Science.gov

Sample records for water depth dose

  1. Calculated depth-dose distributions for H + and He + beams in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D.; Heredia-Avalos, Santiago; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2009-08-01

    We have calculated the dose distribution delivered by proton and helium beams in liquid water as a function of the target-depth, for incident energies in the range 0.5-10 MeV/u. The motion of the projectiles through the stopping medium is simulated by a code that combines Monte Carlo and a finite differences algorithm to consider the electronic stopping power, evaluated in the dielectric framework, and the multiple nuclear scattering with the target nuclei. Changes in projectile charge-state are taken into account dynamically as it moves through the target. We use the MELF-GOS model to describe the energy loss function of liquid water, obtaining a value of 79.4 eV for its mean excitation energy. Our calculated stopping powers and depth-dose distributions are compared with those obtained using other methods to describe the energy loss function of liquid water, such as the extended Drude and the Penn models, as well as with the prediction of the SRIM code and the tables of ICRU.

  2. Practical methods of electron depth-dose measurement compared to use of the NACP design chamber in water

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Haken, R.K.; Fraass, B.A.; Jost, R.J.

    1987-11-01

    Central axis relative dose versus depth measurements were performed using two different small volume thimble ionization chambers and a p-type silicon diode in a water phantom and with two parallel-plate ionization chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters, and radiographic film in a popular clear polystyrene phantom. Values obtained were compared to the results of similar measurements in a water phantom performed with a plane-parallel ionization chamber designed and optimized for use in electron beams by the Nordic Association of Clinical Physicists (NACP). The NACP chamber is expected to minimally perturb the electron fluence and be least prone to point of measurement uncertainties. Its use in a water phantom closely approximates the spirit of recent international protocols. Data were obtained for the foil scattered electron beams generated by two different accelerators for field sizes from 6 cm x 6 cm to 25 cm x 25 cm and energies between 6 and 20 MeV. Easily identifiable effective points of measurements were defined for each measurement device and standard corrections were applied to the raw data to obtain depth-dose curves. The degree of agreement between the various techniques and the NACP-water standard was quantitatively analyzed through comparison of the resulting depths of 50% dose and practical range. All methods were found to yield reasonable results when carefully implemented, with average differences of less than 1 mm being easily achievable. Measurements with p-type silicon diode detectors were found to be particularly useful, as they are pointlike and appear from all practical considerations to directly represent relative dose, thus requiring little or no correction to raw readings.

  3. Depth from water reflection.

    PubMed

    Linjie Yang; Jianzhuang Liu; Xiaoou Tang

    2015-04-01

    The scene in a water reflection image often exhibits bilateral symmetry. In this paper, we design a framework to reconstruct the depth from a single water reflection image. This problem can be regarded as a special case of two-view stereo vision. It is challenging to obtain correspondences from the real scene and the mirror scene due to their large appearance difference. We first propose an appearance adaptation method to transform the appearance of the mirror scene so that it is much closer to the real scene. We then present a stereo matching algorithm to obtain the disparity map of the real scene. Compared with other depth-from-symmetry work that deals with man-made objects, our algorithm can recover the depth maps of a variety of scenes, where both natural and man-made objects may exist. PMID:25643408

  4. Relative electron beam measurements: Scaling depths in clear polystyrene to equivalent depths in water

    SciTech Connect

    Ten Haken, R.K.; Fraass, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    For purposes of mean incident energy determination and the accrual of consistent treatment planning data, measurements of relative ionization or dose made in clear polystyrene must be scaled in depth to produce depth-ionization or depth-dose curves equivalent to what would have been measured in water. Recommendations from various protocols for clear polystyrene to water depth scaling factors differ by as much as 5%. Here, central axis measurements of relative ionization as a function of depth have been made with parallel-plate chambers both in a popular clear polystyrene phantom of density 1.045 g/cm/sup 3/ and in water. Perturbation and displacement corrections were thus minimized. Both depth-ionization and depth-dose curves were formed for electron beams with nominal incident energies between 6 and 20 MeV and field sizes from 6 cm x 6 cm to 15 cm x 15 cm. Comparisons of the depths for 50% relative reading and practical range between the two phantoms yield average empirical scaling factors of 0.990 and 1.002, respectively.

  5. Technology opens new water depth limits

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.D.

    1982-06-05

    This article reports on technology that has increased the water depth limits of deep water drilling. Riser-handling systems, deep-water tools, subsea stacks and marine risers have contributed to the development of technology of drilling at increased depths. Technological innovations have increased drilling depths to 10,000-13,000 feet, where drilling depth limits used to be 10,000-13,000 feet. The article also discusses the necessity of increasing technology for deepwater drilling; sighting higher operator costs, the importance of deepwater drilling at increased depths is discussed.

  6. Water depth penetration film test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.; Sauer, G. E.; Lamar, N. T.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Resources Program, a comparative and controlled evaluation of nine film-filter combinations was completed to establish the relative effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail if exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. The films tested, with one exception, were those which prior was suggested had potential. These included an experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and a black-and-white infrared film. Selective filtration was used with all films.

  7. 6 and 15 MeV photon spectra reconstruction using an unfolding depth dose gradient methodology.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2011-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of the spectral distribution emission is essential for precise dose calculations in radiotherapy treatment planning. Reconstruction of photon spectra emitted by medical accelerators from measured depth dose distributions in a water cube is an important tool for commissioning a Monte Carlo treatment planning system. However, the reconstruction problem is an inverse radiation transport function which is poorly conditioned and its solution may become unstable due to small perturbations in the input data. In this paper we present a more stable spectral reconstruction method which can be used to provide an independent confirmation of source models for a given machine without any prior knowledge of the spectral distribution. This technique involves measuring the depth dose curve in a water phantom and applying an unfolding method using Monte Carlo simulated depth dose gradient curves for consecutives mono-energetic beams. We illustrate this theory to calculate a 6 and a 15 MeV photon beam emitted from an Elekta Precise radiotherapy unit using the gradient of depth dose curves in a cube-shaped water tank. PMID:22254267

  8. Estimated depth to water, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, Jo Leslie; Terziotti, Silvia; Giorgino, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    This web site contains the Federal Geographic Data Committee-compliant metadata (documentation) for digital data produced for the North Carolina, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Public Water Supply Section, Source Water Assessment Program. The metadata are for 11 individual Geographic Information System data sets. An overlay and indexing method was used with the data to derive a rating for unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics for use by the State of North Carolina in assessing more than 11,000 public water-supply wells and approximately 245 public surface-water intakes for susceptibility to contamination. For ground-water supplies, the digital data sets used in the assessment included unsaturated zone rating, vertical series hydraulic conductance, land-surface slope, and land cover. For assessment of public surface-water intakes, the data sets included watershed characteristics rating, average annual precipitation, land-surface slope, land cover, and ground-water contribution. Documentation for the land-use data set applies to both the unsaturated zone and watershed characteristics ratings. Documentation for the estimated depth-to-water map used in the calculation of the vertical series hydraulic conductance also is included.

  9. Task 1: Water Depth Management, 1388

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 MSS data taken on October 10, 1972, of the Little Bahama Bank are being used to demonstrate the use of ERTS-1 data for mapping of shallow water features for the purpose of upgrading world navigation charts. Marked reflectance differences occur for the shallow water areas in bands 4, 5, and 6. Digital processing of two adjacent data tapes within the ERTS-1 frame covering an area of about 40 by 40 miles has been completed. Correlation of depth measurements to 5 meters has been successful. A mathematical model for depth measurements using ratio of voltages in band 4 and 5 has been successfully developed and is being tested for accuracy. Additional studies for areas near Puerto Rico and in northern Lake Michigan will be undertaken. Satellite data will also provide geographical evidence for verifying existence or nonexistence of doubtful shoal waters now appearing on world charts and considered to be hazardous to shipping.

  10. SUPERFUND GROUND WATER ISSUE - ACCURACY OF DEPTH TO WATER MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accuracy of depth to water measurements is an issue identified by the Forum as a concern of Superfund decision-makers as they attempt to determine directions of ground-water flow, areas of recharge of discharge, the hydraulic characteristics of aquifers, or the effects of manmade...

  11. Depth-dose relations for heavy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation transport of heavy ions in matter is of interest to radiological protection in space and high-altitude aircraft. In addition, heavy ion beams are expected to be of advantage in radiotherapy since their characteristic Bragg curve allows a relative reduction of the dose in reaching a tumor site and the near elimination of exposure beyond the tumor region as the beam exits the body. Furthermore, the radioresistance of tumorous cells due to their hypoxic state may be reduced or eliminated by the high specific ionization of heavy ion beams. The depth-dose distribution of heavy ion beams consists of energy deposited by the attenuated primary beam with its characteristic Bragg curve and a relatively unstructured background due to secondary radiations produced in nuclear reactions. As the ion mass increases, the secondary contribution becomes more structured and may add significantly to the Bragg peak of the primary ions. The result for heavy ions (z greater than 20) is a greatly broadened Bragg peak region, especially in comparison to straggling effects, which may prove to be of importance in radiotherapy and biomedical research.

  12. Spatially continuous interpolation of water stage and water depths using the Everglades depth estimation network (EDEN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstine, Leonard; Higer, Aaron; Palaseanu, Monica; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Mazzotti, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level monitoring, ground-elevation modeling, and water-surface modeling that provides scientists and managers with current (2000-present), online water-stage and water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. Continuous daily spatial interpolations of the EDEN network stage data are presented on a 400-square-meter grid spacing. EDEN offers a consistent and documented dataset that can be used by scientists and managers to (1) guide large-scale field operations, (2) integrate hydrologic and ecological responses, and (3) support biological and ecological assessments that measure ecosystem responses to the implementation of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) The target users are biologists and ecologists examining trophic level responses to hydrodynamic changes in the Everglades.

  13. A simulation model of water depth in mangrove basin forests.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, S A

    1990-06-01

    The construction and validation of a model simulating the water depth within mangrove basin forests is described. Rainfall, water table, water depth and tide data collected from a red mangrove basin forest on Marco Island, FL, was used to estimate model parameters. These included the basin spillover height, evapotranspiration-infiltration rate and the functional relationship of water depth change to rainfall, tide and basin spillover. The model was constructed with LOTUS 123 and calibrated from staff gauge water depth records. The model proved accurate and adaptable. Water depths from the model and staff gauge were correlated highly (r = 0.98). Data from an adjacent black mangrove forest featuring complex wet-dry cycling were used to modify the model. After calibration, the model provided an accurate record of water depths at the site (r = 0.89). This model will provide water depths used in a model of Aedes taeniorhynchus population dynamics. PMID:2370528

  14. Statistical classification of vegetation and water depths in montane wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharp, Julia L.; Sodja, Richard S.; Greenwood, Mark; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between water depths and density of submergent vegetation were studied in montane wetlands using statistical techniques based on clustering and an extension of regression trees. Sago pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata) was associated with lower average water depths than water milfoil (Myriophyllum sibiricum). We detected a nonlinear relationship when average water depths were used to predict percent cover in S. pectinata, with depths of 30–40 cm, producing the highest predicted average percent cover of S. pectinata; higher and lower depths resulted in lower percent cover predictions. For M. sibiricum, higher water depths were monotonically associated with higher average percent cover. To foster more S. pectinata and less M. sibiricum, managers might employ water control structures to reduce water depths below 1 m, using both temporary drawdowns and average depths of 30–40 cm. Other species responded less markedly to water depth variation. Should decreased water depths become more common, these results suggest an increase in S. pectinata and a decrease in M. sibiricum.

  15. Photometric and polarimetric mapping of water turbidity and water depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halajian, J.; Hallock, H.

    1973-01-01

    A Digital Photometric Mapper (DPM) was used in the Fall of 1971 in an airborne survey of New York and Boston area waters to acquire photometric, spectral and polarimetric data. The object of this study is to analyze these data with quantitative computer processing techniques to assess the potential of the DPM in the measurement and regional mapping of water turbidity and depth. These techniques have been developed and an operational potential has been demonstrated. More emphasis is placed at this time on the methodology of data acquisition, analysis and display than on the quantity of data. The results illustrate the type, quantity and format of information that could be generated operationally with the DPM-type sensor characterized by high photometric stability and fast, accurate digital output. The prototype, single-channel DPM is suggested as a unique research tool for a number of new applications. For the operational mapping of water turbidity and depth, the merits of a multichannel DPM coupled with a laser system are stressed.

  16. Evaluation of detectors for acquisition of pristine depth-dose curves in pencil beam scanning.

    PubMed

    Bumer, Christian; Koska, Benjamin; Lambert, Jamil; Timmermann, Beate; Mertens, Thierry; Takoukam Talla, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of quasi-monoenergetic ("pristine") depth-dose curves is an essential task in the frame of commissioning and quality assurance of a proton therapy treatment head. For pencil beam scanning delivery modes this is often accomplished by measuring the integral ionization in a plane perpendicular to the axis of an unscanned beam. We focus on the evaluation of three integral detectors: two of them are plane-parallel ionization chambers with an effective radius of 4.1 cm and 6.0 cm, respectively, mounted in a scanning water phantom. The third integral detector is a 6.0 cm radius multilayer ionization chamber. The experimental results are compared with the corresponding measurements under broad field conditions, which are performed with a small radius plane-parallel chamber and a small radius multilayer ionization chamber. We study how a measured depth-dose curve of a pristine proton field depends on the detection device, by evaluating the shape of the depth-dose curve, the relative charge collection efficiency, and intercomparing measured ranges. Our results show that increasing the radius of an integral chamber from 4.1 cm to 6.0 cm increases the collection efficiency by 0%-3.5% depending on beam energy and depth. Ranges can be determined by the large electrode multilayer ionization chamber with a typical uncertainty of 0.4 mm on a routine basis. The large electrode multilayer ionization chamber exhibits a small distortion in the Bragg Peak region. This prohibits its use for acquisition of base data, but is tolerable for quality assurance. The good range accuracy and the peak distortion are characteristics of the multilayer ionization chamber design, as shown by the direct comparison with the small electrode counterpart. PMID:26699567

  17. Improvement of depth dose distribution using multiple-field irradiation in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, N; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Takata, T; Kondo, N; Narabayashi, M; Nakagawa, Y; Watanabe, T; Kinashi, Y; Masunaga, S; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K; Suzuki, M

    2015-12-01

    It is important that improvements are made to depth dose distribution in boron neutron capture therapy, because the neutrons do not reach the innermost regions of the human body. Here, we evaluated the dose distribution obtained using multiple-field irradiation in simulation. From a dose volume histogram analysis, it was found that the mean and minimum tumor doses were increased using two-field irradiation, because of improved dose distribution for deeper-sited tumors. PMID:26282566

  18. Percent depth-dose distribution discrepancies from very small volume ion chambers.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Vikren; Wang, Brian; Zhao, Hui; Lynch, Bart; James, Joshua A; McCullough, Kiernan T; Salter, Bill J

    2015-01-01

    As very small ion chambers become commercially available, medical physicists may be inclined to use them during the linear accelerator commissioning process to better characterize the beam in steep dose gradient areas. For this work, a total of eight different ion chambers (volumes from 0.007 cc to 0.6 cc) and four different scanning systems were used to scan PDDs at both +300V and -300V biases. We observed a reproducible, significant difference (overresponse with depth) in PDDs acquired when using very small ion chambers, with specific bias/water tank combinations - up to 5% at a depth of 25 cm in water. This difference was not observed when the PDDs were sampled using the ion chamber in static positions in conjunction with an external electrometer. This suggests noise/signal interference produced by the controller box and cable system assemblies, which can become relatively significant for the very small current signals collected by very small ion chambers, especially at depth as the signal level is even further reduced. Based on the results observed here, the use of very small active volume chambers under specific scanning conditions may lead to collection of erroneous data, introducing systematic errors into the treatment planning system. In case the use of such a chamber is required, we recommend determining whether such erroneous effect exists by comparing the scans with those obtained with a larger chamber. PMID:26103196

  19. Penetration depth at green wavelengths in turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A laboratory and field measurement program was conducted to determine apparent remote sensing penetration depths at a wavelength of 520 nm. Tests were made for various types of sediments under controlled conditions in a laboratory. Field tests were conducted in several different water bodies over a wide range of solar elevation angles. Laboratory results indicate that apparent penetration depth is significantly influenced by mineral content and/or size of suspended sediments. Field measurements show wide variation in apparent penetration depth, even when suspended solids concentration is nearly constant. Apparent penetration depth does not appear to be a strong function of solar elevation angle so long as the water mixture remains constant.

