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1

Neon-20 depth-dose relations in water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dose from heavy ion beams has been calculated using a one-dimensional transport theory and evaluated for 670 MeV/amu 20 Ne beams in water. The result is presented so as to be applicable to arbitrary ions for which the necessary interaction data are known. The present evaluation is based on thar Silberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters augmented with light fragment production from intranuclear cascades, recently calculated nuclear absorption cross sections, and evaluated stopping power data. Comparison with recent experimental data obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory reveals the need for more accurate fragmentation data.

Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Howard, J.

1984-01-01

2

Calculated depth-dose distributions for H + and He + beams in liquid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have calculated the dose distribution delivered by proton and helium beams in liquid water as a function of the target-depth, for incident energies in the range 0.5-10 MeV/u. The motion of the projectiles through the stopping medium is simulated by a code that combines Monte Carlo and a finite differences algorithm to consider the electronic stopping power, evaluated in the dielectric framework, and the multiple nuclear scattering with the target nuclei. Changes in projectile charge-state are taken into account dynamically as it moves through the target. We use the MELF-GOS model to describe the energy loss function of liquid water, obtaining a value of 79.4 eV for its mean excitation energy. Our calculated stopping powers and depth-dose distributions are compared with those obtained using other methods to describe the energy loss function of liquid water, such as the extended Drude and the Penn models, as well as with the prediction of the SRIM code and the tables of ICRU.

Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; Heredia-Avalos, Santiago; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

2009-08-01

3

The LNE-LNHB water calorimeter for primary measurement of absorbed dose at low depth in water: application to medium-energy x-rays.  

PubMed

Water calorimeters are used to establish absorbed dose standards in several national metrology laboratories involved in ionizing radiation dosimetry. These calorimeters have been first used in high-energy photons of (60)Co or accelerator beams, where the depth of measurement in water is large (5 or 10 cm). The LNE-LNHB laboratory has developed a specific calorimeter which makes measurements at low depth in water (down to 0.5 cm) easier, in order to fulfil the reference conditions required by the international dosimetry protocols for medium-energy x-rays. This new calorimeter was first used to measure the absorbed dose rate in water at a depth of 2 cm for six medium-energy x-ray reference beams with a tube potential from 80 to 300 kV. The relative combined standard uncertainty obtained on the absorbed dose rate to water is lower than 0.8%. An overview of the design of the calorimeter is given, followed by a detailed description of the calculation of the correction factors and the calorimetric measurements. PMID:23562978

Rapp, B; Perichon, N; Denoziere, M; Daures, J; Ostrowsky, A; Bordy, J-M

2013-05-01

4

Variability of water content and of depth profiles of global fallout 137Cs in grassland soils and the resulting external gamma-dose rates.  

PubMed

137Cs from global fallout of nuclear weapon testings in the 1950s and 1960s was determined in successive layers (0-30 cm) of eight undisturbed grassland soils in Bavaria, Germany. The maximum activity concentration was found in soil layers between 4 and 15 cm below the surface. Using the vertical distribution of the cesium activity, which varied considerably from site to site, the mean residence half-time of 137Cs from global fallout in each soil layer was evaluated with a compartment model. These values ranged from 1.0 to 6.3 years/cm. The mean residence half-time averaged over all soil layers and all sites was 2.7 +/- 1.4 years/cm and, thus, about twice the corresponding residence half-time of the Chernobyl-derived 137Cs as determined in the same soil layers (also in 1993). The dose rate of the external gamma-radiation due to 137Cs from global fallout in the soil determined from the depth distributions varied between 0.34 and 0.57 (mean: 0.45 +/- 0.07) nGy/h per kBq/m2. The effect of soil water content on the dose rate was studied by considering four states of the soil, from water content zero to complete water saturation of the total pore volume. It was shown that the difference between the dose rates at the permanent wilting point and the field capacity, which both represent the most relevant water contents of soils, was only 10% of the dose rate at the permanent wilting point for all sites. PMID:9615340

Schimmack, W; Steindl, H; Bunzl, K

1998-04-01

5

Polarization lidar for shallow water depth measurement.  

PubMed

A bathymetric, polarization lidar system transmitting at 532 nm and using a single photomultiplier tube is employed for applications of shallow water depth measurement. The technique exploits polarization attributes of the probed water body to isolate surface and floor returns, enabling constant fraction detection schemes to determine depth. The minimum resolvable water depth is no longer dictated by the system's laser or detector pulse width and can achieve better than 1 order of magnitude improvement over current water depth determination techniques. In laboratory tests, an Nd:YAG microchip laser coupled with polarization optics, a photomultiplier tube, a constant fraction discriminator, and a time-to-digital converter are used to target various water depths with an ice floor to simulate a glacial meltpond. Measurement of 1 cm water depths with an uncertainty of ±3 mm are demonstrated using the technique. This novel approach enables new approaches to designing laser bathymetry systems for shallow depth determination from remote platforms while not compromising deep water depth measurement. PMID:21173834

Mitchell, Steven; Thayer, Jeffrey P; Hayman, Matthew

2010-12-20

6

Dose distributions at extreme irradiation depths of gamma knife radiosurgery: EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of the dose planning system (Leksell GammaPlan), used in Gamma Knife (type B) radiosurgery at extreme irradiation depths, was verified using the Monte Carlo technique. EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were employed to calculate the dose distribution along the x, y and z axes for an irradiation relatively shallow in a spherical bony cavity water phantom. Two different sizes

J. Y. C. Cheung; K. N. Yu; C. P. Yu; R. T. K. Ho

2001-01-01

7

Enhanced bremsstrahlung spectrum reconstruction from depth-dose gradients.  

PubMed

We present a technique to significantly improve the accuracy of bremsstrahlung spectra reconstructed from central-axis depth-dose data using inverse methods. While typical approaches directly use the measured depth-dose data, we show the advantage of using the gradient of these data for reconstruction. The inverse problem in terms of gradients is shown to be markedly less ill-conditioned than the usual inverse problem. In each case, a regularization is introduced to alleviate the effects of noise due to measurement and computation. The error in taking derivatives of depth-dose data is demonstrated to be sufficiently controllable as not to overtake the improvements in the conditioning of the inverse problem in a pair of simulated examples. PMID:16177507

Paniak, L D; Charland, P M

2005-07-21

8

Estimated depth to water, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

Eimers, Jo Leslie; Terziotti, Silvia; Giorgino, Mary J.

2001-01-01

9

Central axis depth dose curve for electron beams  

SciTech Connect

In this article an analytical equation for electron depth dose is proposed for electron energies from 6--20 MeV. The equation contains four parameters and it fits the build-up region, fall-off region as well as the bremsstrahlung background region. The calculated values from this equation fit within 1,5% of the measured data in the build-up region and in the fall-off region within 0,5 mm for the energy range 5--10 MeV and within 1 mm for the range 12--20 MeV. This equation can be applied beyond the practical range.

Strydom, W.J. (Department of Medical Physics, Medical University of Southern Africa, P.O. Medunsa 0204 (Republic of South Africa))

1991-11-01

10

Rapid depth dose determination by a computer-controlled dosimetry system.  

PubMed

A comprehensive depth dose measuring system controlled by a small computer has been designed to enable full depth dose information for a linear accelerator to be obtained within one day. An ionization microchamber is moved rapidly under computer control in a horizontal plane to preselected points within a water phantom by two stepping motors to a spatial resolution of 0-025 mm. The ionization current pulses are converted to DC voltages by an interface providing complete charge integration and yet having a rapid response to drastic changes in dose level. These are fed to the computer for analysis and subsequent conversion to depth dose data. The chamber path follows a preselected fan-shaped grid after automatic determination of the X-ray beam central axis. The combination of rapid chamber motion with halts for charge integration and computer sampling has resulted in fast data acquisition independent of measurement response times. This information, which is stored on disc, can be directly read by a treatment planning program. The overall accuracy of measurement lies within 0-5% of the true depth dose at any point. Central axis and transverse profiles can be assessed at the time of measurement through visualization on the computer storage oscilloscope. PMID:1202515

Bottrill, D O; Nieman, M J; Redpath, A T

1975-11-01

11

Spatially continuous interpolation of water stage and water depths using the Everglades depth estimation network (EDEN)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring, ground-elevation modeling, and water-surface modeling that provides scientists and managers with current (2000-present), online water-stage and water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. Continuous daily spatial interpolations of the EDEN network stage data are presented on a 400-square-meter grid spacing. EDEN offers a consistent and documented dataset that can be used by scientists and managers to (1) guide large-scale field operations, (2) integrate hydrologic and ecological responses, and (3) support biological and ecological assessments that measure ecosystem responses to the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) The target users are biologists and ecologists examining trophic level responses to hydrodynamic changes in the Everglades.

Pearlstine, Leonard; Higer, Aaron; Palaseanu, Monica; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank

2007-01-01

12

Dose distributions at extreme irradiation depths of gamma knife radiosurgery: EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations.  

PubMed

The accuracy of the dose planning system (Leksell GammaPlan), used in Gamma Knife (type B) radiosurgery at extreme irradiation depths, was verified using the Monte Carlo technique. EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were employed to calculate the dose distribution along the x, y and z axes for an irradiation relatively shallow in a spherical bony cavity water phantom. Two different sizes of the collimator helmets, 8 and 18 mm, of the Leksell Gamma Knife Unit were studied. The results of GammaPlan showed good consistency with the Monte Carlo results. Furthermore, small dose enhancements were observed in the skull bone where accurate dose measurements are difficult due to the presence of the air-phantom interface. Therefore, the results of this project can promote confidence to all Gamma Knife centres in the world when using the Leksell GammaPlan. PMID:11214882

Cheung, J Y; Yu, K N; Yu, C P; Ho, R T

2001-03-01

13

Determination of shallow water depth using optical satellite images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Penghu archipelago comprises 64 basaltic volcanic isles lying on the Taiwan Strait between mainland China and Taiwan. The water around and within these isles is shallow and poses considerable difficulty in echo sounding detection for bathymetry. Most existing bathymetry data around such areas are in water depths of greater than 5 m. Therefore, when the water depth is less

Hung-Ming Kao; Hsuan Ren; Chao-Shing Lee; Chung-Pa Chang; Jiun-Yee Yen; Tang-Huang Lin

2009-01-01

14

Tissue depth dose calculations for breast cancer using MCNPX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the dose rate as a function of distance within both cancerous tumor tissue as well as healthy tissue represents a proof of concept for medical diagnostic techniques finding overall dose absorption. The Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) was used to replicate radiotherapy treatments of external-beam radiation and high-dose-rate brachytherapy used in stages one and two of breast cancer. Modeling of conventional diagnostic radiology methods is limited by not only the chosen complexity of tissue material, but also in understanding absorbed dose. Preliminary results will be presented.

Dallas, C. B.; Crawford, B. E.; Stephenson, S. L.

2002-10-01

15

Micronuclei induction in human lymphocytes induced by carbon ions exposion along the penetrate depth of ions in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we used cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to measure the biological response along the penetrate depth of ions in water in human lymphocytes exposed to 100 MeV/u incident carbon ions in vitro. Polyethylene shielding was used to change the penetration depth of ions in water. A quantitative biological response curve was generated for micronuclei induction. The results showed a marked increase with the penetrate depth of ions in water in the micronuclei formation, which was consistent with a linear-energy-transfer dependent increase in biological effectiveness. The dose-response relationship for MN information was different at different penetrate depth of ions in water, at the 6 and 11.2 mm penetrate depth of ions in water, the dose-response relationships for the micronucleus frequencies induced by carbon ions irradiation were linear; while it was power function at 17.1 mm penetrate depth.

Wang, Z. Z.; Li, W. J.; Zhi, D. J.; Qu, Y.; Jing, X. G.

2009-08-01

16

ConcepTest: Ice Sheets and Water Depth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ice sheets covered much of the Northern Hemisphere one million years ago during part of the last ice age. How did this affect the depth of water in the oceans? a. Oceans were shallower than today b. Oceans were ...

17

Low energy electron generator design and depth dose prediction for micro-superficies tumors treatment purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate deposited energy and linear energy transfer (LET) of low energy ejection electrons in air and water layers of a generator design via a plasma source. A structured model of a concave cold cathode electron generator was designed and simulated by using Monte Carlo n-particle version X 2.7.0 (MCNPX) code. A negative dc high voltage was applied to a concave cathode up to ?12 kV to determine electron energy activity. Results determined that the geometric dimensions of field size toward the anode increased in relation to the angle of the conic beam, widening the accumulated bulks. The increased field size increased the anode current, which also resulted in an increase of electron energy, a reduction in LET, a stretched build-up area and a dose curve that shifted to a higher depth. The biological effect of low energy electron radiation can be increased with an increase of LET; as the depth dose decreased, the electron energy increased at the same time. The study of electron irradiation as a conic beam from an electron generator may provide an accurate investigation of the indirect effect of low energy electrons on bystander cells.

Khorshidi, Abdollah; Rajaee, Azimeh; Ahmadinejad, Marjan; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Ettelaee, Mehdi

2014-09-01

18

X-ray depth-dose characteristics of the Toshiba LMR-16  

Microsoft Academic Search

The depth-dose characteristics of the Toshiba LMR-16 linear accelerator for 14-MeV x rays have been measured at an SSD of 100 cm using diodes and ion chambers. The surface dose and build-up depth both exhibit a considerable variation with field size. A new central axis model has been developed which takes account of these variations, and the agreement between the

Joseph Mantel; Harold Perry; James J. Weinkam

1979-01-01

19

Development of a fibre-optic dosemeter to measure the skin dose and percentage depth dose in the build-up region of therapeutic photon beams.  

PubMed

In this study, a fibre-optic dosemeter (FOD) using an organic scintillator with a diameter of 0.5 mm for photon-beam therapy dosimetry was fabricated. The fabricated dosemeter has many advantages, including water equivalence, high spatial resolution, remote sensing and real-time measurement. The scintillating light generated from an organic-dosemeter probe embedded in a solid-water stack phantom is guided to a photomultiplier tube and an electrometer via 20 m of plastic optical fibre. Using this FOD, the skin dose and the percentage depth dose in the build-up region according to the depths of a solid-water stack phantom are measured with 6- and 15-MV photon-beam energies with field sizes of 10 × 10 and 20 × 20 cm(2), respectively. The results are compared with those measured using conventional dosimetry films. It is expected that the proposed FOD can be effectively used in radiotherapy dosimetry for accurate measurement of the skin dose and the depth dose distribution in the build-up region due to its high spatial resolution. PMID:22764176

Kim, K-A; Yoo, W J; Jang, K W; Moon, J; Han, K-T; Jeon, D; Park, J-Y; Cha, E-J; Lee, B

2013-03-01

20

Polarization Lidar for Shallow Water Supraglacial Lake Depth Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bathymetric, polarization lidar system transmitting at 532 nanometers and using a single photomultiplier tube is developed for applications of shallow water depth measurement, in particular those often found in supraglacial lakes of the ablation zone on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The technique exploits polarization attributes of the probed water body to isolate surface and floor returns, enabling constant fraction

S. Mitchell; J. Adler; J. P. Thayer; M. Hayman

2010-01-01

21

Wave-wave interactions in finite depth water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we present a new formulation for the nonlinear wave-wave interaction source function in finite water depth. The formulation, denoted the reduced integration approximation (RIA), is shown to compare well with published formulations, both for shallow water wave-wave interactions [Hertench and Hasselmann, 1980; Polnikov, 1997; Hashimoto et al., 1998; A. Masuda and K. Komatsu, manuscript in preparation, 1998] and also for the asymptotic deep water limit: (1) the Hamiltonian formulation proposed by Lin and Perrie [1997], by (2) Hasselmann and Hasselmann [1981], and (3) the line integral transformation of Webb [1978] and Resio and Ferne [1991]. Of these deep water formulations, that of Lin-Perrie generalizing the Hamiltonian representation of Zakharov [1968] to finite depth water, is notable for its simplicity, efficiency and its ability to apply to very shallow water (kh ? 0.3), and highly nonlinear (??0.3) interactions. RIA is based on an analysis of the main resonance domain, which reduces the six-dimensional integration to a quasi-line integral to minimize computational time. In terms of computational time, RIA is a thousand times faster than the EXACT-NL version formulated by Hasselmann and Hasselmann [1981], with similar accuracy. Thus RIA can be considered a candidate for operational forecasting in finite depth water, in the sense that the discrete interaction approximation was presented as a candidate for operational deep water wave forecasting by Hasselmann et al. [1988].

Lin, Ray Q.; Perrie, Will

1999-05-01

22

Wave-current interaction in water of finite depth  

E-print Network

In this thesis, the nonlinear interaction of waves and current in water of finite depth is studied. Wind is not included. In the first part, a 2D theory for the wave effect on a turbulent current over rough or smooth bottom ...

Huang, Zhenhua, 1967-

2004-01-01

23

Derivation of electron and photon energy spectra from electron beam central axis depth dose curves.  

PubMed

A method for deriving the electron and photon energy spectra from electron beam central axis percentage depth dose (PDD) curves has been investigated. The PDD curves of 6, 12 and 20 MeV electron beams obtained from the Monte Carlo full phase space simulations of the Varian linear accelerator treatment head have been used to test the method. We have employed a 'random creep' algorithm to determine the energy spectra of electrons and photons in a clinical electron beam. The fitted electron and photon energy spectra have been compared with the corresponding spectra obtained from the Monte Carlo full phase space simulations. Our fitted energy spectra are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulated spectra in terms of peak location, peak width, amplitude and smoothness of the spectrum. In addition, the derived depth dose curves of head-generated photons agree well in both shape and amplitude with those calculated using the full phase space data. The central axis depth dose curves and dose profiles at various depths have been compared using an automated electron beam commissioning procedure. The comparison has demonstrated that our method is capable of deriving the energy spectra for the Varian accelerator electron beams investigated. We have implemented this method in the electron beam commissioning procedure for Monte Carlo electron beam dose calculations. PMID:11384063

Deng, J; Jiang, S B; Pawlicki, T; Li, J; Ma, C M

2001-05-01

24

Derivation of electron and photon energy spectra from electron beam central axis depth dose curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for deriving the electron and photon energy spectra from electron beam central axis percentage depth dose (PDD) curves has been investigated. The PDD curves of 6, 12 and 20 MeV electron beams obtained from the Monte Carlo full phase space simulations of the Varian linear accelerator treatment head have been used to test the method. We have employed

Jun Deng; Steve B. Jiang; Todd Pawlicki; Jinsheng Li; C.-M. Ma

2001-01-01

25

Estimation of infragravity waves at intermediate water depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of nearshore infragravity wave height model predictions has been investigated using a combination of the spectral short wave evolution model SWAN and a linear 1D SurfBeat model (IDSB). Data recorded by a wave rider located approximately 3.5km from the coast at 18m water depth have been used to construct the short wave frequency-directional spectra that are subsequently translated

A. J. H. M. Reniers; M. J. Groenewegen; K. C. Ewans; S. Masterton; G. S. Stelling; J. Meek

2010-01-01

26

Water-depth dependent infiltration into burnt forest soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infiltration into severely burnt forest soils in South Eastern Australia exhibits a behaviour that is at odds with traditional infiltration theories that assumes a coherent soil matrix, which has important implications for upscaling from plot to hillslope. Infiltration patterns were studied at three severely burnt sites with different soils by applying a blue dye solution during rainfall and runon experiments, and subsequent profile excavation. Rainfall and runon rates were varied on each plot, runoff measured, and orthogonal photos taken during quasi-steady states. From transects on these photos average inundation fractions of the surface were measured, and 1.5 mm horizontal resolution DEMs were generated with image-based software. This information was combined in a DEM inundation algorithm that calculated water depth maps for each plot and rainfall and runon rate. At all three sites, nearly 100% of infiltration occurred through macropores that bypass the matrix of a water repellent layer. Average fractions of subsoil dye staining were 3% in shallow soils with a northerly aspect and low trees, 60% in deep soils with southerly aspects and high trees, and 20% in an intermediate soil. This was consistent with runoff coefficients of 0.94 for the shallow soil, 0.08 for the deep soil, and 0.71 for the intermediate soil. Irrespective of the runoff coefficient or dyed fraction there was a positive relationship between average water depth and infiltration rates on a given plot. Functions of water depth vs. bypass infiltration were derived inversely for each plot by matching average infiltration rates with the rates derived from sampling the water depth distributions. Additionally, characteristic bypass infiltration rates for all sites as function of runon and rainfall intensity were derived, normalized by the maximum infiltration rate at full inundation. These infiltration functions represent the water depth-dependent dynamics of runoff generation in bypass infiltration-dominated soils much better than traditional wetting front models. They are therefore more appropriate for upscaling plot scale runoff generation to the entire hillslope in those soils.

Langhans, Christoph; Sheridan, Gary; Noske, Phil; Metzen, Daniel; Lane, Patrick

2014-05-01

27

Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp -1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

1995-01-01

28

Subglacial water sheets: Depth and stability are compatible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There exists a broad spectrum of subglacial hydraulic configurations. These are typically categorized based on parameters such as cross-sectional area, along-flow morphology, and water discharge. Common examples of categories include cavities linked through small orifices and subglacial hydraulic sheets that are much wider than deep. Sheets have often been discounted in the glaciological literature because they decay to channels or other drainage configurations above a critical water depth (? 4 mm) (Walder, 1982). We show that under reasonable conditions much thicker sheets can remain stable. We present a new formulation of water sheets based on insight gained from glacier sliding. In this case, we consider an ice ceiling that intrudes into a water sheet because viscous creep and regelation act normal to the ice--bed interface. We modify a stress renormalization technique originally formulated for the study of linked cavities. In our renormalization, obstacles, such as sediment grains of different sizes, support some of the weight of overlying ice with water pressure supporting the remainder. Obstacles are divided into size classes with each different class bearing a different percentage of the weight of the overlying ice. This formulation yields a number of simultaneous equations: one velocity equation for each size class, and one total stress balance. Intrusion velocities are dependent on the effective pressure, which is the ice overburden pressure less the water pressure. For zero effective pressure, no closure occurs. When effective pressure is high, results show that instantaneous closure velocities can range up to approximately 0.4 m h-1. However, these velocities are not sustained indefinitely. As ice intrudes farther into the sheet (i.e., water depth decreases), the ice rests on more obstacles, stress concentrations disperse, and velocities decrease. Stress solution distributions can vary considerably for each obstacle size class. Thus, a true controlling obstacle size is ill-defined and not necessarily justifiable. In addition, results suggest that water sheets can be stable to much greater depths because intrusion velocities are coupled to effective pressure. This conclusion results from the inclusion of both regelation and viscous creep into the governing equations. Creep acts rapidly and is the controlling mechanism for high effective pressures. Regelation is the controlling mechanism when effective pressures are low. For these low stress cases, sheets close slowly and are more stable than a simple viscous closure model suggests.

Creyts, T. T.; Schoof, C.; Clarke, G. K.

2006-12-01

29

Compact water depth sensor with LPFG using the photoelastic effect and heat-shrinkable tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a compact water depth sensor with a long period fiber grating (LPFG) using a heat-shrinkable tube. The pressure property of the LPFG is investigated experimentally to confirm the feasibility of the water depth sensor. Moreover, the water depth in the 2m long water-filled pipe is successfully estimated by the proposed water sensors.

Takama, Shinya; Kudomi, Takamasa; Ohashi, Masaharu; Miyoshi, Yuji

2011-12-01

30

An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields.  

PubMed

For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 × 10 cm(2) fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 × 50 × 50 cm(3) water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%. PMID:23787215

Ding, George X; Krauss, Rob

2013-07-21

31

An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 × 10 cm2 fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%.

Ding, George X.; Krauss, Rob

2013-07-01

32

Marine riser system for 7,500-Ft water depth  

SciTech Connect

The design, construction and some of the operational experience with an 18-5/8-inch marine riser system for drilling in water depths of 5,000 - 7,500 feet in the Offshore East Coast, U.S.A. area are described. The more important stress criteria and analysis, along with generalized descriptions of, and rationale for, particular system components are presented. Unique system features include: 1. All H/sub 2/S rated fluid exposed parts 2. Extra high capacity, forged, flange-type bolted connectors 3. Hybrid flotation 4. Backup emergency riser release 5. Instrumented riser joint 6. Fill valve to prevent collapse 7. Extra heavy duty telescoping joint and instrumented upper flex joint 8. 15,000 psi WP (working pressure) integral choke and kill lines

Marsh, G.L.; Denison, E.B.; Pekera, S.J.

1984-05-01

33

An investigation of the depth dose in the build-up region, and surface dose for a 6-MV therapeutic photon beam: Monte Carlo simulation and measurements  

PubMed Central

The percentage depth dose in the build-up region and the surface dose for the 6-MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac 23EX medical linear accelerator was investigated for square field sizes of 5 × 5, 10 × 10, 15 × 15 and 20 × 20 cm2using the EGS4nrc Monte Carlo (MC) simulation package. The depth dose was found to change rapidly in the build-up region, and the percentage surface dose increased proportionally with the field size from approximately 10% to 30%. The measurements were also taken using four common detectors: TLD chips, PFD dosimeter, parallel-plate and cylindrical ionization chamber, and compared with MC simulated data, which served as the gold standard in our study. The surface doses obtained from each detector were derived from the extrapolation of the measured depth doses near the surface and were all found to be higher than that of the MC simulation. The lowest and highest over-responses in the surface dose measurement were found with the TLD chip and the CC13 cylindrical ionization chamber, respectively. Increasing the field size increased the percentage surface dose almost linearly in the various dosimeters and also in the MC simulation. Interestingly, the use of the CC13 ionization chamber eliminates the high gradient feature of the depth dose near the surface. The correction factors for the measured surface dose from each dosimeter for square field sizes of between 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 cm2are introduced. PMID:23104898

Apipunyasopon, Lukkana; Srisatit, Somyot; Phaisangittisakul, Nakorn

2013-01-01

34

An investigation of the depth dose in the build-up region, and surface dose for a 6-MV therapeutic photon beam: Monte Carlo simulation and measurements.  

PubMed

The percentage depth dose in the build-up region and the surface dose for the 6-MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac 23EX medical linear accelerator was investigated for square field sizes of 5 × 5, 10 × 10, 15 × 15 and 20 × 20 cm(2)using the EGS4nrc Monte Carlo (MC) simulation package. The depth dose was found to change rapidly in the build-up region, and the percentage surface dose increased proportionally with the field size from approximately 10% to 30%. The measurements were also taken using four common detectors: TLD chips, PFD dosimeter, parallel-plate and cylindrical ionization chamber, and compared with MC simulated data, which served as the gold standard in our study. The surface doses obtained from each detector were derived from the extrapolation of the measured depth doses near the surface and were all found to be higher than that of the MC simulation. The lowest and highest over-responses in the surface dose measurement were found with the TLD chip and the CC13 cylindrical ionization chamber, respectively. Increasing the field size increased the percentage surface dose almost linearly in the various dosimeters and also in the MC simulation. Interestingly, the use of the CC13 ionization chamber eliminates the high gradient feature of the depth dose near the surface. The correction factors for the measured surface dose from each dosimeter for square field sizes of between 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 cm(2)are introduced. PMID:23104898

Apipunyasopon, Lukkana; Srisatit, Somyot; Phaisangittisakul, Nakorn

2013-03-01

35

Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

2010-08-01

36

Correction for depth biases to shallow water multibeam bathymetric data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertical errors often present in multibeam swath bathymetric data. They are mainly sourced by sound refraction, internal wave disturbance, imperfect tide correction, transducer mounting, long period heave, static draft change, dynamic squat and dynamic motion residuals, etc. Although they can be partly removed or reduced by specific algorithms, the synthesized depth biases are unavoidable and sometimes have an important influence on high precise utilization of the final bathymetric data. In order to confidently identify the decimeter-level changes in seabed morphology by MBES, we must remove or weaken depth biases and improve the precision of multibeam bathymetry further. The fixed-interval profiles that are perpendicular to the vessel track are generated to adjust depth biases between swaths. We present a kind of postprocessing method to minimize the depth biases by the histogram of cumulative depth biases. The datum line in each profile can be obtained by the maximum value of histogram. The corrections of depth biases can be calculated according to the datum line. And then the quality of final bathymetry can be improved by the corrections. The method is verified by a field test.

Yang, Fan-lin; Li, Jia-biao; Liu, Zhi-min; Han, Li-tao

2013-04-01

37

Monitoring waterbird abundance in wetlands: The importance of controlling results for variation in water depth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wetland use by waterbirds is highly dependent on water depth, and depth requirements generally vary among species. Furthermore, water depth within wetlands often varies greatly over time due to unpredictable hydrological events, making comparisons of waterbird abundance among wetlands difficult as effects of habitat variables and water depth are confounded. Species-specific relationships between bird abundance and water depth necessarily are non-linear; thus, we developed a methodology to correct waterbird abundance for variation in water depth, based on the non-parametric regression of these two variables. Accordingly, we used the difference between observed and predicted abundances from non-parametric regression (analogous to parametric residuals) as an estimate of bird abundance at equivalent water depths. We scaled this difference to levels of observed and predicted abundances using the formula: ((observed - predicted abundance)/(observed + predicted abundance)) ?? 100. This estimate also corresponds to the observed:predicted abundance ratio, which allows easy interpretation of results. We illustrated this methodology using two hypothetical species that differed in water depth and wetland preferences. Comparisons of wetlands, using both observed and relative corrected abundances, indicated that relative corrected abundance adequately separates the effect of water depth from the effect of wetlands. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

2008-01-01

38

Experimental determination of effects of water depth on Nymphaea odorata growth, morphology and biomass allocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, morphology and biomass allocation in response to water depth was studied in white water lily, Nymphaea odorata Aiton. Plants were grown for 13months in 30, 60 and 90cm water in outdoor mesocosms in southern Florida. Water lily plant growth was distinctly seasonal with plants at all water levels producing more and larger leaves and more flowers in the warmer

Jennifer H. Richards; Tiffany G. Troxler; David W. Lee; Michael S. Zimmerman

2011-01-01

39

A comparison of observed and analytically derived remote sensing penetration depths for turbid water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The depth to which sunlight will penetrate in turbid waters was investigated. The tests were conducted in water with a single scattering albedo range, and over a range of solar elevation angles. Two different techniques were used to determine the depth of light penetration. It showed little change in the depth of sunlight penetration with changing solar elevation angle. A comparison of the penetration depths indicates that the best agreement between the two methods was achieved when the quasisingle scattering relationship was not corrected for solar angle. It is concluded that sunlight penetration is dependent on inherent water properties only.

Morris, W. D.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Guraus, E. A.

1981-01-01

40

Depth dose distributions measured with thermoluminescence detectors inside the anthropomorphic torso of the MATROSHKA experiment inside and outside the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA MATROSHKA (MTR) facility was realized through the German Aerospace Center, DLR, Cologne, as main contractor, aiming for the determination of skin and organ doses within a simulated human upper torso. MTR simulates, by applying an anthropomorphic upper torso, as exact as possible an astronaut performing either an extravehicular activity (EVA) (MTR Phase 1) or an astronaut working inside the International Space Station (MTR Phase 2A). It consists of a human phantom, a Base Structure and a Carbon fibre container - simulating the astronaut‘s space suit. The phantom itself is made up of 33 slices composed of natural bones, embedded in tissue equivalent plastic of different density for tissue and lung. The Phantom slices are equipped with channels and cut-outs to allow the accommodation of active and passive dosemeters, temperature and pressure sensors. Over 4800 passive detectors (thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors) constitute the radiation experiments which are beside inside the phantom also located on top the head of the phantom, in front of the belly and around the body as part of a Poncho and a Hood. In its 1st exposure phase (MTR 1: 2004 - 2005) MTR measured the depth dose distribution of an astronaut performing an EVA - mounted outside the Zvezda Module. In its 2nd exposure phase the phantom was positioned inside the ISS to monitor the radiation environment and measure the depth dose distribution in dependence on the inside shielding configurations. The majority of the TLDs provided for the determination of the depth dose distribution was provided by IFJ-PAN, ATI and DLR. Data of "combined" depth dose distribution of the three different groups will be shown for the MTR-1 exposure (outside the ISS) and the MTR-2A (inside the ISS). The discussion will focus on the difference in depth dose as well as skin dose distribution based on the different shielding thickness provided by the two experimental phases.

Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hajek, Michael; Bergmann, Robert; Bilski, Pawel; Puchalska, Msc. Monika

41

Soil water availability and rooting depth as determinants of hydraulic architecture of Patagonian woody species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptations of species to capture limiting resources is central for understanding structure and function of ecosystems. We\\u000a studied the water economy of nine woody species differing in rooting depth in a Patagonian shrub steppe from southern Argentina\\u000a to understand how soil water availability and rooting depth determine their hydraulic architecture. Soil water content and\\u000a potentials, leaf water potentials (?Leaf), hydraulic

Sandra J. Bucci; Fabian G. Scholz; Guillermo Goldstein; Frederick C. Meinzer; Maria E. Arce

2009-01-01

42

Growth and morphological responses of four helophyte species in an experimental water-depth gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution on shorelines of four helophyte species (two gramineous species, viz. Phalaris arundinacea L. and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel and two cyperacean species, viz. Scirpus maritimus L. and S. lacustris L.) was studied in relation to growth responses in the water-depth gradient. Stands of S. lacustris were found at lower depths relative to the mean water level

Hugo Coops; Fred W. B. van den Brink; Gerard van der Velde

1996-01-01

43

Determination of the Absorbed Dose Rate to Water for the 18-mm Helmet of a Gamma Knife  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To measure the absorbed dose rate to water of {sup 60}Co gamma rays of a Gamma Knife Model C using water-filled phantoms (WFP). Methods and Materials: Spherical WFP with an equivalent water depth of 5, 7, 8, and 9 cm were constructed. The dose rates at the center of an 18-mm helmet were measured in an 8-cm WFP (WFP-3) and two plastic phantoms. Two independent measurement systems were used: one was calibrated to an air kerma (Set I) and the other was calibrated to the absorbed dose to water (Set II). The dose rates of WFP-3 and the plastic phantoms were converted to dose rates for an 8-cm water depth using the attenuation coefficient and the equivalent water depths. Results: The dose rate measured at the center of WFP-3 using Set II was 2.2% and 1.0% higher than dose rates measured at the center of the two plastic phantoms. The measured effective attenuation coefficient of Gamma Knife photon beam in WFPs was 0.0621 cm{sup -1}. After attenuation correction, the difference between the dose rate at an 8-cm water depth measured in WFP-3 and dose rates in the plastic phantoms was smaller than the uncertainty of the measurements. Conclusions: Systematic errors related to the characteristics of the phantom materials in the dose rate measurement of a Gamma Knife need to be corrected for. Correction of the dose rate using an equivalent water depth and attenuation provided results that were more consistent.

Chung, Hyun-Tai [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Youngho [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Sangil [Nanotechnology Lab, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yongsoo [Faculty of Liberal Arts and Basic Science, Hankyung National University, Anseong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gi Hong [Department of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Gyu [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Kook Jin, E-mail: chunkj@kriss.re.k [Center for Ionizing Radiation, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-01

44

Evaluation of target dose based on water-equivalent thickness in external beam radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

In vivo dosimetry was carried out for 152 patients receiving external beam radiotherapy and the treatment sites were divided into two main groups: Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic (120 fields) and Head and Neck (52 fields). Combined entrance and exit dose measurements were performed using LiF: Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Water-equivalent (effective) thicknesses and target dose were evaluated using dose transmission data. The ratio of measured to expected value for each quantity was considered as an indicator for the accuracy of the parameter. The average ratio of the entrance dose was evaluated as 1.01 ± 0.07. In the diameter measurement, the mean ratio of effective depth divided by the contour depth is 1.00 ± 0.13 that shows a wide distribution which reflects the influence of contour inaccuracies as well as tissue inhomogeneities. At the target level, the mean ratio of measured to the prescribed dose is 1.00 ± 0.07. According to our findings, the difference between effective depth and patient depth has a direct relation to target dose discrepancies. There are some inevitable sources which may cause the difference. Evaluation and application of effective diameter in treatment calculations would lead to a more reliable target dose, especially for fields which involve Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic. PMID:23532059

Moghaddam, Behnaz Ghanbar; Vahabi-Moghaddam, Masoud; Sadremomtaz, Alireza

2013-01-01

45

A quantile count model of water depth constraints on Cape Sable seaside sparrows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. A quantile regression model for counts of breeding Cape Sable seaside sparrows Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis (L.) as a function of water depth and previous year abundance was developed based on extensive surveys, 1992-2005, in the Florida Everglades. The quantile count model extends linear quantile regression methods to discrete response variables, providing a flexible alternative to discrete parametric distributional models, e.g. Poisson, negative binomial and their zero-inflated counterparts. 2. Estimates from our multiplicative model demonstrated that negative effects of increasing water depth in breeding habitat on sparrow numbers were dependent on recent occupation history. Upper 10th percentiles of counts (one to three sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth from 0 to 30 cm when sites were not occupied in previous years. However, upper 40th percentiles of counts (one to six sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth for sites occupied in previous years. 3. Greatest decreases (-50% to -83%) in upper quantiles of sparrow counts occurred as water depths increased from 0 to 15 cm when previous year counts were 1, but a small proportion of sites (5-10%) held at least one sparrow even as water depths increased to 20 or 30 cm. 4. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model provided estimates of conditional means that also decreased with increasing water depth but rates of change were lower and decreased with increasing previous year counts compared to the quantile count model. Quantiles computed for the zero-inflated Poisson model enhanced interpretation of this model but had greater lack-of-fit for water depths > 0 cm and previous year counts 1, conditions where the negative effect of water depths were readily apparent and fitted better with the quantile count model.

Cade, B. S.; Dong, Q.

2008-01-01

46

7 Predictive Risk Mapping of Water Table Depths in  

E-print Network

of the country with extensions into Para- guay and Bolivia. Before recent human disturbances, Cerrados probably the hydrological system (Klink and Moreira, 2002). With irrigation increasing, lowering of the water table occurs land use pur- poses (Von Asmuth and Knotters, 2004). In hydrology, wat

Camara, Gilberto

47

Tracking water pathways in steep hillslopes by ?18O depth profiles of soil water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing temporal variations in soil water flow is important, especially at the hillslope scale, to identify mechanisms of runoff and flood generation and pathways for nutrients and pollutants in soils. While surface processes are well considered and parameterized, the assessment of subsurface processes at the hillslope scale is still challenging since measurement of hydrological pathways is connected to high efforts in time, money and personnel work. The latter might not even be possible in alpine environments with harsh winter processes. Soil water stable isotope profiles may offer a time-integrating fingerprint of subsurface water pathways. In this study, we investigated the suitability of soil water stable isotope (?18O) depth profiles to identify water flow paths along two transects of steep subalpine hillslopes in the Swiss Alps. We applied a one-dimensional advection-dispersion model using ?18O values of precipitation (ranging from -24.7 to -2.9‰) as input data to simulate the ?18O profiles of soil water. The variability of ?18O values with depth within each soil profile and a comparison of the simulated and measured ?18O profiles were used to infer information about subsurface hydrological pathways. The temporal pattern of ?18O in precipitation was found in several profiles, ranging from -14.5 to -4.0‰. This suggests that vertical percolation plays an important role even at slope angles of up to 46°. Lateral subsurface flow and/or mixing of soil water at lower slope angles might occur in deeper soil layers and at sites near a small stream. The difference between several observed and simulated ?18O profiles revealed spatially highly variable infiltration patterns during the snowmelt periods: The ?18O value of snow (-17.7 ± 1.9‰) was absent in several measured ?18O profiles but present in the respective simulated ?18O profiles. This indicated overland flow and/or preferential flow through the soil profile during the melt period. The applied methods proved to be a fast and promising tool to obtain time-integrated information on soil water flow paths at the hillslope scale in steep subalpine slopes.

Mueller, Matthias H.; Alaoui, Abdallah; Kuells, Christoph; Leistert, Hannes; Meusburger, Katrin; Stumpp, Christine; Weiler, Markus; Alewell, Christine

2014-11-01

48

Feeling Pressured: Water Pressure and Depth (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two activities illustrate the relationship between water pressure and depth. They offer students an exploration of the relationship between pressure and depth, an opportunity to construct an experimental apparatus, experience in taking measurements with the apparatus, and an introduction to the impact of pressure on the lungs.

49

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH BY NOL RING  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISATION OF AGED HDPE PIPES FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION: INVESTIGATION OF CRACK DEPTH are used for the transport of drinking water. However, disinfectants in water seem to have a strong impact the ageing effect of the pipe mechanical behaviour. Inspired from the ASTM D 2290-04 standard, Nol Ring tests

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Effects of water depth on choice of spatially separated prey by Notonecta glauca L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, the predator, Notonecta glauca L., was exposed to varying densities of surfacedwelling culicine mosquito larvae and the bottom-inhabiting isopod, Asellus aquaticus L., in either shallow or deep water at 20° C. At this temperature N. glauca spends most of the time at the water's surface, so, by changing water depth the accessibility of Asellus to the predator

Barbara J. Cockrell

1984-01-01

51

Determination of water depth with high-resolution satellite imagery over variable bottom types  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A standard algorithm for determining depth in clear water from passive sensors exists; but it requires tuning of five parameters and does not retrieve depths where the bottom has an extremely low albedo. To address these issues, we developed an empirical solution using a ratio of reflectances that has only two tunable parameters and can be applied to low-albedo features. The two algorithms--the standard linear transform and the new ratio transform--were compared through analysis of IKONOS satellite imagery against lidar bathymetry. The coefficients for the ratio algorithm were tuned manually to a few depths from a nautical chart, yet performed as well as the linear algorithm tuned using multiple linear regression against the lidar. Both algorithms compensate for variable bottom type and albedo (sand, pavement, algae, coral) and retrieve bathymetry in water depths of less than 10-15 m. However, the linear transform does not distinguish depths >15 m and is more subject to variability across the studied atolls. The ratio transform can, in clear water, retrieve depths in >25 m of water and shows greater stability between different areas. It also performs slightly better in scattering turbidity than the linear transform. The ratio algorithm is somewhat noisier and cannot always adequately resolve fine morphology (structures smaller than 4-5 pixels) in water depths >15-20 m. In general, the ratio transform is more robust than the linear transform.

Stumpf, Richard P.; Holderied, Kristine; Sinclair, Mark

2003-01-01

52

Temporal variations in atmospheric water vapor and aerosol optical depth determined by remote sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By automatically tracking the sun, a four-channel solar radiometer was used to continuously measure optical depth and atmospheric water vapor. The design of this simple autotracking solar radiometer is presented. A technique for calculating the precipitable water from the ratio of a water band to a nearby nonabsorbing band is discussed. Studies of the temporal variability of precipitable water and atmospheric optical depth at 0.610, 0.8730 and 1.04 microns are presented. There was good correlation between the optical depth measured using the autotracker and visibility determined from National Weather Service Station data. However, much more temporal structure was evident in the autotracker data than in the visibility data. Cirrus clouds caused large changes in optical depth over short time periods. They appear to be the largest deleterious atmospheric effect over agricultural areas that are remote from urban pollution sources.

Pitts, D. E.; Mcallum, W. E.; Heidt, M.; Jeske, K.; Lee, J. T.; Demonbrun, D.; Morgan, A.; Potter, J.

1977-01-01

53

Seed Bank Variation Along a Water Depth Gradient in a Subtropical Lakeshore Marsh, Longgan Lake, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although zonation patterns of the standing vegetation along a water depth gradient in wetlands have been well described, few\\u000a studies have explored whether such patterns also occur in the seed bank. This study examined patterns of the seed bank along\\u000a a water depth gradient in three vegetation types (submerged zone, floating-leaved zone, and emergent zone) of a subtropical\\u000a lakeshore marsh,

Long-Yi Yuan; Gui-Hua Liu; Wei Li; En-Hua Li

2007-01-01

54

Application of Image Technique to Water Depth measurement of Dam-Break Flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, dams around the world suffered from dam-break problems due to several extreme weather conditions such as typhoon events. Dam-break releases water with high velocity and rapid water level variation is found at the downstream of dam. Water depth measurement of dam-break is difficult using traditional method, such as point gauge. Recently the video device with high capture frequency is well developed. In addition, image technique is widely applied to flow measurement. Particle Tracking Velocitmetry, for instance, is popular to identify 3D position of particle with high velocity. Therefore, in this study, we apply image technique to measure water depth variation at the downstream of dam. To measure rapid water depth variation, experiments in flume are performed. The flume dimensions are presented in Figure 1. Flow of dam-break is simulated by suddenly lifting the gate. A laser beam locates at the center-line of the flume and gate. A 30-fps digital camera with a fixed angle of depression is placed at side of the flume. Coordinate transformation between image and space is first performed and image analysis is then used to identify the spatial water surface position from captured images. The validation of image technique is considered by measuring water depth using point gauge at a steady flow released from the gate. Three cases are considered in this study. The initial water depths at the upstream side of dam are 5, 10 and 15 cm and the bed is fixed at the downstream side. The measured water depth variations at x = 10 cm to ensure the measurements, numerical model, NTU-SFM2D, is used to simulate the experiments. The comparisons between experiments and simulations verify the application of image technique to rapid water depth variation at the downstream side of dam-break. Dimensions of experimental flume

Huang, C.; Lee, F.; Lai, J.; Guo, W.; Tsung, S.; Tan, Y.; Lin, G.

