enabled the model to simulate complex responses of CO2 exchange to changes in WTD that depended on the WTD at which change was occurring. At the site scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater CO2 influxes and effluxes over hummocks vs. hollows, as has been found at field sites. At the landscape scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under cooler weather when water tables were shallow, but also smaller diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under warmer weather when water tables were deeper, as was also apparent in the EC flux measurements. At an annual time scale, these diurnal responses to WTD in the model caused lower net primary productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh), but higher net ecosystem productivity (NEP = NPP - Rh), to be simulated in a cooler year with a shallower water table than in a warmer year with a deeper one. This difference in NEP was consistent with those estimated from gap-filled EC fluxes in years with different water tables at Lost Creek and at similar boreal fens elsewhere. In sensitivity test of the model, annual NEP declined with increasing WTD in a year with a shallow water table, but rose in a year with a deeper one. The model thus provided an integrated set of hypotheses for explaining site-specific and sometimes contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in WTD as found in different field experiments.

Grant, R. F.; Desai, A. R.; Sulman, B. N.

2012-12-01

160

Modelling contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth (WTD) are controlled by complex interactions among several soil and plant processes, and hence are site-specific rather than general in nature. Hydrological controls on wetland productivity were studied by representing these interactions in connected hummock and hollow sites in the ecosystem model ecosys, and by testing CO2 and energy fluxes from the model with those measured by eddy covariance (EC) during years with contrasting WTD in a shrub fen at Lost Creek, WI. Modelled interactions among coupled processes for O2 transfer, O2 uptake, C oxidation, N mineralization, N uptake and C fixation by diverse microbial, root and mycorrhizal populations enabled the model to simulate complex responses of CO2 exchange to changes in WTD that depended on the WTD at which change was occurring. At the site scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater CO2 influxes and effluxes over hummocks vs. hollows, as has been found at field sites. At the landscape scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under cooler weather when water tables were shallow, but also smaller diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under warmer weather when water tables were deeper, as was also apparent in the EC flux measurements. At an annual time scale, these diurnal responses to WTD in the model caused lower net primary productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh), but higher net ecosystem productivity (NEP = NPP - Rh), to be simulated in a cooler year with a shallower water table than in a warmer year with a deeper one. This difference in NEP was consistent with those estimated from gap-filled EC fluxes in years with different water tables at Lost Creek and at similar boreal fens elsewhere. In sensitivity tests of the model, annual NEP declined with increasing WTD in a year with a shallow water table, but rose in a year with a deeper one. The model thus provided an integrated set of hypotheses for explaining site-specific and sometimes contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in WTD as found in different field experiments.

Grant, R. F.; Desai, A. R.; Sulman, B. N.

2012-11-01

161

Modelling contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth (WTD) are controlled by complex interactions among several soil and plant processes, and hence are site-specific rather than general in nature. Hydrological controls on wetland productivity were studied by representing these interactions in connected hummock and hollow sites in the ecosystem model ecosys, and by testing CO2 and energy fluxes from the model with those measured by eddy covariance (EC) during years with contrasting WTD in a shrub fen at Lost Creek, WI. Modelled interactions among coupled processes for O2 transfer, O2 uptake, C oxidation, N mineralization, N uptake and C fixation by diverse microbial, root, mycorrhizal and shoot populations enabled the model to simulate complex responses of CO2 exchange to changes in WTD that depended on the WTD at which change was occurring. At the site scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater CO2 influxes and effluxes over hummocks vs. hollows, as has been found at field sites. At the landscape scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under cooler weather when water tables were shallow, but also smaller diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under warmer weather when water tables were deeper, as was also apparent in the EC flux measurements. At an annual time scale, these diurnal responses to WTD in the model caused lower net primary productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh), but higher net ecosystem productivity (NEP = NPP - Rh), to be simulated in a cooler year with a shallower water table than in a warmer year with a deeper one. This difference in NEP was consistent with those estimated from gap-filled EC fluxes in years with different water tables at Lost Creek and at similar boreal fens elsewhere. In sensitivity test of the model, annual NEP declined with increasing WTD in a year with a shallow water table, but rose in a year with a deeper one. The model thus provided an integrated set of hypotheses for explaining site-specific and sometimes contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in WTD as found in different field experiments.

Grant, R. F.; Desai, A. R.; Sulman, B. N.

2012-05-01

162

Evaluation of CALIOP 532 nm aerosol optical depth over opaque water clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With its height-resolved measurements and near global coverage, the CALIOP lidar onboard the CALIPSO satellite offers a new capability for aerosol retrievals in cloudy skies. Validation of these retrievals is difficult, however, as independent, collocated and co-temporal data sets are generally not available. In this paper, we evaluate CALIOP aerosol products above opaque water clouds by applying multiple retrieval techniques to CALIOP Level 1 profile data and comparing the results. This approach allows us to both characterize the accuracy of the CALIOP above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD) and develop an error budget that quantifies the relative contributions of different error sources. We focus on two spatial domains: the African dust transport pathway over the tropical North Atlantic and the African smoke transport pathway over the southeastern Atlantic. Six years of CALIOP observations (2007-2012) from the northern hemisphere summer and early fall are analyzed. The analysis is limited to cases where aerosol layers are located above opaque water clouds so that a constrained retrieval technique can be used to directly retrieve 532 nm aerosol optical depth and lidar ratio. For the moderately dense Sahara dust layers detected in the CALIOP data used in this study, the mean/median values of the lidar ratios derived from a constrained opaque water cloud (OWC) technique are 45.1/44.4 ± 8.8 sr, which are somewhat larger than the value of 40 ± 20 sr used in the CALIOP Level 2 (L2) data products. Comparisons of CALIOP L2 AOD with the OWC-retrieved AOD reveal that for nighttime conditions the L2 AOD in the dust region is underestimated on average by ~26% (0.183 vs. 0.247). Examination of the error sources indicates that errors in the L2 dust AOD are primarily due to using a lidar ratio that is somewhat too small. The mean/median lidar ratio retrieved for smoke is 70.8/70.4 ± 16.2 sr, which is consistent with the modeled value of 70 ± 28 sr used in the CALIOP L2 retrieval. Smoke AOD is found to be underestimated, on average, by ~39% (0.191 vs. 0.311). The primary cause of AOD differences in the smoke transport region is the tendency of the CALIOP layer detection scheme to prematurely assign layer base altitudes and thus underestimate the geometric thickness of smoke layers.

Liu, Z.; Winker, D.; Omar, A.; Vaughan, M.; Kar, J.; Trepte, C.; Hu, Y.; Schuster, G.

2015-02-01

163

Depth distribution of sulfonamide antibiotics in pore water of an undisturbed loamy grassland soil.  

PubMed

Despite the concern raised by the detections of veterinary antibiotics like sulfonamides (SA) in the environment, their fate in soils is still not sufficiently understood. In a previous article, we demonstrated that manure may substantially influence losses of SA via runoff from soils. Here, we report on the effect of manure on SA availability in soil pore water. Three sulfonamides (sulfadimidine, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole) and two tracers (bromide and Brilliant Blue) were either applied in manure or as aqueous solution on grassland plots. After 1 and 3 d contact time, the plots were irrigated with deionized water. One day after irrigation, soil cores were taken and profiles of pore water concentrations were determined. The median SA concentrations of the top layer on manured plots varied between 40 and 60 microg L(-1) and between 10 and 30 microg L(-1) on the controls. For the conservative tracer Br the mass recovery was about 60 to 75% and much lower for the SA (2 to 14%). Apparent distribution coefficients K(d,app) of the SA in the topsoil ranged between 3 and 15 L kg(-1) on the manured plots and between 30 to 35 kg L(-1) on the controls. Below the top layer, the concentration distribution showed a pattern typical for preferential flow. Locally, SA concentrations down to 30- to 50-cm depth were as high as in the top 5 cm with little effect of the two application matrices. In the topmost layer, the data indicate that 10 to 25% of sulfadimidine were transformed to its acetyl-metabolite. PMID:17332263

Burkhardt, Michael; Stamm, Christian

2007-01-01

164

Airborne Sunphotometry of Aerosol Optical Depth and Columnar Water Vapor During ACE-Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) of the Aerosol Characterization Experiment - Asia (ACE-Asia), March-May 2001, the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated during 15 of the 19 research flights aboard the NCAR C- 130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) was flown successfully on all 18 research flights of a Twin Otter aircraft operated by the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS), Monterey, CA. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of aerosol characterization experiments and focused on aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. Each ACE was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. The Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometers measured solar beam transmission at 6 (380-1021 nm, AATS-6) and 14 wavelengths (353-1558 nm, AATS-14) respectively, yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of AOD and extinction indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in data flights analyzed to date 34 +/- 13% of full-column AOD(525 nm) was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10 +/- 4% of CWV was above 3 km. In this paper, we will show first sunphotometer-derived results regarding the spatial variation of AOD and CWV, as well as the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction and water vapor concentration. Preliminary comparison studies between our AOD/aerosol extinction data and results from: (1) extinction products derived using in situ measurements and (2) AOD retrievals using the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite will also be presented.

Redemann, Jens; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

165

Quantitative relationship between water-depth and sub-fossil ostracod assemblages in Lake Donggi Cona, Qinghai Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calibration data set of 51 surface sediment samples from Lake Donggi Cona on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau was investigated\\u000a to study the relationship between sub-fossil ostracod assemblages and water depth. Samples were collected over a depth range\\u000a from 0.6 to 80 m. A total of 16 ostracod species was identified from the lake with about half of the species restricted

Steffen Mischke; Ulrich Bößneck; Bernhard Diekmann; Ulrike Herzschuh; Huijun Jin; Annette Kramer; Bernd Wünnemann; Chengjun Zhang

2010-01-01

166

38W 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 WaterDepth(m)  

E-print Network

° 20° 18· 16° 14° 12° WaterDepth(m) Brazil Basin Diffusivity (10 -4 m 2 s ) -1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 of diapycnal diffusivity based on velocity microstructure data spanning the Brazil Basin (after Polzin et al is a rough proxy for winter mixed-layer depth (Reid, 1982); careful treatment of each geographical region

Talley, Lynne D.

167

Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Lesions: Dose-Response Data from West Bengal, India  

E-print Network

Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Lesions: Dose-Response Data from West Bengal, India Reina Haque with naturally occurring arsenic. The key objective of this nested case-control study was to characterize the dose-re- sponse relation between low arsenic concentrations in drinking water and arsenic-induced skin

California at Berkeley, University of

168

Water depth-composition trends in ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin compared to those in equatorial Pacific crusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts have been used as proxies for paleo-seawater chemistry; however, element concentrations and growth rates in crusts can vary depending on the region, latitude, and water depth. Here we will look at 130 Fe-Mn crusts from seven seamounts adjacent to the California (CA) margin to explore trends in composition with water depth and latitude. Crusts were collected by ROV, resulting in a dataset with exact water depth and location coordinates. Water depth ranges from 570 to 3,934 m along a 700-km transect running roughly parallel to the CA margin. Crust samples used for comparison were collected by dredging along transects following the Gilbert Ridge and Tokelau Seamounts in the western equatorial Pacific, with water depths ranging from about 1,500 to 4,800 m. In addition to variations with latitude and water depth, element concentrations in CA margin crusts are influenced by high primary productivity in surface waters, terrestrial input, and upwelling along the continental margin. Elements associated with terrestrial input, including Na, Si, Al, K, Pb, and particularly Th, are enriched in CA margin crusts relative to crusts from the equatorial Pacific transects. Si is also associated with the biogenic phase, as are P, Ba, and Cu but these elements are lower in CA margin crusts. Ba is a proxy for primary productivity. CA margin crusts show Ba increasing with increasing water depth, while equatorial Pacific crusts show the inverse trend. In equatorial Pacific crusts, Ba correlates with decreasing latitude, which reflects increasing proximity to the high productivity zone of equatorial upwelling; additionally, local obstructional upwelling associated with primary productivity around seamounts and islands enhances the productivity signal. Cu, which is associated with the manganese oxide phase, in addition to the biogenic phase, also increases with water depth along the CA margin; this is consistent with the seawater profile for dissolved Cu. In both the CA margin and the equatorial Pacific crusts, select elements associated with the iron oxyhydroxide phase, Pb, Mo, As, Ca, P, and Th, have higher concentrations in crusts that formed in shallower water. In CA margin crusts aluminosilicate elements, Si, Al, and K increase with water depth; this is also true for Si and K in equatorial Pacific samples. Be, which can be associated with biogenic and iron oxyhydroxide phases, increases in shallower water in both data sets, however when the data are combined, Be appears to increase with water depth. This apparent increase in the combined data is due to lower Be concentrations in the CA margin crusts relative to the equatorial Pacific crusts, which may be due to an inverse correlation between Be and latitude. Both the CA margin and equatorial Pacific crust growth rates increase with increasing water depth and increasing latitude. However, these trends disappear when the data are combined. These relationships indicate that regional and geographic trends must be taken into account when using crusts for paleo-oceanographic studies.

Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.

2013-12-01

169

A standard for absorbed dose rate to water in a 60Co field using a graphite calorimeter at the National Metrology Institute of Japan.  

PubMed

A primary standard for the absorbed dose rate to water in a ??Co radiation field has been newly established at the National Metrology Institute of Japan. This primary standard combines the calorimetric measurements using a graphite calorimeter with the ionometric measurements using a thick-walled graphite cavity ionisation chamber. The calorimeter is operated in the constant temperature mode using AC Wheatstone bridges. The absorbed dose rate to water was determined to be 12 mGy s?¹ at a point of 1 m from the radiation source and at a water depth of 5 g cm?². The uncertainty on the calibration coefficient in terms of the absorbed dose to water of an ionisation chamber using this standard was estimated to be 0.39 % (k=1). PMID:22951998

Morishita, Y; Kato, M; Takata, N; Kurosawa, T; Tanaka, T; Saito, N

2013-01-01

170

Variation with depth of dose distributions in single grains of quartz extracted from an irradiated concrete block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most attempts to apply retrospective dosimetry using luminescence methods to building materials have made use of heated (sensitised) items such as brick or tile ceramic. Unfired materials, such as mortar and concrete, are much more widespread in the industrial environment, but unfortunately these cannot be assumed to contain a negligible dose at the time of construction. We have analysed the

K. J. Thomsen; M. Jain; L. Bøtter-Jensen; A. S. Murray; H. Jungner

2003-01-01

171

Installation of a production manifold in 2000 ft water depth offshore Brazil  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the installation and related analyses of a subsea production manifold in 620 meters water depth at Campos basin, offshore Brazil. A pre-installed mooring system was used to moor the crane barge which lowered the structure. Time domain and frequency domain computer programs were used to evaluate the response of the system. A sensitivity study was conducted in order to assess the added mass, damping, stiffness and excitation forces influences on the system response and the importance of such parameters in the computer model calibration is discussed. Model tests were performed in order to determine the manifold hydrodynamic coefficients to be input to a computer program to evaluate the displacements and forces during the descent of the structure. Offshore measurements were performed on the hoist forces, vessel motions, crane boom tip vertical motions and manifold vertical motions. The anticipated responses are compared with some of these measurements. The method used for lowering the manifold, the mooring system and the manifold orientation and strategy considered to adapt a conventional crane barge for installation beyond its nominal specifications, but considering safety and cost-effectiveness, are also described.

Roveri, F.E.; Oliveira, M.C. de; Moretti, M.J.

1996-12-31

172

Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data were analyzed for variations in eastern South Dakota. Soil moisture in the 0-4 cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop (% cover ranging from 30% to 90%) with an r squared = 0.81. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the 1-mm soil temperature, r squared = 0.88. The corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the 0-4 cm soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. HCMM data were used to estimate the soil moisture for four dates with an r squared = 0.55 after correction for crop conditions. Location of shallow alluvial aquifers could be accomplished with HCMM predawn data. After correction of HCMM day data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer (r=0.8).

Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

173

Evaluation of multi-resolution satellite sensors for assessing water quality and bottom depth of Lake Garda.  

PubMed

In this study we evaluate the capabilities of three satellite sensors for assessing water composition and bottom depth in Lake Garda, Italy. A consistent physics-based processing chain was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RapidEye. Images gathered on 10 June 2014 were corrected for the atmospheric effects with the 6SV code. The computed remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from MODIS and OLI were converted into water quality parameters by adopting a spectral inversion procedure based on a bio-optical model calibrated with optical properties of the lake. The same spectral inversion procedure was applied to RapidEye and to OLI data to map bottom depth. In situ measurements of Rrs and of concentrations of water quality parameters collected in five locations were used to evaluate the models. The bottom depth maps from OLI and RapidEye showed similar gradients up to 7 m (r = 0.72). The results indicate that: (1) the spatial and radiometric resolutions of OLI enabled mapping water constituents and bottom properties; (2) MODIS was appropriate for assessing water quality in the pelagic areas at a coarser spatial resolution; and (3) RapidEye had the capability to retrieve bottom depth at high spatial resolution. Future work should evaluate the performance of the three sensors in different bio-optical conditions. PMID:25517691

Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Schenk, Karin; Rieger, Patrizia; Braga, Federica; Matta, Erica; Brando, Vittorio E

2014-01-01

174

Evaluation of Multi-Resolution Satellite Sensors for Assessing Water Quality and Bottom Depth of Lake Garda  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluate the capabilities of three satellite sensors for assessing water composition and bottom depth in Lake Garda, Italy. A consistent physics-based processing chain was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RapidEye. Images gathered on 10 June 2014 were corrected for the atmospheric effects with the 6SV code. The computed remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from MODIS and OLI were converted into water quality parameters by adopting a spectral inversion procedure based on a bio-optical model calibrated with optical properties of the lake. The same spectral inversion procedure was applied to RapidEye and to OLI data to map bottom depth. In situ measurements of Rrs and of concentrations of water quality parameters collected in five locations were used to evaluate the models. The bottom depth maps from OLI and RapidEye showed similar gradients up to 7 m (r = 0.72). The results indicate that: (1) the spatial and radiometric resolutions of OLI enabled mapping water constituents and bottom properties; (2) MODIS was appropriate for assessing water quality in the pelagic areas at a coarser spatial resolution; and (3) RapidEye had the capability to retrieve bottom depth at high spatial resolution. Future work should evaluate the performance of the three sensors in different bio-optical conditions. PMID:25517691

Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Schenk, Karin; Rieger, Patrizia; Braga, Federica; Matta, Erica; Brando, Vittorio E.

2014-01-01

175

New estimates of subducted water from depths of extensional outer rise earthquakes at the Northwestern Pacific subduction zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of water within the subducting slab mantle may have important implications for subduction zone water budgets, intermediate depth earthquakes, and transport of water into Earth's deep mantle. However, the amount of water stored in hydrous slab mantle rocks prior to subduction is not well constrained. Large extensional faults formed as the plate bends at the subduction zone outer rise are thought to be the main pathway by which water can travel into and hydrate the slab mantle; yet for many subduction zones accurate depths of extensional outer rise faulting are also not well known. Therefore, we attempt to identify the maximum observed depth of extensional faulting, and thereby identify the possible depth extent of slab mantle hydration, by accurately locating and determining depths for outer rise and trench axis earthquakes at Northern and Western Pacific subduction zones. For each region, we relocate all earthquakes seaward of the trench axis as well as forearc earthquakes within 60 km landward of the trench axis using ISC arrival times and the hypocentroidal decomposition relative location algorithm. We then model P- and SH- waveforms and their associated depth phases for all earthquakes with Mw 5.0+ since 1990 that exhibit good signal-to-noise ratios and do not have shallow-dipping thrust focal mechanisms, which are indicative of subduction zone plate interface earthquakes. In total, we redetermined epicenters and depths for over 70 earthquakes at the Alaskan, Aleutian, Kamchatka, Kuril, Japan, and Izu-Bonin-Mariana trenches. We find that at most Pacific subduction zones there is evidence for extensional faulting down to 10-15 km within the top of the oceanic plate mantle, and in total, 95% of our analyzed extensional outer rise events occur within the crust or top 15 km of the mantle. However some regions, such as the Bonin and Aleutian Islands, show evidence for extensional faulting as deep as 20 km below the base of the crust. If the mantle of the subducting slab is hydrated down to ~15 km (with ~2-3.5 wt. % water), and assuming published values for the amount of water in the slab crust [1], then we expect that ~10^10 Tg/Myr of water are input into Northwestern Pacific subduction zones. This value for only the Northwestern Pacific subduction zones is then 10 times larger than previous global estimates [1] and indicates a need to reevaluate recent subduction water flux calculations. [1] Van Keken et al (2011), JGR, 116, B01401.

Emry, E. L.; Wiens, D. A.

2012-12-01

176

Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 002  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

Ikenberry, T.A.

1992-12-01

177

Rooting depth and water source flexibility of Arundo donax across a wide and topographically varied floodplain inferred from stable isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplain environments can exhibit strong gradients in soil moisture availability, from very dry to saturated, with important consequences for riparian vegetation transpiration and productivity and therefore ecohydrologic flowpaths. These gradients are often driven by geomorphic features that themselves can be affected by vegetation change over relatively short timescales. The Rio Grande has undergone substantial change in the past half century, including channel narrowing and significant expansion of non-native vegetation, often across previously unvegetated sandbars and natural levees. The objective of this study was to assess water sources for Arundo donax L. (giant reed), a now common invasive grass growing along the floodplains of the Rio Grande. Our hypotheses were: a) Arundo would switch from primarily shallow soil moisture to groundwater during periods of soil moisture deficit, but that this access would be limited by increasing groundwater depths, and b) transpiration would decline with floodplain elevation and decreasing surface soil moisture because of increasing depth to groundwater and surface soil moisture deficits. We used natural-abundance stable isotopes of oxygen (?18O) and hydrogen (?2H) to determine the water sources of Arundo along four approximately 100-meter transects arrayed perpendicular to the Rio Grande in southwest Texas. Surface soil water, river water, groundwater, precipitation and rhizome sections were collected every month from summer 2010 until summer 2011 to assess potential source water isotopic composition for Arundo. Mixing models were used to estimate Arundo dependence on surface soil moisture or groundwater. The isotopic compositions of groundwater and river water were similar throughout the year, indicating significant hyporheic exchange. As expected, the isotopic composition of precipitation events and a large flood event were distinct from the slowly-changing river and allowed an assessment of Arundo use of these sources relative to groundwater. Rhizome water isotopic composition exhibited marked spatio-temporal variability that showed strong sensitivity to both soil moisture deficits and flooding. Our results demonstrate that Arundo readily switches water source from surface soil to groundwater to maintain relatively uniform transpiration across environmental gradients. Consistent with our observations of rooting depths to at least 5 m, dependence on groundwater increased with decreasing soil moisture in a similar manner across a wide range of groundwater depths (<1 m to 5 m), with no apparent influence of depth on deep water access. These trends illustrate how this now broadly-distributed species benefits from flexible use of hydrologic flowpaths unique to riparian environments. A more in-depth understanding of the ecohydrological interactions between the river, the hyporheic zone, riparian sediments and soils will improve our ability to predict ecosystem responses to changing climate and increasing human demands for water.

Moore, G. W.; West, J. B.; Li, F.; Kui, L.

2011-12-01

178

A direct approach for the determination of absorbed dose from electron beams using non-water phantoms.  

PubMed

Non-water solid phantoms are often used in the determination of absorbed dose to water for electron beams. Protocols have been established and widely accepted. In these procedures, several assumptions in addition to the Spencer-Attix conditions are required, and several correction factors are needed. A direct approach, in which the conversion is carried out in a single step using a modified Spencer-Attix formula, is studied in this paper. The approach is consistent with the protocols for water phantom, and the conversion factors can be calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. The behavior of the conversion factors is described by comparing the results from the AAPM protocol and experiment data for three electron energies (6, 12, and 16 MeV). This study demonstrates that for beam calibration at dmax, the results from the new approach agree with those from the protocol with a maximum discrepancy of 1% for PMMA and 1.3% for polystyrene. For the depth dose measurement from near the surface to R80, the agreement is within 1.5% for PMMA, 2.5% for polystyrene, and 2.8% for electron solid water. It also demonstrates that for electron solid water, the new approach provides better agreement with experiment data for the beam calibration at d(max). PMID:8746714

Lu, X Q; Chin, L M

1995-12-01

179

Variation of Pressure with Depth of Water: Working with High-Tech and Low-Cost Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When you dive underwater, you feel the pressure on your ears and, as you dive deeper, more pressure is felt. This article presents an activity that teachers might find useful for demonstrating the relationship between water depth and pressure. (Contains 5 figures and 1 table.)

Ornek, Funda; Zziwa, Byansi Jude; Taganahan, Teresita D.

2013-01-01

180

-RECORDING RELATIVE WATER TABLE DEPTH USING PVC TAPE DISCOLOURATION -21 Applied Vegetation Science 8: 21-26, 2005  

E-print Network

- RECORDING RELATIVE WATER TABLE DEPTH USING PVC TAPE DISCOLOURATION - 21 Applied Vegetation during restoration. The PVC tape discolouration method enables spatially and temporally extensive studies and the same variables indicated by discolouration of PVC tape attached to green bamboo stakes installed

Navrátilová, Jana

181

Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level salina on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to difference in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of

C. Robertson Handford

1990-01-01

182

Seasonal and depth-related dynamics of prokaryotes and viruses in surface and deep waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

E-print Network

Seasonal and depth-related dynamics of prokaryotes and viruses in surface and deep waters Keywords: Bacteriophage Virus Prokaryote Marine Deep sea Flow cytometry a b s t r a c t The study site of prokaryotes and viruses was determined by flow cytometry (FCM). Prokaryotic abundance in the epi-, meso

Winter, Christian

183

Correlation of changes in pigment content with photosynthetic capacity of seaweeds as a function of water depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study of the relationship between changes in photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic capacity as a function of water depth in Great Harbor near Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, on the green algae Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile and the red algae Porphyra umbilicalis and Chondrus crispus. Seaweeds were attached to vertically buoyed lines at 0.5 and 10 m

J. Ramus; S. I. Beale; D. Mauzerall

1976-01-01

184

The development of a concept for accurate and efficient dredging at great water depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Especially in the past decade dredging projects are being carried out at an ever increasing depth and scale. Modern Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers (TSHD's) can now dredge up to 150 m depth. However, for certain projects, it is necessary to exceed this limit. One can think of the exploitation of certain minerals, which may be economic in the near future,

O. Verheul; P. M. Vercruijsse; S. A. Miedema

185

Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized.

Izuka, S.K.; Gingerich, S.B.

1998-01-01

186

Root Plasticity of Populus euphratica Seedlings in Response to Different Water Table Depths and Contrasting Sediment Types  

PubMed Central

Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic responses in root traits and biomass allocation. PMID:25742175

Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

2015-01-01

187

Root Plasticity of Populus euphratica Seedlings in Response to Different Water Table Depths and Contrasting Sediment Types.  