  20. Nuclear-interaction correction of integrated depth dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Hara, Y.; Furukawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    In treatment planning of charged-particle therapy, tissue heterogeneity is conventionally modeled as water with various densities, i.e. stopping effective densities {?\\text{S}}, and the integrated depth dose measured in water (IDD) is applied accordingly for the patient dose calculation. Since the chemical composition of body tissues is different from that of water, this approximation causes dose calculation errors, especially due to difference in nuclear interactions. Here, we propose and validate an IDD correction method for these errors in patient dose calculations. For accurate handling of nuclear interactions, {?\\text{S}} of the patient is converted to nuclear effective density {?\\text{N}}, defined as the ratio of the probability of nuclear interactions in the tissue to that in water using a recently formulated semi-empirical relationship between the two. The attenuation correction factor ? \\text{w}\\text{p}, defined as the ratio of the attenuation of primary carbon ions in a patient to that in water, is calculated from a linear integration of {?\\text{N}} along the beam path. In our treatment planning system, a carbon-ion beam is modeled to be composed of three components according to their transverse beam sizes: primary carbon ions, heavier fragments, and lighter fragments. We corrected the dose contribution from primary carbon ions to IDD as proportional to ? \\text{w}\\text{p}, and corrected that from lighter fragments as inversely proportional to ? \\text{w}\\text{p}. We tested the correction method for some non-water materials, e.g. milk, lard, ethanol and water solution of potassium phosphate (K2HPO4), with un-scanned and scanned carbon-ion beams. In un-scanned beams, the difference in IDD between a beam penetrating a 150?mm-thick layer of lard and a beam penetrating water of the corresponding thickness amounted to -4%, while it was +6% for a 150?mm-thick layer of 40% K2HPO4. The observed differences were accurately predicted by the correction method. The corrected IDDs agreed with the measurements within 1% for all materials and combinations of them. In scanned beams, the dose estimation error in target dose amounted to 4% for a 150?mm-thick layer of 40% K2HPO4. The error is significantly reduced with the correction method. The planned dose distributions with the method agreed with the measurements within 1.5% of target dose for all materials not only in the target region but also in the plateau and fragment-tail regions. We tested the correction method of IDD in some non-water materials to verify that this method would offer the accuracy and simplicity required in carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning.

  1. Average fetal depth in utero: data for estimation of fetal absorbed radiation dose

    SciTech Connect

    Ragozzino, M.W.; Breckle, R.; Hill, L.M.; Gray, J.E.

    1986-02-01

    To estimate fetal absorbed dose from radiographic examinations, the depth from the anterior maternal surface to the midline of the fetal skull and abdomen was measured by ultrasound in 97 pregnant women. The relationships between fetal depth, fetal presentation, and maternal parameters of height, weight, anteroposterior (AP) thickness, gestational age, placental location, and bladder volume were analyzed. Maternal AP thickness (MAP) can be estimated from gestational age, maternal height, and maternal weight. Fetal midskull and abdominal depths were nearly equal. Fetal depth normalized to MAP was independent or nearly independent of maternal parameters and fetal presentation. These data enable a reasonable estimation of absorbed dose to fetal brain, abdomen, and whole body.

  2. Possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose measurements in clinical electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This study investigated the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers for percent depth-dose (PDD) measurements in high-energy clinical electron beams. Methods: The cavity correction factor, P{sub cav}, for cylindrical chambers with various diameters was calculated as a function of depth from the surface to R{sub 50}, in the energy range of 6-18 MeV electrons with the EGSnrc C ++ -based user-code CAVITY. The results were compared with those for IBA NACP-02 and PTW Roos parallel-plate ionization chambers. The effective point of measurement (EPOM) for the cylindrical chamber and the parallel-plate chamber was positioned according to the IAEA TRS-398 code of practice. The overall correction factor, P{sub Q}, and the percent depth-ionization (PDI) curve for a PTW30013 Farmer-type chamber were also compared with those of NACP-02 and Roos chambers. Results: The P{sub cav} values at depths between the surface and R{sub 50} for cylindrical chambers were all lower than those with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth for cylindrical chambers equal to or less than 4 mm in diameter was equivalent to or smaller than that for parallel-plate chambers. The P{sub Q} values for the PTW30013 chamber mainly depended on P{sub cav}, and for parallel-plate chambers depended on the wall correction factor, P{sub wall}, rather than P{sub cav}. P{sub Q} at depths from the surface to R{sub 50} for the PTW30013 chamber was consequently a lower value than that with parallel-plate chambers. However, the variation in depth was equivalent to that of parallel-plate chambers at electron energies equal to or greater than 9 MeV. The shift to match calculated PDI curves for the PTW30013 chamber and water (perturbation free) varied from 0.65 to 0 mm between 6 and 18 MeV beams. Similarly, the shifts for NACP-02 and Roos chambers were 0.5-0.6 mm and 0.2-0.3 mm, respectively, and were nearly independent of electron energy. Conclusions: Calculated PDI curves for PTW30013, NACP-02, and Roos chambers agreed well with that of water by using the optimal EPOM. Therefore, the possibility of using cylindrical ionization chambers can be expected for PDD measurements in clinical electron beams.

  3. Low energy electron generator design and depth dose prediction for micro-superficies tumors treatment purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorshidi, Abdollah; Rajaee, Azimeh; Ahmadinejad, Marjan; Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Ettelaee, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    We investigate deposited energy and linear energy transfer (LET) of low energy ejection electrons in air and water layers of a generator design via a plasma source. A structured model of a concave cold cathode electron generator was designed and simulated by using Monte Carlo n-particle version X 2.7.0 (MCNPX) code. A negative dc high voltage was applied to a concave cathode up to -12 kV to determine electron energy activity. Results determined that the geometric dimensions of field size toward the anode increased in relation to the angle of the conic beam, widening the accumulated bulks. The increased field size increased the anode current, which also resulted in an increase of electron energy, a reduction in LET, a stretched build-up area and a dose curve that shifted to a higher depth. The biological effect of low energy electron radiation can be increased with an increase of LET; as the depth dose decreased, the electron energy increased at the same time. The study of electron irradiation as a conic beam from an electron generator may provide an accurate investigation of the indirect effect of low energy electrons on bystander cells.

  4. Micronuclei induction in human lymphocytes induced by carbon ions exposion along the penetrate depth of ions in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. Z.; Li, W. J.; Zhi, D. J.; Qu, Y.; Jing, X. G.

    2009-08-01

    Here we used cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay to measure the biological response along the penetrate depth of ions in water in human lymphocytes exposed to 100 MeV/u incident carbon ions in vitro. Polyethylene shielding was used to change the penetration depth of ions in water. A quantitative biological response curve was generated for micronuclei induction. The results showed a marked increase with the penetrate depth of ions in water in the micronuclei formation, which was consistent with a linear-energy-transfer dependent increase in biological effectiveness. The dose-response relationship for MN information was different at different penetrate depth of ions in water, at the 6 and 11.2 mm penetrate depth of ions in water, the dose-response relationships for the micronucleus frequencies induced by carbon ions irradiation were linear; while it was power function at 17.1 mm penetrate depth.

  5. Polynomial expressions of electron depth dose as a function of energy in various materials: application to thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deogracias, E. C.; Wood, J. L.; Wagner, E. C.; Kearfott, K. J.

    1999-02-01

    The CEPXS/ONEDANT code package was used to produce a library of depth-dose profiles for monoenergetic electrons in various materials for energies ranging from 500 keV to 5 MeV in 10 keV increments. The various materials for which depth-dose functions were derived include: lithium fluoride (LiF), aluminum oxide (Al 2O 3), beryllium oxide (BeO), calcium sulfate (CaSO 4), calcium fluoride (CaF 2), lithium boron oxide (LiBO), soft tissue, lens of the eye, adiopose, muscle, skin, glass and water. All materials data sets were fit to five polynomials, each covering a different range of electron energies, using a least squares method. The resultant three dimensional, fifth-order polynomials give the dose as a function of depth and energy for the monoenergetic electrons in each material. The polynomials can be used to describe an energy spectrum by summing the doses at a given depth for each energy, weighted by the spectral intensity for that energy. An application of the polynomial is demonstrated by explaining the energy dependence of thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) and illustrating the relationship between TLD signal and actual shallow dose due to beta particles.

  6. Degradation of proton depth dose distributions attributable to microstructures in lung-equivalent material

    PubMed Central

    Titt, Uwe; Sell, Martin; Unkelbach, Jan; Bangert, Mark; Mirkovic, Dragan; Oelfke, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the work reported here was to investigate the influence of sub-millimeter size heterogeneities on the degradation of the distal edges of proton beams and to validate Monte Carlo (MC) methods’ ability to correctly predict such degradation. Methods: A custom-designed high-resolution plastic phantom approximating highly heterogeneous, lung-like structures was employed in measurements and in Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the degradation of proton Bragg curves penetrating heterogeneous media. Results: Significant differences in distal falloff widths and in peak dose values were observed in the measured and the Monte Carlo simulated curves compared to pristine proton Bragg curves. Furthermore, differences between simulations of beams penetrating CT images of the phantom did not agree well with the corresponding experimental differences. The distal falloff widths in CT image-based geometries were underestimated by up to 0.2 cm in water (corresponding to 0.8–1.4 cm in lung tissue), and the peak dose values of pristine proton beams were overestimated by as much as ˜35% compared to measured curves or depth-dose curves simulated on the basis of true geometry. The authors demonstrate that these discrepancies were caused by the limited spatial resolution of CT images that served as a basis for dose calculations and lead to underestimation of the impact of the fine structure of tissue heterogeneities. A convolution model was successfully applied to mitigate the underestimation. Conclusions: The results of this study justify further development of models to better represent heterogeneity effects in soft-tissue geometries, such as lung, and to correct systematic underestimation of the degradation of the distal edge of proton doses. PMID:26520732

  7. Shallow water table depth algorithm in SWAT: Recent developments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the shallow water table depth (wtd) is crucial in many studies including determination of optimum irrigation and drainage management systems for agricultural production, farm machine trafficability, and water quality due to agricultural chemical transport and soil salinity. Therefore, i...

  8. Mathematical modelling of depth-dose response of polymer gel dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chain, J. N. M.; Schreiner, L. J.; McAuley, K. B.

    2010-11-01

    A dynamic partial differential equation (PDE) model is used to simulate the effects of radiation depth-doses on polymer formation in Polyacrylamide Gel (PAG) dosimeters. Depth-doses are simulated using different types of radiation including Co60 gamma and 6 and 15 MV X-ray photon beams, along with 6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electron beams. Effects of monomer diffusion (edge enhancement) and temperature are studied. Diffusion results in excess polymer formation at the position of maximum dose (4% for Co60 ?-radiation and less for other types of radiation studied). Temperature increases on the order of 2 C increase the mass of polymer formed by approximately 2-3%. These results provide insight for calibrating dosimeters using depth-dose information.

  9. Depth

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Depth is the feeling of remoteness, or separateness, that accompanies awareness in human modalities like vision and audition. In specific cases depths can be graded on an ordinal scale, or even measured quantitatively on an interval scale. In the case of pictorial vision this is complicated by the fact that human observers often appear to apply mental transformations that involve depths in distinct visual directions. This implies that a comparison of empirically determined depths between observers involves pictorial space as an integral entity, whereas comparing pictorial depths as such is meaningless. We describe the formal structure of pictorial space purely in the phenomenological domain, without taking recourse to the theories of optics which properly apply to physical space—a distinct ontological domain. We introduce a number of general ways to design and implement methods of geodesy in pictorial space, and discuss some basic problems associated with such measurements. We deal mainly with conceptual issues. PMID:23145244

  10. Estimate of water inherent optical properties from Secchi depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, I. M.; Radomyslskaya, T. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper suggests a new version of the Secchi disk theory which shows a connection between Secchi depth measurements and inherent optical properties (IOP) of water such as the extinction coefficient, the single scattering albedo, and the backscattering coefficient. Ways around Preisendorfer's objection to using measurements of the Secchi depth for determining the IOP are proposed. This theory is compared with a marine experiment and its accuracy under different conditions is estimated.

  11. [Effect of water depths on hydraulic performance of pond wetlands].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang-Qiang; Dong, Bin; Liu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Chun-Guo; Feng, Da-Peng; Liu, Fang-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Pond wetlands have been widely used in the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields. However, wetland hydraulic performance and purification effects are affected by many factors, such as water depth, flow rate, aspect ratio and vegetation distribution, and the better understanding of these factors would be helpful to improve the quality of wetland design, operation and management. This paper analyzed the effect of three different water depths (20, 40 and 60 cm) on the hydraulic performance of pond wetland through the dye tracer experiments with Rhodamine WT. The hydraulic indices, i. e., effective volume ratio, nominal serial complete mixing tanks (N), hydraulic efficiency (?), were selected for analysis through the hydraulic residence time distribution (RTD) curve. The results showed that the effective volume rate rose from 0.421 to 0.844 and the hydraulic efficiency from 0.281 to 0.604 when the water depth declined from 60 cm to 20 cm. This indicated that the wetland hydraulic performance improved as the water depth decreased. In addition, the hydraulic performance of the first half of the wetland was significantly better than that of the second half. The flow regime of the first half approached complete mixing because of the mixing index (N) approaching 1 and its effective volume rate was above 0.9 when the water depth was relatively low (20 and 40 cm). The normalized RTD curves demonstrated a good agreement between moment analysis parameters and hydraulic parameters, and a great consistency between the hydraulic parameters and moment index which was not affected by tail truncation error. The experimental study concluded that a lower water depth was favorable to improve the hydraulic performance of pond wetlands. PMID:25898628

  12. Effects of prescription depth, cylinder size, treatment length, tip space, and curved end on doses in high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shidong . E-mail: sli1@hfhs.org; Aref, Ibrahim; Walker, Eleanor; Movsas, Benjamin

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the effects of the prescription depth, cylinder size, treatment length, tip space, and curved end on high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (HDR-VBT) of endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were prescribed and optimized based on points at the cylinder surface or at 0.5-cm depth. Cylinder sizes ranging from 2 to 4 cm in diameter, and treatment lengths ranging from 3 to 8 cm were used. Dose points in various depths were precisely defined along the cylinder dome. The given dose and dose uniformity to a depth of interest were measured by the mean dose (MD) and standard deviation (SD), respectively, among the dose points belonging to the depth. Dose fall-off beyond the 0.5 cm treatment depth was determined by the ratio of MD at 0.75-cm depth to MD at 0.5-cm depth. Results: Dose distribution varies significantly with different prescriptions. The surface prescription provides more uniform doses at all depths in the target volume, whereas the 0.5-cm depth prescription creates larger dose variations at the cylinder surface. Dosimetric uncertainty increases significantly (>30%) with shorter tip space. Extreme hot (>150%) and cold spots (<60%) occur if no optimization points were placed at the curved end. Conclusions: Instead of prescribing to a depth of 0.5 cm, increasing the dose per fraction and prescribing to the surface with the exact surface points around the cylinder dome appears to be the optimal approach.

  13. A holistic water depth simulation model for small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Shakir; Ghosh, Narayan C.; Mishra, P. K.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-10-01

    Estimation of time varying water depth and time to empty of a pond is prerequisite for comprehensive and coordinated planning of water resource for its effective utilization. A holistic water depth simulation (HWDS) and time to empty (TE) model for small, shallow ephemeral ponds have been derived by employing the generalized model based on the Green-Ampt equation in the basic water balance equation. The HWDS model includes time varying rainfall, runoff, surface water evaporation, outflow and advancement of wetting front length as external inputs. The TE model includes two external inputs; surface water evaporation and advancement of wetting front length. Both the models also consider saturated hydraulic conductivity and fillable porosity of the pond's bed material as their parameters. The solution of the HWDS model involved numerical iteration in successive time intervals. The HWDS model has successfully evaluated with 3 years of field data from two small ponds located within a watershed in a semi-arid region in western India. The HWDS model simulated time varying water depth in the ponds with high accuracy as shown by correlation coefficient (R2 ? 0.9765), index of agreement (d ? 0.9878), root mean square errors (RMSE ? 0.20 m) and percent bias (PB ? 6.23%) for the pooled data sets of the measured and simulated water depth. The statistical F and t-tests also confirmed the reliability of the HWDS model at probability level, p ? 0.0001. The response of the TE model showed its ability to estimate the time to empty the ponds. An additional field calibration and validation of the HWDS and TE models with observed field data in varied hydro-climatic conditions could be conducted to increase the applicability and credibility of the models.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of depth dose distribution in several organic models for boron neutron capture therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-09-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are performed to evaluate depth-dose distributions for possible treatment of cancers by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). The ICRU computational model of ADAM & EVA was used as a phantom to simulate tumors at a depth of 5 cm in central regions of the lungs, liver and pancreas. Tumors of the prostate and osteosarcoma were also centered at the depth of 4.5 and 2.5 cm in the phantom models. The epithermal neutron beam from a research reactor was the primary neutron source for the MCNP calculation of the depth-dose distributions in those cancer models. For brain tumor irradiations, the whole-body dose was also evaluated. The MCNP simulations suggested that a lethal dose of 50 Gy to the tumors can be achieved without reaching the tolerance dose of 25 Gy to normal tissue. The whole-body phantom calculations also showed that the BNCT could be applied for brain tumors without significant damage to whole-body organs.