2013-12-01

55

Influence of water depth on the sound generated by air-bubble vibration in the water musical instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a water musical instrument that generates sound by the falling of water drops within resonance tubes. The instrument can give people who hear it the healing effect inherent in the sound of water. The sound produced by falling water drops arises from air- bubble vibrations. To investigate the impact of water depth on the air-bubble vibrations, we conducted experiments at varying values of water pressure and nozzle shape. We found that air-bubble vibration frequency does not change at a water depth of 50 mm or greater. Between 35 and 40 mm, however, the frequency decreases. At water depths of 30 mm or below, the air-bubble vibration frequency increases. In our tests, we varied the nozzle diameter from 2 to 4 mm. In addition, we discovered that the time taken for air-bubble vibration to start after the water drops start falling is constant at water depths of 40 mm or greater, but slower at depths below 40 mm.

Ohuchi, Yoshito; Nakazono, Yoichi

2014-06-01

56

The net fractional depth dose: a basis for a unified analytical description of FDD, TAR, TMR, and TPR.  

PubMed

The net fractional depth dose (NFD) is defined as the fractional depth dose (FDD) corrected for inverse square law. Analysis of its behavior as a function of depth, field size, and source-surface distance has led to an analytical description with only seven model parameters related to straightforward physical properties. The determination of the characteristic parameter values requires only seven experimentally determined FDDs. The validity of the description has been tested for beam qualities ranging from 60Co gamma rays to 18-MV x rays, using published data from several different sources as well as locally measured data sets. The small number of model parameters is attractive for computer or hand-held calculator applications. The small amount of required measured data is important in view of practical data acquisition for implementation of a computer-based dose calculation system. The generating function allows easy and accurate generation of FDD, tissue-air ratio, tissue-maximum ratio, and tissue-phantom ratio tables. PMID:6439989

van de Geijn, J; Fraass, B A

1984-01-01

57

U.S. Geological Survey Combined Well-Bore Flow and Depth-Dependent Water Sampler  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a combined well-bore flow and depth-dependent sample collection tool. It is suitable for use in existing production wells having limited access and clearances as small as 1 inch. The combination of well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data is especially effective in assessing changes in aquifer properties and water quality with depth. These are direct measures of changes in well yield and ground-water quality with depth under actual operating conditions. Combinations of other geophysical tools capable of making these measurements, such as vertical-axis current meters used with wire-line samplers, are commercially available but these tools are large and can not easily enter existing production wells.

Izbicki, John A.; Christensen, Allen H.; Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Crawford, Steven M.; Smith, Gregory A.

1999-01-01

58

Design and Verification of an Inexpensive Ultrasonic Water Depth Sensor Using Arduino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A system that combines the arduino micro-controller, a Parallax PING Ultrasonic distance sensor and a secure digital card to log the data is developed to help monitor water table depths in multiple settings. Traditional methods of monitoring water table depths involve the use of a pressure transducer and expensive data loggers that cost upward of 1000. The present system is built for less than 100, with the caveat that the accuracy of the measurements is 1cm. In this laboratory study, we first build the arduino based system to monitor water table depths in a piezometer and compare these measurements to those made by a pressure transducer. Initial results show that the depth measurements are accurate in comparison to actual tape measurements. Results from this benchmarking experiment will be presented at the meeting.

Mihevc, T. M.; Rajagopal, S.

2012-12-01

59

Decadal changes in the mid-depth water mass dynamic of the Northeastern Atlantic margin (Bay of Biscay)  

E-print Network

Decadal changes in the mid-depth water mass dynamic of the Northeastern Atlantic margin (Bay of particular enhanced advection of temperate intermediate water (mid-depth Subpolar Gyre/Mediterranean Sea not only in the thermocline but also in the mid- depth water-mass advection patterns in the Northeastern

Long, Bernard

60

Characterizing scale specific depth persistence of soil water content along two landscape transects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on depth persistence of soil water content (SWC) is useful for adopting data assimilation techniques in integrating remote sensing data and soil water modeling. The objective of this study was to investigate the scale- and season-specific depth persistence of 0-1.0 m SWC distribution in two transects (having different soils and plant cover) in a watershed on the Chinese Loess Plateau, by combining multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) with Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Three or four intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) representing specific scales were separated out for SWC of each soil layer. The dominant scales in terms of explaining the spatial variance of SWC for Transect 1 were about 376 m (IMF1) and 677 m (IMF2), and those for Transect 2 were about 639 m (IMF2) and 1304 m (IMF3). Depth persistence of SWC varied with scale, and was the strongest at the dominant scales. The multi-scale depth persistence was weaker along Transect 1 than along Transect 2 due to the higher degree of landscape fragmentation resulting from greater human activity along Transect 1. Weaker depth persistence at each scale was mainly observed at wet conditions for Transect 1. Strong season-related depth persistence was also mainly observed at the dominant scales for both transects. The results of this study are useful for developing sampling strategies for soil water measurements, since information about depth persistence reduces the efforts involved in measuring SWC in deeper layers.

She, Dongli; Tang, Shengqiang; Shao, Ming'an; Yu, Shuang'en; Xia, Yongqiu

2014-11-01

61

Impact of repository depth on residence times for leaking radionuclides in land-based surface water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multiple scales of landscape topography produce a wide distribution of groundwater circulation cells that control the hydro-geological environments surrounding geological repositories for nuclear waste. The largest circulation cells tend to discharge water into major river reaches, large freshwater systems or the nearby Baltic Sea. We investigated numerically the release of radionuclides from repositories placed in bedrock with depths between 100 to 2000 meters in a Swedish coastal area and found that leakage from the deeper positions emerges primarily in the major aquatic systems. In effect, radionuclides from the deeper repositories are more rapidly transported towards the Sea by the stream system compared to leakage from more shallow repositories. The release from the shallower repositories is significantly retained in the initial stage of the transport in the (superficial) landscape because the discharge occurs in or near low-order streams with high retention characteristics. This retention and residence time for radioactivity in the landscape control radiological doses to biota and can, thus, be expected to constitute an essential part of an associated risk evaluation.

Wörman, Anders; Marklund, Lars; Xu, Shulan; Dverstorp, Björn

2007-03-01

62

Percentage depth dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms with lung and bone equivalent media for small fields of CyberKnife  

E-print Network

The percentage depth dose distributions in inhomogeneous phantoms with lung and bone equivalent media are studied. For lung equivalent media a Balsa wood is used, and for a soft bone equivalent media a compound material with epoxy resin, hardener and calcium carbonate is used. Polystyrene slabs put together with these materials are used as an inhomogeneous phantom. Dose measurements are performed with Gafchromic EBT film by using photon beams from 6MV CyberKnife at the Seoul Uridul Hospital. The cone sizes of the photon beams are varied from 5, 10 to 30 mm. As a simulation tool GEANT4 Monte Carlo code v9.4.p02 is used. When the Balsa wood is inserted in the phantom, the dose measured with EBT film is found to be significantly different from the dose without the EBT film in and beyond the Balsa wood region, particularly for small field sizes. On the other hand, when the soft bone equivalent material is inserted in the phantom, discrepancy between the dose measured with EBT film and the dose without EBT film ca...

Lee, Chung Il; Yoon, Sei-Chul; Suh, Tae Suk; Hong, Seung-Woo; Min, Kyung Joo; Lee, Sang Deok; Chung, Su Mi; Jung, Jae-Yong

2014-01-01

63

Experiments on Vertical Turbulent Plane Jets in Water of Finite Depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed experiments on vertical turbulent plane jets in water of finite depth were carried out in a two-dimensional water tank. The jet velocities were measured with a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The LDV measurement covers the entire flow regime: the zone of flow establishment (ZFE), the zone of established flow (ZEF), the zone of surface impingement (ZSI), and the zone

Jun Kuang; Chin-Tsau Hsu; Huihe Qiu

2001-01-01

64

Deriving depths of deep chlorophyll maximum and water inherent optical properties: A regional model  

E-print Network

of the fresh water, the coastal zone, the shelf areas and the open oceans. Its vertical location is usuallyDeriving depths of deep chlorophyll maximum and water inherent optical properties: A regional model of Maine, Orono, ME, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 2 September 2008 Received

Maine, University of

65

FREE-WATER DEPTH AS A MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Marsh plants in constructed wetlands have shown the capacity to remove unwanted pollutants from storm water runoff. The plants can be established at the site from bare roots. However, plant growth from bare roots can be restricted by the elevated water depths. Using several wa...

66

Phenotypic plasticity in Phragmites australis as a functional response to water depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed investigations to see if the emergent macrophyte Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. exhibits phenotypic plasticity as a response to water depth and if such responses in biomass allocation pattern and morphology are functional responses, improving the performance of the plant. In greenhouse experiments plants were grown in deep or shallow water to evaluate plastic responses. Allometric

Viveka Vretare; Stefan E. B Weisner; John A Strand; Wilhelm Granéli

2001-01-01

67

Predicting water table depths in space and time using a regionalised time series model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regionalised autoregressive exogenous variable (RARX) model is presented for the relationship between precipitation surplus and water table depth. The parameters of the RARX model are ‘guessed’ at unvisited locations using auxiliary information such as soil profile descriptions, topographic maps and digital elevation models (DEM). In the direct method, the guessed parameters are used to predict time series of water

Martin Knotters; Marc F. P. Bierkens

2001-01-01

68

Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul A.

2013-01-01

69

Dose distributions at extreme irradiation depths of gamma knife radiosurgery: EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations  

E-print Network

The accuracy of the dose planning system (Leksell GammaPlan), used in Gamma Knife (type B) radiosurgery and 18 mm, of the Leksell Gamma Knife Unit were studied. The results of GammaPlan showed good consistency of this project can promote con®dence to all Gamma Knife centres in the world when using the Leksell GammaPlan. 7

Yu, K.N.

70

GROUND-WATER CONTRIBUTION TO DOSE FROM PAST HANFORD OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive ?literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work on the ground-water pathway be limited to tracking ongoing ground-water studies at the Hanford Site.

Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

1992-01-01

71

Relations between erythemal UV dose, global solar radiation, total ozone column and aerosol optical depth at Uccle, Belgium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Uccle, a long time series (1991-2013) of simultaneous measurements of erythemal ultraviolet (UV) dose, global solar radiation, total ozone column (TOC) and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) (at 320.1 nm) is available which allows for an extensive study of the changes in the variables over time. A change-point analysis, which determines whether there is a significant change in the mean of the time series, is applied to the monthly anomalies time series of the variables. Only for erythemal UV dose and TOC, a significant change point (without any known instrumental cause) was present in the time series around February 1998 and March 1998 respectively. The change point in TOC corresponds with results found in literature, where the change in ozone levels (around 1997) is attributed to the recovery of ozone. Linear trends were determined for the different (monthly anomalies) time series. Erythemal UV dose, global solar radiation and TOC all increase with respectively 7, 4 and 3% per decade. AOD shows an (insignificant) negative trend of -8% per decade. These trends agree with results found in literature for sites with comparable latitudes. A multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to the data in order to study the influence of global solar radiation, TOC and AOD on the erythemal UV dose. Together these parameters are able to explain 94% of the variation in erythemal UV dose. Most of the variation (56%) in erythemal UV dose is explained by global solar radiation. The regression model performs well with a slight tendency to underestimate the measured erythemal UV doses and with a Mean Absolute Bias Error (MABE) of 18%. However, in winter, negative erythemal UV dose values are modeled. Applying the MLR to the individual seasons solves this issue. The seasonal models have an adjusted R2 value higher than 0.8 and the correlation between modeled and measured erythemal UV dose values is higher than 0.9 for each season. The summer model gives the best performance, with an absolute mean error of only 6%. Again, global solar radiation is the factor that contributes the most to the variation in erythemal UV dose, so there is no doubt about the necessity to include this factor in the regression models. A large part of the influence of AOD is already represented by the global solar radiation parameter. Therefore the individual contribution of AOD to erythemal UV dose is so low. For this reason, it seems unnecessary to include AOD in the MLR analysis. Including TOC however, is justified as the adjusted R2 increases and the MABE of the model decreases compared to a model where only global solar radiation is used as explanatory variable.

De Bock, V.; De Backer, H.; Van Malderen, R.; Mangold, A.; Delcloo, A.

2014-06-01

72

Nest survival of American Coots relative to grazing, burning, and water depths  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and water-level manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common land-management practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment) on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana) nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year × treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation.

Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

2011-01-01

73

Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso after irradiation with a simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are com-pounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself. Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrap-olation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over-or under-estimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be pre-dicted to within about a +10In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field with the phantom torso. Lymphocyte cells are strategically embedded at selected locations at the skin and internal organs and are processed after irradiation to assess the effects of shielding on the yield of chromosome damage. The first focus of the pre-sented experiment is to correlate biological results with physical dosimetry measurements in the phantom torso. Further on the results of the passive dosimetry using the anthropomorphic phantoms represent the best tool to generate reliable to benchmark computational radiation transport models in a radiation field of interest. The presentation will give first results of the physical dose distribution, the comparison with GEANT4 computer simulations, based on a Voxel model of the phantom, and a comparison with the data from the chromosome aberration study. The help and support of Adam Russek and Michael Sivertz of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), Brookhaven, USA during the setup and the irradiation of the phantom are highly appreciated. The Voxel model describing the human phantom used for the GEANT4 simulations was kindly provided by Monika Puchalska (CHALMERS, Gothenburg, Sweden).

Berger, Thomas; Matthiä, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Reitz, Guenther

74

Application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data for improved production well construction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water production wells commonly are designed to maximize well yield and, therefore, may be screened over several water-bearing zones. These water-bearing zones usually are identified, and their hydrogeologic characteristics and water quality are inferred, on the basis of indirect data such as geologic and geophysical logs. Production well designs based on these data may result in wells that are drilled deeper than necessary and are screened through zones having low permeability or poor-quality ground water. In this study, we examined the application of flowmeter logging and depth-dependent water quality samples for the improved design of production wells in a complex hydrogeologic setting. As a demonstration of these techniques, a flowmeter log and depth-dependent water quality data were collected from a long-screened production well within a multilayered coastal aquifer system in the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura County, California. Results showed that the well yields most of its water from four zones that constitute 58% of the screened interval. The importance of these zones to well yield was not readily discernible from indirect geologic or geophysical data. The flowmeter logs and downhole water quality data also show that small quantities of poor-quality water could degrade the overall quality of water from the well. The data obtained from one well can be applied to other proposed wells in the same hydrologic basin. The application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data to well design can reduce installation costs and improve the quantity and quality of water produced from wells in complex multiple-aquifer systems.

Gossell, M. A.; Nishikawa, T.; Hanson, R. T.; Izbicki, J. A.; Tabidian, M. A.; Bertine, K.

1999-01-01

75

Reclaiming Hard Rock Mines: An In Depth Look at Vegetation, Soil, and Water on the Bullion  

E-print Network

with tailings piles, waste rock and acid mine drainage (AMD; Figure 1). Waste rock, the soil and rock material of contamination on abandoned mine sites. One of the most difficult problems to address in mine reclamation is AMDReclaiming Hard Rock Mines: An In Depth Look at Vegetation, Soil, and Water on the Bullion Mine

Maxwell, Bruce D.

76

Performance study of the inverted absorber solar still with water depth and total dissolved solid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this communication, an experimental study of inverted absorber solar still (IASS) and single slope solar still (SS) at different water depth and total dissolved solid (TDS) is presented. Experiments are conducted for the climatic condition of Muscat, Oman. A thermal model is also developed for the IASS and validated with experimental results. A fair agreement is found for the

Rahul Dev; Sabah A. Abdul-Wahab; G. N. Tiwari

2011-01-01

77

Effects of water depth and seed provenance on the growth of wild rice ( Zizania aquatica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual wild rice (Zizania aquatica L.), a species of conservation concern, is an ecologically and culturally important aquatic grass found in stands in the near shore habitats of lakes and rivers in the Midwest and along the eastern coast of North America. This study examined the effects of water depth and seed provenance on the early growth of three Indiana

Rebecca C. Tucker; Michael J. Zanis; Nancy C. Emery; Kevin D. Gibson

2011-01-01

78

DS86 neutron dose: Monte Carlo analysis for depth profile of 152Eu activity in a large stone sample.  

PubMed

The depth profile of 152Eu activity induced in a large granite stone pillar by Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons was calculated by a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). The pillar was on the Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 132 m (WSW) from the hypocenter. It was a square column with a horizontal sectional size of 82.5 cm x 82.5 cm and height of 179 cm. Twenty-one cells from the north to south surface at the central height of the column were specified for the calculation and 152Eu activities for each cell were calculated. The incident neutron spectrum was assumed to be the angular fluence data of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). The angular dependence of the spectrum was taken into account by dividing the whole solid angle into twenty-six directions. The calculated depth profile of specific activity did not agree with the measured profile. A discrepancy was found in the absolute values at each depth with a mean multiplication factor of 0.58 and also in the shape of the relative profile. The results indicated that a reassessment of the neutron energy spectrum in DS86 is required for correct dose estimation. PMID:10494148

Endo, S; Iwatani, K; Oka, T; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Imanaka, T; Takada, J; Fujita, S; Hasai, H

1999-06-01

79

Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To present our method and experience in commissioning dose models in water for spot scanning proton therapy in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The input data required by the TPS included in-air transverse profiles and integral depth doses (IDDs). All input data were obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations that had been validated by measurements. MC-generated IDDs were converted to units of Gy mm{sup 2}/MU using the measured IDDs at a depth of 2 cm employing the largest commercially available parallel-plate ionization chamber. The sensitive area of the chamber was insufficient to fully encompass the entire lateral dose deposited at depth by a pencil beam (spot). To correct for the detector size, correction factors as a function of proton energy were defined and determined using MC. The fluence of individual spots was initially modeled as a single Gaussian (SG) function and later as a double Gaussian (DG) function. The DG fluence model was introduced to account for the spot fluence due to contributions of large angle scattering from the devices within the scanning nozzle, especially from the spot profile monitor. To validate the DG fluence model, we compared calculations and measurements, including doses at the center of spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles, and depth doses for different widths of SOBP. Dose models were validated extensively with patient treatment field-specific measurements. Results: We demonstrated that the DG fluence model is necessary for predicting the field size dependence of dose distributions. With this model, the calculated doses at the center of SOBPs as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles and depth doses for rectangular target volumes agreed well with respective measured values. With the DG fluence model for our scanning proton beam line, we successfully treated more than 500 patients from March 2010 through June 2012 with acceptable agreement between TPS calculated and measured dose distributions. However, the current dose model still has limitations in predicting field size dependence of doses at some intermediate depths of proton beams with high energies. Conclusions: We have commissioned a DG fluence model for clinical use. It is demonstrated that the DG fluence model is significantly more accurate than the SG fluence model. However, some deficiencies in modeling the low-dose envelope in the current dose algorithm still exist. Further improvements to the current dose algorithm are needed. The method presented here should be useful for commissioning pencil beam dose algorithms in new versions of TPS in the future.

Zhu, X. R.; Poenisch, F.; Lii, M.; Sawakuchi, G. O.; Titt, U.; Bues, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Ciangaru, G.; Li, H.; Taylor, M. B.; Suzuki, K.; Mohan, R.; Gillin, M. T.; Sahoo, N. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2013-04-15

80

Water uptake and hydraulic redistribution across large woody root systems to 20 m depth.  

PubMed

Deep water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) are important processes in many forests, savannas and shrublands. We investigated HR in a semi-arid woodland above a unique cave system in central Texas to understand how deep root systems facilitate HR. Sap flow was measured in 9 trunks, 47 shallow roots and 12 deep roots of Quercus, Bumelia and Prosopis trees over 12 months. HR was extensive and continuous, involving every tree and 83% of roots, with the total daily volume of HR over a 1 month period estimated to be approximately 22% of daily transpiration. During drought, deep roots at 20 m depth redistributed water to shallow roots (hydraulic lift), while after rain, shallow roots at 0-0.5 m depth redistributed water among other shallow roots (lateral HR). The main driver of HR appeared to be patchy, dry soil near the surface, although water may also have been redistributed to mid-level depths via deeper lateral roots. Deep roots contributed up to five times more water to transpiration and HR than shallow roots during drought but dramatically reduced their contribution after rain. Our results suggest that deep-rooted plants are important drivers of water cycling in dry ecosystems and that HR can significantly influence landscape hydrology. PMID:20716068

Bleby, Timothy M; McElrone, Andrew J; Jackson, Robert B

2010-12-01

81

Verification of percentage depth dose of MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter with electron beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work investigation of the normoxic MAGICA polymer gel dosimeter has been undertaken. Using MRI, the formulation to give the maximum change in the transverse relaxation rate R2 was determined to be 8% gelatin, 0.5% agarose, 9% methacrylic acid, 0.0352% ascorbic acid, 0.0015% CuSO4.5H2O, 0.002% hydroquinone and 82.3% HPLC(Water).When the preparation of final polymer gel solution is completed, it

K. Adinehvand; M. R. Aghamiri; M. H. Zahmatkesh; S. H. Akhlaghpor

2009-01-01

82

MCNP simulation of radiation doses distributions in a water phantoms simulating interventional radiology patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: To investigate the dose distributions in water cylinders simulating patients undergoing Interventional Radiological examinations. Method: The irradiation geometry consisted of an x-ray source, dose-area-product chamber, and image intensifier as currently used in Interventional Radiology. Water cylinders of diameters ranging between 17 and 30 cm were used to simulate patients weighing between 20 and 90 kg. X-ray spectra data with peak x-ray tube voltages ranging from 60 to 120 kV were generated using XCOMP3R. Radiation dose distributions inside the water cylinder (Dw) were obtained using MCNP5. The depth dose distribution along the x-ray beam central axis was normalized to free-in-air air kerma (AK) that is incident on the phantom. Scattered radiation within the water cylinders but outside the directly irradiated region was normalized to the dose at the edge of the radiation field. The total absorbed energy to the directly irradiated volume (Ep) and indirectly irradiated volume (Es) were also determined and investigated as a function of x-ray tube voltage and phantom size. Results: At 80 kV, the average Dw/AK near the x-ray entrance point was 1.3. The ratio of Dw near the entrance point to Dw near the exit point increased from ~ 26 for the 17 cm water cylinder to ~ 290 for the 30 cm water cylinder. At 80 kV, the relative dose for a 17 cm water cylinder fell to 0.1% at 49 cm away from the central ray of the x-ray beam. For a 30 cm water cylinder, the relative dose fell to 0.1% at 53 cm away from the central ray of the x-ray beam. At a fixed x-ray tube voltage of 80 kV, increasing the water cylinder diameter from 17 to 30 cm increased the Es/(Ep+Es) ratio by about 50%. At a fixed water cylinder diameter of 24 cm, increasing the tube voltage from 60 kV to 120 kV increased the Es/(Ep+Es) ratio by about 12%. The absorbed energy from scattered radiation was between 20-30% of the total energy absorbed by the water cylinder, and was affected more by patient size than x-ray beam energy. Conclusion: MCNP offers a powerful tool to study the absorption and transmission of x-ray energy in phantoms that can be designed to represent patients undergoing Interventional Radiological procedures. This ability will permit a systematic investigation of the relationship between patient dose and diagnostic image quality, and thereby keep patient doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).

He, Wenjun; Mah, Eugene; Huda, Walter; Selby, Bayne; Yao, Hai

2011-03-01

83

Influences of water depth and substrate nitrogen on leaf surface area and maximum bed extension in Nymphaea odorata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships among water depth, substrate nitrogen, and leaf surface area in the floating-leaved macrophyte Nymphaea odorata Aiton (fragrant waterlily) were studied in seven ponds in Rhode Island, USA. Beds of N. odorata in ponds that varied three- to seven-fold in depth, total area, water-column phosphorus and nitrogen, transparency, and chlorophyll content grew to strikingly similar water depth maxima (1.9–2.2 m;

M. Sinden-Hempstead; K. T. Killingbeck

1996-01-01

84

Reverse evolution in RH1 for adaptation of cichlids to water depth in Lake Tanganyika.  

PubMed

Reverse evolution is a widespread phenomenon in biology, but the genetic mechanism for the reversal of a genetic change for adaptation to the ancestral state is not known. Here, we report the first case of complete reverse evolution of two amino acids, serine and alanine, at a single position in RH1 opsin pigment for adaptation to water depth. We determined RH1 sequences of cichlid fishes from four tribes of Lake Tanganyika with different habitat depths. Most of the species were divided into two types: RH1 with 292A for species in shallow water or 292S for species in deep water. Both types were adapted to their ambient light environments as indicated by the absorption spectra of the RH1 pigments. Based on the RH1 locus tree and ecological data, we inferred the ancestral amino acids at position 292 and the distribution of the depth ranges (shallow or deep) of ancestral species of each tribe. According to these estimates, we identified two distinct parallel adaptive evolutions: The replacement A292S occurred at least four times for adaptation from shallow to deep water, and the opposite replacement S292A occurred three times for adaptation from deep to shallow water. The latter parallelism represents the complete reverse evolution from the derived to the ancestral state, following back adaptive mutation with reversal of the RH1 pigment function accompanied by reversal of the species habitat shift. PMID:21172834

Nagai, Haruka; Terai, Yohey; Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Nishihara, Hidenori; Hori, Michio; Okada, Norihiro

2011-06-01

85

Transport of E. coli in a sandy soil as impacted by depth to water table.  

PubMed

Septic systems are considered a source of groundwater contamination. In the study described in this article, the fate of microbes applied to a sandy loam soil from North Carolina coastal plain as impacted by water table depth was studied. Soil materials were packed to a depth of 65 cm in 17 columns (15-cm diameter), and a water table was established at 30, 45, and 60 cm depths using five replications. Each day, 200 mL of an artificial septic tank effluent inoculated with E. coli were applied to the top of each column, a 100-mL sample was collected at the water table level and analyzed for E. coli, and 100 mL was drained from the bottom to maintain the water table. Two columns were used as control and received 200 mL/day of sterilized effluent. Neither 30 nor 45 cm of unsaturated soil was adequate to attenuate bacterial contamination, while 60 cm of separation appeared to be sufficient. Little bacterial contamination moved with the water table when it was lowered from 30 to 60 cm. PMID:24645419

Stall, Christopher; Amoozegar, Aziz; Lindbo, David; Graves, Alexandria; Rashash, Diana

2014-01-01

86

Changes in late-winter snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in Maine, 1926-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-three snow-course sites in and near Maine, USA, with records spanning at least 50 years through to 2004 were tested for changes over time in snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in March and April. Of the 23 sites, 18 had a significant decrease (Mann-Kendall test, p < 0??1) in snowpack depth or a significant increase in snowpack density over time. Data from four sites in the mountains of western Maine-northern New Hampshire with mostly complete records from 1926 to 2004 indicate that average snowpack depths have decreased by about 16% and densities have increased by about 11%. Average snowpack depths and water equivalents in western Maine-northern New Hampshire peaked in the 1950s and 1960s, and densities peaked in the most recent decade. Previous studies in western North America also found a water-equivalent peak in the third quarter of the 20th century. Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hodgkins, G. A.; Dudley, R. W.

2006-01-01

87

Estimation of Missing Water-Level Data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface elevation models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-2009) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for EDEN and their goal of providing quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill missing data. To minimize the occurrences of no estimation of data due to missing data for an input station, a minimum of three linear regression equations were developed for each station using different input stations. Of the 726 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 239 stations, more than 60 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 92 percent have an coefficient of determination greater than 0.70.

Conrads, Paul A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

2009-01-01

88

Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline pH values (6.9-7.4) were detected in samples from one well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer, three production wells in the Rush Springs aquifer, and one well in an undefined Permian-aged aquifer. All well-head samples were oxic and arsenate was the only species of arsenic in water from 10 of the 12 production wells sampled. Arsenite was measured above the laboratory reporting level in water from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer and was the only arsenic species measured in water from the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer. Fluoride and uranium were the only trace elements, other than arsenic, that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water in well-head samples collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in four production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer ranged from 30.2 to 99 micrograms per liter exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 30 micrograms per liter for drinking water. Water from these four wells also had the largest arsenic concentrations measured in the study ranging from 30 to 124 micrograms

Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

2010-01-01

89

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01

90

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01

91

Mixed layer depth front and subduction of low potential vorticity water in an idealized ocean GCM  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that there is a front-like structure at the mixed layer depth (MLD) distribution in the subtropical gyre, which\\u000a is called the MLD front, and is associated with the formation region of mode water. In the present article, the generation\\u000a mechanism of the MLD front is studied using an idealized ocean general circulation model with no seasonal forcing.

Shiro Nishikawa; Atsushi Kubokawa

2007-01-01

92

Direct absorbed dose to water determination based on water calorimetry in scanning proton beam delivery  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this manuscript is to describe the direct measurement of absolute absorbed dose to water in a scanned proton radiotherapy beam using a water calorimeter primary standard. Methods: The McGill water calorimeter, which has been validated in photon and electron beams as well as in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy, was used to measure the absorbed dose to water in double scattering and scanning proton irradiations. The measurements were made at the Massachusetts General Hospital proton radiotherapy facility. The correction factors in water calorimetry were numerically calculated and various parameters affecting their magnitude and uncertainty were studied. The absorbed dose to water was compared to that obtained using an Exradin T1 Chamber based on the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. Results: The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on absorbed dose to water amounts to 0.4% and 0.6% in scattered and scanned proton water calorimetry, respectively. This compares to an overall uncertainty of 1.9% for currently accepted IAEA TRS-398 reference absorbed dose measurement protocol. The absorbed dose from water calorimetry agrees with the results from TRS-398 well to within 1-sigma uncertainty. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that a primary absorbed dose standard based on water calorimetry is feasible in scattered and scanned proton beams.

Sarfehnia, A.; Clasie, B.; Chung, E.; Lu, H. M.; Flanz, J.; Cascio, E.; Engelsman, M.; Paganetti, H.; Seuntjens, J. [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G-1A4 (Canada); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G-1A4 (Canada); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3G-1A4 (Canada)

2010-07-15

93

Shallow sea-floor reflectance and water depth derived by unmixing multispectral imagery  

SciTech Connect

A major problem for mapping shallow water zones by the analysis of remotely sensed data is that contrast effects due to water depth obscure and distort the special nature of the substrate. This paper outlines a new method which unmixes the exponential influence of depth in each pixel by employing a mathematical constraint. This leaves a multispectral residual which represents relative substrate reflectance. Input to the process are the raw multispectral data and water attenuation coefficients derived by the co-analysis of known bathymetry and remotely sensed data. Outputs are substrate-reflectance images corresponding to the input bands and a greyscale depth image. The method has been applied in the analysis of Landsat TM data at Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Algorithm derived substrate reflectance images for Landsat TM bands 1, 2, and 3 combined in color represent the optimum enhancement for mapping or classifying substrate types. As a result, this color image successfully delineated features, which were obscured in the raw data, such as the distributions of sea-grasses, microbial mats, and sandy area. 19 refs.

Bierwirth, P.N.; Lee, T.J.; Burne, R.V. (Marine Spill Response Corp., Washington, DC (United States) Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor (United States))

1993-03-01

94

Soil water availability and rooting depth as determinants of hydraulic architecture of Patagonian woody species.  

PubMed

Adaptations of species to capture limiting resources is central for understanding structure and function of ecosystems. We studied the water economy of nine woody species differing in rooting depth in a Patagonian shrub steppe from southern Argentina to understand how soil water availability and rooting depth determine their hydraulic architecture. Soil water content and potentials, leaf water potentials (Psi(Leaf)), hydraulic conductivity, wood density (rho(w)), rooting depth, and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured during two summers. Water potentials in the upper soil layers during a summer drought ranged from -2.3 to -3.6 MPa, increasing to -0.05 MPa below 150 cm. Predawn Psi(Leaf) was used as a surrogate of weighted mean soil water potential because no statistical differences in Psi(Leaf) were observed between exposed and covered leaves. Species-specific differences in predawn Psi(Leaf) were consistent with rooting depths. Predawn Psi(Leaf) ranged from -4.0 MPa for shallow rooted shrubs to -1.0 MPa for deep-rooted shrubs, suggesting that the roots of the latter have access to abundant moisture, whereas shallow-rooted shrubs are adapted to use water deposited mainly by small rainfall events. Wood density was a good predictor of hydraulic conductivity and SLA. Overall, we found that shallow rooted species had efficient water transport in terms of high specific and leaf specific hydraulic conductivity, low rho(w), high SLA and a low minimum Psi(Leaf) that exhibited strong seasonal changes, whereas deeply rooted shrubs maintained similar minimum Psi(Leaf) throughout the year, had stems with high rho(w) and low hydraulic conductivity and leaves with low SLA. These two hydraulic syndromes were the extremes of a continuum with several species occupying different portions of a gradient in hydraulic characteristics. It appears that the marginal cost of having an extensive root system (e.g., high rho(w) and root hydraulic resistance) contributes to low growth rates of the deeply rooted species. PMID:19330355

Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo; Meinzer, Frederick C; Arce, Maria E

2009-07-01

95

Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake  

PubMed Central

Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrophyte species. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in taxonomic diversity, functional identity (i.e., stem dry mass content, leaf [C] and leaf [N]), and functional diversity (i.e., floating leaf, mean Julian flowering date and rooting depth) with increasing water depth. For the multiple-trait functional diversity (FD) indices, functional richness decreased, while functional divergence increased with water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Community-weighted means (CWM) showed a two times higher explanatory power relative to FD indices in determining variations in community productivity. For nine of sixteen traits, CWM and FD showed significant correlations with community productivity, although the strength and direction of those relations depended on selected trait. Furthermore, functional composition in a community affected productivity through either additive or opposite effects of CWM and FD, depending on the particular traits being considered. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits–productivity relationships. PMID:24967072

Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

2014-01-01

96

Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake.  

PubMed

Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrophyte species. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in taxonomic diversity, functional identity (i.e., stem dry mass content, leaf [C] and leaf [N]), and functional diversity (i.e., floating leaf, mean Julian flowering date and rooting depth) with increasing water depth. For the multiple-trait functional diversity (FD) indices, functional richness decreased, while functional divergence increased with water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Community-weighted means (CWM) showed a two times higher explanatory power relative to FD indices in determining variations in community productivity. For nine of sixteen traits, CWM and FD showed significant correlations with community productivity, although the strength and direction of those relations depended on selected trait. Furthermore, functional composition in a community affected productivity through either additive or opposite effects of CWM and FD, depending on the particular traits being considered. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traits-productivity relationships. PMID:24967072

Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

2014-05-01

97

Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water\\/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of

Scot K. Izuka; Stephen B. Gingerich

1998-01-01

98

Out-of-field dose measurements in a water phantom using different radiotherapy modalities.  

PubMed

This investigation focused on the characterization of the lateral dose fall-off following the irradiation of the target with photons, protons and carbon ions. A water phantom was irradiated with a rectangular field using photons, passively delivered protons as well as scanned protons and carbon ions. The lateral dose profile in the depth of the maximum dose was measured using an ion chamber, a diamond detector and thermoluminescence detectors TLD-600 and TLD-700. The yield of thermal neutrons was estimated for all radiation types while their complete spectrum was measured with bubble detectors during the irradiation with photons. The peripheral dose delivered by photons is significantly higher compared to both protons and carbon ions and exceeds the latter by up to two orders of magnitude at distances greater than 50 mm from the field. The comparison of passive and active delivery techniques for protons shows that, for the chosen rectangular target shape, the former has a sharper penumbra whereas the latter has a lower dose in the far-out-of-field region. When comparing scanning treatments, carbon ions present a sharper dose fall-off than protons close to the target but increasing peripheral dose with increasing incident energy. For photon irradiation, the contribution to the out-of-field dose of photoneutrons appears to be of the same order of magnitude as the scattered primary beam. Charged particles show a clear supremacy over x-rays in achieving a higher dose conformality around the target and in sparing the healthy tissue from unnecessary radiation exposure. The out-of-field dose for x-rays increases with increasing beam energy because of the production of biologically harmful neutrons. PMID:22836598

Kaderka, R; Schardt, D; Durante, M; Berger, T; Ramm, U; Licher, J; La Tessa, C

2012-08-21

99

Mapping Water-Table Depths Over Time to Assess Desiccation of Groundwater-Dependent Ecosystems in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decades, groundwater-dependent ecosystems in the Netherlands have been threatened by a decline in the water-table\\u000a level. However, information on water-table depths and changes in water-table depths is insufficient and outdated. For policy\\u000a evaluation, spatially explicit and detailed information on water-table depths is required, especially in areas with groundwater-dependent\\u000a ecosystems including wetlands. Some 35,000 observations of seasonal fluctuation

Tom Hoogland; Gerard B. M. Heuvelink; Martin Knotters

2010-01-01

100

EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan [Department of Radiation Oncology, McLaren Regional Medical Center, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Radiation Oncology Department, SMBD Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 (Canada)

2012-02-15

101

A controlled water-table depth system to study the influence of fine-scale differences in water regime for plant growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to maintain water-table depths at a constant level in outdoor mesocosms. The system included a water treatment reservoir, where tap water was microbially deoxygenated and denitrified; an adjustable-level control chamber that set desired water-table depths and plant growing mesocosms.The soil water status was evaluated by constant monitoring using tensiometers, pressure transducers and dipwells. The robustness of

Yoseph N. Araya; David J. Gowing; Nancy Dise

2010-01-01

102

Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock - Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

Drew, L. J.; Schuenemeyer, J. H.; Amstrong, T. R.; Sutphin, D. M.

2001-01-01

103

Estimating snow depth, snow water equivalent, and stratigraphy at high resolution using microwave radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates are a critical component of the hydrological system in cold terrestrial environments, yet our ability to estimate SWE accurately over large areas remains limited. Point measurements of SWE at automatic weather stations (e.g. SNOTEL sites) and manual snowpit measurements are costly, time consuming and difficult to interpolate between, primarily due to the large variability that often exists in snow properties over short distances (< 10 m). Microwave remote sensing offers a promising alternative as large spatial coverage and high temporal resolution can be achieved, however, interpretation of SWE from microwave sensors remains problematic. This is largely due to the difficulty in obtaining ground-truth measurements at a sufficient resolution and scale within air- and space-borne instrument footprints for testing and improving SWE retrieval algorithms. Ground-based microwave radar measurements were used to estimate snow depth, SWE and stratigraphy during recent, intensive, remote sensing ground-truth campaigns in Colorado (NASA Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX) I (2002/03) and II (2006-07)) and Alaska (NASA AMSR-Ice06). These sampling campaigns were coincident with active and passive, air- and space-borne microwave measurements, and covered a wide range of snow conditions. Ground-based radar, due to its relatively small antenna footprint, allows ground-truth measurements of snow depth, SWE, and stratigraphy within the footprint to be well-characterized using traditional manual in-situ methods. These manual measurements, covering a wide range of snow conditions throughout 3 major campaigns are used to quantify the accuracy of estimating snow depth and SWE from the radar measurement. Due to the very high sample rate, these radar-derived snow depth and SWE estimates can be made several orders of magnitude faster than with traditional techniques. These high-resolution data, covering length scales from centimeters to kilometers, provide key information for understanding the spatial distribution and variation of snow depth, SWE and stratigraphy, in a wide range of environments.

Marshall, H.; Koh, G.; Sturm, M.; Rutter, N.

2007-12-01

104

Effect of Water Table Level on Metal Mobility at Different Depths in Wetland Soils of the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was set up to assess the factors affecting metal mobility in five wetland soils of the Scheldt estuary at different\\u000a sampling depths when subjecting the soils to various water table levels. Pore water metal concentrations were monitored for\\u000a 10 months at four sampling depths (10, 30, 60 and 90 cm) upon adjusting the water table level to 0, 40 and

Gijs Du Laing; Erik Meers; Marjan Dewispelaere; Jörg Rinklebe; Bart Vandecasteele; Marc G. Verloo; Filip M. G. Tack

2009-01-01

105

[Niches of plant species in wetlands of the Yellow River Delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity].  

PubMed

Ordination methods were used to arrange in turn the 19 plant species in wetlands of the Yellow River Delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity, and to classify them into three ecological species groups, i. e. low, medium, and high water table depth/soil salinity ecological species groups. Their niche breadths and niche overlaps under the two gradients were also analyzed. The results indicated that for the gradient of water table depth, the species in medium water table depth ecological species group, such as Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa, occupied a broad niche breadth, and those in high water table depth ecological species group, such as Typha orientalis and Myriophyllum spicatum, occupied the narrowest niche breadth. For the gradient of soil salinity, the species in high soil salinity ecological species group, such as Suaeda salsa and Tamarix chinensis, occupied a broad niche breadth, while those belonging to the medium and low soil salinity ecological species groups occupied a narrow niche breadth. The niche overlaps changed regularly along the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity. In general, the niche overlaps between the plant species of the same ecological species groups were large, whilst those between the plant species of different ecological species groups were small. Niche differentiations of the plant species under the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity might promote species coexistence, and contribute to the explanation of plant zonation mechanisms in this Delta. PMID:18655579

He, Qiang; Cui, Bao-Shan; Zhao, Xin-Sheng; Fu, Hua-Ling

2008-05-01

106

Multidimensional modal analysis of nonlinear sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discrete infinite-dimensional modal system describing nonlinear sloshing of an incompressible fluid with irrotational flow partially occupying a tank performing an arbitrary three-dimensional motion is derived in general form. The tank has vertical walls near the free surface and overturning waves are excluded. The derivation is based on the Bateman Luke variational principle. The free surface motion and velocity potential are expanded in generalized Fourier series. The derived infinite-dimensional modal system couples generalized time-dependent coordinates of free surface elevation and the velocity potential. The procedure is not restricted by any order of smallness. The general multidimensional structure of the equations is approximated to analyse sloshing in a rectangular tank with finite water depth. The amplitude frequency response is consistent with the fifth-order steady-state solutions by Waterhouse (1994). The theory is validated by new experimental results. It is shown that transients and associated nonlinear beating are important. An initial variation of excitation periods is more important than initial conditions. The theory is invalid when either the water depth is small or water impacts heavily on the tank ceiling. Alternative expressions for hydrodynamic loads are presented. The procedure facilitates simulations of a coupled vehicle fluid system.

Faltinsen, Odd M.; Rognebakke, Olav F.; Lukovsky, Ivan A.; Timokha, Alexander N.

2000-03-01

107

Escape from water or remain quiescent? Lotus tenuis changes its strategy depending on depth of submergence  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Two main strategies that allow plants to cope with soil waterlogging or deeper submergence are: (1) escaping by means of upward shoot elongation or (2) remaining quiescent underwater. This study investigates these strategies in Lotus tenuis, a forage legume of increasing importance in areas prone to soil waterlogging, shallow submergence or complete submergence. Methods Plants of L. tenuis were subjected for 30 d to well-drained (control), waterlogged (water-saturated soil), partially submerged (6 cm water depth) and completely submerged conditions. Plant responses assessed were tissue porosity, shoot number and length, biomass and utilization of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSCs) and starch in the crown. Key Results Lotus tenuis adjusted its strategy depending on the depth of submergence. Root growth of partially submerged plants ceased and carbon allocation prioritized shoot lengthening (32 cm vs. 24·5 cm under other treatments), without depleting carbohydrate reserves to sustain the faster growth. These plants also developed more shoot and root porosity. In contrast, completely submerged plants became quiescent, with no associated biomass accumulation, new shoot production or shoot elongation. In addition, tissue porosity was not enhanced. The survival of completely submerged plants is attributed to consumption of WSCs and starch reserves from crowns (concentrations 50–75 % less than in other treatments). Conclusions The forage legume L. tenuis has the flexibility either to escape from partial submergence by elongating its shoot more vigorously to avoid becoming totally submerged or to adopt a non-elongating quiescent strategy when completely immersed that is based on utilizing stored reserves. The possession of these alternative survival strategies helps to explain the success of L. tenuis in environments subjected to unpredictable flooding depths. PMID:19687031

Manzur, M. E.; Grimoldi, A. A.; Insausti, P.; Striker, G. G.

2009-01-01

108

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15

109

[Variations in depth and chemistry of groundwater in interval of water delivery at the lower Tarim River].  

PubMed

Variations in groundwater depth and groundwater chemistry influenced by ecological water delivery in the lower Tarim River result in ecological changes. Based on the monitoring data during March, 2007 to September, 2009, the changes of both depths and chemistry of groundwater were studied. It is found that the depth of groundwater at the upper section of lower reaches increased, the major ions, such as Cl-, Na+, showed an increased change. The variations in groundwater depth in groundwater at middle section of lower Tarim River increased, and the concentrations of the major ions showed an opposite trend after the 11th water delivery. At lower section, the depths of groundwater decreased from August, 2008 till September, 2009. At the same time, the major ions in groundwater increased gradually. The groundwater depth and groundwater chemistry far away from the watercourse had a complex change. PMID:22452189

Chen, Yong-Jin; Li, Wei-Hong; Dong, Jie; Liu, Jia-Zhen

2012-01-01

110

Effect of Depth of Flooding on the Rice Water Weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, and Yield of Rice  

PubMed Central

The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a semi-aquatic pest of rice and is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Adults oviposit after floods are established, and greenhouse studies have shown that plants exposed to deep floods have more eggs oviposited in leaf sheaths than plants exposed to a shallow flood. Experiments were conducted in three mid-southern states in the USA to determine if the depth of flooding would impact numbers of L. oryzophilus on rice plants under field conditions. Rice was flooded at depths of approximately 5 or 10 cm in Arkansas in 2007 and 2008 and Louisiana in 2008, and at depths between 0–20 cm in Missouri in 2008. Plants were sampled three and four weeks after floods were established in all locations, and also two weeks after flood in Missouri. On all sampling dates in four experiments over two years and at three field sites, fewer L. oryzophilus larvae were collected from rice in shallow-flooded plots than from deep-flooded plots. The number of L. oryzophilus was reduced by as much as 27% in shallow-flooded plots. However, the reduction in insect numbers did not translate to a significant increase in rice yield. We discuss how shallow floods could be used as a component of an integrated pest management program for L. oryzophilus. PMID:23906324

Tindall, Kelly V.; Bernhardt, John L.; Stout, Michael J.; Beighley, Donn H.