PubMed

Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic responses in root traits and biomass allocation. PMID:25742175

Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

2015-01-01

188

Development of a chronic noncancer oral reference dose and drinking water screening level for sulfolane using benchmark dose modeling.  

PubMed

Sulfolane is a widely used industrial solvent that is often used for gas treatment (sour gas sweetening; hydrogen sulfide removal from shale and coal processes, etc.), and in the manufacture of polymers and electronics, and may be found in pharmaceuticals as a residual solvent used in the manufacturing processes. Sulfolane is considered a high production volume chemical with worldwide production around 18 000-36 000 tons per year. Given that sulfolane has been detected as a contaminant in groundwater, an important potential route of exposure is tap water ingestion. Because there are currently no federal drinking water standards for sulfolane in the USA, we developed a noncancer oral reference dose (RfD) based on benchmark dose modeling, as well as a tap water screening value that is protective of ingestion. Review of the available literature suggests that sulfolane is not likely to be mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic, or pose reproductive or developmental health risks except perhaps at very high exposure concentrations. RfD values derived using benchmark dose modeling were 0.01-0.04?mg?kg(-1) per day, although modeling of developmental endpoints resulted in higher values, approximately 0.4?mg?kg(-1) per day. The lowest, most conservative, RfD of 0.01?mg?kg(-1) per day was based on reduced white blood cell counts in female rats. This RfD was used to develop a tap water screening level that is protective of ingestion, viz. 365 µg l(-1). It is anticipated that these values, along with the hazard identification and dose-response modeling described herein, should be informative for risk assessors and regulators interested in setting health-protective drinking water guideline values for sulfolane. PMID:22936336

Thompson, Chad M; Gaylor, David W; Tachovsky, J Andrew; Perry, Camarie; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C

2013-12-01

189

Use of ground penetrating radar for determination of water table depth and subsurface soil characteristics at Kennedy Space Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable use and management of natural resources require strategic responses using non-destructive tools to provide spatial and temporal data for decision making. Experiments conducted at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) demonstrate ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide high-resolution images showing depth to water tables. GPR data at KSC were acquired using a MALÅ Rough Terrain 100 MHz Antenna. Data indicate strong correlation (R2=0.80) between measured water table depth (shallow monitoring wells and soil auger) and GPR estimated depth. The study demonstrated the use of GPR to detect Holocene and Pleistocene depositional environments such as Anastasia Formation that consists of admixtures of sand, shell and coquinoid limestone at a depth of 20-25 ft. This corresponds well with the relatively strong reflections from 7.5 to 13 m (125-215 ns) in GPR images. Interpretations derived from radar data coupled with other non-GPR data (wells data and soil auger data) will aid in the understanding of climate change impacts due to sea level rise on the scrub vegetation composition at KSC. Climate change is believed to have a potentially significant impact potential on near coastal ground water levels and associated water table depth. Understanding the impacts of ground water levels changes will, in turn, lead to improved conceptual conservation efforts and identifications of climate change adaptation concepts related to the recovery of the Florida scrub jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) and other endangered or threatened species which are directly dependent on a healthy near coastal scrub habitat. Transfer of this inexpensive and non-destructive technology to other areas at KSC, Florida, and to other countries, may prove useful in the development of future conservation programs.

Hengari, Gideon M.; Hall, Carlton R.; Kozusko, Tim J.; Bostater, Charles R.

2013-10-01

190

Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne laser-induced, depth-resolved water Raman backscatter is useful in the detection and mapping of water optical transmission variations. This test, together with other field experiments, has identified the need for additional field experiments to resolve the degree of the contribution to the depth-resolved, Raman-backscattered signal waveform that is due to (1) sea surface height or elevation probability density; (2) off-nadir laser beam angle relative to the mean sea surface; and (3) the Gelbstoff fluorescence background, and the analytical techniques required to remove it. When converted to along-track profiles, the waveforms obtained reveal cells of a decreased Raman backscatter superimposed on an overall trend of monotonically decreasing water column optical transmission.

Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

1983-01-01

191

Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits  

SciTech Connect

Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level salina on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to difference in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to {approximately} 60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

Handford, C.R. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

1990-08-01

192

The Ecological Response of Carex lasiocarpa Community in the Riparian Wetlands to the Environmental Gradient of Water Depth in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China  

PubMed Central

The response of Carex lasiocarpa in riparian wetlands in Sanjiang Plain to the environmental gradient of water depth was analyzed by using the Gaussian Model based on the biomass and average height data, and the ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was derived. The results indicated that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on biomass was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm], while the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on average height was [2.31?cm, 40.11?cm]. The intersection of the ecological water-depth amplitudes based on biomass and height confirmed that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm] and the optimist growing water-depth of Carex lasiocarpa was 21.4?cm. The TWINSPAN, a polythetic and divisive classification tool, was used to classify the wetland ecological series into 6 associations. Result of TWINSPAN matrix classification reflected an obvious environmental gradient in these associations: water-depth gradient. The relation of biodiversity of Carex lasiocarpa community and water depth was determined by calculating the diversity index of each association. PMID:24065874

Luan, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhongxin; Yan, Dandan; Liu, Guihua; Xu, Yingying

2013-01-01

193

Water Depth Estimates Using the Volatile Content of Volcanic Glass from the AND-1B Drill Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volatile contents of volcanic glass from the ocean floor and subglacial environments can help determine water depth or ice thickness, respectively, owing to the pressure-dependence of volatile solubility in magma. The higher the pressure (i.e., the greater the water depth or ice thickness), the greater the concentration of volatiles dissolved in the magma. The existence of volcanic glass in the AND-1B drill core erupted subaqueously or even subglacially affords the possibility of constraining water depth by measuring the volatile content of the glass. Water depth is a critical variable required for the ANDRILL climate models. Glass samples studied come from Lithostratigraphic Unit (LU) 1 at ~25 m depth and from LU 2 between 92 and 145 m depth. The samples from LU1 were fresh-looking basanitic/phonotephritic glassy sands. The glass and tachylite was very blocky suggesting a near-source subaquatic eruption origin rather than a subaerial eruptive process. The vesiculated nature of the glass indicates eruption into shallow water. The black and well sorted sands from subunit 2.4 were more likely derived from subaerial Hawaiian/Strombolian type eruptions. The graded bedding exposed in this subunit may result from fallout of tephra through the water column. Small chips of fresh glass were picked from the volcanic sediment in order to make mounts for major element study by electron microprobe and doubly polished glass wafers for volatile analysis by synchrotron Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) microspectrometry. S and Cl concentrations determined by electron microprobe range from 0.02 to 0.16 wt% (Dunbar, pers. comm.). Magmatic tephra from Iceland typically contain 0.03-0.06 wt% S indicating near complete degassing of the magma upon eruption. The range of S concentrations in the upper part of AND-1B support the textural interpretation indicating both subaerial and subaqueous eruptions. H2O contents calculated from FTIR spectra depend on absorbance, density of the glass, and thickness of the glass wafer. Volatile measurements here have determined wafer thickness using interference fringes on spectra collected in reflectance mode on the FTIR. H2O contents measured in the volcanic glasses from the upper 120 m of AND-1B range from 0.21 to 0.87 wt%. One sample from 25.64 m depth from LU 1 was measured to have 0.56 wt% H2O by FTIR. No carbonate peaks were observed in the spectra indicating the glass contained less than the detection limit of ~30 ppm CO2. On-ice participants interpret the volcanic glass in the black sands from the core as a product of subaqueous eruptions. Assuming a SiO2 content of 47 wt% for the glass and a temperature of 1000°C, 0.56 wt% H2O yields a saturation pressure of 33.5 bars. An eruption pressure of 33.5 bars translates into a water depth of 342 m assuming 0 ppm CO2 in the glass. The water depth calculation depends significantly on the CO2 content, however small. A CO2 concentration of 20 ppm CO2 indicates a depth of 578 m. Future studies will concentrate on whether the measured H2O contents are truly magmatic values. Step-heating hydrogen isotopic measurements and H2O content maps of glassy clasts using synchrotron FTIR can help determine the true magmatic H2O content.

Cameron, B. I.; Krans, S. R.

2009-12-01

194

Influence of variable water depth and turbidity on microalgae production in a shallow estuarine lake system - A modelling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strongly varying water levels and turbidities are typical characteristics of the large shallow estuarine lake system of St. Lucia, one of the largest on the African continent. This theoretical study investigated the combined effects of variable water depth and turbidity on seasonal pelagic and benthic microalgae production using a mathematical model, in order to ascertain productivity levels during variable and extreme conditions. Simulated pelagic and benthic net production varied between 0.3 and 180 g C m-2 year-1 and 0 and 220 g C m-2 year-1, respectively, dependent on depth, turbidity, and variability in turbidity. Although not surprising production and biomass decreased with increasing turbidity and depth. A high variability in turbidity, i.e. an alteration of calm and windy days, could reduce or enhance the seasonal pelagic and benthic production by more than 30% compared to a low variability. The day-to-day variability in wind-induced turbidity therefore influences production in the long term. On the other hand, varying water depth within a year did not significantly influence the seasonal production for turbidities representative of Lake St. Lucia. Reduced lake area and volume as observed during dry periods in Lake St. Lucia did not reduce primary production of the entire system since desiccation resulted in lower water depth and thus increased light availability. This agrees with field observations suggesting little light limitation and high areal microalgal biomass during a period with below average rainfall (2005-2011). Thus, microalgae potentially fulfil their function in the lake food-web even under extreme drought conditions. We believe that these results are of general interest to shallow aquatic ecosystems that are sensitive to drought periods due to either human or natural causes.

Tirok, Katrin; Scharler, Ursula M.

2014-06-01

195

Cumulative soil water evaporation as a function of depth and time  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil water evaporation is an important component of the surface water balance and the surface energy balance. Accurate and dynamic measurements of soil water evaporation enhance the understanding of water and energy partitioning at the land-atmosphere interface. The objective of this study is to mea...

196

A simulation study to identify the sea water depth for the presence of air waves in sea bed logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea Bed Logging (SBL) is an offshore geophysical technique that can give information about resistivity variation beneath the seafloor. This information is crucial in offshore oil and gas exploration. However, data collected through this technique in shallow water at low frequencies is associated with a problem termed "air wave effect". The air wave effect is a phenomena resulting from Electro-Magnetic (EM) waves produced by the antenna (source) which interact with air-sea interface to generate air waves that diffuse from sea surface to the receivers. These air wave signals dominate the receivers at far offsets to the source and consequently, the refracted signal due the target is hardly distinguishable. The refracted signals from the target being masked by the airwaves can make it difficult to identify the hydrocarbon reservoir. The aim of this study is to investigate the sea water depth for the presence of air waves. Synthetic data are generated by simulating SBL environment without Hydro-Carbon (HC) target and varying the sea water depth from 1000m to 100m with the interval of 100m. The simulated distances for the source-receiver separation (offset) are divided into five ranges. The magnitude versus offset plot together with the Friedman and Wilcoxon statistical test are used to analyze the data. Results show that the air waves are present at 400m of sea water depth and below.

Abdulkarim, Muhammad; Shafie, Afza; Yahya, Noorhana Binti; Razali, Radzuan; Ahmad, Wan Fatimah Wan

2012-09-01

197

Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter.  

PubMed

Airborne depth-resolved laser-induced sea-water Raman-backscatter waveforms have been obtained along a flight line extending westward from a point approximately 30 km seaward of Assateague Island to a point where the beach was intersected at latitude 38.1 degrees N and longitude 75.2 degrees W. Pulses from a 337.1-nm nitrogen laser were repetitively transmitted vertically downward into the water column. The laser-induced water Raman backscatter pulse at 381-nm wavelength was depth (or time) resolved into forty bins having widths of -25 cm each. When converted to along-track profiles, the waveforms reveal cells of decreased Raman backscatter superimposed on an overall trend of monotonically decreasing water column optical transmission. This airborne lidar technique shows potential for (1) rapid, quantitative, synoptic study of the homogeneity of the oceanic water column and (2) measurement of the horizontal spatial distribution of the optical transmission of the upper mixed layer of the ocean. A multiple convolution model of a Gaussian transmitted pulse, Gaussian sea surface height, and slope probability density, together with an exponential-decay water-column impulse response, is shown to qualitatively account for the observed pulse shape. PMID:18200263

Hoge, F E; Swift, R N

1983-12-01

198

Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers (R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

2015-01-01

199

Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth.  

PubMed

We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, [CO(2)]-, depth-, and temperature-controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free [CO(2)], and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater [NH(4)(+)] favored floating leaf development. Low CO(2)-grown plants initiated floating leaf development significantly earlier than high CO(2)-grown plants, which produced significantly more submersed leaves and fewer floating leaves. Mean floating leaf biomass was significantly greater than mean submersed leaf biomass but was not influenced by CO(2) enrichment, whereas mean submersed leaf biomass increased 88% at high [CO(2)]. At the shallower depth (35 cm), floating leaves required 50% less biomass investment per leaf than at 70 cm, and a significantly greater proportion of plants had floating leaves (70 vs. 23-43% at 35 vs. 70 cm, respectively) for the last three of the eight leaf censuses. Sediment type, water depth, and especially free [CO(2)] all can influence leaf morphogenesis in Nuphar variegata, and the development of more and larger submersed leaves with CO(2) enrichment favors the exploitation of high [CO(2)] when it is present in the water column. PMID:21669680

Titus, J E; Gary Sullivan, P

2001-08-01

200

Numerical calculation for bed variation in compound-meandering channel using depth integrated model without assumption of shallow water flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a compound meandering channel, patterns of flow structures and bed variations change with increasing water depth owing to complex momentum exchange between high-velocity flow in a main channel and low-velocity flows in flood plains. We have developed a new quasi-three-dimensional model without the shallow water assumption, i.e., hydrostatic pressure distribution; our method is known as the general bottom velocity computation (BVC) method. In this method, a set of depth-integrated equations, including depth-integrated momentum and vorticity equations, are prepared for evaluating bottom velocity and vertical velocity distributions. The objective of this study is to develop a bed variation calculation method for both single and compound meandering channels by using the BVC method coupled with a sediment transport model. This paper shows that the BVC method can reproduce the pattern change of bed variation in a compound meandering channel flow with increasing relative depth. The variation in sediment transport rate due to overbank flow is explained by experimental and computational results.

Uchida, Tatsuhiko; Fukuoka, Shoji

2014-10-01

201

Particle telescopes as a tool for assessment of depth-dose curves in human phantom and for radiation environment measurements during deep space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to cosmic radiation is a major obstacle to human space exploration. Concerning the human exploration of Mars, the radiation exposures to be received in transit to Mars and on the Mars surface have to be assessed. The evaluation of the radiation risk is needed concerning the spacecraft and Martian basis design, the arrangements to make in case of SPE and the location of a Martian basis. The current models for radiation risk assessment lead to evaluations with very large uncertainties because of the lack of knowledge of i) the source term (precise radiation composition, energy spectrum, flux) and the influence of the Martian atmosphere and magnetic field, ii) the different interactions of cosmic radiations in matter needed for the calculation of shielding or the dose in the human body and, iii) the biological effects of cosmic particles, especially HZE particles. For the estimation of the organ doses, and thus the radiation risk, measurements in human phantoms are essential. A method and a particle telescope Liulin-5 was developed for investigation of the radiation environment dynamics within a sphere tissue-equivalent phantom on ISS. Energy deposition spectra, linear energy transfer spectra, flux and dose rates for protons and the biologically-relevant heavy ion components of the galactic cosmic radiation will be measured simultaneously with near real time resolution at different depths of the phantom's radial channel. The dose in intermediate points will be determined by interpolation. Data obtained will be used to estimate the radiation risk to the crewmembers, verify the models of radiation environment, validate body transport model and correlate organ level dose to skin dose. Adaptations of the instrument are under development for radiation monitoring outside the phantom. These techniques could be used for investigation of the radiation hazards during future exploratory missions through unmanned interplanetary missions, as well as a part of the radiation safety system for manned deep space missions. Described are functional requirements to the instrumentation and technical specifications.

Semkova, J.; Koleva, R.; Todorova, G.; Kanchev, N.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Benghin, V.; Tchhernykh, I.

202

Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

Maupin, Molly A.

1992-01-01

203

Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

Maupin, Molly A.

1991-01-01

204

The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: Connecting with Ocean and Great Lakes Scientists to Investigate the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pressure increases rapidly with depth in a water body. Ocean and Great Lakes scientists often use this physical feature of water as the basis of a fun pastime performed aboard research vessels around the world: the shrinking of polystyrene cups. Depending on the depth to which the cups are deployed, the results can be quite striking! Capitalizing…

Rose, Chantelle M.; Adams, Jacqueline M.; Hinchey, Elizabeth K.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Patterson, Mark R.

2013-01-01

205

The influence of water depth and flow regime on phytoplankton biomass and community structure in a shallow, lowland river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The taxonomic composition and biomass of phytoplankton in the San Joaquin River, California, were examined in relation to water depth, flow regime, and water chemistry. Without substantial tributary inflow, maintenance demands exceeded algal production during summer and autumn in this eutrophic, 'lowland type' river due to light-limiting conditions for algal growth. Streamflow from tributaries that drain the Sierra Nevada contributed to a substantial net gain in algal production during the spring and summer by increasing water transparency and the extent of turbulence. Abundances of the major taxa (centric diatoms, pennate diatoms and chlorophytes) indicated differing responses to the longitudinal variation in water depth and flow regime, with the areal extent of pools and other geomorphic features that influence time-for-development being a major contributing factor to the selection of species. Tychoplanktonic species were most abundant upstream and in tributaries that drain the San Joaquin Valley. Seasonally-varying factors such as water temperature that influence algal growth rates also contributed significantly to the selection of species. Nutrient limitation appears not to be a primary constraint on species selection in the phytoplankton of this river.

Leland, H.V.

2003-01-01

206

Dependence of Yb-169 absorbed dose energy correction factors on self-attenuation in source material and photon buildup in water  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Absorbed dose energy correction factors, used to convert the absorbed dose deposited in a LiF thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) into the clinically relevant absorbed dose to water, were obtained for both spherical volumetric sources and for the model 4140 HDR Yb-169 source. These correction factors have a strong energy dependence below 200 keV; therefore, spectral changes were quantified as Yb-169 photons traveled through both source material (Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and water with the corresponding absorbed dose energy correction factors, f(r,{theta}), calculated as a function of location in a phantom. Methods: Using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation program, the Yb-169 spectrum emerging from spherical Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} sources (density 6.9 g/cm{sup 3}) with radii between 0.2 and 0.9 mm were analyzed and their behavior compared against those for a point-source. The absorbed dose deposited to both LiF and H{sub 2}O materials was analyzed at phantom depths of 0.1-10 cm for each source radius and the absorbed dose energy correction factor calculated as the ratio of the absorbed dose to water to that of LiF. Absorbed dose energy correction factors for the Model 4140 Yb-169 HDR brachytherapy source similarly were obtained and compared against those calculated for the Model M-19 Ir-192 HDR source. Results: The Yb-169 average spectral energy, emerging from Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} spherical sources 0.2-0.9 mm in radius, was observed to harden from 7% to 29%; as these photons traveled through the water phantom, the photon average energy softened by as much as 28% at a depth of 10 cm. Spectral softening was dependent on the measurement depth in the phantom. Energy correction factors were found to vary both as a function of source radius and phantom depth by as much as 10% for spherical Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} sources. The Model 4140 Yb-169 energy correction factors depended on both phantom depth and reference angle and were found to vary by more than 10% between depths of 1 and 10 cm and angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. This was in contrast to that of the Model M-19 Ir-192 source which exhibited approximately 3.5%-4.4% variation in its energy correction factors from phantom depths of 0.5-10 cm. The absorbed dose energy correction factor for the Ir-192 source, on the other hand, was independent of angle to within 1%. Conclusions: The application of a single energy correction factor for Yb-169 TLD based dosimetry would introduce a high degree of measurement uncertainty that may not be reasonable for the clinical characterization of a brachytherapy source; rather, an absorbed dose energy correction function will need to be developed for these sources. This correction function should be specific to each source model, type of TLD used, and to the experimental setup to obtain accurate and precise dosimetric measurements.

Medich, David C.; Munro, John J. III [Radiation Laboratory, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Source Production and Equipment Co., Inc., 113 Teal Street, St. Rose, Louisiana 70087 (United States)

2010-05-15

207

Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d(-1) for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d(-1) for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d(-1) for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. PMID:21924530

Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

2012-06-01

208

The difference of scoring dose to water or tissues in Monte Carlo dose calculations for low energy brachytherapy photon sources  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The goal of this work is to compare D{sub m,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in medium) and D{sub w,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in water) obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a subset of human tissues of interest in low energy photon brachytherapy. Using low dose rate seeds and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the authors quantify the large cavity theory conversion factors required. The authors also assess whether applying large cavity theory utilizing the sources' initial photon spectra and average photon energy induces errors related to spatial spectral variations. First, ideal spherical geometries were investigated, followed by clinical brachytherapy LDR seed implants for breast and prostate cancer patients. Methods: Two types of dose calculations are performed with the GEANT4 MC code. (1) For several human tissues, dose profiles are obtained in spherical geometries centered on four types of low energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 131}Cs seeds, as well as an EBS operating at 50 kV. Ratios of D{sub w,m} over D{sub m,m} are evaluated in the 0-6 cm range. In addition to mean tissue composition, compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean are also studied. (2) Four clinical breast (using {sup 103}Pd) and prostate (using {sup 125}I) brachytherapy seed implants are considered. MC dose calculations are performed based on postimplant CT scans using prostate and breast tissue compositions. PTV D{sub 90} values are compared for D{sub w,m} and D{sub m,m}. Results: (1) Differences (D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m}-1) of -3% to 70% are observed for the investigated tissues. For a given tissue, D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m} is similar for all sources within 4% and does not vary more than 2% with distance due to very moderate spectral shifts. Variations of tissue composition about the assumed mean composition influence the conversion factors up to 38%. (2) The ratio of D{sub 90(w,m)} over D{sub 90(m,m)} for clinical implants matches D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m} at 1 cm from the single point sources. Conclusions: Given the small variation with distance, using conversion factors based on the emitted photon spectrum (or its mean energy) of a given source introduces minimal error. The large differences observed between scoring schemes underline the need for guidelines on choice of media for dose reporting. Providing such guidelines is beyond the scope of this work.

Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Departement de Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie, Universite Laval, CHUQ Pavillon L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec G1R 2J6 (Canada) and Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands) and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2011-03-15

209

Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth  

SciTech Connect

A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion – Israel institute of technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)] [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion – Israel institute of technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2013-08-15

210

Seasonal variation in light, mixing depth and primary productivity in temperate northern hemisphere waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise students work with light, temperature, and phytoplankton biomass proxy (chlorophyll a concentration) data to; Become more skilled in reading and interpreting semi log graphs, temperature profiles, and time series plots. Practice unit conversions. Gain an understanding of k, the attenuation coefficient for nondirectional light. See how the depth of the photic zone and the surface mixed layer varies seasonally at temperate latitudes and how this relates to seasonal phytoplankton productivity dynamics.

Lauren Sahl

211

Dose effect for Japanese due to 232Th and 238U in imported drinking water.  

PubMed

The consumption rate of bottled mineral water in Japan has increased due to changes in eating habits and contamination of water sources. Radioactivity levels of 238U and 232Th in imported mineral water were checked from the viewpoint of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentration ranges of 238U and 232Th in imported bottled mineral water, domestic bottled mineral water, domestic tap water, and domestic soft drinks were as follows: for U, N.D to 7.48 x 10(3), 1.07 to 344, 0.66 to 104, and 3.04 to 46.2 ng dm (ppt); for Th, 0.60 to 5.12, 0.65 to 22.4, 0.64 to 22.1, and 11.0 to 48.5 ng dm, respectively. In some brands of imported bottled mineral water, U concentration was sometimes much higher than domestic bottled mineral water and domestic tap water. The annual effective dose (1.5 x 10(-3) mSv y(-1) estimated from intake of 238U was approximately 7 times higher than that through dietary intake in Japanese. However, the internal dose added by drinking the imported portable water is negligible compared with total annual internal dose. Concentrations of non-radioactive elements were also compared between imported and domestic bottled water. Geometric means of cobalt, arsenic, strontium, cesium, phosphorous, and calcium in imported bottled water were higher compared with those of domestic bottled mineral water and domestic tap water. Maximum values of 11 elements (arsenic, rubidium, strontium, cesium, barium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, and manganese) were also found in imported bottled water. PMID:15057057

Shiraishi, Kunio; Kimura, Shinzo; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Arae, Hideki

2004-04-01

212

Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryCoastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

Nyman, J. A.; La Peyre, M. K.; Caldwell, A.; Piazza, S.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

2009-10-01

213

Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Nyman, J.A.; La Peyre, M.K.; Caldwell, A.; Piazza, S.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

2009-01-01

214

Depth to water table, recharge areas, drainage basins, and relief of Duval County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This 3-sheet map report depicts hydrologic systems of surface water and groundwater in Duval County, Florida. The maps are from 1:20,000 and 1:62,500 quadrangles, U.S. Geological Survey. Symbols and colors describe water levels, groundwater recharge, drainage areas, and topography. (Woodard-USGS)

Causey, L.V.

1975-01-01

215

Sensible Heat Measurements Indicating Depth and Magnitude of Subsurface Soil Water Evaporation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil water evaporation is typically determined by techniques that assume the latent heat flux originates from the soil surface. Here, we describe a new technique for determining in situ soil water evaporation dynamics from fine-scale measurements of soil temperature and thermal properties with heat ...

216

Interrelationships of petiole air canal architecture, water depth and convective air flow in Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Premise of the study--Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer, larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiole air canals are in the conv...

217

Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly increasing. A study in the medium or long-term is necessary to continue to ascertain the impact on soil of the irrigation and to assess the feasibility of using these waters in this type of soil. Aknowledgements: This research was supported by the Water Reuse project (Reference STREP- FP6-2003-INCO-Russia+NIS-1. PL 516731). A. Morugán acknowledge the grants from 'Caja Mediterraneo'. The authors also acknowledge the "Biar waste water treatment station", 'Entidad pública de saneamiento de aguas residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana' and "Proaguas Costablanca" for the collaboration and to Frances Young for improving the English.

Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

2010-05-01

218

Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrogen has been reported to relieve damage in many disease models, and is a potential additive in drinking water to provide protective effects for patients as several clinical studies revealed. However, the absence of a dose–response relationship in the application of hydrogen is puzzling. We attempted to identify the dose–response relationship of hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water through the aspirin induced gastric injury model. Methods In this study, hydrogen-rich alkaline water was obtained by adding H2 to electrolyzed water at one atmosphere pressure. After 2 weeks of drinking, we detected the gastric mucosal damage together with MPO, MDA and 8-OHdG in rat aspirin induced gastric injury model. Results Hydrogen-dose dependent inhibition was observed in stomach mucosal. Under pH 8.5, 0.07, 0.22 and 0.84 ppm hydrogen exhibited a high correlation with inhibitory effects showed by erosion area, MPO activity and MDA content in the stomach. Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by hydrogen-rich alkaline water. However, 8-OHdG level in serum did not have significant hydrogen-dose dependent effect. pH 9.5 showed higher but not significant inhibitory response compared with pH 8.5. Conclusions Hydrogen is effective in relieving the gastric injury induced by aspirin-HCl, and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The reason behind this may be that hydrogen-rich water directly interacted with the target tissue, while the hydrogen concentration in blood was buffered by liver glycogen, evoking a suppressed dose–response effect. Drinking hydrogen-rich water may protect healthy individuals from gastric damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:24589018

2014-01-01

219

The influence of the depth of the ground water table on free field road traffic-induced vibrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the influence of seasonal variations of the ground water table on free field traffic-induced vibrations. The passage of a truck on two types of road unevenness is considered: a joint in a road pavement consisting of concrete plates and a speed bump with a sinusoidal profile. Free field vibrations are computed with a two-step solution procedure, where the computation of the vehicle axle loads is decoupled from the solution of the road-soil interaction problem. The impedance of the soil is calculated using a boundary element method, based on the Green's functions for a dry layer on top of a saturated half-space. It is demonstrated that, in the low-frequency range of interest, wave propagation in the saturated half-space can be modelled with an equivalent single phase medium as an alternative to Biot's poroelastic theory for saturated porous media. The relation between the free field velocity and the depth of the ground water table is dominated by three phenomena: (1) the compressibility of the soil decreases due to the presence of the pore water, (2) the ground water table introduces a layering of the soil which may cause resonance of the dry layer and (3) refracted P-waves in the dry layer interfere with surface waves. If the depth of the ground water table is large with respect to the wavelength of the vibrations in the soil, the response tends to the response of a dry half-space. The average free field velocity is equal to the velocity in the absence of ground water. If the depth of the ground water table is small with respect to the wavelength of the vibrations in the soil, the response tends to the response of a saturated half-space and resonance of the dry layer does not occur. The average free field velocity is smaller than the velocity in the absence of ground water. The interference of refracted P-waves and surface waves causes an additional oscillation of the response as a function of the excitation frequency and the distance between the road and the receiver. Copyright

Schevenels, M.; Degrandec, G.; Lombaert, G.

2004-04-01

220

Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California  

SciTech Connect

This map shows the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area. It was prepared utilizing gravity (Ponce and others, 2001), geologic (Jennings and others, 1977; Stewart and Carlson, 1978), and drill-hole information. Geophysical investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W.

Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

2002-03-12

221

Measurement of absorbed dose-to-water for an HDR {sup 192}Ir source with ionization chambers in a sandwich setup  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, a dedicated device for ion chamber measurements of absorbed dose-to-water for a Nucletron microSelectron-v2 HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source is presented. The device uses two ionization chambers in a so-called sandwich assembly. Using this setup and by taking the average reading of the two chambers, any dose error due to difficulties in absolute positioning (centering) of the source in between the chambers is cancelled to first order. The method's accuracy was examined by comparing measurements with absorbed dose-to-water determination based on the AAPM TG-43 protocol.Methods: The optimal source-to-chamber distance (SCD) for {sup 192}Ir dosimetry was determined from ion chamber measurements in a water phantom. The {sup 192}Ir source was sandwiched between two Exradin A1SL chambers (0.057 cm{sup 3}) at the optimal SCD separation. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water using a {sup 60}Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality conversion factor, k{sub Q}, for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir. An uncertainty estimate of the proposed method was determined based on reproducibility of measurements at different institutions for the same type of source.Results: The optimal distance for the A1SL chamber measurements was determined to be 5 cm from the {sup 192}Ir source center, considering the depth dependency of k{sub Q} for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir and the chamber positioning. The absorbed dose to water measured at (5 cm, 90°) on the transverse axis was 1.3% lower than TG-43 values and its reproducibility and overall uncertainty were 0.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The measurement doses at anisotropic points agreed within 1.5% with TG-43 values.Conclusions: The ion chamber measurement of absorbed dose-to-water with a sandwich method for the {sup 192}Ir source provides a more accurate, direct, and reference dose compared to the dose-to-water determination based on air-kerma strength in the TG-43 protocol. Due to the simple but accurate assembly, the sandwich measurement method is useful for daily dose management of {sup 192}Ir sources.

Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Ohno, Takeshi [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan); Kakei, Kiyotaka; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Kawamura, Shinji [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

2013-09-15

222

Influence of water depth on the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actual estimates of carbon stocks beneath seagrass meadows worldwide are derived from few data, resulting in a tendency to generalize global carbon stocks from a very limited number of seagrass habitats. We surveyed Posidonia oceanica and Posidonia sinuosa meadows along depth-induced gradients of light availability to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks and accretion rates. This study showed a fourfold decrease in Corg stocks from 2-4 m to 6-8 m depth P. sinuosa meadows (averaging 7.0 and 1.8 kg m-2, respectively; top meter of sediment) and a fourteenfold to sixteenfold decrease from shallow (2 m) to deep (32 m) P. oceanica meadows (200 and 19 kg m-2 average, respectively; top 2.7 m of sediment). The average Corg accretion rates in shallow P. sinuosa meadows were higher (10.5 g m-2 yr-1) than in deeper meadows (2.1 g m-2 yr-1). The reduction of sedimentary Corg stocks and accretion rates along depth-related gradients of light reduction suggests that irradiance, controlling plant productivity, meadow density, and sediment accretion rates, is a key environmental factor affecting Corg storage potential of seagrasses. The results obtained highlighted the exceptional carbon storage capacity of P. oceanica meadows at Balearic Islands (Spain), containing the highest areal Corg stocks of all seagrasses (estimated in up to 691-770 kg m-2 in 8-13 m thick deposits). Seagrass communities are experiencing worldwide decline, and reduced irradiance (following e.g., eutrophication or sediment regime alterations) will lead to photoacclimation responses (i.e., reduced plant productivity and shoot density), which may impact the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses.

Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S.; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Mateo, Miguel Ángel

2014-09-01

223

At what depths do magma-water eruptions breach the surface?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When magma ascends upward in the Earth's crust, it can react violently with groundwater, leading to underground explosions or even full-fledged eruptions. If they breach the surface, these phreatomagmatic eruptions leave debris that falls concentrically around the crater or cone. Previously, researchers have sought to determine the depth within the vent from which the eruption originated by looking at the types of ejected rocks and their original positions beneath the volcanoes, but Valentine et al. found that these two factors are not necessarily directly related.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-09-01

224

A strip theory approximation for wave forces on submerged vehicles in finite depth water  

E-print Network

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV's) are becoming of increasing use in shallow waters for oceanographic data collection, coastal mapping, and military operations such as mine surveillance along enemy coastlines. Currently ...

Rybka Jan A. (Jan Andrzej)

2005-01-01

225

Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock--Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire.  

PubMed

A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle. PMID:11554245

Drew, L J; Schuenemeyer, J H; Armstrong, T R; Sutphin, D M

2001-01-01

226

Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape as a proxy for water-table depth in peatlands: validation and assessment of seasonal variability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: 1. Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape has been used in peatland ecological and hydrological studies as an inexpensive way to monitor changes in water-table depth and reducing conditions. 2. We investigated the relationship between depth of PVC tape discoloration and measured water-table depth at monthly time steps during the growing season within nine kettle peatlands of northern Wisconsin. Our specific objectives were to: (1) determine if PVC discoloration is an accurate method of inferring water-table depth in Sphagnum-dominated kettle peatlands of the region; (2) assess seasonal variability in the accuracy of the method; and (3) determine if systematic differences in accuracy occurred among microhabitats, PVC tape colour and peatlands. 3. Our results indicated that PVC tape discoloration can be used to describe gradients of water-table depth in kettle peatlands. However, accuracy differed among the peatlands studied, and was systematically biased in early spring and late summer/autumn. Regardless of the month when the tape was installed, the highest elevations of PVC tape discoloration showed the strongest correlation with midsummer (around July) water-table depth and average water-table depth during the growing season. 4. The PVC tape discoloration method should be used cautiously when precise estimates are needed of seasonal changes in the water-table.

Booth, Robert K.; Hotchkiss, Sara C.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

2005-01-01

227

Radium and (40)K in Algerian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses.  

PubMed

Concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in the five most popular Algerian bottled mineral waters have been found to be 13.9 to 148.9 mBq l(-1), 7.2 to 52.9 mBq l(-1) and <0.07 to 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. Ratios of (226)Ra to (228)Ra activities ranged from 1.0 to 13.66 with a mean of 5.62. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of these waters have been estimated for three age categories (infants, children and adults) using the measured activities of these radionuclides and assuming the World Health Organisation's default water intake rate. Annual doses for children and adults have been found to be well below the 0.1 mSv y(-1) reference dose level, whereas for the most vulnerable group the annual effective dose from all the waters exceeds the reference value and contributes 12% to the mean annual dose from natural exposure. PMID:19223293

Seghour, A; Seghour, F Z

2009-01-01

228

A multiproxy study of Holocene water-depth and environmental changes in Lake St Ana, Eastern Carpathian Mountains, Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary investigation carried out on the sediment of a crater lake (Lake Saint Ana, 950 m a.s.l.) from the Eastern Carpathian Mountains. The lake is set in a base-poor volcanic environment with oligotrophic and slightly acidic water. Loss-on-ignition, major and trace element, pollen, plant macrofossil and siliceous algae analyses were used to reconstruct Holocene environmental and water-depth changes. Diatom-based transfer functions were applied to estimate the lake's trophic status and pH, while reconstruction of the water-depth changes was based on the plant macrofossil and diatom records. The lowest Holocene water-depths were found between 9,000 and 7,400 calibrated BP years, when the crater was occupied by Sphagnum-bog and bog-pools. The major trend from 7,400 years BP was a gradual increase, but the basin was still dominated by poor-fen and poor fen-pools. Significant increases in water-depth, and meso/oligotrophic lake conditions were found from 5,350(1), 3,300(2) and 2,700 years BP. Of these, the first two coincided with major terrestrial vegetation changes, namely the establishment of Carpinus betulus on the crater slope (1), and the replacement of the lakeshore Picea abies forest by Fagus sylvatica (2). The chemical record clearly indicated significant soil changes along with the canopy changes (from coniferous to deciduous), that in turn led to increased in-lake productivity and pH. A further increase in water-depth around 2,700 years BP resulted in stable thermal stratification and hypolimnetic anoxia that via P-release further increased in-lake productivity and eventually led to phytoplankton blooms with large populations of Scenedesmus cf. S. brasiliensis. High productivity was depressed by anthropogenic lakeshore forest clearances commencing from ca. 1,000 years BP that led to the re-establishment of Picea abies on the lakeshore and consequent acidification of the lake-water. On the whole, these data allow the following main inference to be made: Lake Saint Ana is a vulnerable ecosystem; hydrological, biological and chemical processes in the lake are heavily influenced by the lakeshore forest and the soil underlying it. In-lake productivity is higher under deciduous canopy and litter, and considerably repressed by coniferous canopy and litter. The lake today subsists in a managed environment, that is however far from its natural state. This would be a dense Fagus sylvatica forest supplying more nutrients and keeping up a more productive in-lake flora and fauna. An overview of the regional Holocene lake-level records suggests that the general lake-level trends of this study agree with other records in the region, except for the lat 2,700 years, for which conflicting trends were found. The pollen based palaeo-precipitation record in NW Romania signals lower precipitation, while our, and some other records, signal significant increase in available moisture. Further studies are needed to resolve this problem.

Magyari, E. K.; Buczkó, K.; Braun, M.; Jakab, G.

2009-04-01

229

Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters  

EPA Science Inventory

Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

230

Interfacial Depth Profiling of the Orientation and Bonding of Water Molecules across Liquid-Liquid Interfaces  

E-print Network

-Liquid Interfaces Dave S. Walker and Geraldine L. Richmond* Department of Chemistry and Materials Science Institute Molecular interactions that create the interfacial properties present at a junction between water and several hydrophobic liquids are the focus of this paper. This study employs molecular dynamics simulations

Richmond, Geraldine L.

231

Interactions among fungal community structure, litter decomposition and depth of water table in a cutover peatland.  

PubMed

Peatlands are important reservoirs of carbon (C) but our understanding of C cycling on cutover peatlands is limited. We investigated the decomposition over 18 months of five types of plant litter (Calluna vulgaris, Eriophorum angustifolium, Eriophorum vaginatum, Picea sitchensis and Sphagnum auriculatum) at a cutover peatland in Scotland, at three water tables. We measured changes in C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the litter and used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate changes in fungal community composition. The C content of S. auriculatum litter did not change throughout the incubation period whereas vascular plant litters lost 30-40% of their initial C. There were no differences in C losses between low and medium water tables, but losses were always significantly less at the high water table. Most litters accumulated N and E. angustifolium accumulated significant quantities of P. C, N and P were significant explanatory variables in determining changes in fungal community composition but explained <25% of the variation. Litter type was always a stronger factor than water table in determining either fungal community composition or turnover of C, N and P in litter. The results have implications for the ways restoration programmes and global climate change may impact upon nutrient cycling in cutover peatlands. PMID:18430005

Trinder, Clare J; Johnson, David; Artz, Rebekka R E

2008-06-01

232

Tillage depth and timing effects on soil water profiles in two semiarid soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The two-year winter wheat--fallow rotation continues to be the most profitable and productive cropping system in much of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Sustainability of soils in the region depends on our ability to halt or greatly reduce wind and water erosion. An incomplete understanding of how tille...

233

A simple device for the collection of water and dissolved gases at defined depths  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A device, consisting of a jar fitted with an inlet comprised of a gas-tight check valve and 2-way ball valve outlet connected via tubing to a portable peristaltic pump, was constructed to collect water samples without atmospheric contamination or loss of dissolved gases. A headspace void for dissol...

234

Calculation of the dose distribution in water from K-shell x-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dose distribution in water from K-shell x-rays was calculated for various source configurations using both analytic and EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations. The point source kernel and the buildup factor are presented. The buildup factor for a point source in water has been found to increase up to about 1.1 as radial distance approaches 1 cm. Comparison between and shows

Sang H Cho; Warren D Reece; John W Poston Sr

1997-01-01

235

Depth to and concentrations of water in large bodies of silicic magma. Progress report, July 1, 1982-June 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Large bodies of silicic magma are potential sources of geothermal energy and ore. They also pose threats of catastrophic eruptions. The depths of such bodies are related to their economic potential and probably to their eruption mechanisms. The concentrations of water in the magmas are important for their eruptive and dynamical behavior and for the development of ores. Estimates of viscosity and density of melt require knowledge of concentration of water. The concentration of water in melt before ascent and eruption can be measured in inclusions of glass which became trapped in crystals before extrusion. The depth of a magma body can be estimated or delimited if we can find out the concentrations of both carbon dioxide and water in the inclusions of glass. Initial results on the Bishop Tuff of Long Valley Caldera, California yield 4.9 +- 0.5 percent H/sub 2/O for glass included in quartz from the Plinian air fall pumice. This result is comparable to the estimates of Hildreth (1977) of about 3.5 to 4.9 percent H/sub 2/O in the lowermost part of the Bishop ash flow. From January 1982 through December 1982, analyses of inclusions of glass in two additional quartz phenocrysts from the Plinian air fall unit of the Bishop Tuff revealed variable H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/. The corresponding partial pressures range between about 2000 and 5000 atmospheres, assuming gas saturation. The variation may be natural or caused by an analytical artifact. A computerized data file has been constructed to facilitate the storage and retrieval of published and unpublished chemical analyses of glasses and minerals. Some data on the Bishop Tuff are presently stored.

Anderson, A.T.

1983-03-03

236

Rooting depth, water availability, and vegetation cover along an aridity gradient in Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Above-and belowground biomass distribution, isotopic composition of soil and xylem water, and carbon isotope ratios were studied along an aridity gradient in Patagonia (44–45°S). Sites, ranging from those with Nothofagus forest with high annual rainfall (770 mm) to Nothofagus scrub (520 mm), Festuca (290 mm) and Stipa (160 mm) grasslands and into desert vegetation (125 mm), were chosen to test

E.-D. Schulze; H. A. Mooney; O. E. Sala; E. Jobbagy; N. Buchmann; G. Bauer; J. Canadell; R. B. Jackson; J. Loreti; M. Oesterheld; J. R. Ehleringer

1996-01-01

237

Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

Ikenberry, T.A.

1992-12-01

238

Dose to tissue medium or water cavities as surrogate for the dose to cell nuclei at brachytherapy photon energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that modern dose calculation algorithms should be able to report absorbed dose both as dose to the local medium, Dm,m, and as dose to a water cavity embedded in the medium, Dw,m, using conversion factors from cavity theory. Assuming that the cell nucleus with its DNA content is the most important target for biological response, the aim of this study is to investigate, by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the relationship of the dose to a cell nucleus in a medium, Dn,m, to Dm,m and Dw,m, for different combinations of cell nucleus compositions and tissue media for different photon energies used in brachytherapy. As Dn,m is very impractical to calculate directly for routine treatment planning, while Dm,m and Dw,m are much easier to obtain, the questions arise which one of these quantities is the best surrogate for Dn,m and which cavity theory assumptions should one use for its estimate. The Geant4.9.4 MC code was used to calculate Dm,m, Dw,m and Dn,m for photon energies from 20 (representing the lower energy end of brachytherapy for 103Pd or125I) to 300 keV (close to the mean energy of 192Ir) and for the tissue media adipose, breast, prostate and muscle. To simulate the cell and its nucleus, concentric spherical cavities were placed inside a cubic phantom (10 × 10 × 10 mm3). The diameter of the simulated nuclei was set to 14 µm. For each tissue medium, three different setups were simulated; (a) Dn,m was calculated with nuclei embedded in tissues (MC-Dn,m). Four different published elemental compositions of cell nuclei were used. (b) Dw,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dw,m) and compared with large cavity theory calculated Dw,m (LCT-Dw,m), and small cavity theory calculated Dw,m (SCT-Dw,m). (c) Dm,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dm,m). MC-Dw,m is a good substitute for MC-Dn,m for all photon energies and for all simulated nucleus compositions and tissue types. SCT-Dw,m can be used for most energies in brachytherapy, while LCT-Dw,m should only be considered for source spectra well below 50 keV, since contributions to the absorbed dose inside the nucleus to a large degree stem from electrons released in the surrounding medium. MC-Dm,m is not an appropriate substitute for MC-Dn,m for the lowest photon energies for adipose and breast tissues. The ratio of MC-Dm,m to MC-Dn,m for adipose and breast tissue deviates from unity by 34% and 15% respectively for the lowest photon energy (20 keV), whereas the ratio is close to unity for higher energies. For prostate and muscle tissue MC-Dm,m is a good substitute for MC-Dn,m. However, for all photon energies and tissue types the nucleus composition with the highest hydrogen content behaves differently than other compositions. Elemental compositions of the tissue and nuclei affect considerably the absorbed dose to the cell nuclei for brachytherapy sources, in particular those at the low-energy end of the spectrum. Thus, there is a need for more accurate data for the elemental compositions of tumours and healthy cells. For the nucleus compositions and tissue types investigated, MC-Dw,m is a good substitute to MC-Dn,m for all simulated photon energies. Whether other studied surrogates are good approximations to MC-Dn,m depends on the target size, target composition, composition of the surrounding tissue and photon energy.

Enger, Shirin A.; Ahnesjö, Anders; Verhaegen, Frank; Beaulieu, Luc

2012-07-01

239

Changing Water Depths in the Eastern Part of Sydney Harbour due to Human Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sydney Harbour has been significantly modified by human impacts from the start of the European settlement in 1788. Land clearing has accelerated soil erosion, resulting in increased sedimentation. Dredging has deepened many areas to accommodate ever-larger ships. In this paper a GIS method is used to map bathymetric changes in the eastern part of the harbour from 1903 to more recently. Dredged areas are apparent in the entrance and in wharfage areas, while sedimentation is most marked around the deepest section, which is well inside the harbour itself. In this latter region sediment has built up considerably, to over 3 m in some locations, and ship-induced motions appear to have had an impact. Despite these changes the overall depth of the eastern part of the harbour has changed little. This work is of interest to maritime archaeologists because it brings out the types of processes by which sediments can accumulate and be removed thus altering a harbour's seabed and potentially burying, exposing or erasing archaeological sites and artefacts.

Mulhearn, Phillip

2014-12-01

240

Doses and risks from tritiated water and environmental organically bound tritium.  

PubMed

This short review provides an explanation of the calculation and use of the ICRP protection quantities, equivalent and effective dose, including the simplifications introduced by using radiation and tissue weighting factors. It discusses the dose coefficients (Sv Bq(-1) intake) provided by ICRP for intakes of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT) and considers uncertainties in the human and animal data on which they are based, including information on the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium beta particles compared to gamma and x-rays. The review also addresses the specific issue of dose coefficients for ingestion of OBT in Cardiff Bay fish. A distinction is drawn between the adequacy of the ICRP calculation of effective dose to a reference person for the purposes of planning and regulatory control, and the calculation of best estimates of dose and risk to individuals. ICRP will continue to use a radiation weighting factor of 1 for all low LET radiations in the calculation of effective dose, but specific RBE data should be used in risk estimates. Uncertainties in dose coefficients are small for HTO but greater for OBT. The generic consideration of OBT provided by ICRP may not be appropriate for specific organic forms such as OBT in fish. PMID:19690361

Harrison, John

2009-09-01

241

Assessment of dose to man from releases of sup 99 Tc in fresh water systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the dose to man from releases of {sup 99}Tc in a fresh water system and to identify the biospheric transfer parameters to which the total dose is the most sensitive. Only internal exposure is taken into account, as the external irradiation leads to a negligible dose contribution. Two release modes were considered: continuous (routine) releases and accidental releases. The concentrations in the biospheric compartments subsequent to routine releases were calculated according to International Atomic Energy Agency procedures. For the accidental releases, a more dynamic approach was adopted, especially for the milk and meat compartments. A routine-release scenario typical for the Mol site has been applied, and the biospheric compartment leading to the highest dose contribution was shown to be the irrigated grain. The biospheric transfer parameters to which the first-year doses were the most sensitive consisted mainly of the mass interception factor for grain and the milk transfer factor. The doses in following years were very dependent on the value of the root zone removal rate. The accidental-release scenario resulted in committed dose equivalent that are strongly influenced by the time of year at which the release occurs. 12 references.

Zeevaert, T.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R. (S.C.K./C.E.N. Mol (Belgium))

1989-08-01

242

Dose calculations for nuclear criticality accidents that occur under large amounts of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis was performed to determine the dose consequence to a worker directly above a hypothetical nuclear criticality on the floor of a fuel storage pool. This accident was assumed to have been caused by a critical accumulation of low-enriched uranium metallic fuel in a hemispherical pile on the pool floor. The basin contained [approx]16 ft of water. The fuel

Schwinkendorf

1992-01-01

243

DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE OF AN ENTEROVIRUS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The goals of this project were to determine the minimal infectious dose and medical significance of an enteric virus ingested in drinking water. The study was conducted under double-blind, placebo-controlled, random-selection conditions. A total of 149 susceptible (antibody-free)...

244

Development of a water calorimetry-based standard for absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this article is to develop and evaluate a primary standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy based on 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimetry. Methods: The absolute absorbed dose to water was directly measured for several different Nucletron microSelectron {sup 192}Ir sources of air kerma strength ranging between 21 000 and 38 000 U and for source-to-detector separations ranging between 25 and 70 mm. The COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS software was used to accurately calculate the heat transport in a detailed model geometry. Through a coupling of the ''conduction and convection'' module with the ''Navier-Stokes incompressible fluid'' module in the software, both the conductive and convective effects were modeled. Results: A detailed uncertainty analysis resulted in an overall uncertainty in the absorbed dose of 1.90%(1{sigma}). However, this includes a 1.5% uncertainty associated with a nonlinear predrift correction which can be substantially reduced if sufficient time is provided for the system to come to a new equilibrium in between successive calorimetric runs, an opportunity not available to the authors in their clinical setting due to time constraints on the machine. An average normalized dose rate of 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a source-to-detector separation of 55 mm was measured for the microSelectron {sup 192}Ir source based on water calorimetry. The measured absorbed dose per air kerma strength agreed to better than 0.8%(1{sigma}) with independent ionization chamber and EBT-1 Gafchromic film reference dosimetry as well as with the currently accepted AAPM TG-43 protocol measurements. Conclusions: This work paves the way toward a primary absorbed dose to water standard in {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy.

Sarfehnia, Arman; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2010-04-15

245

Maps Showing Depth to Water Table, September 1976, and Area Inundated by the June 1975 Flood, Helena Valley, Lewis and Clark County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Depth to water table, September 1976, and area inundated by the June 1975 flood in the Helena valley, Montana, are mapped on two sheets, Helena and East Helena 7.5-minute quadrangles, at scale 1:48,000. Depth to water table was mapped using water-level measurements from existing shallow observation wells and selected domestic wells, and from field reconnaissance of topography. A hydrograph shows water-level fluctuation in two wells located in different parts of the valley. Area inundated by the June 1975 flood was mapped from aerial photos along Prickly Pear and Tenmile Creeks and by field reconnaissance along Silver Creek. (Woodard-USGS)

Wilke, Kathleen R.; Johnson, M.V.

1978-01-01

246

Instrumentation for investigation of the depth-dose distribution by the Liulin-5 instrument of a human phantom on the Russian segment of ISS for estimation of the radiation risk during long term space flights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Described is the Liulin-5 experiment and instrumentation, developed for investigation of the space radiation doses depth distribution in a human phantom on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). Liulin-5 experiment is a part of the international project MATROSHKA-R on ISS. The experiment MATROSHKA-R is aimed to study the depth dose distribution at the sites of critical organs of the human body, using models of human body-anthropomorphic and spherical tissue-equivalent phantoms. The aim of Liulin-5 experiment is long term (4-5 years) investigation of the radiation environment dynamics inside the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom, mounted in different places of the Russian Segment of ISS. Energy deposition spectra, linear energy transfer spectra, flux and dose rates for protons and the biologically-relevant heavy ion components of the galactic cosmic radiation will be measured simultaneously with near real time resolution at different depths of the phantom by a telescope of silicon detectors. Data obtained together with data from other active and passive dosimeters will be used to estimate the radiation risk to the crewmembers, verify the models of radiation environment in low Earth orbit, validate body transport model and correlate organ level dose to skin dose. Presented are the test results of the prototype unit. The spherical phantom will be flown on the ISS in 2004 year and Liulin-5 experiment is planned for 2005 year. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Semkova, J.; Koleva, R.; Todorova, G.; Kanchev, N.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Tchhernykh, I.; Kireeva, S.