  15. Absorption depth profile of water on thermoplastic starch films

    SciTech Connect

    Bonno, B.; Laporte, J.L.; Paris, D.; D'Leon, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that petroleum derived polymers are primary environmental contaminants. The study of new packing biodegradable materials has been the object of numerous papers in past years. Some of these new materials are the thermoplastic films derived from wheat starch. In the present paper, the authors study some of properties of wheat starch thermoplastic films, with various amounts of absorbed water, using photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The absorption depth profile of water in the starch substrate is determined for samples having a variable water level.

  16. Adsorption depth profile of water on thermoplastic starch films

    SciTech Connect

    Bonno, B.; Laporte, J.L.; Paris, D.; D'Leon, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that petroleum derived polymers are primary environmental contaminants. The study of new packing biodegradable materials has been the object of numerous papers in past years. Some of these new materials are the thermoplastic films derived from wheat starch. In the present paper, the authors study some of properties of wheat starch thermoplastic films, with various amounts of absorbed water, using photoacoustic spectroscopy techniques. The absorption depth profile of water in the starch substrate is determined for samples having a variable water level.

  17. Deglacial Evolution of Atlantic Mid-Depth and Intermediate-Depth Water Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, D.; Gebbie, G.; Huang, K. F.; Guo, W.; Schmittner, A.; Liu, Z.; Curry, W. B.

    2014-12-01

    Deglacial variations in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) feature prominently in hypotheses of deglacial climate variability and atmospheric CO2rise. However, there is lingering uncertainty in the glacial deepwater mass configuration (e.g. Gebbie, 2014) and deglacial AMOC variability is even more poorly understood. For example, the deglacial evolution of the contribution of northern and southern source waters to the middle and intermediate depths of the Atlantic is still vigorously debated. Here, we evaluate the evolution of subsurface Atlantic ventilation, emphasizing middle and intermediate depths, by comparing new and published records of water mass variability to output from transient model simulations designed to provide insight into the climatic and oceanographic effects of a dramatic reduction in the AMOC, such as apparently occurred during Heinrich Stadial 1 (Liu et al., 2009; Schmittner and Lund, 2014). Gebbie, G. (2014), How much did Glacial North Atlantic Water shoal? Paleoceanography, 29, 190-209, doi: 10.1002/2013PA002557. Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, F. He, E. Brady, R. Thomas, P. U. Clark, A. E. Carlson, J. Lynch-Stieglitz, W. Curry, E. Brook, D. Erickson, R. Jacob, J. Kutzbach, J., and J. Chen (2009), Transient climate simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bølling-Allerød warming, Science, 325, 310-314. Schmittner, A., and Lund, D. C. (submitted), Carbon Isotopes Support Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Decline as a Trigger for Early Deglacial CO2 rise Climate of the Past Discussions.

  18. A comparison of depth dependence of dose and linear energy transfer spectra in aluminum and polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2000-01-01

    A set of four tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), with their detector heads at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 7 and 9-inch-diameter aluminum spheres, were flown on Shuttle flight STS-89. Five such detectors at the centers of polyethylene spheres were flown 1 year earlier on STS-81. The results of dose-depth dependence for the two materials convincingly show the merits of using material rich in hydrogen to decrease the radiation exposure to the crew. A comparison of the calculated galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates using the radiation transport code HZETRN with nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 and the measured GCR absorbed dose rates and dose-equivalent rates shows that they agree within root mean square (rms) error of 12.5 and 8.2%, respectively. However, there are significant depth-dependent differences in the linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. A comparison for trapped protons using the proton transport code BRYNTRN and the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model shows a systematic bias, with the model underpredicting dose and dose-equivalent rates. These results show the need for improvements in the radiation transport and/or fragmentation models.

  19. Fractal behavior of soil water storage at multiple depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenjun; Lin, Mi; Biswas, Asim; Si, Bing C.; Chau, Henry W.; Cresswell, Hamish P.

    2016-02-01

    Spatio-temporal behavior of soil water is essential to understand the science of hydrodynamics. Data intensive measurement of surface soil water using remote sensing has established that the spatial variability of soil water can be described using the principle of self-similarity (scaling properties) or fractal theory. This information can be used in determining land management practices provided the surface scaling properties hold at deep layer. Current study examined the scaling properties of sub-surface soil water and its relationship to surface soil water, thereby serving as the supporting information for the plant root and vadose zone models. Soil water storage (SWS) down to 1.4 m depth at seven equal intervals was measured along a transect of 576 m for 5 years. The surface SWS showed multifractal nature only during the wet period (from snowmelt until mid to late June with large SWS) indicating the need of multiple scaling indices in transferring soil water variability information over multiple scales. However, with increasing depth, the SWS became monofractal in nature indicating the need of single scaling index to upscale/downscale soil water variability information. The dynamic nature made the surface layer soil water in the wet period highly variable compared to the deep layers. In contrast, all soil layers during the dry period (from late June to the end of the growing season with low SWS) were monofractal in nature, probably resulting from the high evapotranspirative demand of the growing vegetation that surpassed other effects. This strong similarity between the scaling properties at the surface layer and deep layers provides the possibility of inferring about the whole profile soil water dynamics using the scaling properties of the easy-to-measure surface SWS data.

  20. Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

  1. SU-E-T-443: Developmental Technique for Proton Pencil Beam Measurements: Depth Dose

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, B; Lee, T; Schultz, T; Hsi, W; Park, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Measurements of depth dose distribution (DDD) of pencil beam in proton therapy can be challenging and time consuming. We have developed a technique that uses two Bragg peak chambers to expedite these measurements with a high accuracy. Methods and Material: We used a PTW water tank and two PTW 10.5 cm3 Bragg peak chambers; one as a field chamber and the other as a reference chamber to measure DDDs for 100–250 MeV proton pencil beams. The reference chamber was positioned outside of the water tank upstream with respect to field chamber. We used Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) to model the ProTom proton beam to generate DDDs. The MCS generated DDDs were used to account for halo effects of proton pencil beam that are not measureable with Bragg peak chambers. We also used PTW PEAKFINDER to measure DDDs for comparison purpose. Results: We compared measured and MCS DDDs with Continuous Slowing Down Approximation (CSDA) ranges to verify the range of proton beams that were supplied by the manufacturer. The agreements between all DDD with respect to CSDA were within ±0.5 mm. The WET for Bragg peak chamber for energies between 100–250 MeV was 12.7 ± 0.5 mm. The correction for halo effect was negligible below 150 MeV and was in order of ∼5-10% for 150–250 MeV. Conclusion: Use of Bragg Peak chamber as a reference chamber can facilitate DDD measurements in proton pencil beam with a high accuracy. Some corrections will be required to account for halo effect in case of high energy proton beams due to physical size of chamber.

  2. Turbid water measurements of remote sensing penetration depth at visible and near-infrared wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing of water quality is dicussed. Remote sensing penetration depth is a function both of water type and wavelength. Results of three tests to help demonstrate the magnitude of this dependence are presented. The water depth to which the remote-sensor data was valid was always less than that of the Secchi disk depth, although not always the same fraction of that depth. The penetration depths were wavelength dependent and showed the greatest variation for the water type with largest Secchi depth. The presence of a reflective plate, simulating a reflective subsurface, increased the apparent depth of light penetration from that calculated for water of infinite depth.

  3. Depth distribution of absorbed dose on the external surface of Cosmos 1887 biosatellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, J. W., Jr.; Parnell, T. A.; Akatov, Yu. A.; Dudkin, V. E.; Kovalev, E. E.; Benton, E. V.; Frank, A. L.

    1995-01-01

    Significant absorbed dose levels exceeding 1.0 Gy day(exp -1) have been measured on the external surface of the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite as functions of depth in stacks of thin thermoluminescent detectors (TLD's) made in U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. The dose was found to decrease rapidly with increasing absorber thickness, thereby indicating the presence of intensive fluxes of low-energy particles. Comparison between the U.S.S.R. and U.S.A. results and calculations based on the Vette Model environment are in satisfactory agreement. The major contribution to the dose under thin shielding thickness is shown to be from electrons. The fraction of the dose due to protons and heavier charged particles increases with shielding thickness.

  4. Compact water depth sensor with LPFG using the photoelastic effect and heat-shrinkable tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takama, Shinya; Kudomi, Takamasa; Ohashi, Masaharu; Miyoshi, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    We propose a compact water depth sensor with a long period fiber grating (LPFG) using a heat-shrinkable tube. The pressure property of the LPFG is investigated experimentally to confirm the feasibility of the water depth sensor. Moreover, the water depth in the 2m long water-filled pipe is successfully estimated by the proposed water sensors.

  5. New procedures to estimate water temperatures and water depths for application in climate-dengue modeling.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S; Kalkstein, L S; Focks, D A; Nnaji, A

    1998-09-01

    Two new approaches have been developed to estimate water temperatures and water depths in containers that commonly are used as breeding sites for mosquitoes, the primary vectors of dengue viruses. These estimates are incorporated in recently developed stochastic simulation models used to describe the daily dynamics of dengue virus transmission in the urban environment. Water temperature estimates are provided through a regression model that includes meteorological variables not previously used; results show that they are significantly better than those used in previous dengue transmission models. Water depth models use a climatic water budget approach which estimates moisture storage within containers. The water depth models are less precise than those developed for water temperature; however, results are superior to those used in previous models. These new approaches should improve estimates of the impact of water conditions on dengue vectors. PMID:9775586

  6. Simulation of depth-dose distributions for various ions in polyethylene medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashavani; Jalota, Summit; Gupta, Renu

    2012-06-01

    Study of depth-dose distributions for intermediate energy ion beams in tissue-like media such as polyethylene (CH2)n provides a good platform for further improvements in the fields of hadrontherapy and space radiation shielding. The depth-dose distributions for 12C ions at various energies and for light and intermediate ion beams (3He, 16O, 20Ne and 28Si) as well as for heavy ions 56Fe in polyethylene were estimated by using simulation toolkit: Geant4. Calculations were performed mainly by considering two different combinations of standard electromagnetic (EM), binary cascade (BIC), statistical multifragmentation (SMF) and Fermi breakup (FB) models. The energies of the ion beams were selected to achieve the Bragg peaks at predefined position (˜60 mm) and as per their availability. Variations of peak-to-entrance ratio (from 7.44 ± 0.05 to 8.87 ± 0.05), entrance dose (from 2.89 ± 0.01 to 203.71 ± 0.63 MeV/mm) and entrance stopping power (from 3.608 to 208.858 MeV/mm, calculated by SRIM) with atomic number (Z) were presented in a systematic manner. The better peak-to-entrance ratio and less entrance dose in the region Z = 2 to 8 (i.e. 3He to 16O) may provide the suitability of the ion beams for hadrontherapy.

  7. A method for depth-dose distribution measurements in tissue irradiated by a proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gambarini, G.; Birattari, C.; Bartolo, D. de

    1994-12-31

    The use of protons and heavy ions for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant disease has aroused a growing interest in the last decade. The notable advantage of heavy charged particles over photons in external beam radiotherapy lies in the possibility of irradiating a small localized region within the body, keeping a low value for the entrance dose. Owing to this high disuniformity of energy deposition, an essential requirement for treatment planning is a precise evaluation of the spatial distribution of absorbed dose. The proposed method for depth-dose distribution measurements utilizes a chemical dosimeter (ferrous sulphate solution plus sulfuric acid and eventually xylenol orange) incorporated in a gelatine, whose role is the maintenance of spatial information. Ionizing radiation causes a variation in some parameters of the system such as the proton relaxation rates in the solution (measurable by NMR analysis) or the optical absorption of the gel in the visible spectrum (measurable by spectrophotometry).

  8. Calculated and measured depth dose profiles in a phantom exposed to neutron radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, R.I.; Tanner, J.E.; Sigalla, L.A.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1989-05-01

    An accurate evaluation of doses caused by external sources of neutron radiation depends on knowledge of the transport of radiation inside the human body. Health physicists use two primary methods for studying this radiation transport: computer calculations and measurements. Both computer calculations and measurements were performed under well controlled, nearly identical conditions to determine the extent of their agreement. A comparison of the dose profiles predicted by both measurements and calculations was thus possible. The measurements were performed in a cylindrical phantom made of tissue equivalent plastic. The phantom size, 61 cm high and 30 cm in diameter, was chosen to approximate the human torso and to match the dimensions of cylindrical phantoms used by previous calculations. Holes were drilled down through the phantom to accommodate small tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) at various depths in the phantom. These counters were used to measure the neutron dose inside the phantom when it was exposed to various sources of neutrons. The holes in the phantom could also accommodate miniature Geiger-Mueller detectors to measure the gamma component of the dose. Neutron and gamma dose profiles were measured for two different sources of neutrons: an unmoderated /sup 252/Cf source and a 733-keV neutron beam generated by a Van de Graaff accelerator. 14 refs., 13 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Study on the Effect of Energy Parameter of Electron on the Percentage Depth Dose of Electron Beam Using Monte Carlo Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryanto, Freddy

    2010-06-01

    In medical linear accelerator, the energy parameter of electron plays important role to produce electron beam. The percentage depth dose of electron beams takes account not only on the value of electron's energy, but also on the type of electron's energy. The aims of this work are to carry on the effect of energy parameter of electron on the percentage depth dose of electron beam. Monte Carlo method is chosen in this project, due to the superior of this method for simulating the random process such as the transport particle in matter. The DOSXYZnrc usercode was used to simulate the electron transport in water phantom. Two aspects of electron's energy parameter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. In the first aspect, electron energy's value was varied also its spectrum. In the second aspect, the geometry of electron's energy was taken account on. The parallel beam and the point source were chosen as the geometry of The measurements of percentage depth dose were conducted to compare with its simulation. The ionization chamber was used in these measurements. Presentation of the results of this work is given not only based on the shape of the percentage depth dose from the simulation and measurement, but also on the other aspect in its curve. The result of comparison between the simulation and its measurement shows that the shape of its curve depends on the energy value of electron and the type of its energy. The energy value of electron affected the depth maximum of dose.

  10. Study on the Effect of Energy Parameter of Electron on the Percentage Depth Dose of Electron Beam Using Monte Carlo Method

    SciTech Connect

    Haryanto, Freddy

    2010-06-22

    In medical linear accelerator, the energy parameter of electron plays important role to produce electron beam. The percentage depth dose of electron beams takes account not only on the value of electron's energy, but also on the type of electron's energy. The aims of this work are to carry on the effect of energy parameter of electron on the percentage depth dose of electron beam. Monte Carlo method is chosen in this project, due to the superior of this method for simulating the random process such as the transport particle in matter. The DOSXYZnrc usercode was used to simulate the electron transport in water phantom. Two aspects of electron's energy parameter were investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. In the first aspect, electron energy's value was varied also its spectrum. In the second aspect, the geometry of electron's energy was taken account on. The parallel beam and the point source were chosen as the geometry of The measurements of percentage depth dose were conducted to compare with its simulation. The ionization chamber was used in these measurements. Presentation of the results of this work is given not only based on the shape of the percentage depth dose from the simulation and measurement, but also on the other aspect in its curve. The result of comparison between the simulation and its measurement shows that the shape of its curve depends on the energy value of electron and the type of its energy. The energy value of electron affected the depth maximum of dose.

  11. An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields.

    PubMed

    Ding, George X; Krauss, Rob

    2013-07-21

    For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4mm diameter to 10נ10cm(2)fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100cm SSD in a 50נ50נ50cm(3)water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25cm for 4mm and 30mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%. PMID:23787215

  12. An empirical formula to obtain tissue-phantom ratios from percentage depth-dose curves for small fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, George X.; Krauss, Rob

    2013-07-01

    For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 10 cm2 fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 50 50 cm3 water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%.