2013-01-01

111

Headgroup Immersion Depth and Its Effect on the Lateral Diffusion of Amphiphiles at the Air/Water Interface  

E-print Network

Headgroup Immersion Depth and Its Effect on the Lateral Diffusion of Amphiphiles at the Air/water interface to characterize the lateral mobilities of several long alkyl chain ferrocene amphiphiles strongly on the headgroup polarity, demonstrating that the immersion depth of the amphiphiles is the key

Majda, Marcin

112

Enhanced migratory waterfowl distribution modeling by inclusion of depth to water table data.  

PubMed

In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species. PMID:22272288

Kreakie, Betty J; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H

2012-01-01

113

Enhanced Migratory Waterfowl Distribution Modeling by Inclusion of Depth to Water Table Data  

PubMed Central

In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species. PMID:22272288

Kreakie, Betty J.; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H.

2012-01-01

114

A mid-depth front separating the South China Sea water and the Philippine sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the influence of the South China Sea (SCS) water on the Kuroshio, and to study the dissolved carbonate system, we participated in six WOCE cruises aboard R\\/V Ocean Researcher 1. The areas studied were the northeast South China Sea and the West Philippine Sea near the Luzon Strait. Temperature, salinity, pH, alkalinity and total CO2 were

Chen-Tung Arthur Chen; Ming-Hsiung Huang

1996-01-01

115

Evaluation of the depth-integration method of measuring water discharge in large rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth-integration method oor measuring water discharge makes a continuos measurement of the water velocity from the water surface to the bottom at 20 to 40 locations or verticals across a river. It is especially practical for large rivers where river traffic makes it impractical to use boats attached to taglines strung across the river or to use current meters suspended from bridges. This method has the additional advantage over the standard two- and eight-tenths method in that a discharge-weighted suspended-sediment sample can be collected at the same time. When this method is used in large rivers such as the Missouri, Mississippi and Ohio, a microwave navigation system is used to determine the ship's position at each vertical sampling location across the river, and to make accurate velocity corrections to compensate for shift drift. An essential feature is a hydraulic winch that can lower and raise the current meter at a constant transit velocity so that the velocities at all depths are measured for equal lengths of time. Field calibration measurements show that: (1) the mean velocity measured on the upcast (bottom to surface) is within 1% of the standard mean velocity determined by 9-11 point measurements; (2) if the transit velocity is less than 25% of the mean velocity, then average error in the mean velocity is 4% or less. The major source of bias error is a result of mounting the current meter above a sounding weight and sometimes above a suspended-sediment sampling bottle, which prevents measurement of the velocity all the way to the bottom. The measured mean velocity is slightly larger than the true mean velocity. This bias error in the discharge is largest in shallow water (approximately 8% for the Missouri River at Hermann, MO, where the mean depth was 4.3 m) and smallest in deeper water (approximately 3% for the Mississippi River at Vickbsurg, MS, where the mean depth was 14.5 m). The major source of random error in the discharge is the natural variability of river velocities, which we assumed to be independent and random at each vertical. The standard error of the estimated mean velocity, at an individual vertical sampling location, may be as large as 9%, for large sand-bed alluvial rivers. The computed discharge, however, is a weighted mean of these random velocities. Consequently the standard error of computed discharge is divided by the square root of the number of verticals, producing typical values between 1 and 2%. The discharges measured by the depth-integrated method agreed within ±5% of those measured simultaneously by the standard two- and eight-tenths, six-tenth and moving boat methods.

Moody, John A.; Troutman, Brent M.

1992-07-01

116

A stochastic model describing the impact of daily rainfall depth distribution on the soil water balance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simplified, vertically-averaged soil moisture models have been widely used to describe and study eco-hydrological processes in water-limited ecosystems. The principal aim of these models is to understand how the main physical and biological processes linking soil, vegetation, and climate impact on the statistical properties of soil moisture. A key component of these models is the stochastic nature of daily rainfall, which is mathematically described as a compound Poisson process with daily rainfall amounts drawn from an exponential distribution. Since measurements show that the exponential distribution is often not the best candidate to fit daily rainfall, we compare the soil moisture probability density functions obtained from a soil water balance model with daily rainfall depths assumed to be distributed as exponential, mixed-exponential, and gamma. This model with different daily rainfall distributions is applied to a catchment in New South Wales, Australia, in order to show that the estimation of the seasonal statistics of soil moisture might be improved when using the distribution that better fits daily rainfall data. This study also shows that the choice of the daily rainfall distributions might considerably affect the estimation of vegetation water-stress, leakage and runoff occurrence, and the whole water balance.

Verma, Parikshit; Yeates, James; Daly, Edoardo

2011-08-01

117

Temperate carbonate cycling and water mass properties from intertidal to bathyal depths (Azores)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rugged submarine topography of the Azores supports a diverse heterozoan association resulting in intense biotically-controlled carbonate-production and accumulation. In order to characterise this cold-water (C) factory a 2-year experiment was carried out in the southern Faial Channel to study the biodiversity of hardground communities and for budgeting carbonate production and degradation along a bathymetrical transect from the intertidal to bathyal 500 m depth. Seasonal temperatures peak in September (above a thermocline) and bottom in March (stratification diminishes) with a decrease in amplitude and absolute values with depth, and tidal-driven short-term fluctuations. Measured seawater stable isotope ratios and levels of dissolved nutrients decrease with depth, as do the calcium carbonate saturation states. The photosynthetic active radiation shows a base of the euphotic zone in ~70 m and a dysphotic limit in ~150 m depth. Bioerosion, being primarily a function of light availability for phototrophic endoliths and grazers feeding upon them, is ~10 times stronger on the illuminated upside versus the shaded underside of substrates in the photic zone, with maximum rates in the intertidal (-631 g/m2/yr). Rates rapidly decline towards deeper waters where bioerosion and carbonate accretion are slow and epibenthic/endolithic communities take years to mature. Accretion rates are highest in the lower euphotic zone (955 g/m2/yr), where the substrate is less prone to hydrodynamic force. Highest rates are found - inversely to bioerosion - on down-facing substrates, suggesting that bioerosion may be a key factor governing the preferential settlement and growth of calcareous epilithobionts on down-facing substrates. In context of a latitudinal gradient, the Azores carbonate cycling rates plot between known values from the cold-temperate Swedish Kosterfjord and the tropical Bahamas, with a total range of two orders in magnitude. Carbonate budget calculations for the bathymetrical transect yield a mean 266.9 kg of epilithic carbonate production, -54.6 kg of bioerosion, and 212.3 kg of annual net carbonate production per metre of coastline in the Azores C factory.

Wisshak, M.; Form, A.; Jakobsen, J.; Freiwald, A.

2010-08-01

118

Temperate carbonate cycling and water mass properties from intertidal to bathyal depths (Azores, N-Atlantic)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rugged submarine topography of the Azores supports a diverse heterozoan association resulting in intense biotically-controlled carbonate production and accumulation. In order to characterise this cold-water (C) factory a 2-year experiment was carried out to study the biodiversity of hardground communities and for budgeting carbonate production and degradation along a bathymetrical transect from the intertidal to bathyal 500 m depth. Seasonal temperatures peak in September (above a thermocline) and bottom in March (stratification diminishes) with a decrease in amplitude and absolute values with depth, and with tidal-driven short-term fluctuations. Measured seawater stable isotope ratios and levels of dissolved nutrients decrease with depth, as do the calcium carbonate saturation states. The photosynthetic active radiation shows a base of the euphotic zone in ~70 m and a dysphotic limit in ~150 m depth. Bioerosion, being primarily a function of light availability for phototrophic endoliths and grazers feeding upon them, is ~10 times stronger on the illuminated upside versus the shaded underside of substrates in the photic zone, with maximum rates in the intertidal (-631 g/m2/yr). Rates rapidly decline towards deeper waters where bioerosion and carbonate accretion are slow and epibenthic/endolithic communities take years to mature. Accretion rates are highest in the lower euphotic zone (955 g/m2/yr), where the substrate is less prone to hydrodynamic force. Highest rates are found - inversely to bioerosion - on downward facing substrates, suggesting that bioerosion may be a key factor governing the preferential settlement and growth of calcareous epilithobionts on downward facing substrates. In context of a latitudinal gradient, the Azores carbonate cycling rates plot between known values from the cold-temperate Swedish Kosterfjord and the tropical Bahamas, with a total range of two orders in magnitude. Carbonate budget calculations for the bathymetrical transect yield a mean 266.9 kg of epilithic carbonate production, -54.6 kg of bioerosion, and 212.3 kg of annual net carbonate production per metre of coastline in the Azores C factory.

Wisshak, M.; Form, A.; Jakobsen, J.; Freiwald, A.

2010-05-01

119

Depth to and concentrations of water in large bodies of silicic magma. Technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

Large bodies of silicic magma are potential sources of geothermal energy and ore. They also pose threats of catastrophic eruptions. The depths of such bodies are related to their economic potential and probably to their eruption mechanisms. The concentrations of water in the magmas are important for their eruptive and dynamical behavior and for the development of ores. The concentration of water in melt before ascent and eruption can be measured in inclusions of glass which became trapped in crystals before extrusion. The depth of a magma body can be estimated or delimited if we can find out the concentrations of both carbon dioxide and water in the inclusions of glass. Initial results on the Bishop Tuff of Long Valley Caldera, California yield 4.9 +- 0.5 percent H/sub 2/O for glass included in quartz from the Plinian air fall pumice. We estimate a minimum pressure of about 1.3 kb +- 0.2 kb at the top of the body of magma before eruption. Petrographical work on both the Bishop Tuff and the Upper and Lower Bandelier Tuffs of Valles Caldera, New Mexico, suggest that at least the upper parts of all these bodies of silicic magma were saturated with a gas. However, all of the inclusions are devitrified which we find in quartz phenocrysts from even quickly cooled, glassy equivalents of the ignimbritic parts of the tuffs. We do not understand the cause of the devitrification and consider it important to investigate further because of possible significance for the eruption and emplacement mechanisms of ignimbrites, and because inclusions revitrified by laboratory heating may nevertheless yield significant information.

Anderson, A.T. Jr.

1981-01-01

120

Pliocene-Pleistocene evolution of eastern tropical Pacific surface water circulation and thermocline depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluated the response of eastern equatorial Pacific upper water column hydrography to the Panama seaway closure and the initiation of large-scale northern hemisphere glaciation, The ?18O gradient between Globorotalia tumida and Globigerinoides sacculifer indicates a general shoaling of the thermocline between 4.2 and 3.0 Ma which may be related to a recorded decrease in southeast trade wind strength. The ?13C gradients suggest that surface water nutrient concentrations have increased during the last 5 Myr and that upwelling intermediate waters began to change sources at ˜3.2 Ma. Changes in the trans-Pacific east-west temperature and nutrient gradients at 4.0 and 1.5 Ma are coincident with the seaway closure and a major phase of northern hemisphere glaciation. Changes in the sensitivity of surface circulation to Milankovitch forcing, ?18O records linearly related to orbital variations only after 3.2 Ma, are associated with the seaway closure. Pleistocene initiation of 100 and 41 kyr cycles in the thermocline depth proxy may suggest that the hydrographic response to Milankovitch forcing is enhanced by air-sea interactions which maintain the relatively steep Pleistocene trans-Pacific gradients. The ?13C records are dominated by the 41 kyr period and are usually coherent with high-latitude climate, suggesting that associated changes in the global carbon reservoir dominate the tropical ?13C signals.

Cannariato, K. G.; Ravelo, A. C.

1997-12-01

121

Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

2012-01-01

122

Sedimentological data indicate greater range of water depths for Costistricklandia lirata in the Southern Appalachians  

SciTech Connect

Two distinct horizons of the pentamerid brachiopod Costistricklandia lirata occur in the upper part of the Red Mountain Formation (Lower Silurian) in northern Alabama. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic characteristics of the rocks associated with the brachiopods suggest water depths of 15-150 m during times of low rates of terrigenous influx. Costistricklandid assemblages from the lower horizon are composed of extremely large individuals in association with a diverse population of large corals. They are interpreted to have lived in a protected environment. In an overlying horizon, costistricklandids occur in growth position at the base of a thick siliciclastic interval. These brachiopods lived in a storm-dominated environment and were buried in situ by the rapid influx of sediment associated with a passing storm.

Bolton, J.C. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1990-08-01

123

On the quartet resonance of gravity waves in water of finite depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction among a quartet of resonant progressive waves in water of finite depth is considered by the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). The problem is governed by a linear PDE with a group of nonlinear boundary conditions on the unknown free surface. Convergent multiple steady-state solutions have been gained by means of the HAM. It's worth noting that, in the most cases of the quartet resonance, wave energy is often exchanged periodically among different wave modes. However, our computations indicate for the first time that there exist some cases in which energy exchange disappears and besides the resonant wave component may contain much small percentage of the total wave energy. This work verifies that the HAM is valid even for some rather complicated nonlinear PDEs, and can be used as a powerful tool to understand some nonlinear phenomena.

Xu, Dali; Lin, Zhiliang; Liao, Shijun

2012-09-01

124

Cathodic protection upgrade of the 1,050 ft water depth Cognac platform  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports the steps of a cathodic protection upgrade of a three year old deep water platform (the Cognac structure, Mississippi Canyon 194A) installed in 1977/78. These steps include obtaining results from an ROV survey, using the survey data to calculate added currents needed to upgrade cathodic protection of the platform, achieving retrofit anode installation using then novel methods, and following-up with CP surveys showing the success of the upgrade. The authors calculated that 3,100 amperes of additional current applied at depths from 250 to 1,050 feet would be needed to achieve full cathodic protection of the well conductors and jacket of Cognac. Approximately 1,100 additional aluminum anodes were installed during the early 1980`s, using two novel installation methods. Installed cost was estimated at $5.4MM. Potentials since the time of the upgrade have been very satisfactory.

Goolsby, A.D. [Shell Oil Products Co., Houston, TX (United States); McGuire, D.P. [Shell Offshore Inc., New Orleans, LA (United States)

1997-09-01

125

Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluxes of the three main greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O from peat and other soils with high organic carbon contents are strongly controlled by water table depth. Information about the spatial distribution of water level is thus a crucial input parameter when upscaling GHG emissions to large scales. Here, we investigate the potential of statistical modeling for the regionalization of water levels in organic soils when data covers only a small fraction of the peatlands of the final map. Our study area is Germany. Phreatic water level data from 53 peatlands in Germany were compiled in a new data set comprising 1094 dip wells and 7155 years of data. For each dip well, numerous possible predictor variables were determined using nationally available data sources, which included information about land cover, ditch network, protected areas, topography, peatland characteristics and climatic boundary conditions. We applied boosted regression trees to identify dependencies between predictor variables and dip-well-specific long-term annual mean water level (WL) as well as a transformed form (WLt). The latter was obtained by assuming a hypothetical GHG transfer function and is linearly related to GHG emissions. Our results demonstrate that model calibration on WLt is superior. It increases the explained variance of the water level in the sensitive range for GHG emissions and avoids model bias in subsequent GHG upscaling. The final model explained 45% of WLt variance and was built on nine predictor variables that are based on information about land cover, peatland characteristics, drainage network, topography and climatic boundary conditions. Their individual effects on WLt and the observed parameter interactions provide insight into natural and anthropogenic boundary conditions that control water levels in organic soils. Our study also demonstrates that a large fraction of the observed WLt variance cannot be explained by nationally available predictor variables and that predictors with stronger WLt indication, relying, for example, on detailed water management maps and remote sensing products, are needed to substantially improve model predictive performance.

Bechtold, M.; Tiemeyer, B.; Laggner, A.; Leppelt, T.; Frahm, E.; Belting, S.

2014-09-01

126

Experimental validation of Monte Carlo depth-dose calculations using radiochromic dye film dosimetry for a beta-gamma 153Sm radionuclide applied to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

In this work we compare the Monte Carlo (MCNP4B) calculated beta-gamma depth-dose profile for a liquid 153Sm beta-gamma source used in radiation synovectomy with the experimental depth-dose distribution obtained using radiochromic dye film dosimetry. The calculated and experimental depth-dose distribution shows a very good agreement (within 5%) in the region where the dose deposition is dominated by the beta particle component (first 800 microm depth on tissue-equivalent material). The agreement worsens, reaching a maximum deviation of 15%, at depths close to the maximum range of the beta particles. Finally the agreement improves for the region where the gamma component accounts for one-third of the total absorbed dose (depths >1 mm). The possible contributions to these differences are discussed, as well as their relevance for the application of 153Sm in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:12382786

Villareal-Barajas, J E; Ferro-Flores, G; Hernandez-Oviedo, O

2002-01-01

127

Gravity and geoid anomalies of the Philippine Sea: Evidence on the depth of compensation for the negative residual water depth anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A negative free-air gravity anomaly which occurs in the central part of the Philippine Sea was examined to determine the distribution and nature of possible regional mass excesses or deficiencies. Geoid anomalies from GEOS-3 observation were positive. A negative residual geoid anomaly consistent with the area of negative free-air gravity anomalies were found. Theoretical gravity-topography and geoid-topography admittance functions indicated that high density mantle at about 60 km dept could account for the magnitudes of the gravity and residual geoid anomaly and the 1 km residual water depth anomaly in the Philippine Sea. The negative residual depth anomaly may be compensated for by excess density in the uppermost mantle, but the residual geoid and regional free-air gravity anomalies and a slow surface wave velocity structure might result from low-density warm upper mantle material lying beneath the zone of high-density uppermost mantle. From a horizontal disk approximation, the depth of the low-density warm mantle was estimated to be on the order of 200 km.

Bowin, C.

1982-01-01

128

Modelling contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth (WTD) are controlled by complex interactions among several soil and plant processes, and hence are site-specific rather than general in nature. Hydrological controls on wetland productivity were studied by representing these interactions in connected hummock and hollow sites in the ecosystem model ecosys, and by testing CO2 and energy fluxes from the model with those measured by eddy covariance (EC) during years with contrasting WTD in a shrub fen at Lost Creek, WI. Modelled interactions among coupled processes for O2 transfer, O2 uptake, C oxidation, N mineralization, N uptake and C fixation by diverse microbial, root and mycorrhizal populations enabled the model to simulate complex responses of CO2 exchange to changes in WTD that depended on the WTD at which change was occurring. At the site scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater CO2 influxes and effluxes over hummocks vs. hollows, as has been found at field sites. At the landscape scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under cooler weather when water tables were shallow, but also smaller diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under warmer weather when water tables were deeper, as was also apparent in the EC flux measurements. At an annual time scale, these diurnal responses to WTD in the model caused lower net primary productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh), but higher net ecosystem productivity (NEP = NPP - Rh), to be simulated in a cooler year with a shallower water table than in a warmer year with a deeper one. This difference in NEP was consistent with those estimated from gap-filled EC fluxes in years with different water tables at Lost Creek and at similar boreal fens elsewhere. In sensitivity tests of the model, annual NEP declined with increasing WTD in a year with a shallow water table, but rose in a year with a deeper one. The model thus provided an integrated set of hypotheses for explaining site-specific and sometimes contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in WTD as found in different field experiments.

Grant, R. F.; Desai, A. R.; Sulman, B. N.

2012-11-01

129

Modelling contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth (WTD) are controlled by complex interactions among several soil and plant processes, and hence are site-specific rather than general in nature. Hydrological controls on wetland productivity were studied by representing these interactions in connected hummock and hollow sites in the ecosystem model ecosys, and by testing CO2 and energy fluxes from the model with those measured by eddy covariance (EC) during years with contrasting WTD in a shrub fen at Lost Creek, WI. Modelled interactions among coupled processes for O2 transfer, O2 uptake, C oxidation, N mineralization, N uptake and C fixation by diverse microbial, root, mycorrhizal and shoot populations enabled the model to simulate complex responses of CO2 exchange to changes in WTD that depended on the WTD at which change was occurring. At the site scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater CO2 influxes and effluxes over hummocks vs. hollows, as has been found at field sites. At the landscape scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under cooler weather when water tables were shallow, but also smaller diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under warmer weather when water tables were deeper, as was also apparent in the EC flux measurements. At an annual time scale, these diurnal responses to WTD in the model caused lower net primary productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh), but higher net ecosystem productivity (NEP = NPP - Rh), to be simulated in a cooler year with a shallower water table than in a warmer year with a deeper one. This difference in NEP was consistent with those estimated from gap-filled EC fluxes in years with different water tables at Lost Creek and at similar boreal fens elsewhere. In sensitivity test of the model, annual NEP declined with increasing WTD in a year with a shallow water table, but rose in a year with a deeper one. The model thus provided an integrated set of hypotheses for explaining site-specific and sometimes contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in WTD as found in different field experiments.

Grant, R. F.; Desai, A. R.; Sulman, B. N.

2012-05-01

130

Modelling Contrasting Responses of Wetland Productivity to Changes in Water Table Depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth (WTD) are controlled by complex interactions among several soil and plant processes, and hence are site-specific rather than general in nature. Hydrological controls on wetland productivity were studied by representing these interactions in connected hummock and hollow sites in the ecosystem model ecosys, and by testing CO2 and energy fluxes from the model with those measured by eddy covariance (EC) during years with contrasting WTD in a shrub fen at Lost Creek, WI. Modelled interactions among coupled processes for O2 transfer, O2 uptake, C oxidation, N mineralization, N uptake and C fixation by diverse microbial, root and mycorrhizal populations enabled the model to simulate complex responses of CO2 exchange to changes in WTD that depended on the WTD at which change was occurring. At the site scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater CO2 influxes and effluxes over hummocks vs. hollows, as has been found at field sites. At the landscape scale, greater WTD caused the model to simulate greater diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under cooler weather when water tables were shallow, but also smaller diurnal CO2 influxes and effluxes under warmer weather when water tables were deeper, as was also apparent in the EC flux measurements. At an annual time scale, these diurnal responses to WTD in the model caused lower net primary productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh), but higher net ecosystem productivity (NEP = NPP - Rh), to be simulated in a cooler year with a shallower water table than in a warmer year with a deeper one. This difference in NEP was consistent with those estimated from gap-filled EC fluxes in years with different water tables at Lost Creek and at similar boreal fens elsewhere. In sensitivity test of the model, annual NEP declined with increasing WTD in a year with a shallow water table, but rose in a year with a deeper one. The model thus provided an integrated set of hypotheses for explaining site-specific and sometimes contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in WTD as found in different field experiments.

Grant, R. F.; Desai, A. R.; Sulman, B. N.

2012-12-01

131

Semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model for mapping lake water depths from partially clouded satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the variability in surface water is critical to understand the impact of climate change and global water cycle. Surface water features such as lakes, or reservoirs can affect local weather and regional climate. Hence, there is a widespread demand for accurate and quantitative global observations of surface water variability. Satellite imagery provides a direct way to monitor variations in surface water. However, estimating accurate surface area from satellite imagery can be a problem due to clouds. Hence, the use of optical imagery for operational implementation has been a challenge for monitoring variations in surface water. In this research, a semi-empirical lake level (SELL) model is developed to derive lake/reservoir water levels from partially covered satellite imagery. SRTM elevation combined with bathymetry was used to derive the relationships between lake depth vs. surface area and shore line (L). Using these relationships, lake level/depth (D) was estimated from the surface area (A) and/or shore line (L) delineated from Landsat and MODIS data. The SELL model was applied on Lake Turkana, one of the rift valley lakes in East Africa. First, Lake Turkana water levels were delineated using cloud-free or partially clouded Landsat and MODIS imagery over 1993-2009 and 2002-2009 time periods respectively. Historic lake depths were derived using 1972-1992 Landsat imagery. Lake depths delineated using this approach were validated using TOPEX/Poseidon/Jason satellite altimetry data. It was found that lake depths derived using SELL model matched reasonably well with the satellite altimetry data. The approach presented in this research can be used to (a) simulate lake water level variations in data scarce regions (b) increase the frequency of observation in regions where cloud cover is a problem (c) operationally monitor lake water levels in ungauged basins (d) derive historic lake level information using satellite data.

Velpuri, N.; Senay, G. B.

2011-12-01

132

Sponge distribution across Davies Reef, Great Barrier Reef, relative to location, depth, and water movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponge populations were surveyed at different depths in three zones of Davies Reef, a large platform reef of the central Great Barrier Reef. Depth is the major discriminatory factor as few sponges are found within the first 10 m depth and maximal populations occur between 15 m and 30 m on fore-reef, lagoon and back-reef slopes. Reef location is another

Clive R. Wilkinson; Elizabeth Evans

1989-01-01

133

Variation of Water Quality Parameters with Siltation Depth for River Ichamati Along International Border with Bangladesh Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River is considered as one of the main sources of freshwater all over the world. Hence analysis and maintenance of this water resource is globally considered a matter of major concern. This paper deals with the assessment of surface water quality of the Ichamati river using multivariate statistical techniques. Eight distinct surface water quality observation stations were located and samples were collected. For the samples collected statistical techniques were applied to the physico-chemical parameters and depth of siltation. In this paper cluster analysis is done to determine the relations between surface water quality and siltation depth of river Ichamati. Multiple regressions and mathematical equation modeling have been done to characterize surface water quality of Ichamati river on the basis of physico-chemical parameters. It was found that surface water quality of the downstream river was different from the water quality of the upstream. The analysis of the water quality parameters of the Ichamati river clearly indicate high pollution load on the river water which can be accounted to agricultural discharge, tidal effect and soil erosion. The results further reveal that with the increase in depth of siltation, water quality degraded.

Roy, P. K.; Pal, S.; Banerjee, G.; Biswas Roy, M.; Ray, D.; Majumder, A.

2014-08-01

134

Surface dynamics in LES of full-depth Langmuir circulation in shallow water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-eddy simulations (LES) of wind-driven shallow water flows with and without full-depth Langmuir circulation (LC) are described and near-surface dynamics analyzed. LC consists of parallel counter-rotating vortices or cells that are aligned roughly in the direction of the wind and are generated by the interaction of the wind-driven shear with the Stokes drift velocity induced by surface gravity waves. Simulations do not resolve surface waves; thus the top of the domain is taken as a non-deforming, free-slip, wind shear-driven surface. In the absence of resolved surface waves, the LC-generating mechanism is parameterized via the well-known Craik-Leibovich vortex force (Craik and Leibovich 1976 J Fluid Mech. 73 401-26) appearing in the momentum equation. LES guided by the full-depth LC field measurements of Gargett and Wells (2007 J Fluid Mech. 576 27-61) shows that this large-scale, downwind-elongated structure changes surface log-layer dynamics in terms of mean downwind velocity and budgets of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). For example, in terms of mean velocity, the mixing due to LC leads to a deviation from the classical surface log-law profile that is exhibited by wind-driven flow without LC. Furthermore, LC leads to a deviation from the classical balance between production and dissipation rates of TKE in the log-layer. Two key parameters controlling the extent of surface log-layer disruption caused by LC are the dominant wavelength (?) of the surface waves generating LC and the turbulent Langmuir number, Lat, which is inversely proportional to wave forcing relative to wind forcing.

Tejada-Martínez, Andrés E.; Akan, Cigdem; Sinha, Nityanand; Grosch, Chester E.; Martinat, Guillaume

2013-07-01

135

Conversion from dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on experiments and numerical simulations, a study is carried out pertaining to the conversion of dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in a carbon ion beam. This conversion is needed to establish graphite calorimeters as primary standards of absorbed dose in these beams. It is governed by the water-to-graphite mass collision stopping power ratio and fluence correction factors, which depend on the particle fluence distributions in each of the two media. The paper focuses on the experimental and numerical determination of this fluence correction factor for an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam. Measurements have been performed in the nuclear physics laboratory INFN-LNS in Catania (Sicily, Italy). The numerical simulations have been made with a Geant4 Monte Carlo code through the GATE simulation platform. The experimental data are in good agreement with the simulated results for the fluence correction factors and are found to be close to unity. The experimental values increase with depth reaching 1.010 before the Bragg peak region. They have been determined with an uncertainty of 0.25%. Different numerical results are obtained depending on the level of approximation made in calculating the fluence correction factors. When considering carbon ions only, the difference between measured and calculated values is maximal just before the Bragg peak, but its value is less than 1.005. The numerical value is close to unity at the surface and increases to 1.005 near the Bragg peak. When the fluence of all charged particles is considered, the fluence correction factors are lower than unity at the surface and increase with depth up to 1.025 before the Bragg peak. Besides carbon ions, secondary particles created due to nuclear interactions have to be included in the analysis: boron ions (10B and 11B), beryllium ions (7Be), alpha particles and protons. At the conclusion of this work, we have the conversion of dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water to apply to the response of a graphite calorimeter in an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam. This conversion consists of the product of two contributions: the water-to-graphite electronic mass collision stopping power ratio, which is equal to 1.115, and the fluence correction factor which varies linearly with depth, as kfl, all = 0.9995 + 0.0048?zw-eq. The latter has been determined on the basis of experiments and numerical simulations.

Rossomme, S.; Palmans, H.; Shipley, D.; Thomas, R.; Lee, N.; Romano, F.; Cirrone, P.; Cuttone, G.; Bertrand, D.; Vynckier, S.

2013-08-01

136

Water-transparency (Secchi Depth) monitoring in the China Sea with the SeaWiFS satellite sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water transparency (Secchi depth) is a basic parameter that describes the optical property of water, and it is a traditional item measured in situ. The traditional method of monitoring water transparency is the in-situ measurement by ship. However, because of its inherent shortcoming, this in situ method can not satisfy the requirement of the large-scale, quick and real-time monitoring of

Xianqiang He; Delu Pan; Zhihua Mao

2004-01-01

137

Water depth-composition trends in ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin compared to those in equatorial Pacific crusts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts have been used as proxies for paleo-seawater chemistry; however, element concentrations and growth rates in crusts can vary depending on the region, latitude, and water depth. Here we will look at 130 Fe-Mn crusts from seven seamounts adjacent to the California (CA) margin to explore trends in composition with water depth and latitude. Crusts were collected by ROV, resulting in a dataset with exact water depth and location coordinates. Water depth ranges from 570 to 3,934 m along a 700-km transect running roughly parallel to the CA margin. Crust samples used for comparison were collected by dredging along transects following the Gilbert Ridge and Tokelau Seamounts in the western equatorial Pacific, with water depths ranging from about 1,500 to 4,800 m. In addition to variations with latitude and water depth, element concentrations in CA margin crusts are influenced by high primary productivity in surface waters, terrestrial input, and upwelling along the continental margin. Elements associated with terrestrial input, including Na, Si, Al, K, Pb, and particularly Th, are enriched in CA margin crusts relative to crusts from the equatorial Pacific transects. Si is also associated with the biogenic phase, as are P, Ba, and Cu but these elements are lower in CA margin crusts. Ba is a proxy for primary productivity. CA margin crusts show Ba increasing with increasing water depth, while equatorial Pacific crusts show the inverse trend. In equatorial Pacific crusts, Ba correlates with decreasing latitude, which reflects increasing proximity to the high productivity zone of equatorial upwelling; additionally, local obstructional upwelling associated with primary productivity around seamounts and islands enhances the productivity signal. Cu, which is associated with the manganese oxide phase, in addition to the biogenic phase, also increases with water depth along the CA margin; this is consistent with the seawater profile for dissolved Cu. In both the CA margin and the equatorial Pacific crusts, select elements associated with the iron oxyhydroxide phase, Pb, Mo, As, Ca, P, and Th, have higher concentrations in crusts that formed in shallower water. In CA margin crusts aluminosilicate elements, Si, Al, and K increase with water depth; this is also true for Si and K in equatorial Pacific samples. Be, which can be associated with biogenic and iron oxyhydroxide phases, increases in shallower water in both data sets, however when the data are combined, Be appears to increase with water depth. This apparent increase in the combined data is due to lower Be concentrations in the CA margin crusts relative to the equatorial Pacific crusts, which may be due to an inverse correlation between Be and latitude. Both the CA margin and equatorial Pacific crust growth rates increase with increasing water depth and increasing latitude. However, these trends disappear when the data are combined. These relationships indicate that regional and geographic trends must be taken into account when using crusts for paleo-oceanographic studies.

Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.

2013-12-01

138

Decadal changes in the mid-depth water mass dynamic of the Northeastern Atlantic margin (Bay of Biscay)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium/magnesium (Li/Mg) molar ratios, radiocarbon measurements (?14C) and Nd-isotopic composition (?Nd) of the aragonite skeleton of a branching cold-water coral (CWC) species Madrepora oculata collected alive in the Bay of Biscay at ?691 m water depth were investigated to reconstruct a robust record of the mid-depth water mass dynamics between 1950 and 1990 AD. Temperature estimates based on the skeletons Li/Mg molar ratios reveal small decadal changes of about 1 °C at thermocline depth synchronous to and of similar amplitude as surface temperature anomalies. ?14C measurements shows quasi-decadal oscillations of 15‰ around pre-bomb ?14C average value of -59±6‰ and post-bomb ?14C of -12±6‰, which most likely reflect decadal changes of water mass exchange across the thermocline. The coral ?Nd values remain in narrow ranges of -11.9 to -10.2, similar to the isotopic composition of East North Atlantic Central Water, but show highest values in the late 1950s, and early 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The punctuated changes of the coral Nd-isotopic composition may thus reflect periods of particular enhanced advection of temperate intermediate water (mid-depth Subpolar Gyre/Mediterranean Sea Water). Altogether, our robust multi-proxy record provides new evidence that Northern Hemisphere atmospheric variability (such as, North Atlantic Oscillation and East Atlantic pattern) drives changes not only in the thermocline but also in the mid-depth water-mass advection patterns in the Northeastern Atlantic margin. However, the interannual variability of our record remains to be tested.

Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Frank, Norbert; Tisnérat-Laborde, Nadine; Colin, Christophe; Wu, Chung-Che; Lin, Ke; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Copard, Kevin; Orejas, Covadonga; Gori, Andrea; De Mol, Lies; Van Rooij, David; Reverdin, Gilles; Douville, Eric

2013-02-01

139

Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

140

New estimates of subducted water from depths of extensional outer rise earthquakes at the Northwestern Pacific subduction zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of water within the subducting slab mantle may have important implications for subduction zone water budgets, intermediate depth earthquakes, and transport of water into Earth's deep mantle. However, the amount of water stored in hydrous slab mantle rocks prior to subduction is not well constrained. Large extensional faults formed as the plate bends at the subduction zone outer rise are thought to be the main pathway by which water can travel into and hydrate the slab mantle; yet for many subduction zones accurate depths of extensional outer rise faulting are also not well known. Therefore, we attempt to identify the maximum observed depth of extensional faulting, and thereby identify the possible depth extent of slab mantle hydration, by accurately locating and determining depths for outer rise and trench axis earthquakes at Northern and Western Pacific subduction zones. For each region, we relocate all earthquakes seaward of the trench axis as well as forearc earthquakes within 60 km landward of the trench axis using ISC arrival times and the hypocentroidal decomposition relative location algorithm. We then model P- and SH- waveforms and their associated depth phases for all earthquakes with Mw 5.0+ since 1990 that exhibit good signal-to-noise ratios and do not have shallow-dipping thrust focal mechanisms, which are indicative of subduction zone plate interface earthquakes. In total, we redetermined epicenters and depths for over 70 earthquakes at the Alaskan, Aleutian, Kamchatka, Kuril, Japan, and Izu-Bonin-Mariana trenches. We find that at most Pacific subduction zones there is evidence for extensional faulting down to 10-15 km within the top of the oceanic plate mantle, and in total, 95% of our analyzed extensional outer rise events occur within the crust or top 15 km of the mantle. However some regions, such as the Bonin and Aleutian Islands, show evidence for extensional faulting as deep as 20 km below the base of the crust. If the mantle of the subducting slab is hydrated down to ~15 km (with ~2-3.5 wt. % water), and assuming published values for the amount of water in the slab crust [1], then we expect that ~10^10 Tg/Myr of water are input into Northwestern Pacific subduction zones. This value for only the Northwestern Pacific subduction zones is then 10 times larger than previous global estimates [1] and indicates a need to reevaluate recent subduction water flux calculations. [1] Van Keken et al (2011), JGR, 116, B01401.

Emry, E. L.; Wiens, D. A.

2012-12-01

141

Specification of absorbed dose to water using model-based dose calculation algorithms for treatment planning in brachytherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), recently introduced in treatment planning systems (TPS) for brachytherapy, calculate tissue absorbed doses. In the TPS framework, doses have hereto been reported as dose to water and water may still be preferred as a dose specification medium. Dose to tissue medium Dmed then needs to be converted into dose to water in tissue Dw,med. Methods to calculate absorbed dose to differently sized water compartments/cavities inside tissue, infinitesimal (used for definition of absorbed dose), small, large or intermediate, are reviewed. Burlin theory is applied to estimate photon energies at which cavity sizes in the range 1 nm-10 mm can be considered small or large. Photon and electron energy spectra are calculated at 1 cm distance from the central axis in cylindrical phantoms of bone, muscle and adipose tissue for 20, 50, 300 keV photons and photons from 125I, 169Yb and 192Ir sources; ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients are calculated as applicable to convert Dmed into Dw,med for small and large cavities. Results show that 1-10 nm sized cavities are small at all investigated photon energies; 100 µm cavities are large only at photon energies <20 keV. A choice of an appropriate conversion coefficient Dw, med/Dmed is discussed in terms of the cavity size in relation to the size of important cellular targets. Free radicals from DNA bound water of nanometre dimensions contribute to DNA damage and cell killing and may be the most important water compartment in cells implying use of ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers for converting Dmed into Dw,med.

Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

2013-04-01

142

The development of a concept for accurate and efficient dredging at great water depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Especially in the past decade dredging projects are being carried out at an ever increasing depth and scale. Modern Trailing Suction Hopper Dredgers (TSHD's) can now dredge up to 150 m depth. However, for certain projects, it is necessary to exceed this limit. One can think of the exploitation of certain minerals, which may be economic in the near future,

O. Verheul; P. M. Vercruijsse; S. A. Miedema

143

Measurements of Water Characteristics at Depths Greater than 10KM in the Marianas Trench.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of the temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients have been made at depths of 9978 and 10,933 m in the Challenger Deep of the Marianas Trench by means of free-vehicle hydrographic casts. At depths below about 6000 m the deep appears to be f...

A. W. Mantyla, J. L. Reid

1977-01-01

144

EXAMINATION OF INTER-IMAGE COMPATIBILITY OF WATER DEPTH PREDICTORS BASED ON VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED IMAGERY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral remote sensing methods of water depth can potentially play an important role in shallow water bathymetry. However, they have not been widely used because they require auxiliary information about optical properties of target water area for each image in order to build or calibrate the prediction model. In this study, we examined the inter-image compatibility of the prediction model of the popular method by Lyzenga et al. using three QuickBird images of different water areas. As a result, predicted and measured depths were found to be highly correlated regardless of the combinations of the image used for calibration and the image predicted. The interchangeability can be utilized to reduce the amount of the auxiliary information necessary to apply the method, and therefore to improve its feasibility.

Kanno, Ariyo; Koibuchi, Yukio; Isobe, Masahiko

145

Predictive models of turbidity and water depth in the Doñana marshes using Landsat TM and ETM+ images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ images together with simultaneous ground-truth data at sample points in the Doñana marshes to predict water turbidity and depth from band reflectance using Generalized Additive Models. We have point samples for 12 different dates simultaneous with 7 Landsat-5 and 5 Landsat-7 overpasses. The best model for water turbidity in the marsh explained

Javier Bustamante; Fernando Pacios; Ricardo Díaz-Delgado; David Aragonés

2009-01-01

146

Interactive effects of seed availability, water depth, and phosphorus enrichment on cattail colonization in an Everglades wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance of seed availability, waterdepth, and soil phosphorus (P) concentrations oncattail (Typha domingensis pers.) earlyestablishment in an Everglades wetland area wasexamined using seed bank analysis and controlledexperiments. The experiments measured seed germinationand seedling growth in tanks with cattail seedaddition subjected to two P concentrations(un-enriched vs. enriched) and water depth (saturatedvs. flooded soils). A limited seed bank (223 ±

S. L. Miao; P. V. McCormick; S. Newman; S. Rajagopalan

2001-01-01

147

Depth of penetration of bubbles entrained by a plunging water jet Christophe Clanet and Juan C. Lasheras  

E-print Network

Depth of penetration of bubbles entrained by a plunging water jet Christophe Clanet and Juan C a wide range of jet diameters, velocities, and plunging angles. © 1997 American Institute of Physics. S surface; e.g., a jet plunging into a pool, a breaking wave plunging in the ocean, a droplet impinging

Clanet, Christophe

148

Correlation of changes in pigment content with photosynthetic capacity of seaweeds as a function of water depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study of the relationship between changes in photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic capacity as a function of water depth in Great Harbor near Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, on the green algae Ulva lactuca and Codium fragile and the red algae Porphyra umbilicalis and Chondrus crispus. Seaweeds were attached to vertically buoyed lines at 0.5 and 10 m

J. Ramus; S. I. Beale; D. Mauzerall

1976-01-01

149

-RECORDING RELATIVE WATER TABLE DEPTH USING PVC TAPE DISCOLOURATION -21 Applied Vegetation Science 8: 21-26, 2005  

E-print Network

- RECORDING RELATIVE WATER TABLE DEPTH USING PVC TAPE DISCOLOURATION - 21 Applied Vegetation during restoration. The PVC tape discolouration method enables spatially and temporally extensive studies and the same variables indicated by discolouration of PVC tape attached to green bamboo stakes installed

Navrátilová, Jana

150

Response of cabbage to depth of transplanting, soil amendment and water stress on a Japanese volcanic ash soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplants growth may be reduced by environmental factors when appropriate cultural practices are not used. We studied the response of cabbage to depth of transplanting (DT), soil amendment (SA) and water stress (WS) in a volcanic ash soil at the National Agriculture Research Center in Tsukuba Science City, Japan. Two separate experiments were conducted during a six weeks period: in

Nsalambi V. Nkongolo; Mitate Yamada; Atsushi Yamasaki

151

Variation of Pressure with Depth of Water: Working with High-Tech and Low-Cost Materials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When you dive underwater, you feel the pressure on your ears and, as you dive deeper, more pressure is felt. This article presents an activity that teachers might find useful for demonstrating the relationship between water depth and pressure. (Contains 5 figures and 1 table.)

Ornek, Funda; Zziwa, Byansi Jude; Taganahan, Teresita D.

2013-01-01

152

Comparative study of depth dose-distributions and partial fragmentation cross sections of 56Fe ions on polyethylene using GEANT4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depth dose-distributions and partial fragmentation cross sections for 56Fe ions on a polyethylene medium are estimated using Geant4: a Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. The models employed in the present work are the Binary Cascade, Abrasion-Ablation and Quantum Molecular Dynamics. The multifragmentation models, such as statistical multifragmentation and Fermi break-up models are used in combination with the other models to define the nuclear interactions more precisely. The partial fragmentation cross sections are calculated on the basis of charge scored in the detector. The simulated results are validated by comparing with the experimental data.

Jalota, Summit; Kumar, Ashavani

2014-06-01

153

Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airborne laser-induced, depth-resolved water Raman backscatter is useful in the detection and mapping of water optical transmission variations. This test, together with other field experiments, has identified the need for additional field experiments to resolve the degree of the contribution to the depth-resolved, Raman-backscattered signal waveform that is due to (1) sea surface height or elevation probability density; (2) off-nadir laser beam angle relative to the mean sea surface; and (3) the Gelbstoff fluorescence background, and the analytical techniques required to remove it. When converted to along-track profiles, the waveforms obtained reveal cells of a decreased Raman backscatter superimposed on an overall trend of monotonically decreasing water column optical transmission.

Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

1983-01-01

154

The Ecological Response of Carex lasiocarpa Community in the Riparian Wetlands to the Environmental Gradient of Water Depth in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China  

PubMed Central

The response of Carex lasiocarpa in riparian wetlands in Sanjiang Plain to the environmental gradient of water depth was analyzed by using the Gaussian Model based on the biomass and average height data, and the ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was derived. The results indicated that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on biomass was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm], while the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on average height was [2.31?cm, 40.11?cm]. The intersection of the ecological water-depth amplitudes based on biomass and height confirmed that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm] and the optimist growing water-depth of Carex lasiocarpa was 21.4?cm. The TWINSPAN, a polythetic and divisive classification tool, was used to classify the wetland ecological series into 6 associations. Result of TWINSPAN matrix classification reflected an obvious environmental gradient in these associations: water-depth gradient. The relation of biodiversity of Carex lasiocarpa community and water depth was determined by calculating the diversity index of each association. PMID:24065874

Luan, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhongxin; Yan, Dandan; Liu, Guihua; Xu, Yingying

2013-01-01

155

Influence of variable water depth and turbidity on microalgae production in a shallow estuarine lake system - A modelling study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strongly varying water levels and turbidities are typical characteristics of the large shallow estuarine lake system of St. Lucia, one of the largest on the African continent. This theoretical study investigated the combined effects of variable water depth and turbidity on seasonal pelagic and benthic microalgae production using a mathematical model, in order to ascertain productivity levels during variable and extreme conditions. Simulated pelagic and benthic net production varied between 0.3 and 180 g C m-2 year-1 and 0 and 220 g C m-2 year-1, respectively, dependent on depth, turbidity, and variability in turbidity. Although not surprising production and biomass decreased with increasing turbidity and depth. A high variability in turbidity, i.e. an alteration of calm and windy days, could reduce or enhance the seasonal pelagic and benthic production by more than 30% compared to a low variability. The day-to-day variability in wind-induced turbidity therefore influences production in the long term. On the other hand, varying water depth within a year did not significantly influence the seasonal production for turbidities representative of Lake St. Lucia. Reduced lake area and volume as observed during dry periods in Lake St. Lucia did not reduce primary production of the entire system since desiccation resulted in lower water depth and thus increased light availability. This agrees with field observations suggesting little light limitation and high areal microalgal biomass during a period with below average rainfall (2005-2011). Thus, microalgae potentially fulfil their function in the lake food-web even under extreme drought conditions. We believe that these results are of general interest to shallow aquatic ecosystems that are sensitive to drought periods due to either human or natural causes.

Tirok, Katrin; Scharler, Ursula M.

2014-06-01

156

The Influence of Variations in the Water Depth and Melt Composition on a Spontaneous Steam Explosion in the TROI Experiments  

SciTech Connect

In the recent TROI test series, six steam explosion experiments were performed using Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) melt and corium melts of two different compositions interacting with water pools of various depths at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. These experiments were aimed at finding the effect of the water depth and melt composition on the occurrence of a spontaneous steam explosion. The compositions (UO{sub 2}: ZrO{sub 2}) of the corium were 80: 20 and 70: 30 at a weight percent and the mass of the corium interacting with the water was about 10 kg. The water depth was varied from 67 cm to 130 cm in these experiments. In the case of the three interactions between the 80: 20 corium melt and the water pool of 130 cm in depth, no spontaneous steam explosion occurred. Meanwhile, from the two interactions between the corium melts of two different compositions (80: 20 and 70: 30 at weight percent) and a 67 cm deep water pool, steam spikes were believed to have been observed. Also, from one interaction between the zirconia melt ({approx}5.43 kg) and a 67 cm deep water pool, an explosive steam explosion occurred which was accompanied with strong pressure waves of 5.5 MPa and a dynamic load greater than 500 kN. It is thought that the probability of a self-triggering of a steam explosion is reduced in a deep water pool since the melt could be cooled down and then solidified due to its long journey through the water pool before a contact between the melt and the vessel bottom beneath the water, which is supposed to be the time for the triggering of a steam explosion. By changing the composition of the melt to pure zirconia, the triggerabilty and explosiveness of the zirconia melt was found to be much higher than that of the corium. In the case of a steam explosion, the pressure vessel was heated up less than that in the no steam explosion cases. This probably results from the fact that the pressure vessel heat-up was lowered by the dispersion of the water sent to the atmosphere by a steam explosion, while it was increased by the continuous generation of hot steam in the no steam explosion cases. (authors)

Kim, J.H.; Park, I.K.; Min, B.T.; Hong, S.W.; Shin, Y.S.; Song, J.H.; Kim, H.D. [Thermal-hydraulics and Safety Research Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-Dong, Yusong, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-07-01

157

Heterophylly in the yellow waterlily, Nuphar variegata (Nymphaeaceae): effects of [CO2], natural sediment type, and water depth.  

PubMed

We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, [CO(2)]-, depth-, and temperature-controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free [CO(2)], and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater [NH(4)(+)] favored floating leaf development. Low CO(2)-grown plants initiated floating leaf development significantly earlier than high CO(2)-grown plants, which produced significantly more submersed leaves and fewer floating leaves. Mean floating leaf biomass was significantly greater than mean submersed leaf biomass but was not influenced by CO(2) enrichment, whereas mean submersed leaf biomass increased 88% at high [CO(2)]. At the shallower depth (35 cm), floating leaves required 50% less biomass investment per leaf than at 70 cm, and a significantly greater proportion of plants had floating leaves (70 vs. 23-43% at 35 vs. 70 cm, respectively) for the last three of the eight leaf censuses. Sediment type, water depth, and especially free [CO(2)] all can influence leaf morphogenesis in Nuphar variegata, and the development of more and larger submersed leaves with CO(2) enrichment favors the exploitation of high [CO(2)] when it is present in the water column. PMID:21669680

Titus, J E; Gary Sullivan, P

2001-08-01

158

Numerical calculation for bed variation in compound-meandering channel using depth integrated model without assumption of shallow water flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a compound meandering channel, patterns of flow structures and bed variations change with increasing water depth owing to complex momentum exchange between high-velocity flow in a main channel and low-velocity flows in flood plains. We have developed a new quasi-three-dimensional model without the shallow water assumption, i.e., hydrostatic pressure distribution; our method is known as the general bottom velocity computation (BVC) method. In this method, a set of depth-integrated equations, including depth-integrated momentum and vorticity equations, are prepared for evaluating bottom velocity and vertical velocity distributions. The objective of this study is to develop a bed variation calculation method for both single and compound meandering channels by using the BVC method coupled with a sediment transport model. This paper shows that the BVC method can reproduce the pattern change of bed variation in a compound meandering channel flow with increasing relative depth. The variation in sediment transport rate due to overbank flow is explained by experimental and computational results.

Uchida, Tatsuhiko; Fukuoka, Shoji

2014-10-01

159

Hand powered portable ultraviolet sterilizing water bottle with active UV dose sensing  

E-print Network

A portable hand powered water sterilization device was created to address a portion of the growing epidemic of global water contamination. As being more supply chain independent and having an active dose sensing component ...

Das, Chandan (Chandan K.)

2007-01-01

160

Offshore permafrost decay and massive seabed methane escape in water depths >20 m at the South Kara Sea shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the West-Yamal Shelf in the Kara Sea, offshore Western Russia. We present new high-resolution seismic data (2-16 kHz) and gas geochemical data from 2012 cruises. In high-resolution seismic data, we found extensive acoustic anomalies in the water column, which we interpreted to be gas (bubble) flares rising from the seafloor. These anomalies were widespread throughout the study area, but seemed to be limited to water depths > 20 meters below sea level (mbsl). One seepage site in ~6m water depth released gas that reached almost to the sea surface. The hydroacoustic anomalies are limited by the 20 m isobaths, and it may be controlled by the extension of permafrost that is still present below the seafloor at these depths providing an impermeable layer through which gas and other fluids cannot migrate. We detected acoustically transparent zones in sediments in the upper 2-5 meters below seafloor (mbsf). We interpret these acoustic anomalies to record the presence of free gas. Deeper seismic data show that acoustic anomalies in sediments near the seafloor are connected to gas chimneys that extend to depths >2000 mbsf. This suggests that gas is migrating from deeper hydrocarbon reservoirs and therefore it has very likely a thermogenic origin. In addition to the more widespread and disperse acoustically transparent zones, we discovered two prominent transparent mounds that are 1.5-2 km in diameter and that are elevated 10-15 meters above the seafloor. These features bear striking resemblance to the pingo-like features (PLF) that have been studied on the Beaufort Shelf (e.g. Shearer et al., 1971; Paull et al., 2007), and Pechora Sea (Rokos, 2009). Tentative results of numerical modelling estimate the thickness of permafrost, which was during the last sea level regression 170-300 meters thick. Based on the model of permafrost melting we state, that continuous sub-seabed permafrost may extend to water depths of ~20 m offshore creating a seal through which gas cannot migrate. Discontinuous and local permafrost areas may exist further offshore in up to 115 m water depth. This study provides one of the key examples of an Arctic marine shelf where seafloor gas release is widespread and where permafrost degradation is an ongoing process. These initial results provided targets for drilling and data acquisition in the summer of 2013 and for future research cruises in the Kara Sea. A better understanding of hydrocarbon seepage at the seafloor is important for assessing both the natural release of gas to the atmosphere and the hydrocarbon potential for new exploration regions like the Kara Sea.

Portnov, A.; Mienert, J.; Cherkashov, G. A.

2013-12-01

161

Equivalent dose rate of ionizing radiation above water reservoirs in Vilnius  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses search of possible pollution sources of natural radionuclides; the measuring method (using the GPS system) of the equivalent dose rate of the environment is introduced; the equivalent dose rate of water reservoirs of Vilnius is measured; the values and variations of equivalent dose rate are evaluated; it is found that the values cover the range from 10

Milda Peèiulienë; Dainius Jasaitis; Aloyzas Girgždys

2004-01-01

162

The climate influence on the mid-depth Northeast Atlantic gyres viewed by cold-water corals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neodymium (Nd) isotopic composition (expressed in epsilon units, $\\varepsilon$Nd) of reef framework-forming cold-water corals provides unique measures of water mass provenance and mixing within the Northeast Atlantic today and in the past. A reconstruction of near thermocline water $\\varepsilon$Nd from cold-water corals of the Gulf of Cádiz and Porcupine Seabight spanning over the past 300,000 years, now revealed that climate cooling during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7.2 and MIS 8/9 led to a retraction of the mid-depth Subpolar Gyre (mSPG) to the west. Conversely, Northern Hemisphere warming and increasing fresh water fluxes to the northwest (Labrador Sea) favor a stronger eastward extension of the mSPG blocking the northward flow of temperate Atlantic water as observed during the early MIS 1 and the early stage MIS 5.5. These changes are likely the result of large-scale south-north displacement of the westerlies similar to present-day observations that the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is linked with mid-depth ocean circulation. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that further climate warming will also strengthen the mSPG leading to a salt and temperature decrease in the Northeast Atlantic whereas salinity and temperature will increase in the temperate Atlantic. However, the amplitude of such changes on North Atlantic overturning remains to be tested.

Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Frank, Norbert; Colin, Christophe; Wienberg, Claudia; Eisele, Markus

2011-10-01

163

Offshore permafrost decay and massive seabed methane escape in water depths >20 m at the South Kara Sea shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Last Glacial Maximum (~19 ka), coastal inundation from sea-level rise has been thawing thick subsea permafrost across the Arctic. Although subsea permafrost has been mapped on several Arctic continental shelves, permafrost distribution in the South Kara Sea and the extent to which it is acting as an impermeable seal to seabed methane escape remains poorly understood. Here we use >1300 km of high-resolution seismic data to map hydroacoustic anomalies, interpreted to record seabed gas release, on the West Yamal shelf. Gas flares are widespread over an area of at least 7500 km2 in water depths >20 m. We propose that continuous subsea permafrost extends to water depths of ~20 m offshore and creates a seal through which gas cannot migrate. This Arctic shelf region where seafloor gas release is widespread suggests that permafrost has degraded more significantly than previously thought.

Portnov, Alexey; Smith, Andrew J.; Mienert, Jürgen; Cherkashov, Georgy; Rekant, Pavel; Semenov, Peter; Serov, Pavel; Vanshtein, Boris

2013-08-01

164

Modeling scale-dependent runoff generation in a small semi-arid watershed accounting for rainfall intensity and water depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed scale effects of runoff on hillslopes and small watersheds derive from complex interactions of time-varying rainfall rates with runoff, infiltration and macro- and microtopographic structures. A little studied aspect of scale effects is the concept of water depth-dependent infiltration. For semi-arid rangeland it has been demonstrated that mounds underneath shrubs have a high infiltrability and lower lying compacted or stony inter-shrub areas have a lower infiltrability. It is hypothesized that runoff accumulation further downslope leads to increased water depth, inundating high infiltrability areas, which increases the area-averaged infiltration rate. A model was developed that combines the concepts of water depth-dependent infiltration, partial contributing area under variable rainfall intensity, and the Green-Ampt theory for point-scale infiltration. The model was applied to rainfall simulation data and natural rainfall-runoff data from a small sub-watershed (0.4 ha) of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in the semi-arid US Southwest. Its performance to reproduce observed hydrographs was compared to that of a conventional Green-Ampt model assuming complete inundation sheet flow, with runon infiltration, which is infiltration of runoff onto pervious downstream areas. Parameters were derived from rainfall simulations and from watershed-scale calibration directly from the rainfall-runoff events. The performance of the water depth-dependent model was better than that of the conventional model on the scale of a rainfall simulator plot, but on the scale of a small watershed the performance of both model types was similar. We believe that the proposed model contributes to a less scale-dependent way of modeling runoff and erosion on the hillslope-scale.

Langhans, Christoph; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan; Stone, Jeffry J.; Nearing, Mark A.

2014-07-01

165

Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Lesions: Dose-Response Data from West Bengal, India  

E-print Network

Arsenic in Drinking Water and Skin Lesions: Dose-Response Data from West Bengal, India Reina Haque with naturally occurring arsenic. The key objective of this nested case-control study was to characterize the dose-re- sponse relation between low arsenic concentrations in drinking water and arsenic-induced skin

California at Berkeley, University of

166

Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth  

SciTech Connect

A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion – Israel institute of technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)] [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion – Israel institute of technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2013-08-15

167

Variation in functional rooting depth and soil water partitioning along an elevational gradient in the southwestern U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In semi-arid environments, co-existing plant species may vary in rooting depth, reflecting functional differences in water sources. In mountains of the southwestern U.S., moisture availability increases with elevation and winter and summer precipitation inputs differ isotopically. Examining variation in functional rooting depth among different plant communities and seasons is important to understanding how these communities may respond to the predicted warming and drying of the Southwest. The goal of this study was to assess the water partitioning of the woody plant community along an elevational moisture gradient using water isotopes as a proxy for rooting depth. We hypothesized that spatial and temporal water partitioning would be greatest in low elevation, moisture-stressed sites and would decrease as moisture availability increases with elevation. Five plots were established in each of five biotic communities: upland Sonoran desert, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, mixed-conifer forest, and spruce-fir forest. Soils (surface, 20 cm, 40 cm) and stem samples of dominant woody perennials were sampled during the late spring dry season and in late summer following monsoon rains, water was extracted using a cryo-vacuum line, and ?D and ?18O values were determined by off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Soil moisture content increased with elevation across all sites and increased with soil depth in the desert, pinyon-juniper, and ponderosa sites. The ?D values differed significantly among species in the desert and the ponderosa forest communities (p=0.014 and 0.039 ), while no species differences in ?D were found in the pinyon-juniper woodland or mixed-conifer forest. With the exception of the pinyon-juniper woodland, these data support our hypothesis that niche differentiation between species becomes less significant higher on the topographic moisture gradient, in the mixed-conifer forest. While spatial water partitioning mostly follows our predictions during the late spring, the lack of differentiation between species in the pinyon-juniper woodland indicates that temporal partitioning may be key to species coexistence in this system.

Guo, J.; Hungate, B. A.; Kolb, T.; KOCH, G. W.

2012-12-01

168

Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 002  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

Ikenberry, T.A.

1992-12-01

169

Interfacial Depth Profiling of the Orientation and Bonding of Water Molecules across Liquid-Liquid Interfaces  

E-print Network

Molecular interactions that create the interfacial properties present at a junction between water the simplest type of halocarbon, yet each molecule possesses unique physical properties that enable clear. As a result, there is considerable interest in understanding the structural properties of water within

Richmond, Geraldine L.

170

Particle telescopes as a tool for assessment of depth-dose curves in human phantom and for radiation environment measurements during deep space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible limitations imposed by the adverse effects of long-term exposure to cosmic radiation is a major obstacle to human space exploration. Concerning the human exploration of Mars, the radiation exposures to be received in transit to Mars and on the Mars surface have to be assessed. The evaluation of the radiation risk is needed concerning the spacecraft and Martian basis design, the arrangements to make in case of SPE and the location of a Martian basis. The current models for radiation risk assessment lead to evaluations with very large uncertainties because of the lack of knowledge of i) the source term (precise radiation composition, energy spectrum, flux) and the influence of the Martian atmosphere and magnetic field, ii) the different interactions of cosmic radiations in matter needed for the calculation of shielding or the dose in the human body and, iii) the biological effects of cosmic particles, especially HZE particles. For the estimation of the organ doses, and thus the radiation risk, measurements in human phantoms are essential. A method and a particle telescope Liulin-5 was developed for investigation of the radiation environment dynamics within a sphere tissue-equivalent phantom on ISS. Energy deposition spectra, linear energy transfer spectra, flux and dose rates for protons and the biologically-relevant heavy ion components of the galactic cosmic radiation will be measured simultaneously with near real time resolution at different depths of the phantom's radial channel. The dose in intermediate points will be determined by interpolation. Data obtained will be used to estimate the radiation risk to the crewmembers, verify the models of radiation environment, validate body transport model and correlate organ level dose to skin dose. Adaptations of the instrument are under development for radiation monitoring outside the phantom. These techniques could be used for investigation of the radiation hazards during future exploratory missions through unmanned interplanetary missions, as well as a part of the radiation safety system for manned deep space missions. Described are functional requirements to the instrumentation and technical specifications.

Semkova, J.; Koleva, R.; Todorova, G.; Kanchev, N.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Benghin, V.; Tchhernykh, I.

171

Influence of water depth on the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

actual estimates of carbon stocks beneath seagrass meadows worldwide are derived from few data, resulting in a tendency to generalize global carbon stocks from a very limited number of seagrass habitats. We surveyed Posidonia oceanica and Posidonia sinuosa meadows along depth-induced gradients of light availability to assess the variability in their sedimentary organic carbon (Corg) stocks and accretion rates. This study showed a fourfold decrease in Corg stocks from 2-4 m to 6-8 m depth P. sinuosa meadows (averaging 7.0 and 1.8 kg m-2, respectively; top meter of sediment) and a fourteenfold to sixteenfold decrease from shallow (2 m) to deep (32 m) P. oceanica meadows (200 and 19 kg m-2 average, respectively; top 2.7 m of sediment). The average Corg accretion rates in shallow P. sinuosa meadows were higher (10.5 g m-2 yr-1) than in deeper meadows (2.1 g m-2 yr-1). The reduction of sedimentary Corg stocks and accretion rates along depth-related gradients of light reduction suggests that irradiance, controlling plant productivity, meadow density, and sediment accretion rates, is a key environmental factor affecting Corg storage potential of seagrasses. The results obtained highlighted the exceptional carbon storage capacity of P. oceanica meadows at Balearic Islands (Spain), containing the highest areal Corg stocks of all seagrasses (estimated in up to 691-770 kg m-2 in 8-13 m thick deposits). Seagrass communities are experiencing worldwide decline, and reduced irradiance (following e.g., eutrophication or sediment regime alterations) will lead to photoacclimation responses (i.e., reduced plant productivity and shoot density), which may impact the carbon sequestration capacity of seagrasses.

Serrano, Oscar; Lavery, Paul S.; Rozaimi, Mohammad; Mateo, Miguel Ángel

2014-09-01

172

Biodosimetry: Model calculations for u.v. water disinfection devices with regard to dose distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing importance of disinfection of drinking water by u.v. radiation makes it necessary to determine the u.v. dose which is applied to the water by u.v.-disinfection plants. In Austria a minimum microbicidal dose of 400 Jm?2 at a wavelength of 253.7 nm is demanded for drinking water, the control of it shall be assured by type testing. A method

A. Cabaj; R. Sommer; D. Schoenen

1996-01-01

173

At what depths do magma-water eruptions breach the surface?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When magma ascends upward in the Earth's crust, it can react violently with groundwater, leading to underground explosions or even full-fledged eruptions. If they breach the surface, these phreatomagmatic eruptions leave debris that falls concentrically around the crater or cone. Previously, researchers have sought to determine the depth within the vent from which the eruption originated by looking at the types of ejected rocks and their original positions beneath the volcanoes, but Valentine et al. found that these two factors are not necessarily directly related.

Wendel, JoAnna

2014-09-01

174

Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryCoastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

Nyman, J. A.; La Peyre, M. K.; Caldwell, A.; Piazza, S.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

2009-10-01

175

Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California  

SciTech Connect

This map shows the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area. It was prepared utilizing gravity (Ponce and others, 2001), geologic (Jennings and others, 1977; Stewart and Carlson, 1978), and drill-hole information. Geophysical investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W.

Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

2002-03-12

176

Proceedings, Coasts and Ports, Manly, September 2013 Ship Squat in Non-Uniform Water Depth  

E-print Network

channels, with shallow water either side of a deep channel. This has implications for ship under-keel in [5]. The ship inputs are simply the waterline breadth and section area curve, so there is no need

177

A strip theory approximation for wave forces on submerged vehicles in finite depth water  

E-print Network

Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV's) are becoming of increasing use in shallow waters for oceanographic data collection, coastal mapping, and military operations such as mine surveillance along enemy coastlines. Currently ...

Rybka Jan A. (Jan Andrzej)

2005-01-01

178

Comparison between absorbed dose to water standards established by water calorimetry at the LNE-LNHB and by application of international air-kerma based protocols for kilovoltage medium energy x-rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the absorbed dose to water for kilovoltage x-ray beams is determined from standards in terms of air-kerma by application of international dosimetry protocols. New standards in terms of absorbed dose to water has just been established for these beams at the LNE-LNHB, using water calorimetry, at a depth of 2 cm in water in accordance with protocols. The aim of this study is to compare these new standards in terms of absorbed dose to water, to the dose values calculated from the application of four international protocols based on air-kerma standards (IAEA TRS-277, AAPM TG-61, IPEMB and NCS-10). The acceleration potentials of the six beams studied are between 80 and 300 kV with half-value layers between 3.01 mm of aluminum and 3.40 mm of copper. A difference between the two methods smaller than 2.1% was reported. The standard uncertainty of water calorimetry being below 0.8%, and the one associated with the values from protocols being around 2.5%, the results are in good agreement. The calibration coefficients of some ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water, established by application of calorimetry and air-kerma based dosimetry protocols, were also compared. The best agreement with the calibration coefficients established by water calorimetry was found for those established with the AAPM TG-61 protocol.

Perichon, N.; Rapp, B.; Denoziere, M.; Daures, J.; Ostrowsky, A.; Bordy, J.-M.

2013-05-01

179

Comparison between absorbed dose to water standards established by water calorimetry at the LNE-LNHB and by application of international air-kerma based protocols for kilovoltage medium energy x-rays.  

PubMed

Nowadays, the absorbed dose to water for kilovoltage x-ray beams is determined from standards in terms of air-kerma by application of international dosimetry protocols. New standards in terms of absorbed dose to water has just been established for these beams at the LNE-LNHB, using water calorimetry, at a depth of 2 cm in water in accordance with protocols. The aim of this study is to compare these new standards in terms of absorbed dose to water, to the dose values calculated from the application of four international protocols based on air-kerma standards (IAEA TRS-277, AAPM TG-61, IPEMB and NCS-10). The acceleration potentials of the six beams studied are between 80 and 300 kV with half-value layers between 3.01 mm of aluminum and 3.40 mm of copper. A difference between the two methods smaller than 2.1% was reported. The standard uncertainty of water calorimetry being below 0.8%, and the one associated with the values from protocols being around 2.5%, the results are in good agreement. The calibration coefficients of some ionization chambers in terms of absorbed dose to water, established by application of calorimetry and air-kerma based dosimetry protocols, were also compared. The best agreement with the calibration coefficients established by water calorimetry was found for those established with the AAPM TG-61 protocol. PMID:23563051

Perichon, N; Rapp, B; Denoziere, M; Daures, J; Ostrowsky, A; Bordy, J-M

2013-05-01

180

Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape as a proxy for water-table depth in peatlands: validation and assessment of seasonal variability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Summary: 1. Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape has been used in peatland ecological and hydrological studies as an inexpensive way to monitor changes in water-table depth and reducing conditions. 2. We investigated the relationship between depth of PVC tape discoloration and measured water-table depth at monthly time steps during the growing season within nine kettle peatlands of northern Wisconsin. Our specific objectives were to: (1) determine if PVC discoloration is an accurate method of inferring water-table depth in Sphagnum-dominated kettle peatlands of the region; (2) assess seasonal variability in the accuracy of the method; and (3) determine if systematic differences in accuracy occurred among microhabitats, PVC tape colour and peatlands. 3. Our results indicated that PVC tape discoloration can be used to describe gradients of water-table depth in kettle peatlands. However, accuracy differed among the peatlands studied, and was systematically biased in early spring and late summer/autumn. Regardless of the month when the tape was installed, the highest elevations of PVC tape discoloration showed the strongest correlation with midsummer (around July) water-table depth and average water-table depth during the growing season. 4. The PVC tape discoloration method should be used cautiously when precise estimates are needed of seasonal changes in the water-table.

Booth, Robert K.; Hotchkiss, Sara C.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

2005-01-01

181

Investigation of Arctic and Antarctic spatial and depth patterns of sea water in CTD profiles using chemometric data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we examine 2- and 3-way chemometric methods for analysis of Arctic and Antarctic water samples. Standard CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) sensor devices were used during two oceanographic expeditions (July 2007 in the Arctic; February 2009 in the Antarctic) covering a total of 174 locations. The output from these devices can be arranged in a 3-way data structure (according to sea water depth, measured variables, and geographical location). We used and compared 2- and 3-way statistical tools including PCA, PARAFAC, PLS, and N-PLS for exploratory analysis, spatial patterns discovery and calibration. Particular importance was given to the correlation and possible prediction of fluorescence from other physical variables. MATLAB's mapping toolbox was used for geo-referencing and visualization of the results. We conclude that: 1) PCA and PARAFAC models were able to describe data in a satisfactory way, but PARAFAC results were easier to interpret; 2) applying a 2-way model to 3-way data raises the risk of flattening the covariance structure of the data and losing information; 3) the distinction between Arctic and Antarctic seas was revealed mostly by PC1, relating to the physico-chemical properties of the water samples; and 4) we confirm the ability to predict fluorescence values from physical measurements when the 3-way data structure is used in N-way PLS regression.

Kotwa, Ewelina; Lacorte, Silvia; Duarte, Carlos; Tauler, Roma

2014-09-01

182

Oman-India pipeline sets survey challenges. Crossing involves most rugged terrain, water depths four times greater than previous attempts  

SciTech Connect

Decisions concerning the route for the world`s deepest pipeline call for some of the most challenging commercial oceanographic and engineering surveys ever undertaken. Oman Oil Co.`s 1, 170-kilometer pipeline will carry 2 billion cubic feet of gas daily across the Arabian Sea from Oman to the northern coast of India at the Gulf of Kutch. Not only will the project be in water depths four times greater than any previous pipeline, but it will cross some of the world`s most rugged seabed terrain, traversing ridges and plunging into deep canyons. Project costs are likely to approach $5 billion.

Flynn, J. [Wimpey Environmental Ltd., Swindon (United Kingdom)

1995-02-01

183

Preprocessing issues associated with multiple attenuation in water depths of less than 150 meters: ISMA and predictive deconvolution  

E-print Network

multiples contain very small amounts of energy and can be neglected in most cases. For this study, we will focus on the attenuation of Iree-surface multiples for towed streamer data. The source and receiver ghosts, caused by the guns and streamer being... are one dimensional, with varying water depths between 25 m and 150 m. We have generated data using 2D fully elastic wave equations based on a lmite difference algorithm. Therefore, all events, including direct wave, primaries, ghosts, multiples (free...

Walsh, Jeffrey Robert

2012-06-07

184

Depth of immersion as a determinant of the natriuresis of water immersion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current study was undertaken to further assess the contribution of an immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient on the redistribution of blood volume. The rate of sodium excretion by seated subjects was significantly increased by water immersion up to the chest and neck compared to waist immersion and controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that whereas immersion to the level of the diaphragm merely cancels the intravascular hydrostatic pressure gradient by providing an identical external gradient, immersion above the diaphragm level results in increased water pressure which tends to favor a shift in blood volume from the lower extremities.

Epstein, M.; Miller, M.; Schneider, N.

1974-01-01

185

Evaluation of high-resolution, true-colour, aerial imagery for mapping bathymetry in a clear-water river without ground-based depth measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the potential of the hydraulically assisted bathymetry (HAB-2) model coupled with true-colour, three-band, aerial imagery to map bathymetry in the clear-water McKenzie River, Oregon, USA, in the absence of ground-based depth measurements. It is the most rigorous test of the HAB-2 model to date. Correlation-coefficient (r ) values for sonar depths versus modelled depths are 0.40 for

Suzanne C. Walther; W. Andrew Marcus; Mark A. Fonstad

2011-01-01

186

Estimating snow depth, snow water equivalent, and stratigraphy at high resolution using microwave radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow water equivalent (SWE) estimates are a critical component of the hydrological system in cold terrestrial environments, yet our ability to estimate SWE accurately over large areas remains limited. Point measurements of SWE at automatic weather stations (e.g. SNOTEL sites) and manual snowpit measurements are costly, time consuming and difficult to interpolate between, primarily due to the large variability that

H. Marshall; G. Koh; M. Sturm; N. Rutter

2007-01-01

187

Immersion depth of surfactants at the free water surface: a computer simulation and ITIM analysis study.  

PubMed

The adsorption layer of five different surfactants, namely, pentanol, octanol, dodecanol, dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, has been analyzed on the basis of molecular dynamics simulation results at two surface densities, namely, 1 and 4 ?mol/m(2). The analyses have primarily focused on the question of how deeply, in terms of atomistic layers, the different surfactant molecules are immersed into the aqueous phase. The orientation and conformation of the surfactant molecules have also been analyzed. The obtained results reveal a clear difference between the immersion behavior of the alcoholic and ionic surfactants. Thus, alcoholic surfactants are found to be located right at the water surface, their apolar tails not being considerably immersed into the aqueous phase and the alcoholic headgroups being preferentially located in the surface layer of water. Ionic surfactants are immersed several layers deep into the aqueous phase, with headgroup atoms reaching the sixth-eighth and tail carbon atoms reaching the third-fourth subsurface layer in several cases. The observed difference is related, on the one hand, to the ability of the alcoholic surfactants of substituting surface water molecules in their lateral hydrogen bonding network at the water surface and that of their apolar tails for replacing dangling hydrogens and, on the other hand, to the energetic gain of the ionic headgroups if they are fully hydrated rather than being in contact with hydrocarbon tail groups. PMID:23789824

Abrankó-Rideg, Nóra; Darvas, Mária; Horvai, George; Jedlovszky, Pál

2013-07-25

188

Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters  

EPA Science Inventory

Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

189

Interactions among fungal community structure, litter decomposition and depth of water table in a cutover peatland.  

PubMed

Peatlands are important reservoirs of carbon (C) but our understanding of C cycling on cutover peatlands is limited. We investigated the decomposition over 18 months of five types of plant litter (Calluna vulgaris, Eriophorum angustifolium, Eriophorum vaginatum, Picea sitchensis and Sphagnum auriculatum) at a cutover peatland in Scotland, at three water tables. We measured changes in C, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in the litter and used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate changes in fungal community composition. The C content of S. auriculatum litter did not change throughout the incubation period whereas vascular plant litters lost 30-40% of their initial C. There were no differences in C losses between low and medium water tables, but losses were always significantly less at the high water table. Most litters accumulated N and E. angustifolium accumulated significant quantities of P. C, N and P were significant explanatory variables in determining changes in fungal community composition but explained <25% of the variation. Litter type was always a stronger factor than water table in determining either fungal community composition or turnover of C, N and P in litter. The results have implications for the ways restoration programmes and global climate change may impact upon nutrient cycling in cutover peatlands. PMID:18430005

Trinder, Clare J; Johnson, David; Artz, Rebekka R E

2008-06-01

190

Utilizing Depth of Colonization of Seagrasses to Develop Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Florida Estuaries  

EPA Science Inventory

US EPA is working with state and local partners in Florida to develop numeric water quality criteria to protect estuaries from nutrient pollution. Similar to other nutrient management programs in Florida, EPA is considering status of seagrass habitats as an indicator of biologic...

191

Changing Water Depths in the Eastern Part of Sydney Harbour due to Human Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sydney Harbour has been significantly modified by human impacts from the start of the European settlement in 1788. Land clearing has accelerated soil erosion, resulting in increased sedimentation. Dredging has deepened many areas to accommodate ever-larger ships. In this paper a GIS method is used to map bathymetric changes in the eastern part of the harbour from 1903 to more recently. Dredged areas are apparent in the entrance and in wharfage areas, while sedimentation is most marked around the deepest section, which is well inside the harbour itself. In this latter region sediment has built up considerably, to over 3 m in some locations, and ship-induced motions appear to have had an impact. Despite these changes the overall depth of the eastern part of the harbour has changed little. This work is of interest to maritime archaeologists because it brings out the types of processes by which sediments can accumulate and be removed thus altering a harbour's seabed and potentially burying, exposing or erasing archaeological sites and artefacts.

Mulhearn, Phillip

2014-08-01

192

Transient temperature responses of hydronic radiant floor heating system by different pipe embedding depth and water supply condition.  

PubMed

"Ondol" is a Korean unique heating system. It is a specific radiant floor heating system using combustion heat of briquette or timber in Korea. Such traditional "Ondol" is changed to radiant heating system with pipe-coil embedded in the floor or slab. This study has contributed to the understandings of the transient behaviours of Ondol-heated floor panels and enclosure exposed to this type of heating system. The result is that the water supply temperature had a large effect on the rate of increase in floor surface and room air temperature. But, in spite of a higher water supply temperature, the heat flow rate was not increased considerably. The shallow pipe embedding depths, of course, result in a low heat flow rate. PMID:8373479

Chung, K S; Sohn, J Y; Baik, Y K; Kang, J S

1993-07-01

193

Mapping of snow water equivalent and snow depth in boreal and sub-arctic zones by assimilating space-borne microwave radiometer data and ground-based observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monitoring of snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow depth (SD) in boreal forests is investigated by applying space-borne microwave radiometer data and synoptic snow depth observations. A novel assimilation technique based on (forward) modelling of observed brightness temperatures as a function of snow pack characteristics is introduced. The assimilation technique is a Bayesian approach that weighs the space-borne data

Jouni Pulliainen

2006-01-01

194

Depth to and concentrations of water in large bodies of silicic magma. Progress report, July 1, 1982-June 30, 1983  

SciTech Connect

Large bodies of silicic magma are potential sources of geothermal energy and ore. They also pose threats of catastrophic eruptions. The depths of such bodies are related to their economic potential and probably to their eruption mechanisms. The concentrations of water in the magmas are important for their eruptive and dynamical behavior and for the development of ores. Estimates of viscosity and density of melt require knowledge of concentration of water. The concentration of water in melt before ascent and eruption can be measured in inclusions of glass which became trapped in crystals before extrusion. The depth of a magma body can be estimated or delimited if we can find out the concentrations of both carbon dioxide and water in the inclusions of glass. Initial results on the Bishop Tuff of Long Valley Caldera, California yield 4.9 +- 0.5 percent H/sub 2/O for glass included in quartz from the Plinian air fall pumice. This result is comparable to the estimates of Hildreth (1977) of about 3.5 to 4.9 percent H/sub 2/O in the lowermost part of the Bishop ash flow. From January 1982 through December 1982, analyses of inclusions of glass in two additional quartz phenocrysts from the Plinian air fall unit of the Bishop Tuff revealed variable H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/. The corresponding partial pressures range between about 2000 and 5000 atmospheres, assuming gas saturation. The variation may be natural or caused by an analytical artifact. A computerized data file has been constructed to facilitate the storage and retrieval of published and unpublished chemical analyses of glasses and minerals. Some data on the Bishop Tuff are presently stored.

Anderson, A.T.

1983-03-03

195

A statistical study of the depth of precipitable water in western Texas and eastern New Mexico  

E-print Network

Water 47 51 Appendices TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Plot of Annual Series AMA Annual Series BGS Annual Series ELP Annual Series SAT Annual Series AB(j Annual Series 70 71 72 73 75 VITA 76 Table LIST OF TABLES Page Range of values within..., skewness, and kurtosis. Number of pentads passing: Station Cornu Cornu, skewness, and kurtosis Cornu, skewness, and positive kurtosis AMA 47 14 BGS ELP 35 12 SAT 30 19 ABQ 44 Total 207 67 In order for statistical tests to be meaningful...

Baker, Samuel Erick

2012-06-07

196

Dependence of Yb-169 absorbed dose energy correction factors on self-attenuation in source material and photon buildup in water  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Absorbed dose energy correction factors, used to convert the absorbed dose deposited in a LiF thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) into the clinically relevant absorbed dose to water, were obtained for both spherical volumetric sources and for the model 4140 HDR Yb-169 source. These correction factors have a strong energy dependence below 200 keV; therefore, spectral changes were quantified as Yb-169 photons traveled through both source material (Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and water with the corresponding absorbed dose energy correction factors, f(r,{theta}), calculated as a function of location in a phantom. Methods: Using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation program, the Yb-169 spectrum emerging from spherical Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} sources (density 6.9 g/cm{sup 3}) with radii between 0.2 and 0.9 mm were analyzed and their behavior compared against those for a point-source. The absorbed dose deposited to both LiF and H{sub 2}O materials was analyzed at phantom depths of 0.1-10 cm for each source radius and the absorbed dose energy correction factor calculated as the ratio of the absorbed dose to water to that of LiF. Absorbed dose energy correction factors for the Model 4140 Yb-169 HDR brachytherapy source similarly were obtained and compared against those calculated for the Model M-19 Ir-192 HDR source. Results: The Yb-169 average spectral energy, emerging from Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} spherical sources 0.2-0.9 mm in radius, was observed to harden from 7% to 29%; as these photons traveled through the water phantom, the photon average energy softened by as much as 28% at a depth of 10 cm. Spectral softening was dependent on the measurement depth in the phantom. Energy correction factors were found to vary both as a function of source radius and phantom depth by as much as 10% for spherical Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} sources. The Model 4140 Yb-169 energy correction factors depended on both phantom depth and reference angle and were found to vary by more than 10% between depths of 1 and 10 cm and angles of 0 deg. and 180 deg. This was in contrast to that of the Model M-19 Ir-192 source which exhibited approximately 3.5%-4.4% variation in its energy correction factors from phantom depths of 0.5-10 cm. The absorbed dose energy correction factor for the Ir-192 source, on the other hand, was independent of angle to within 1%. Conclusions: The application of a single energy correction factor for Yb-169 TLD based dosimetry would introduce a high degree of measurement uncertainty that may not be reasonable for the clinical characterization of a brachytherapy source; rather, an absorbed dose energy correction function will need to be developed for these sources. This correction function should be specific to each source model, type of TLD used, and to the experimental setup to obtain accurate and precise dosimetric measurements.

Medich, David C.; Munro, John J. III [Radiation Laboratory, University of Massachusetts Lowell, 1 University Avenue, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Source Production and Equipment Co., Inc., 113 Teal Street, St. Rose, Louisiana 70087 (United States)

2010-05-15

197

Maps Showing Depth to Water Table, September 1976, and Area Inundated by the June 1975 Flood, Helena Valley, Lewis and Clark County, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Depth to water table, September 1976, and area inundated by the June 1975 flood in the Helena valley, Montana, are mapped on two sheets, Helena and East Helena 7.5-minute quadrangles, at scale 1:48,000. Depth to water table was mapped using water-level measurements from existing shallow observation wells and selected domestic wells, and from field reconnaissance of topography. A hydrograph shows water-level fluctuation in two wells located in different parts of the valley. Area inundated by the June 1975 flood was mapped from aerial photos along Prickly Pear and Tenmile Creeks and by field reconnaissance along Silver Creek. (Woodard-USGS)

Wilke, Kathleen R.; Johnson, M.V.

1978-01-01

198

Evidence for a nonmonotonic relationship between ecosystem-scale peatland methane emissions and water table depth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

temporal and spatial variations in peatland methane (CH4) emissions at broad scales are often related to water table (WT) using a linear relationship, a potentially complex relationship exists between these variables locally and over shorter time scales. To explore this issue, CH4 fluxes were measured using eddy covariance at the Mer Bleue bog over two summer seasons. Peak CH4 emissions (30 to 50 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1) occurred not when the WT was closest to the surface but instead, when it dropped to 40 to 55 cm below the surface. When the WT was below or above this zone, average fluxes were ~14 mg CH4-C m-2 d-1. We speculate this critical zone coincides with the necessary redox potentials and sources of fresh organic material that lead to maximum production of CH4 and/or with conditions that lead to degassing of stored CH4. However, as expected, total summer CH4 emissions were 47% lower during the drier year. This occurred in part because the WT was within the critical zone for fewer days in the drier year but also because after an extended midsummer dry period there was little recovery of CH4 emissions, even a month after rewetting.

Brown, Mathew G.; Humphreys, Elyn R.; Moore, Tim R.; Roulet, Nigel T.; Lafleur, Peter M.

2014-05-01

199

Relationship of salinity and depth to the water table on Tamarix spp. (Saltcedar) growth and water use.  

E-print Network

spp. from Seymour, Texas, Tamarix ramosissima, Salix spp., and Populus spp. ............................................................................31 Table 5. Average minimum and maximum hourly rates of recharge of the soil profile (water use... ramosissima from CA, Tamarix spp. from Seymour, Texas, Salix nigra, and Populus deltoids from Temple, TX. 2. Determine if there are significant differences in leaf area index and light extinction coefficients between species of trees. Model Development...

Schmidt, Kurtiss Michael

2004-09-30

200

Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean

Alicia Morugán; Fuensanta García-Orenes; Jorge Mataix-Solera; Victoria Arcenegui; Gema Bárcenas

2010-01-01

201

Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping (1:25,000) by computer analysis of LANDSAT imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer analysis was applied to single date LANDSAT MSS imagery of a sample coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map from this sample image containing 12 classes: 5 water depth/sediment classes, 2 shoreline/tidal classes, and 5 coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%. Unsupervised image classification was applied to a subportion of the site analyzed and produced classification maps comparable in results in a spatial sense. The results of this test indicated that it is feasible to produce such quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a LANDSAT image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

1978-01-01

202

Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping /1:25,000/ by computer analysis of Landsat imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer analysis was applied to single data Landsat MSS imagery of a coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map, and featuring large dynamic sediment transport processes. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map containing five water depth/sediment classes, two shoreline/tidal classes and five coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%; the training sets were selected by direct examination of the digitally displayed imagery. The unsupervised ISOCLAS (Senkus, 1976) clustering analysis was performed to assess the relative value of this approach to image classification in areas of sparse or nonexistent ground control. Results indicate that it is feasible to produce quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a Landsat image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

1980-01-01

203

Calorimetric determination of the absorbed dose to water for medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 70 to 280 kV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For medium energy x-rays produced with tube voltages from 70 to 280 kV, the absorbed dose to water, Dw, has been determined by means of water calorimetry with relative standard uncertainties ranging from 0.45% to 0.98% at 280 and 70 kV. The results were confirmed by Monte Carlo calculations, in which the ratios of Dw at 5 cm depth in a reference water phantom to the air kerma free in air, Ka, at the same point in space were compared to the corresponding ratios determined experimentally. The general agreement between measurement and calculation was better than 1%. These results confirm earlier investigations in which the absorbed dose to graphite was determined by means of a graphite extrapolation chamber. For the Monte Carlo calculations, an attempt was made to present a complete uncertainty budget, taking into account type B contributions also.

Krauss, A.; Büermann, L.; Kramer, H.-M.; Selbach, H.-J.

2012-10-01

204

Comparative analysis of doses to aquatic biota in water bodies impacted by radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of doses to the reference species of freshwater biota was performed for the following water bodies in Russia or former USSR: Chernobyl NPPs cooling pond, Lakes Uruskul and Berdenish located in the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace, Techa River, Yenisei River. It was concluded that the doses to biota were considerably different in the acute and chronic periods of radioactive contamination. The most vulnerable part of all considered aquatic ecosystems was benthic trophic chain. A numerical scale on the "dose rate - effects" relationships for fish was formulated. Threshold dose rates above which radiation effects can be expected in fish were evaluated to be the following: 1 mGy d(-1) for appearance of the first morbidity effects in fish; 5 mGy d(-1) for the first negative effects on reproduction system; 10 mGy d(-1) for the first effects on life shortening of fish. The results of dose assessment to biota were compared with the scale "dose rate - effects" and the literature data on the radiobiological effects observed in the considered water bodies. It was shown that in the most contaminated water bodies the dose rates were high enough to cause the radiobiological effects in fish. PMID:21924530

Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

2012-06-01

205

Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly increasing. A study in the medium or long-term is necessary to continue to ascertain the impact on soil of the irrigation and to assess the feasibility of using these waters in this type of soil. Aknowledgements: This research was supported by the Water Reuse project (Reference STREP- FP6-2003-INCO-Russia+NIS-1. PL 516731). A. Morugán acknowledge the grants from 'Caja Mediterraneo'. The authors also acknowledge the "Biar waste water treatment station", 'Entidad pública de saneamiento de aguas residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana' and "Proaguas Costablanca" for the collaboration and to Frances Young for improving the English.

Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

2010-05-01

206

Soil moisture versus depth-to-water-level: Which is better for predicting plant composition in a restored floodplain wetland?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depth-to-water-level (DTWL) measurements in shallow groundwater piezometers are commonly used to develop relationships between wetland plant composition and the available water regime. Such relationships can provide useful predictions of plant composition for land managers under potential changing conditions (e.g., climate change, land use change, environmental flow releases, groundwater pumping) when combined with a hydrologic model. These analyses, however, implicitly use DTWL as a surrogate for the water regime within the root zone, which is experienced by plants. Bi-weekly field measurements of both variables (DTWL and SM) were made at a restored floodplain wetland over the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons. Plant species composition and percent cover were also sampled at the same locations (N=62). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and nonparametric multiplicative regression (NPMR) were used to compare how effectively the two hydrologic metrics explain the overall plant community ordination space (NMS) and predict the probability of presence of certain dominant species (NPMR). Both statistical techniques revealed that SM was more successful than DTWL at explaining the overall plant community structure and predicting plant composition for certain dominant species. The predictive modeling results also suggest that hydrologic extremes on a species-specific basis are effective predictors of plant composition. Field evidence based on soil coring and geophysical imaging suggests that the reason for the discrepancy in the efficacy of the two hydrologic variables is the presence of a confining silt-clay layer in some areas of the floodplain that partially decouples soil moisture in the root zone from groundwater in a deeper gravel layer. While DTWL may be adequate as a predictive variable in vegetation modeling at some sites, SM is likely to be more valuable - especially at sites where soil moisture and groundwater are decoupled - at developing robust relationships between the water regime and vegetation.

Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

2010-12-01

207

Response of delta distributaries to differential water depths in the transverse direction: Tank experiments with bimodal grain-size sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of 2D tank experiments was conducted to explore how a river delta being fed bimodal grain-size sediment responds to non-uniform, basin water depths varying in the transverse direction. During each run, upstream water discharge, rate of sediment supply and base level were all kept constant. Sediment used was a 50:50 mixture of 0.1 mm and 0.9 mm quartz grains. Our experimental observations imply the presence of a particular feedback mechanism of delta distributary channels in response to differential bathymetry. When an active distributary channel empties into shallow water, a delta lobe rapidly extends in the offshore direction, but then in a relatively short period becomes inactive as the feeder channel migrates or avulses to another location. When an otherwise similar distributary channel empties into deep water, on the other hand, delta lobe progradation takes place only slowly, and it takes longer for the feeder channel to migrate to another location, whereby the delta can develop an isotropic shoreline configuration as a whole. Differential basement bathymetry can thus affect local residence time and avulsion frequency of active feeder channels. However, differential bathymetry does not function by itself, but always in combination with the effect of alluvial aggradation. These observations are substantially consistent with the existing notion, which was obtained from our previous experiment that was conducted with single-grain size sediment (0.1 mm), suggesting that the compensational behavior of active distributary channels holds regardless of grain-size distribution of supplied sediment.

Muto, T.; Nishikawa, N.; Parker, G.

2013-12-01

208

Measurement of absorbed dose-to-water for an HDR {sup 192}Ir source with ionization chambers in a sandwich setup  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, a dedicated device for ion chamber measurements of absorbed dose-to-water for a Nucletron microSelectron-v2 HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source is presented. The device uses two ionization chambers in a so-called sandwich assembly. Using this setup and by taking the average reading of the two chambers, any dose error due to difficulties in absolute positioning (centering) of the source in between the chambers is cancelled to first order. The method's accuracy was examined by comparing measurements with absorbed dose-to-water determination based on the AAPM TG-43 protocol.Methods: The optimal source-to-chamber distance (SCD) for {sup 192}Ir dosimetry was determined from ion chamber measurements in a water phantom. The {sup 192}Ir source was sandwiched between two Exradin A1SL chambers (0.057 cm{sup 3}) at the optimal SCD separation. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water using a {sup 60}Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality conversion factor, k{sub Q}, for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir. An uncertainty estimate of the proposed method was determined based on reproducibility of measurements at different institutions for the same type of source.Results: The optimal distance for the A1SL chamber measurements was determined to be 5 cm from the {sup 192}Ir source center, considering the depth dependency of k{sub Q} for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir and the chamber positioning. The absorbed dose to water measured at (5 cm, 90°) on the transverse axis was 1.3% lower than TG-43 values and its reproducibility and overall uncertainty were 0.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The measurement doses at anisotropic points agreed within 1.5% with TG-43 values.Conclusions: The ion chamber measurement of absorbed dose-to-water with a sandwich method for the {sup 192}Ir source provides a more accurate, direct, and reference dose compared to the dose-to-water determination based on air-kerma strength in the TG-43 protocol. Due to the simple but accurate assembly, the sandwich measurement method is useful for daily dose management of {sup 192}Ir sources.

Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Ohno, Takeshi [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan); Kakei, Kiyotaka; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Kawamura, Shinji [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

2013-09-15

209

Experimental validation of a 2D overland flow model using high resolution water depth and velocity data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a validation of a two-dimensional overland flow model using empirical laboratory data. Unlike previous publications in which model performance is evaluated as the ability to predict an outlet hydrograph, we use high resolution 2D water depth and velocity data to analyze to what degree the model is able to reproduce the spatial distribution of these variables. Several overland flow conditions over two impervious surfaces of the order of one square meter with different micro and macro-roughness characteristics are studied. The first surface is a simplified representation of a sinusoidal terrain with three crests and furrows, while the second one is a mould of a real agricultural seedbed terrain. We analyze four different bed friction parameterizations and we show that the performance of formulations which consider the transition between laminar, smooth turbulent and rough turbulent flow do not improve the results obtained with Manning or Keulegan formulas for rough turbulent flow. The simulations performed show that using Keulegan formula with a physically-based definition of the bed roughness coefficient, a two-dimensional shallow water model is able to reproduce satisfactorily the flow hydrodynamics. It is shown that, even if the resolution of the topography data and numerical mesh are high enough to include all the small scale features of the bed surface, the roughness coefficient must account for the macro-roughness characteristics of the terrain in order to correctly reproduce the flow hydrodynamics.

Cea, L.; Legout, C.; Darboux, F.; Esteves, M.; Nord, G.

2014-05-01

210

Airborne Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor in ACE-Asia and Their Comparisons to Correlative Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS-14) flew successfully on all 19 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at six and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and columnar water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. In this paper, we plan to present examples of the following, preliminary findings that are based in part on our airborne sunphotometer measurements: (1) The wavelength dependence of sunphotometer-derived AOD and extinction indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the aerosol, frequently extending to high altitudes. The percentage of full-column AOD (525 nm) that Jay above 3 km was typically 34+/-13%. In contrast, the analogous percentage of columnar water vapor was only 10+/-4%; (2) Initial comparison studies between AOD data obtained by AATS-6 and AATS-14 during coordinated low-level flight legs show agreement well within the instruments' error bars; (3) Aerosol extinction has been derived from airborne in situ measurements of scattering (nephelometers) and absorption (particle soot/ absorption photometer, PSAP) or calculated from particle size distribution measurements (mobility analyzers and aerodynamic particle sizers). Comparison with corresponding extinction values derived from the Ames airborne sunphotometer measurements shows good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction/optical depth varied among the aerosol layers sampled; (4) Initial comparisons of sunphotometer and satellite-derived AOD using SeaWiFS, MISR and AVHRR show promising results. We also plan to include comparisons with MODIS and TOMS: (5) Initial comparisons of sunphotometer-derived AOD and aerosol extinction profiles with lidars in Tokyo and on a ship show reasonable agreement.

Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P.; Hegg, D.; Wang, J.; Kahn, R.; Hsu, C.; Masonis, S.; Murayama, T.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

211

Water Pressure in Depth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can a science concept be taught in a way that generates interest, gives students the opportunity to consider other possibilities, does not lock them into one way of doing or seeing things, and gives them some ownership of their learning? These authors searched high and low for the perfect activity to illustrate a key concept for their partner…

Lynch, Mary Jean; Zenchak, John

2011-01-01

212

Direct determination of the absorbed dose to water from 125I low dose-rate brachytherapy seeds using the new absorbed dose primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-intensity radioactive sources emitting low-energy photons are used in the clinic for low dose-rate brachytherapy treatments of tumours. The dosimetry of these sources is based on reference air kerma rate measurements. The absorbed dose rate to water at the reference depth d0 = 1 cm, \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} , is then obtained by a conversion procedure with a large relative standard uncertainty of about 5%. This paper describes a primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI to directly measure \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} due to LDR sources. The standard is based on a large-angle and variable-volume ionization chamber, embedded in a graphite phantom and operating under ‘wall-less air chamber’ conditions. A set of correction and conversion factors, based on experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, are determined to obtain the value of Dw,1 cm from measurements of increment of ionization current with increasing chamber volume. The relative standard uncertainty on \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} is 2.6%, which is appreciably lower than the current uncertainty. Characteristics of the standard, its associated uncertainty budget, and some experimental results are given for 125I BEBIG I25.S16.C brachytherapy seeds. Finally, results of the experimental determination of the dose-rate constant ?1 cm, traceable to the Dw,1 cm and the low-energy air kerma ENEA-INMRI standards, are given. The relative standard uncertainty on ?1 cm is 2.9%, appreciably lower than the typical uncertainty (4.8%) of the values available in the literature.

Toni, M. P.; Pimpinella, M.; Pinto, M.; Quini, M.; Cappadozzi, G.; Silvestri, C.; Bottauscio, O.

2012-10-01

213

In situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 1. Vegetation recovery and soil temperature as a function of water depth, oil type, and marsh type.  

PubMed

In-situ burning of oiled wetlands potentially provides a cleanup technique that is generally consistent with present wetland management procedures. The effects of water depth (+10, +2, and -2 cm), oil type (crude and diesel), and oil penetration of sediment before the burn on the relationship between vegetation recovery and soil temperature for three coastal marsh types were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a key factor controlling marsh plant recovery. Both the 10- and 2-cm water depths were sufficient to protect marsh vegetation from burning impacts, with surface soil temperatures of <35 and 48 degrees C, respectively. Plant survival rate and growth responses at these water depth burns were not significantly different from the unburned control. In contrast, a water table 2 cm below the soil surface during the burn resulted in high soil temperatures, with 90-200 degrees C at 0-0.5 cm soil depth and 55-75 degrees C at 1-2 cm soil depth. The 2-cm soil exposure to fire significantly impeded the post-burn recovery of Spartina alterniflora and Sagittaria lancifolia but did not detrimentally affect the recovery of Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata. Oil type (crude vs diesel) and oil applied to the marsh soil surface (0.5 L x m(-2)) before the burn did not significantly affect plant recovery. Thus, recovery is species-specific when no surface water exists. Even water at the soil surface will most likely protect wetland plants from burning impact. PMID:15819246

Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

2005-03-15

214

Radiation dose to mouse liver cells from ingestion of tritiated food or water  

SciTech Connect

Tritium incorporated into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp that had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of 3H in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water 3H, tissue-bound 3H, and DNA-bound 3H. Carbon-14 glucose was added to food and drinking water to compare the 3H intake from food with that from water. The specific activity of 3H in tissues was then corrected by the specific activity of 14C in tissues to determine the 3H incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound 3H after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound 3H was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from 3H incorporated through food was twofold higher than from tritiated water, which was mainly from the high incorporation of 3H into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water 3H alone would under-estimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food.

Komatsu, K.; Okumura, Y.; Sakamoto, K. (Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine (Japan))

1990-05-01

215

Patterns in abundance and size of two deep-water gorgonian octocorals, in relation to depth and substrate features off Nova Scotia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-water corals form unique ecosystems, yet very little is known about factors that regulate their distribution and growth. The abundance and size of two deep-water gorgonian coral species, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, and their relationship with depth and substratum cover, were investigated at Northeast Channel, off Nova Scotia, in July 2006. This is the first study to measure abundance and size of these two coral species at depths >500 m in the Canadian Atlantic region. A total of 5 transects between 500 and 1000 m depth were examined using video collected by the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS. Abundance of both species was patchy, but higher at these deeper depths than at <500 m. Abundance generally declined with depth, and was moderately correlated with cover of hard substratum (cobble, boulder, bedrock). These relationships were stronger and less variable for P. resedaeformis than for P. arborea, suggesting that factors such as topographic relief may play an additional role in regulating distributions of P. arborea. Maximum colony height was 125 and 240 cm for P. resedaeformis and P. arborea, respectively, and much greater than recorded for depths <500 m. Overall, colony height and depth relationships were strong for both species, but variable among transects. P. resedaeformis showed a negative relationship with depth, while the opposite was observed for P. arborea, suggesting that the two species are affected differently by factors that vary with depth (e.g. temperature, fishing disturbance). Relationships between colony size and size of attachment stone were stronger for P. arborea, especially for overturned colonies, than for P. resedaeformis, suggesting that availability of suitably coarse substrate may be more important for the long-term persistence of P. arborea colonies.

Watanabe, Shana; Metaxas, Anna; Sameoto, Jessica; Lawton, Peter

2009-12-01

216

Dose to tissue medium or water cavities as surrogate for the dose to cell nuclei at brachytherapy photon energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that modern dose calculation algorithms should be able to report absorbed dose both as dose to the local medium, Dm,m, and as dose to a water cavity embedded in the medium, Dw,m, using conversion factors from cavity theory. Assuming that the cell nucleus with its DNA content is the most important target for biological response, the aim of this study is to investigate, by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the relationship of the dose to a cell nucleus in a medium, Dn,m, to Dm,m and Dw,m, for different combinations of cell nucleus compositions and tissue media for different photon energies used in brachytherapy. As Dn,m is very impractical to calculate directly for routine treatment planning, while Dm,m and Dw,m are much easier to obtain, the questions arise which one of these quantities is the best surrogate for Dn,m and which cavity theory assumptions should one use for its estimate. The Geant4.9.4 MC code was used to calculate Dm,m, Dw,m and Dn,m for photon energies from 20 (representing the lower energy end of brachytherapy for 103Pd or125I) to 300 keV (close to the mean energy of 192Ir) and for the tissue media adipose, breast, prostate and muscle. To simulate the cell and its nucleus, concentric spherical cavities were placed inside a cubic phantom (10 × 10 × 10 mm3). The diameter of the simulated nuclei was set to 14 µm. For each tissue medium, three different setups were simulated; (a) Dn,m was calculated with nuclei embedded in tissues (MC-Dn,m). Four different published elemental compositions of cell nuclei were used. (b) Dw,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dw,m) and compared with large cavity theory calculated Dw,m (LCT-Dw,m), and small cavity theory calculated Dw,m (SCT-Dw,m). (c) Dm,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dm,m). MC-Dw,m is a good substitute for MC-Dn,m for all photon energies and for all simulated nucleus compositions and tissue types. SCT-Dw,m can be used for most energies in brachytherapy, while LCT-Dw,m should only be considered for source spectra well below 50 keV, since contributions to the absorbed dose inside the nucleus to a large degree stem from electrons released in the surrounding medium. MC-Dm,m is not an appropriate substitute for MC-Dn,m for the lowest photon energies for adipose and breast tissues. The ratio of MC-Dm,m to MC-Dn,m for adipose and breast tissue deviates from unity by 34% and 15% respectively for the lowest photon energy (20 keV), whereas the ratio is close to unity for higher energies. For prostate and muscle tissue MC-Dm,m is a good substitute for MC-Dn,m. However, for all photon energies and tissue types the nucleus composition with the highest hydrogen content behaves differently than other compositions. Elemental compositions of the tissue and nuclei affect considerably the absorbed dose to the cell nuclei for brachytherapy sources, in particular those at the low-energy end of the spectrum. Thus, there is a need for more accurate data for the elemental compositions of tumours and healthy cells. For the nucleus compositions and tissue types investigated, MC-Dw,m is a good substitute to MC-Dn,m for all simulated photon energies. Whether other studied surrogates are good approximations to MC-Dn,m depends on the target size, target composition, composition of the surrounding tissue and photon energy.

Enger, Shirin A.; Ahnesjö, Anders; Verhaegen, Frank; Beaulieu, Luc

2012-07-01

217

Analysis of VHMS-hosting ignimbrites erupted at bathyal water depths (Ordovican Bald Mountain Sequence, northern Maine)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granulometric analysis of ignimbrites that enclose the Ordovician Bald Mountain volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) deposit in northern Maine indicates that fine-ash poor (<10%) pumiceous volcanic deposits may result from deep marine explosive silicic volcanic eruptions. The VHMS is enclosed in a 1 km thick section of ignimbrite (footwall and hangingwall ignimbrites) that fill nested calderas formed at >1.45 km water depth. The footwall ignimbrite is a poorly sorted and nonstratified mixture of pumice lapilli and medium to coarse ash, in units tens of meters to 150 m thick separated by basalt lava flows. It is dominantly nonwelded and has blocky pumices indicating that hydroclastic fragmentation followed magmatic fragmentation. The footwall ignimbrite is interpreted as the product of a steady, high-discharge, volatile-rich phreatomagmatic explosive eruption. Like the footwall ignimbrite, the hangingwall ignimbrite is a fine-ash poor mixture of pumice and medium to coarse ash, but it occurs as thinner nonstratified units 1-150 m thick separated by well-sorted and stratified lapilli tuff and tuff. The hangingwall ignimbrite contains abundant compacted pumice that may record welding, and lacks blocky pumices or other evidence of hydroclastic fragmentation entirely. The hangingwall ignimbrite is interpreted as the product of an unsteady eruption, where lower volatile content (relative to the footwall ignimbrite) produced a lower eruption column, leading to minimal interaction with ambient water in a purely magmatic eruption. We speculate that fine-ash-poor ignimbrites may be typical of very deepwater (bathyal marine) explosive eruptions, where hydrostatic pressures may be sufficient to suppress magmatic vesiculation and reduce the violence of the eruptions, thereby dramatically decreasing the production of bubble wall shards.

Kessel, Lowell G.; Busby, Cathy J.

218

Water temperature variability as an indicator of shallow-depth groundwater behaviour in limestone areas in west Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperatures of groundwaters and surface streams were determined regularly over a 1-yr. period at 139 sampling polints in three limestone areas of the Malay peninsula. The standard deviation (s.d.) of water temperatures recorded at each site provides a measure of temperature variability. Deeper groundwaters exhibit the narrowest temperature fluctuations (s.d. 0.05°C). Shallow-depth groundwaters have a greater temperature variability particularly those, such as vadose streams (mean s.d. 0.27°C) and diffuse-flow seepage in caves (mean s.d. 0.26°C), which encounter circulatory air within the aquifer. Surface streams display much wider fluctuations. Those in tin-mining areas have s.d.-values of over 2.0°C, and this is largely attributed to their small groundwater component and to their banks being mostly unvegetated. Temperature variability is shown to provide a sound basis for characterizing groundwater flow and identifying groundwater components in surface streams.

Crowther, J.; Pitty, A. F.

1982-05-01

219

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data on various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, Anthony B.; Rohde, Charles A.; Tellier, Larry; Ho, Cheng

2002-09-01

220

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01

221

Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

Ikenberry, T.A.

1992-12-01

222

Calculation of absorbed doses to water pools in severe accident sequences  

SciTech Connect

A methodology is presented for calculating the radiation dose to a water pool from the decay of uniformly distributed nuclides in that pool. Motivated by the need to accurately model radiolysis reactions of iodine, direct application is made to fission product sources dissolved or suspended in containment sumps or pools during a severe nuclear reactor accident. Two methods of calculating gamma absorption are discussed - one based on point-kernal integration and the other based on Monte Carlo techniques. Using least-squares minimization, the computed results are used to obtain a correlation that relates absorbed dose to source energy and surface-to-volume ratio of the pool. This correlation is applied to most relevant fission product nuclides and used to actually calculate transient sump dose rate in a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) severe accident sequence.

Weber, C.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1991-12-01

223

The effect of drought and interspecific interactions on depth of water uptake in deep- and shallow-rooting grassland species as determined by ?18O natural abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased incidence of drought, as predicted under climate change, has the potential to negatively affect grassland production. Compared to monocultures, vertical belowground niche complementarity between shallow- and deep-rooting species may be an important mechanism resulting in higher yields and higher resistance to drought in grassland mixtures. However, very little is known about the belowground responses in grassland systems and increased insight into these processes may yield important information both to predict the effect of future climate change and better design agricultural systems to cope with this. This study assessed the effect of a 9-week experimental summer drought on the depth of water uptake of two shallow-rooting species (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) and two deep-rooting species (Cichorium intybus L. and Trifolium pratense L.) in grassland monocultures and four-species mixtures by using the natural abundance ?18O isotope method. We tested the following three hypotheses: (1) drought results in a shift of water uptake to deeper soil layers, (2) deep-rooting species take up a higher proportion of water from deeper soil layers relative to shallow-rooting species, and (3) as a result of interspecific interactions in mixtures, the water uptake of shallow-rooting species becomes shallower when grown together with deep-rooting species and vice versa, resulting in reduced niche overlap. The natural abundance ?18O technique provided novel insights into the depth of water uptake of deep- and shallow- rooting grassland species and revealed large shifts in depth of water uptake in response to drought and interspecific interactions. Compared to control conditions, drought reduced the proportional water uptake from 0-10 cm soil depth (PCWU0-10) of L. perenne, T. repens and C. intybus in monocultures by on average 54%. In contrast, the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense in monoculture increased by 44%, and only when grown in mixture did the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense decrease under drought conditions. In line with hypothesis (2), in monoculture, the PCWU0-10 of shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens was 0.53 averaged over the two drought treatments, compared to 0.16 for the deep-rooting C. intybus. Surprisingly, in monoculture, water uptake by T. pratense was shallower than for the shallow-rooting species (PCWU0-10 = 0.68). Interspecific interactions in mixtures resulted in a shift in the depth of water uptake by the different species. As hypothesised, the shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens tended to become shallower, and the deep-rooting T. pratense made a dramatic shift to deeper soil layers (reduction in PCWU0-10 of 58% on average) in mixture compared to monoculture. However, these shifts did not result in a reduction in the proportional similarity of the proportional water uptake from different soil depth intervals (niche overlap) in mixtures compared to monocultures. There was no clear link between interspecific differences in depth of water uptake and the reduction of biomass production under drought compared to control conditions (drought resistance). Cichorium intybus, the species with water uptake from the deepest soil layers was one of the species most affected by drought. Interestingly, T. pratense, which was least affected by drought, also had the greatest plasticity in depth of water uptake. This suggests that there may be an indirect effect of rooting depth on drought resistance, as it determines the potential plasticity in the depth of water uptake.

Hoekstra, N. J.; Finn, J. A.; Hofer, D.; Lüscher, A.

2014-08-01

224

Assessment of dose to man from releases of sup 99 Tc in fresh water systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the dose to man from releases of {sup 99}Tc in a fresh water system and to identify the biospheric transfer parameters to which the total dose is the most sensitive. Only internal exposure is taken into account, as the external irradiation leads to a negligible dose contribution. Two release modes were considered: continuous (routine) releases and accidental releases. The concentrations in the biospheric compartments subsequent to routine releases were calculated according to International Atomic Energy Agency procedures. For the accidental releases, a more dynamic approach was adopted, especially for the milk and meat compartments. A routine-release scenario typical for the Mol site has been applied, and the biospheric compartment leading to the highest dose contribution was shown to be the irrigated grain. The biospheric transfer parameters to which the first-year doses were the most sensitive consisted mainly of the mass interception factor for grain and the milk transfer factor. The doses in following years were very dependent on the value of the root zone removal rate. The accidental-release scenario resulted in committed dose equivalent that are strongly influenced by the time of year at which the release occurs. 12 references.

Zeevaert, T.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R. (S.C.K./C.E.N. Mol (Belgium))

1989-08-01

225

Development of a water calorimetry-based standard for absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this article is to develop and evaluate a primary standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy based on 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimetry. Methods: The absolute absorbed dose to water was directly measured for several different Nucletron microSelectron {sup 192}Ir sources of air kerma strength ranging between 21 000 and 38 000 U and for source-to-detector separations ranging between 25 and 70 mm. The COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS software was used to accurately calculate the heat transport in a detailed model geometry. Through a coupling of the ''conduction and convection'' module with the ''Navier-Stokes incompressible fluid'' module in the software, both the conductive and convective effects were modeled. Results: A detailed uncertainty analysis resulted in an overall uncertainty in the absorbed dose of 1.90%(1{sigma}). However, this includes a 1.5% uncertainty associated with a nonlinear predrift correction which can be substantially reduced if sufficient time is provided for the system to come to a new equilibrium in between successive calorimetric runs, an opportunity not available to the authors in their clinical setting due to time constraints on the machine. An average normalized dose rate of 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a source-to-detector separation of 55 mm was measured for the microSelectron {sup 192}Ir source based on water calorimetry. The measured absorbed dose per air kerma strength agreed to better than 0.8%(1{sigma}) with independent ionization chamber and EBT-1 Gafchromic film reference dosimetry as well as with the currently accepted AAPM TG-43 protocol measurements. Conclusions: This work paves the way toward a primary absorbed dose to water standard in {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy.

Sarfehnia, Arman; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2010-04-15

226

Temporal variation in depth to water table and hydrochemistry in three raised bogs and their laggs in coastal British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laggs of three raised bogs in coastal British Columbia were studied in 2010-2012 to determine the temporal variation in depth to water table and hydrochemistry. The lagg is an integral, but rarely studied, part of a raised bog that helps to maintain the water mound in the bog and provides a buffer for runoff from adjacent mineral areas. Depth to water table measurements in 25 piezometers displayed similar annual fluctuations, with the highest water table in winter and the lowest at the end of summer. The smallest fluctuations in depth to water table were recorded closest to the bog centre, and the largest fluctuations in the laggs and adjacent mineral soil sites. Removal of a mature forest stand on one of the study transects resulted in a "watering-up" of the lagg site; the mean water level between August and November increased by 8 cm from 2010 to 2011, and by up to 27 cm during the driest time of the year. pH, pH-corrected electrical conductivity, and Na+ and Mg2+ concentrations varied little during the study period, whereas Ca2+, K+, Cl-, and DOC concentrations and acidity were more variable.

Howie, S. A.; van Meerveld, H. J.

2012-12-01

227

Uranium contents and associated effective doses in drinking water from Biscay (Spain).  

PubMed

The determination of 234U and 238U content in drinking waters treated at four treatment plants supplying water to a set of municipalities located in northern Spain has given mean values of 1.14 mBq/L for 234U and 0.8 mBq/L for 238U. These contents, taking into account the population supplied with water and its distribution in age intervals, have allowed the determination of the annual intake of both radionuclides as well as the mean committed dose due to the ingestion of these radionuclides for which a value of 0.081 microSv/person is obtained. PMID:9204529

Herranz, M; Abelairas, A; Legarda, F

1997-06-01

228

HETEROPHYLLY IN THE YELLOW WATERLILY, NUPHAR VARIEGATA (NYMPHAEACEAE): EFFECTS OF (CO2), NATURAL SEDIMENT TYPE, AND WATER DEPTH1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We transplanted Nuphar variegata with submersed leaves only into natural lake sediments in pH-, (CO2)-, depth-, and temperature- controlled greenhouse tanks to test the hypotheses that more fertile sediment, lower free (CO 2), and shallower depth would all stimulate the development of floating leaves. Sediment higher in porewater (NH 4 1 ) favored floating leaf development. Low CO 2-grown plants

JOHN E. TITUS; P. G ARY SULLIVAN

229

An ultra-shallow water storm surge model with quadratically depth-varying eddy viscosity and its application to the numerical modelling of the Bohai Sea storm surges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the ultra-shallow water storm surge theory proposed by Qin and Feng[1] (1975), an ultra-shallow water storm surge model, taking into consideration the effect of the earth's rotation and the quadratically\\u000a depth-varying eddy viscosity, is developed. Using the model wind stress fields as a guide for representing the effect of wind\\u000a stress forcing in our model, a numerical investigation

Dexing Wu; Zenghao Qin

1985-01-01

230

Performance of the Macroinvertebrate Community Index: Effects of sampling method, sample replication, water depth, current velocity, and substratum on index values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of sampling method, water depth, current velocity, and substratum on two macroinvertebrate?based biotic indices were investigated based upon 523 samples from 55 stony riffle sites on 23 New Zealand streams. A single hand?net sample estimated the site Macroinvertebrate Community Index (MCI) within ± 15% and four replicates yielded ± 10%. Between 8 and 10 replicate Surber samples produced

John D. Stark

1993-01-01

231

Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task.

Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

1993-06-01

232

Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.  

PubMed Central

Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

Backer, H; Hollowell, J

2000-01-01

233

Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized. Résumé Une estimation précise de la profondeur de l'interface théorique entre l'eau douce et l'eau salée est un élément critique dans les estimations de rendement des puits dans les aquifères insulaires et littoraux. La relation de Ghyben-Herzberg, qui est habituellement utilisée pour estimer la profondeur de cette interface, peut fortement sous-estimer ou surestimer l'épaisseur de l'eau douce, parce qu'elle suppose l'absence de gradient vertical de charge et d'écoulement vertical. L'estimation de la profondeur de l'interface requiert de prendre en considération les gradients verticaux de charge et l'éventuelle anisotropie de l'aquifère. Cet article propose une méthode de calcul des gradients verticaux de charge à partir des mesures de niveau piézométrique faites en cours de foration d'un puits incomplet; le gradient est alors utilisé pour estimer la profondeur de l'interface. L'application de cette méthode à un système eau douce - eau salée simulé numériquement montre que la méthode est la plus précise lorsque le gradient est mesuré dans un puits pénétrant profondément dans l'aquifère. Même en utilisant un puits peu profond, la méthode estime la position de l'interface avec plus de précision que ne le fait la relation de Ghyben-Herzberg lorsqu'il existe un gradient vertical de charge bien marqué. L'application de la méthode à des données de terrain montre que la foration, les méthodes de mesure de niveau et les hétérogénéités au sein de l'aquifère peuvent être la cause de difficultés, mais que les effets de ces difficultés peuvent être réduits. Resumen Para la estimación de la productividad de pozos en acuíferos costeros y en islas es necesaria una estimación precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz teórica entre agua dulce y agua salada. La relación de Ghyben-Herzberg, usada habitualmente para estimar la profundidad de la interfaz, puede subestimar o sobrestimar el espesor de agua dulce, al asumir la ausencia de flujos y gradientes verticales. La estimación de la profundidad de la interfaz debe considerar tanto estos gradientes verticales, como la posible anisotropía del acuífero. En este artículo se presenta un método para calcular los gradientes verticales de niveles a partir de las medidas obtenidas durante la perforación de un pozo parcialmente penetrante para, a partir de este gradiente, estimar la profundidad de la interfaz. La aplicación del método a un sistema de agua dulce/agua salada simulado numéricamente muestra que el método es más preciso cuando el gradiente se mide en un pozo profundo. Incluso en el caso de un pozo superficial, el método permite una estimación más precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz que la aplicación de la fórmula de Ghyben-Herzberg, en los casos en l

Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

234

Temperature, water availability, and nutrient levels at various soil depths-consequences for shallow-rooted desert succulents, including nurse plant effects. [Agave deserti; Ferocactus acanthodes; hilaria rigida  

SciTech Connect

Soil conditions were evaluated over the rooting depths for Agave deserti and Ferocactus acanthodes from the northwestern Sonoran Desert. These succulents have mean root depths of only 10 cm when adults and even shallower distribution when seedlings, which often occur is association with the nurse plant Hilaria rigida, which also has shallow roots. Maximum soil temperatures in the 2 cm beneath bare ground were predicted to exceed 65 C, which is lethal to the roots of A. deserti and F. acanthodes, whereas H. rigida reduced the maximum surface temperatures by over 10 C, providing a microhabitat suitable for seedling establishment. Water Availability was defined as the soil-to-plant drop in water potential, for periods when the plants could take up water, integrated over time. Below 4 cm under bare ground, simulated Water Availability increased slightly with depth (to 35 cm) for a wet year, was fairly constant for an average year, and decreased for a dry year, indicating that the shallow rooting habit is more advantageous in drier years. Water uptake by H. rigida substantially reduced Water Availability for seedlings associated with this nurse plant. On the other hand, a 66-90% higher soil nitrogen level occurred under H. rigida, possibly representing its harvesting of this macronutrient from a wide ground area. Phosphorus was slightly less abundant in the soil under H. rigida compared with under bare ground, the potassium level was substantially higher, and the sodium level was substantially lower. All four elements varied greatly with depth, N and K decreasing and P and Na increasing. Based on the known growth responses of A. deserti and F. acanthodes to these four elements, growth was predicted to be higher for plants in soil from the shallower layers, most of the differences being due to nitrogen.

Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

1989-10-01

235

Using polarimetric remote sensing measurements to estimate ice particle size, optical depth and ice water path during CRYSTAL-FACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ observations made during the CRYSTAL-FACE field experiment have indicated that ice crystals have smaller sizes and are more reflective than is commonly assumed in most current climate models. The size of the particles appears to be principally determined by temperature with the smallest particles being found at the coldest temperatures. Previous analyses of polarimetric measurements in non-absorbing bands have suggested that either bubble inclusions (inhomogeneous hexagonal mono-crystals) or distortions of the hexagonal crystal shape (distorted chain aggregates) are responsible for the observed general absence of haloes, smooth angular variation of reflectance and brightness of ice clouds. In this paper we use multi-angle measurements made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) to examine the polarized and unpolarized reflectance of cirrus clouds in bands where ice is non-absorbing (670 and 865 nm) and absorbing (1590, 1880 and 2250 nm). During CRSYTAL-FACE the RSP scan was biased so that the view angle range was from 0 to 75 degrees to the rear of the Proteus aircraft and from 0 to 45 degrees to the front and was oriented to scan along the groundtrack of the aircraft. This allowed observations of a single target over a wide scattering angle range particularly when consecutive flight legs could be combined which allows for basic discrimination of crystal habit using the non-absorbing bands, similar to previous studies (at least in the gross sense of being able to separate columns from plates from distorted crystals from spheroidal shapes). However, compared with non-absorbing bands, the reflectance in absorbing bands is different depending on whether ice particles are geometrically distorted or contain air bubble inclusions because the path length of light inside an ice crystal is quite short which limits scattering off the bubble inclusions. Consequently the retrieved particle size is also sensitive to whether ice crystals are modeled as being distorted or containing air bubbles. We examine how the RSP size retrievals, with an appropriate vertical weighting determined by Green's function calculations, compare with in situ measurements and examine the angular and spectral polarized and unpolarized residuals from the retrievals. This allows us to identify the most appropriate crystal habit for use in the remote sensing of cirrus clouds formed by convection over land, such as those observed during CRYSTAL-FACE, and provide best estimates for the particle size, optical depth and ice water path determined using solar reflectance measurements.

Geogdzhayev, I.; Cairns, B.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Travis, L. D.

2006-12-01

236

Radon concentrations in drinking water in beijing city, china and contribution to radiation dose.  

PubMed

222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 ?Sv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 ?Sv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration. PMID:25350007

Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

2014-01-01

237

A new method to account for the depth distribution of 137Cs in soils in the calculation of external radiation dose-rate.  

PubMed

This work reports a new method for calculating the external dose-rate as a function of height above land that has been contaminated with a surface deposition of (137)Cs. Unlike previous work this method accounts for vertical migration of (137)Cs using the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) with appropriate parameters. The results have been successfully verified with field measurements from the (137)Cs contaminated regions within the Republic of Belarus. The method also correctly predicts the observed variation of dose-rate with elevation above the soil surface and it is shown how this method can be used to predict the reduction in surface dose-rate after remediation measures such as deep ploughing have taken place. PMID:14972413

Timms, D N; Smith, J T; Cross, M A; Kudelsky, A V; Horton, G; Mortlock, R

2004-01-01

238

In-situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 2. Oil spill cleanup efficiency as a function of oil type, marsh type, and water depth.  

PubMed

In-situ burning of spilled oil, which receives considerable attention in marine conditions, could be an effective way to cleanup wetland oil spills. An experimental in-situ burn was conducted to study the effects of oil type, marsh type, and water depth on oil chemistry and oil removal efficiency from the water surface and sediment. In-situ burning decreased the totaltargeted alkanes and total targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the burn residues as compared to the pre-burn diesel and crude oils. Removal was even more effective for short-chain alkanes and low ring-number PAHs. Removal efficiencies for alkanes and PAHs were >98% in terms of mass balance although concentrations of some long-chain alkanes and high ring-number PAHs increased in the burn residue as compared to the pre-burn oils. Thus, in-situ burning potentially prevents floating oil from drifting into and contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the sediment. In addition, in-situ burning significantly removed diesel oil that had penetrated the sediment for all water depths. Furthermore, in-situ burning at a water depth 2 cm below the soil surface significantly removed crude oil that had penetrated the sediment. As a result, in-situ burning may reduce the long-term impacts of oil on benthic organisms. PMID:15819247

Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Carney, Kenneth; Miles, Scott M; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

2005-03-15

239

Herbicide dose and incorporation depth in combination with 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin for Cyperus rotundus control in tomato and pepper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were conducted to compare the efficacy of various herbicides in combination with 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin (C-17) on Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge) control and their effect on tomato and pepper yields, and to determine the appropriate herbicide application depth in the soil for purple nutsedge control in polyethylene-mulched tomato and pepper fields. The various chemical treatments were incorporated into

James P. Gilreath; Bielinski M. Santos

2004-01-01

240

Using stable isotopes to characterize differential depth of water uptake based on environmental conditions in perennial biofuel and traditional annual crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate change related to fossil fuel consumption coupled with the necessity for secure, cost-effective, and renewable domestic energy is continuing to drive the development of a bioenergy industry. Numerous second-generation biofuel crops have been identified that hold promise as sustainable feedstocks for the industry, including perennial grasses that utilize the highly water and energy efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway. Among the perennial grasses, miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stand out as having high biomass, minimal maintenance, low nutrient input requirements, and positive environmental benefits. These grasses are able to withstand a wide range of growing season temperatures and precipitation regimes, particularly in reference to the annual row crops that they are likely to replace. During the drought of 2012 traditional row crops suffered major reductions in yield whereas the perennial grasses retained relatively high biomass yields. We hypothesize that this is due to the ability of the perennial grasses to access water from deeper soil water relative to the annual row crops. To test this hypothesis, we use isotopic techniques to determine the soil depth from which the various species obtain water. Data from summer 2013 suggests that the perennial grasses preferentially use surface water when available but can extract water from depths that the annual row crops are unable to reach. These results indicate that perennial grasses, with deeper roots, will likely sustain growth under conditions when annual row crops are unable.

Miller, J. N.; Nystrom, R.; Bernacchi, C.

2013-12-01

241

WAVECALC: an Excel-VBA spreadsheet to model the characteristics of fully developed waves and their influence on bottom sediments in different water depths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation and growth of waves in deep water is controlled by winds blowing over the sea surface. In fully developed sea states, where winds and waves are in equilibrium, wave parameters may be calculated directly from the wind velocity. We provide an Excel spreadsheet to compute the wave period, length, height and celerity, as well as horizontal and vertical particle velocities for any water depth, bottom slope, and distance below the reference water level. The wave profile and propagation can also be visualized for any water depth, modeling the sea surface change from sinusoidal to trochoidal and finally cnoidal profiles into shallow water. Bedload entrainment is estimated under both the wave crest and the trough, using the horizontal water particle velocity at the top of the boundary layer. The calculations are programmed in an Excel file called WAVECALC, which is available online to authorized users. Although many of the recently published formulas are based on theoretical arguments, the values agree well with several existing theories and limited field and laboratory observations. WAVECALC is a user-friendly program intended for sedimentologists, coastal engineers and oceanographers, as well as marine ecologists and biologists. It provides a rapid means to calculate many wave characteristics required in coastal and shallow marine studies, and can also serve as an educational tool.

Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Demirbilek, Zeki; Brodalka, Marysia; Flemming, Burghard W.

2010-10-01

242

Estimated depth to the water table and estimated rate of recharge in outcrops of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers near Houston, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1989, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District, began a field study to determine the depth to the water table and to estimate the rate of recharge in outcrops of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers near Houston, Texas. The study area comprises about 2,000 square miles of outcrops of the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in northwest Harris County, Montgomery County, and southern Walker County. Because of the scarcity of measurable water-table wells, depth to the water table below land surface was estimated using a surface geophysical technique, seismic refraction. The water table in the study area generally ranges from about 10 to 30 foot below land surface and typically is deeper in areas of relatively high land-surface altitude than in areas of relatively low land- surface altitude. The water table has demonstrated no long-term trends since ground-water development began, with the probable exception of the water table in the Katy area: There the water table is more than 75 feet deep, probably due to ground-water pumpage from deeper zones. An estimated rate of recharge in the aquifer outcrops was computed using the interface method in which environmental tritium is a ground-water tracer. The estimated average total recharge rate in the study area is 6 inches per year. This rate is an upper bound on the average recharge rate during the 37 years 1953-90 because it is based on the deepest penetration (about 80 feet) of postnuclear-testing tritium concentrations. The rate, which represents one of several components of a complex regional hydrologic budget, is considered reasonable but is not definitive because of uncertainty regarding the assumptions and parameters used in its computation.

Noble, J.E.; Bush, P.W.; Kasmarek, M.C.; Barbie, D.L.

1996-01-01

243

Direct measurement of absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy: Water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Gafchromic film and ionometric calibration procedures for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources in terms of dose rate to water are presented and the experimental results are compared to the TG-43 protocol as well as with the absolute dose measurement results from a water calorimetry-based primary standard. Methods: EBT-1 Gafchromic films, an A1SL Exradin miniature Shonka thimble type chamber, and an SI HDR 1000 Plus well-type chamber (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) with an ADCL traceable S{sub k} calibration coefficient (following the AAPM TG-43 protocol) were used. The Farmer chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were performed directly in water. All results were compared to direct and absolute absorbed dose to water measurements from a 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimeter. Results: Based on water calorimetry, the authors measured the dose rate to water to be 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The dose rate normalized to air-kerma strength for all the techniques agree with the water calorimetry results to within 0.83%. The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43 dose rate measurement amounts to 1.90%, 1.44%, 1.78%, and 2.50%, respectively. Conclusions: This work allows us to build a more realistic uncertainty estimate for absorbed dose to water determination using the TG-43 protocol. Furthermore, it provides the framework necessary for a shift from indirect HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry to a more accurate, direct, and absolute measurement of absorbed dose to water.

Sarfehnia, Arman; Kawrakow, Iwan; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2010-04-15

244

A dose-response analysis of skin cancer from inorganic arsenic in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

A study of the prevalence of skin cancer among 40,421 persons consuming arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Taiwan was used for a cancer dose-response assessment of ingested arsenic. The numbers of persons at risk over three dose intervals and four exposure durations were estimated from the data in order to apply the method of maximum likelihood to a multistage-Weibull time/dose-response model. A constant exposure level since birth for each of the exposure categories was assumed. It was found that the cumulative hazard increases as a power of three in age, and is linear or quadratic (with a linear coefficient) in dose. Observations from a smaller epidemiologic survey in Mexico were similar to what would be predicted from the model of the Taiwan data. Assuming that the skin cancer risk from ingested arsenic in the American population would also be similar to the Taiwan population, an American male would have a lifetime risk of developing skin cancer of 1.3 x 10(-3) (3.0 x 10(-3)) if exposed to 1 microgram/kg/day for a 76-year lifespan (median lifespan in the U.S.).

Brown, K.G.; Boyle, K.E.; Chen, C.W.; Gibb, H.J. (Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

1989-12-01

245

Radionuclide concentrations and dose assessment of cistern water and groundwater at the Marshall Islands  

SciTech Connect

A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. More than 70 cistern and groundwater samples were collected at the atolls; the volume of each sample was between 55 and 100 l. The concentration of /sup 90/Sr in cistern water at most atolls is that expected from world-wide fallout in wet deposition. Except for Bikini and Rongelap, /sup 137/Cs concentrations in cistern water are in agreement with the average predicted concentrations from wet deposition. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentrations are everywhere less than the predicted fallout concentrations except at Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Bikini where the measured and predicted concentrations are in general agreement. During the period sampled, most groundwater concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs were everywhere higher than the concentrations in cistern water. Concentrations of the transurancies in filtered groundwater solution were everywhere comparable to or less than the concentrations in cistern water. It is concluded that the concentrations of radionuclides detected during any single period may not necessarily reflect the long-term average concentrations or the concentrations that might be observed if a lined well were extended above the surface. In any case, at all atolls the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in groundwater are below the concentration guidelines for drinking water recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum annual dose rates and the 30- and 50-y integral doses are calculated for the intake of both cistern water and groundwater for each of the atolls.

Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Robison, W.L.