2004-01-01

247

Technical Note: Using wavelet analyses on water depth time series to detect glacial influence in high-mountain hydrosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide, the rapid shrinking of glaciers in response to ongoing climate change is currently modifying the glacial meltwater contribution to hydrosystems in glacierized catchments. Assessing the contribution of glacier run-off to stream discharge is therefore of critical importance to evaluate potential impact of glacier retreat on water quality and aquatic biota. This task has challenged both glacier hydrologists and ecologists over the last 20 yr due to both structural and functional complexity of the glacier-stream system interface. Here we propose a new methodological approach based on wavelet analyses on water depth time series to determine the glacial influence in glacierized catchments. We performed water depth measurement using water pressure loggers over ten months in 15 stream sites in two glacier-fed catchments in the Ecuadorian Andes (> 4000 m). We determined the global wavelet spectrum of each time series and defined the Wavelet Glacier Signal (WGS) as the ratio between the global wavelet power spectrum value at a 24 h-scale and its corresponding significance value. To test the relevance of the WGS we compared it with the percentage of the glacier cover in the catchments, a metric of glacier influence often used in the literature. We then tested whether one month data could be sufficient to reliably determine the glacial influence. As expected we found that the WGS of glacier-fed streams decreased downstream with the increasing of non-glacial tributaries. We also found that the WGS and the percentage of the glacier cover in the catchment were significantly positively correlated and that one month data was sufficient to identify and compare the glacial influence between two sites, provided that the water level time series were acquired over the same period. Furthermore, we found that our method permits to detect glacial signal in supposedly non-glacial sites, thereby evidencing glacial meltwater infiltrations. While we specifically focused on the tropical Andes in this paper, our approach to determine glacier influence would be applicable to temperate and arctic glacierized catchments. The WGS therefore appears as a powerful and cost effective tool to better understand the hydrological links between glaciers and hydrosystems and assess the consequences of rapid glacier melting.

Cauvy-Fraunié, S.; Condom, T.; Rabatel, A.; Villacis, M.; Jacobsen, D.; Dangles, O.

2013-04-01

248

Evidence for a nonmonotonic relationship between ecosystem-scale peatland methane emissions and water table depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although temporal and spatial variations in peatland methane (CH4) emissions at broad scales are often related to water table (WT) using a linear relationship, a potentially complex relationship exists between these variables locally and over shorter time scales. To explore this issue, CH4 fluxes were measured using eddy covariance at the Mer Bleue bog over two summer seasons. Peak CH4 emissions (30 to 50 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1) occurred not when the WT was closest to the surface but instead, when it dropped to 40 to 55 cm below the surface. When the WT was below or above this zone, average fluxes were ~14 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1. We speculate this critical zone coincides with the necessary redox potentials and sources of fresh organic material that lead to maximum production of CH4 and/or with conditions that lead to degassing of stored CH4. However, as expected, total summer CH4 emissions were 47% lower during the drier year. This occurred in part because the WT was within the critical zone for fewer days in the drier year but also because after an extended midsummer dry period there was little recovery of CH4 emissions, even a month after rewetting.

Brown, Mathew G.; Humphreys, Elyn R.; Moore, Tim R.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Lafleur, Peter M.

2014-05-01

249

A measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in lead at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the measurement of the neutron production rate in lead by high energy cosmic-ray muons at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent (mean muon energy of 260 GeV). A tonne-scale highly segmented plastic scintillator detector was utilised to detect both the energy depositions from the traversing muons as well as the delayed radiative capture signals of the induced neutrons. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations reproduce well the distributions of muons and detected muon-induced neutrons. Absolute agreement between simulation and data is of the order of 25%. By comparing the measured and simulated neutron capture rates a neutron yield in pure lead of (5.78-0.28+0.21)×10-3 neutrons/muon/(g/cm2) has been obtained.

Reichhart, L.; Lindote, A.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Araújo, H. M.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Bewick, A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; DeViveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Francis, V.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lopes, M. I.; Lüscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; da Cunha, J. Pinto; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

2013-08-01

250

A measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in lead at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent  

SciTech Connect

We present results from the measurement of the neutron production rate in lead by high energy cosmic-ray muons at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent (mean muon energy of 260 GeV). A tonne-scale highly segmented plastic scintillator detector was utilised to detect both the energy depositions from the traversing muons as well as the delayed radiative capture signals of the induced neutrons. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations reproduce well the distributions of muons and detected muon-induced neutrons. Absolute agreement between simulation and data is of the order of 25%. By comparing the measured and simulated neutron capture rates a neutron yield in pure lead of (5.78{sub ?0.28}{sup +0.21})×10{sup ?3} neutrons/muon/(g/cm{sup 2}) has been obtained.

Reichhart, L.; Ghag, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh, UK and High Energy Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom)] [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA University of Edinburgh, UK and High Energy Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom); Lindote, A.; Chepel, V.; DeViveiros, L.; Lopes, M. I.; Neves, F.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N. [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal)] [LIP-Coimbra and Department of Physics of the University of Coimbra (Portugal); Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Stekhanov, V. N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Araújo, H. M.; Bewick, A.; Currie, A.; Horn, M. [High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)] [High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London (United Kingdom); and others

2013-08-08

251

Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping (1:25,000) by computer analysis of LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer analysis was applied to single date LANDSAT MSS imagery of a sample coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map from this sample image containing 12 classes: 5 water depth/sediment classes, 2 shoreline/tidal classes, and 5 coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%. Unsupervised image classification was applied to a subportion of the site analyzed and produced classification maps comparable in results in a spatial sense. The results of this test indicated that it is feasible to produce such quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a LANDSAT image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

1978-01-01

252

Absorbed dose to water distribution measured around an HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source by thermoluminescent dosimeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure to directly estimate the spatial distribution of the absorbed dose rate to water, \\dot {D}_w , around an HDR 192Ir brachytherapy source. The methodology developed was based on Monte Carlo calculations and measurements in air and in water with thermoluminescent detectors. Variations in detector positioning had a significant influence near the brachytherapy source (20% at 1 cm). The method leads to a mean difference of about 7% with the CLRP TG-43 Parameter Database when the absorbed dose to water is characterized along the transverse plane to the source (from 1 cm to about 11 cm). This mean difference, however, is within an uncertainty of 7.7% over all distances. This method therefore can be used to provide direct estimates of the absorbed dose rate to water for HDR brachytherapy source irradiations which are more realistic than those which use other phantom materials. In addition, measurements are indicative of the source geometry and material composition.

Avilés Lucas, P.; Lourenço, V.; Vermesse, D.; Cutarella, D.; Aubineau-Lanièce, I.

2012-10-01

253

Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task.

Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

1993-06-01

254

A depth-averaged 2-D shallow water model for breaking and non-breaking long waves affected by rigid vegetation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model for simulating long waves in vegetated water bodies under breaking and non-breaking conditions. The effects of rigid vegetation are modelled in the form of drag and inertia forces as sink terms in the momentum equations. The dr...

255

Soil moisture versus depth-to-water-level: Which is better for predicting plant composition in a restored floodplain wetland?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depth-to-water-level (DTWL) measurements in shallow groundwater piezometers are commonly used to develop relationships between wetland plant composition and the available water regime. Such relationships can provide useful predictions of plant composition for land managers under potential changing conditions (e.g., climate change, land use change, environmental flow releases, groundwater pumping) when combined with a hydrologic model. These analyses, however, implicitly use DTWL as a surrogate for the water regime within the root zone, which is experienced by plants. Bi-weekly field measurements of both variables (DTWL and SM) were made at a restored floodplain wetland over the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons. Plant species composition and percent cover were also sampled at the same locations (N=62). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and nonparametric multiplicative regression (NPMR) were used to compare how effectively the two hydrologic metrics explain the overall plant community ordination space (NMS) and predict the probability of presence of certain dominant species (NPMR). Both statistical techniques revealed that SM was more successful than DTWL at explaining the overall plant community structure and predicting plant composition for certain dominant species. The predictive modeling results also suggest that hydrologic extremes on a species-specific basis are effective predictors of plant composition. Field evidence based on soil coring and geophysical imaging suggests that the reason for the discrepancy in the efficacy of the two hydrologic variables is the presence of a confining silt-clay layer in some areas of the floodplain that partially decouples soil moisture in the root zone from groundwater in a deeper gravel layer. While DTWL may be adequate as a predictive variable in vegetation modeling at some sites, SM is likely to be more valuable - especially at sites where soil moisture and groundwater are decoupled - at developing robust relationships between the water regime and vegetation.

Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

2010-12-01

256

Late Quaternary water depth changes in Hala Lake, northeastern Tibetan Plateau, derived from ostracod assemblages and sediment properties in multiple sediment records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate dynamics along the marginal belt of the East Asian Summer Monsoon in China and their responses to hydrological cycles in lake basins of the Tibetan Plateau are still a matter of scientific discussion. Hala Lake, a closed 65 m deep lake basin in the western Qilian Mountains, Qinghai Province, is considered a monitor of climate-driven hydrological and environmental changes during the past 24 kyr BP. The distribution patterns of ostracod assemblages, stable isotopes, sediment-geochemical properties in four sediment records from different water depths and their combination with the unique limnological setting enabled us to reconstruct four major phases of centennial-scale water depth fluctuations from the global Last Glacial Maximum (ca 24 kyr BP) to the Present. Our results show that Hala Lake experienced a very shallow and small water body during the LGM and Lateglacial under cold and dry climate conditions. Rapid increase of water depth and contemporaneous lake expansion started at around 14 kyr BP (Phase I), most likely as a result of glacier melt due to the onset of climate warming. The lake reached >45 m water depth at around 13.5 kyr BP. Reduced water depth during the Younger Dryas spell (ca 12 kyr BP) may be attributed to a short-term return to cooler and drier conditions. During the early Holocene (Phase II), water depth increased further toward lake highstands close to its present level, with a highest lake level of up to 9 m above the present lakestand at 8.0-7.8 kyr BP. Besides continued glacier melt supply, we assume that summer monsoon effective moisture contributed to the overall water budget, but remained relatively unstable, favoring water depth fluctuations. A pronounced lower water depth falls into the period between 9.2 and 8.1 kyr BP, perhaps the result of weak monsoon influence or its complete absence, although the warming trend continued toward its optimum at ca 8-7 kyr BP. A distinct mass flow, most likely triggered by an earthquake, occurred during a lake lowstand either at ca 7.0 kyr BP or at around 8.1 kyr BP. The mid-Holocene (Phase III) was characterized by fluctuating water depths between 7.8 and 4.5 kyr BP. Conflicting trends of stable isotope data limit the validity of water depth estimations, but may show higher lake levels between 5.5 and 4.5 kyr BP, coincident with dated lake sediments in a cliff position at the northern lake shore. This positive water balance can most likely be attributed to increased westerly-derived moisture supply during autumn and late winter, although summer monsoon influence could also be of significance. Coincident with the 4.2 ka event, the lake experienced shallow water at around 4.1 kyr BP, perhaps as a result of continued cooling and drier climate conditions, supporting the arguments of a general cooling trend throughout the Holocene. The Late Holocene (Phase IV) is characterized by extremely unstable hydrological conditions with rapid fluctuations in water depth, more frequently controlled by westerly-driven effective moisture supply. Since the lake lowstand at about 1.4-1.2 kyr BP, the lake has developed toward its present level. Our research underlines the necessity for comparing multiple proxy records from different lake sites to better evaluate centennial-scale climate-driven variations throughout the late Pleistocene and Holocene periods. All presented data suggest the variable influence of summer monsoon effective moisture on the hydrological budget of the lake. Water depth variations did not follow the long-term pattern of the Asian monsoon system due to a potential modulation by westerly-derived moisture impact.

Yan, Dada; Wünnemann, Bernd

2014-07-01

257

A feasibility study to estimate minimum surface-casing depths of oil and gas wells to prevent ground-water contamination in four areas of western Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic data were evaluated from four areas of western Pennsylvania to estimate the minimum depth of well surface casing needed to prevent contamination of most of the fresh ground-water resources by oil and gas wells. The areas are representative of the different types of oil and gas activities and of the ground-water hydrology of most sections of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in western Pennsylvania. Approximate delineation of the base of the fresh ground-water system was attempted by interpreting the following hydrologic data: (1) reports of freshwater and saltwater in oil and gas well-completion reports, (2) water well-completion reports, (3) geophysical logs, and (4) chemical analyses of well water. Because of the poor quality and scarcity of ground-water data, the altitude of the base of the fresh ground-water system in the four study areas cannot be accurately delineated. Consequently, minimum surface-casing depths for oil and gas wells cannot be estimated with confidence. Conscientious and reliable reporting of freshwater and saltwater during drilling of oil and gas wells would expand the existing data base. Reporting of field specific conductance of ground water would greatly enhance the value of the reports of ground water in oil and gas well-completion records. Water-bearing zones in bedrock are controlled mostly by the presence of secondary openings. The vertical and horizontal discontinuity of secondary openings may be responsible, in part, for large differences in altitudes of freshwater zones noted on completion records of adjacent oil and gas wells. In upland and hilltop topographies, maximum depths of fresh ground water are reported from several hundred feet below land surface to slightly more than 1,000 feet, but the few deep reports are not substantiated by results of laboratory analyses of dissolved-solids concentrations. Past and present drillers for shallow oil and gas wells commonly install surface casing to below the base of readily observed fresh ground water. Casing depths are selected generally to maximize drilling efficiency and to stop freshwater from entering the well and subsequently interfering with hydrocarbon recovery. The depths of surface casing generally are not selected with ground-water protection in mind. However, on the basis of existing hydrologic data, most freshwater aquifers generally are protected with current casing depths. Minimum surface-casing depths for deep gas wells are prescribed by Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources regulations and appear to be adequate to prevent ground-water contamination, in most respects, for the only study area with deep gas fields examined in Crawford County.

Buckwalter, T.F.; Squillace, P.J.

1995-01-01

258

Effect of dose of xylanase on bleachability of sugarcane bagasse ethanol\\/water pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulps obtained from the ethanol\\/water cooking of sugarcane bagasse were bleached with the xylanase enzyme obtained from the\\u000a fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus IOC-4145 and with the commercial enzyme Cartazyme HS from Sandoz. By changing the enzyme dose from 4.3 to 36 IU\\/g of pulp,\\u000a kappa number and viscosity were maintained when the xylanase from T. lanuginosus was used. On the other

Denise S. Ruzene; Adilson R. Gonçalves

2003-01-01

259

Seasonal changes in depth of water uptake for encroaching trees Juniperus virginiana and Pinus ponderosa and two dominant C4 grasses in a semiarid grassland.  

PubMed

We used the natural abundance of stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in soil (0.05-3 m depth), plant xylem and precipitation to determine the seasonal changes in sources of soil water uptake by two native encroaching woody species (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson, Juniperus virginiana L.), and two C(4) grasses (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Panicum virgatum L.), in the semiarid Sandhills grasslands of Nebraska. Grass species extracted most of their water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m). Soil water uptake from below 0.5 m depth increased under drought, but appeared to be minimal in relation to the total water use of these species. The grasses senesced in late August in response to drought conditions. In contrast to grasses, P. ponderosa and J. virginiana trees exhibited significant plasticity in sources of water uptake. In winter, tree species extracted a large fraction of their soil water from below 0.9 m depth. In spring when shallow soil water was available, tree species used water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m) and relied little on water from below 0.5 m depth. During the growing season (May-August) significant differences between the patterns of tree species water uptake emerged. Pinus ponderosa acquired a large fraction of its water from the 0.05-0.5 and 0.5-0.9 m soil profiles. Compared with P. ponderosa, J. virginiana acquired water from the 0.05-0.5 m profile during the early growing season but the amount extracted from this profile progressively declined between May and August and was mirrored by a progressive increase in the fraction taken up from 0.5-0.9 m depth, showing plasticity in tracking the general increase in soil water content within the 0.5-0.9 m profile, and being less responsive to growing season precipitation events. In September, soil water content declined to its minimum, and both tree species shifted soil water uptake to below 0.9 m. Tree transpiration rates (E) and water potentials (Psi) indicated that deep water sources did not maintain E which sharply declined in September, but played an important role in the recovery of tree Psi. Differences in sources of water uptake among these species and their ecological implications on tree-grass dynamics and soil water in semiarid environments are discussed. PMID:19203941

Eggemeyer, Kathleen D; Awada, Tala; Harvey, F Edwin; Wedin, David A; Zhou, Xinhua; Zanner, C William

2009-02-01

260

Bacterial diversity and biogeochemistry of different chemosynthetic habitats of the REGAB cold seep (West African margin, 3160 m water depth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The giant pockmark REGAB (West African margin, 3160 m water depth) is an active methane-emitting cold seep ecosystem, where the energy derived from microbially mediated oxidation of methane supports high biomass and diversity of chemosynthetic communities. Bare sediments interspersed with heterogeneous chemosynthetic assemblages of mytilid mussels, vesicomyid clams and siboglinid tubeworms form a complex seep ecosystem. To better understand if benthic bacterial communities reflect the patchy distribution of chemosynthetic fauna, all major chemosynthetic habitats at REGAB were investigated using an interdisciplinary approach combining pore water geochemistry, in situ quantification of fluxes and consumption of methane, as well as bacterial community fingerprinting. This study revealed that sediments populated by different fauna assemblages show distinct biogeochemical activities and are associated with distinct sediment bacterial communities. The methane consumption rates and methane effluxes ranged over one to two orders of magnitude across habitats, and reached highest values at the mussel habitat, which hosted a different bacterial community compared to the other habitats. Clam assemblages had a profound impact on the sediment geochemistry, but less so on the bacterial community structure. Moreover, all clam assemblages at REGAB were restricted to sediments characterized by complete methane consumption in the seafloor, and intermediate biogeochemical activity. Overall, variations in the sediment geochemistry were reflected in the distribution of both fauna and microbial communities; and were mostly determined by methane flux.

Pop Ristova, P.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Ramette, A.; Zabel, M.; Fischer, D.; Kasten, S.; Boetius, A.

2012-12-01

261

Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

U.S. Coast Guard member is preparing the Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD) for deployment in the Arctic Ocean. The CTD collects water samples and measures conductivity and temperature as a function of water depth....

262

Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose  

PubMed Central

222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 ?Sv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 ?Sv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration. PMID:25350007

Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

2014-01-01

263

Empirical water depth predictions in Dublin Bay based on satellite EO multispectral imagery and multibeam data using spatially weighted geographical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal shallow water zone can be a challenging and expensive environment within which to acquire bathymetry and other oceanographic data using traditional survey methods. Dangers and limited swath coverage make some of these areas unfeasible to survey using ship borne systems, and turbidity can preclude marine LIDAR. As a result, an extensive part of the coastline worldwide remains completely unmapped. Satellite EO multispectral data, after processing, allows timely, cost efficient and quality controlled information to be used for planning, monitoring, and regulating coastal environments. It has the potential to deliver repetitive derivation of medium resolution bathymetry, coastal water properties and seafloor characteristics in shallow waters. Over the last 30 years satellite passive imaging methods for bathymetry extraction, implementing analytical or empirical methods, have had a limited success predicting water depths. Different wavelengths of the solar light penetrate the water column to varying depths. They can provide acceptable results up to 20 m but become less accurate in deeper waters. The study area is located in the inner part of Dublin Bay, on the East coast of Ireland. The region investigated is a C-shaped inlet covering an area of 10 km long and 5 km wide with water depths ranging from 0 to 10 m. The methodology employed on this research uses a ratio of reflectance from SPOT 5 satellite bands, differing to standard linear transform algorithms. High accuracy water depths were derived using multibeam data. The final empirical model uses spatially weighted geographical tools to retrieve predicted depths. The results of this paper confirm that SPOT satellite scenes are suitable to predict depths using empirical models in very shallow embayments. Spatial regression models show better adjustments in the predictions over non-spatial models. The spatial regression equation used provides realistic results down to 6 m below the water surface, with reliable and error controlled depths. Bathymetric extraction approaches involving satellite imagery data are regarded as a fast, successful and economically advantageous solution to automatic water depth calculation in shallow and complex environments.

Monteys, Xavier; Harris, Paul; Caloca, Silvia

2014-05-01

264

Modelling effects of seasonal variation in water table depth on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a tropical peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD) determines the balance between aggradation and degradation of tropical peatlands. Longer dry seasons together with human interventions (e.g. drainage) can cause WTD drawdowns making tropical peatland C storage highly vulnerable. Better predictive capacity for effects of WTD on net CO2 exchange is thus essential to guide conservation of tropical peat deposits. Mathematical modelling of basic eco-hydrological processes under site-specific conditions can provide such predictive capacity. We hereby deploy a mathematical model ecosys to study effects of seasonal variation in WTD on net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of an Indonesian peatland. We simulated lower NEPs (~ -2 g C m-2 d-1) during rainy seasons with shallow WTD, higher NEPs (~ +1 g C m-2 d-1) during early dry seasons with intermediate WTD and again lower NEPs (~ -4 g C mm-2 d-1) during late dry seasons with deep WTD during 2002-2005. These values were corroborated by regressions (P < 0.0001) of hourly modelled vs. eddy covariance (EC) measured net ecosystem CO2 fluxes which yielded R2 > 0.8, intercepts approaching 0 and slopes approaching 1. We also simulated a gradual increase in annual NEPs from 2002 (-609 g C m-2) to 2005 (-373 g C m-2) with decreasing WTD which was corroborated by EC-gap filled annual NEP estimates. These WTD effects on NEP were modelled from basic eco-hydrological processes including microbial and root oxidation-reduction reactions driven by soil and root O2 transport and uptake which in turn drove soil and plant C, N and P transformations within a soil-plant-atmosphere water transfer scheme driven by water potential gradients. This modelling should therefore provide a predictive capacity for WTD management programs to reduce tropical peat degradation.

Mezbahuddin, M.; Grant, R. F.; Hirano, T.

2013-08-01

265

In situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 1. Vegetation recovery and soil temperature as a function of water depth, oil type, and marsh type.  

PubMed

In-situ burning of oiled wetlands potentially provides a cleanup technique that is generally consistent with present wetland management procedures. The effects of water depth (+10, +2, and -2 cm), oil type (crude and diesel), and oil penetration of sediment before the burn on the relationship between vegetation recovery and soil temperature for three coastal marsh types were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a key factor controlling marsh plant recovery. Both the 10- and 2-cm water depths were sufficient to protect marsh vegetation from burning impacts, with surface soil temperatures of <35 and 48 degrees C, respectively. Plant survival rate and growth responses at these water depth burns were not significantly different from the unburned control. In contrast, a water table 2 cm below the soil surface during the burn resulted in high soil temperatures, with 90-200 degrees C at 0-0.5 cm soil depth and 55-75 degrees C at 1-2 cm soil depth. The 2-cm soil exposure to fire significantly impeded the post-burn recovery of Spartina alterniflora and Sagittaria lancifolia but did not detrimentally affect the recovery of Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. Oil type (crude vs diesel) and oil applied to the marsh soil surface (0.5 L x m(-2)) before the burn did not significantly affect plant recovery. Thus, recovery is species-specific when no surface water exists. Even water at the soil surface will most likely protect wetland plants from burning impact. PMID:15819246

Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

2005-03-15

266

Water Pressure in Depth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can a science concept be taught in a way that generates interest, gives students the opportunity to consider other possibilities, does not lock them into one way of doing or seeing things, and gives them some ownership of their learning? These authors searched high and low for the perfect activity to illustrate a key concept for their partner…

Lynch, Mary Jean; Zenchak, John

2011-01-01

267

Simplified formulas of heave added mass coefficients at high frequency for various two-dimensional bodies in a finite water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to develop a simplified formula for added mass coefficients of a two-dimensional floating body moving vertically in a finite water depth. Floating bodies with various sectional areas may represent simplified structure sections transformed by Lewis form, and can be used for floating body motion analysis using strip theory or another relevant method. Since the added mass of a floating body varies with wave frequency and water depth, a correction factor is developed to take these effects into account. Using a developed two-dimensional numerical wave tank technique, the reference added masses are calculated for various water depths at high frequency, and used them as basis values to formulate the correction factors. To verify the effectiveness of the developed formulas, the predicted heave added mass coefficients for various wetted body sections and wave frequencies are compared with numerical results from the Numerical Wave Tank (NWT) technique.

Koo, Weoncheol; Kim, Jun-Dong

2015-03-01

268

Direct measurement of absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy: Water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Gafchromic film and ionometric calibration procedures for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources in terms of dose rate to water are presented and the experimental results are compared to the TG-43 protocol as well as with the absolute dose measurement results from a water calorimetry-based primary standard. Methods: EBT-1 Gafchromic films, an A1SL Exradin miniature Shonka thimble type chamber, and an SI HDR 1000 Plus well-type chamber (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) with an ADCL traceable S{sub k} calibration coefficient (following the AAPM TG-43 protocol) were used. The Farmer chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were performed directly in water. All results were compared to direct and absolute absorbed dose to water measurements from a 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimeter. Results: Based on water calorimetry, the authors measured the dose rate to water to be 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The dose rate normalized to air-kerma strength for all the techniques agree with the water calorimetry results to within 0.83%. The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43 dose rate measurement amounts to 1.90%, 1.44%, 1.78%, and 2.50%, respectively. Conclusions: This work allows us to build a more realistic uncertainty estimate for absorbed dose to water determination using the TG-43 protocol. Furthermore, it provides the framework necessary for a shift from indirect HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry to a more accurate, direct, and absolute measurement of absorbed dose to water.