  13. Remote sensing of water depths in shallow waters via artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhun, zelik; Yal?n, Ar?soy

    2010-09-01

    Determination of the water depths in coastal zones is a common requirement for the majority of coastal engineering and coastal science applications. However, production of high quality bathymetric maps requires expensive field survey, high technology equipment and expert personnel. Remotely sensed images can be conveniently used to reduce the cost and labor needed for bathymetric measurements and to overcome the difficulties in spatial and temporal depth provision. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) methodology is introduced in this study to derive bathymetric maps in shallow waters via remote sensing images and sample depth measurements. This methodology provides fast and practical solution for depth estimation in shallow waters, coupling temporal and spatial capabilities of remote sensing imagery with modeling flexibility of ANN. Its main advantage in practice is that it enables to directly use image reflectance values in depth estimations, without refining depth-caused scatterings from other environmental factors (e.g. bottom material and vegetation). Its function-free structure allows evaluating nonlinear relationships between multi-band images and in-situ depth measurements, therefore leads more reliable depth estimations than classical regressive approaches. The west coast of the Foca, Izmir/Turkey was used as a test bed. Aster first three band images and Quickbird pan-sharpened images were used to derive ANN based bathymetric maps of this study area. In-situ depth measurements were supplied from the General Command of Mapping, Turkey (HGK). Two models were set, one for Aster and one for Quickbird image inputs. Bathymetric maps relying solely on in-situ depth measurements were used to evaluate resultant derived bathymetric maps. The efficiency of the methodology was discussed at the end of the paper. It is concluded that the proposed methodology could decrease spatial and repetitive depth measurement requirements in bathymetric mapping especially for preliminary engineering application.

  14. Vertical distribution of radiation dose rates in the water of a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinji; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Seasonal radiation dose rates were measured with glass dosemeters housed in watertight cases at various depths in the water of Lake Obuchi, a brackish lake in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, during fiscal years 2011-2013 to assess the background external radiation dose to aquatic biota in the lake. The mean radiation dose in the surface water of the lake was found to be 27 nGy h(-1), which is almost the same as the absorption dose rate due to cosmic ray reported in the literature. Radiation dose rates decreased exponentially with water depth down to a depth of 1 m above the bottom sediment. In the water near the sediment, the dose rate increased with depth owing to the emission of γ-rays from natural radionuclides in the sediment. PMID:25944958

  15. Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, B. R. B.; Kramer, R.; Kawrakow, I.

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, Dm, or dose to water, Dw, provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether Dm or Dw should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on µCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score Dw and Dm in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of ~1% (BSC, RBM) or ~0.5% (Dm, Dw) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between Dm and Dw are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between Dm and Dw, comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that Dw provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average Dm underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average Dw is within ~1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify Dw than Dm in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since Dw provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant.

  16. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-10-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ18O was restricted to 0-30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0-10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0-10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10-40 cm and 40-80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area.

  17. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ18O was restricted to 0–30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0–10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0–10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10–40 cm and 40–80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area. PMID:26463010

  18. Irrigation depth far exceeds water uptake depth in an oasis cropland in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Wen, Xuefa; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural irrigation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin consumes approximately 80% of the total river water. Whether the irrigation depth matches the water uptake depth of crops is one of the most important factors affecting the efficiency of irrigation water use. Our results indicated that the influence of plastic film on soil water δ(18)O was restricted to 0-30 cm soil depth. Based on a Bayesian model (MixSIR), we found that irrigated maize acquired water preferentially from 0-10 cm soil layer, with a median uptake proportion of 87 ± 15%. Additionally, maize utilised a mixture of irrigation and shallow soil water instead of absorbing the irrigation water directly. However, only 24.7 ± 5.5% of irrigation water remained in 0-10 cm soil layer, whereas 29.5 ± 2.8% and 38.4 ± 3.3% of the irrigation water infiltrated into 10-40 cm and 40-80 cm layers. During the 4 irrigation events, approximately 39% of the irrigation and rainwater infiltrated into soil layers below 80 cm. Reducing irrigation amount and developing water-saving irrigation methods will be important strategies for improving the efficiency of irrigation water use in this area. PMID:26463010

  19. First experimental-based characterization of oxygen ion beam depth dose distributions at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, C.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.

    2012-08-01

    Over the last decades, the application of proton and heavy-ion beams to external beam radiotherapy has rapidly increased. Due to the favourable lateral and depth dose profile, the superposition of narrow ion pencil beams may enable a highly conformal dose delivery to the tumour, with better sparing of the surrounding healthy tissue in comparison to conventional radiation therapy with photons. To fully exploit the promised clinical advantages of ion beams, an accurate planning of the patient treatments is required. The clinical treatment planning system (TPS) at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) is based on a fast performing analytical algorithm for dose calculation, relying, among others, on laterally integrated depth dose distributions (DDDs) simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. Important input parameters of these simulations need to be derived from a comparison of the simulated DDDs with measurements. In this work, the first measurements of 16O ion DDDs at HIT are presented with a focus on the determined Bragg peak positions and the understanding of factors influencing the shape of the distributions. The measurements are compared to different simulation approaches aiming to reproduce the acquired data at best. A simplified geometrical model is first used to optimize important input parameters, not known a priori, in the simulations. This method is then compared to a more realistic, but also more time-consuming simulation approach better accounting for the experimental set-up and the measuring process. The results of this work contributed to a pre-clinical oxygen ion beam database, which is currently used by a research TPS for corresponding radio-biological cell experiments. A future extension to a clinical database used by the clinical TPS at HIT is foreseen. As a side effect, the performed investigations showed that the typical water equivalent calibration approach of experimental data acquired with water column systems leads to slight deviations between the experimentally determined and the real Bragg peak positions. For improved accuracy, the energy dependence of the stopping power, and herewith the water equivalent thickness, of the material downstream of the water tank should be considered in the analysis of measured data.

  20. First experimental-based characterization of oxygen ion beam depth dose distributions at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center.

    PubMed

    Kurz, C; Mairani, A; Parodi, K

    2012-08-01

    Over the last decades, the application of proton and heavy-ion beams to external beam radiotherapy has rapidly increased. Due to the favourable lateral and depth dose profile, the superposition of narrow ion pencil beams may enable a highly conformal dose delivery to the tumour, with better sparing of the surrounding healthy tissue in comparison to conventional radiation therapy with photons. To fully exploit the promised clinical advantages of ion beams, an accurate planning of the patient treatments is required. The clinical treatment planning system (TPS) at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT) is based on a fast performing analytical algorithm for dose calculation, relying, among others, on laterally integrated depth dose distributions (DDDs) simulated with the FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) code. Important input parameters of these simulations need to be derived from a comparison of the simulated DDDs with measurements. In this work, the first measurements of (16)O ion DDDs at HIT are presented with a focus on the determined Bragg peak positions and the understanding of factors influencing the shape of the distributions. The measurements are compared to different simulation approaches aiming to reproduce the acquired data at best. A simplified geometrical model is first used to optimize important input parameters, not known a priori, in the simulations. This method is then compared to a more realistic, but also more time-consuming simulation approach better accounting for the experimental set-up and the measuring process. The results of this work contributed to a pre-clinical oxygen ion beam database, which is currently used by a research TPS for corresponding radio-biological cell experiments. A future extension to a clinical database used by the clinical TPS at HIT is foreseen. As a side effect, the performed investigations showed that the typical water equivalent calibration approach of experimental data acquired with water column systems leads to slight deviations between the experimentally determined and the real Bragg peak positions. For improved accuracy, the energy dependence of the stopping power, and herewith the water equivalent thickness, of the material downstream of the water tank should be considered in the analysis of measured data. PMID:22805295

  1. Final Aperture Superposition Technique applied to fast calculation of electron output factors and depth dose curves.

    PubMed

    Faddegon, B A; Villarreal-Barajas, J E

    2005-11-01

    The Final Aperture Superposition Technique (FAST) is described and applied to accurate, near instantaneous calculation of the relative output factor (ROF) and central axis percentage depth dose curve (PDD) for clinical electron beams used in radiotherapy. FAST is based on precalculation of dose at select points for the two extreme situations of a fully open final aperture and a final aperture with no opening (fully shielded). This technique is different than conventional superposition of dose deposition kernels: The precalculated dose is differential in position of the electron or photon at the downstream surface of the insert. The calculation for a particular aperture (x-ray jaws or MLC, insert in electron applicator) is done with superposition of the precalculated dose data, using the open field data over the open part of the aperture and the fully shielded data over the remainder. The calculation takes explicit account of all interactions in the shielded region of the aperture except the collimator effect: Particles that pass from the open part into the shielded part, or visa versa. For the clinical demonstration, FAST was compared to full Monte Carlo simulation of 10 x 10, 2.5 x 2.5, and 2 x 8 cm2 inserts. Dose was calculated to 0.5% precision in 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.2 cm3 voxels, spaced at 0.2 cm depth intervals along the central axis, using detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the treatment head of a commercial linear accelerator for six different electron beams with energies of 6-21 MeV. Each simulation took several hours on a personal computer with a 1.7 Mhz processor. The calculation for the individual inserts, done with superposition, was completed in under a second on the same PC. Since simulations for the pre calculation are only performed once, higher precision and resolution can be obtained without increasing the calculation time for individual inserts. Fully shielded contributions were largest for small fields and high beam energy, at the surface, reaching a maximum of 5.6% at 21 MeV. Contributions from the collimator effect were largest for the large field size, high beam energy, and shallow depths, reaching a maximum of 4.7% at 21 MeV. Both shielding contributions and the collimator effect need to be taken into account to achieve an accuracy of 2%. FAST takes explicit account of the shielding contributions. With the collimator effect set to that of the largest field in the FAST calculation, the difference in dose on the central axis (product of ROF and PDD) between FAST and full simulation was generally under 2%. The maximum difference of 2.5% exceeded the statistical precision of the calculation by four standard deviations. This occurred at 18 MeV for the 2.5 x 2.5 cm2 field. The differences are due to the method used to account for the collimator effect. PMID:16370417

  2. Modified Rayleigh distribution of wave heights in transitional water depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying-guang

    2015-06-01

    This paper concerns the calculation of wave height exceedance probabilities for nonlinear irregular waves in transitional water depths, and a Transformed Rayleigh method is first proposed for carrying out the calculation. In the proposed Transformed Rayleigh method, the transformation model is chosen to be a monotonic exponential function, calibrated such that the first three moments of the transformed model match the moments of the true process. The proposed new method has been applied for calculating the wave height exceedance probabilities of a sea state with the surface elevation data measured at the Poseidon platform. It is demonstrated in this case that the proposed new method can offer better predictions than those by using the conventional Rayleigh wave height distribution model. The proposed new method has been further applied for calculating the total horizontal loads on a generic jacket, and its accuracy has once again been substantiated. The research findings gained from this study demonstrate that the proposed Transformed Rayleigh model can be utilized as a promising alternative to the well-established nonlinear wave height distribution models.

  3. Electron fluence correction factors for conversion of dose in plastic to dose in water.

    PubMed

    Ding, G X; Rogers, D W; Cygler, J E; Mackie, T R

    1997-02-01

    In radiation dosimetry protocols, plastic is allowed as a phantom material for the determination of absorbed dose to water in electron beams. The electron fluence correction factor is needed in conversion of dose measured in plastic to dose in water. There are large discrepancies among recommended values as well as measured values of electron fluence correction factors when polystyrene is used as a phantom material. Using the Monte Carlo technique, we have calculated electron fluence correction factors for incident clinical beam energies between 5 and 50 MeV as a function of depth for clear polystyrene, white polystyrene and PMMA phantom materials and compared the results with those recommended in protocols as well as experimental values from published data. In the Monte Carlo calculations, clinical beams are simulated using the EGS4 user-code BEAM for a variety of medical accelerators. The study shows that our calculated fluence correction factor, phi pw, is a function of depth and incident beam energy Eo with little dependence on other aspects of beam quality. However the phi pw values at dmax are indirectly influenced by the beam quality since they vary with depth and dmax also varies with the beam quality. Calculated phi pw values at dmax are in a range of 1.005-1.045 for a clear polystyrene phantom, 1.005-1.038 for a white polystyrene phantom and 0.996-1.016 for a PMMA phantom. Our values of phi pw are about 1-2% higher than those determined according to the AAPM TG-25 protocol at dmax for clear or white polystyrene. Our calculated values of phi pw also explain some of the variations of measured data because of its depth dependence. A simple formula is derived which gives the electron fluence correction factor phi pw as a function of R50 at dmax or at the depth of 0.6R50-0.1 for any clinical electron beam with energy between 5 and 25 MeV for three plastics: clear polystyrene, white polystyrene and PMMA. The study also makes a careful distinction between phi pw and the corresponding IAEA Code of Practice quantity, hm. PMID:9048356

  4. Changes to dose at surface and shifts of dose distributions at depth through dry and wet wound dressings for photon and electron beam radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mac Nally, Ciara; Woodings, Simon

    2012-06-01

    Wound dressings are used during patient radiotherapy treatments, particularly in cases of radiation induced lesions. Potentially, the presence of a dressing may increase the dose to the skin, further aggravating the skin reaction and decrease the dose at depth. The changes are dependent on linear accelerator beam type and beam quality and were determined for 4 and 10 MV photon energies and 6 and 15 MeV electron energies using a slab phantom and fixed separation parallel plate chambers. Since these dressings have been designed to be used on exuding wounds, measurements were taken under eight different wound dressings in both dry and wet state. Irradiations with photon energies increased the skin dose significantly (max. increase: 68.1 %; average increase: 48 %) with little or no change to dose at depth. Electron beam energies showed little or no change to doses at the surface, but the dose distribution was shifted towards the surface. The maximum decrease in dose at depth was 3.6 % for 6 and 15 MeV through all dressings except one and was therefore considered to be clinically insignificant. A change in dose at surface of 9.7 % and at R(50) of 25.9 %, equivalent to a shift of dose towards the surface of 7.5 mm, was measured for one dressing. This demonstrates that it is possible for a wet dressing to significantly alter electron beam dosimetry. PMID:22733122

  5. Altitude and configuration of the water table, and depth to water near Cheyenne, Wyoming, May 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Marvin A.

    1985-01-01

    Altitude and configuration of the water table and depth to water were determined for an area near the southwestern corner of Francis E. Warren Air Force Base which is adjacent to the city limits of Cheyenne, Wyoming. Water levels in the Ogallala Formation, of late Miocene age, generally are less than 20 ft below land surface in this area where there are many private residences on small-acreage lots. Landowners rely on their own wells for water supply and have installed their own septic systems. (USGS)

  6. Dose to medium versus dose to water as an estimator of dose to sensitive skeletal tissue.

    PubMed

    Walters, B R B; Kramer, R; Kawrakow, I

    2010-08-21

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether dose to medium, D(m), or dose to water, D(w), provides a better estimate of the dose to the radiosensitive red bone marrow (RBM) and bone surface cells (BSC) in spongiosa, or cancellous bone. This is addressed in the larger context of the ongoing debate over whether D(m) or D(w) should be specified in Monte Carlo calculated radiotherapy treatment plans. The study uses voxelized, virtual human phantoms, FAX06/MAX06 (female/male), incorporated into an EGSnrc Monte Carlo code to perform Monte Carlo dose calculations during simulated irradiation by a 6 MV photon beam from an Elekta SL25 accelerator. Head and neck, chest and pelvis irradiations are studied. FAX06/MAX06 include precise modelling of spongiosa based on microCT images, allowing dose to RBM and BSC to be resolved from the dose to bone. Modifications to the FAX06/MAX06 user codes are required to score D(w) and D(m) in spongiosa. Dose uncertainties of approximately 1% (BSC, RBM) or approximately 0.5% (D(m), D(w)) are obtained after up to 5 days of simulations on 88 CPUs. Clinically significant differences (>5%) between D(m) and D(w) are found only in cranial spongiosa, where the volume fraction of trabecular bone (TBVF) is high (55%). However, for spongiosa locations where there is any significant difference between D(m) and D(w), comparisons of differential dose volume histograms (DVHs) and average doses show that D(w) provides a better overall estimate of dose to RBM and BSC. For example, in cranial spongiosa the average D(m) underestimates the average dose to sensitive tissue by at least 5%, while average D(w) is within approximately 1% of the average dose to sensitive tissue. Thus, it is better to specify D(w) than D(m) in Monte Carlo treatment plans, since D(w) provides a better estimate of dose to sensitive tissue in bone, the only location where the difference is likely to be clinically significant. PMID:20668336

  7. Depth-dose equivalent relationship for cosmic rays at various solar minima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; O'Neill, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCR) pose a serious radiation hazard for long-duration missions. In designing a lunar habitat or a Mars transfer vehicle, the radiation exposure determines the GCR shielding thickness, and hence the weight of spacecraft. Using the spherically symmetric diffusion theory of the solar modulation of GCR, and data on the differential energy spectra of H, He, O, and Fe, from 1965 to 1989, it has been shown that (1) the flux is determined by the diffusion parameter which is a function of the time in the solar cycle, and (2) the fluxes in the 1954 and 1976-1977 solar minima were similar and higher than those in 1965. In this paper, we have extended the spherical solar modulation theory back to 1954. The 1954-1955 GCR flux was nearly the same as that from 1976 to 1977; the 1965 flux values were nearly the same as those in 1986. Using this theory we have obtained the GCR spectra for all the nuclei, and calculated the depth dose as a function of Al thickness. It is shown that the shielding required to stay below 0.5 Sv is 17.5 -3/+8 g/sq cm of Al, and 9 -1.5/+5 g/sq cm to stay below 0.6 Sv. The calculated dose equivalent using the ICRP 60 values for quality factors is about 15 percent higher than that calculated using the ICRP 26 value.