1981-03-16

246

Modeling water flow, depth and inundation extent over the rivers of the Contiguous US within a Catchment-based Land Surface Modeling Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With population growth and increasing demand of water supply, the need for integrated continental and global scale surface water dynamics simulation systems relying on both observations and models is ever increasing. In this study we characterize how accurately we can estimate river discharge, river depth and the corresponding inundation extent over the contiguous U.S. by combining observations and models. We present a continental-scale implementation of the Catchment-based Hydrological And Routing Modeling System (CHARMS) that includes an explicit representation of the river networks from a Geographic Information System (GIS) dataset. The river networks and contributing catchment boundaries of the Contiguous U.S are upscaled from the NHDPlus dataset. The average upscaled catchment size is 2773 km2 and the unique main river channel contained in each catchment consists of several river reaches of average length 1.6 km. We derive 18 sets of empirical relationship between channel dimension (bankfull depth and bankfull width) and drainage area based on USGS gauge observations to describe river dynamics for the 18 water resource regions of the NHDPlus representation of the United States. These relationships are used to separate the main river channel and floodplain. Modeled monthly and daily streamflow show reasonable agreement with gauge observations and initial results show that basins with fewer anthropogenic modifications are more accurately simulated. Modeled monthly and daily river depth and floodplain extent associated with each river reach are also explicitly estimated over the U.S., although such simulations are more challenging to validate. Our results have implications for capturing the seasonal-to-interannual dynamics of surface water in climate models. Such a continental-scale modeling framework development would, by design, facilitate the use of existing in situ observations and be suitable for integrating the upcoming NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission measurements for a range of studies in climate, hydrology and water management.

Liu, Z.; David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2011-12-01

247

Modeling water flow, depth and inundation extent over the rivers of the Contiguous US within a Catchment-based Land Surface Modeling Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With population growth and increasing demand of water supply, the need for integrated continental and global scale surface water dynamics simulation systems relying on both observations and models is ever increasing. In this study we characterize how accurately we can estimate river discharge, river depth and the corresponding inundation extent over the contiguous U.S. by combining observations and models. We present a continental-scale implementation of the Catchment-based Hydrological And Routing Modeling System (CHARMS) that includes an explicit representation of the river networks from a Geographic Information System (GIS) dataset. The river networks and contributing catchment boundaries of the Contiguous U.S are upscaled from the NHDPlus dataset. The average upscaled catchment size is 2773 km2 and the unique main river channel contained in each catchment consists of several river reaches of average length 1.6 km. We derive 18 sets of empirical relationship between channel dimension (bankfull depth and bankfull width) and drainage area based on USGS gauge observations to describe river dynamics for the 18 water resource regions of the NHDPlus representation of the United States. These relationships are used to separate the main river channel and floodplain. Modeled monthly and daily streamflow show reasonable agreement with gauge observations and initial results show that basins with fewer anthropogenic modifications are more accurately simulated. Modeled monthly and daily river depth and floodplain extent associated with each river reach are also explicitly estimated over the U.S., although such simulations are more challenging to validate. Our results have implications for capturing the seasonal-to-interannual dynamics of surface water in climate models. Such a continental-scale modeling framework development would, by design, facilitate the use of existing in situ observations and be suitable for integrating the upcoming NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission measurements for a range of studies in climate, hydrology and water management.

Liu, Z.; David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

2013-12-01

248

Relations among water levels, specific conductance, and depths of bedrock fractures in four road-salt-contaminated wells in Maine, 2007–9  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on groundwater-level, specific conductance (a surrogate for chloride), and temperature were collected continuously from 2007 through 2009 at four bedrock wells known to be affected by road salts in an effort to determine the effects of road salting and fractures in bedrock that intersect the well at a depth below the casing on the presence of chloride in groundwater. Dissolved-oxygen data collected periodically also were used to make inferences about the interaction of fractures and groundwater flow. Borehole geophysical tools were used to determine the depths of fractures in each well that were actively contributing flow to the well, under both static and pumped conditions; sample- and measurement-depths were selected to correspond to the depths of these active fractures. Samples of water from the wells, collected at depths corresponding to active bedrock fractures, were analyzed for chloride concentration and specific conductance; from these analyses, a linear relation between chloride concentration and specific conductance was established, and continuous and periodic measurements of specific conductance were assumed to represent chloride concentration of the well water at the depth of measurement. To varying degrees, specific conductance increased in at least two of the wells during winter and spring thaws; the shallowest well, which also was closest to the road receiving salt treatment during the winter, exhibited the largest changes in specific conductance during thaws. Recharge events during summer months, long after application of road salt had ceased for the year, also produced increases in specific conductance in some of the wells, indicating that chloride which had accumulated or sequestered in the overburden was transported to the wells throughout the year. Geophysical data and periodic profiles of water quality along the length of each well’s borehole indicated that the greatest changes in water quality were associated with active fractures; in one case, high concentration of dissolved oxygen at the bottom of the well indicated the presence of a highly transmissive fracture that was in good connection with a surficial feature (stream or atmosphere). Data indicated that fractures have a substantial influence on the transport of chlorides to the subsurface; that elevated specific conductance occurred throughout the year, not just when road salts were applied; and that chloride contamination, as indicated by elevated specific conductance, may persist for years.

Schalk, Charles W.; Stasulis, Nicholas W.

2012-01-01

249

Well Wishes: A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case of Well Wishes involves students in a thorough examination of the interaction among nitrogen-composed species in the septic systems and well water, which helps to clean household water. The case supports the attainment of five goals for students, and can be analyzed through classroom discussions or laboratory experiments.

Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M.

2004-01-01

250

Interpolation of TC0 2 data on a 1° × 1° grid throughout the water column below 500 m depth in the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have combined the available total CO 2, temperature, salinity and oxygen data from the TTO, SAVE and WOCE programs in the Atlantic Ocean to parameterize TCO 2 below 500 m depth as a function of potential temperature, salinity and apparent oxygen utilization. We then use the Levitus data set of temperature, salinity and oxygen to compute the TCO 2 profiles at the resolution of the Levitus data set on a 1° × 1° grid with a vertical resolution of 33 layers, more densely spaced in the upper 1500 m than below. Depending on the method used to interpolate the data (along isopycnals or vertically by station), the estimated random uncertainty of the computed TC0 2 values in the Atlantic Ocean throughout the water column below the wintertime mixed layer depth ranges from ± 7.1 ?mol kg -1 to t 5.9 ?mol kg -1.

Goyet, C.; Healy, R.; McCue, S. J.; Glover, D. M.

1997-12-01

251

Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments  

PubMed Central

Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2–6% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0–25?cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (?2?m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0–1?cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15–20?cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes. PMID:22592821

He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

2012-01-01

252

Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments.  

PubMed

Methane (CH(4)) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2-6% of the global atmospheric CH(4) budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH(4) that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0-25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH(4) oxidation potential for these shallow (?2 m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0-1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH(4), whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15-20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH(4)-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes. PMID:22592821

He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

2012-10-01

253

Evaluation of effective dose for a patient under Ga-67 nuclear examination using TLD, water phantom and a simplified model  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the effective dose of Ga-67 for a patient undergoing Ga-67 citrate nuclear examination by applying thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) technique and an indigenous water phantom. The Ga-67 radionuclide remaining in the body inevitably generated a measurable internal dose even though gamma camera scanning took only minutes to complete the clinical examination. For effective simulation of the cumulated effective dose for a patient undergoing examination, 150 TLDs were placed inside the water phantom for 6 days to monitor the gamma ray dose from the distributed Ga-67 citrate solution. The inserted TLDs represented internal organs, and the effective dose was calculated according to data in the ICRP-60 report. The water phantom was designed to model the body of a healthy human weighing 70 kg, and the water that was mixed with Ga-67 citrate solution was slowly replaced with fresh feed water to yield the required biological half life of the phantom. After continuously feeding in fresh water throughout the 6 days of TLD exposure, the TLDs were analyzed to determine the effective doses from the various biological half lives of the phantom. The derived effective dose of 185 MBq Ga-67 citrate solution for male/female (M/F) was 10.7/12.2, 10.7/12.0, 8.7/9.9 and 6.0/6.8 mSv, of biological half lives of 6.0, 4.5, 3.0 and 1.5 days, respectively. Although these experimental results correlated well with earlier empirical studies, they were lower than most calculated values. The cumulated uncertainty in the effective dose was 12.5–19.4%, which was acceptable in terms of both TLD counting statistic and reproducibility. PMID:22915780

Chu, Kuang Hua; Lin, Yu Ting; Hsu, Chia Chun; Chen, Chien Yi; Pan, Lung Kwang

2012-01-01

254

The Effects of Periphyton, Fish and Fertilizer Dose on Biological Processes Affecting Water Quality in Earthen Fish Ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of periphyton-based aquaculture in South Asia is under investigation in an extensive research program. This paper is a further analysis of data from four experiments carried out in that framework, to explore periphyton, fish and fertilizer dose effects on water quality. Factor analysis and ANOVA models applied to a data matrix of water quality parameters in ponds with

Ana Milstein; Mohammed Ekram Azim; Mohammed Abdul Wahab; Marc Charles Jean Verdegem

2003-01-01

255

Sequence Stratigraphic Model of a Mid-Tertiary Cool-water Carbonate System using Palaeo-depth Indicators: An Example from the Waitaki Region, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of sequence stratigraphy has traditionally focused on siliciclastic and tropical carbonate models, and it is only more recently that significant work has been done on the carbonate deposits and mechanisms that occur in the more temperate, cool-water latitudes. Here we illustrate the effect that palaeotopography can have on the sequence stratigraphy of a cool-water carbonate system, and how correlation can be enhanced by the use of biofacies depth indicators. This study focuses on Late Eocene to Early Miocene cool-water carbonate deposits within the Waitaki Basin in South Island, New Zealand, formed during a period of regional transgression. Detailed stratigraphic and thin section data were used to determine the depth below sea-level of the deposits to produce localised sea-level curves at each locality in order to correlate various outcrops. Analysis of individual limestone units shows significant depth variation over short distances, indicating that there was variability in the palaeotopography and that this had a significant influence on the depositional environments. Results show that the lower limestone unit and syn-depositional volcanics form a transgressive systems tract which is capped by a regression-induced unconformity. This was followed by a deepening up sequence of greensand and limestone, capped by a second regressive karst or submarine erosion surface, following which deeper facies again predominated. Distribution of subaerial and submarine surfaces atop the lower limestone indicates the basin deepened to the west away from the eastward palaeo-highs induced by the volcanic edifices. During the subsequent transgression, differential erosion of this surface as a result of reworking of the sediment by waves caused the development of a transgressive surface of erosion in some locations relative to the palaeo-highs. Thus we see a spectrum from heavy karst through to deeply bored surfaces dependent on their proximity to the palaeo-highs, with those deposits at intermediate depths exhibiting transgressive surfaces of erosion due to their less consolidated nature and significant reworking by waves during the subsequent transgression. This illustrates how a sequence boundary within a cool-water carbonate forms a laterally variable surface dependent on local topography and the extent of relative sea-level change.

Thompson, N. K.; Bassett, K. N.; Reid, C. M.

2011-12-01

256

Modeling of depth to base of Last Glacial Maximum and seafloor sediment thickness for the California State Waters Map Series, eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Models of the depth to the base of Last Glacial Maximum and sediment thickness over the base of Last Glacial Maximum for the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are a key part of the maps of shallow subsurface geology and structure for offshore Refugio to Hueneme Canyon, California, in the California State Waters Map Series. A satisfactory interpolation of the two datasets that accounted for regional geologic structure was developed using geographic information systems modeling and graphics software tools. Regional sediment volumes were determined from the model. Source data files suitable for geographic information systems mapping applications are provided.

Wong, Florence L.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Sliter, Ray W.

2012-01-01

257

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

2011-11-01

258

Coupling of acoustic normal modes and seismo-acoustic surface waves in variable-depth shallow water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine sediments support Rayleigh-type surface waves which can propagate along the sea floor in arbitrarily shallow water and even on shore. At frequencies above a few Hertz, because of a strong attenuation of compression and especially shear waves in the sediments, the surface waves can significantly contribute to the acoustic field far from the shore only through their coupling to

Oleg A. Godin

2001-01-01

259

Clonal diversity along a water depth gradient in a declining reed stand as detected by three different genetic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isozyme, RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) and microsatellite techniques were applied to determine the genetic diversity of a reed stand declining at the open water fringe for several decades and the accuracy of these methods was evaluated. Sampling was carried out along three transects parallel with and one transect at right angle to the lakeshore. In isoenzyme investigation, esterase and

Attila I. Engloner; Ágnes Major; János Podani

2010-01-01

260

Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water.  

PubMed

A new algorithm, Acuros® XB Advanced Dose Calculation, has been introduced by Varian Medical Systems in the Eclipse planning system for photon dose calculation in external radiotherapy. Acuros XB is based on the solution of the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE). The LBTE describes the macroscopic behaviour of radiation particles as they travel through and interact with matter. The implementation of Acuros XB in Eclipse has not been assessed; therefore, it is necessary to perform these pre-clinical validation tests to determine its accuracy. This paper summarizes the results of comparisons of Acuros XB calculations against measurements and calculations performed with a previously validated dose calculation algorithm, the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA). The tasks addressed in this paper are limited to the fundamental characterization of Acuros XB in water for simple geometries. Validation was carried out for four different beams: 6 and 15 MV beams from a Varian Clinac 2100 iX, and 6 and 10 MV 'flattening filter free' (FFF) beams from a TrueBeam linear accelerator. The TrueBeam FFF are new beams recently introduced in clinical practice on general purpose linear accelerators and have not been previously reported on. Results indicate that Acuros XB accurately reproduces measured and calculated (with AAA) data and only small deviations were observed for all the investigated quantities. In general, the overall degree of accuracy for Acuros XB in simple geometries can be stated to be within 1% for open beams and within 2% for mechanical wedges. The basic validation of the Acuros XB algorithm was therefore considered satisfactory for both conventional photon beams as well as for FFF beams of new generation linacs such as the Varian TrueBeam. PMID:21364257

Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Mancosu, Pietro; Cozzi, Luca

2011-03-21

261

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus,

Clark, Corrie E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Harto, Christopher B. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Schroeder, Jenna N. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Martino, Louis E. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division; Horner, Robert M. [Environmental Science Division] [Environmental Science Division

2013-11-05

262

An absorbed dose to water standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources based on water calorimetry: Numerical and experimental proof-of-principle  

SciTech Connect

Water calorimetry is an established technique for absorbed dose to water measurements in external beams. In this paper, the feasibility of direct absorbed dose measurements for high dose rate (HDR) iridium-192 ({sup 192}Ir) sources using water calorimetry is established. Feasibility is determined primarily by a balance between the need to obtain sufficient signal to perform a reproducible measurement, the effect of heat loss on the measured signal, and the positioning uncertainty affecting the source-detector distance. The heat conduction pattern generated in water by the Nucletron microSelectron-HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source was simulated using COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSTM software. Source heating due to radiation self-absorption was calculated using EGSnrcMP. A heat-loss correction k{sub c} was calculated as the ratio of the temperature rise under ideal conditions to temperature rise under realistic conditions. The calorimeter setup used a parallel-plate calorimeter vessel of 79 mm diameter and 1.12 mm thick front and rear glass windows located 24 mm apart. Absorbed dose was measured with two sources with nominal air kerma strengths of 38 000 and 21 000 U, at source-detector separations ranging from 24.7 to 27.6 mm and irradiation times of 36.0 to 80.0 s. The preliminary measured dose rate per unit air kerma strength of (0.502{+-}0.007) {mu}Gy/(s U) compares well with the TG-43 derived 0.505 {mu}Gy/(s U). This work shows that combined dose uncertainties of significantly less than 5% can be achieved with only modest modifications of current water calorimetry techniques and instruments. This work forms the basis of a potential future absolute dose to water standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy.

Sarfehnia, Arman; Stewart, Kristin; Seuntjens, Jan [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

2007-12-15

263

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

SciTech Connect

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

Jenna N. Schroeder

2013-08-31

264

Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects  

DOE Data Explorer

This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

Jenna N. Schroeder

265

The application of powdered activated carbon for MIB and geosmin removal: predicting PAC doses in four raw waters.  

PubMed

Blooms of blue-green algae in reservoirs often produce the musty-earthy taste and odour algal metabolites 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin. MIB and geosmin are not removed by conventional water treatment and their presence in the distribution system, even at low ng L-1 levels, can result in consumer complaints. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) can effectively remove MIB and geosmin when the correct dose is applied. The homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM) was used to predict PAC doses required to reduce MIB and geosmin concentrations to below 10 ng L-1 at four water treatment plants in Adelaide, South Australia. In jar tests, undertaken under treatment plant conditions, the predicted doses were found to produce water of the desired quality in three of the four waters. The poor predictions found in the fourth water, which had a considerably higher turbidity, were attributed to the incorporation of PAC in a larger, denser floc, leading to a reduced effective contact time of the adsorbent. It was found that higher doses of PAC were required for both compounds to produce acceptable quality water when turbidities rose above 26 NTU. PMID:11268853

Cook, D; Newcombe, G; Sztajnbok, P

2001-04-01

266

ERS-1 SAR monitoring of ice growth on shallow lakes to determine water depth and availability in north west Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Images taken by the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were used to identify and to differentiate between the lakes that freeze completely to the bottom and those that do not, on the North Slope, in northwestern Alaska. The ice thickness at the time each lake froze completely is determined with numerical ice growth model that gives a maximum simulated thickness of 2.2 m. A method combining the ERS-1 SAR images and numerical ice growth model was used to determine the ice growth and the water availability in these regions.

Jeffries, Martin; Morris, Kim; Liston, Glen

1996-01-01

267

The fragmentation of 670A MeV neon-20 as a function of depth in water. I. Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the final analysis of an experiment to study the interaction of a beam of 670A MeV neon ions incident on a water column set to different thicknesses. The atomic number Z (and, in some cases, the isotopic mass A) of primary beam particles and of the products of nuclear interactions emerging from the water column close to the central axis of the beam was obtained for nuclei between Be (Z = 4) and Ne (Z = 10) using a time-of-flight telescope to measure the velocity and a set of silicon detectors to measure the energy loss of each particle. The fluence of particles of a given charge was obtained and normalized to the incident beam intensity. Corrections were made for accidental coincidences between multiple particles triggering the TOF telescope and for interactions in the detector. The background due to beam particles interacting in beam line elements upstream of the detector was calculated. Sources of experimental artifacts and background in particle identification experiments designed to characterize heavy ion beams for radiobiological research are summarized, and some of the difficulties inherent in this work are discussed. Complete tables of absolutely normalized fluence spectra as a function of LET are included for reference purposes.

Schimmerling, W.; Miller, J.; Wong, M.; Rapkin, M.; Howard, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Jarret, B. V.

1989-01-01

268

EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison of alanine dosimetry systems for absorbed dose to water measurements in gamma- and x-radiation at radiotherapy levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL), the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) and the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) are involved in the European project 'External Beam Cancer Therapy', a project of the European Metrology Research Programme. Within this project, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)/alanine dosimetric method has been chosen for performing measurements in small fields such as those used in IMRT (intensity modulated radiation therapy). In this context, these three National Metrology Institutes (NMI) wished to compare the result of their alanine dosimetric systems (detector, modus operandi etc) at radiotherapy dose levels to check their consistency. This EURAMET.RI(I)-S7 comparison has been performed with the support of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) which collected and distributed the results as a neutral organization, to ensure the comparison was 'blind'. Irradiations have been made under reference conditions by each laboratory in a 60Co beam and in an accelerator beam (10 MV or 12 MV) in a water phantom of 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm in a square field of 10 cm × 10 cm at the reference depth. Irradiations have been performed at known values of absorbed dose to water (Dw) within 10% of nominal doses of 5 Gy and 10 Gy, i.e. between 4.5 Gy and 5.5 Gy and between 9 Gy and 11 Gy, respectively. Each participant read out their dosimeters and assessed the doses using their own protocol (calibration curve, positioning device etc) as this comparison aims at comparing the complete dosimetric process. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the EPR/alanine dosimetry systems operated by National Metrology Institutes as a method of assuring therapy level doses with the accuracy required. The maximum deviation in the ratio of measured to applied dose is less than 1%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EURAMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Garcia, Tristan; Anton, Mathias; Sharpe, Peter

2012-01-01

269

Effect of taxonomic resolution on ecological and palaeoecological inference - a test using testate amoeba water table depth transfer functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sound taxonomy is a major requirement for quantitative environmental reconstruction using biological data. Transfer function performance should theoretically be expected to decrease with reduced taxonomic resolution. However for many groups of organisms taxonomy is imperfect and species level identification not always possible. We conducted numerical experiments on five testate amoeba water table (DWT) transfer function data sets. We sequentially reduced the number of taxonomic groups by successively merging morphologically similar species and removing inconspicuous species. We then assessed how these changes affected model performance and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction using two fossil data sets. Model performance decreased with decreasing taxonomic resolution, but this had only limited effects on patterns of inferred DWT, at least to detect major dry/wet shifts. Higher-resolution taxonomy may however still be useful to detect more subtle changes, or for reconstructed shifts to be significant.

Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Payne, Richard J.; Mazei, Yuri

2014-05-01

270

Total ozone column, aerosol optical depth and precipitable water effects on solar erythemal ultraviolet radiation recorded in Malta.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Universities of Malta and Valladolid (Spain) developed a measurement campaign, which took place in the Institute for Energy Technology in Marsaxlokk (Southern Malta) between May and October 2012, and it was supported by the Spanish government through the Project titled "Measurement campaign about Solar Radiation, Ozone, and Aerosol in the Mediterranean area" (with reference CGL2010-12140-E). This campaign provided the first ground-based measurements in Malta of erythemal radiation and UV index, which indicate the effectiveness of the sun exposure to produce sunburn on human skin. A wide variety of instruments was involved in the campaign, providing a complete atmospheric characterization. Data of erythemal radiation and UV index (from UVB-1 pyranometer), total shortwave radiaton (global and diffuse components from CM-6B pyranometers), and total ozone column, aerosol optical thickness, and precitable water column (from a Microtops-II sunphotometer) were available in the campaign. Ground-based and satellite instruments were used in the analysis, and several intercomparisons were carried out to validate remote sensing data. OMI, GOME, GOME-2, and MODIS instruments, which provide data of ozone, aerosol load and optical properties, were used to this end. The effects on solar radiation, ultraviolet and total shortwave ranges, of total ozone column, aerosol optical thickness and precipitable water column were obtained using radiation measurements at different fixed solar zenith angles. The empirical results shown a determinant role of the solar position, a negligible effect of ozone on total shortwave radiation, and a stronger attenuation provided by aerosol particles in the erythemal radiation. A variety of aerosol types from different sources (desert dust, biomass burning, continental, and maritime) reach Malta, in this campaign several dust events from the Sahara desert occurred and were analyzed establishing the air mass back-trajectories ending at Malta at several heights calculated by means of the HYSPLIT model. Hence, changes in the UV index due to atmospheric aerosol were characterized.

Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; Miguel, Argimiro

2013-04-01

271

Does deposition depth control the OSL bleaching of fluvial sediment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) signal from fluvial sediment often contains a remnant from the previous deposition cycle, leading to a partially bleached equivalent-dose distribution. Although identification of the burial dose is of primary concern, the degree of bleaching could potentially provide insights into geomorphic processes. However, comparison of bleaching between samples is complicated by sample-to-sample variation in aliquot size and luminescence sensitivity. Here we develop an age model to account for these effects. With measurement data from multi-grain aliquots, we use Bayesian computational statistics to estimate the burial dose and bleaching parameters of the single-grain dose distribution. We apply the model to 46 samples taken from fluvial sediment of Rhine branches in the Netherlands, and compare the results with environmental predictor variables (depositional energy and environment, sample depth, depth relative to mean water level, dose rate). We find no significant correlations between any predictor variable and the bleaching parameters, although large uncertainties may be obscuring relationships. However, the best bleached samples are found close to the mean water level. Based on these results, we hypothesize that bleaching occurs mainly during fluvial transport rather than upon deposition, with extra bleaching possible for sediments near the transition of channel to overbank deposits due to local reworking after deposition either by wind or water.

Cunningham, A. C.; Wallinga, J.; Hobo, N.; Versendaal, A. J.; Makaske, B.; Middelkoop, H.

2014-07-01

272

Possible Extent and Depth of Salt Contamination in Ground Water Using Geophysical Techniques, Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A surface-geophysical investigation of the Red River Aluminum site at Stamps, Arkansas, was conducted in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality to determine the possible extent and depth of saltwater contamination. Water-level measurements indicate the distance to water level below land surface ranges from about 1.2 to 3.9 feet (0.37 to 1.19 meters) in shallow monitor wells and about 10.5 to 17.1 feet (3.20 to 5.21 meters) in deeper monitoring wells. The two-dimensional, direct-current resistivity method identified resistivities less than 5 ohm-meters which indicated possible areas of salt contamination occurring in near-surface or deep subsurface ground water along four resistivity lines within the site. One line located east of the site yielded data that demonstrated no effect of salt contamination. Sections from two of the five data sets were modeled. The input model grids were created on the basis of the known geology and the results and interpretations of borehole geophysical data. The clay-rich Cook Mountain Formation is modeled as 25 ohm-meters and extends from 21 meters (68.9 feet) below land surface to the bottom of the model (about 52 meters (170.6 feet)). The models were used to refine interpretation of the resistivity data and to determine extent of saltwater contamination and depth to the Cook Mountain Formation. Data from the resistivity lines indicate both near-surface and subsurface saltwater contamination. The near-surface contamination appears as low resistivity (less than 5 ohm-meters) on four of the five resistivity lines, extending up to 775 meters (2,542.8 feet) horizontally in a line that traverses the entire site south to north. Model resistivity data indicate that the total depth of saltwater contamination is about 18 meters (59 feet) below land surface. Data from four resistivity lines identified areas containing low resistivity anomalies interpreted as possible salt contamination. A fifth line located just east of the site showed no saltwater contamination.

Stanton, Gregory P.; Kress, Wade; Hobza, Christopher M.; Czarnecki, John B.

2003-01-01

273

Mg/Ca in planktonic foraminifers: a dual proxy for deep sea calcite dissolution and water temperature both at the sea surface and at thermocline depths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg/Ca in planktonic foraminifer shells is controlled by calcification temperature and calcite dissolution on the seafloor. In order to distinguish the effect of carbonate dissolution from temperature, we measured Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Mg/Sr in foraminifers with similar growth temperatures but whose shells were subjected to varying degrees of dissolution. Likewise, we isolated the effect of temperature on shell chemistry by analyzing foraminifers which grew over a range of temperatures [15-28 degrees C] but whose shells were subjected to the same degree of dissolution. We analyzed several species of planktonic foraminifers representing a range of habitat depth [Globorotalia menardii, Globorotalia tumida, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, and Globigerinoides bulloides]. We compared species-specific shell chemistry with a foraminifer fragmentation based calcite dissolution proxy [G. menardii fragmentation index MFI] within the same core top samples taken from the eastern equatorial Pacific, subtropical East Pacific Rise and the Ontong Java Plateau. We also compared foraminifer element ratios to modern bottom water [CO3=] and model derived estimates of percent calcite dissolved in deep sea sediments. In samples where temperature variability is minimal, we find clear linear decreases in Mg/Ca or Mg/Sr in G. menardii and P. obliquiloculata with increasing [1] bottom water CO3= under-saturation, [2] percent calcite dissolved in sediments calculated with biogeochemical modeling, [3] MFI, and [4] percent calcite dissolved derived from MFI; thereby clearly isolating the dissolution signal in these species and relating it to a measurable index of calcite dissolution (MFI). In contrast, we find no significant correlation between Sr/Ca and independent dissolution indicators. Elemental ratios in samples subjected to similar dissolution clearly reveal the effect of temperature in at least two of our species [G. bulloides-surface dweller and G. tumida-deep dweller]. Our results indicate that Mg/Ca and Mg/Sr could serve as reliable calcite dissolution proxies when used in combination with independent water temperature estimates. Particularly, Mg/Ca in P. obliquiloculata, N. dutertrei and G. menardii appears to have the strongest dissolution sensitivity and the weakest temperature signal and may thus provide the most sensitive tool for quantifying calcite dissolution. Likewise, the relationship between MFI and dissolution-induced changes in Mg/Ca of foraminifers living at various water depths raises the possibility that MFI could be used to correct Mg/Ca-derived temperature reconstructions for calcite dissolution in both surface and thermocline waters.

Mekik, F. A.; Francois, R.

2006-12-01

274

Spatial variability of soil apparent electrical conductivity(ECa) and the water table depth in an alluvial valley under different uses.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa), measured by contact or by electromagnetic induction (EMI), has been widely used as a variable that is correlated with physical and chemical soil properties. Therefore this property is used as a parameter in precision agriculture, to enable assessment of soil spatial variability and defining management units, allowing obtaining information about other soil properties like texture, salinity, water content, among others. These conditions are adequate to study spatial variability of data with the help of geostatistics, which models the spatial variability of soil properties, allowing the construction of spatial variability maps unbiased and with minimum variance. Thus, the goal this work was assess the variability special of electrical conductivity apparent soil (ECa) and the water table level in an alluvial valley in the brazilian semi-arid adopting different uses. The studied alluvial valley is located in Pesqueira (Pernambuco State, Brazil) and has 421.0 hectares. The main soil types occurring in the valley are: Fluvic Neosols , litholic Neossols and regolithic Neosols . Climate according to Koppen's classification is BSsh type, with total annual rainfall average of 730mm. The attributes evaluated in this study were sampled at 88 piezometric wells. The apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) was measured by electromagnetic induction with the EM38 device (Geonics Ltd) in vertical dipole (effective depth 1.5m). The ground water table was determined in piezometric wells with the aid of a measuring tape. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The land use map was constructed using field verification and spatialized by means of GIS. The attributes analyzed showed Normal frequency distribution. ECa readings ranged between 8 and 79 mS m-1. The major differences between the ECa values are due to the variation of water content in soil and distance from the water table at the soil surface. The water table in the study area ranged from 0.8 to 3.8 m deep. The Pearson linear correlation found for the data in the study was zero (r = -0.0185). The Gaussian model was the best fit to the data, and the water table had the highest range value (a = 500.00 m). The maps of spatial variability of water table and ECa have similar spatial behavior, indicating that where the water table is deeper at places with the lowest ECa.

Siqueira, G. M.; Fontes Júnior, R. V. P.; Montenegro, A. A. A.; Barros, Y. L.; Silva, E. F. F.

2012-04-01

275

The fragmentation of 670A MeV neon-20 as a function of depth in water. II. One-generation transport theory.  

PubMed

The results of an experiment to study the interaction of a beam of 670A MeV neon ions incident on a water column set to different thicknesses were compared with a "first principles" transport calculation in the straight-ahead approximation. This calculation assumes that the nuclear interactions of the incident particles lead to a secondary particle with the velocity of the incident projectile at the interaction point moving in the direction of the incident projectile. Subsequent nuclear interactions of the fragments were taken into account partially, by calculating the nuclear attenuation of the fragments in the residual material, but were not taken into account as a source of further nuclear interaction products. Fluence spectra were calculated per unit incident neon fluence for 14 absorber thicknesses. The acceptance for each fragment was calculated based on a knowledge of the material in the beam and of the beam extraction energy. The theoretical spectra were multiplied by the calculated acceptance and convoluted with the LET resolution associated with the experiment. The stopping power used in the transport calculation was found to predict a range approximately 1.6% shorter than that given by experiment; this small difference resulted in significant discrepancies between theory and experiment in the stopping region. For particles not stopping in the absorber, the transport calculation was accurate to within 30% for depths less than approximately 15 cm; the effects of tertiary particles become significant at greater depth. PMID:2247591

Shavers, M R; Curtis, S B; Miller, J; Schimmerling, W

1990-11-01

276

Tsunami and the Depth of the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An inquiry approach to using the celerity (=velocity) of a tsunami to measure the depth of the ocean along its path. Tsunami are shallow-water waves, because their wavelengths are so long relative to ocean depth. Shallow-water wave celerity depends on ocean depth. Students reason this out. They then determine the distance of the path of the tsunami from the epicenter of the 1964 Alaska Good Friday earthquake tsunami to various locations, use tsunami arrival times to calculate the velocity, and re-arrange the shallow-water celerity equation to calculate depth. Students evaluate the geographic distribution of water depths.

Farley, Martin

277

Distribution and biogeographic trends of decapod assemblages from Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic) at depths between 700 and 1800 m, with connexions to regional water masses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galicia Bank (NE Atlantic, 42°67?N-11°74?W) is an isolated seamount, near NW Spain, a complex geomorphological and sedimentary structure that receives influences from contrasting water masses of both northern and southern origins. Within the project INDEMARES, three cruises were performed on the bank in 2009 (Ecomarg0709), 2010 (BanGal0810) and 2011 (BanGal0811) all in July-August. Decapods and other macrobenthic crustaceans (eucarids and peracarids) were collected with different sampling systems, mainly beam trawls (BT, 10 mm of mesh size at codend) and a GOC73 otter trawl (20 mm mesh size). Sixty-seven species of decapod crustaceans, 6 euphausiids, 19 peracarids and 1 ostracod were collected at depths between 744 and 1808 m. We found two new species, one a member of the Chirostylidae, Uroptychus cartesi Baba & Macpherson, 2012, the other of the Petalophthalmidae (Mysida) Petalophthalmus sp. A, in addition to a number of new biogeographic species records for European or Iberian waters. An analysis of assemblages showed a generalized species renewal with depth, with different assemblages between 744 and ca. 1400 m (the seamount top assemblage, STA) and between ca. 1500 and 1800 m (the deep-slope assemblage over seamount flanks, DSA). These were respectively associated with Mediterranean outflow waters (MOW) and with Labrador Sea Water (LSW). Another significant factor separating different assemblages over the Galician Bank was the co-occurrence of corals (both colonies of hard corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata and/or gorgonians) in hauls. Munidopsids (Munidopsis spp.), chirostylids (Uroptychus spp.), and the homolodromiid Dicranodromia mahieuxii formed a part of this coral-associated assemblage. Dominant species at the STA were the pandalid Plesionika martia (a shrimp of subtropical-southern distribution) and the crabs Bathynectes maravigna and Polybius henslowii, whereas dominant species in the DSA were of northern origin, the lithodid Neolithodes grimaldii and the crangonid Glyphocrangon longiristris, likely associated with LSW. The diversity (H and J) of small crustaceans (collected with BT) seemed to be controlled by the phytoplankton blooms (satellite Chl a data) over bank surface 3 months before the samplings, both at the top (Spearman r=0.57, p=0.03) and on the flanks (r=0.74, p=0.02) of Galicia Bank, while no significant relationships with Chl a were found for the larger decapods collected with GOC73, on average they feed at the higher trophic levels than those collected with BT.

Cartes, J. E.; Papiol, V.; Frutos, I.; Macpherson, E.; González-Pola, C.; Punzón, A.; Valeiras, X.; Serrano, A.

2014-08-01

278

Sunphotometric Measurement of Columnar H2O and Aerosol Optical Depth During the 3rd Water Vapor IOP in Fall 2000 at the SGP ARM Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We conducted ground-based measurements with the Ames Airborne Tracking 6-channel Sunphotometer (AATS-6) during the 3rd Water Vapor IOP (WVIOP3), September 18 - October 8, 2000 at the SGP ARM site. For this deployment our primary result was columnar water vapor (CWV) obtained from continuous solar transmittance measurements in the 0.94-micron band. In addition, we simultaneously measured aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 380, 450, 525, 864 and 1020 nm. During the IOP, preliminary results of CWV and AOD were displayed in real-time. The result files were made available to other investigators by noon of the next day. During WVIOP3 those data were shown on the daily intercomparison plots on the IOP web-site. Our preliminary results for CWV fell within the spread of values obtained from other techniques. After conclusion of WVIOP3, AATS-6 was shipped directly to Mauna Loa, Hawaii for post-mission calibration. The updated calibration, a cloud screening technique for AOD, along with other mostly cosmetic changes were applied to the WVIOP3 data set and released as version 0.1. The resulting changes in CWV are small, the changes in AOD and Angstrom parameter are more noticeable. Data version 0.1 was successfully submitted to the ARM External Data Center. In the poster we will show data examples for both CWV and AOD. We will also compare our CWV results with those obtained from a GPS (Global Positioning System) slant path method.

Schmid, B; Eilers, J. A.; McIntosh, D. M.; Longo, K.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

279

Measurement of equivalent doses in quartz from contemporary water-lain sediments using optically stimulated luminescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The single aliquot technique and its derivatives are very attractive for the measurement of the very small doses found in young materials, because they inherently avoid concerns about low-dose non-linearity and can offer high precisions. A modification is outlined to the single Aliquot\\/regeneration and added dose (SARA) protocol [Mejdahl and Bøtter-Jensen (1994), Quaternary Geochronology (Quaternary Science Reviews), 13, 551–5541, to

A. S. Murray; J. M. Olley; G. G. Caitcheon

1995-01-01

280

Responses of Ecosystem Methane, Carbon and Water Fluxes to Long-Term Experimental Increases in Temperature, Soil Moisture and Snow Depth in NW Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The carbon balance of permafrost zone ecosystems may be vulnerable to changes in growing season temperature and precipitation. But the effects of climate change on C cycling in the high arctic are largely unknown, particularly for multiple simultaneous changes that may reduce or reinforce each other. We examined the effects of single or multiple environmental changes (increased temperature, soil moisture or snow depth, in comparison to control plots) on a high arctic tundra ecosystem at a global warming manipulation experiment in NW Greenland. We collected 3 years of data during the growing season from 2010 to 2012. Plant and soil fluxes of methane, carbon and water were measured continuously using automated chambers coupled to a CH4 laser analyzer. We observed CH4 uptake of 1-2 nmol m-2 s-1 across all treatment and control plots. CH4 uptake was inversely correlated with soil moisture over the seasonal time scale, and showed similar rates and patterns on the interannual time scale. Net carbon and water fluxes in the elevated temperature plots were similar to the control plots, but fluxes were significantly enhanced in the combined treatment of elevated temperature and added water. Total growing season C accumulation was 3-5 times greater, water fluxes were 1.5-2 times higher, and water use efficiency was about 3 times higher in the combined treatment than the control. Measurements of leaf level physiology and morphology revealed the role of different compartments and mechanisms in determining the response of the net ecosystem fluxes. Plants at elevated temperature had higher photosynthetic capacity, leaf N content and specific leaf area than control plants, indicating enhanced soil respiration may balance increased photosynthetic uptake. In contrast, watering alone or in the combined treatment resulted in a decreased N availability to the plants, with photosynthetic rates comparable to control plants. However, a 35% increase in leaf area in the combined treatment resulted in higher C uptake at the ecosystem scale relevant for atmospheric CO2 drawdown. The effects of climate change on ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes in the high arctic clearly depends on the interactions between plant strategies, soil responses and the relative impacts of multiple climatic drivers.

Seibt, U.; Maseyk, K. S.; Lupascu, M.; Lett, C.; Welker, J. M.; Czimczik, C. I.

2012-12-01

281

Semi-3D dosimetry of high dose rate brachytherapy using a novel Gafchromic EBT3 film-array water phantom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need to modernise clinical brachytherapy dosimetry measurement beyond traditional point dose verification to enable appropriate quality control within 3D treatment environments. This is to keep pace with the 3D clinical and planning approaches which often include significant patient-specific optimisation away from 'standard loading patterns'. A multi-dimension measurement system is required to provide assurance of the complex 3D dose distributions, to verify equipment performance, and to enable quality audits. However, true 3D dose measurements around brachytherapy applicators are often impractical due to their complex shapes and the requirement for close measurement distances. A solution utilising an array of radiochromic film (Gafchromic EBT3) positioned within a water filled phantom is presented. A calibration function for the film has been determined over 0 to 90Gy dose range using three colour channel analysis (FilmQAPro software). Film measurements of the radial dose from a single HDR source agree with TPS and Monte Carlo calculations within 5 % up to 50 mm from the source. Film array measurements of the dose distribution around a cervix applicator agree with TPS calculations generally within 4 mm distance to agreement. The feasibility of film array measurements for semi-3D dosimetry in clinical HDR applications is demonstrated.

Palmer, A. L.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

2013-06-01

282

Estimation of snow depth and snow water equivalent distribution using airborne microwave radiometry in the Binggou Watershed, the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimated the spatial distribution of snow depth/snow water equivalent (SD/SWE) in a mountainous watershed (Binggou, which is in the upper reaches of the Heihe River basin) by an airborne microwave radiometry observational experiment. Two microwave radiometers measuring at K band (18.7 GHz) and Ka band (36 GHz) were used to estimate the volume scatter from snowpacks and infer SD and SWE. Simultaneously, the snow physical properties (such as snow depth, density, grain size and temperature) over four sites were measured, and a simple multi-layer sample scheme was adopted to obtain the stratigraphic information. The microwave emission model of layered snowpacks (MEMLS) was used to simulate the brightness temperatures of snow cover for each measurement point. By comparing TB data that were simulated by MEMLS and observed by radiometers on the aircraft over the four sites, we obtained the retrieval algorithms of SD and SWE based on brightness temperature differences (TBD) at the K- and Ka-bands that are suitable to the local snow properties. The validation shows that the mean absolute and relative errors of SD estimates are approximately 3.5 cm and 14.8%, respectively. SWE from airborne microwave radiometers show that blowing snow and sun radiation are two main factors that determine the spatial distribution of SWE in Binggou Watershed. The local angle of incidence of the microwave radiometer observation can be influenced by mountainous topography, and a sensitivity analysis suggests that changes in the local angle of incidence (e.g., the nominal angle of incidence) will not significantly influence the estimation of SD/SWE. The snow's stratigraphic condition is not an important factor for estimating SD/SWE in this study because the snow was not very deep in the Binggou Watershed. However, the field sampling scheme should be given more attention to obtain the spatial variations of snow properties and to support pixel-by-pixel validation in next field campaign.

Che, Tao; Dai, Liyun; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Qiang

2012-07-01

283

Treatment of steam-assisted gravity drainage water using low coagulant dose and Fenton oxidation.  

PubMed

The use of coagulation and Fenton oxidation was studied for total organic carbon (TOC) and silica removal from steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) water at 800C and two different concentrations replicating the stream feeding the warm lime softening unit having 675 mg/L TOC and 350 mg/L silica and the blowdown of the once through steam generator having 3700mg/L TOC and 2585 mg/L silica. Coagulation was carried out by the addition of FeCl3, Al(NO3)3 or Ca(NO3)2. The results showed that Fe(III) salt outperformed Al(III) and Ca(II) salts. A two-stage addition of 2.5 g FeCl3 per g TOC intermediated by a filtration unit resulted in approximately 72% TOC removal and more than 80% silica removal while maintaining low solid waste. Comparing results pertaining to coagulant concentration and final pH, it can be easily concluded that silica removal is governed by the resultant pH, whereas TOC removal was accomplished through surface neutralization and localized enmeshment coagulation. Fenton oxidation is proposed to further treat the filtrate obtained from the second stage Fe(III) coagulation. An additional 10% TOC removal could be achieved; at seven times lower H202 dose in the presence of Fe2+ or Fe0 reagent. Moreover, the advanced Fenton process resulted in high silica removal as a result of adsorption onto Fe(OH)3 precipitate, which formed at the equilibrium pH of the system. PMID:24956753

Al-As'ad, Ahmad; Husein, Maen M

2014-08-01

284

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Part 1. Description of Tritium Dose Model (DCART) for Routine Releases from LLNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

DCART (Doses from Chronic Atmospheric Releases of Tritium) is a spreadsheet model developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that calculates doses from inhalation of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT), inhalation and skin absorption of tritiated water (HTO), and ingestion of HTO and organically bound tritium (OBT) to adult, child (age 10), and infant (age 6 months to 1 year) from

2006-01-01

285

Radioactivity in drilled and dug well drinking water of Ogun state Southwestern Nigeria and consequent dose estimates.  

PubMed

Activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (235)U were measured in 11 dug and 9 drilled well water samples from 3 large cities in Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria, consumed by the population living in the cities. The measurement was done using co-axial type high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector (Canberra Industries Inc.). The measured activity concentrations in the water samples ranged from 1.74 +/- 1.83 to 4.69 +/- 0.17 Bq l(-1); 2.89 +/- 0.62 to 7.79 +/- 7.22 Bq l(-1); 0.35 +/- 0.07 to 1.17 +/- 0.40 Bq l(-1) and 0.18 +/- 0.05 to 4.77 +/- 0.34 Bq l(-1) for (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ac and (235)U, respectively. Total annual effective dose rates from the ingestion of these radionuclides in the untreated wells were estimated using measured activity concentrations in the radionuclides and their ingested dose conversion factors. Estimated annual effective dose rates ranged from 0.04 to 6.82; 0.01 to 1.36 and 0.01 to 1.49 mSv y(-1) for age groups <1, 2-7 and > or =17 y, respectively. Committed dose for age group > or =17 y ranged from 8.8 x 10(-4) to 8.9 x 10(-2) Sv. The calculated annual effective dose values due to the ingestion of (226)Ra in the Awujale, Ake, Saboab, Alagbon, Alapora and Totoro samples exceeded International Commission on Radiological Protection limit of 1.0 mSv y(-1) for individual public exposure. These wells are recommended for treatment that would remove radium from their waters. PMID:19482882

Ajayi, O S; Achuka, J

2009-07-01

286

Generalized potentiometric surface, estimated depth to water, and estimated saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer system, March–June 2009, Laramie County, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High Plains aquifer system, commonly called the High Plains aquifer in many publications, is a nationally important water resource that underlies a 111-million-acre area (173,000 square miles) in parts of eight States including Wyoming. Through irrigation of crops with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system, the area that overlies the aquifer system has become one of the major agricultural regions in the world. In addition, the aquifer system also serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents of the region. The High Plains aquifer system is one of the largest aquifers or aquifer systems in the world. The High Plains aquifer system underlies an area of 8,190 square miles in southeastern Wyoming. Including Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is present in parts of five counties in southeastern Wyoming. The High Plains aquifer system underlies 8 percent of Wyoming, and 5 percent of the aquifer system is located within the State. Based on withdrawals for irrigation, public supply, and industrial use in 2000, the High Plains aquifer system is the most utilized source of groundwater in Wyoming. With the exception of the Laramie Mountains in western Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is present throughout Laramie County. In Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is the predominant groundwater resource for agricultural (irrigation), municipal, industrial, and domestic uses. Withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation (primarily in the eastern part of the county) is the largest use of water from the High Plains aquifer system in Laramie County and southeastern Wyoming. Continued interest in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer system in Laramie County prompted a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office to update the potentiometric-surface map of the aquifer system in Laramie County. Groundwater levels were measured in wells completed in the High Plains aquifer system from March to June 2009. The groundwater levels were used to construct a map of the potentiometric surface of the High Plains aquifer system. In addition, depth to water and estimated saturated-thickness maps of the aquifer system were constructed using the potentiometric-surface map.

Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.

2011-01-01

287

In situ fabrication of depth-type hierarchical CNT/quartz fiber filters for high efficiency filtration of sub-micron aerosols and high water repellency.  

PubMed

We fabricated depth-type hierarchical CNT/quartz fiber (QF) filters through in situ growth of CNTs upon quartz fiber (QF) filters using a floating catalyst chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The filter specific area of the CNT/QF filters is more than 12 times higher than that of the pristine QF filters. As a result, the penetration of sub-micron aerosols for CNT/QF filters is reduced by two orders of magnitude, which reaches the standard of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Simultaneously, due to the fluffy brush-like hierarchical structure of CNTs on QFs, the pore size of the hybrid filters only has a small increment. The pressure drop across the CNT/QF filters only increases about 50% with respect to that of the pristine QF filters, leading to an obvious increased quality factor of the CNT/QF filters. Scanning electron microscope images reveal that CNTs are very efficient in capturing sub-micron aerosols. Moreover, the CNT/QF filters show high water repellency, implying their superiority for applications in humid conditions. PMID:23467703

Li, Peng; Zong, Yichen; Zhang, Yingying; Yang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Rufan; Li, Shuiqing; Wei, Fei

2013-04-21

288

Nest survival of American Coots relative to grazing, burning, and water depths [Survie au nid chez la foulque D'Am??rique en fonction du p??turage, du br??lage et de la profondeur d'eau  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and waterlevel manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common landmanagement practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment) on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana) nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year ?? treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation. ?? 2011 by the author(s).

Austin, J.E.; Buhl, D.A.

2011-01-01

289

Analysis of radon, uranium 238 and thorium 232 in potable waters: Dose to adult members of the Moroccan urban population  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium ( 238U) and thorium ( 232Th) concentrations as well as radon ( 222Rn) and thoron ( 220Rn) alpha-activities per unit volume have been measured inside various potable water samples collected from nineteen cities in Morocco by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measured radon alpha-activities ranged from (0.37 ± 0.02) Bq l -1 to (13.6 ± 1.10) Bq l -1 for the potable water samples studied. Alpha-activities due to radon from the ingestion of the studied potable water samples were determined in different compartments of the gastrointestinal system by using the ICRP compartmental model for radon. Annual committed equivalent doses due to radon were evaluated in the gastrointestinal compartments from the ingestion of the potable water samples studied. The influence of the target tissue mass, radon intake and alpha-activity integral due to radon on the annual committed equivalent doses in the gastrointestinal compartments was investigated.

Misdaq, M. A.; Ouabi, H.; Merzouki, A.

2007-10-01

290

Application of large benthic foraminifera as a tool for interpretation of paleoclimate and water depth, in the Ziyarat Formation, Alborz, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ziyarat Formation, with a total thickness of 213 m, is a shallow warm water limestone, overlies the Fajan conglomerate and is overlain by tufaceous siltstone of the Karj Formation. The age of late Paleocene- Middle Eocene was considered for the Ziyarat Formation at the type section. From late Paleocene towards Middle Eocene, temperature has increased (Scheibner et al., 2005). This rising temperature has intensified and giving way to an unprecedented expansion of Large Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) dominating Tethyan platform during Middle Eocene (Scheibner et al., 2005). ?18O paleotemperature calculation based on heaviest oxygen isotope value of micrite and ?18Ow of Eocene seawater of 0.85 SMOW shows that temperature was around 39?C in the study area. In response to continued global warming during Paleocene-Eocene Termal Maximum (PETM), some organisms (such as corals) has been declined, while at the same time, L.B.F. were increasingly favored as dominant carbonate producing organisms in oligotrophic environment (Scheibner et al., 2008). For the even warmer period of PTEM a transient rise in sea-surface temperature of 4-5?C in low latitudes and 8 to 10? C in high latitudes has been proposed based on Mg/Ca ratios of planktic foraminifera (Zachos et al., 2003; Tripati and Elderfield, 2004). Thus, L.B.F was able to exploit their niche as evidenced by their increase in size, species diversity and their overwhelming abundance. In the Ziyarat Formation, 11 microfacies were recognized from the shallower to deeper part of the platform. The lack of evidence of resedimentation, e.g. turbidite, related to steep slop, and absence of reefal facies and widespread tidal flat deposits indicate that the Ziyarat Formation was deposited in a homocline carbonate ramp environment. The evaporite facies, dolomicrite, intraclast ooid packstone to grainstone, Miliolid wackestone, and Alveolina nummulite packstone belong to inner ramp sub-environment; middle ramp microfacies composed of Nummulite packstone, red algae nummulite packstone, Discocyclina nummulite wackestone, and Nummulite discocyclina wackestone to packstone; and outer ramp microfacies consist of benthic foraminifera packstone and radiolar sponge spicule wackestone. The ramp model proposed here for the Ziyarat Formation represent an example of a foraminifera dominated ramp system. The Paleogene was a time of particular abundance and radiation of miliolid and larger hyaline foraminifera and, especially during the Eocene they occurred in rock-forming quantities. Among L.B.F typical of Early Cenozoic carbonate platforms, Nummulites occupied a broad range of open marine environments on both ramps and shelves, and was generally absent from more restricted waters. Assilina and discocyclina in relatively deep water environments, while smaller lenticular Nummulites occur in shallower, inner ramp/shelf settings, often co-existing with Alveolina. Nummulites in the Ziyarat Formation showing variation in test shape, along the paleoenvironmental gradient. Nummulites from inner ramp have robust ovate shape with thick walls, while by increasing water depth, lower temperature, decreasing light levels and water energy, the test shape becomes flatter and elongate.

Khatibi Mehr, M.; Adabi, M. H.

2009-04-01

291

Self-Consistent Approach to the Solution of the Light Transfer Problem for Irradiances in Marine Waters with Arbitrary Turbidity, Depth, and Surface Illumination. I. Case of Absorption and Elastic Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-consistent variant of the two-flow approximation that takes into account strong anisotropy of light scattering in seawater of finite depth and arbitrary turbidity is presented. To achieve an appropriate accuracy, this approach uses experimental dependencies between downward and total mean cosines. It calculates irradiances, diffuse attenuation coefficients, and diffuse reflectances in waters with arbitrary values of scattering, backscattering, and

Vladimir I. Haltrin

1998-01-01

292

Figure 1. Wind and tides mix the ocean to great depths. Thus, because of the thermal inertia of this ocean water, it requires at least several decades for the ocean temperature to respond fully to a climate  

E-print Network

1 Figure 1. Wind and tides mix the ocean to great depths. Thus, because of the thermal inertia of this ocean water, it requires at least several decades for the ocean temperature to respond fully. As the sun sank in the late afternoon, a brisk wind from the ocean whipped up whitecaps. My son and I had

Glashausser, Charles

293

Shipboard Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectra and Columnar Water Vapor During ACE-2, and Comparison with Selected Land, Ship, Aircraft, and Satellite Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements acquired with NASA Ames Research Center's six-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated aboard the R/V (research vehicle) Professor Vodyanitskiy during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are discussed. Data are compared with various in situ and remote measurements for selected cases. The focus is on 10 July, when the Pelican airplane flew within 70 km of the ship near the time of a NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration)-14/AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite overpass and AOD measurements with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) above the marine boundary layer (MBL) permitted calculation of AOD within the MBL from the AATS-6 measurements. A detailed column closure test is performed for MBL AOD on 10 July by comparing the AATS-6 MBL AODs with corresponding values calculated by combining shipboard particle size distribution measurements with models of hygroscopic growth and radiosonde humidity profiles (plus assumptions on the vertical profile of the dry particle size distribution and composition). Large differences (30-80% in the mid-visible) between measured and reconstructed AODs are obtained, in large part because of the high sensitivity of the closure methodology to hygroscopic growth models, which vary considerably and have not been validated over the necessary range of particle size/composition distributions. The wavelength dependence of AATS-6 AODs is compared with the corresponding dependence of aerosol extinction calculated from shipboard measurements of aerosol size distribution and of total scattering measured by a shipboard integrating nephelometer for several days. Results are highly variable, illustrating further the great difficulty of deriving column values from point measurements. AATS-6 CWV values are shown to agree well with corresponding values derived from radiosonde measurements during eight soundings on seven days and also with values calculated from measurements taken on 10 July with the AATS-14 and the University of Washington Passive Humidigraph aboard the Pelican.

Livingston, John M.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Durkee, Philip A.; Smith, Peter J.; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias

2000-01-01

294

Shipboard Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectra and Columnar Water Vapor During ACE-2 and Comparison with Selected Land, Ship, Aircraft, and Satellite Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and colurnmn water vapor (CWV) measurements acquired with NASA Ames Research Center's 6-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated aboard the R/V Professor Vodyanitskiy during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are discussed. Data are compared with various in situ and remote measurements for selected cases. The focus is on 10 July, when the Pelican airplane flew within 70 km of the ship near the time of a NOAA-14/AVHRR satellite overpass and AOD measurements with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) above the marine boundary layer (MBL) permitted calculation of AOD within the MBL from the AATS-6 measurements. A detailed column closure test is performed for MBL AOD on 10 July by comparing the AATS-6 MBL AODs with corresponding values calculated by combining shipboard particle size distribution measurements with models of hygroscopic growth and radiosonde humidity profiles (plus assumptions on the vertical profile of the dry particle size distribution and composition). Large differences (30-80% in the mid-visible) between measured and reconstructed AODs are obtained, in large part because of the high sensitivity of the closure methodology to hygroscopic growth models, which vary considerably and have not been validated over the necessary range of particle size/composition distributions. The wavelength dependence of AATS-6 AODs is compared with the corresponding dependence of aerosol extinction calculated from shipboard measurements of aerosol size distribution and of total scattering mearured by a shipboard integrating nephelometer for several days. Results are highly variable, illustrating further the great difficulty of deriving column values from point measurements. AATS-6 CWV values are shown to agree well with corresponding values derived from radiosonde measurements during 8 soundings on 7 days and also with values calculated from measurements taken on 10 July with the AATS-14 and the University of Washington Passive Humidigraph aboard the Pelican.

Livingston, John M.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Durkee, Philip A.; Smith, Peter J.; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias; Covert, Dave S.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio

2000-01-01

295

Examining the interrelationship between DOC, bromide and chlorine dose on DBP formation in drinking water--a case study.  

PubMed

During drinking water treatment aqueous chlorine and bromine compete to react with natural organic matter (NOM). Among the products of these reactions are potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by-products, notably four trihalomethanes (THM4) and nine haloacetic acids (HAAs). Previous research has concentrated on the role of bromide in chlorination reactions under conditions of a given NOM type and/or concentration. In this study different concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from U.K. lowland water were reacted with varying amounts of bromide and chlorine in order to examine the interrelationship between the three reactants in the formation of THM4, dihaloacetic acids (DHAAs) and trihaloacetic acids (THAAs). Results showed that, in general, molar yields of THM4 increased with DOC, bromide and chlorine concentrations, although yields did fluctuate versus chlorine dose. In contrast both DHAA and THAA yields were mainly independent of changes in bromide and chlorine dose at low DOC (1 mg·L(-1)), but increased with chlorine dose at higher DOC concentrations (4 mg·L(-1)). Bromine substitution factors reached maxima of 0.80, 0.67 and 0.65 for the THM4, DHAAs and THAAs, respectively, at the highest bromide/chlorine ratio studied. These results suggest that THM4 formation kinetics depend on both oxidation and halogenation steps, whereas for DHAAs and THAAs oxidation steps are more important. Furthermore, they indicate that high bromide waters may prove more problematic for water utilities with respect to THM4 formation than for THAAs or DHAAs. While mass concentrations of all three groups increased in response to increased bromide incorporation, only the THMs also showed an increase in molar yield. Overall, the formation behaviour of DHAA and THAA was more similar than that of THM4 and THAA. PMID:24176694

Bond, Tom; Huang, Jin; Graham, Nigel J D; Templeton, Michael R

2014-02-01

296

Uranium contents and associated effective doses in drinking water from Biscay (Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determnation of 234U and 238U content in drinking waters treated at four treatment plants supplying water to a set of municipalities located in northern Spain has given mean values of 1.14 mBq\\/L fr 234U and 0.8 mBq\\/L for 238U. These contents, taking into account the population supplied with water and its distribution in age intervals, have allowed the determination

M. Herranz; A. Abelairas; F. Legarda

1997-01-01

297

Particle Size Distribution and Inhalation Dose of Shower Water Under Selected Operating Conditions  

PubMed Central

Showering produces respirable droplets that may serve to deposit pollutants such as trihalomethane decontamination products, heavy metals, inorganic salts, microbes, or cyanoacterial toxins within the respiratory tract. The extent and importance of this route of indoor exposure depend on the physical characteristics of the aerosol as well as the pollutant profile of the source water. The purpose of this study was to characterize shower-generated aerosols as a function of water flow rate, temperature, and bathroom location. Aerosols were generated within a shower stall containing a mannequin to simulate the presence of a human. Using hot water, the mass median diameter (MMD) of the droplets inside the shower and in the bathroom were 6.3–7.5 um and 5.2–6 µm, respectively. Size was independent of water flow rate. The particle concentration inside the shower ranged from 5 to 14 mg/m3. Aerosols generated using cold water were smaller (2.5–3.1 µm) and concentrations were lower (0.02–0.1 mg/m3) inside the shower stall. No aerosols were detected in the bathroom area when cold water was used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection model was used to estimate water deposition in the respiratory tract. For hot water, total deposition ranged from 11 to 14 mg, depending on water flow rate, with approximately 50% of this deposited in the extrathoracic region during assumed mouth breathing, and greater than 86% when nose breathing was assumed. Alveolar deposition was 6–10% and 0.9% assuming oral and nasal breathing, respectively. The consequences deposition of shower water droplets will depend on the nature and extent of any pollutants in the source water. PMID:17365038

Zhou, Yue; Benson, Janet M.; Irvin, Clinton; Irshad, Hammad; Cheng, Yung-Sung

2010-01-01

298

An analytic representation of the radial distribution of dose from energetic heavy ions in water, Si, LiF, NaI, and SiO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier representation of the radial distribution of dose about the path of a heavy ion in liquid water is modified and extended to include silicon, lithium fluoride, sodium iodide, and silicon dioxide.

Robert Katz; Kim Sum Loh; Luo Daling; Guo-Rong Huang

1990-01-01

299

Hyperthermia following MDMA administration in rats: Effects of ambient temperature, water consumption, and chronic dosing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments it was found that the hyperthermia which follows MDMA (“Ecstasy”) results from an interaction of direct pharmacological effect of the drug and the prevailing environmental conditions in which it is administered. In Experiment 1, rats given fixed doses of either 2..5, 5.0 or 7.5 mg\\/kg MDMA or saline were injected on different days at ambient temperatures (Ta's)

Richard I. Dafters

1995-01-01

300

A new assessment in North Atlantic waters of the relationship between DMS concentration and the upper mixed layer solar radiation dose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the POMME experiment, conducted in the northeast Atlantic Ocean in 2001, were used to explore whether dimethylsulfide (DMS) concentrations are linked to epipelagic ecosystem exposure to solar radiation as proposed by Vallina and Simó (2007). According to the seasonal variations in the DMS-to-dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) ratio, we found that the summer surface water concentration of DMS was, on average, threefold higher than expected from the abundance of DMSP. This is in agreement with previous observations and confirms that seasonal changes in the trophic regime, from mesotrophy in winter and spring to oligotrophy in summer, are accompanied by a relative enhancement of DMS over DMSP. However, contrary to the observations carried out at Hydrostation S in the northwest Atlantic Ocean, no strong relationship between DMS and the solar radiation dose (SRD) exists in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. From a series of sensitivity tests, where different combinations of the three parameters that drive the SRD were investigated (i.e., the solar irradiance, the law of its attenuation in the sea, and the mixed layer depth), we found that the SRD accounted for only 19% to 24% of the variance associated with monthly surface DMS concentrations. Additionally, the slope of the relationship between DMS and SRD was particularly sensitive to the choice of the irradiance attenuation law. Overall, we find that the DMS versus SRD relationship is much less significant in the northeast Atlantic Ocean than in the Sargasso Sea. In addition, we suggest a large impact of algal community structure on summer DMS concentrations in the mesotrophic coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, we question the consistency between DMS versus SRD relationships at local, basin, and global scales and propose that empirical relationships relating DMS to SRD be applied with caution.

Belviso, S.; Caniaux, G.

2009-03-01

301

Radiological dose assessment for the dismantlement and decommissioning option for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor facility at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina  

SciTech Connect

Potential maximum radiation dose rates for a 10,000-year horizon were calculated for the dismantlement and decommissioning option for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor facility at the Savannah River Site. The residual radioactive material guidelines (RESRAD) computer code was used. The study will help determine if it is acceptable (in terms of DOE radiation dose limits) for activated and contaminated concrete to remain in the facility, along with embedded radioactive piping and radioactive equipment. Four cases were developed to evaluate potential doses; the cases vary with regard to the definitions of the sources. Case A considers the dose from the reactor biological shield; case B considers the dose from contaminated concrete rubble; case C considers the dose from contaminated concrete rubble, the reactor biological shield, and installed equipment; and case D considers the dose from contaminated cuttings brought to the surface following the perforation of a well through the contaminated zone in case C. Site-specific parameter values were used to estimate the radiation doses. The results indicate that neither the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr nor the 15-mrem/yr dose constraint would be exceeded for any of the cases. The potential maximum dose rates for cases A, B, C, and D are 0.000028, 0.015, 0.018, and 0.17 mrem/yr, respectively. The drinking water pathway is the dominant contributor to the doses in cases A through C, and the external gamma pathway is the dominant contributor in case D. Carbon-14, uranium-234, uranium-238, and americium-241 are the principal radionuclides contributing to the doses in cases A through C. Cobalt-60, europium-152, and barium-133 are the important radionuclides in case D. A sensitivity analysis was performed to determine which parameters have the greatest impact on the estimated doses. 9 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Faillace, E.R.; Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Chen, S.Y.

1997-10-01

302

Influence of increasing active-layer depth and continued permafrost degradation on carbon, water and energy fluxes over two forested permafrost landscapes in the Taiga Plains, NWT, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research suggests an increase in active-layer depth (ALD) in the continuous permafrost zone and degradation of the discontinuous permafrost zone into seasonally frozen. Increasing ALD and continued permafrost degradation will have far-reaching consequences for northern ecosystems including altered regional hydrology and the exposure of additional soil organic carbon (C) to microbial decomposition. These changes might cause positive or negative net feedbacks to the climate system by altering important land surface properties and/or by releasing stored soil organic C to the atmosphere as CO2 and/or CH4. Knowledge gaps exist regarding the links between increasing ALD and/or permafrost degradation, regional hydrology, vegetation composition and structure, land surface properties, and CO2 and CH4 sink-source strengths. The goal of our interdisciplinary project is to shed light on these links by providing a mechanistic understanding of permafrost-thawing consequences for hydrological, ecophysiological and biogeochemical processes at two forested permafrost landscapes in the Taiga Plains, NWT, Canada: Scotty Creek and Havikpak Creek in the discontinuous and in the continuous permafrost zones, respectively (Fig.). The sites will be equipped with identical sets of instrumentation (start: 2013), to measure landscape-scale net exchanges of CO2, CH4, water and energy with the eddy covariance technique. These measurements will be complemented by repeated surveys of surface and frost table topography and vegetation, by land cover-type specific fluxes of CO2 and CH4 measured with a static chamber technique, and by remote sensing-based footprint analysis. With this research we will address the following questions: What is the net effect of permafrost thawing-induced biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to the climate system? How do these two different types of feedback differ between the discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones? Is the decrease (increase) in net CO2 (CH4) exchange measured over mostly tundra sites in the continuous permafrost zone generalizable to forested landscapes in both the discontinuous and continuous permafrost zones? With this contribution, we report on the project status, present its objectives and hypotheses, and outline its timeline and sampling design.

Sonnentag, O.; Baltzer, J.; Chasmer, L. E.; Detto, M.; Marsh, P.; Quinton, W. L.

2012-12-01

303

EXPOSURES AND INTERNAL DOSES OF TRIHALOMETHANES IN HUMANS: MULTI-ROUTE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM DRINKING WATER (FINAL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) has released a final report that presents and applies a method to estimate distributions of internal concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in humans resulting from a residential drinking water exposure. The report presen...

304

In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water impairs early life lung mechanics in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a significant environmental issue affecting millions of people around the world. Exposure to arsenic during foetal development has been shown to impair somatic growth and increase the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine if in utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water is capable of altering lung growth and postnatal lung mechanics. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 10 (current World Health Organisation (WHO) maximum contaminant level) or 100?g/L arsenic from gestational day 8 to birth. Birth outcomes and somatic growth were monitored. Plethysmography and the forced oscillation technique were used to collect measurements of lung volume, lung mechanics, pressure-volume curves and the volume dependence of lung mechanics in male and female offspring at two, four, six and eight weeks of age. Results In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water resulted in low birth weight and impaired parenchymal lung mechanics during infancy. Male offspring were more susceptible to the effects of arsenic on growth and lung mechanics than females. All alterations to lung mechanics following in utero arsenic exposure were recovered by adulthood. Conclusions Exposure to arsenic at the current WHO maximum contaminant level in utero impaired somatic growth and the development of the lungs resulting in alterations to lung mechanics during infancy. Deficits in growth and lung development in early life may contribute to the increased susceptibility of developing chronic respiratory disease in arsenic exposed human populations. PMID:23419080

2013-01-01

305

Dreissena polymorpha Pall. postveligers in submersed macrophyte beds of Put-in-Bay, Ohio, as related to rate and density of settlement, macrophyte preference, water depth, and position within beds  

SciTech Connect

Increased water clarity due in large part to the invasion and spread of Dreissena polymorpha Pall., has allowed reestablishment of nearly continuous beds of submersed macrophytes in Put-in-Bay, Ohio. These beds now serve as sites for settlement by Dreissena veligers. Four transects extending from a maximum depth of 4.0 m to a minimum depth of 0.5 m were established in 1994, to document the time of recruitment, density of postveliger settlement, preferred macrophyte as a substrate, and effects of water depth and location within transects on recruitment. Settlement densities were determined for 100 g wet weight samples of macrophytes harvested along transects by snorkel and scuba. Peak settlement occurred 23 August, 11 days after the second planktonic veliger peak, but continued until early October. Maximum densities were greatest in 1.5-3.5 m water nearer the lakeward end of the transects and decreased in 1.0 m water or shoreward in dense submersed macrophyte beds. A maximum density of 15,150 Dreissena/100 g macrophyte occurred on the perennial Myriophyllum spicatum L., although mean settlement densities were greatest for the perennials M. spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum L., and the annuals Vallisneria americana Michx. and Najas quadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus. Macrophyte preference as a settling substrate is most probably a reflection of relative macrophyte abundance and position within dense beds rather than a particular plant architecture. Assessment of densities after autumnal vegetational growth is not yet complete.

Moore, D.L. [Utica College of Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

1995-06-01

306

Dominance of methanosarcinales phylotypes and depth-wise distribution of methanogenic community in fresh water sediments of sitka stream from czech republic.  

PubMed

The variation in the diversity of methanogens in sediment depths from Sitka stream was studied by constructing a 16S rRNA gene library using methanogen-specific primers and a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)-based approach. A total of nine different phylotypes from the 16S rRNA library were obtained, and all of them were clustered within the order Methanosarcinales. These nine phylotypes likely represent nine new species and at least 5-6 new genera. Similarly, DGGE analysis revealed an increase in the diversity of methanogens with an increase in sediment depth. These results suggest that Methanosarcinales phylotypes might be the dominant methanogens in the sediment from Sitka stream, and the diversity of methanogens increases as the depth increases. Results of the present study will help in making effective strategies to monitor the dominant methanogen phylotypes and methane emissions in the environment. PMID:25030226

Chaudhary, Prem Prashant; Wright, André-Denis G; Brablcová, Lenka; Buriánková, Iva; Bedna?ík, Adam; Rulík, Martin

2014-12-01

307

Use of depth information from in-depth photon counting detectors for x-ray spectral imaging: a preliminary simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Purpose: Photon counting x-ray detectors (PCXD) may improve dose-efficiency but are hampered by limited count rate. They generally have imperfect energy response. Multi-layer ("in-depth") detectors have been proposed to enable higher count rates but the potential benefit of the depth information has not been explored. We conducted a simulation study to compare in-depth detectors against single layer detectors composed of common materials. Both photon counting and energy integrating modes were studied. Methods: Polyenergetic transmissions were simulated through 25cm of water and 1cm of calcium. For PCXD composed of Si, GaAs or CdTe a 120kVp spectrum was used. For energy integrating x-ray detectors (EIXD) made from GaAs, CdTe or CsI, spectral imaging was done using 80 and 140kVp and matched dose. Semi-ideal and phenomenological energy response models were used. To compare these detectors, we computed the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) of the variance of basis material estimates. Results: For PCXDs with perfect energy response, depth data provides no additional information. For PCXDs with imperfect energy response and for EIXDs the improvement can be significant. E.g., for a CdTe PCXD with realistic energy response, depth information can reduce the variance by ~50%. The improvement depends on the x-ray spectrum. For a semi-ideal Si detector and a narrow x-ray spectrum the depth information has minimal advantage. For EIXD, the in-depth detector has consistent variance reduction (15% and 17%~19% for water and calcium, respectively). Conclusions: Depth information is beneficial to spectral imaging for both PCXD and EIXD. The improvement depends critically on the detector energy response.

Yao, Yuan; Bornefalk, Hans; Hsieh, Scott S.; Danielsson, Mats; Pelc, Norbert J.

2014-03-01

308

Approach to calculating upper bounds on maximum individual doses from the use of contaminated well water following a WIPP repository breach. Report EEG-9  

SciTech Connect

As part of the assessment of the potential radiological consequences of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this report evaluates the post-closure radiation dose commitments associated with a possible breach event which involves dissolution of the repository by groundwaters and subsequent transport of the nuclear waste through an aquifer to a well assumed to exist at a point 3 miles downstream from the repository. The concentrations of uranium and plutonium isotopes at the well are based on the nuclear waste inventory presently proposed for WIPP and basic assumptions concerning the transport of waste as well as treatment to reduce the salinity of the water. The concentrations of U-233, Pu-239, and Pu-240, all radionuclides originally emplaced as waste in the repository, would exceed current EPA drinking water limits. The concentrations of U-234, U-235, and U-236, all decay products of plutonium isotopes originally emplaced as waste, would be well below current EPA drinking water limits. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking treated water contaminated with U-233 or Pu-239 and Pu-240 were found to be comparable to a one-year dose from natural background. The 50-year dose commitments from one year of drinking milk would be no more than about 1/5 the dose obtained from ingestion of treated water. These doses are considered upper bounds because of several very conservative assumptions which are discussed in the report.

Spiegler, P.

1981-09-01

309

Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This corrigendum intends to clarify some important points that were not clearly or properly addressed in the original paper, and for which the authors apologize. The original description of the first Acuros algorithm is from the developers, published in Physics in Medicine and Biology by Vassiliev et al (2010) in the paper entitled 'Validation of a new grid-based Boltzmann equation solver for dose calculation in radiotherapy with photon beams'. The main equations describing the algorithm reported in our paper, implemented as the 'Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation Algorithm' in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system, were originally described (for the original Acuros algorithm) in the above mentioned paper by Vassiliev et al. The intention of our description in our paper was to give readers an overview of the algorithm, not pretending to have authorship of the algorithm itself (used as implemented in the planning system). Unfortunately our paper was not clear, particularly in not allocating full credit to the work published by Vassiliev et al on the original Acuros algorithm. Moreover, it is important to clarify that we have not adapted any existing algorithm, but have used the Acuros XB implementation in the Eclipse planning system from Varian. In particular, the original text of our paper should have been as follows: On page 1880 the sentence 'A prototype LBTE solver, called Attila (Wareing et al 2001), was also applied to external photon beam dose calculations (Gifford et al 2006, Vassiliev et al 2008, 2010). Acuros XB builds upon many of the methods in Attila, but represents a ground-up rewrite of the solver where the methods were adapted especially for external photon beam dose calculations' should be corrected to 'A prototype LBTE solver, called Attila (Wareing et al 2001), was also applied to external photon beam dose calculations (Gifford et al 2006, Vassiliev et al 2008). A new algorithm called Acuros, developed by the Transpire Inc. group, was built upon many of the methods in Attila, but represents a ground-up rewrite of the solver where the methods were especially adapted for external photon beam dose calculations, and described in Vassiliev et al (2010). Acuros XB is the Varian implementation of the original Acuros algorithm in the Eclipse planning system'. On page 1881, the sentence 'Monte Carlo and explicit LBTE solution, with sufficient refinement, will converge on the same solution. However, both methods produce errors (inaccuracies). In explicit LBTE solution methods, errors are primarily systematic, and result from discretization of the solution variables in space, angle, and energy. In both Monte Carlo and explicit LBTE solvers, a trade-off exists between speed and accuracy: reduced computational time may be achieved when less stringent accuracy criteria are specified, and vice versa' should cite the reference Vassiliev et al (2010). On page 1882, the beginning of the sub-paragraph The radiation transport model should start with 'The following description of the Acuros XB algorithm is as outlined by Vassiliev et al (2010) and reports the main steps of the radiation transport model as implemented in Eclipse'. The authors apologize for this lack of clarity in our published paper, and trust that this corrigendum gives full credit to Vassiliev et al in their earlier paper, with respect to previous work on the Acuros algorithm. However we wish to note that the entire contents of the data and results published in our paper are original and the work of the listed authors. References Gifford K A, Horton J L Jr, Wareing T A, Failla G and Mourtada F 2006 Comparison of a finite-element multigroup discrete-ordinates code with Monte Carlo for radiotherapy calculations Phys. Med. Biol. 51 2253-65 Vassiliev O N, Wareing T A, Davis I M, McGhee J, Barnett D, Horton J L, Gifford K, Failla G, Titt U and Mourtada F 2008 Feasibility of a multigroup deterministic solution method for three-dimensional radiotherapy dose calculations Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 72 220-7 Vassiliev O N, Wareing T A, McGhee J, Fail

Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Mancosu, Pietro; Cozzi, Luca

2011-05-01

310

Radiation dose from dissolved radon in potable waters of the Bangalore environment, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potable waters from various locations of the Bangalore environment were investigated for their Rn concentrations by the emanometry method. About 94 groundwater (borewell) samples were analysed for Rn concentrations and found to vary in the range 5.3–283.4 Bq L with a mean value of 87 Bq L. Frequency distribution showed the Rn concentration in a large number of samples in

N. G. Shiva Prasad; N. Nagaiah; G. V. Ashok; H. M. Mahesh

2007-01-01

311

The Shoreline Management Tool - an ArcMap tool for analyzing water depth, inundated area, volume, and selected habitats, with an example for the lower Wood River Valley, Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Shoreline Management Tool is a geographic information system (GIS) based program developed to assist water- and land-resource managers in assessing the benefits and effects of changes in surface-water stage on water depth, inundated area, and water volume. Additionally, the Shoreline Management Tool can be used to identify aquatic or terrestrial habitat areas where conditions may be suitable for specific plants or animals as defined by user-specified criteria including water depth, land-surface slope, and land-surface aspect. The tool can also be used to delineate areas for use in determining a variety of hydrologic budget components such as surface-water storage, precipitation, runoff, or evapotranspiration. The Shoreline Management Tool consists of two parts, a graphical user interface for use with Esri™ ArcMap™ GIS software to interact with the user to define scenarios and map results, and a spreadsheet in Microsoft® Excel® developed to display tables and graphs of the results. The graphical user interface allows the user to define a scenario consisting of an inundation level (stage), land areas (parcels), and habitats (areas meeting user-specified conditions) based on water depth, slope, and aspect criteria. The tool uses data consisting of land-surface elevation, tables of stage/volume and stage/area, and delineated parcel boundaries to produce maps (data layers) of inundated areas and areas that meet the habitat criteria. The tool can be run in a Single-Time Scenario mode or in a Time-Series Scenario mode, which uses an input file of dates and associated stages. The spreadsheet part of the tool uses a macro to process the results from the graphical user interface to create tables and graphs of inundated water volume, inundated area, dry area, and mean water depth for each land parcel based on the user-specified stage. The macro also creates tables and graphs of the area, perimeter, and number of polygons comprising the user-specified habitat areas within each parcel. The Shoreline Management Tool is highly transferable, using easily generated or readily available data. The capabilities of the tool are demonstrated using data from the lower Wood River Valley adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in southern Oregon.

Snyder, Daniel T.; Haluska, Tana L.; Respini-Irwin, Darius

2013-01-01

312

The Shoreline Management Tool, an ArcMap Tool for Analyzing Water Depth, Inundated Area, Volume, and Selected Habitats, with an Example for the Lower Wood River Valley, Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Shoreline Management Tool is a GIS-based program developed to assist water- and land-resource managers in assessing the benefits and impacts of changes in surface-water stage on water depth, inundated area, and water volume. In addition, the tool can be used to identify aquatic or terrestrial habitat areas where conditions may be suitable for specific plants or animals as defined by user-specified criteria, including water depth, land-surface slope, and land-surface aspect or to delineate areas for use in determining a variety of hydrologic budget components such as surface-water storage, precipitation, runoff, or evapotranspiration. The Shoreline Management Tool consists of two parts, a graphical user interface for use with ArcMap GIS software to interact with the user to define scenarios and map results, and a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel® developed to display tables and graphs of the results. The graphical user interface allows the user to define a scenario consisting of an inundation level (stage), land areas (parcels), and habitats (areas meeting user-specified conditions) based on water depth, slope, and aspect criteria. The tool uses data consisting of land-surface elevation, tables of stage/volume and stage/area, and delineated parcel boundaries to produce maps (data layers) of inundated areas and areas that meet the habitat criteria. The tool can be run in a Single-Time Scenario mode or in a Time-Series Scenario mode which uses an input file of dates and associated stages. The spreadsheet portion of the tool uses a macro to process the results from the graphical user interface to create tables and graphs of inundated water volume, inundated area, dry area, and mean water depth for each land parcel based on the user-specified stage. The macro also creates tables and graphs of the area, perimeter, and number of polygons comprising the user-specified habitat areas within each parcel. The Shoreline Management Tool is designed to be highly transferable using easily generated or readily available data. The capabilities of the tool are demonstrated using data from the lower Wood River Valley adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in southern Oregon.

Snyder, D. T.; Haluska, T. L.; Respini-Irwin, D.

2012-12-01

313

New standards of absorbed dose to water under reference conditions by graphite calorimetry for 60Co and high-energy x-rays at LNE-LNHB  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LNE-LNHB has developed two primary standards to determine the absorbed dose to water under reference conditions (for 10 cm × 10 cm) in 60Co, 6 MV, 12 MV and 20 MV photon beams: a new graphite calorimeter and a water calorimeter. This first paper presents the results obtained with the graphite calorimeter and the new associated methodology. The associated relative standard uncertainty (k = 1) of absorbed dose to water is 0.25% for 60Co and lies between 0.32% to 0.35% for MV x-ray beams.

Delaunay, F.; Gouriou, J.; Daures, J.; Le Roy, M.; Ostrowsky, A.; Rapp, B.; Sorel, S.

2014-10-01

314

226Ra and 222Rn concentrations and doses in bottled waters in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of 226Ra and 222Rn have been analysed in most of the bottled waters commercially available in Spain. Concentrations up to about 600mBql-1 with a geometric mean of 12mBql-1 were observed for 226Ra. For 222Rn, a geometric mean of 1.2Bql-1 with values ranging from 0.22 to 52Bql-1 were measured. These values are compared with concentrations reported for other countries. An

C. Dueñas; M. C. Fernández; J. Carretero; E. Liger; S. Cañete

1999-01-01

315

[Influence of thermoplastic masks on the absorbed skin dose for head and neck tumor radiotherapy].  

PubMed

The influence of thermoplastic masks used in clinical routine for patient immobilization in head and neck radiotherapy treatment on the absorbed skin dose has been investigated at Gustave-Roussy Institute. The measurements were performed in 60Co gamma-rays, 4 and 6MV X-rays and in 8 and 10MeV electron beams. Initially, the measurements were performed with thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF) and a NACP chamber on a polystyrene phantom in order to study the influence of physical parameters (distance, field size, energy...) on first millimeters depth variation dose. The study was completed with in vivo measurements on 14 patients using various dosimeters (thermoluminescent detectors, diodes) in order to assess the increase of dose on first millimeters depth and to verify the delivered dose during treatment sessions (quality control). In treatment conditions, masks lead to an important increase of dose on the first millimeter in 60Co gamma-rays beams (dose value normalized to maximum of dose increase from 57.1% to 77.7% for 0.5 mm-water depth and from 78.5% to 88% for 1 mm-water depth); its contribution is less important in 4 and 6 MV X-rays beams (dose value normalized to maximum of dose increase from 49.5% to 63.2% for 0.5 mm-water depth and from 59% to 70.1% for 1 mm-water depth). Concerning 8 and 10 MeV electron beams, the normalized dose value increase respectively from 78.4% to 81.7% and from 82.2% to 86.1% for 0.5 mm-water depth. In vivo dosimetry enabled the quality control of delivered dose during treatment. Measured dose is in agreement within +/- 5% with the prescribed dose for 92.3% of cases. In routine, in vivo dosimetry allowed to quantify the increase of skin dose induced by thermoplastic masks for various energies of photon and electron beams as well as quality control. PMID:12412370

Halm, E Amiel; Tamri, A; Bridier, A; Wibault, P; Eschwège, F

2002-09-01

316

Reverse water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions for use in pressurized metered-dose inhalers containing hydrofluoroalkane propellants.  

PubMed

Pulmonary administration of drugs has demonstrated numerous advantages in the treatment of pulmonary diseases due to direct targeting to the respiratory tract. It enables avoiding the first pass effect, reduces the amount of drugs administered, targets drugs to specific sites and reduces their side effects. Reverse water-in-fluorocarbon (FC) emulsions are potential drug delivery systems for pulmonary administration using pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI). The external phase of these emulsions consists of perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB, perflubron), whereas their internal phase contains the drugs solubilized or dispersed in water. These emulsions are stabilized by a perfluoroalkylated dimorpholinophosphate (F8H11DMP), i.e. a fluorinated surfactant. This study demonstrates the possibility of delivering a reverse fluorocarbon emulsion via the pulmonary route using a CFC-free pMDI. Two hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs) (Solkane(R) 134a and Solkane(R) 227) were used as propellants, and various solution (or emulsion)/propellant ratios (1/3, 1/2, 2/3, 1/1, 3/2, 3/1 v/v) were investigated. The insolubility of water (with or without the fluorinated surfactant F8H11DMP) in both HFA 227 and HFA 134a was demonstrated. PFOB and the reverse emulsion were totally soluble or dispersible in all proportions in both propellants. This study demonstrated also that the reverse FC emulsion can be successfully used to deliver caffeine in a homogeneous and reproducible way. The mean diameter of the emulsion water droplets in the pressured canister was investigated immediately after packaging and after 1 week of storage at room temperature. Best results were obtained with emulsion/propellant ratios comprised between 2/3 and 3/2, and with HFA 227 as propellant. PMID:11996829

Butz, N; Porté, C; Courrier, H; Krafft, M P; Vandamme, Th F

2002-05-15

317

The potential for phosphorus release across the sediment-water interface in an eutrophic reservoir dosed with ferric sulphate.  

PubMed

Alton Water, Suffolk, UK is a pumped storage reservoir that has a history of cyanobacterial blooms. Dosing of the input water with ferric sulphate to control external phosphorus loading has occurred since 1983. A detailed study of the sediment chemistry of the site was carried out between May 1995 and July 1997. Sequential phosphorus fraction analysis indicated a decrease along the length of the reservoir in sediment labile phosphorus content from 0.62 to 0.08 mg P g-1 dw and iron-bound phosphorus content from 3.22 to 0.46 mg P g-1 dw. These gradients positively correlated with water column chlorophyll a concentrations reported in a parallel study. Labile and iron-bound sediment phosphorus contents were in a dynamic equilibrium due to diffusional release, contributing to internal loading to the water column. Equilibrium phosphorus concentrations (EPC) determined from phosphorus adsorption capacity (PAC) experiments were lower inside the bunded region (0.01-0.03 mg P-PO4 l-1) where iron content was greatest compared to outside the bund (0.15-0.20 mg P-PO4 l-1) suggesting greater potential for diffusional release of phosphorus at the latter site. PAC experiments indicated that anaerobic and pH-mediated loadings were of less importance than diffusional release, although the latter may have contributed to internal loading in the main reservoir. Sulphate concentrations may act to increase the potential for anaerobic internal loading near to the pumped input in microstratified sediment. Sediment iron content decreased from 250 +/- 13.1 to 51 +/- 4.0 mg Fe g-1 dw across the line of a constructed bund at the north-west end near to the pumped input, which indicated successful control of dispersal of the fine ferric floc. The management implications with regard to phosphorus loadings indicated by these results are discussed. PMID:11317886

Perkins, R G; Underwood, G J

2001-04-01

318

Water-filled balloon in the postoperative resection cavity improves dose distribution to target volumes in radiotherapy of maxillary sinus carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Postoperative radiotherapy is a major treatment for patients with maxillary sinus carcinoma. However, the irregular resection cavity poses a technical difficulty for this treatment, causing uneven dose distribution to target volumes. In this study, we evaluated the dose distribution to target volumes and normal tissues in postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) after placing a water-filled balloon into the resection cavity. Three postoperative patients with advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma were selected in this trial. Water-filled balloons and supporting dental stents were fabricated according to the size of the maxillary resection cavity. Simulation CT scans were performed with or without water-filled balloons, IMRT treatment plans were established, and dose distribution to target volumes and organs at risk were evaluated. Compared to those in the treatment plan without balloons, the dose (D98) delivered to 98% of the gross tumor volume (GTV) increased by 2.1 Gy (P = 0.009), homogeneity index (HI) improved by 2.3% (P = 0.001), and target volume conformity index (TCI) of 68 Gy increased by 18.5% (P = 0.011) in the plan with balloons. Dosimetry endpoints of normal tissues around target regions in both plans were not significantly different (P > 0.05) except for the optic chiasm. In the plan without balloons, 68 Gy high-dose regions did not entirely cover target volumes in the ethmoid sinus, posteromedial wall of the maxillary sinus, or surgical margin of the hard palate. In contrast, 68 Gy high-dose regions entirely covered the GTV in the plan with balloons. These results suggest that placing a water-filled balloon in the resection cavity for postoperative IMRT of maxillary sinus carcinoma can reduce low-dose regions and markedly and simultaneously increase dose homogeneity and conformity of target volumes. PMID:22035860

Zhang, Qun; Lin, Shi-Rong; He, Fang; Kang, De-Hua; Chen, Guo-Zhang; Luo, Wei

2011-01-01

319

Preliminary map of the conterminous United States showing depth to and quality of shallowest ground water containing more than 1,000 parts per million dissolved solids  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this atlas, mineralized ground water is viewed presently as a source of water in some areas, but in much of the country as a source for future development. Mineralized water underlies large areas of the country, and its importance will grow as present supplies of fresh water are appropriated and developed. The potential uses fall in two main categories: (1) direct use in industrial processes, such as cooling, or for irrigation, where a moderate mineral content may not be a disadvantage; and (2) use after demineralization or dilution to whatever degree may be required by the intended user. It is clearly more efficient to produce and process water of moderate mineralization at points of use, where available in adequate amounts, than it is to process ocean water and pump it many miles from the sea. The Geological Survey, as a part of its responsibility to describe the water resources of the United States, has surveyed the known occurrences of mineralized ground water in the conterminous United States. The results are shown on the maps (sheets 1 and 2). This atlas was prepared to meet needs for information on the distribution and availability of mineralized water as expressed by Government agencies, private industries, and consultants. The maps are one step in providing an inventory of mineralized water of the Nation and will serve as a planning guide for further investigations and for development. They are necessarily generalized in many places owing to the complexity of the occurrence of the mineralized water, lack of detailed information for parts of the nation, and the difficulties inherent in attempts to put threedimensional information on maps.