Sarfehnia, Arman; Kawrakow, Iwan; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2010-04-15

269

A Feasibility Study of Fricke Dosimetry as an Absorbed Dose to Water Standard for 192Ir HDR Sources  

PubMed Central

High dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) using 192Ir sources is well accepted as an important treatment option and thus requires an accurate dosimetry standard. However, a dosimetry standard for the direct measurement of the absolute dose to water for this particular source type is currently not available. An improved standard for the absorbed dose to water based on Fricke dosimetry of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources is presented in this study. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the Fricke dosimetry technique for the standardization of the quantity absorbed dose to water for 192Ir sources. A molded, double-walled, spherical vessel for water containing the Fricke solution was constructed based on the Fricke system. The authors measured the absorbed dose to water and compared it with the doses calculated using the AAPM TG-43 report. The overall combined uncertainty associated with the measurements using Fricke dosimetry was 1.4% for k?=?1, which is better than the uncertainties reported in previous studies. These results are promising; hence, the use of Fricke dosimetry to measure the absorbed dose to water as a standard for HDR 192Ir may be possible in the future. PMID:25521914

deAlmeida, Carlos Eduardo; Ochoa, Ricardo; de Lima, Marilene Coelho; David, Mariano Gazineu; Pires, Evandro Jesus; Peixoto, José Guilherme; Salata, Camila; Bernal, Mario Antônio

2014-01-01

270

Modelling effects of seasonal variation in water table depth on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a tropical peatland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD) determines the balance between aggradation and degradation of tropical peatlands. Longer dry seasons together with human interventions (e.g. drainage) can cause WTD drawdowns making tropical peatland C storage highly vulnerable. Better predictive capacity for effects of WTD on net CO2 exchange is thus essential to guide conservation of tropical peat deposits. Mathematical modelling of basic eco-hydrological processes under site-specific conditions can provide such predictive capacity. We hereby deploy a process-based mathematical model ecosys to study effects of seasonal variation in WTD on net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of a drainage affected tropical peat swamp forest at Palangkaraya, Indonesia. Simulated NEP suggested that the peatland was a C source (NEP ~ -2 g C m-2 d-1, where a negative sign represents a C source and a positive sign a C sink) during rainy seasons with shallow WTD, C neutral or a small sink (NEP ~ +1 g C m-2 d-1) during early dry seasons with intermediate WTD and a substantial C source (NEP ~ -4 g C m-2 d-1) during late dry seasons with deep WTD from 2002 to 2005. These values were corroborated by regressions (P < 0.0001) of hourly modelled vs. eddy covariance (EC) net ecosystem CO2 fluxes which yielded R2 > 0.8, intercepts approaching 0 and slopes approaching 1. We also simulated a gradual increase in annual NEP from 2002 (-609 g C m-2) to 2005 (-373 g C m-2) with decreasing WTD which was attributed to declines in duration and intensity of dry seasons following the El Niño event of 2002. This increase in modelled NEP was corroborated by EC-gap filled annual NEP estimates. Our modelling hypotheses suggested that (1) poor aeration in wet soils during shallow WTD caused slow nutrient (predominantly phosphorus) mineralization and consequent slow plant nutrient uptake that suppressed gross primary productivity (GPP) and hence NEP (2) better soil aeration during intermediate WTD enhanced nutrient mineralization and hence plant nutrient uptake, GPP and NEP and (3) deep WTD suppressed NEP through a combination of reduced GPP due to plant water stress and increased ecosystem respiration (Re) from enhanced deeper peat aeration. These WTD effects on NEP were modelled from basic eco-hydrological processes including microbial and root oxidation-reduction reactions driven by soil and root O2 transport and uptake which in turn drove soil and plant carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus transformations within a soil-plant-atmosphere water transfer scheme driven by water potential gradients. Including these processes in ecosystem models should therefore provide an improved predictive capacity for WTD management programs intended to reduce tropical peat degradation.

Mezbahuddin, M.; Grant, R. F.; Hirano, T.

2014-02-01

271

The impacts of water table depth on ecohydrological processes and their effects on climate at the regional and global scales (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global water table depth produced by Fan, Li and Miguez-Macho (2013) was introduced into the Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Model (OLAM), a state-of-the-art Earth System Model developed to investigate meteorological and climate phenomena at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Climate simulations produced with the new dataset are compared to similar simulations with the "default" water table depth. This comparison indicates significant differences of precipitation distribution around the planet, emphasizing the importance of this single parameter on climate simulations as well as the very sensitive nature of regional-scale climate simulations

Avissar, R.; Walko, R. L.; Medvigy, D.

2013-12-01

272

The effect of drought and interspecific interactions on depth of water uptake in deep- and shallow-rooting grassland species as determined by ?18O natural abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased incidence of drought, as predicted under climate change, has the potential to negatively affect grassland production. Compared to monocultures, vertical belowground niche complementarity between shallow- and deep-rooting species may be an important mechanism resulting in higher yields and higher resistance to drought in grassland mixtures. However, very little is known about the belowground responses in grassland systems and increased insight into these processes may yield important information both to predict the effect of future climate change and better design agricultural systems to cope with this. This study assessed the effect of a 9-week experimental summer drought on the depth of water uptake of two shallow-rooting species (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) and two deep-rooting species (Cichorium intybus L. and Trifolium pratense L.) in grassland monocultures and four-species mixtures by using the natural abundance ?18O isotope method. We tested the following three hypotheses: (1) drought results in a shift of water uptake to deeper soil layers, (2) deep-rooting species take up a higher proportion of water from deeper soil layers relative to shallow-rooting species, and (3) as a result of interspecific interactions in mixtures, the water uptake of shallow-rooting species becomes shallower when grown together with deep-rooting species and vice versa, resulting in reduced niche overlap. The natural abundance ?18O technique provided novel insights into the depth of water uptake of deep- and shallow- rooting grassland species and revealed large shifts in depth of water uptake in response to drought and interspecific interactions. Compared to control conditions, drought reduced the proportional water uptake from 0-10 cm soil depth (PCWU0-10) of L. perenne, T. repens and C. intybus in monocultures by on average 54%. In contrast, the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense in monoculture increased by 44%, and only when grown in mixture did the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense decrease under drought conditions. In line with hypothesis (2), in monoculture, the PCWU0-10 of shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens was 0.53 averaged over the two drought treatments, compared to 0.16 for the deep-rooting C. intybus. Surprisingly, in monoculture, water uptake by T. pratense was shallower than for the shallow-rooting species (PCWU0-10 = 0.68). Interspecific interactions in mixtures resulted in a shift in the depth of water uptake by the different species. As hypothesised, the shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens tended to become shallower, and the deep-rooting T. pratense made a dramatic shift to deeper soil layers (reduction in PCWU0-10 of 58% on average) in mixture compared to monoculture. However, these shifts did not result in a reduction in the proportional similarity of the proportional water uptake from different soil depth intervals (niche overlap) in mixtures compared to monocultures. There was no clear link between interspecific differences in depth of water uptake and the reduction of biomass production under drought compared to control conditions (drought resistance). Cichorium intybus, the species with water uptake from the deepest soil layers was one of the species most affected by drought. Interestingly, T. pratense, which was least affected by drought, also had the greatest plasticity in depth of water uptake. This suggests that there may be an indirect effect of rooting depth on drought resistance, as it determines the potential plasticity in the depth of water uptake.

Hoekstra, N. J.; Finn, J. A.; Hofer, D.; Lüscher, A.

2014-08-01

273

ACE-Asia Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor Measured by Airborne Sunphotometers and Related to Other Measurements and Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS-14) flew successfully on all 18 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 6 and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of these AOD and extinction spectra indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the ACE-Asia aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in AATS-14 profiles analyzed to date, ~36% of full-column AOD at 525 nm was above 3 km. In contrast, only ~10% of CWV was above 3 km. Analyses and applications of AATS-6 and AATS-14 data to date include comparisons to (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements, (ii) extinction profiles derived from lidar measurements, and (iii) AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite. Other planned collaborative studies include comparisons to results from size spectrometers, chemical measurements, other satellite sensors, flux radiometers, and chemical transport models. Early results of these studies will be presented.

Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hegg, D.; Pilewskie, P.; Anderson, T.; Masonis, S.; Murayama, T.

2001-12-01

274

ACE-Asia Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor Measured by Airborne Sunphotometers and Related to Other Measurements and Calculations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) flew successfully on all 18 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 6 and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of these AOD and extinction spectra indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the ACE-Asia aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in AATS- 14 profiles analyzed to date, 36% of full-column AOD at 525 nm was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10% of CWV was above 3 km. Analyses and applications of AATS-6 and AATS-14 data to date include comparisons to (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements, (ii) extinction profiles derived from lidar measurements, and (iii) AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite. Other planned collaborative studies include comparisons to results from size spectrometers, chemical measurements, other satellite sensors, flux radiometers, and chemical transport models. Early results of these studies will be presented.

Livingston, John M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hegg, D.; Pilewskie, P.; Anderson, T.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

275

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01

276

Bacterial diversity and biogeochemistry of different chemosynthetic habitats of the REGAB cold seep (West African margin, 3160 m water depth)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The giant pockmark REGAB (West African margin, 3160 m water depth) is an active methane-emitting cold seep ecosystem, where the energy derived from microbially mediated oxidation of methane supports high biomass and diversity of chemosynthetic communities. Bare sediments interspersed with heterogeneous chemosynthetic assemblages of mytilid mussels, vesicomyid clams and siboglinid tubeworms form a complex seep ecosystem. To better understand if benthic bacterial communities reflect the patchy distribution of chemosynthetic fauna, all major chemosynthetic habitats at REGAB were investigated using an interdisciplinary approach combining porewater geochemistry, in situ quantification of fluxes and consumption of methane, as well bacterial community fingerprinting. This study revealed that sediments populated by different fauna assemblages show distinct biogeochemical activities and are associated with distinct sediment bacterial communities. The methane consumption and methane effluxes ranged over one to two orders of magnitude across habitats, and reached highest values at the mussel habitat, which hosted a different bacterial community compared to the other habitats. Clam assemblages had a profound impact on the sediment geochemistry, but less so on the bacterial community structure. Moreover, all clam assemblages at REGAB were restricted to sediments characterized by complete methane consumption in the seafloor, and intermediate biogeochemical activity. Overall, variations in the sediment geochemistry were reflected in the distribution of both fauna and microbial communities; and were mostly determined by methane flux.

Pop Ristova, P.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Ramette, A.; Zabel, M.; Fischer, D.; Kasten, S.; Boetius, A.

2012-07-01

277

Design and implementation of a water phantom for IMRT, arc therapy, and tomotherapy dose distribution measurements  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this paper is to present a new phantom for arc therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and tomotherapy dose distribution measurement in pretreatment verification. The presented phantom is innovative for its use of water as the tissue equivalent material, together with a technical solution specifically designed to support radiographic or radiochromic film and ionization chambers in any desired position. The phantom comprise a Plexiglas container, whose present shape and dimensions offer the possibility to simulate a human torso or abdomen; the container can be filled with water by opening the upper cover. On the internal side of the cover, a set of carbon pipes can support film in the desired coronal, axial, or sagittal planes. At one of the two ends of the phantom, an ionization chamber can be positioned parallel to the rotation axis of the accelerator gantry in all possible positions within a 20 cm diameter cylinder, for film calibration purposes. Inhomogeneities can be inserted into the phantom using the same carbon pipes and plastic sheets used to support film. An example of vertebra-shaped inserts made of bone equivalent material is reported. Radiochromic film can be dipped in water, while radiographic film must be protected to prevent damage. To accomplish this, radiographic film is laminated using a cold laminating film. In order to assess the effects of both the lamination itself and the effects of water on laminated Kodak EDR2 film, the optical density (OD) of conventional, laminated, and laminated film immersed in water and exposed to a range of doses from 0 to 300 cGy were compared. The OD of the three samples receiving the same radiation dose did not present any significant difference, thus proving that laminated EDR2 film can also be used in water. A prerequisite for any dosimetric comparison between planned and measured data is a proper film to plan registration. The solution proposed here is an extrinsic in-plane registration technique using four reference points marked on each film in predefined positions. The four points and the millimeter scales fixed on the carbon pipes that support the film are designed and manufactured so as to transfer onto the film the same reference system used during the planning procedure, thus allowing a straightforward registration. Tests to assess the accuracy of the proposed registration method demonstrate that the distances between measured and intended marker positions, evaluated for coronal, axial, and sagittal planes, were about 1 mm for both anteroposterior and lateral projections.

Pallotta, Stefania; Marrazzo, Livia; Bucciolini, Marta [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Florence (Italy)

2007-10-15

278

Single Intravenous-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Carthami-flos Pharmacopuncture (WCF) in Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity and to find the lethal dose of the test substance Water-soluble Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture (WCF) when used as a single intravenous-dose in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices. 20 female and 20 male Spague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 female and 5 male animals per group. The rats in the three experimental groups received single intravenous injections with 0.125-mL, 0.25-mL and 0.5-mL/animal doses of WCF, Groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the control group, Group 1, received a single intravenous injection with a 0.5-mL dose of normal saline. Clinical signs were observed and body weight measurements were carried out for 14 days following the injections. At the end of the observation period, hematology, clinical chemistry, histopathological tests and necropsy were performed on the injected parts. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the groups. Also, no significant changes in body weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry test results between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Visual inspection after necropsy showed no abnormalities. Histopathological tests on the injected parts showed no significant differences, except for Group 1 females; however, the result was spontaneous generation and had no toxicological meaning because it was not dose-dependent. Therefore, this study showed that WCF had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusion: As a result of single intravenous-dose tests of the test substance WCF in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded 0.5 mL/animal. Therefore, WCF is a relatively safe pharmacopuncture that can be used for treatment, but further studies should be performed. PMID:25780707

Jung, Da-jung; Choi, Yoo-min; Kim, Seok-hee; Kim, Jong-uk; Yook, Tae-han

2014-01-01

279

No shift to a deeper water uptake depth in response to summer drought of two lowland and sub-alpine C?-grasslands in Switzerland.  

PubMed

Temperate C3-grasslands are of high agricultural and ecological importance in Central Europe. Plant growth and consequently grassland yields depend strongly on water supply during the growing season, which is projected to change in the future. We therefore investigated the effect of summer drought on the water uptake of an intensively managed lowland and an extensively managed sub-alpine grassland in Switzerland. Summer drought was simulated by using transparent shelters. Standing above- and belowground biomass was sampled during three growing seasons. Soil and plant xylem waters were analyzed for oxygen (and hydrogen) stable isotope ratios, and the depths of plant water uptake were estimated by two different approaches: (1) linear interpolation method and (2) Bayesian calibrated mixing model. Relative to the control, aboveground biomass was reduced under drought conditions. In contrast to our expectations, lowland grassland plants subjected to summer drought were more likely (43-68%) to rely on water in the topsoil (0-10 cm), whereas control plants relied less on the topsoil (4-37%) and shifted to deeper soil layers (20-35 cm) during the drought period (29-48%). Sub-alpine grassland plants did not differ significantly in uptake depth between drought and control plots during the drought period. Both approaches yielded similar results and showed that the drought treatment in the two grasslands did not induce a shift to deeper uptake depths, but rather continued or shifted water uptake to even more shallower soil depths. These findings illustrate the importance of shallow soil depths for plant performance under drought conditions. PMID:25273953

Prechsl, Ulrich E; Burri, Susanne; Gilgen, Anna K; Kahmen, Ansgar; Buchmann, Nina

2015-01-01

280

An ultra-shallow water storm surge model with quadratically depth-varying eddy viscosity and its application to the numerical modelling of the Bohai Sea storm surges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the ultra-shallow water storm surge theory proposed by Qin and Feng[1] (1975), an ultra-shallow water storm surge model, taking into consideration the effect of the earth's rotation and the quadratically\\u000a depth-varying eddy viscosity, is developed. Using the model wind stress fields as a guide for representing the effect of wind\\u000a stress forcing in our model, a numerical investigation

Dexing Wu; Zenghao Qin

1985-01-01

281

The effect of drought and interspecific interactions on the depth of water uptake in deep- and shallow-rooting grassland species as determined by ?18O natural abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased incidence of weather drought, as predicted under climate change, has the potential to negatively affect grassland production. Compared to monocultures, vertical belowground niche complementarity between shallow- and deep-rooting species may be an important mechanism resulting in higher yields and higher resistance to drought in grassland mixtures. However, very little is known about the belowground responses in grassland systems and increased insight into these processes may yield important information both to predict the effect of future climate change and better design agricultural systems to cope with this. This study assessed the effect of a 10-week experimental summer drought on the depth of water uptake of two shallow-rooting species (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) and two deep-rooting species (Chicorium intybus L. and Trifolium pratense L.) in grassland monocultures and four-species-mixtures by using the natural abundance ?18O isotope method. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) drought results in a shift of water uptake to deeper soil layers, (2) deep-rooting species take up a higher proportion of water from deeper soil layers relative to shallow-rooting species, (3) as a result of interspecific interactions in mixtures, the water uptake of shallow-rooting species become shallower when grown together with deep-rooting species and vice versa, resulting in reduced niche overlap. The natural abundance ?18O technique provided novel insights into the depth of water uptake of deep- and shallow- rooting grassland species and revealed large shifts in response to drought and interspecific interactions. Compared to control conditions, drought reduced the proportional water uptake from 0-10 cm soil depth (PCWU0-10) of L. perenne, T. repens and C. intybus in monocultures by on average 54%. In contrast, the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense in monoculture increased by 44%, and only when grown in mixture did the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense decrease under drought conditions. In line with hypothesis 2, in monoculture, the PCWU0-10 of shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens was 0.53 averaged over the two drought treatments, compared to 0.16 for the deep-rooting C. intybus. Surprisingly, in monoculture, water uptake by T. pratense was shallower than for the shallow-rooting species (PCWU0-10 = 0.68). Interspecific interactions in mixtures resulted in a shift in the depth of water uptake by the different species. As hypothesised, the shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens tended to become shallower, and the deep-rooting T. pratense made a dramatic shift to deeper soil layers (reduction in PCWU0-10 of 58% on average) in mixture compared to monoculture. However, these shifts did not result in a reduction in the proportional similarity of the proportional water uptake from different soil depth intervals (niche overlap) in mixtures compared to monocultures. There was no clear link between interspecific differences in depth of water uptake and drought resistance. C. intybus, the species with water uptake from the deepest soil layers was one of the species most affected by drought. However, T. pratense, the species with the highest plasticity in depth of water uptake, was least affected by drought, suggesting an indirect effect of rooting depth on drought resistance. Our results show that niche complementarity in the depth of water uptake between shallow- and deep-rooting species may have contributed to the diversity effect in mixtures.

Hoekstra, N. J.; Finn, J. A.; Lüscher, A.

2014-03-01

282

Dose to 'water-like' media or dose to tissue in MV photons radiotherapy treatment planning: still a matter of debate.  

PubMed

The difference between Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP) based on the assumption of 'water-like' tissues with densities obtained from CT procedures, or on tissue compositions derived from CT-determined densities, have been investigated. Stopping powers and electron fluences have been calculated for a range of media and body tissues for 6 MV photon beams, including changes in their physical data (density and stopping powers). These quantities have been used to determine absorbed doses using cavity theory. It is emphasized that tissue compositions given in ICRU or ICRP reports should not be given the standing of physical constants as they correspond to average values obtained for a limited number of human-body samples. It has been shown that mass stopping-power ratios to water are more dependent on patient-to-patient composition differences, and therefore on their mean excitation energies (I-values), than on mass density. Electron fluence in different media are also more dependent on media composition (and their I-values) than on density. However, as a consequence of the balance between fluence and stopping powers, doses calculated from their product are more constant than what the independent stopping powers and fluence variations suggest. Additionally, cancelations in dose ratios minimize the differences between the 'water-like' and 'tissue' approaches, yielding practically identical results except for bone, and to a lesser extent for adipose tissue. A priori, changing from one approach to another does not seem to be justified considering the large number of approximations and uncertainties involved throughout the treatment planning tissue segmentation and dose calculation procedures. The key issue continues to be the composition of tissues and their I-values, and as these cannot be obtained for individual patients, whatever approach is selected does not lead to significant differences from a water reference dose, the maximum of these being of the order of 5% for bone tissues. Considering, however, current developments in advanced dose calculation methods, planning in terms of dose-to-tissue should be the preferred choice, under the expectancy that progress in the field will gradually improve some of the crude approximations included in MCTP and numerical transport methods. The small differences obtained also show that a retrospective conversion from dose-to-tissue to dose-to-water, based on a widely used approach, would mostly increase the final uncertainty of the treatment planning process. It is demonstrated that, due to the difference between electron fluence distributions in water and in body tissues, the conversion requires an additional fluence correction that has so far been neglected. An improved expression for the conversion and data for the fluence correction factor are provided. These will be necessary even in a dose-to-tissue environment, for the normalization of the treatment plan to the reference dosimetry of the treatment unit, always calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water. PMID:25503312

Andreo, Pedro

2015-01-01

283

Dose to ‘water-like’ media or dose to tissue in MV photons radiotherapy treatment planning: still a matter of debate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The difference between Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP) based on the assumption of ‘water-like’ tissues with densities obtained from CT procedures, or on tissue compositions derived from CT-determined densities, have been investigated. Stopping powers and electron fluences have been calculated for a range of media and body tissues for 6 MV photon beams, including changes in their physical data (density and stopping powers). These quantities have been used to determine absorbed doses using cavity theory. It is emphasized that tissue compositions given in ICRU or ICRP reports should not be given the standing of physical constants as they correspond to average values obtained for a limited number of human-body samples. It has been shown that mass stopping-power ratios to water are more dependent on patient-to-patient composition differences, and therefore on their mean excitation energies (I-values), than on mass density. Electron fluence in different media are also more dependent on media composition (and their I-values) than on density. However, as a consequence of the balance between fluence and stopping powers, doses calculated from their product are more constant than what the independent stopping powers and fluence variations suggest. Additionally, cancelations in dose ratios minimize the differences between the ‘water-like’ and ‘tissue’ approaches, yielding practically identical results except for bone, and to a lesser extent for adipose tissue. A priori, changing from one approach to another does not seem to be justified considering the large number of approximations and uncertainties involved throughout the treatment planning tissue segmentation and dose calculation procedures. The key issue continues to be the composition of tissues and their I-values, and as these cannot be obtained for individual patients, whatever approach is selected does not lead to significant differences from a water reference dose, the maximum of these being of the order of 5% for bone tissues. Considering, however, current developments in advanced dose calculation methods, planning in terms of dose-to-tissue should be the preferred choice, under the expectancy that progress in the field will gradually improve some of the crude approximations included in MCTP and numerical transport methods. The small differences obtained also show that a retrospective conversion from dose-to-tissue to dose-to-water, based on a widely used approach, would mostly increase the final uncertainty of the treatment planning process. It is demonstrated that, due to the difference between electron fluence distributions in water and in body tissues, the conversion requires an additional fluence correction that has so far been neglected. An improved expression for the conversion and data for the fluence correction factor are provided. These will be necessary even in a dose-to-tissue environment, for the normalization of the treatment plan to the reference dosimetry of the treatment unit, always calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water.

Andreo, Pedro

2015-01-01

284

Radon and radium concentration in water from North-West of Romania and the estimated doses.  

PubMed

In the present study, the measurements of radon were carried out using the LUK-VR system based on radon gas measurements with Lucas cells. The radium concentration in water was determined, with the same device, immediately after was established the radon equilibrium with radium. The results presented here are from a survey carried out in the N-W region of Transylvania (Romania) in which were investigated the radon concentrations in natural (spring, well and surface) and drinking (tap) waters. The results showed radon concentrations within the range of 0.4-187.3 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 15.9 Bq l(-1) whereas radium concentration varied between 0.05 and 0.825 Bq l(-1) with an average value of 0.087 Bq l(-1) for all types of water covered within this survey. The corresponding annual effective ingestion dose due to radon and radium from water was determined from drinking water used by the population inhabiting the area. PMID:25031036

Moldovan, M; Benea, V; Ni??, D C; Papp, B; Burghele, B D; Bican-Bri?an, N; Cosma, C

2014-11-01

285

SPATIAL/TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF THE 1999-2004 SOUTH GILA DEPTH TO WATER TABLE AND 1995-2002 GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE DATA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the spatial-temporal patterns in the 1999-2004 South Gila monthly depth to water table (groundwater) data and 1995-2002 discharge station pumping data. This analysis was performed as part of the ARS research agreement # 5310-13610-013-13R, an inter-agency agreement between the U...

286

Draft Genome Sequence of Thalassotalea sp. Strain ND16A Isolated from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected from a Depth of 1,055 Meters.  

PubMed

Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A belongs to the family Colwelliaceae and was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea water at a depth of 1,055 m. Members of Colwelliaceae are ubiquitous marine heterotrophs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A, a member of the newly described genus Thalassotalea. PMID:25428976

Stelling, Savannah C; Techtmann, Stephen M; Utturkar, Sagar M; Alshibli, Noor K; Brown, Steven D; Hazen, Terry C

2014-01-01

287

HETEROPHYLLY IN THE YELLOW WATERLILY, NUPHAR VARIEGATA (NYMPHAEACEAE): EFFECTS OF (CO2), NATURAL SEDIMENT TYPE, AND WATER DEPTH1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, (CO2)-, depth-, and temperature- controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free (CO 2), and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater (NH 4 1 ) favored floating leaf development. Low CO 2-grown plants

JOHN E. TITUS; P. G ARY SULLIVAN

288

The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: An Investigation of the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene  

EPA Science Inventory

This activity familiarizes students with the effects of increased depth on pressure and volume. Students will determine the volume of polystyrene cups before and after they are submerged to differing depths in the ocean and the Laurentian Great Lakes. Students will also calculate...

289

Ventilatory mechanics and the effects of water depth on breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans.  