  8. Estimated Depth to Ground Water and Configuration of the Water Table in the Portland, Oregon Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable information on the configuration of the water table in the Portland metropolitan area is needed to address concerns about various water-resource issues, especially with regard to potential effects from stormwater injection systems such as UIC (underground injection control) systems that are either existing or planned. To help address these concerns, this report presents the estimated depth-to-water and water-table elevation maps for the Portland area, along with estimates of the relative uncertainty of the maps and seasonal water-table fluctuations. The method of analysis used to determine the water-table configuration in the Portland area relied on water-level data from shallow wells and surface-water features that are representative of the water table. However, the largest source of available well data is water-level measurements in reports filed by well constructors at the time of new well installation, but these data frequently were not representative of static water-level conditions. Depth-to-water measurements reported in well-construction records generally were shallower than measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the same or nearby wells, although many depth-to-water measurements were substantially deeper than USGS measurements. Magnitudes of differences in depth-to-water measurements reported in well records and those measured by the USGS in the same or nearby wells ranged from -119 to 156 feet with a mean of the absolute value of the differences of 36 feet. One possible cause for the differences is that water levels in many wells reported in well records were not at equilibrium at the time of measurement. As a result, the analysis of the water-table configuration relied on water levels measured during the current study or used in previous USGS investigations in the Portland area. Because of the scarcity of well data in some areas, the locations of select surface-water features including major rivers, streams, lakes, wetlands, and springs representative of where the water table is at land surface were used to augment the analysis. Ground-water and surface-water data were combined for use in interpolation of the water-table configuration. Interpolation of the two representations typically used to define water-table position - depth to the water table below land surface and elevation of the water table above a datum - can produce substantially different results and may represent the end members of a spectrum of possible interpolations largely determined by the quantity of recharge and the hydraulic properties of the aquifer. Datasets of depth-to-water and water-table elevation for the current study were interpolated independently based on kriging as the method of interpolation with parameters determined through the use of semivariograms developed individually for each dataset. Resulting interpolations were then combined to create a single, averaged representation of the water-table configuration. Kriging analysis also was used to develop a map of relative uncertainty associated with the values of the water-table position. Accuracy of the depth-to-water and water-table elevation maps is dependent on various factors and assumptions pertaining to the data, the method of interpolation, and the hydrogeologic conditions of the surficial aquifers in the study area. Although the water-table configuration maps generally are representative of the conditions in the study area, the actual position of the water-table may differ from the estimated position at site-specific locations, and short-term, seasonal, and long-term variations in the differences also can be expected. The relative uncertainty map addresses some but not all possible errors associated with the analysis of the water-table configuration and does not depict all sources of uncertainty. Depth to water greater than 300 feet in the Portland area is limited to parts of the Tualatin Mountains, the foothills of the Cascade Range, and muc

  9. An investigation of the depth dose in the build-up region, and surface dose for a 6-MV therapeutic photon beam: Monte Carlo simulation and measurements

    PubMed Central

    Apipunyasopon, Lukkana; Srisatit, Somyot; Phaisangittisakul, Nakorn

    2013-01-01

    The percentage depth dose in the build-up region and the surface dose for the 6-MV photon beam from a Varian Clinac 23EX medical linear accelerator was investigated for square field sizes of 5 × 5, 10 × 10, 15 × 15 and 20 × 20 cm2using the EGS4nrc Monte Carlo (MC) simulation package. The depth dose was found to change rapidly in the build-up region, and the percentage surface dose increased proportionally with the field size from approximately 10% to 30%. The measurements were also taken using four common detectors: TLD chips, PFD dosimeter, parallel-plate and cylindrical ionization chamber, and compared with MC simulated data, which served as the gold standard in our study. The surface doses obtained from each detector were derived from the extrapolation of the measured depth doses near the surface and were all found to be higher than that of the MC simulation. The lowest and highest over-responses in the surface dose measurement were found with the TLD chip and the CC13 cylindrical ionization chamber, respectively. Increasing the field size increased the percentage surface dose almost linearly in the various dosimeters and also in the MC simulation. Interestingly, the use of the CC13 ionization chamber eliminates the high gradient feature of the depth dose near the surface. The correction factors for the measured surface dose from each dosimeter for square field sizes of between 5 × 5 and 20 × 20 cm2are introduced. PMID:23104898

  10. Relationship between body condition of American alligators and water depth in the Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, Kenneth G.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding opportunities of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in freshwater wetlands in south Florida are closely linked to hydrologic conditions. In the Everglades, seasonally and annually fluctuating surface water levels affect populations of aquatic organisms that alligators consume. Since prey becomes more concentrated when water depth decreases, we hypothesized an inverse relationship between body condition and water depth in the Everglades. On average, condition of adult alligators in the dry season was significantly higher than in the wet season, but this was not the case for juveniles/subadults. The correlation between body condition and measured water depth at capture locations was weak; however, there was a significant negative correlation between the condition and predicted water depth prior to capture for all animals except for spring juveniles/subadults which had a weak positive condition-water depth relationship. Overall, a relatively strong inverse correlation occurred at 10-49 days prior to the capture day, suggesting that current body condition of alligators may depend on feeding opportunities during that period. Fitted regression of body condition on water depth (mean depth of 10 days when condition-water depth correlation was greatest) resulted in a significantly negative slope, except for spring adult females and spring juveniles/subadults for which slopes were not significantly different from zero. Our results imply that water management practices may be critical for alligators in the Everglades since water depth can affect animal condition in a relatively short period of time.

  11. Hydrologic evaluation using two SWAT shallow water table depth algorithms in the south fork watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, a new shallow water table depth (wtd) algorithm (Modified DRAINMOD) that relates drainage volume (vol) to wtd was incorporated into the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a continuous-time physically-based watershed-scale hydrologic model, to improve water table depth fluctuation profi...

  12. Ground Water Depth and Water use by Phreatophyte Communities During Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, J. R.; Cleverly, J. R.; Dahm, C. N.

    2003-12-01

    Demand for limited water resources along the middle Rio Grande of New Mexico has been exacerbated by drought in recent years. Since the last wet year in 1999, river flows have been well below normal and ceased in some reaches. Alluvial ground water elevations have declined steadily. Riparian vegetation consists primarily of native cottonwoods and introduced saltcedar, phreatophytes which are commonly groundwater-dependent. We investigated how drought-induced lowering of local water tables affects riparian water use. Since 1999, we have quantified rates of evapotranspiration (ET) and water table (WT) depths at two sites with relatively deep WTs (> 1.5 m) dominated by saltcedar, and since 2000 at two relatively shallow WT sites (< 1.5 m) dominated by cottonwood. Our results indicate that drought conditions and lowered ground water levels do not influence water use in the shallow WT cottonwood forests but do appear to limit water use in deeper WT saltcedar stands, particularly where seasonal WT fluctuations are large. As facultative phreatophytes, saltcedars are more flexible in their use of water resources. It is unlikely cottonwoods could compete effectively with saltcedars in sites characterized by relatively deep groundwater and dynamic WT hydrographs. Restoration efforts along the middle Rio Grande, such as cottonwood planting, saltcedar thinning, and managed flooding must plan for drought. Restoration will likely be more successful in more stable, shallow WT environments, where cottonwood forests are able to sustain access to water resources during drought.

  13. Comparison of three empirical methods for water depth mapping with case study of Pratas Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ailian; Zhu, Boqin

    2015-08-01

    Statistical methods to map water depth from medium-high resolution multispectral images were easier and more popular than wave spectrum bathymetry or water scattering-based implementation. However, less studies compared the effectiveness of the popular statistical methods for pelagic islands. This study used the Log ratio transform, primary component analysis and independent component analysis methods to retrieve water depth of Pratas Island,using one Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) image. Results showed that the Log ratio transformation was not the best method as the proposer suggested. The first primary component and the second independent component are good predictors for absolute water depth ranging from 0 to 20m, while Log Ratio was more sensitive to water depth ranging from 0 to 5m, IC2 was sensitive to water depth between 5 and 10 m.

  14. A comparison of observed and analytically derived remote sensing penetration depths for turbid water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; Usry, J. W.; Witte, W. G.; Whitlock, C. H.; Guraus, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The depth to which sunlight will penetrate in turbid waters was investigated. The tests were conducted in water with a single scattering albedo range, and over a range of solar elevation angles. Two different techniques were used to determine the depth of light penetration. It showed little change in the depth of sunlight penetration with changing solar elevation angle. A comparison of the penetration depths indicates that the best agreement between the two methods was achieved when the quasisingle scattering relationship was not corrected for solar angle. It is concluded that sunlight penetration is dependent on inherent water properties only.

  15. Determination of the Absorbed Dose Rate to Water for the 18-mm Helmet of a Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Hyun-Tai; Park, Youngho; Hyun, Sangil; Choi, Yongsoo; Kim, Gi Hong; Kim, Dong Gyu; Chun, Kook Jin

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To measure the absorbed dose rate to water of {sup 60}Co gamma rays of a Gamma Knife Model C using water-filled phantoms (WFP). Methods and Materials: Spherical WFP with an equivalent water depth of 5, 7, 8, and 9 cm were constructed. The dose rates at the center of an 18-mm helmet were measured in an 8-cm WFP (WFP-3) and two plastic phantoms. Two independent measurement systems were used: one was calibrated to an air kerma (Set I) and the other was calibrated to the absorbed dose to water (Set II). The dose rates of WFP-3 and the plastic phantoms were converted to dose rates for an 8-cm water depth using the attenuation coefficient and the equivalent water depths. Results: The dose rate measured at the center of WFP-3 using Set II was 2.2% and 1.0% higher than dose rates measured at the center of the two plastic phantoms. The measured effective attenuation coefficient of Gamma Knife photon beam in WFPs was 0.0621 cm{sup -1}. After attenuation correction, the difference between the dose rate at an 8-cm water depth measured in WFP-3 and dose rates in the plastic phantoms was smaller than the uncertainty of the measurements. Conclusions: Systematic errors related to the characteristics of the phantom materials in the dose rate measurement of a Gamma Knife need to be corrected for. Correction of the dose rate using an equivalent water depth and attenuation provided results that were more consistent.

  16. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  17. Evaluation of target dose based on water-equivalent thickness in external beam radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Behnaz Ghanbar; Vahabi-Moghaddam, Masoud; Sadremomtaz, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry was carried out for 152 patients receiving external beam radiotherapy and the treatment sites were divided into two main groups: Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic (120 fields) and Head and Neck (52 fields). Combined entrance and exit dose measurements were performed using LiF: Mg, Cu, P thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). Water-equivalent (effective) thicknesses and target dose were evaluated using dose transmission data. The ratio of measured to expected value for each quantity was considered as an indicator for the accuracy of the parameter. The average ratio of the entrance dose was evaluated as 1.01 ± 0.07. In the diameter measurement, the mean ratio of effective depth divided by the contour depth is 1.00 ± 0.13 that shows a wide distribution which reflects the influence of contour inaccuracies as well as tissue inhomogeneities. At the target level, the mean ratio of measured to the prescribed dose is 1.00 ± 0.07. According to our findings, the difference between effective depth and patient depth has a direct relation to target dose discrepancies. There are some inevitable sources which may cause the difference. Evaluation and application of effective diameter in treatment calculations would lead to a more reliable target dose, especially for fields which involve Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvic. PMID:23532059

  18. Sugarcane Response to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flooding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA) of Florida is often exposed to high water tables and periodic floods. Growers are concerned that elevated water tables for prolonged periods and during certain phases of growth reduce yields. However, these wet conditions help redu...

  19. Water Samples from Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Robert Sanders, with Temple University, is collecting water samples from the CTD. Both Robert and Rebecca Gast, with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, were using the samples to study microorganisms in the Arctic Ocean....

  20. Rainfall exclusion in an eastern Amazonian forest alters soil water movement and depth of water uptake.

    PubMed

    Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Sternberg, Leonel da S L; Moreira, Marcelo Z; Nepstad, Daniel C

    2005-03-01

    Deuterium-labeled water was used to study the effect of the Tapajs Throughfall Exclusion Experiment (TTEE) on soil moisture movement and on depth of water uptake by trees of Coussarea racemosa, Sclerolobium chrysophyllum, and Eschweilera pedicellata. The TTEE simulates an extended dry season in an eastern Amazonian rainforest, a plausible scenario if the El Nio phenomenon changes with climate change. The TTEE excludes 60% of the wet season throughfall from a 1-ha plot (treatment), while the control 1-ha plot receives precipitation year-round. Mean percolation rate of the label peak in the control plot was greater than in the treatment plot during the wet season (0.75 vs. 0.07 m/mo). The rate was similar for both plots during the dry season (ca. 0.15 m/mo), indicative that both plots have similar topsoil structure. Interestingly, the label peak in the control plot during the dry season migrated upward an average distance of 64 cm. We show that water probably moved upward through soil pores-i.e., it did not involve roots (hydraulic lift)-most likely because of a favorable gradient of total (matric + gravitational) potential coupled with sufficient unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Water probably also moved upward in the treatment plot, but was not detectable; the label in this plot did not percolate below 1 m or beyond the depth of plant water uptake. During the dry season, trees in the rainfall exclusion plot, regardless of species, consistently absorbed water significantly deeper, but never below 1.5-2 m, than trees in the control plot, and therefore may represent expected root function of this understory/subcanopy tree community during extended dry periods. PMID:21652421

  1. Sugarcane Responses to Water-Table Depth and Periodic Flood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is routinely exposed to periodic floods and shallow water tables in Florida’s Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). The purpose of this study was to examine the yields and juice quality of four sugarcane cultivars (CP 88-1762, CP 89-2143, CP 89-2376, and CP 96-1252) maintain...

  2. A quantile count model of water depth constraints on Cape Sable seaside sparrows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, B.S.; Dong, Q.

    2008-01-01

    1. A quantile regression model for counts of breeding Cape Sable seaside sparrows Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis (L.) as a function of water depth and previous year abundance was developed based on extensive surveys, 1992-2005, in the Florida Everglades. The quantile count model extends linear quantile regression methods to discrete response variables, providing a flexible alternative to discrete parametric distributional models, e.g. Poisson, negative binomial and their zero-inflated counterparts. 2. Estimates from our multiplicative model demonstrated that negative effects of increasing water depth in breeding habitat on sparrow numbers were dependent on recent occupation history. Upper 10th percentiles of counts (one to three sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth from 0 to 30 cm when sites were not occupied in previous years. However, upper 40th percentiles of counts (one to six sparrows) decreased with increasing water depth for sites occupied in previous years. 3. Greatest decreases (-50% to -83%) in upper quantiles of sparrow counts occurred as water depths increased from 0 to 15 cm when previous year counts were 1, but a small proportion of sites (5-10%) held at least one sparrow even as water depths increased to 20 or 30 cm. 4. A zero-inflated Poisson regression model provided estimates of conditional means that also decreased with increasing water depth but rates of change were lower and decreased with increasing previous year counts compared to the quantile count model. Quantiles computed for the zero-inflated Poisson model enhanced interpretation of this model but had greater lack-of-fit for water depths > 0 cm and previous year counts 1, conditions where the negative effect of water depths were readily apparent and fitted better with the quantile count model.

  3. The depth of feed water influences maximum discharge-pressure of hot water geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    James, Russell

    1988-01-01

    The maximum wellhead pressure at which hot water wells discharge is an important parameter for geothermal power and as it slowly declines with years of exploitation presents a moving target for project designers. It can also decrease rapidly for newly closed-in wells (within days or even hours) to a point at which auto-discharge is impossible and tedious techniques have to be employed to restart flow. The common cause of this phenomenon is reduction in the temperature of the hot water feeding the well; in the former case is the result of a general decline in the reservoir water enthalpy, and in the latter is due to cooler denser water from higher in the uncased part of the well percolating down and flooding the lower more permeable levels from which a discharging well mainly draws its fluids. The inter-relationship of feed water temperature, depth and maximum discharging-pressure is determined in this study with illustrated examples demonstrating application.