Feth, John Henry Frederick

1965-01-01

320

Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

1992-11-01

321

Oxygen depth profiling with subnanometre depth resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A High-depth Resolution Elastic Recoil Detection (HR-ERD) set-up using a magnetic spectrometer has been taken into operation at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf for the first time. This instrument allows the investigation of light elements in ultra-thin layers and their interfaces with a depth resolution of less than 1 nm near the surface. As the depth resolution is highly influenced by the experimental measurement parameters, sophisticated optimisation procedures have been implemented. Effects of surface roughness and sample damage caused by high fluences need to be quantified for each kind of material. Also corrections are essential for non-equilibrium charge state distributions that exist very close to the surface. Using the example of a high-k multilayer SiO2/Si3N4Ox/SiO2/Si it is demonstrated that oxygen in ultra-thin films of a few nanometres thickness can be investigated by HR-ERD.

Kosmata, Marcel; Munnik, Frans; Hanf, Daniel; Grötzschel, Rainer; Crocoll, Sonja; Möller, Wolfhard

2014-10-01

322

Colourful Simplicial Depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by Barany's Colourful Caratheodory Theorem (4), we introduce a colourful generalization of Liu's simplicial depth (13). We prove a parity property and con- jecture that the minimum colourful simplicial depth of any core point in any d-dimensional configuration is d 2 + 1 and that the maximum is d d+1 + 1. We exhibit configurations attain- ing each of

Antoine Deza; Sui Huang; Tamon Stephen; Tamás Terlaky

2006-01-01

323

Layered Depth Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a set of efficient image based rendering methods capable of rendering multiple frames per second on a PC.The first method warps Sprites with Depth representing smooth surfaces without the gaps found in other techniques. A second method for more general scenes performswarping from an intermediate representation called a Layered Depth Image (LDI). An LDI is

Jonathan Shade; Steven J. Gortler; Li-wei He; Richard Szeliski

1998-01-01

324

Impact of water table depth on forest soil methane turnover in laboratory soil cores deduced from natural abundance and tracer C stable isotope experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated turnover of methane (CH4) in soils from a poorly drained UK forest. In situ, this forest exhibited a negligible soil–atmosphere CH4 flux, whereas adjacent grassland plots were sources of CH4. We hypothesised that the forest plots exhibited reduced anaerobic CH4 production through water-table draw down. Consequently, we exposed soil cores from under oak to high and low water-table

Niall P. McNamara; Paul M. Chamberlain; Trevor G. Piearce; Darren Sleep; Helaina I. J. Black; David S. Reay; Phil Ineson

2006-01-01

325

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

2011-05-05

326

The Depth of Earthquakes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This map of world seismicity illustrates earthquake data for the years 1991 through 1996. It is intended to provide a sense of the depth distribution of earthquakes. Plate boundaries are shown, along with diffuse regions of seismicity, such as in central Asia, and earthquake locations are color-coded to indicate the depths at which they occurred. In addition to the map, selected cross-sections of subduction zones in South America, Tonga, Japan, and the Aleutian Islands are provided. They feature a map showing the orientation of the cross-section and graphs illustrating distribution of earthquake depth versus longitude and number of earthquakes.

327

Treatment of zinc-rich acid mine water in low residence time bioreactors incorporating waste shells and methanol dosing.  

PubMed

Bioreactors utilising bacterially mediated sulphate reduction (BSR) have been widely tested for treating metal-rich waters, but sustained treatment of mobile metals (e.g. Zn) can be difficult to achieve in short residence time systems. Data are presented providing an assessment of alkalinity generating media (shells or limestone) and modes of metal removal in bioreactors receiving a synthetic acidic metal mine discharge (pH 2.7, Zn 15 mg/L, SO(4)(2-) 200mg/L, net acidity 103 mg/L as CaCO(3)) subject to methanol dosing. In addition to alkalinity generating media (50%, v.v.), the columns comprised an organic matrix of softwood chippings (30%), manure (10%) and anaerobic digested sludge (10%). The column tests showed sustained alkalinity generation, which was significantly better in shell treatments. The first column in each treatment was effective throughout the 422 days in removing >99% of the dissolved Pb and Cu, and effective for four months in removing 99% of the dissolved Zn (residence time: 12-14 h). Methanol was added to the feedstock after Zn breakthrough and prompted almost complete removal of dissolved Zn alongside improved alkalinity generation and sulphate attenuation. While there was geochemical evidence for BSR, sequential extraction of substrates suggests that the bulk (67-80%) of removed Zn was associated with Fe-Mn oxide fractions. PMID:21864976

Mayes, W M; Davis, J; Silva, V; Jarvis, A P

2011-10-15

328

Characterization and use of EBT radiochromic film for IMRT dose verification.  

PubMed

We present an evaluation of a new and improved radiochromic film, type EBT, for its implementation to IMRT dose verification. Using a characterized flat bed color CCD scanner, the film's dose sensitivity, uniformity, and speed of development post exposure were shown to be superior to previous types of radiochromic films. The film's dose response was found to be very similar to ion chamber scans in water through comparisons of depth dose and lateral dose profiles. The effect of EBT film polarization with delivered dose and film scan orientation was shown to have a significant effect on the scanner's OD readout. In addition, the film's large size, flexibility, and the ability to submerge it in water for relatively short periods of time allowed for its use in both water and solid water phantoms to verify TomoTherapy IMRT dose distributions in flat and curved dose planes. Dose verification in 2D was performed on ten IMRT plans (five head and neck and five prostate) by comparing measured EBT dose distributions to TomoTherapy treatment planning system calculated dose. The quality of agreement was quantified by the gamma index for four sets of dose difference and distance to agreement criteria. Based on this study, we show that EBT film has several favorable features that allow for its use in routine IMRT patient-specific QA. PMID:17153386

Zeidan, Omar A; Stephenson, Stacy Ann L; Meeks, Sanford L; Wagner, Thomas H; Willoughby, Twyla R; Kupelian, Patrick A; Langen, Katja M

2006-11-01

329

Characterization and use of EBT radiochromic film for IMRT dose verification  

SciTech Connect

We present an evaluation of a new and improved radiochromic film, type EBT, for its implementation to IMRT dose verification. Using a characterized flat bed color CCD scanner, the film's dose sensitivity, uniformity, and speed of development post exposure were shown to be superior to previous types of radiochromic films. The film's dose response was found to be very similar to ion chamber scans in water through comparisons of depth dose and lateral dose profiles. The effect of EBT film polarization with delivered dose and film scan orientation was shown to have a significant effect on the scanner's OD readout. In addition, the film's large size, flexibility, and the ability to submerge it in water for relatively short periods of time allowed for its use in both water and solid water phantoms to verify TomoTherapy IMRT dose distributions in flat and curved dose planes. Dose verification in 2D was performed on ten IMRT plans (five head and neck and five prostate) by comparing measured EBT dose distributions to TomoTherapy treatment planning system calculated dose. The quality of agreement was quantified by the gamma index for four sets of dose difference and distance to agreement criteria. Based on this study, we show that EBT film has several favorable features that allow for its use in routine IMRT patient-specific QA.

Zeidan, Omar A.; Stephenson, Stacy Ann L.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Wagner, Thomas H.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Langen, Katja M. [Department of Radiation Physics, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, 1400 South Orange Avenue, MP 730, Orlando, Florida 32806 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Physics, Wesleyan College, 4760 Forsyth Road, Macon, Georgia 31210 (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Orlando, 1400 South Orange Avenue, MP 730, Orlando, Florida 32806 (United States)

2006-11-15

330

Depth estimation for ordinary high water of streams in the Mobile District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Alabama and adjacent states  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drainage areas for about 1,600 surface-water sites on streams and lakes in Florida are contained in this report. The sites are generally either U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations or the mouths of gaged streas. Each site is identified by latitude and longitude, by the general stream type, and by the U.S. Geological Survey 7.5-minute topographic map on which it can be located. The gaging stations are furhter identified by a downstream order number, a county code, and a nearby city or town. In addition to drainage areas, the surface areas of lakes are shown for the elevation given on the topographic map. These data were retrieved from the Surface Water Index developed and maintained by the Hydrologic Surveillance section of the Florida District Office, U.S. Geological Survey. (USGS)

Harkins, Joe R.; Green, Mark E.

1981-01-01

331

Application of a snowpack dynamic model to continuous-time data-series of snow depth and snow water equivalent from three weather stations in the upper Valtellina valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Italian Alps, seasonal snowpack melting generates 40% - 70% of total water in reservoirs. This clarifies how much this process is relevant in the hydrological balance of northern Italy. Located in the central part of Italian Alps, the Valtellina valley has a relevant local production of hydroelectric power, a rich agricultural production and, thanks to its glaciers and the seasonal snowpack, it feeds river discharges towards the metropolitan area of Milan and the Po river basin, especially during spring and summer. Nonetheless, mainly because of scarce instrumentation, seasonal snow dynamics in the same area have been scarcely characterized in the past. Thus, potential impacts of climatic forcings on snowpack dynamics are widely unknown. In this contribution, we apply a simple one-dimensional model of snowpack density, depth and mass content (proposed by De Michele et al. 2013) to continuous-time data from three different sites placed in the upper Valtellina valley. Sites are placed in the western val Grosina valley (Malghera), eastern val Grosina valley (Eita) and in the Cancano valley (Val Cancano). At each site, snow depth, snow water equivalent, air temperature and precipitation are automatically logged, at a resolution of 15 minutes, by means of ultrasonic depth sensors, snow pillows, thermistors and heated rain gauges. The results of this application show that the model can be useful to investigate melting dynamics in Italian Alps, especially in areas of scarce instrumentation. De Michele, C., Avanzi, F., Ghezzi, A., and Jommi, C.: Investigating the dynamics of bulk snow density in dry and wet conditions using a one-dimensional model, The Cryosphere, 7, 433-444, doi:10.5194/tc-7-433-2013, 2013.

Avanzi, Francesco; De Michele, Carlo; Ghezzi, Antonio; Bondiolotti, Ferdinando; Della Vedova, Giacomo

2014-05-01

332

Topic in Depth - Harvesting the Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rain harvesting has experienced a bit of a renaissance in recent years through the promotion and installation of rain gardens and rain barrels. These water collection mechanisms help to curb erosion and the spread of pollution; conserve precious freshwater; and support water-loving plants. This Topic in Depth presents websites and electronic publications containing instructive and descriptive information about rain gardens and barrels.

2010-09-03

333

[The study of the role of the water medium in the mechanism of action of peptides in low and ultra low doses].  

PubMed

The correlation between the structures and conformations of short peptides KE, EW, AEDG and other, their influence on the dynamic properties of water and dose/biologic effect dependencies in a wide range of concentrations were regarded. Their effects on the dynamic properties of water were studied by temperature dependencies (5-45 degrees C) of infrared spectra of the solutions in the near (5180 cm-1) and far (200 cm-1). In vitro biotesting included the determination of the proliferative activity of thymocytes, a bimodal curve with the second maximum were detected at super-low doses (10(-17)-10(-15) mol/l). Authors propose a hypothesis that for superlow concentrations the formation and distance transmission of a signal from ligand to a target cell without the formation of any ligand-receptor complex take place. An active role in this model belongs to water medium acting according to the solution mechanism. PMID:12881997

Grigor'ev, E I; Khavinson, V Kh; Malinin, V V; Grigor'ev, A E; Kochnev, I N; Kudriavtseva, T A

2003-01-01

334

Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place  

E-print Network

acces- sible from the water, and thus it is always viewed from this angle, which looks toward shore. The fixed, seasonless, and timeless space of the map was addressed through a focus on the dimension of lighting. With the viewing angle in Fi g u r e.... Mapping Indigenous Depth of Place 111 that they emphasize experienced space, or place, as opposed to the Western convention of depicting space as universal, homogenized, and devoid of human experience. 13 Despite these differences, many communities have...

Pearce, Margaret Wickens; Louis, Renee Pualani

2008-11-01

335

A study on the dose distributions in various materials from an Ir-192 HDR brachytherapy source.  

PubMed

Dose distributions of (192)Ir HDR brachytherapy in phantoms simulating water, bone, lung tissue, water-lung and bone-lung interfaces using the Monte Carlo codes EGS4, FLUKA and MCNP4C are reported. Experiments were designed to gather point dose measurements to verify the Monte Carlo results using Gafchromic film, radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter, solid water, bone, and lung phantom. The results for radial dose functions and anisotropy functions in solid water phantom were consistent with previously reported data (Williamson and Li). The radial dose functions in bone were affected more by depth than those in water. Dose differences between homogeneous solid water phantoms and solid water-lung interfaces ranged from 0.6% to 14.4%. The range between homogeneous bone phantoms and bone-lung interfaces was 4.1% to 15.7%. These results support the understanding in dose distribution differences in water, bone, lung, and their interfaces. Our conclusion is that clinical parameters did not provide dose calculation accuracy for different materials, thus suggesting that dose calculation of HDR treatment planning systems should take into account material density to improve overall treatment quality. PMID:22957078

Hsu, Shih-Ming; Wu, Chin-Hui; Lee, Jeng-Hung; Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Yu, Chun-Yen; Liao, Yi-Jen; Kuo, Li-Cheng; Liang, Ji-An; Huang, David Y C

2012-01-01

336

Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 6. Summary  

SciTech Connect

Throughout fifty-three years of operations, an estimated 792,000 Ci (29,300 TBq) of tritium have been released to the atmosphere at the Livermore site of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); about 75% was tritium gas (HT) primarily from the accidental releases of 1965 and 1970. Routine emissions contributed slightly more than 100,000 Ci (3,700 TBq) HT and about 75,000 Ci (2,800 TBq) tritiated water vapor (HTO) to the total. A Tritium Dose Reconstruction was undertaken to estimate both the annual doses to the public for each year of LLNL operations and the doses from the few accidental releases. Some of the dose calculations were new, and the others could be compared with those calculated by LLNL. Annual doses (means and 95% confidence intervals) to the potentially most exposed member of the public were calculated for all years using the same model and the same assumptions. Predicted tritium concentrations in air were compared with observed mean annual concentrations at one location from 1973 onwards. Doses predicted from annual emissions were compared with those reported in the past by LLNL. The highest annual mean dose predicted from routine emissions was 34 {micro}Sv (3.4 mrem) in 1957; its upper confidence limit, based on very conservative assumptions about the speciation of the release, was 370 {micro}Sv (37 mrem). The upper confidence limits for most annual doses were well below the current regulatory limit of 100 {micro}Sv (10 mrem) for dose to the public from release to the atmosphere; the few doses that exceeded this were well below the regulatory limits of the time. Lacking the hourly meteorological data needed to calculate doses from historical accidental releases, ingestion/inhalation dose ratios were derived from a time-dependent accident consequence model that accounts for the complex behavior of tritium in the environment. Ratios were modified to account for only those foods growing at the time of the releases. The highest dose from an accidental release was calculated for a release of about 1,500 Ci HTO that occurred in October 1954. The likely dose for this release was probably less than 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem), but, because of many unknowns (e.g., release-specific meteorological and accidental conditions) and conservative assumptions, the uncertainty was very high. As a result, the upper confidence limit on the predictions, considered a dose that could not have been exceeded, was estimated to be 2 mSv (200 mrem). The next highest dose, from the 1970 accidental release of about 290,000 Ci (10,700 TBq) HT when wind speed and wind direction were known, was one-third as great. Doses from LLNL accidental releases were well below regulatory reporting limits. All doses, from both routine and accidental releases, were far below the level (3.6 mSv [360 mrem] per year) at which adverse health effects have been documented in the literature.

Peterson, S

2007-09-05

337

When depth is no refuge: cumulative thermal stress increases with depth in Bocas del Toro, Panama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are increasingly affected by high-temperature stress events and associated bleaching. Monitoring and predicting these events have largely utilized sea surface temperature data, due to the convenience of using large-scale remotely sensed satellite measurements. However, coral bleaching has been observed to vary in severity throughout the water column, and variations in coral thermal stress across depths have not yet been well investigated. In this study, in situ water temperature data from 1999 to 2011 from three depths were used to calculate thermal stress on a coral reef in Bahia Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama, which was compared to satellite surface temperature data and thermal stress calculations for the same area and time period from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Watch Satellite Bleaching Alert system. The results show similar total cumulative annual thermal stress for both the surface and depth-stratified data, but with a striking difference in the distribution of that stress among the depth strata during different high-temperature events, with the greatest thermal stress unusually recorded at the deepest measured depth during the most severe bleaching event in 2005. Temperature records indicate that a strong density-driven temperature inversion may have formed in this location in that year, contributing to the persistence and intensity of bleaching disturbance at depth. These results indicate that depth may not provide a stress refuge from high water temperature events in some situations, and in this case, the water properties at depth appear to have contributed to greater coral bleaching at depth compared to near-surface locations. This case study demonstrates the importance of incorporating depth-stratified temperature monitoring and small-scale oceanographic and hydrologic data for understanding and predicting local reef responses to elevated water temperature events.

Neal, B. P.; Condit, C.; Liu, G.; dos Santos, S.; Kahru, M.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kline, D. I.

2014-03-01

338

Topic in Depth - Antimatter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For every action there is a reaction, for every plus there is a minus, and for every matter there is wellâ¦antimatter. This topic in depth tackles the complex concept of antimatter, from the Big Bang to solar explosions and the technology to detect it.

2010-09-15

339

The depth of hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scale for measuring hypnotic depth consisting of four subtests of five units each was arbitrarily assembled from earlier scales. A standard method of trance induction was used on 57 volunteer men and women subjects. It was found that while the earlier scales are individually inadequate, they supplement each other when taken in combination. The new scale reveals a distribution

J. W. Friedlander; T. R. Sarbin

1938-01-01

340

Rectal Dose-Volume Differences Using Proton Radiotherapy and a Rectal Balloon or Water Alone for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To describe dose-volume values with the use of water alone vs. a rectal balloon (RB) for the treatment of prostate cancer with proton therapy. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 30 proton plans for 15 patients who underwent CT and MRI scans with an RB or water alone. Simulation was performed with a modified MRI endorectal coil and an RB with 100 mL of water or water alone. Doses of 78-82 gray equivalents were prescribed to the planning target volume. The two groups were compared for three structures: rectum, rectal wall (RW), and rectal wall 7 cm (RW7) at the level of the planning target volume. Results: Rectum and RW volumes radiated to low, intermediate, and high doses were small: rectum V10, 33.7%; V50, 17.3%; and V70, 10.2%; RW V10, 32.4%; V50, 20.4%; and V70, 14.6%. The RB effectively increased the rectal volume for all cases (139.8 {+-} 44.9 mL vs. 217.7 {+-} 32.2 mL (p < 0.001). The RB also decreased the volume of the rectum radiated to doses V10-V65 (p {<=} 0.05); RW for V10-V50; and RW7 for V10-V35. An absolute rectum V50 improvement >5% was seen for the RB in 5 of 15 cases, for a benefit of 9.2% {+-} 2.3% compared with 2.4% {+-} 1.3% for the remaining 10 cases (p < 0.001). Similar benefit was seen for the rectal wall. No benefit was seen for doses {>=}70 gray equivalents for the rectum, RW, or RW7. No benefit of {<=}1% was seen with an RB in 46% for the rectum V70 and in 40% for the rectal wall V70. Conclusions: Rectum and rectal wall doses with proton radiation were low whether using water or an RB. Selected patients will have a small but significant advantage with an RB; however, water alone was well tolerated and will be an alternative for most patients.

Vargas, Carlos [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)], E-mail: c2002@ufl.edu; Mahajan, Chaitali; Fryer, Amber; Indelicato, Daniel; Henderson, Randal H.; McKenzie, Craig C.; Horne, David C.; Chellini, Angela; Lawlor, Paula C.; Li Zuofeng [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Oliver, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Keole, Sameer [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

2007-11-15

341

Photon beam relative dose validation of the DPM Monte Carlo code in lung-equivalent media.  

PubMed

Validation experiments have been conducted using 6 and 15 MV photons in inhomogeneous (water/lung/water) media to benchmark the accuracy of the DPM Monte Carlo code for photon beam dose calculations. Small field sizes (down to 2 x 2 cm2) and low-density media were chosen for this investigation because the intent was to test the DPM code under conditions where lateral electronic disequilibrium effects are emphasized. The treatment head components of a Varian 21EX linear accelerator, including the jaws (defining field sizes of 2 x 2, 3 x 3 and 10 x 10 cm2), were simulated using the BEAMnrc code. The phase space files were integrated within the DPM code system, and central axis depth dose and profile calculations were compared against diode measurements in a homogeneous water phantom in order to validate the phase space. Results of the homogeneous phantom study indicated that the relative differences between DPM calculations and measurements were within +/- 1% (based on the rms deviation) for the depth dose curves; relative profile dose differences were on average within +/- 1%/1 mm. Depth dose and profile measurements were carried out using an ion-chamber and film, within an inhomogeneous phantom consisting of a 6 cm slab of lung-equivalent material embedded within solid water. For the inhomogeneous phantom experiment, DPM depth dose calculations were within +/- 1% (based on the rms deviation) of measurements; relative profile differences at depths within and beyond the lung were, on average, within +/- 2% in the inner and outer beam regions, and within 1-2 mm distance-to-agreement within the penumbral region. Relative point differences on the order of 2-3% were within the estimated experimental uncertainties. This work demonstrates that the DPM Monte Carlo code is capable of accurate photon beam dose calculations in situations where lateral electron disequilibrium effects are pronounced. PMID:12722808

Chetty, Indrin J; Charland, Paule M; Tyagi, Neelam; McShan, Daniel L; Fraass, Benedick A; Bielajew, Alex F

2003-04-01

342

The assessments of water-use contribution to forming the dose burden for people living in the area of the Dnieper River basins  

SciTech Connect

The Dnieper River due to the contamination of radionuclides` fall outs after the Chernobyl accident has become the source of forming the integral dose burden for people living in the area of the Dnieper river basins. In this paper the authors attempted to assay the Dnieper-river as the secondary source of Cs 134, Cs 137 and Sr-90 intake to man`s body through the water trophic pathways, because the Dnieper basin recently is a dominating pathway for the radionuclides` release from the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP. The results obtained show that the collective population dose is equal to 233.39 man.Sv according to studies conducted in 1986--1991. The collective dose for future 70 years is prognosed to be equal to 1380.2 man.Sv.

Karachov, I.I.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Berezhnaya, T.I.

1995-12-31

343

Determining Nighttime Atmospheric Optical Depth Using Mars Exploration Rover Images  

E-print Network

to track diurnal variations on Mars is by measuring optical depth. The spatial and temporal trends of optical depth give insight into the dust and water cycles of the Martian atmosphere. Until now, spacecraft could only obtain optical depth during the day...

Bean, Keri Marie

2013-07-22

344

Dose point kernels in liquid water: an intra-comparison between GEANT4-DNA and a variety of Monte Carlo codes.  

PubMed

Modeling the radio-induced effects in biological medium still requires accurate physics models to describe the interactions induced by all the charged particles present in the irradiated medium in detail. These interactions include inelastic as well as elastic processes. To check the accuracy of the very low energy models recently implemented into the GEANT4 toolkit for modeling the electron slowing-down in liquid water, the simulation of electron dose point kernels remains the preferential test. In this context, we here report normalized radial dose profiles, for mono-energetic point sources, computed in liquid water by using the very low energy "GEANT4-DNA" physics processes available in the GEANT4 toolkit. In the present study, we report an extensive intra-comparison of profiles obtained by a large selection of existing and well-documented Monte-Carlo codes, namely, EGSnrc, PENELOPE, CPA100, FLUKA and MCNPX. PMID:23478094

Champion, C; Incerti, S; Perrot, Y; Delorme, R; Bordage, M C; Bardiès, M; Mascialino, B; Tran, H N; Ivanchenko, V; Bernal, M; Francis, Z; Groetz, J-E; Fromm, M; Campos, L

2014-01-01

345

Comparison of MCNPX and GEANT4 to Predict the Contribution of Non-elastic Nuclear Interactions to Absorbed Dose in Water, PMMA and A150  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proton induced non-elastic nuclear reactions play an important role in the dose distribution of clinically used proton beams as they deposit dose of high biological effectiveness both within the primary beam path as well as outside the beam to untargeted tissues. Non-elastic nuclear reactions can be evaluated using transport codes based on the Monte Carlo method. In this work, we have utilized the Los Alamos code MCNPX and the CERN GEANT4 toolkit, which are currently the most widely used Monte Carlo programs for proton radiation transport simulations in medical physics, to study the contribution of non-elastic nuclear interactions to the absorbed dose of proton beams in the therapeutic energy range. The impact of different available theoretical models to address the nuclear reaction process was investigated. The contribution of secondary particles from non-elastic nuclear reactions was calculated in three materials relevant in radiotherapy applications: water, PMMA and A150. The results evidence that there are differences in the calculated contribution of the secondary particles heavier than protons to the absorbed dose, with different approaches to model the nuclear reactions. The MCNPX calculation give rise to a larger contribution of d, t, ?3He to the total dose compared to the GEANT4 physical models chosen in this work.

Shtejer, K.; Arruda-Neto, J. D. T.; Schulte, R.; Wroe, A.; Rodrigues, T. E.; de Menezes, M. O.; Moralles, M.; Guzmán, F.; Manso, M. V.

2008-08-01

346

Electronic depth micrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device for measuring depth or thickness reads distance of penetration by small-diameter probe. It was developed specifically to measure thickness of wet (uncured) insulation applied to Space Shuttle structures; thin probes penetrate wet insulation to substrate, and reference surface on gage is then positioned against outer surface of insulation to measure its thickness. Gage is easy to use, even by workers wearing gloves or other protective clothing, and allows remote reading and recording of production data.

Major, R. K.

1981-01-01

347

Variable depth core sampler  

DOEpatents

A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

1996-02-20

348

Variable depth core sampler  

DOEpatents

A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

1996-01-01

349

KEY COMPARISON: Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the ENEA-INMRI (Italy) and the BIPM for 60Co ? rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti of the Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, Italy (ENEA-INMRI), and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been made in 60Co gamma radiation under the auspices of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for three transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the ENEA and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9999 (0.0044). The present 2007 result replaces the earlier ENEA value in this key comparison. The degrees of equivalence between the ENEA and the other participants in this comparison have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix for the ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) that have published results in this ongoing comparison for absorbed dose to water. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Kessler, C.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Burns, D. T.; Guerra, A. S.; Laitano, R. F.; Pimpinella, M.

2010-01-01

350

KEY COMPARISON: Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the NRC and the BIPM for 60Co gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 60Co radiation beam of the BIPM in May 2009 under the auspices of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients for two transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the NRC and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9980(52). This result replaces the 1998 NRC value of 0.9976(51) in this key comparison. The degrees of equivalence between the NRC and the other participants in this comparison have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix for the ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) with published results that have taken part in the ongoing comparison for absorbed dose to water. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Kessler, C.; Burns, D. T.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; McCaffrey, J. P.; McEwen, M. R.; Ross, C. K.

2010-01-01

351

KEY COMPARISON: Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the BEV, Austria, and the BIPM for 60Co gamma radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen (BEV), Austria, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 60Co radiation beam of the BIPM in March 2009 under the auspices of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4. The comparison result, based on the calibration coefficients measured for two transfer standards and expressed as a ratio of the BEV and the BIPM standards for absorbed dose to water, is 0.9996(37). This result replaces the 1994 BEV value of 0.9990(43) in this key comparison. The degrees of equivalence between the BEV and the other participants in this comparison have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix for the ten national metrology institutes (NMIs) that have published results in this ongoing comparison for absorbed dose to water. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Kessler, C.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Steurer, A.; Baumgartner, A.; Tiefenboeck, W.; Gabris, F.

2010-01-01

352

Expansive Soil Crack Depth under Cumulative Damage  

PubMed Central

The crack developing depth is a key problem to slope stability of the expansive soil and its project governance and the crack appears under the roles of dry-wet cycle and gradually develops. It is believed from the analysis that, because of its own cohesion, the expansive soil will have a certain amount of deformation under pulling stress but without cracks. The soil body will crack only when the deformation exceeds the ultimate tensile strain that causes cracks. And it is also believed that, due to the combined effect of various environmental factors, particularly changes of the internal water content, the inherent basic physical properties of expansive soil are weakened, and irreversible cumulative damages are eventually formed, resulting in the development of expansive soil cracks in depth. Starting from the perspective of volumetric strain that is caused by water loss, considering the influences of water loss rate and dry-wet cycle on crack developing depth, the crack developing depth calculation model which considers the water loss rate and the cumulative damages is established. Both the proposal of water loss rate and the application of cumulative damage theory to the expansive soil crack development problems try to avoid difficulties in matrix suction measurement, which will surely play a good role in promoting and improving the research of unsaturated expansive soil. PMID:24737974

Shi, Bei-xiao; Chen, Sheng-shui; Han, Hua-qiang; Zheng, Cheng-feng

2014-01-01

353

Effects of neurosurgical titanium mesh on radiation dose  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the dosimetric impact of a neurosurgical titanium mesh in patients treated with 6- and 18-MV photon beams. The effects of a 0.4-mm-thick titanium mesh on the dose profile at 3 regions within a solid water phantom were measured using extended dose range-2 (EDR2) film for 6- and 18-MV photon beams. All measurements were performed with the titanium mesh placed at a depth of 1.5 cm in the phantom. Films were exposed immediately above the mesh, immediately below the mesh, and at a depth of 5 cm from the surface of the phantom. The films were scanned using a scanning densitometer. In the region directly above the titanium mesh, there was an increase in dose of 7.1% for 6-MV photons and 4.9% for 18-MV photons. Directly below the titanium mesh, there was an average decrease in dose of 1.5% for 6-MV photons and an increase of 1.0% for 18-MV photons. At 5-cm depth, for 6- and 18-MV photons, there was a decrease in dose of 2.2% and 0.6%, respectively. We concluded that for cranial irradiation with high-energy photons, the dosimetric impact of a 0.4-mm titanium mesh is small and does not require modification in treatment parameters.

Patone, Hassisen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: hash.patone@mail.mcgill.ca; Barker, Jennifer [Department of Medical Physics, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Roberge, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2006-01-01

354

Topic in Depth - Aerodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itâÂÂs the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics, for beginners to researchers. If youâÂÂve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. These sites can help explain.

2010-09-17

355

Effect of the bone heterogeneity on the dose prescription in orthovoltage radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo study  

PubMed Central

Background In orthovoltage radiotherapy, since the dose prescription at the patient's surface is based on the absolute dose calibration using water phantom, deviation of delivered dose is found as the heterogeneity such as bone present under the patient's surface. Aim This study investigated the dosimetric impact due to the bone heterogeneity on the surface dose in orthovoltage radiotherapy. Materials and methods A 220 kVp photon beam with field size of 5 cm diameter, produced by a Gulmay D3225 orthovoltage X-ray machine was modeled by the BEAMnrc. Phantom containing water (thickness = 1–5 mm) on top of a bone (thickness = 1 cm) was irradiated by the 220 kVp photon beam. Percentage depth dose (PDD), surface dose and photon energy spectrum were determined using Monte Carlo simulations (the BEAMnrc code). Results PDD results showed that the maximum bone dose was about 210% higher than the surface dose in the phantoms with different thicknesses of water. Surface dose was found to be increased in the range of 2.5–3.7%, when the distance between the phantom surface and bone was increased in the range of 1–5 mm. The increase of surface dose was found not to follow the increase of water thickness, and the maximum increase of surface dose was found at the thickness of water equal to 3 mm. Conclusions For the accepted total orthovoltage radiation treatment uncertainty of 5%, a neglected consideration of the bone heterogeneity during the dose prescription in the sites of forehead, chest wall and kneecap with soft tissue thickness = 1–5 mm would cause more than two times of the bone dose, and contribute an uncertainty of about 2.5–3.7% to the total uncertainty in the dose delivery. PMID:24376995

Chow, James C.L.; Grigorov, Grigor N.

2011-01-01

356

Monte carlo computation of the energy deposited by protons in water, bone and adipose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protons are most suitable for treating deeply-seated tumors due to their unique depth dose distribution. The maximum dose of protons is a pronounced peak, called the Bragg peak, with zero dose behind the peak. The objective of radiation therapy with protons is to deliver the dose to the target volume by using this type of distribution. This is achieved with a finite number of Bragg peaks at the depth of the target volume. The location of the peak in terms of depth depends on the energy of the protons. Simulations are used to determine the depth dose distribution of proton beams passing through tissue, so it is important that experimental data agree with the simulation data. In this study, we used the FLUKA computer code to determine the correct position of the Bragg peak for proton beams passing through water, bone and adipose, and the results were compared with experimental data.

Küçer, Rahmi; Küçer, Nermin; Türemen, Görkem

2013-02-01

357

Fast neutron absorbed dose distributions in the energy range 0.5-80 meV--a Monte Carlo study.  

PubMed

Neutron pencil-beam absorbed dose distributions in phantoms of bone, ICRU soft tissue, muscle, adipose and the tissue substitutes water, A-150 (plastic) and PMMA (acrylic) have been calculated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA in the energy range 0.5 to 80 MeV. For neutrons of energies < or = 20 MeV, the results were compared to those obtained using the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B. Broad-beam depth doses and lateral dose distributions were derived. Broad-beam dose distributions in various materials were compared using two kinds of scaling factor: a depth-scaling factor and a dose-scaling factor. Build-up factors due to scattered neutrons and photons were derived and the appropriate choice of phantom material for determining dose distributions in soft tissue examined. Water was found to be a good substitute for soft tissue even at neutron energies as high as 80 MeV. The relative absorbed doses due to photons ranged from 2% to 15% for neutron energies 10-80 MeV depending on phantom material and depth. For neutron energies below 10 MeV the depth dose distributions derived with MCNP4B and FLUKA differed significantly, the difference being probably due to the use of multigroup transport of low energy (< 19.6 MeV) neutrons in FLUKA. Agreement improved with increasing neutron energies up to 20 MeV. At energies > 20 MeV, MCNP4B fails to describe dose build-up at the phantom interface and penumbra at the edge of the beam because it does not transport secondary charged particles. The penumbra width, defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% iso-dose levels at 5 cm depth and for a 10 x 10 cm2 field, was between 0.9 mm and 7.2 mm for neutron energies 10-80 MeV. PMID:11049184

Söderberg, J; Carlsson, G A

2000-10-01

358

Fast neutron absorbed dose distributions in the energy range 0.5-80 MeV - a Monte Carlo study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron pencil-beam absorbed dose distributions in phantoms of bone, ICRU soft tissue, muscle, adipose and the tissue substitutes water, A-150 (plastic) and PMMA (acrylic) have been calculated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA in the energy range 0.5 to 80 MeV. For neutrons of energies ?20 MeV, the results were compared to those obtained using the Monte Carlo code MCNP4B. Broad-beam depth doses and lateral dose distributions were derived. Broad-beam dose distributions in various materials were compared using two kinds of scaling factor: a depth-scaling factor and a dose-scaling factor. Build-up factors due to scattered neutrons and photons were derived and the appropriate choice of phantom material for determining dose distributions in soft tissue examined. Water was found to be a good substitute for soft tissue even at neutron energies as high as 80 MeV. The relative absorbed doses due to photons ranged from 2% to 15% for neutron energies 10-80 MeV depending on phantom material and depth. For neutron energies below 10 MeV the depth dose distributions derived with MCNP4B and FLUKA differed significantly, the difference being probably due to the use of multigroup transport of low energy (<19.6 MeV) neutrons in FLUKA. Agreement improved with increasing neutron energies up to 20 MeV. At energies >20 MeV, MCNP4B fails to describe dose build-up at the phantom interface and penumbra at the edge of the beam because it does not transport secondary charged particles. The penumbra width, defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% iso-dose levels at 5 cm depth and for a 10×10 cm2 field, was between 0.9 mm and 7.2 mm for neutron energies 10-80 MeV.

Söderberg, Jonas; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

2000-10-01

359

The effect of administered dose of lipid-based formulations on the in vitro and in vivo performance of cinnarizine as a model poorly water-soluble drug.  

PubMed

The influence of varying the amount of lipid co-administered with the drug on drug solubilisation and absorption is poorly understood. In the current study, the effect of lipid dose on the in vitro drug distribution is compared with the in vivo absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) when formulated using long-chain triacylglyceride (LCT) and medium-chain triacylglycerides (MCT). At a fixed drug-lipid ratio, in the closed in vitro model, the drug concentrations in the aqueous phase increased and decreased for MCT and LCT, respectively, with increasing lipid dose. However, in vivo, the oral bioavailability (F%) of CZ was independent of the quantity of lipid administered for both MCT and LCT, but was higher for LCT (32.1 ± 2.3%) than for MCT (16.6 ± 2.3%). Increasing the quantity of lipid relative to the dose of CZ resulted in an increase in the oral F% when the lipid mass was increased from 125 to 250 mg, but was no greater at 500 mg lipid dose. The results confirm the limitations of the in vitro model but positively indicate that the use of the rat as a pre-clinical model for studying the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is not compromised by the mass of formulation administered. PMID:23242691

Lee, Kathy Wai Yu; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

2013-02-01

360

Unifying dose specification between clinical BNCT centers in the Americas  

SciTech Connect

A dosimetry intercomparison between the boron neutron capture therapy groups of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Argentina was performed to enable combined analyses of NCT patient data between the different centers. In-air and dose versus depth measurements in a rectangular water phantom were performed at the hyperthermal neutron beam facility of the RA-6 reactor, Bariloche. Calculated dose profiles from the CNEA treatment planning system NCTPlan that were calibrated against in-house measurements required normalizations of 1.0 (thermal neutrons), 1.13 (photons), and 0.74 (fast neutrons) to match the dosimetry of MIT.

Riley, K. J.; Binns, P. J.; Harling, O. K.; Kiger, W. S. III; Gonzalez, S. J.; Casal, M. R.; Longhino, J.; Larrieu, O. A. Calzetta; Blaumann, H. R. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Departamento de Instrumentacion y Control, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Oncologia Angel H. Roffo, Facultad de Medicina Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, S. C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina)

2008-04-15

361

Total body water and its compartments are not affected by ingesting a moderate dose of caffeine in healthy young adult males.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic caffeine intakes have no impact on hydration status (R.J. Maughan and J. Griffin, J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. 16(6): 411-420, 2003), although no research has been conducted to analyze the effects using dilution techniques on total-body water (TBW) and its compartments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine on TBW, extracellular water (ECW), and intracellular water (ICW) during a 4-day period in active males. Thirty men, nonsmokers and low caffeine users (<100 mg·day(-1)), aged 20-39 years, participated in this double-blind, randomized, crossover trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: No. NCT01477294). The study included 2 conditions (5 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) of caffeine and placebo (malt-dextrin)) of 4 days each, with a 3-day washout period. TBW and ECW were assessed by deuterium oxide and sodium bromide dilution, respectively, whereas ICW was calculated as TBW minus ECW. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity (PA) was assessed by accelerometry and water intake was assessed by dietary records. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test main effects. No changes in TBW, ECW, or ICW and no interaction between the randomly assigned order of treatment and time were observed (p > 0.05). TBW, ECW, and ICW were unrelated to fat-free mass, water ingestion, and PA (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that a moderate caffeine dose, equivalent to approximately 5 espresso cups of coffee or 7 servings of tea, does not alter TBW and fluid distribution in healthy men, regardless of body composition, PA, or daily water ingestion. PMID:23724879

Silva, Analiza M; Júdice, Pedro B; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Magalhães, João P; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Gonçalves, Ezequiel M; Armada-da-Silva, Paulo; Sardinha, Luís B

2013-06-01

362

Derivation of a Bisphenol a Oral Reference Dose (RfD) and Drinking-Water Equivalent Concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) is due to that found in the diet, and BPA and its metabolites were detected at parts per billion (or less) concentrations in human urine, milk, saliva, serum, plasma, ovarian follicular fluid, and amniotic fluid. Adverse health effects in mice and rats may be induced after parenteral injection or after massive oral doses. Controlled

Calvin C. Willhite; Gwendolyn L. Ball; Clifton J. McLellan

2008-01-01

363

Measurements of natural radioactivity concentration in drinking water samples of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province, Iran, and dose estimation.  

PubMed

The Fars province is located in the south-west region of Iran where different nuclear sites has been established, such as Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant. In this research, 92 water samples from the water supplies of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province were investigated with regard to the concentrations of natural radioactive elements, total uranium, (226)Ra, gross alpha and gross beta. (226)Ra concentration was determined by the (222)Rn emanation method. To measure the total uranium concentration, a laser fluorimetry analyzer (UA-3) was used. The mean concentration of (226)Ra in Shiraz's water resources was 23.9 mBq l(-1), while 93 % of spring waters have a concentration <2 mBq l(-1). The results of uranium concentration measurements show the mean concentrations of 7.6 and 6 ?g l(-1) in the water of Shiraz and springs of Fars, respectively. The gross alpha and beta concentrations measured by the evaporation method were lower than the limit of detection of the measuring instruments used in this survey. The mean annual effective doses of infants, children and adults from (238)U and (226)Ra content of Shiraz's water and spring waters were estimated. According to the results of this study, the activity concentration in water samples were below the maximum permissible concentrations determined by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Finally, the correlation between (226)Ra and total U activity concentrations and geochemical properties of water samples, i.e. pH, total dissolve solids and SO4(-2), were estimated. PMID:23650643

Mehdizadeh, Simin; Faghihi, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh; Derakhshan, Shahrzad

2013-11-01

364

Ingestion dose from 238U, 232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs in cereals, pulses and drinking water to adult population in a high background radiation area, Odisha, India.  

PubMed

A natural high background radiation area is located in Chhatrapur, Odisha in the eastern part of India. The inhabitants of this area are exposed to external radiation levels higher than the global average background values, due to the presence of uranium, thorium and its decay products in the monazite sands bearing placer deposits in its beaches. The concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs were determined in cereals (rice and wheat), pulses and drinking water consumed by the population residing around this region and the corresponding annual ingestion dose was calculated. The annual ingestion doses from cereals, pulses and drinking water varied in the range of 109.4-936.8, 10.2-307.5 and 0.5-2.8 µSv y(-1), respectively. The estimated total annual average effective dose due to the ingestion of these radionuclides in cereals, pulses and drinking water was 530 µSv y(-1). The ingestion dose from cereals was the highest mainly due to a high consumption rate. The highest contribution of dose was found to be from (226)Ra for cereals and drinking water and (40)K was the major dose contributor from the intake of pulses. The contribution of man-made radionuclide (137)Cs to the total dose was found to be minimum. (226)Ra was found to be the largest contributor to ingestion dose from all sources. PMID:22802517

Lenka, Pradyumna; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Patra, A C; Dubey, J S; Vidyasagar, D; Tripathi, R M; Puranik, V D

2013-03-01

365

Use of Fluka to Create Dose Calculations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monte Carlo codes provide an effective means of modeling three dimensional radiation transport; however, their use is both time- and resource-intensive. The creation of a lookup table or parameterization from Monte Carlo simulation allows users to perform calculations with Monte Carlo results without replicating lengthy calculations. FLUKA Monte Carlo transport code was used to develop lookup tables and parameterizations for data resulting from the penetration of layers of aluminum, polyethylene, and water with areal densities ranging from 0 to 100 g/cm^2. Heavy charged ion radiation including ions from Z=1 to Z=26 and from 0.1 to 10 GeV/nucleon were simulated. Dose, dose equivalent, and fluence as a function of particle identity, energy, and scattering angle were examined at various depths. Calculations were compared against well-known results and against the results of other deterministic and Monte Carlo codes. Results will be presented.

Lee, Kerry T.; Barzilla, Janet; Townsend, Lawrence; Brittingham, John

2012-01-01

366

The water equivalence of solid phantoms for low energy photon beams  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compare and evaluate the dosimetric water equivalence of several commonly used solid phantoms for low energy photon beams. Methods: A total of ten different solid phantom materials was used in the study. The PENELOPE Monte Carlo code was used to calculate depth doses and beam profiles in all the phantom materials as well as the dose to a small water voxel at the surface of the solid phantom. These doses were compared to the corresponding doses calculated in a water phantom. The primary photon beams used ranged in energy from 50 to 280 kVp. Results: A number of phantom materials had excellent agreement in dose compared to water for all the x-ray beam energies studied. RMI457 Solid Water, Virtual Water, PAGAT, A150, and Plastic Water DT all had depth doses that agreed with those in water to within 2%. For these same phantom materials, the dose changes in the water voxel at the surface of the solid phantom were within 2%, except for A150, which agreed to within 2.7%. By comparison, the largest differences in depth doses occurred for Plastic Water (-21.7%) and polystyrene (17.6%) for the 50 kVp energy photon beam and 8 cm diameter field size. Plastic Water gave the largest difference in the normalized beam profiles with differences of up to 3.5% as compared to water. Surface dose changes, due to the presence of the solid phantom acting as the backscatter material, were found to be up to 9.1% for polystyrene with significant differences also found for Plastic Water, PMMA, and RW3 phantoms. Conclusions: The following solid phantoms can be considered water equivalent and are recommended for relative dosimetry of low energy photon beams: A150, PAGAT, Plastic Water DT, RMI457 Solid Water, and Virtual Water. However, the following solid phantoms give significant differences, compared to water, in depth doses, profiles, and/or in surface doses due to backscatter changes: Plastic Water, PMMA, polystyrene, PRESAGE, and RW3.

Hill, Robin; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown NSW 2050 (Australia); Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)