PubMed

The breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans was investigated by recording airflow via a pneumotachograph under unrestrained normal physiological conditions. Ventilatory mechanics were assessed using airflow and pressure measurements from the buccal cavity and trachea. The breathing pattern consisted of an expiratory phase followed by a series of 10-15 small buccal pumps to inflate the lung, succeeded by a long non-ventilatory period. T. natans separate the expiratory and inspiratory gases in the buccal cavity and take several inspiratory pumps, distinguishing their breathing pattern from that of sarcopterygians. Hydrostatic pressure assisted exhalation. The tracheal pressure was greater than the water pressure at that depth, suggesting that pleuroperitoneal pressure as well as axial or pulmonary smooth muscles may have contributed to the process of exhalation. The frequency of lung ventilation was 6.33+/-0.84 breaths h(-)(1), and ventilation occurred via the nares. Compared with other amphibians, this low ventilatory frequency suggests that T. natans may have acquired very efficient pulmonary respiration as an adaptation for survival in their seasonally fluctuating natural habitat. Their respiratory pathway is quite unique, with the trachea separated into anterior, central and posterior regions. The anterior region serves as an air channel, the central region is attached to the tracheal lung, and the posterior region consists of a bifurcated air channel leading to the left and right posterior lungs. The lungs are narrow, elongated, profusely vascularized and compartmentalized. The posterior lungs extend to approximately two-thirds of the body length. On the basis of their breathing pattern, it appears that caecilians are phylogenetically derived from two-stroke breathers. PMID:10607536

Prabha, K C; Bernard, D G; Gardner, M; Smatresk, N J

2000-01-01

290

Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized. Résumé Une estimation précise de la profondeur de l'interface théorique entre l'eau douce et l'eau salée est un élément critique dans les estimations de rendement des puits dans les aquifères insulaires et littoraux. La relation de Ghyben-Herzberg, qui est habituellement utilisée pour estimer la profondeur de cette interface, peut fortement sous-estimer ou surestimer l'épaisseur de l'eau douce, parce qu'elle suppose l'absence de gradient vertical de charge et d'écoulement vertical. L'estimation de la profondeur de l'interface requiert de prendre en considération les gradients verticaux de charge et l'éventuelle anisotropie de l'aquifère. Cet article propose une méthode de calcul des gradients verticaux de charge à partir des mesures de niveau piézométrique faites en cours de foration d'un puits incomplet; le gradient est alors utilisé pour estimer la profondeur de l'interface. L'application de cette méthode à un système eau douce - eau salée simulé numériquement montre que la méthode est la plus précise lorsque le gradient est mesuré dans un puits pénétrant profondément dans l'aquifère. Même en utilisant un puits peu profond, la méthode estime la position de l'interface avec plus de précision que ne le fait la relation de Ghyben-Herzberg lorsqu'il existe un gradient vertical de charge bien marqué. L'application de la méthode à des données de terrain montre que la foration, les méthodes de mesure de niveau et les hétérogénéités au sein de l'aquifère peuvent être la cause de difficultés, mais que les effets de ces difficultés peuvent être réduits. Resumen Para la estimación de la productividad de pozos en acuíferos costeros y en islas es necesaria una estimación precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz teórica entre agua dulce y agua salada. La relación de Ghyben-Herzberg, usada habitualmente para estimar la profundidad de la interfaz, puede subestimar o sobrestimar el espesor de agua dulce, al asumir la ausencia de flujos y gradientes verticales. La estimación de la profundidad de la interfaz debe considerar tanto estos gradientes verticales, como la posible anisotropía del acuífero. En este artículo se presenta un método para calcular los gradientes verticales de niveles a partir de las medidas obtenidas durante la perforación de un pozo parcialmente penetrante para, a partir de este gradiente, estimar la profundidad de la interfaz. La aplicación del método a un sistema de agua dulce/agua salada simulado numéricamente muestra que el método es más preciso cuando el gradiente se mide en un pozo profundo. Incluso en el caso de un pozo superficial, el método permite una estimación más precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz que la aplicación de la fórmula de Ghyben-Herzberg, en los casos en l

Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

291

NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY CONTENT IN BULGARIAN DRINKING WATERS AND CONSEQUENT DOSE ESTIMATION.  

PubMed

Natural radioactivity in drinking water from Bulgaria was determined in 994 samples. Nine hundred and seventeen of them are from the Southwestern part of the country. The measured activity of natural uranium, (226)Ra, gross alpha and gross beta activity varied from 20 (5) ng l(-1) to 0.11 (3) mg l(-1), MDA to 0.39 (6) Bq l(-1), MDA to 6.23 (39) Bq l(-1) and 0.030 (7) Bq l(-1) to 0.98 (22) Bq l(-1), respectively. Approximately 33 % of the investigated waters exceeded a gross alpha activity of 0.1 Bq l(-1), 1.8 % a natural uranium concentration of 0.03 mg l(-1) and 1 % an (226)Ra concentration of 0.15 Bq l(-1). Annual effective dose from natural radionuclides ranges from 0.0175 (43) µSv to 95.5 (2.6) µSv. Median values of the contribution of the (226)Ra and uranium to the indicative dose are 10.22 and 0.21 µSv y(-1), respectively. Poor relationships between (226)Ra/nat.U (r, 0.12) and for gross beta activity/natural uranium (nat.U) (r, 0.29) were observed. The relationships between nat.U/gross alpha activity (r, 0.50) and for gross alpha activity/gross beta activity (r, 0.52) concentration distributions were stronger. PMID:25227438

Kamenova-Totzeva, R M; Kotova, R M; Tenev, J G; Totzev, A V; Badulin, V M

2014-09-16

292

The Spatial and Temporal Variability of Water Content in an Organic Soil in Dartmoor National Park, UK and its Relation to Microtopography and Organic Soil Horizon Depth.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water content of organic and mineral soils is an important parameter which links energy and mass balances at the earth's surface and as such is essential to understanding the spatial and temporal organization of many biological, biogeochemical, and hydrological processes. The characterization of surface water content in space and time is also important for the continued development of regional-scale and global circulation climate models and has large implications for agriculture and land-use planning. A field study was performed in Dartmoor National Park, Devon, UK in August 2008 for the purpose of exploring the predictive power of terrain indices on wetness patterns in an organic soil. Point samples were taken over the course of three days on two hill slopes of varying aspect in order to assess the influence of incident solar radiation on water storage. Additionally, the depth of the organic layer was estimated for each sample location and topographic information collected for the creation of a digital elevation model. A weak correlation between peat water content and organic soil layer depth was demonstrated and found to be strongest in shallow soils. Microtopography was found to influence the variability of soil moisture over the sampled area with surface roughness (measured by using residual elevation from the mean transect slope). Based on repeated observations over the sampling grids temporal persistence of water content patterns is evident and can be linked to terrain indices and depth of the organic layer.

Rogers, J.; Miles, H.; Berg, A.

2009-05-01

293

The Effects of Periphyton, Fish and Fertilizer Dose on Biological Processes Affecting Water Quality in Earthen Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of periphyton-based aquaculture in South Asia is under investigation in an extensive research program. This paper is a further analysis of data from four experiments carried out in that framework, to explore periphyton, fish and fertilizer dose effects on water quality. Factor analysis and ANOVA models applied to a data matrix of water quality parameters in ponds with

Ana Milstein; Mohammed Ekram Azim; Mohammed Abdul Wahab; Marc Charles Jean Verdegem

2003-01-01

294

Calculation of exit dose for conformal and dynamically-wedged fields, based on water-equivalent path length measured with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device.  

PubMed

In this study, we use the quadratic calibration method (QCM), in which an EPID image is converted into a matrix of equivalent path lengths (EPLs) and, therefore, exit doses, so as to model doses in conformal and enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) fields. The QCM involves acquiring series of EPID images at a reference field size for different thicknesses of homogeneous solid water blocks. From these, a set of coefficients is established that is used to compute the EPL of any other irradiated material. To determine the EPL, the irradiated area must be known in order to establish the appropriate scatter correction. A method was devised for the automatic calculation of areas from the EPID image that facilitated the calculation of EPL for any field and exit dose. For EDW fields, the fitting coefficients were modified by utilizing the linac manufacturer's golden segmented treatment tables (GSTT) methodology and MU fraction model. The nonlinear response of the EPL with lower monitor units (MUs) was investigated and slight modification of the algorithm performed to account for this. The method permits 2D dose distributions at the exit of phantom or patient to be generated by relating the EPL with an appropriate depth dose table. The results indicate that the inclusion of MU correction improved the EPL determination. The irradiated field areas can be accurately determined from EPID images to within ± 1% uncertainty. Cross-plane profiles and 2D dose distributions of EPID predicted doses were compared with those calculated with the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) and those measured directly with MapCHECK 2 device. Comparison of the 2D EPID dose maps to those from TPS and MapCHECK shows that more than 90% of all points passed the gamma index acceptance criteria of 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA), for both conformal and EDW study cases. We conclude that the EPID QCM is an accurate and convenient method for in vivo dosimetry and may, therefore, complement existing techniques. PMID:21844855

Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

2011-01-01

295

Effect of contrast water therapy duration on recovery of cycling performance: a dose-response study.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether contrast water therapy (CWT) has a dose-response effect on recovery from high-intensity cycling. Eleven trained male cyclists completed four trials, each commencing with a 75-min cycling protocol containing six sets of five 15-s sprints and three 5-min time-trials in thermoneutral conditions. Ten minutes post-exercise, participants performed one of four recovery protocols: CWT for 6 min (CWT6), 12 min (CWT12), or 18 min (CWT18) duration, or a seated rest control trial. The CWT commenced in hot water (38.4 ± 0.6°C) and alternated between hot and cold water (14.6 ± 0.3°C) every minute with a 5-s changeover. The cycling protocol was repeated 2 h after completion of exercise bout one. Prior to exercise bout two, core temperature was lower in CWT12 (-0.19 ± 0.14°C, mean ± 90% CL) and CWT18 (-0.21 ± 0.10°C) than control. Compared with control, CWT6 substantially improved time-trial (1.5 ± 2.1%) and sprint performance (3.0 ± 3.1%), and CWT12 substantially improved sprint total work (4.3 ± 3.4%) and peak power (2.7 ± 3.8%) in exercise bout two. All CWT conditions generally improved thermal sensation, whole body fatigue and muscle soreness compared with control, but no differences existed between conditions in heart rate or rating of perceived exertion. In conclusion, CWT duration did not have a dose-response effect on recovery from high-intensity cycling; however, CWT for up to 12 min assisted recovery of cycling performance. PMID:20809231

Versey, Nathan; Halson, Shona; Dawson, Brian

2011-01-01

296

Direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification using a modified EPID  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) are high resolution systems that produce electronic dose maps with minimal time required for equipment setup, and therefore potentially present a time-saving alternative for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) pretreatment verification. A modified commercial EPID was investigated operated with an opaque sheet blocking the optical signal produced in the phosphor layer as a precursor to a switched mode dual dosimetry-imaging EPID system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using this system for direct dose to water dosimetry for pretreatment IMRT verification. Methods: A Varian amorphous silicon EPID was modified by placing an opaque sheet between the Gd{sub 2}S{sub 2}O:Tb phosphor layer and the photodiode array to block the optical photons. The EPID was thus converted to a direct-detecting system (dEPID), in which the high energy radiation deposits energy directly in the photodiode array. The copper build-up was replaced with d{sub max} solid water. Sixty-one IMRT beams of varying complexity were delivered to the EPID, to EDR2 dosimetric film and to a 2D ion chamber array (MapCheck). EPID data was compared to film and MapCheck data using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm pass criteria. Results: The fraction of points that passed the gamma test was on average 98.1% and 98.6%, for the EPID versus film and EPID versus MapCheck comparisons, respectively. In the case of comparison with film, the majority of observed discrepancies were associated with problems related to film sensitivity or processing. Conclusions: The very close agreement between EPID and both film and MapCheck data demonstrates that the modified EPID is suitable for direct dose to water measurement for pretreatment IMRT verification. These results suggest a reconfigured EPID could be an efficient and accurate dosimeter. Alternatively, optical switching methods could be developed to produce a dual-mode EPID with both dosimetry and imaging capabilities.

Gustafsson, Helen; Vial, Philip; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive; Denham, James W.; Greer, Peter B. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia) and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney 2065 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia) and Department of Medical Physics, Liverpool and Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centres, Sydney 2170 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006 (Australia); School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2308 (Australia) and Radiation Oncology Department, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle 2310 (Australia); School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2308 (Australia) and Radiation Oncology Department, Calvary Mater Newcastle Hospital, Newcastle 2310 (Australia)

2011-11-15

297

In-situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 2. Oil spill cleanup efficiency as a function of oil type, marsh type, and water depth.  

PubMed

In-situ burning of spilled oil, which receives considerable attention in marine conditions, could be an effective way to cleanup wetland oil spills. An experimental in-situ burn was conducted to study the effects of oil type, marsh type, and water depth on oil chemistry and oil removal efficiency from the water surface and sediment. In-situ burning decreased the totaltargeted alkanes and total targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the burn residues as compared to the pre-burn diesel and crude oils. Removal was even more effective for short-chain alkanes and low ring-number PAHs. Removal efficiencies for alkanes and PAHs were >98% in terms of mass balance although concentrations of some long-chain alkanes and high ring-number PAHs increased in the burn residue as compared to the pre-burn oils. Thus, in-situ burning potentially prevents floating oil from drifting into and contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the sediment. In addition, in-situ burning significantly removed diesel oil that had penetrated the sediment for all water depths. Furthermore, in-situ burning at a water depth 2 cm below the soil surface significantly removed crude oil that had penetrated the sediment. As a result, in-situ burning may reduce the long-term impacts of oil on benthic organisms. PMID:15819247

Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Carney, Kenneth; Miles, Scott M; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

2005-03-15

298

Effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a dryland riparian phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota (American licorice)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We investigated the effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a facultative floodplain phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota, in a 2-×-2 factorial greenhouse experiment. We grew plants in mesocosms subirrigated with water low in dissolved oxygen, mimicking natural systems, and set depth of ground water at 63 or 100 cm and soil temperature at cold (ambient) or warm (?2.7°C above ambient). We hypothesized the moister (63 cm) and warmer soil would be most favorable and predicted faster growth of shoots and roots and greater nitrogen-fixation (thus, less uptake of mineral nitrogen) under those conditions. Growth in height was significantly faster in the moister treatment but was not affected by soil temperature. Final biomass of shoots and of roots, total biomass of plants, and root:shoot ratio indicated a significant effect only from depth of ground water. Final levels of soil mineral-nitrogen were as predicted, with level of nitrate in the moister treatment more than twice that in the drier treatment. No effect from soil temperature on level of soil-mineral nitrogen was detected. Our results suggest that establishment of G. lepidotarequires strict conditions of soil moisture, which may explain the patchy distribution of the species along southwestern dryland rivers.

Andersen, Douglas C.; Nelson, S. Mark

2014-01-01

299

Response of vegetation and carbon accumulation to changes in precipitation and water table depths in two bogs during the Holocene: a modelling exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the influence of hydrological changes on northern peatland ecosystems, we analysed the response of the Holocene Peat Model (HPM, Frolking et al. 2010), designed to simulate peatland development at millennial timescale, to two hydrological settings, based on precipitation and water table depths reconstructions. The studied sites are two open ombrotrophic peatlands located in the James Bay Lowlands in Northeastern Canada. For both sites, two simulations were realised: one based on a precipitation reconstruction from pollen data, used as input in the model, and a second using a water table depth reconstruction derived from testate amoebae to apply a water table forcing on the model. Simulated variations in carbon accumulation rates (CAR) and vegetation composition were analysed against the palaeoecological datasets. Results in CAR in both sites and hydrological settings showed periods of net carbon loss, which coincided with fluctuations in observed CAR, though they cannot be traced in palaeoecological datasets. The comparison between plant macrofossils records and simulated vegetation distributions highlighted differences between precipitation and water table depth driven simulations that can be used to distinguish the origin of vegetation shifts. The methodology used could thus be useful in paleoecological studies when two or more proxies are available.

Quillet, A.; Garneau, M.; van Bellen, S.; Frolking, S. E.; Tuittila, E.

2013-12-01

300

Estimated depth to the water table and estimated rate of recharge in outcrops of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers near Houston, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, began a field study to determine the depth to the water table and to estimate the rate of recharge in outcrops of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers near Houston, Texas. The study area comprises about 2,000 square miles of outcrops of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in northwest Harris County, Montgomery County, and southern Walker County. Because of the scarcity of measurable water-table wells, depth to the water table below land surface was estimated using a surface geophysical technique, seismic refraction. The water table in the study area generally ranges from about 10 to 30 foot below land surface and typically is deeper in areas of relatively high land-surface altitude than in areas of relatively low land- surface altitude. The water table has demonstrated no long-term trends since ground-water development began, with the probable exception of the water table in the Katy area: There the water table is more than 75 feet deep, probably due to ground-water pumpage from deeper zones. An estimated rate of recharge in the aquifer outcrops was computed using the interface method in which environmental tritium is a ground-water tracer. The estimated average total recharge rate in the study area is 6 inches per year. This rate is an upper bound on the average recharge rate during the 37 years 1953-90 because it is based on the deepest penetration (about 80 feet) of postnuclear-testing tritium concentrations. The rate, which represents one of several components of a complex regional hydrologic budget, is considered reasonable but is not definitive because of uncertainty regarding the assumptions and parameters used in its computation.

Noble, J.E.; Bush, P.W.; Kasmarek, M.C.; Barbie, D.L.

1996-01-01

301

WAVECALC: an Excel-VBA spreadsheet to model the characteristics of fully developed waves and their influence on bottom sediments in different water depths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and growth of waves in deep water is controlled by winds blowing over the sea surface. In fully developed sea states, where winds and waves are in equilibrium, wave parameters may be calculated directly from the wind velocity. We provide an Excel spreadsheet to compute the wave period, length, height and celerity, as well as horizontal and vertical particle velocities for any water depth, bottom slope, and distance below the reference water level. The wave profile and propagation can also be visualized for any water depth, modeling the sea surface change from sinusoidal to trochoidal and finally cnoidal profiles into shallow water. Bedload entrainment is estimated under both the wave crest and the trough, using the horizontal water particle velocity at the top of the boundary layer. The calculations are programmed in an Excel file called WAVECALC, which is available online to authorized users. Although many of the recently published formulas are based on theoretical arguments, the values agree well with several existing theories and limited field and laboratory observations. WAVECALC is a user-friendly program intended for sedimentologists, coastal engineers and oceanographers, as well as marine ecologists and biologists. It provides a rapid means to calculate many wave characteristics required in coastal and shallow marine studies, and can also serve as an educational tool.

Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Demirbilek, Zeki; Brodalka, Marysia; Flemming, Burghard W.

2010-10-01

302

An absorbed dose to water standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources based on water calorimetry: Numerical and experimental proof-of-principle  

SciTech Connect

Water calorimetry is an established technique for absorbed dose to water measurements in external beams. In this paper, the feasibility of direct absorbed dose measurements for high dose rate (HDR) iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) sources using water calorimetry is established. Feasibility is determined primarily by a balance between the need to obtain sufficient signal to perform a reproducible measurement, the effect of heat loss on the measured signal, and the positioning uncertainty affecting the source-detector distance. The heat conduction pattern generated in water by the Nucletron microSelectron-HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source was simulated using COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSTM software. Source heating due to radiation self-absorption was calculated using EGSnrcMP. A heat-loss correction k{sub c} was calculated as the ratio of the temperature rise under ideal conditions to temperature rise under realistic conditions. The calorimeter setup used a parallel-plate calorimeter vessel of 79 mm diameter and 1.12 mm thick front and rear glass windows located 24 mm apart. Absorbed dose was measured with two sources with nominal air kerma strengths of 38 000 and 21 000 U, at source-detector separations ranging from 24.7 to 27.6 mm and irradiation times of 36.0 to 80.0 s. The preliminary measured dose rate per unit air kerma strength of (0.502{+-}0.007) {mu}Gy/(s U) compares well with the TG-43 derived 0.505 {mu}Gy/(s U). This work shows that combined dose uncertainties of significantly less than 5% can be achieved with only modest modifications of current water calorimetry techniques and instruments. This work forms the basis of a potential future absolute dose to water standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy.

Sarfehnia, Arman; Stewart, Kristin; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2007-12-15

303

Investigations into depth and temperature habitat utilization and overwintering grounds of juvenile sandbar sharks, Carcharhinus plumbeus : the importance of near shore North Carolina waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defining the location and habitat characteristics of areas of aggregation of Atlantic shark species has been identified as\\u000a an important information need for current and future management efforts. The primary objective of this project was to investigate\\u000a the depths and temperatures of the waters occupied by large juvenile sandbar sharks of the northwest Atlantic population during\\u000a the winter months and

Christina L. Conrath; John A. Musick

2008-01-01

304

An evaluation of the influence of water depth and river inflow on quantitative Cladocera-based temperature and lake level inferences in a shallow boreal lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrological parameters can potentially have an overwhelming influence on sedimentary assemblages of Cladocera at certain\\u000a sampling sites that can cause problems for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. We applied a previously developed Cladocera-based\\u000a inference model of water depth and a mean July air temperature transfer function developed in this study to a surface sediment\\u000a dataset of fossil Cladocera from a lake in eastern

Tomi P. LuotoLiisa; Liisa Nevalainen; Seija Kultti; Kaarina Sarmaja-Korjonen

305

Modeling water flow, depth and inundation extent over the rivers of the Contiguous US within a Catchment-based Land Surface Modeling Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With population growth and increasing demand of water supply, the need for integrated continental and global scale surface water dynamics simulation systems relying on both observations and models is ever increasing. In this study we characterize how accurately we can estimate river discharge, river depth and the corresponding inundation extent over the contiguous U.S. by combining observations and models. We present a continental-scale implementation of the Catchment-based Hydrological And Routing Modeling System (CHARMS) that includes an explicit representation of the river networks from a Geographic Information System (GIS) dataset. The river networks and contributing catchment boundaries of the Contiguous U.S are upscaled from the NHDPlus dataset. The average upscaled catchment size is 2773 km2 and the unique main river channel contained in each catchment consists of several river reaches of average length 1.6 km. We derive 18 sets of empirical relationship between channel dimension (bankfull depth and bankfull width) and drainage area based on USGS gauge observations to describe river dynamics for the 18 water resource regions of the NHDPlus representation of the United States. These relationships are used to separate the main river channel and floodplain. Modeled monthly and daily streamflow show reasonable agreement with gauge observations and initial results show that basins with fewer anthropogenic modifications are more accurately simulated. Modeled monthly and daily river depth and floodplain extent associated with each river reach are also explicitly estimated over the U.S., although such simulations are more challenging to validate. Our results have implications for capturing the seasonal-to-interannual dynamics of surface water in climate models. Such a continental-scale modeling framework development would, by design, facilitate the use of existing in situ observations and be suitable for integrating the upcoming NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission measurements for a range of studies in climate, hydrology and water management.

Liu, Z.; David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2013-12-01

306

Behavioural thermoregulation in Daphnia carinata from different depths of a natural water body: influence of environmental oxygen levels and temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of environmental parameters (water temperature and dissolved oxygen content) on the haemoglobin content of a naturally occurring population of Daphnia carinata was studied in a population resident in an intermittently flowing, shallow body of water. It was found that the Hb content of the animals was influenced by a combination of both the water temperature and dissolved oxygen

P. R Wiggins; P. B Frappell

2002-01-01

307

Snow depth and snow water equivalent distribution in a high alpine basin: quantifying the length scales and magnitude of variation in Senator Beck Basin, Colorado  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the distribution of seasonal snow is important for water resource management, as one-sixth of the world's population depends on snowmelt for their water supply. In addition, snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates are important for flood and hydropower forecasting, and are critical for understanding surface and groundwater systems. Because the snow cover has such a large effect on the global energy balance, accurate SWE estimates over large areas are necessary for evaluating future climate change scenarios. To adequately describe the correlation length scales of snow depth and SWE at the basin scale, however, measurements at 10 m resolution or less are required, which is impractical using traditional methods. Using an accurately calibrated, portable FMCW radar, coupled with a survey-grade kinematic GPS system, more than 700,000 independent radar measurements were made throughout Senator Beck Basin over a 3 day period in March 2007. These radar measurements are used to estimate snow depth and SWE, covering scales from 10 cm to several km. Due to the large number of estimates, the variogram of snow depth can be accurately calculated, and used to help interpolate between measurements. The length scales and magnitude of variation both above and below tree line are quantified, and uncertainties in the degree of variation are described. Due to the differences in environmental controls, optimum sampling and interpolation schemes vary with location in the basin.

Marshall, H.; Gleason, A.; Landry, C.; McCreight, J.

2007-12-01

308

A depth-controlled tracer technique measures vertical, horizontal and temporal patterns of water use by trees and grasses in a subtropical savanna.  

PubMed

• As described in the two-layer hypothesis, woody plants are often assumed to use deep soils to avoid competition with grasses. Yet the direct measurements of root activity needed to test this hypothesis are rare. • Here, we injected deuterated water into four soil depths, at four times of year, to measure the vertical and horizontal location of water uptake by trees and grasses in a mesic savanna in Kruger National Park, South Africa. • Trees absorbed 24, 59, 14 and 4% of tracer from the 5, 20, 50, and 120 ?cm depths, respectively, while grasses absorbed 61, 29, 9 and 0.3% of tracer from the same depths. Only 44% of root mass was in the top 20?cm. Trees absorbed tracer under and beyond their crowns, while 98% of tracer absorbed by grasses came from directly under the stem. • Trees and grasses partitioned soil resources (20 vs 5? cm), but this partitioning did not reflect, as suggested by the two-layer hypothesis, the ability of trees to access deep soil water that was unavailable to grasses. Because root mass was a poor indicator of root activity, our results highlight the importance of precise root activity measurements. PMID:20561202

Kulmatiski, Andrew; Beard, Karen H; Verweij, Richard J T; February, Edmund C

2010-10-01

309

Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A depth to basement map of the Death Valley groundwater model area was prepared using over 40,0000 gravity stations as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Department of Energy to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and parts of California.

Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

2001-01-01

310

Relations among water levels, specific conductance, and depths of bedrock fractures in four road-salt-contaminated wells in Maine, 2007–9  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on groundwater-level, specific conductance (a surrogate for chloride), and temperature were collected continuously from 2007 through 2009 at four bedrock wells known to be affected by road salts in an effort to determine the effects of road salting and fractures in bedrock that intersect the well at a depth below the casing on the presence of chloride in groundwater. Dissolved-oxygen data collected periodically also were used to make inferences about the interaction of fractures and groundwater flow. Borehole geophysical tools were used to determine the depths of fractures in each well that were actively contributing flow to the well, under both static and pumped conditions; sample- and measurement-depths were selected to correspond to the depths of these active fractures. Samples of water from the wells, collected at depths corresponding to active bedrock fractures, were analyzed for chloride concentration and specific conductance; from these analyses, a linear relation between chloride concentration and specific conductance was established, and continuous and periodic measurements of specific conductance were assumed to represent chloride concentration of the well water at the depth of measurement. To varying degrees, specific conductance increased in at least two of the wells during winter and spring thaws; the shallowest well, which also was closest to the road receiving salt treatment during the winter, exhibited the largest changes in specific conductance during thaws. Recharge events during summer months, long after application of road salt had ceased for the year, also produced increases in specific conductance in some of the wells, indicating that chloride which had accumulated or sequestered in the overburden was transported to the wells throughout the year. Geophysical data and periodic profiles of water quality along the length of each well’s borehole indicated that the greatest changes in water quality were associated with active fractures; in one case, high concentration of dissolved oxygen at the bottom of the well indicated the presence of a highly transmissive fracture that was in good connection with a surficial feature (stream or atmosphere). Data indicated that fractures have a substantial influence on the transport of chlorides to the subsurface; that elevated specific conductance occurred throughout the year, not just when road salts were applied; and that chloride contamination, as indicated by elevated specific conductance, may persist for years.

Schalk, Charles W.; Stasulis, Nicholas W.