  4. Tracking water pathways in steep hillslopes by δ18O depth profiles of soil water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Matthias H.; Alaoui, Abdallah; Kuells, Christoph; Leistert, Hannes; Meusburger, Katrin; Stumpp, Christine; Weiler, Markus; Alewell, Christine

    2014-11-01

    Assessing temporal variations in soil water flow is important, especially at the hillslope scale, to identify mechanisms of runoff and flood generation and pathways for nutrients and pollutants in soils. While surface processes are well considered and parameterized, the assessment of subsurface processes at the hillslope scale is still challenging since measurement of hydrological pathways is connected to high efforts in time, money and personnel work. The latter might not even be possible in alpine environments with harsh winter processes. Soil water stable isotope profiles may offer a time-integrating fingerprint of subsurface water pathways. In this study, we investigated the suitability of soil water stable isotope (δ18O) depth profiles to identify water flow paths along two transects of steep subalpine hillslopes in the Swiss Alps. We applied a one-dimensional advection-dispersion model using δ18O values of precipitation (ranging from -24.7 to -2.9‰) as input data to simulate the δ18O profiles of soil water. The variability of δ18O values with depth within each soil profile and a comparison of the simulated and measured δ18O profiles were used to infer information about subsurface hydrological pathways. The temporal pattern of δ18O in precipitation was found in several profiles, ranging from -14.5 to -4.0‰. This suggests that vertical percolation plays an important role even at slope angles of up to 46°. Lateral subsurface flow and/or mixing of soil water at lower slope angles might occur in deeper soil layers and at sites near a small stream. The difference between several observed and simulated δ18O profiles revealed spatially highly variable infiltration patterns during the snowmelt periods: The δ18O value of snow (-17.7 ± 1.9‰) was absent in several measured δ18O profiles but present in the respective simulated δ18O profiles. This indicated overland flow and/or preferential flow through the soil profile during the melt period. The applied methods proved to be a fast and promising tool to obtain time-integrated information on soil water flow paths at the hillslope scale in steep subalpine slopes.

  5. Multivariate modeling of settling depth of apple fruit (Red Delicious variety) in water.

    PubMed

    Kheiralipour, Kamran; Marzbani, Farshid

    2016-03-01

    Settling depth of apple was determined by a water column and a digital camera. The depth was experimentally modeled using multivariate regression using a coded program in MATLAB software. The best models were based on the density, dropping height volume/mass with coefficient of determination and mean square error of 0.90 and 4.08, respectively. PMID:27004104

  6. DOSE CONTROLLER FOR AGUACLARA WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The expected results include a proven design for a gravity powered dose controller that works for calcium hypochlorite or aluminum sulfate solutions. The dose controller will be coupled with plant flow rate measuring systems that have compatible relationships between flow rate...

  7. Determination of water depth with high-resolution satellite imagery over variable bottom types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, Richard P.; Holderied, Kristine; Sinclair, Mark

    2003-01-01

    A standard algorithm for determining depth in clear water from passive sensors exists; but it requires tuning of five parameters and does not retrieve depths where the bottom has an extremely low albedo. To address these issues, we developed an empirical solution using a ratio of reflectances that has only two tunable parameters and can be applied to low-albedo features. The two algorithms--the standard linear transform and the new ratio transform--were compared through analysis of IKONOS satellite imagery against lidar bathymetry. The coefficients for the ratio algorithm were tuned manually to a few depths from a nautical chart, yet performed as well as the linear algorithm tuned using multiple linear regression against the lidar. Both algorithms compensate for variable bottom type and albedo (sand, pavement, algae, coral) and retrieve bathymetry in water depths of less than 10-15 m. However, the linear transform does not distinguish depths >15 m and is more subject to variability across the studied atolls. The ratio transform can, in clear water, retrieve depths in >25 m of water and shows greater stability between different areas. It also performs slightly better in scattering turbidity than the linear transform. The ratio algorithm is somewhat noisier and cannot always adequately resolve fine morphology (structures smaller than 4-5 pixels) in water depths >15-20 m. In general, the ratio transform is more robust than the linear transform.

  8. Temporal variations in atmospheric water vapor and aerosol optical depth determined by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, D. E.; Mcallum, W. E.; Heidt, M.; Jeske, K.; Lee, J. T.; Demonbrun, D.; Morgan, A.; Potter, J.

    1977-01-01

    By automatically tracking the sun, a four-channel solar radiometer was used to continuously measure optical depth and atmospheric water vapor. The design of this simple autotracking solar radiometer is presented. A technique for calculating the precipitable water from the ratio of a water band to a nearby nonabsorbing band is discussed. Studies of the temporal variability of precipitable water and atmospheric optical depth at 0.610, 0.8730 and 1.04 microns are presented. There was good correlation between the optical depth measured using the autotracker and visibility determined from National Weather Service Station data. However, much more temporal structure was evident in the autotracker data than in the visibility data. Cirrus clouds caused large changes in optical depth over short time periods. They appear to be the largest deleterious atmospheric effect over agricultural areas that are remote from urban pollution sources.

  9. Hydraulic Inversion of River Depth and Discharge from Observations of Surface Currents and Water Surface Elevation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, J.; Holland, K. T.; Calantoni, J.

    2014-12-01

    We developed a finite difference model for deterministic prediction of river depth and discharge from measurements of surface currents, water surface elevation slope and shoreline coordinates. The model is based on the inversion of the Reynolds-averaged depth-averaged steady shallow water equations in streamline curvilinear coordinates and assumes a quadratic bottom drag law with a known spatially-uniform friction coefficient. Iterative techniques are used to invert the discretized algebraic system relating the water depth to local gradients of the depth-averaged velocity and the water surface elevation. Inversion tests with in situ measurements of water surface elevations and surface currents from a 2010 field experiment on the Kootenai River (ID) showed encouraging agreement between the measured and predicted bathymetry. In situ measurements of velocity depth profiles obtained with an acoustic Doppler current profiler are used to relate the measured surface currents to the depth-averaged velocity used in the 2D hydraulic model. The shorelines were extracted from video imagery and the surface currents were estimated from remotely sensed infrared imagery or measured in situ from drifters. The value of the friction coefficient was obtained from previous calibration simulations with a forward hydraulic model that minimized the difference between the predicted and measured velocity and water level on a set of points along the river channel.

  10. Influence of water depth on the sound generated by air-bubble vibration in the water musical instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohuchi, Yoshito; Nakazono, Yoichi

    2014-06-01

    We have developed a water musical instrument that generates sound by the falling of water drops within resonance tubes. The instrument can give people who hear it the healing effect inherent in the sound of water. The sound produced by falling water drops arises from air- bubble vibrations. To investigate the impact of water depth on the air-bubble vibrations, we conducted experiments at varying values of water pressure and nozzle shape. We found that air-bubble vibration frequency does not change at a water depth of 50 mm or greater. Between 35 and 40 mm, however, the frequency decreases. At water depths of 30 mm or below, the air-bubble vibration frequency increases. In our tests, we varied the nozzle diameter from 2 to 4 mm. In addition, we discovered that the time taken for air-bubble vibration to start after the water drops start falling is constant at water depths of 40 mm or greater, but slower at depths below 40 mm.

  11. Percentage depth dose calculation accuracy of model based algorithms in high energy photon small fields through heterogeneous media and comparison with plastic scintillator dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Alagar, Ananda Giri Babu; Kadirampatti Mani, Ganesh; Karunakaran, Kaviarasu

    2016-01-01

    Small fields smaller than 4 × 4 cm2 are used in stereotactic and conformal treatments where heterogeneity is normally present. Since dose calculation accuracy in both small fields and heterogeneity often involves more discrepancy, algorithms used by treatment planning systems (TPS) should be evaluated for achieving better treatment results. This report aims at evaluating accuracy of four model-based algorithms, X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) from Monaco, Superposition (SP) from CMS-Xio, AcurosXB (AXB) and analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) from Eclipse are tested against the measurement. Measurements are done using Exradin W1 plastic scintillator in Solid Water phantom with heterogeneities like air, lung, bone, and aluminum, irradiated with 6 and 15 MV photons of square field size ranging from 1 to 4 cm2. Each heterogeneity is introduced individually at two different depths from depth-of-dose maximum (Dmax), one setup being nearer and another farther from the Dmax. The central axis percentage depth-dose (CADD) curve for each setup is measured separately and compared with the TPS algorithm calculated for the same setup. The percentage normalized root mean squared deviation (%NRMSD) is cal-culated, which represents the whole CADD curve's deviation against the measured. It is found that for air and lung heterogeneity, for both 6 and 15 MV, all algorithms show maximum deviation for field size 1 × 1 cm2 and gradually reduce when field size increases, except for AAA. For aluminum and bone, all algorithms' deviations are less for 15 MV irrespective of setup. In all heterogeneity setups, 1 × 1 cm2 field showed maximum deviation, except in 6MV bone setup. All algorithms in the study, irrespective of energy and field size, when any heterogeneity is nearer to Dmax, the dose deviation is higher compared to the same heterogeneity far from the Dmax. Also, all algorithms show maximum deviation in lower-density materials compared to high-density materials. PMID:26894345

  12. Geospatial Database of Ground-Water Altitude and Depth-to-Ground-Water Data for Utah, 1971-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buto, Susan G.; Jorgensen, Brent E.

    2007-01-01

    A geospatial database of ground-water-level altitude and depth-to-ground-water data for Utah was developed. Water-level contours from selected published reports were converted to digital Geographic Information System format and attributes describing the contours were added. Water-level altitude values were input to an inverse distance weighted interpolator to create a raster of interpolated water-level altitude for each report. The water-level altitude raster was subtracted from digital land-surface altitude data to obtain depth-to-water rasters for each study. Comparison of the interpolated rasters to actual water-level measurements shows that the interpolated water-level altitudes are well correlated with measured water-level altitudes from the same time period. The data can be downloaded and displayed in any Geographic Information System or can be explored by downloading a data package and map from the U.S. Geological Survey.

  13. Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California, showing ground-water subunits and areas, location of wells, and lines of equal depth to water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenbaker, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released to the open file a map showing ground-water subunits and areas, and depth to water for spring 1978, in the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California.

  14. Area representative soil water content estimations from limited measurements at time-stable locations or depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Dongli; Zhang, Wenjuan; Hopmans, Jan W.; Timm, Luis Carlos

    2015-11-01

    To minimize the number of soil water content (SWC) measurements for estimation of field- or watershed-scale soil water storage, we present an analysis of time-stable soil water data across both measurement locations and soil depth intervals. The proposed analysis applies the time stability concept to select area-representative measurement locations, and assesses the potential for identifying the most time-stable depth interval (MTSD) using a minimal number of selected time-stable locations (MTSLs). For that purpose, we used a time series of 21 SWC datasets, measured at 20 locations and 20 corresponding depth intervals down a 3-m soil profile, during a two-year period in the 38-ha study area of the Liudaogou watershed of the China Loess Plateau. After identifying the MTSLs, analysis of time stability of measurement depth intervals showed single soil water depth measurements at between 2 and 5 of the MTSLs were sufficient to determine the area-representative SWC. The MTSD was determined to be about mid-way in the soil profile, irrespective of total soil profile depth measured. Confirmation of the time-stability analyses was done by comparing the representative SWC estimations for the 38-ha sampling area with additional SWC measurements across the 6.9 km2 watershed. The encouraging results of our analysis suggest that time stability analysis may be an effective way to assess large-scale soil water storage in arid and semi-arid regions.

  15. Effective global soil profile depth and water holding capacity inferred from GRACE time-variable gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reager, J. T., II; Lo, M. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil depth and soil water holding capacity are fundamental controls on land surface processes and terrestrial ecology, and are critically important in understanding links between water and climate globally. However, field surveys of soil water below 1-meter are sparse, and sub-surface water storage variability is nearly impossible to monitor over a global domain. NASA's GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission has been observing global terrestrial water storage anomalies at consistent, monthly intervals over a longer than 10-year record, allowing us to measure dynamic soil water storage as a component of that signal. Here, we combine 1-degree scaled GRACE water storage observations with estimates of surface and snow water storage to derive a global, sub-surface water storage anomaly time series with uncertainty. We convolve this result with global maps of soil porosity from the FAO/UNESCO Harmonized Soil Database and a simple model of soil saturation to produce an observation-based estimate of effective soil profile depth with global coverage. Our results show 1-degree global soil storage requirements typically ranging between 2 to 100 cm, for a total terrestrial soil water storage capacity of roughly 15x103 km3. The observed storage indicates effective soil depths between 0.5 and 10 meters, with a global mean value of 1.5 +/- 0.5 meters. Effective soil depths are correlated with land cover type, temperature and precipitation. Comparisons with previous statistical and empirical methods suggest greater capacity and greater depth using the GRACE-based method. This methodology offers a new tool for ongoing monitoring of global soils, and has implications for hydrological fluxes in Earth System models which usually assume a globally uniform soil depth.

  16. Depth Dose Distribution Study within a Phantom Torso after Irradiation with a Simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis; Reitz, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are compounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrapolation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over- or underestimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be predicted to within about a +10% accuracy using space radiation transport models for galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and trapped radiation behind shielding. However for solar particle event (SPE) with steep energy spectra and for extra-vehicular activities on the surface of the moon where only tissue shielding is present, transport models predict that there are large differences in model assumptions in projecting organ doses. Therefore experimental verification of SPE induced organ doses may be crucial for the design of lunar missions. In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field with the phantom torso. Lymphocyte cells are strategically embedded at selected locations at the skin and internal organs and are processed after irradiation to assess the effects of shielding on the yield of chromosome damage. The initial focus of the present experiment is to correlate biological results with physical dosimetry measurements in the phantom torso. Further on, the results of the passive dosimetry within the anthropomorphic phantoms represent the best tool to generate reliable data to benchmark computational radiation transport models in a radiation field of interest. The presentation will give first results of the physical dose distribution, the comparison with GEANT4 computer simulations based on a Voxel model of the phantom, and a comparison with the data from the chromosome aberration study.

  17. GROUND-WATER CONTRIBUTION TO DOSE FROM PAST HANFORD OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive �literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work on the ground-water pathway be limited to tracking ongoing ground-water studies at the Hanford Site.

  18. New shallow water table depth algorithm in SWAT2005: recent modifications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proximity of the shallow water table depth (wtd) to the soil surface impacts agricultural production, farm machine trafficability, and water quality due to agricultural chemical transport and soil salinity. Therefore, it is essential for hydrologic models to accurately simulate wtd. Recently, an...

  19. Long-term variability of the water transparency (Secchi Depth) in the Sea of Azov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokina, V. V.; Kulygin, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    The spatial, seasonal, and interannual variability of the water's transparency (Secchi depth) in the Sea of Azov is studied using the database of long term transparency measurements for the 1922-2009 period and relevant materials on the meteorological, hydrological, and hydrobiological parameters of the environment. We identified four main types of seasonal variability of the water's transparency depending on the local conditions. The mean values of the Secchi depth are calculated for the different periods, which are distinguished by the differences in the relative role of the water transparency factors associated both with the climatic variations and the human activities.

  20. The Unique Chemistry of Eastern Mediterranean Water Masses Selects for Distinct Microbial Communities by Depth

    PubMed Central

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Fortney, Julian L.; Ayers, Kati A.; Joyner, Dominique C.; Linley, Thomas D.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2015-01-01

    The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly affect microbial community structure in the Eastern Mediterranean water column. PMID:25807542

  1. The unique chemistry of Eastern Mediterranean water masses selects for distinct microbial communities by depth.

    PubMed

    Techtmann, Stephen M; Fortney, Julian L; Ayers, Kati A; Joyner, Dominique C; Linley, Thomas D; Pfiffner, Susan M; Hazen, Terry C

    2015-01-01

    The waters of the Eastern Mediterranean are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties within separate water masses occupying different depths. Distinct water masses are present throughout the oceans, which drive thermohaline circulation. These water masses may contain specific microbial assemblages. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of physical and geological phenomena on the microbial community of the Eastern Mediterranean water column. Chemical measurements were combined with phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbial community in the water column at five sites. We demonstrate that the chemistry and microbial community of the water column were stratified into three distinct water masses. The salinity and nutrient concentrations vary between these water masses. Nutrient concentrations increased with depth, and salinity was highest in the intermediate water mass. Our PLFA analysis indicated different lipid classes were abundant in each water mass, suggesting that distinct groups of microbes inhabit these water masses. 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed the presence of distinct microbial communities in each water mass. Taxa involved in autotrophic nitrogen cycling were enriched in the intermediate water mass suggesting that microbes in this water mass may be important to the nitrogen cycle of the Eastern Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean also contains numerous active hydrocarbon seeps. We sampled above the North Alex Mud Volcano, in order to test the effect of these geological features on the microbial community in the adjacent water column. The community in the waters overlaying the mud volcano was distinct from other communities collected at similar depths and was enriched in known hydrocarbon degrading taxa. Our results demonstrate that physical phenomena such stratification as well as geological phenomena such as mud volcanoes strongly affect microbial community structure in the Eastern Mediterranean water column. PMID:25807542

  2. A study on the spectral models for waves in finite water depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, N. E.; Long, S. R.; Hwang, P. A.; Wang, H.; Bliven, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    From an extension of the Wallops Spectrum (Huang et al., 1981) for the deep water waves, spectral models for waves in finite water depths are developed. Stokes wave expansions are found to offer a good approximation for intermediate water depth. The spectral function in this case is controlled by three parameters: the significant slope, the nondimensional depth, and the peak frequency. It is pointed out that solitary and cnoidal wave models must be used for the shallow water waves. The controlling parameters now reduce to the Urell number and the peak frequency. Even though the resulting spectral models place special emphasis on the energy-containing range of the spectrum, they are not limited to this range and they are not limited to any particular sea state. They are seen as offering a possible explanation of the variations in the special slope observed by previous investigators.

  3. ITAR: A modified TAR method to determine depth dose distribution for an ophthalmic device that performs kilovoltage x-ray pencil-beam stereotaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, Justin Chell, Erik; Firpo, Michael; Koruga, Igor

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: New technology has been developed to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using 100 kVp pencil-beams that enter the patient through the radio-resistant sclera with a depth of interest between 1.6 and 2.6 cm. Measurement of reference and relative dose in a kilovoltage x-ray beam with a 0.42 cm diameter field size and a 15 cm source to axis distance (SAD) is a challenge that is not fully addressed in current guidelines to medical physicists. AAPM's TG-61 gives dosimetry recommendations for low and medium energy x-rays, but not all of them are feasible to follow for this modality. Methods: An investigation was conducted to select appropriate equipment for the application. PTW's Type 34013 Soft X-Ray Chamber (Freiburg, Germany) and CIRS's Plastic Water LR (Norfolk, VA) were found to be the best available options. Attenuation curves were measured with minimal scatter contribution and thus called Low Scatter Tissue Air Ratio (LSTAR). A scatter conversion coefficient (C{sub scat}) was derived through Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation using MCNPX (LANL, Los Alamos, NM) to quantify the difference between a traditional TAR curve and the LSTAR curve. A material conversion coefficient (C{sub mat}) was determined through experimentation to evaluate the difference in attenuation properties between water and Plastic Water LR. Validity of performing direct dosimetry measurements with a source to detector distance other than the treatment distance, and therefore a different field size due to a fixed collimator, was explored. A method—Integrated Tissue Air Ratio (ITAR)—has been developed that isolates each of the three main radiological effects (distance from source, attenuation, and scatter) during measurement, and integrates them to determine the dose rate to the macula during treatment. Results: LSTAR curves were determined to be field size independent within the range explored, indicating that direct dosimetry measurements may be performed with a source to detector distance of 20 cm even though the SAD is 15 cm during treatment. C{sub scat} varied from 1.102 to 1.106 within the range of depths of interest. The experimental variance among repeated measurements of C{sub mat} was larger than depth dependence, so C{sub mat} was estimated as1.019 for all depths of interest. Conclusions: Equipment selection, measurement techniques, and formalism for the determination of dose rate to the macula during stereotaxy for AMD have been determined and are strongly recommended by the authors of this paper to be used by clinical medical physicists.

  4. ITAR: A modified TAR method to determine depth dose distribution for an ophthalmic device that performs kilovoltage x-ray pencil-beam stereotaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, Justin Chell, Erik; Firpo, Michael; Koruga, Igor

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: New technology has been developed to treat age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using 100 kVp pencil-beams that enter the patient through the radio-resistant sclera with a depth of interest between 1.6 and 2.6 cm. Measurement of reference and relative dose in a kilovoltage x-ray beam with a 0.42 cm diameter field size and a 15 cm source to axis distance (SAD) is a challenge that is not fully addressed in current guidelines to medical physicists. AAPM's TG-61 gives dosimetry recommendations for low and medium energy x-rays, but not all of them are feasible to follow for this modality. Methods: An investigation was conducted to select appropriate equipment for the application. PTW's Type 34013 Soft X-Ray Chamber (Freiburg, Germany) and CIRS's Plastic Water LR (Norfolk, VA) were found to be the best available options. Attenuation curves were measured with minimal scatter contribution and thus called Low Scatter Tissue Air Ratio (LSTAR). A scatter conversion coefficient (C{sub scat}) was derived through Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation using MCNPX (LANL, Los Alamos, NM) to quantify the difference between a traditional TAR curve and the LSTAR curve. A material conversion coefficient (C{sub mat}) was determined through experimentation to evaluate the difference in attenuation properties between water and Plastic Water LR. Validity of performing direct dosimetry measurements with a source to detector distance other than the treatment distance, and therefore a different field size due to a fixed collimator, was explored. A methodIntegrated Tissue Air Ratio (ITAR)has been developed that isolates each of the three main radiological effects (distance from source, attenuation, and scatter) during measurement, and integrates them to determine the dose rate to the macula during treatment. Results: LSTAR curves were determined to be field size independent within the range explored, indicating that direct dosimetry measurements may be performed with a source to detector distance of 20 cm even though the SAD is 15 cm during treatment. C{sub scat} varied from 1.102 to 1.106 within the range of depths of interest. The experimental variance among repeated measurements of C{sub mat} was larger than depth dependence, so C{sub mat} was estimated as1.019 for all depths of interest. Conclusions: Equipment selection, measurement techniques, and formalism for the determination of dose rate to the macula during stereotaxy for AMD have been determined and are strongly recommended by the authors of this paper to be used by clinical medical physicists.

  5. Estimation of missing water-level data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 2013 update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Conrads, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, a ground-elevation model, and a water-surface elevation model designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with water-level and water-depth information (1991-2013) for the entire freshwater portion of the Greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network in order for the Network to provide quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. In a previous study, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill in missing data to increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model. During this study, those equations were updated because of the addition and removal of water-level gaging stations, the consistent use of water-level data relative to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988, and availability of recent data (March 1, 2006, to September 30, 2011). Up to three linear regression equations were developed for each station by using three different input stations to minimize the occurrences of missing data for an input station. Of the 667 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 223 stations, more than 72 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 97 percent have coefficients of determination greater than 0.70.

  6. Resistance to Water Diffusion in the Stratum Corneum Is Depth-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    van Logtestijn, Mark D. A.; Domínguez-Hüttinger, Elisa; Stamatas, Georgios N.; Tanaka, Reiko J.

    2015-01-01

    The stratum corneum (SC) provides a permeability barrier that limits the inflow and outflow of water. The permeability barrier is continuously and dynamically formed, maintained, and degraded along the depth, from the bottom to the top, of the SC. Naturally, its functioning and structure also change dynamically in a depth-dependent manner. While transepidermal water loss is typically used to assess the function of the SC barrier, it fails to provide any information about the dynamic mechanisms that are responsible for the depth-dependent characteristics of the permeability barrier. This paper aims to quantitatively characterize the depth-dependency of the permeability barrier using in vivo non-invasive measurement data for understanding the underlying mechanisms for barrier formation, maintenance, and degradation. As a framework to combine existing experimental data, we propose a mathematical model of the SC, consisting of multiple compartments, to explicitly address and investigate the depth-dependency of the SC permeability barrier. Using this mathematical model, we derive a measure of the water permeability barrier, i.e. resistance to water diffusion in the SC, from the measurement data on transepidermal water loss and water concentration profiles measured non-invasively by Raman spectroscopy. The derived resistance profiles effectively characterize the depth-dependency of the permeability barrier, with three distinct regions corresponding to formation, maintenance, and degradation of the barrier. Quantitative characterization of the obtained resistance profiles allows us to compare and evaluate the permeability barrier of skin with different morphology and physiology (infants vs adults, different skin sites, before and after application of oils) and elucidates differences in underlying mechanisms of processing barriers. The resistance profiles were further used to predict the spatial-temporal effects of skin treatments by in silico experiments, in terms of spatial-temporal dynamics of percutaneous water penetration. PMID:25671323

  7. Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso after irradiation with a simulated Solar Particle Event at NSRL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Thomas; Matthi, Daniel; Koerner, Christine; George, Kerry; Rhone, Jordan; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Reitz, Guenther

    The adequate knowledge of the radiation environment and the doses incurred during a space mission is essential for estimating an astronaut's health risk. The space radiation environment is complex and variable, and exposures inside the spacecraft and the astronaut's body are com-pounded by the interactions of the primary particles with the atoms of the structural materials and with the body itself. Astronauts' radiation exposures are measured by means of personal dosimetry, but there remains substantial uncertainty associated with the computational extrap-olation of skin dose to organ dose, which can lead to over-or under-estimation of the health risk. Comparisons of models to data showed that the astronaut's Effective dose (E) can be pre-dicted to within about a +10In the research experiment "Depth dose distribution study within a phantom torso" at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL, Brookhaven, USA the large 1972 SPE spectrum was simulated using seven different proton energies from 50 up to 450 MeV. A phantom torso constructed of natural bones and realistic distributions of human tissue equivalent materials, which is comparable to the torso of the MATROSHKA phantom currently on the ISS, was equipped with a comprehensive set of thermoluminescence detectors and human cells. The detectors are applied to assess the depth dose distribution and radiation transport codes (e.g. GEANT4) are used to assess the radiation field and interactions of the radiation field with the phantom torso. Lymphocyte cells are strategically embedded at selected locations at the skin and internal organs and are processed after irradiation to assess the effects of shielding on the yield of chromosome damage. The first focus of the pre-sented experiment is to correlate biological results with physical dosimetry measurements in the phantom torso. Further on the results of the passive dosimetry using the anthropomorphic phantoms represent the best tool to generate reliable to benchmark computational radiation transport models in a radiation field of interest. The presentation will give first results of the physical dose distribution, the comparison with GEANT4 computer simulations, based on a Voxel model of the phantom, and a comparison with the data from the chromosome aberration study. The help and support of Adam Russek and Michael Sivertz of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), Brookhaven, USA during the setup and the irradiation of the phantom are highly appreciated. The Voxel model describing the human phantom used for the GEANT4 simulations was kindly provided by Monika Puchalska (CHALMERS, Gothenburg, Sweden).

  8. The role of depth in regulating water quality and fish assemblages in oxbow lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, Daniel B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Kroger, Robert; Andrews, Caroline S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated water quality and fish assemblages in deep (> 3.0 m; N = 7) and shallow (< 1.5 m; N = 6) floodplain lakes in the intensively cultivated Yazoo River Basin (Mississippi, USA) using indirect gradient multivariate procedures. Shallow lakes displayed wide diel oxygen fluctuations, some reaching hypoxic/anoxic conditions for extended periods of time, high suspended solids, and extreme water temperatures. Conversely, deeper lakes were represented by higher visibility, stable oxygen levels, and cooler water temperatures. Fish assemblages in shallow lakes were dominated by tolerant, small-bodied fishes and those able to breathe atmospheric oxygen. Deeper lakes had a greater representation of predators and other large-bodied fishes. Our evaluation suggests fish assemblages are reflective of oxbow lakes water quality, which is shaped by depth. Understanding the interactions between depth, water quality, and fish assemblages may facilitate development of effective management plans for improving conditions necessary to sustain diverse fish assemblages in agriculturally dominated basins.

  9. Nest survival of American Coots relative to grazing, burning, and water depths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, Jane E.; Buhl, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Water and emergent vegetation are key features influencing nest site selection and success for many marsh-nesting waterbirds. Wetland management practices such as grazing, burning, and water-level manipulations directly affect these features and can influence nest survival. We used model selection and before-after-control-impact approaches to evaluate the effects of water depth and four common land-management practices or treatments, i.e., summer grazing, fall grazing, fall burning, and idle (no active treatment) on nest survival of American coots (Fulica americana) nesting at Grays Lake, a large montane wetland in southeast Idaho. The best model included the variables year × treatment, and quadratic functions of date, water depth, and nest age; height of vegetation at the nest did not improve the best model. However, results from the before-after-control-impact analysis indicate that management practices affected nest success via vegetation and involved interactions of hydrology, residual vegetation, and habitat composition. Nest success in idled fields changed little between pre- and post-treatment periods, whereas nest success declined in fields that were grazed or burned, with the most dramatic declines the year following treatments. The importance of water depth may be amplified in this wetland system because of rapid water-level withdrawal during the nesting season. Water and land-use values for area ranchers, management for nesting waterbirds, and long-term wetland function are important considerations in management of water levels and vegetation.

  10. Application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data for improved production well construction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gossell, M.A.; Nishikawa, T.; Hanson, R.T.; Izbicki, J.A.; Tabidian, M.A.; Bertine, K.

    1999-01-01

    Ground water production wells commonly are designed to maximize well yield and, therefore, may be screened over several water-bearing zones. These water-bearing zones usually are identified, and their hydrogeologic characteristics and water quality are inferred, on the basis of indirect data such as geologic and geophysical logs. Production well designs based on these data may result in wells that are drilled deeper than necessary and are screened through zones having low permeability or poor-quality ground water. In this study, we examined the application of flowmeter logging and depth-dependent water quality samples for the improved design of production wells in a complex hydrogeologic setting. As a demonstration of these techniques, a flowmeter log and depth-dependent water quality data were collected from a long-screened production well within a multilayered coastal aquifer system in the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura County, California. Results showed that the well yields most of its water from four zones that constitute 58% of the screened interval. The importance of these zones to well yield was not readily discernible from indirect geologic or geophysical data. The flowmeter logs and downhole water quality data also show that small quantities of poor-quality water could degrade the overall quality of water from the well. The data obtained from one well can be applied to other proposed wells in the same hydrologic basin. The application of flowmeter and depth-dependent water quality data to well design can reduce installation costs and improve the quantity and quality of water produced from wells in complex multiple-aquifer systems.

  11. Depth profile study of Ti implanted Si at very high doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olea, J.; Pastor, D.; Toledano-Luque, M.; Mrtil, I.; Gonzlez-Daz, G.

    2011-09-01

    A detailed study on the resulting impurity profile in Si samples implanted with high doses of Ti and subsequently annealed by pulsed-laser melting (PLM) is reported. Two different effects are shown to rule the impurity profile redistribution during the annealing. During the melting stage, the thickness of the implanted layer increases while the maximum peak concentration decreases (box-shaped effect). On the contrary, during the solidifying stage, the thickness of the layer decreases and the maximum peak concentration increases (snow-plow effect). Both effects are more pronounced as the energy density of the annealing increases. Moreover, as a direct consequence of the snow-plow effect, part of the impurities is expelled from the sample through the surface.

  12. Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, X. R.; Poenisch, F.; Lii, M.; Sawakuchi, G. O.; Titt, U.; Bues, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Ciangaru, G.; Li, H.; Taylor, M. B.; Suzuki, K.; Mohan, R.; Gillin, M. T.; Sahoo, N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present our method and experience in commissioning dose models in water for spot scanning proton therapy in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The input data required by the TPS included in-air transverse profiles and integral depth doses (IDDs). All input data were obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations that had been validated by measurements. MC-generated IDDs were converted to units of Gy?mm2/MU using the measured IDDs at a depth of 2 cm employing the largest commercially available parallel-plate ionization chamber. The sensitive area of the chamber was insufficient to fully encompass the entire lateral dose deposited at depth by a pencil beam (spot). To correct for the detector size, correction factors as a function of proton energy were defined and determined using MC. The fluence of individual spots was initially modeled as a single Gaussian (SG) function and later as a double Gaussian (DG) function. The DG fluence model was introduced to account for the spot fluence due to contributions of large angle scattering from the devices within the scanning nozzle, especially from the spot profile monitor. To validate the DG fluence model, we compared calculations and measurements, including doses at the center of spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles, and depth doses for different widths of SOBP. Dose models were validated extensively with patient treatment field-specific measurements. Results: We demonstrated that the DG fluence model is necessary for predicting the field size dependence of dose distributions. With this model, the calculated doses at the center of SOBPs as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles and depth doses for rectangular target volumes agreed well with respective measured values. With the DG fluence model for our scanning proton beam line, we successfully treated more than 500 patients from March 2010 through June 2012 with acceptable agreement between TPS calculated and measured dose distributions. However, the current dose model still has limitations in predicting field size dependence of doses at some intermediate depths of proton beams with high energies. Conclusions: We have commissioned a DG fluence model for clinical use. It is demonstrated that the DG fluence model is significantly more accurate than the SG fluence model. However, some deficiencies in modeling the low-dose envelope in the current dose algorithm still exist. Further improvements to the current dose algorithm are needed. The method presented here should be useful for commissioning pencil beam dose algorithms in new versions of TPS in the future. PMID:23556893

  13. Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, X. R.; Poenisch, F.; Lii, M.; Sawakuchi, G. O.; Titt, U.; Bues, M.; Song, X.; Zhang, X.; Li, Y.; Ciangaru, G.; Li, H.; Taylor, M. B.; Suzuki, K.; Mohan, R.; Gillin, M. T.; Sahoo, N.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: To present our method and experience in commissioning dose models in water for spot scanning proton therapy in a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: The input data required by the TPS included in-air transverse profiles and integral depth doses (IDDs). All input data were obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations that had been validated by measurements. MC-generated IDDs were converted to units of Gy mm{sup 2}/MU using the measured IDDs at a depth of 2 cm employing the largest commercially available parallel-plate ionization chamber. The sensitive area of the chamber was insufficient to fully encompass the entire lateral dose deposited at depth by a pencil beam (spot). To correct for the detector size, correction factors as a function of proton energy were defined and determined using MC. The fluence of individual spots was initially modeled as a single Gaussian (SG) function and later as a double Gaussian (DG) function. The DG fluence model was introduced to account for the spot fluence due to contributions of large angle scattering from the devices within the scanning nozzle, especially from the spot profile monitor. To validate the DG fluence model, we compared calculations and measurements, including doses at the center of spread out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles, and depth doses for different widths of SOBP. Dose models were validated extensively with patient treatment field-specific measurements. Results: We demonstrated that the DG fluence model is necessary for predicting the field size dependence of dose distributions. With this model, the calculated doses at the center of SOBPs as a function of nominal field size, range, and SOBP width, lateral dose profiles and depth doses for rectangular target volumes agreed well with respective measured values. With the DG fluence model for our scanning proton beam line, we successfully treated more than 500 patients from March 2010 through June 2012 with acceptable agreement between TPS calculated and measured dose distributions. However, the current dose model still has limitations in predicting field size dependence of doses at some intermediate depths of proton beams with high energies. Conclusions: We have commissioned a DG fluence model for clinical use. It is demonstrated that the DG fluence model is significantly more accurate than the SG fluence model. However, some deficiencies in modeling the low-dose envelope in the current dose algorithm still exist. Further improvements to the current dose algorithm are needed. The method presented here should be useful for commissioning pencil beam dose algorithms in new versions of TPS in the future.