2012-01-01

311

Hydrologic Record Extension of Water-Level Data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) Using Artificial Neural Network Models, 2000-2006  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-present) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystem Science provides support for EDEN and the goal of providing quality assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the water-surface models, 25 real-time water-level gaging stations were added to the network of 253 established water-level gaging stations. To incorporate the data from the newly added stations to the 7-year EDEN database in the greater Everglades, the short-term water-level records (generally less than 1 year) needed to be simulated back in time (hindcasted) to be concurrent with data from the established gaging stations in the database. A three-step modeling approach using artificial neural network models was used to estimate the water levels at the new stations. The artificial neural network models used static variables that represent the gaging station location and percent vegetation in addition to dynamic variables that represent water-level data from the established EDEN gaging stations. The final step of the modeling approach was to simulate the computed error of the initial estimate to increase the accuracy of the final water-level estimate. The three-step modeling approach for estimating water levels at the new EDEN gaging stations produced satisfactory results. The coefficients of determination (R2) for 21 of the 25 estimates were greater than 0.95, and all of the estimates (25 of 25) were greater than 0.82. The model estimates showed good agreement with the measured data. For some new EDEN stations with limited measured data, the record extension (hindcasts) included periods beyond the range of the data used to train the artificial neural network models. The comparison of the hindcasts with long-term water-level data proximal to the new EDEN gaging stations indicated that the water-level estimates were reasonable. The percent model error (root mean square error divided by the range of the measured data) was less than 6 percent, and for the majority of stations (20 of 25), the percent model error was less than 1 percent.

Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A., Jr.

2007-01-01

312

EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison of alanine dosimetry systems for absorbed dose to water measurements in gamma- and x-radiation at radiotherapy levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) are involved in the European project 'External Beam Cancer Therapy', a project of the European Metrology Research Programme. Within this project, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetric method has been chosen for performing measurements in small fields such as those used in IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy). In this context, these three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) wished to compare the result of their alanine dosimetric systems (detector, modus operandi etc) at radiotherapy dose levels to check their consistency. This EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison has been performed with the support of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) which collected and distributed the results as a neutral organization, to ensure the comparison was 'blind'. Irradiations have been made under reference conditions by each laboratory in a 60Co beam and in an accelerator beam (10 MV or 12 MV) in a water phantom of 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm in a square field of 10 cm × 10 cm at the reference depth. Irradiations have been performed at known values of absorbed dose to water (Dw) within 10% of nominal doses of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, i.e. between 4.5 Gy and 5.5 Gy and between 9 Gy and 11 Gy, respectively. Each participant read out their dosimeters and assessed the doses using their own protocol (calibration curve, positioning device etc) as this comparison aims at comparing the complete dosimetric process. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the EPR/alanine dosimetry systems operated by National Metrology Institutes as a method of assuring therapy level doses with the accuracy required. The maximum deviation in the ratio of measured to applied dose is less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Garcia, Tristan; Anton, Mathias; Sharpe, Peter

2012-01-01

313

210Po and 238U isotope concentrations in commercial bottled mineral water samples in Spain and their dose contribution.  

PubMed

(210)Po is a naturally occurring radionuclide, belonging to the uranium series, which is present in minute amounts in the different environmental compartments (water, soil, biota). Through its route along the trophic chain, it can be incorporated in the human body via ingestion of waters and/or food. This radionuclide is highly radiotoxic, being one of the main contributors to the committed effective dose via ingestion by the general population. In this work, the contribution of this radionuclide to the committed effective dose received by the Spanish population via consumption of bottled mineral waters is evaluated. With this end, the (210)Po activity concentrations in a total of 32 different commercial bottled mineral waters have been determined by alpha-particle spectrometry. The determined contribution is also compared with the contributions of other natural radionuclides such as (234)U and (238)U. PMID:23559586

Díaz-Francés, I; Mantero, J; Manjón, G; Díaz, J; García-Tenorio, R

2013-09-01

314

Distribution depth of the transforming stage larvae of myctophid fishes in the subtropical tropical waters of the western North Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the day-night vertical distribution patterns of 18 species or types of myctophid fish larvae at the transforming stage based on discrete depth sampling from the surface down to 1000-m depth in the subtropical-tropical western North Pacific. A total of 551 transforming stage larvae were collected at the 19 sampling stations. Except for the Diaphus species and Notolychnus valdiviae, all of the transforming stage larvae (including genera Benthosema, Bolinichthys, Centrobranchus, Ceratoscopelus, Diogenichthys, Hygophum, Lampanyctus, Lobianchia, Myctophum, Symbolophorus, and Triphoturus) were collected in the lower mesopelagic zone from 600- to 900-m depth during both day and night, showing no diel vertical migration (DVM). On the contrary, the Diaphus species and N. valdiviae larvae undergo DVM during the transforming stage, occurring below 200-m layer during the daytime and migrating up to the upper 150-m layer at night, i.e., they show earlier adaptation to juvenile-adult behaviors. Most myctophid fish larvae are known to undertake substantial ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM) from the epipelagic to mesopelagic zones during their early life stage. Although considerable sampling effort was carried out in this study, transforming larvae, except for the above two migratory ones, were not collected in the epipelagic and upper mesopelagic zones, strongly suggesting that their sinking speed would be high. It would be advantageous for survival to spend their highly vulnerable transforming stage in the lower mesopelagic zone, where predation pressures are lower and physical conditions are more stable than in the upper layers.

Sassa, Chiyuki; Kawaguchi, Kouichi; Hirota, Yuichi; Ishida, Minoru

2007-12-01

315

ABSORBED DOSE MEASUREMENTS OF A HANDHELD 50 kVP X-RAY SOURCE IN WATER WITH THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSEMETERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorbed dose rate measurements of a 50 kVp handheld X-ray probe source in a water phantom are described. The X-ray generator is capable of currents of up to 40 lA, and is designed for cranial brachytherapy and intraoperative applications with applicators. The measurements were performed in a computer-controlled water phantom in which both the source and the detectors are mounted.

Christopher Soares; Chris Drupieski; Brian Wingert; Garey Pritchett; Vasilis Pagonis; Michelle O'Brien; Alan Sliski; Pawel Bilski; Pawel Olko

316

Chronic health effects in people exposed to arsenic via the drinking water: dose–response relationships in review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic arsenic (As) poisoning has become a worldwide public health issue. Most human As exposure occurs from consumption of drinking water containing high amounts of inorganic As (iAs). In this paper, epidemiological studies conducted on the dose–response relationships between iAs exposure via the drinking water and related adverse health effects are reviewed. Before the review, the methods for evaluation of

Takahiko Yoshida; Hiroshi Yamauchi; Gui Fan Sun

2004-01-01

317

Well Wishes: A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case of Well Wishes involves students in a thorough examination of the interaction among nitrogen-composed species in the septic systems and well water, which helps to clean household water. The case supports the attainment of five goals for students, and can be analyzed through classroom discussions or laboratory experiments.

Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M.

2004-01-01

318

Increasing the Efficiency of Sorghum Water Extract (Sorgaab) by Mixing with Lower Doses of Isoproturon to Control Weeds in Wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed field study to enhance the efficiency of conc. sorgaab (Sorghum bicolor water extracts) by mixing it with lower doses of isoproturon to control weeds in wheat was carried out during two years. Concentrated sorgaab was combined with reduced rates of isoproturon i.e.150, 300, 450, 600 and 1000 g a. i. ha -1 . Two sorgaab sprays each at

MUHAMMAD JAMIL; ZAHID ATA; ABDUL KHALIQ

319

Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments.  

PubMed

Methane (CH(4)) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2-6% of the global atmospheric CH(4) budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH(4) that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0-25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH(4) oxidation potential for these shallow (?2 m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0-1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH(4), whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15-20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH(4)-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes. PMID:22592821

He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

2012-10-01

320

Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments  

PubMed Central

Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25?cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (?2?m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1?cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20?cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes. PMID:22592821

He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

2012-01-01

321

Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

2012-01-01

322

Using LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around an {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The absorbed dose to water is the fundamental reference quantity for brachytherapy treatment planning systems and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) have been recognized as the most validated detectors for measurement of such a dosimetric descriptor. The detector response in a wide energy spectrum as that of an{sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source as well as the specific measurement medium which surrounds the TLD need to be accounted for when estimating the absorbed dose. This paper develops a methodology based on highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs to directly estimate the absorbed dose to water in liquid water around a high dose rate {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source. Methods: Different experimental designs in liquid water and air were constructed to study the response of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs when irradiated in several standard photon beams of the LNE-LNHB (French national metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation). Measurement strategies and Monte Carlo techniques were developed to calibrate the LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors in the energy interval characteristic of that found when TLDs are immersed in water around an{sup 192}Ir source. Finally, an experimental system was designed to irradiate TLDs at different angles between 1 and 11 cm away from an {sup 192}Ir source in liquid water. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to correct measured results to provide estimates of the absorbed dose to water in water around the {sup 192}Ir source. Results: The dose response dependence of LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs with the linear energy transfer of secondary electrons followed the same variations as those of published results. The calibration strategy which used TLDs in air exposed to a standard N-250 ISO x-ray beam and TLDs in water irradiated with a standard{sup 137}Cs beam provided an estimated mean uncertainty of 2.8% (k = 1) in the TLD calibration coefficient for irradiations by the {sup 192}Ir source in water. The 3D TLD measurements performed in liquid water were obtained with a maximum uncertainty of 11% (k = 1) found at 1 cm from the source. Radial dose values in water were compared against published results of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine and the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology and no significant differences (maximum value of 3.1%) were found within uncertainties except for one position at 9 cm (5.8%). At this location the background contribution relative to the TLD signal is relatively small and an unexpected experimental fluctuation in the background estimate may have caused such a large discrepancy. Conclusions: This paper shows that reliable measurements with TLDs in complex energy spectra require a study of the detector dose response with the radiation quality and specific calibration methodologies which model accurately the experimental conditions where the detectors will be used. The authors have developed and studied a method with highly sensitive TLDs and contributed to its validation by comparison with results from the literature. This methodology can be used to provide direct estimates of the absorbed dose rate in water for irradiations with HDR{sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources.

Lucas, P. Avilés, E-mail: paz.aviles@ciemat.es; Aubineau-Lanièce, I.; Lourenço, V.; Vermesse, D.; Cutarella, D. [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)] [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2014-01-15

323

Dose-response algorithms for water-borne Pseudomonas aeruginosa folliculitis.  

PubMed

We developed two dose-response algorithms for P. aeruginosa pool folliculitis using bacterial and lesion density estimates, associated with undetectable, significant, and almost certain folliculitis. Literature data were fitted to Furumoto & Mickey's equations, developed for plant epidermis-invading pathogens: N l  = A ln(1 + BC) (log-linear model); P inf = 1-e(-r c C) (exponential model), where A and B are 2.51644 × 107 lesions/m2 and 2.28011 × 10-11 c.f.u./ml P. aeruginosa, respectively; C = pathogen density (c.f.u./ml), N l  = folliculitis lesions/m2, P inf = probability of infection, and r C  = 4·3 × 10-7 c.f.u./ml P. aeruginosa. Outbreak data indicates these algorithms apply to exposure durations of 41 ± 25 min. Typical water quality benchmarks (?10-2 c.f.u./ml) appear conservative but still useful as the literature indicated repeated detection likely implies unstable control barriers and bacterial bloom potential. In future, culture-based outbreak testing should be supplemented with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and organic carbon assays, and quantification of folliculitis aetiology to better understand P. aeruginosa risks. PMID:25275553

Roser, D J; VAN DEN Akker, B; Boase, S; Haas, C N; Ashbolt, N J; Rice, S A

2015-05-01

324

Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

These are the lids both on top and below the water bottles on the Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD). When the CTD is placed in the ocean and reaches a desired depth, an electronic signal is sent from the ship that closes the bottles and a water sample is collected. ...

325

Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD)  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is the top of the Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD). When the instrument is lowered into the water and reaches a desired depth, an electronic signal is sent along these wires from the ship that closes the bottles and a water sample is collected. ...

326

Depth to Water, Saturated Thickness, and Other Geospatial Datasets Used in the Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These datasets were compiled in support of U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 456, Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado. These datasets were developed as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Department of Agriculture. The purpose of the project was to design a 30-well network and install 20 of the 30 wells to characterize water quality in the High Plains aquifer in areas of irrigated agriculture in Colorado. The five datasets are described as follows and are further described in Data Series 456: (1) ds472_dtw: This dataset represents the depth to groundwater in the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado in 2000. This grid was used to determine areas where the depth to water was less than 200 feet below land surface. (2) Ds472_sat: This dataset represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer within Colorado in 2000. This grid was used to determine areas where the saturated thickness was greater than 50 feet. (3) Ds472_equalareas: This dataset includes 30 equal-area polygons overlying the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado having a depth to water less than 200 feet, a saturated thickness greater than 50 feet, and underlying irrigated agricultural lands. (4) Ds472_randomsites: This dataset includes 90 randomly-generated potential groundwater sampling sites. This dataset provides a first, second, and third choice placed within the 30 equal area polygons of dataset dsXX_equalareas. (5) Ds472_welldata: This dataset includes point locations and well completion data for the 20 wells installed as part of this project. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

Flynn, Jennifer L.; Arnold, L. Rick; Paschke, Suzanne S.

2009-01-01

327

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

2011-11-01

328

Semi-3D dosimetry of high dose rate brachytherapy using a novel Gafchromic EBT3 film-array water phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need to modernise clinical brachytherapy dosimetry measurement beyond traditional point dose verification to enable appropriate quality control within 3D treatment environments. This is to keep pace with the 3D clinical and planning approaches which often include significant patient-specific optimisation away from 'standard loading patterns'. A multi-dimension measurement system is required to provide assurance of the complex 3D dose distributions, to verify equipment performance, and to enable quality audits. However, true 3D dose measurements around brachytherapy applicators are often impractical due to their complex shapes and the requirement for close measurement distances. A solution utilising an array of radiochromic film (Gafchromic EBT3) positioned within a water filled phantom is presented. A calibration function for the film has been determined over 0 to 90Gy dose range using three colour channel analysis (FilmQAPro software). Film measurements of the radial dose from a single HDR source agree with TPS and Monte Carlo calculations within 5 % up to 50 mm from the source. Film array measurements of the dose distribution around a cervix applicator agree with TPS calculations generally within 4 mm distance to agreement. The feasibility of film array measurements for semi-3D dosimetry in clinical HDR applications is demonstrated.

Palmer, A. L.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

2013-06-01

329

Interannual to decadal oxygen variability in the mid-depth water masses of the eastern North Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of multi-decadal trends in the oceanic oxygen content and its possible attribution to global warming is protracted by the presence of a substantial amount of interannual to decadal variability, which hitherto is poorly known and characterized. Here we address this gap by studying interannual to decadal changes of the oxygen concentration in the Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), the Intermediate Water (IW) and the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in the eastern North Atlantic. We use data from a hydrographic section located in the eastern North Atlantic at about 48°N repeated 12 times over a period of 19 years from 1993 through 2011, with a nearly annual resolution up to 2005. Despite a substantial amount of year-to-year variability, we observe a long-term decrease in the oxygen concentration of all three water masses, with the largest changes occurring from 1993 to 2002. During that time period, the trends were mainly caused by a contraction of the subpolar gyre associated with a northwestward shift of the Subpolar Front (SPF) in the eastern North Atlantic. This caused SPMW to be ventilated at lighter densities and its original density range being invaded by subtropical waters with substantially lower oxygen concentrations. The contraction of the subpolar gyre reduced also the penetration of IW of subpolar origin into the region in favor of an increased northward transport of IW of subtropical origin, which is also lower in oxygen. The long-term oxygen changes in the MOW were mainly affected by the interplay between circulation and solubility changes. Besides the long-term signals, mesoscale variability leaves a substantial imprint as well, affecting the water column over at least the upper 1000 m and laterally by more than 400 km. Mesoscale eddies induced changes in the oxygen concentration of a magnitude that can substantially alias analyses of long-term changes based on repeat hydrographic data that are being collected at intervals of typically 10 years.

Stendardo, Ilaria; Kieke, Dagmar; Rhein, Monika; Gruber, Nicolas; Steinfeldt, Reiner

2015-01-01

330

Measurement of equivalent doses in quartz from contemporary water-lain sediments using optically stimulated luminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single aliquot technique and its derivatives are very attractive for the measurement of the very small doses found in young materials, because they inherently avoid concerns about low-dose non-linearity and can offer high precisions. A modification is outlined to the single Aliquot\\/regeneration and added dose (SARA) protocol [Mejdahl and Bøtter-Jensen (1994), Quaternary Geochronology (Quaternary Science Reviews), 13, 551–5541, to

A. S. Murray; J. M. Olley; G. G. Caitcheon

1995-01-01

331

Hydrologic record extension of water-level data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 1991-99  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To hindcast and fill data records, 214 empirical models were developed—189 are linear regression models and 25 are artificial neural network models. The coefficient of determination (R2) for 163 of the models is greater than 0.80 and the median percent model error (root mean square error divided by the range of the measured data) is 5 percent. To evaluate the performance of the hindcast models as a group, contour maps of modeled water-level surfaces at 2-centimeter (cm) intervals were generated using the hindcasted data. The 2-cm contour maps were examined for selected days to verify that water surfaces from the EDEN model are consistent with the input data. The biweekly 2-cm contour maps did show a higher number of issues during days in 1990 as compared to days after 1990. May 1990 had the lowest water levels in the Everglades of the 21-year dataset used for the hindcasting study. To hindcast these record low conditions in 1990, many of the hindcast models would require large extrapolations beyond the range of the predictive quality of the models. For these reasons, it was decided to limit the hindcasted data to the period January 1, 1991, to December 31, 1999. Overall, the hindcasted and gap-filled data are assumed to provide reasonable estimates of station-specific water-level data for an extended historical period to inform research and natural resource management in the Everglades.

Conrads, Paul A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Telis, Pamela A.

2015-01-01

332

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division

2013-11-05

333

Effect of silicone gel breast prosthesis on electron and photon dose distributions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of a silicone gel breast prosthesis on the absorbed dose distribution of 9--20 MeV electron beams and 1.25--15 MV photon beams was studied. Compared to water measurements, at depths smaller than the practical range of the electron beams, the central axis depth dose values below the prothesis were lower for all energies by as much as 3.5%. However, at depths near the practical range, the central axis depth dose values for the prosthesis were greater than that of water by as much as 33%. Since this occurs near the end of the electron range, the resultant difference may not be clinically significant. Results of the effect of breast prosthesis on photon depth dose distributions reveal that no clinically significant perturbation is produced by the breast prosthesis using Co-60, 6- and 15-MV radiations.

Krishnan, L.; St. George, F.J.; Mansfield, C.M.; Krishnan, E.C.

1983-01-01

334

Does deposition depth control the OSL bleaching of fluvial sediment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could potentially provide insights into geomorphic processes. However, comparison of bleaching between samples is complicated by sample-to-sample variation in aliquot size and luminescence sensitivity. Here we develop an age model to account for these effects. With measurement data from multi-grain aliquots, we use Bayesian computational statistics to estimate the burial dose and bleaching parameters of the single-grain dose distribution. We apply the model to 46 samples taken from fluvial sediment of Rhine branches in the Netherlands, and compare the results with environmental predictor variables (depositional energy and environment, sample depth, depth relative to mean water level, dose rate). We find no significant correlations between any predictor variable and the bleaching parameters, although large uncertainties may be obscuring relationships. However, the best bleached samples are found close to the mean water level. Based on these results, we hypothesize that bleaching occurs mainly during fluvial transport rather than upon deposition, with extra bleaching possible for sediments near the transition of channel to overbank deposits due to local reworking after deposition either by wind or water.

Cunningham, A. C.; Wallinga, J.; Hobo, N.; Versendaal, A. J.; Makaske, B.; Middelkoop, H.

2014-07-01

335

Treatment of steam-assisted gravity drainage water using low coagulant dose and Fenton oxidation.  

PubMed

The use of coagulation and Fenton oxidation was studied for total organic carbon (TOC) and silica removal from steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water at 800C and two different concentrations replicating the stream feeding the warm lime softening unit having 675 mg/L TOC and 350 mg/L silica and the blowdown of the once through steam generator having 3700mg/L TOC and 2585 mg/L silica. Coagulation was carried out by the addition of FeCl3, Al(NO3)3 or Ca(NO3)2. The results showed that Fe(III) salt outperformed Al(III) and Ca(II) salts. A two-stage addition of 2.5 g FeCl3 per g TOC intermediated by a filtration unit resulted in approximately 72% TOC removal and more than 80% silica removal while maintaining low solid waste. Comparing results pertaining to coagulant concentration and final pH, it can be easily concluded that silica removal is governed by the resultant pH, whereas TOC removal was accomplished through surface neutralization and localized enmeshment coagulation. Fenton oxidation is proposed to further treat the filtrate obtained from the second stage Fe(III) coagulation. An additional 10% TOC removal could be achieved; at seven times lower H202 dose in the presence of Fe2+ or Fe0 reagent. Moreover, the advanced Fenton process resulted in high silica removal as a result of adsorption onto Fe(OH)3 precipitate, which formed at the equilibrium pH of the system. PMID:24956753

Al-As'ad, Ahmad; Husein, Maen M

2014-08-01

336

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

DOE Data Explorer

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

337

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2013-08-31

338

Measuring cloud droplet effective radius and liquid water content using changes in degree of linear polarization along cloud depth.  

PubMed

Two important parameters of liquid clouds are the cloud effective size (CES) and liquid water content (LWC). To measure these parameters, we have used two multiple scattering depolarization effects: (1) the slope of the degree of linear polarization (SLDLP) at the cloud base, and (2) the saturated degree of linear polarization (SADLP) at infinite altitude. We used Monte Carlo simulation to validate this method, with the assumption that the water cloud droplet size follows a Gamma distribution. From our calculation, we find that although the SADLP varies with both extinction coefficient (or LWC) and the CES, the SLDLP varies only with the extinction coefficient. After extracting the extinction coefficient using the SLDLP, we can easily obtain the CES using the SADLP. As a result, we found that the CES and the LWC can be extracted from the experimental parameters of SLDLP and SADLP, which can be easily measured using a single wavelength depolarization LIDAR. PMID:24978490

Kim, Dukhyeon; Lee, Jeongsoon

2014-06-15

339

Tropical ice cloud optical depth, ice water path, and frequency fields inferred from the MODIS level-3 data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1.375-?m water vapor absorption band included on the space-borne Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides an unprecedented view of ice clouds (e.g., cirrus) on a global scale. In this study the spatial and temporal patterns of ice clouds over the tropics (i.e., the region between ±30° latitude) are analyzed. Three successive years (July 2002–August 2005) of data acquired from

Kerry Meyer; Ping Yang; Bo-Cai Gao

2007-01-01

340

Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam -- Annual Report -- October 2007-September 2008  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations----a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezo¬meters. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet.

Arntzen, Evan V.

2009-07-14

341

Freshwater lenses as archive of climate, groundwater recharge, and hydrochemical evolution: Insights from depth-specific water isotope analysis and age determination on the island of Langeoog, Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age stratification of a freshwater lens on the island of Langeoog, Germany, was reconstructed through depth-specific sampling and groundwater dating using the tritium-helium method. The stratification is strongly affected by the land use and resulting differences in recharge rates. Infiltration at the dune tops is significantly lower than in the valleys, due to repellency of the dry sand. Dune valleys contribute up to four times more groundwater recharge per area than other areas. Housing development in dune areas might therefore significantly decrease the available fresh groundwater. The freshwater column shows a distinct increase of stable isotope values with decreasing depths. Hence, the freshwater lens contains a climate archive which reflects changing environmental conditions at the time of recharge. Combined with tritium-helium dating, this pattern could be matched to climate records which show an increase of the temperature at the time of recharge and rainfall rates during the last 50 years. The spatial and temporal developments of water chemistry during the passage through the lens follow a marked pattern from a sodium and chloride-dominated rainwater of low conductivity to a more mineralized sodium bicarbonate water type, caused by dissolution of carbonate shells close to the surface and subsequent ion exchange of calcium for sodium in the deeper parts.

Houben, Georg J.; Koeniger, Paul; Sültenfuß, Jürgen

2014-10-01

342

Anatomy of T Phases Recorded by An OBS at 5 km Water Depth: Effects of Local Bathymetry and SOFAR Channel Heterogeneity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have deployed broadband ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) offshore eastern Taiwan in 2006 and 2007. One OBS at 5 km water depth has routinely recorded abnormal seismic phase after P and S phases. The attributes of the energy, including frequency band and arrival time, are consistent with that of a T wave. T waves are phases contained at least some acoustic paths through water bodies. It is still not clear how the T phase energy leaks out of the SOFAR channel before being recorded at depth. From regional physical oceanographic data we found heterogeneous SOFAR channel near the OBS site. Thus, some of the energy can be scattered out of the waveguide. We used an earthquake near the coast to calculate the traveltimes through different solid-earth to acoustic conversion points along the regional 1000 meter bathymetry contour line where the regional SOFAR channel axis is located. The beginning of the T wave usually travel with a path that follows Fermat's principle, instead of the shortest path. The T wave ends when there are no effective conversion points available in the regional bathymetry. The maximum amplitude of the T phase usually has a path with the least solid-earth leg. In addition, T phase amplitude decreases when a typhoon passed between the conversion points and the OBS, possibly due to the strong winds causing mixing of the upper SOFAR channel, making the waveguide less effective.

Chi, W.; Kuo, B.; Tu, T.; Lin, C.; Ando, M.; Lin, C.; Collina, J.

2008-12-01

343

Dose-related carcinogenic effects of water-borne benzo(a)pyrene on livers of two small fish species  

SciTech Connect

Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) administered by water-borne exposures caused dose-related carcinogenic effects in livers of two small fish species, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Medaka and guppies each were given two 6-h exposures. The first exposure was conducted on 6- to 10-day-old specimens. The second exposure was given 7 days later. The tests incorporated five treatment groups: (1) control, (2) carrier (dimethylformamide) control, (3) low BaP dose (not detectable--4 ppb), (4) intermediate BaP dose (about 8-47 ppb BaP), and (5) high BaP dose (200-270 ppb). Following the high-dose exposure, hepatocellular lesions classified as foci of cellular alteration (altered foci), adenomas, and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in both species. In medaka, the lesions appeared to develop sequentially with the appearance of altered foci followed by adenomas and then hepatocellular carcinomas. Most lesions in guppies, however, were classified as altered foci although a few adenomas occurred in the early (24-week) sample and hepatocellular carcinomas occurred in the late (52-week) sample. When total lesions were combined, medaka had an 11% incidence at 24 weeks after the initial exposure and 36% incidence at 36 weeks. In guppies, 8% had liver lesions at 24 weeks, 19% at 36 weeks, and 20% at 52 weeks. A single extrahepatic neoplasm, a capillary hemangioma in a gill filament, occurred in a medaka from the 36-week high-dose sample. The results suggest that the medaka and guppy are capable of metabolizing water-borne BaP to carcinogenic metabolites which initiate hepatic tumor development.

Hawkins, W.E.; Walker, W.W.; Overstreet, R.M.; Lytle, T.F.; Lytle, J.S.

1988-12-01

344

Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

Arntzen, E.V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

2009-07-14

345

ERS-1 SAR monitoring of ice growth on shallow lakes to determine water depth and availability in north west Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images taken by the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were used to identify and to differentiate between the lakes that freeze completely to the bottom and those that do not, on the North Slope, in northwestern Alaska. The ice thickness at the time each lake froze completely is determined with numerical ice growth model that gives a maximum simulated thickness of 2.2 m. A method combining the ERS-1 SAR images and numerical ice growth model was used to determine the ice growth and the water availability in these regions.

Jeffries, Martin; Morris, Kim; Liston, Glen

1996-01-01

346

The fragmentation of 670A MeV neon-20 as a function of depth in water. I. Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the final analysis of an experiment to study the interaction of a beam of 670A MeV neon ions incident on a water column set to different thicknesses. The atomic number Z (and, in some cases, the isotopic mass A) of primary beam particles and of the products of nuclear interactions emerging from the water column close to the central axis of the beam was obtained for nuclei between Be (Z = 4) and Ne (Z = 10) using a time-of-flight telescope to measure the velocity and a set of silicon detectors to measure the energy loss of each particle. The fluence of particles of a given charge was obtained and normalized to the incident beam intensity. Corrections were made for accidental coincidences between multiple particles triggering the TOF telescope and for interactions in the detector. The background due to beam particles interacting in beam line elements upstream of the detector was calculated. Sources of experimental artifacts and background in particle identification experiments designed to characterize heavy ion beams for radiobiological research are summarized, and some of the difficulties inherent in this work are discussed. Complete tables of absolutely normalized fluence spectra as a function of LET are included for reference purposes.

Schimmerling, W.; Miller, J.; Wong, M.; Rapkin, M.; Howard, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Jarret, B. V.

1989-01-01

347

Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the ARPANSA and the BIPM for 60Co ? radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), Australia, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 60Co radiation beam of the BIPM in June 2010 under the auspices of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients measured for two transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the ARPANSA and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9973 (53). This result replaces the 1997 ARPANSA value of 1.0024 (30) in this key comparison. The degrees of equivalence for the ARPANSA and the other participants in this comparison have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table for the national metrology institutes (NMIs) that have results published in this ongoing comparison for absorbed dose to water. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Allisy, P. J.; Butler, D.; Lye, J.; Webb, D.

2012-01-01

348

Regional and local patterns in depth to water table, hydrochemistry and peat properties of bogs and their laggs in coastal British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In restoration planning for damaged raised bogs, the lagg at the bog margin is often not given considerable weight and is sometimes disregarded entirely. However, the lagg is critical for the proper functioning of the bog, as it supports the water mound in the bog. In order to include the lagg in a restoration plan for a raised bog, it is necessary to understand the hydrological characteristics and functions of this rarely studied transition zone. We studied 13 coastal British Columbia (BC) bogs and identified two different gradients in depth to water table, hydrochemistry and peat properties: (1) a local bog expanse-bog margin gradient, and (2) a regional gradient related to climate and proximity to the ocean. Depth to water table generally increased across the transition from bog expanse to bog margin. In the bog expanse, pH was above 4.2 in the Pacific Oceanic wetland region (cooler and wetter climate) and below 4.3 in the Pacific Temperate wetland region (warmer and drier climate). Both pH and pH-corrected electrical conductivity increased significantly across the transition from bog expanse to bog margin, though not in all cases. Na+ and Mg2+ concentrations were generally highest in exposed, oceanic bogs and lower in inland bogs. Ash content in peat samples increased across the bog expanse-bog margin transition, and appears to be a useful abiotic indicator of the location of the bog margin. The observed variation in the hydrological and hydrochemical gradients across the bog expanse-bog margin transition highlights both local and regional diversity of bogs and their associated laggs.

Howie, S. A.; van Meerveld, H. J.

2013-09-01

349

Effect of taxonomic resolution on ecological and palaeoecological inference - a test using testate amoeba water table depth transfer functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound taxonomy is a major requirement for quantitative environmental reconstruction using biological data. Transfer function performance should theoretically be expected to decrease with reduced taxonomic resolution. However for many groups of organisms taxonomy is imperfect and species level identification not always possible. We conducted numerical experiments on five testate amoeba water table (DWT) transfer function data sets. We sequentially reduced the number of taxonomic groups by successively merging morphologically similar species and removing inconspicuous species. We then assessed how these changes affected model performance and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction using two fossil data sets. Model performance decreased with decreasing taxonomic resolution, but this had only limited effects on patterns of inferred DWT, at least to detect major dry/wet shifts. Higher-resolution taxonomy may however still be useful to detect more subtle changes, or for reconstructed shifts to be significant.

Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Payne, Richard J.; Mazei, Yuri

2014-05-01

350

Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east of the site showed no saltwater contamination.

Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

2003-01-01

351

Concentration of 3H in ground water and estimation of committed effective dose due to ground water ingestion in some places in the Maharashtra state, India.  

PubMed

The measurement of tritium in environmental samples requires highest possible sensitivity. In the present study, the authors have optimised the counting window for the analysis of (3)H in environmental samples using the recently installed Ultra Low Level Quantulus 1220 Liquid Scintillation Counting at BARC to improve the detection limit of the system. The optimised counting window corresponding to the highest figure of merit of 883.8 was found to be 20-162 channels. Different brands of packaged drinking waters were analysed to select a blank that would define the system background. The minimum detectable activity (MDA) achieved was 1.5 Bq l(-1) for a total counting time of 500 min. The concentration of tritium in well and bore well water samples collected from the villages of Pune, villages located at 1.8 km from Tarapur Atomic Power Station, Kolhapur and Ratnagiri, was analysed. The activity concentration ranged from 0.55 to 3.66 Bq l(-1). The associated age-dependant dose from water ingestion in the study area was estimated. The effective committed dose recorded for different age classes is negligible compared with World Health Organization and US Environmental Protection Agency dose guidelines. PMID:24026898

Reddy, P J; Bhade, S P D; Kolekar, R V; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K S

2014-01-01

352

Integrating flood depth and plant resistance with chlorantraniliprole seed treatments for management of rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).  

PubMed

Chlorantraniliprole seed treatments in rice provide effective suppression of rice water weevil populations in the United States; however, heavy reliance on prophylactic insecticide treatments as a sole strategy could destabilize management programs for this insect. The present research evaluated the compatibility of seed treatments with two other potential management tactics-plant resistance and shallow flooding-by conducting two split-plot experiments in 2009 and 2011. In both experiments, no substantial antagonism was found among the 3 different tactics. Statistical interactions in these experiments arose from the strong and persistent effects of chlorantraniliprole on larval densities rather than incompatibility of tactics. In 2009, weevil densities differed among varieties and were significantly lower on the cultivar "Jefferson." In 2011, weevil densities were reduced significantly in shallow-flooded plots compared to deep-flooded plots. Significant reductions in weevil numbers by chlorantraniliprole seed treatments, even at application rates 5 fold lower than commercially recommended rates, demonstrated the potential to reduce application rates of this highly potent larvicide. These latter results suggest that future studies on the relationship between chlorantraniliprole seed treatment rate and weevil fitness are warranted. PMID:25176158

Lanka, Srinivas K; Blouin, David C; Stout, Michael J

2014-09-01

353

Uncertainty and variability in satellite-based water vapor column, aerosol optical depth and Angström exponent, and its effect on radiative transfer simulations in the Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water vapor column product from the MODIS instrument onboard the Terra satellite is compared with ground-based measurements at six Spanish locations (AERONET stations) in the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 443 nm and at 675 nm retrievals from the MISR instrument onboard the Terra satellite is also compared with ground-based measurements at the same locations to determine their uncertainties. Remote sensing data of water vapor and aerosol optical properties are averaged each month to obtain climatology tables and to characterize atmospheric properties at nine locations in the Iberian Peninsula. These tables are used as input in a radiative transfer model to calculate total shortwave (SW) and ultraviolet erythemal (UVER) irradiance at the nine locations. SW and UVER simulations are recalculated considering the uncertainties and the climatological variability of the input datasets. AOD uncertainty provides changes lower than 6% in most cases for both SW and UVER simulations. The propagation of water vapor uncertainty causes variations in SW simulations less than 4% for solar zenith angles below 75°.

Román, Roberto; Bilbao, Julia; de Miguel, Argimiro

2014-06-01

354

The fragmentation of 670A MeV neon-20 as a function of depth in water. II. One-generation transport theory.  

PubMed

The results of an experiment to study the interaction of a beam of 670A MeV neon ions incident on a water column set to different thicknesses were compared with a "first principles" transport calculation in the straight-ahead approximation. This calculation assumes that the nuclear interactions of the incident particles lead to a secondary particle with the velocity of the incident projectile at the interaction point moving in the direction of the incident projectile. Subsequent nuclear interactions of the fragments were taken into account partially, by calculating the nuclear attenuation of the fragments in the residual material, but were not taken into account as a source of further nuclear interaction products. Fluence spectra were calculated per unit incident neon fluence for 14 absorber thicknesses. The acceptance for each fragment was calculated based on a knowledge of the material in the beam and of the beam extraction energy. The theoretical spectra were multiplied by the calculated acceptance and convoluted with the LET resolution associated with the experiment. The stopping power used in the transport calculation was found to predict a range approximately 1.6% shorter than that given by experiment; this small difference resulted in significant discrepancies between theory and experiment in the stopping region. For particles not stopping in the absorber, the transport calculation was accurate to within 30% for depths less than approximately 15 cm; the effects of tertiary particles become significant at greater depth. PMID:2247591

Shavers, M R; Curtis, S B; Miller, J; Schimmerling, W

1990-11-01

355

Influence of Tap Water Quality and Household Water Use Activities on Indoor Air and Internal Dose Levels of Trihalomethanes  

PubMed Central

Individual exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) in tap water can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure. Studies indicate that activities associated with inhaled or dermal exposure routes result in a greater increase in blood THM concentration than does ingestion. We measured blood and exhaled air concentrations of THM as biomarkers of exposure to participants conducting 14 common household water use activities, including ingestion of hot and cold tap water beverages, showering, clothes washing, hand washing, bathing, dish washing, and indirect shower exposure. We conducted our study at a single residence in each of two water utility service areas, one with relatively high and the other low total THM in the residence tap water. To maintain a consistent exposure environment for seven participants, we controlled water use activities, exposure time, air exchange, water flow and temperature, and nonstudy THM sources to the indoor air. We collected reference samples for water supply and air (pre–water use activity), as well as tap water and ambient air samples. We collected blood samples before and after each activity and exhaled breath samples at baseline and postactivity. All hot water use activities yielded a 2-fold increase in blood or breath THM concentrations for at least one individual. The greatest observed increase in blood and exhaled breath THM concentration in any participant was due to showering (direct and indirect), bathing, and hand dishwashing. Average increase in blood THM concentration ranged from 57 to 358 pg/mL due to these activities. More research is needed to determine whether acute and frequent exposures to THM at these concentrations have public health implications. Further research is also needed in designing epidemiologic studies that minimize data collection burden yet maximize accuracy in classification of dermal and inhalation THM exposure during hot water use activities. PMID:16002374

Nuckols, John R.; Ashley, David L.; Lyu, Christopher; Gordon, Sydney M.; Hinckley, Alison F.; Singer, Philip

2005-01-01

356

Development of an optimum control software package for coagulant dosing process in water purification system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the water purification plant, raw water is promptly purified by injection of chemicals. The amount of chemicals is directly related to water qualities such as turbidity, temperature, pH and alkalinity. However, the process of chemical reaction to the turbidity is not yet to be clarified. Since the process of coagulant dosage has no feedback signal, the amount of chemicals

Eui-Suck Nahm; Su-Bum Lee; Kwang-Bang Woo; Bong-Kuk Lee; Sang-Keun Shin

1996-01-01

357

Dose- (and time-) dependent blockade of pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats administered ammonium dinitramide in drinking water.  

PubMed

Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) is a class 1.1 explosive oxidizer that can be used in solid rocket propellant mixtures and explosives. A 90-day general toxicity/ reproductive screen performed on this compound at doses of 162, 103, 29, and 0.0 mg ADN/kg/day resulted in a treatment-related adverse effect on litter production. Incidences of animals producing litters (1/11, 3/12, 12/12, and 11/12, respectively) and mean numbers of pups per litter (7, 7, 16, and 15, respectively) both were statistically significantly less than controls. In a follow-up study, mated dams treated with ADN at the same doses and examined at gestation days (GDs) 10 and 20 showed an effect in fetus loss similar to that seen in the reproductive screen. A pre- versus postimplantation dosing regimen indicated that implantation is vulnerable to ADN effects during the preimplantation period (GDs 1-3). No implantation sites were found in the rats treated with 2000 mg ADN/L drinking water (target dose of 160 mg ADN/kg/day) during GDs 1-3. Numbers of implantation sites found in the rats treated during GDs 4-8 were similar to those found in the control group. The pituitary was not identified specifically in this study as the site of primary action, but serum progesterone was reduced by 27%, which may have resulted in reduced fertility. PMID:8713714

Kinkead, E R; Wolfe, R E; Feldmann, M L

1996-01-01

358

Examining the interrelationship between DOC, bromide and chlorine dose on DBP formation in drinking water--a case study.  

PubMed

During drinking water treatment aqueous chlorine and bromine compete to react with natural organic matter (NOM). Among the products of these reactions are potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products, notably four trihalomethanes (THM4) and nine haloacetic acids (HAAs). Previous research has concentrated on the role of bromide in chlorination reactions under conditions of a given NOM type and/or concentration. In this study different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from U.K. lowland water were reacted with varying amounts of bromide and chlorine in order to examine the interrelationship between the three reactants in the formation of THM4, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). Results showed that, in general, molar yields of THM4 increased with DOC, bromide and chlorine concentrations, although yields did fluctuate versus chlorine dose. In contrast both DHAA and THAA yields were mainly independent of changes in bromide and chlorine dose at low DOC (1 mg·L(-1)), but increased with chlorine dose at higher DOC concentrations (4 mg·L(-1)). Bromine substitution factors reached maxima of 0.80, 0.67 and 0.65 for the THM4, DHAAs and THAAs, respectively, at the highest bromide/chlorine ratio studied. These results suggest that THM4 formation kinetics depend on both oxidation and halogenation steps, whereas for DHAAs and THAAs oxidation steps are more important. Furthermore, they indicate that high bromide waters may prove more problematic for water utilities with respect to THM4 formation than for THAAs or DHAAs. While mass concentrations of all three groups increased in response to increased bromide incorporation, only the THMs also showed an increase in molar yield. Overall, the formation behaviour of DHAA and THAA was more similar than that of THM4 and THAA. PMID:24176694

Bond, Tom; Huang, Jin; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R

2014-02-01

359

Distribution and biogeographic trends of decapod assemblages from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic) at depths between 700 and 1800 m, with connexions to regional water masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic, 42°67?N-11°74?W) is an isolated seamount, near NW Spain, a complex geomorphological and sedimentary structure that receives influences from contrasting water masses of both northern and southern origins. Within the project INDEMARES, three cruises were performed on the bank in 2009 (Ecomarg0709), 2010 (BanGal0810) and 2011 (BanGal0811) all in July-August. Decapods and other macrobenthic crustaceans (eucarids and peracarids) were collected with different sampling systems, mainly beam trawls (BT, 10 mm of mesh size at codend) and a GOC73 otter trawl (20 mm mesh size). Sixty-seven species of decapod crustaceans, 6 euphausiids, 19 peracarids and 1 ostracod were collected at depths between 744 and 1808 m. We found two new species, one a member of the Chirostylidae, Uroptychus cartesi Baba & Macpherson, 2012, the other of the Petalophthalmidae (Mysida) Petalophthalmus sp. A, in addition to a number of new biogeographic species records for European or Iberian waters. An analysis of assemblages showed a generalized species renewal with depth, with different assemblages between 744 and ca. 1400 m (the seamount top assemblage, STA) and between ca. 1500 and 1800 m (the deep-slope assemblage over seamount flanks, DSA). These were respectively associated with Mediterranean outflow waters (MOW) and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Another significant factor separating different assemblages over the Galician Bank was the co-occurrence of corals (both colonies of hard corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata and/or gorgonians) in hauls. Munidopsids (Munidopsis spp.), chirostylids (Uroptychus spp.), and the homolodromiid Dicranodromia mahieuxii formed a part of this coral-associated assemblage. Dominant species at the STA were the pandalid Plesionika martia (a shrimp of subtropical-southern distribution) and the crabs Bathynectes maravigna and Polybius henslowii, whereas dominant species in the DSA were of northern origin, the lithodid Neolithodes grimaldii and the crangonid Glyphocrangon longiristris, likely associated with LSW. The diversity (H and J) of small crustaceans (collected with BT) seemed to be controlled by the phytoplankton blooms (satellite Chl a data) over bank surface 3 months before the samplings, both at the top (Spearman r=0.57, p=0.03) and on the flanks (r=0.74, p=0.02) of Galicia Bank, while no significant relationships with Chl a were found for the larger decapods collected with GOC73, on average they feed at the higher trophic levels than those collected with BT.

Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Frutos, I.; Macpherson, E.; González-Pola, C.; Punzón, A.; Valeiras, X.; Serrano, A.

2014-08-01

360

Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.  

PubMed

This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient. PMID:22298238

Satory, P R

2012-03-01

361

Modeling soil water fluxes in two arable Chernozems with different depth to carbonates after fifty years under bare fallow and under corn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arable Chernozems of the East European Plain were studied in Voronezh region (51°36' N, 38°58' E, 180-185 m AMSL). The studied soils were formed on calcareous loess-like loam parent material in well-drained position with groundwater level at 8-10 m depth. The mean annual air temperature at the site is 6.9 °C, mean annual precipitation is 587 mm. The weather conditions are highly variable: the extreme values of monthly precipitation registered in June were 7 (in 1960) and 219 mm (in 1988); the extreme daily value of precipitation was 95 mm (in 1988); the extreme air temperatures registered in June were -1.6 and 38.9 °C. The first experimental plot was under corn monocrop and another one was under bare fallow for 50 years. The depth to the top of the carbonate horizon was 1.4-1.6 m under corn and 0.8 m under bare fallow. We supposed that this difference in carbonate depths is due to carbonate accumulation in the upper soil layers under bare fallow and that it can be explained by the repeating upward water fluxes, which are much greater under bare fallow than those under corn. To test this hypothesis a series of simulations was carried out using the Hydrus-1D modeling environment. Simulation of soil hydrology was performed for the vegetation period. The depth of modeled soil profile was 2 m. Sand, silt and clay contents were about 20, 40 and 40 % and were similar for both plots. The lower boundary condition was free drainage. Monthly precipitation was set equal to (1) long-term average norm, (2) half-norm, (3) two norms and (4) three norms. The monthly distribution of precipitation was either (a) two rainy days at the beginning of each month followed by 28-days dry period or (b) one rainy day at the beginning of each decade followed by 9-days dry period. Evapotranspiration during dry periods was estimated using the standardized FAO56 Penman - Monteith model. Simulations were performed for each combination of (1)-(4) and (a)-(b) conditions and for the real-time weather data. The two plots differed in profile moisture distribution in all simulation series. The moisture content in the upper 0-0.5 m layer was higher under corn and the moisture content at the 0.5 m depth and deeper was significantly higher under bare fallow. The repeating upward fluxes of soil water were obtained only for the plot under bare fallow. The thickness of the soil layer with downward and upward fluxes increased with monthly precipitation. This result indicates the particular role of the years with extra precipitation in the process of carbonate accumulation within the upper part of the soil profile under bare fallow.

Arkhangelskaya, Tatiana; Khokhlova, Olga

2014-05-01

362

Inter-comparison of absorbed dose to water in a Co-60 therapy beam using IAEA and HPA protocols.  

PubMed

The absorbed dose water in a Co-60 teletherapy beam has been measured with four different standard ionisation chambers applying two codes of practice and also, with a Fricke dosimeter. Measured values agree generally within 2.3%. There is a remarkable agreement of less than 0.3% variation, between ionisation chambers NE 2561 and NE 2481 when the IAEA protocol is applied. The HPA protocol is applicable to only NE 2561 and a variation of about 1.4% was observed between measurements made with this ionisation chamber applying the two protocols. The IAEA protocol shows very accurate results. With a deviation of about 2.2%, the Frickle dosimeter appears to be the least accurate for therapy dose measurement despite its simplicity of application. PMID:11713993

Farai, I P; Kadni, T

2000-01-01

363

[Method of ecological risk assessment for risk pollutants under short-term and high dose exposure in water pollution accident].  

PubMed

In recent years, water pollution accidents resulting in acute aquatic ecological risk and security issues become a research focus. However, in our country, the surface water quality standards and drinking water health standards were used to determine the safety of waters or not in pollution incidents due to lacking safety effect threshold or risk value for protection of aquatic life. In foreign countries, although predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) or risk value (R) of pollutants were provided for protection of aquatic organisms, the PNECs or risk values were derived based on long-term exposure toxicity data NOECs (no observed effect concentrations) and lack of short-term exposure risk or threshold values. For the short-term and high dose exposure in pollution incident, ecological risk assessment methods were discussed according to the procedures of the conventional ecological risk assessment and the water quality criteria establishment of the U.S. EPA for the protection of aquatic organisms in short-term exposure, and had a case study. At the same time, we provide some suggestions for the establishment of ecological risk assessment system in water pollution incidents. PMID:22295619

Lei, Bing-Li; Sun, Yan-Feng; Liu, Qian; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Zeng, Xiang-Ying

2011-11-01

364

Monte Carlo simulation of the gamma dose rate in a loss-of-water accident at the North Carolina State University Research Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pool-type research reactors, a sudden loss of all pool water can result in significant external radiation dose. Of concern are fission product decay gamma rays emitted within the core, streaming out of the biological shield producing unacceptable radiation exposure in and around the reactor building. A Monte Carlo model was developed and used to generate dose maps for key

J. M. Doster; B. E. Hey

1986-01-01

365

Tsunami and the Depth of the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An inquiry approach to using the celerity (=velocity) of a tsunami to measure the depth of the ocean along its path. Tsunami are shallow-water waves, because their wavelengths are so long relative to ocean depth. Shallow-water wave celerity depends on ocean depth. Students reason this out. They then determine the distance of the path of the tsunami from the epicenter of the 1964 Alaska Good Friday earthquake tsunami to various locations, use tsunami arrival times to calculate the velocity, and re-arrange the shallow-water celerity equation to calculate depth. Students evaluate the geographic distribution of water depths.

Martin Farley

366

Single Intramuscular-dose Toxicity of Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture (WCF) in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This experiment was conducted to examine the toxicity of Water soluble Carthmi-Flos herbal acupuncture (WCF) by administering a single intramuscular dose of WCF in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and to find the lethality dose for WCF. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices under a request by the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute. This experiment was performed based on the testing standards of “Toxicity Test Standards for Drugs” by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Subjects were divided into 4 groups: 1 control group in which normal saline was administered and 3 test groups in which 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mL of WCF was administered; a single intramuscular dose was injected into 5 males and 5 females in each group. General symptoms and body weights were observed/measured for 14 days after injection. At the end of the observation period, hematological and clinical chemistry tests were performed, followed by necropsy and histopathological examinations of the injected sections. Results: No mortalities were observed in any group. Also, symptoms, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry and necropsy were not affected. However, histopathological examination of the injected part in one female in the 1.0-mL group showed infiltration of mononuclear cells and a multi-nucleated giant cell around eosinophilic material. Conclusion: Administration of single intramuscular doses of WCF in 3 groups of rats showed that the approximate lethal dose of WCF for all rats was in excess of 1.0 mL, as no mortalities were observed for injections up to and including 1.0 mL.

Lee, Hyung-geol; Kim, Sungchul; Jung, Da-jung; Choi, Yoo-min; Sin, Min-seop; Choi, Seok-Woo; Song, Beom-yong; Kim, Jong-uk; Hong, Seung-won; Yook, Tae-han

2014-01-01

367

Sunphotometric Measurement of Columnar H2O and Aerosol Optical Depth During the 3rd Water Vapor IOP in Fall 2000 at the SGP ARM Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We conducted ground-based measurements with the Ames Airborne Tracking 6-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-6) during the 3rd Water Vapor IOP (WVIOP3), September 18 - October 8, 2000 at the SGP ARM site. For this deployment our primary result was columnar water vapor (CWV) obtained from continuous solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-micron band. In addition, we simultaneously measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380, 450, 525, 864 and 1020 nm. During the IOP, preliminary results of CWV and AOD were displayed in real-time. The result files were made available to other investigators by noon of the next day. During WVIOP3 those data were shown on the daily intercomparison plots on the IOP web-site. Our preliminary results for CWV fell within the spread of values obtained from other techniques. After conclusion of WVIOP3, AATS-6 was shipped directly to Mauna Loa, Hawaii for post-mission calibration. The updated calibration, a cloud screening technique for AOD, along with other mostly cosmetic changes were applied to the WVIOP3 data set and released as version 0.1. The resulting changes in CWV are small, the changes in AOD and Angstrom parameter are more noticeable. Data version 0.1 was successfully submitted to the ARM External Data Center. In the poster we will show data examples for both CWV and AOD. We will also compare our CWV results with those obtained from a GPS (Global Positioning System) slant path method.

Schmid, B; Eilers, J. A.; McIntosh, D. M.; Longo, K.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

368

Estimating Snow Water Equivalent in the Swedish mountains by scaling snow depth measurements based on in situ data and local topography using passive and active remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the snow water equivalent (SWE) of the seasonal snow pack in the Swedish mountains is key information for the prediction of spring flood rates and the contribution to water reservoirs in Hydro-power production. The snow pack properties determining the SWE (snow depth and snow density) show spatial variations caused by synoptic scale weather patterns (air temperature gradients, wind and precipitation patterns) topography and vegetation. By establishing the relationship between accumulation patterns and physical parameters in the landscape a model of the spatial organization of the snow pack and its change over the season can be determined. By identifying the frequency and amplitude of topography in the Swedish mountain regions and by measuring snow accumulation in these regions we can increase the accuracy of the estimation of SWE. By using multiple parameters sampled in the snow pack from four sites in the Swedish mountains we quantify the local variability of SWE. This information will then be up-scaled to local coverage based on interpolation weighted on topography and vegetation. By validation of satellite imagery and existing snow cover products the information can be up-scaled from high-resolution field data to regional scale covering the Swedish mountain range in order to derive new satellite algorithms.

Ingvander, Susanne; Johansson, Cecilia; Brandel, Malin; Brown, Ian

2014-05-01