  14. DS86 neutron dose: Monte Carlo analysis for depth profile of 152Eu activity in a large stone sample.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Iwatani, K; Oka, T; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Imanaka, T; Takada, J; Fujita, S; Hasai, H

    1999-06-01

    The depth profile of 152Eu activity induced in a large granite stone pillar by Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons was calculated by a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). The pillar was on the Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 132 m (WSW) from the hypocenter. It was a square column with a horizontal sectional size of 82.5 cm x 82.5 cm and height of 179 cm. Twenty-one cells from the north to south surface at the central height of the column were specified for the calculation and 152Eu activities for each cell were calculated. The incident neutron spectrum was assumed to be the angular fluence data of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). The angular dependence of the spectrum was taken into account by dividing the whole solid angle into twenty-six directions. The calculated depth profile of specific activity did not agree with the measured profile. A discrepancy was found in the absolute values at each depth with a mean multiplication factor of 0.58 and also in the shape of the relative profile. The results indicated that a reassessment of the neutron energy spectrum in DS86 is required for correct dose estimation. PMID:10494148

  15. MCNP simulation of radiation doses distributions in a water phantoms simulating interventional radiology patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenjun; Mah, Eugene; Huda, Walter; Selby, Bayne; Yao, Hai

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dose distributions in water cylinders simulating patients undergoing Interventional Radiological examinations. Method: The irradiation geometry consisted of an x-ray source, dose-area-product chamber, and image intensifier as currently used in Interventional Radiology. Water cylinders of diameters ranging between 17 and 30 cm were used to simulate patients weighing between 20 and 90 kg. X-ray spectra data with peak x-ray tube voltages ranging from 60 to 120 kV were generated using XCOMP3R. Radiation dose distributions inside the water cylinder (Dw) were obtained using MCNP5. The depth dose distribution along the x-ray beam central axis was normalized to free-in-air air kerma (AK) that is incident on the phantom. Scattered radiation within the water cylinders but outside the directly irradiated region was normalized to the dose at the edge of the radiation field. The total absorbed energy to the directly irradiated volume (Ep) and indirectly irradiated volume (Es) were also determined and investigated as a function of x-ray tube voltage and phantom size. Results: At 80 kV, the average Dw/AK near the x-ray entrance point was 1.3. The ratio of Dw near the entrance point to Dw near the exit point increased from ~ 26 for the 17 cm water cylinder to ~ 290 for the 30 cm water cylinder. At 80 kV, the relative dose for a 17 cm water cylinder fell to 0.1% at 49 cm away from the central ray of the x-ray beam. For a 30 cm water cylinder, the relative dose fell to 0.1% at 53 cm away from the central ray of the x-ray beam. At a fixed x-ray tube voltage of 80 kV, increasing the water cylinder diameter from 17 to 30 cm increased the Es/(Ep+Es) ratio by about 50%. At a fixed water cylinder diameter of 24 cm, increasing the tube voltage from 60 kV to 120 kV increased the Es/(Ep+Es) ratio by about 12%. The absorbed energy from scattered radiation was between 20-30% of the total energy absorbed by the water cylinder, and was affected more by patient size than x-ray beam energy. Conclusion: MCNP offers a powerful tool to study the absorption and transmission of x-ray energy in phantoms that can be designed to represent patients undergoing Interventional Radiological procedures. This ability will permit a systematic investigation of the relationship between patient dose and diagnostic image quality, and thereby keep patient doses As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).

  16. Bottom depth and type for shallow waters: Hyperspectral observations from a blimp

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, ZhongPing; Carder, K.; Steward, R.

    1997-08-01

    In a study of a blimp transect over Tampa Bay (Florida), hyperspectral upwelling radiance over the sand and seagrass bottoms was measured. These measurements were converted to hyperspectral remote-sensing reflectances. Using a shallow-water remote-sensing-reflectance model, in-water optical properties, bottom depths and bottom albedos were derived analytically and simultaneously by an optimization procedure. In the process, curvatures of sand and seagrass albedos were used. Also used was a model of absorption spectrum of phytoplankton pigments. The derived bottom depths were compared with bathymetry charts and found to agree well. This study suggests that a low-flying blimp is a useful platform for the study and mapping of coastal water environments. The optical model as well as the data-reduction procedure used are practical for the retrieval of shallow water optical properties.

  17. Growth and Physiological Responses to Water Depths in Carex schmidtii Meinsh.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Liu, Ruiquan; Liu, Zinan; Wang, Xue; Luo, Wenbo; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate growth and physiological responses to water depth in completely submerged condition of a wetland plant Carex schmidtii Meinsh., one of the dominant species in the Longwan Crater Lake wetlands (China). Growth and physiological responses of C. schmidtii were investigated by growing under control (non-submerged) and three submerged conditions (5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm water level). Total biomass was highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm treatment and lowest in the other two submerged treatments. Water depth prominently affected the first-order lateral root to main root mass ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity decreased but malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as water depth increased. The starch contents showed no differences among the various treatments at the end of the experiment. However, soluble sugar contents were highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm and 15 cm treatments and lowest in 25 cm treatment. Our data suggest that submergence depth affected some aspects of growth and physiology of C. schmidtii, which can reduce anoxia damage not only through maintaining the non-elongation strategy in shoot part but also by adjusting biomass allocation to different root orders rather than adjusting root-shoot biomass allocation. PMID:26009895

  18. A unit for collection of dissolved oxygen and water column temperature at multiple depths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2004 field study conducted during actual channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus harvests, and a small-scale research study conducted in 2005, required continuous collection of dissolved oxygen concentration and temperature at two depths in the water column. The on-farm study required data collection...

  19. Growth and Physiological Responses to Water Depths in Carex schmidtii Meinsh

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hong; Liu, Ruiquan; Liu, Zinan; Wang, Xue; Luo, Wenbo; Sheng, Lianxi

    2015-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate growth and physiological responses to water depth in completely submerged condition of a wetland plant Carex schmidtii Meinsh., one of the dominant species in the Longwan Crater Lake wetlands (China). Growth and physiological responses of C. schmidtii were investigated by growing under control (non-submerged) and three submerged conditions (5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm water level). Total biomass was highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm treatment and lowest in the other two submerged treatments. Water depth prominently affected the first-order lateral root to main root mass ratio. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity decreased but malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased as water depth increased. The starch contents showed no differences among the various treatments at the end of the experiment. However, soluble sugar contents were highest in control, intermediate in 5 cm and 15 cm treatments and lowest in 25 cm treatment. Our data suggest that submergence depth affected some aspects of growth and physiology of C. schmidtii, which can reduce anoxia damage not only through maintaining the non-elongation strategy in shoot part but also by adjusting biomass allocation to different root orders rather than adjusting root-shoot biomass allocation. PMID:26009895

  20. DYNAMICS OF A SUBTIDAL SEAGRASS LANDSCAPE: SEASONAL AND ANNUAL CHANGE IN RELATION TO WATER DEPTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spatial heterogeneity of a subtidal marine landscape and the areal extent of both monospecific and mixed patches of seagrass species were studied in Tampa Bay, FL. Specifically, we examined the temporal dynamics of seagrass distribution and its relationship to water depth an...

  1. QUALITY OF WATERS FOUND AT DEPTH WITHIN A LOESS-HILLS AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns about nitrate-N in ground waters of Midwest agricultural watersheds have increased in recent years. We installed a transect of multi-depth piezometers and lysimeters in each of two adjacent first-order watersheds in the loess hills of southwest Iowa, and monitored NO3-N concentrations each ...

  2. Simulation of emergence of winter wheat in response to soil temperature, water potential and planting depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seedling emergence is a critical stage in the establishment of dryland wheat. Soil temperature, soil water potential and planting depth are important factors influencing emergence. These factors have considerable spatio-temporal variation making it difficult to predict the timing and percentage of w...

  3. Incorporation of a new shallow water table depth algorithm into SWAT 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fluctuation of the shallow water table depth (WTD) is important for planning drainage systems at the plot-, field-, and watershed-scale because its proximity to the surface impacts farm machine trafficability, crop development, agricultural chemical transport, soil salinity, and drainage. Theref...

  4. Comparison of shallow water table depth algorithms used in SWAT2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fluctuation of the shallow water table depth (WTD) is important for planning drainage systems at the plot-, field-, and watershed-scale because its proximity to the ground surface impacts farm machine trafficability, crop development, agricultural chemical transport, soil salinity, and drainage....

  5. Attenuation properties and percentage depth dose of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms using computed tomography (CT) and treatment planning system (TPS) at high energy x-ray beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, M. F. Mohd; Abdullah, R.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Hashim, R.; Bauk, S.

    2016-01-01

    A set of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms with dimension of 30 cm x 30 cm was fabricated at target density of 1.0 g/cm3. The mass attenuation coefficient of the phantom was measured using 60Co gamma source. The phantoms were scanned using Computed Tomography (CT) scanner and the percentage depth dose (PDD) of the phantom was calculated using treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray and compared to that in solid water phantoms. The result showed that the mass attenuation coefficient of tannin-based Rhizohora spp. phantoms was near to the value of water with χ2 value of 1.2. The measured PDD also showed good agreement with solid water phantom at both 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray with percentage deviation below 8% at depth beyond the maximum dose, Zmax.

  6. Water uptake and hydraulic redistribution across large woody root systems to 20 m depth.

    PubMed

    Bleby, Timothy M; McElrone, Andrew J; Jackson, Robert B

    2010-12-01

    Deep water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) are important processes in many forests, savannas and shrublands. We investigated HR in a semi-arid woodland above a unique cave system in central Texas to understand how deep root systems facilitate HR. Sap flow was measured in 9 trunks, 47 shallow roots and 12 deep roots of Quercus, Bumelia and Prosopis trees over 12 months. HR was extensive and continuous, involving every tree and 83% of roots, with the total daily volume of HR over a 1 month period estimated to be approximately 22% of daily transpiration. During drought, deep roots at 20 m depth redistributed water to shallow roots (hydraulic lift), while after rain, shallow roots at 0-0.5 m depth redistributed water among other shallow roots (lateral HR). The main driver of HR appeared to be patchy, dry soil near the surface, although water may also have been redistributed to mid-level depths via deeper lateral roots. Deep roots contributed up to five times more water to transpiration and HR than shallow roots during drought but dramatically reduced their contribution after rain. Our results suggest that deep-rooted plants are important drivers of water cycling in dry ecosystems and that HR can significantly influence landscape hydrology. PMID:20716068

  7. Vegetative Propagule Pressure and Water Depth Affect Biomass and Evenness of Submerged Macrophyte Communities

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Li; Wang, Yong-Yang; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Vegetative propagule pressure may affect the establishment and structure of aquatic plant communities that are commonly dominated by plants capable of clonal growth. We experimentally constructed aquatic communities consisting of four submerged macrophytes (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea nuttallii and Myriophyllum spicatum) with three levels of vegetative propagule pressure (4, 8 and 16 shoot fragments for communities in each pot) and two levels of water depth (30 cm and 70 cm). Increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly increased the growth of the submerged macrophyte communities, suggesting that propagule pressure and water depth should be considered when utilizing vegetative propagules to re-establish submerged macrophyte communities in degraded aquatic ecosystems. However, increasing vegetative propagule pressure and decreasing water level significantly decreased evenness of the submerged macrophyte communities because they markedly increased the dominance of H. verticillata and E. nuttallii, but had little impact on that of C. demersum and M. spicatum. Thus, effects of vegetative propagule pressure and water depth are species-specific and increasing vegetative propagule pressure under lower water level can facilitate the establishment success of submerged macrophyte communities. PMID:26560705

  8. SU-E-T-562: Scanned Percent Depth Dose Curve Discrepancy for Photon Beams with Physical Wedge in Place (Varian IX) Using Different Sensitive Volume Ion Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, H; Sarkar, V; Rassiah-Szegedi, P; Huang, Y; Szegedi, M; Huang, L; Salter, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate and report the discrepancy of scanned percent depth dose (PDD) for photon beams with physical wedge in place when using ion chambers with different sensitive volumes. Methods/Materials: PDD curves of open fields and physical wedged fields (15, 30, 45, and 60 degree wedge) were scanned for photon beams (6MV and 10MV, Varian iX) with field size of 5x5 and 10x10 cm using three common scanning chambers with different sensitive volumes - PTW30013 (0.6cm3), PTW23323 (0.1cm3) and Exradin A16 (0.007cm3). The scanning system software used was OmniPro version 6.2, and the scanning water tank was the Scanditronix Wellhoffer RFA 300.The PDD curves from the three chambers were compared. Results: Scanned PDD curves of the same energy beams for open fields were almost identical between three chambers, but the wedged fields showed non-trivial differences. The largest differences were observed between chamber PTW30013 and Exradin A16. The differences increased as physical wedge angle increased. The differences also increased with depth, and were more pronounced for 6MV beam. Similar patterns were shown for both 5x5 and 10x10 cm field sizes. For open fields, all PDD values agreed with each other within 1% at 10cm depth and within 1.62% at 20 cm depth. For wedged fields, the difference of PDD values between PTW30013 and A16 reached 4.09% at 10cm depth, and 5.97% at 20 cm depth for 6MV with 60 degree physical wedge. Conclusion: We observed a significant difference in scanned PDD curves of photon beams with physical wedge in place obtained when using different sensitive volume ion chambers. The PDD curves scanned with the smallest sensitive volume ion chamber showed significant difference from larger chamber results, beyond 10cm depth. We believe this to be caused by varying response to beam hardening by the wedges.

  9. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  10. Oblique wave-free potentials for water waves in constant finite depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Rajdeep; Basu, Uma; Mandal, B. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a method to construct oblique wave-free potentials in the linearised theory of water waves for water with uniform finite depth is presented in a systematic manner. The water has either a free surface or an ice-cover modelled as a thin elastic plate. For the case of free surface, the effect of surface tension may be neglected or taken into account. Here, the wave-free potentials are singular solutions of the modified Helmholtz equation, having singularity at a point in the fluid region and they satisfy the conditions at the upper surface and the bottom of water region and decay rapidly away from the point of singularity. These are useful in obtaining solutions to oblique water wave problems involving bodies with circular cross-sections such as long horizontal cylinders submerged or half-immersed in water of uniform finite depth with a free surface or an ice-cover modelled as a floating elastic plate. Finally, the forms of the upper surface related to the wave-free potentials constructed here are depicted graphically in a number of figures to visualize the wave motion. The results for non-oblique wave-free potentials and the upper surface wave-free potentials are obtained. The wave-free potentials constructed here will be useful in the mathematical study of water wave problems involving infinitely long horizontal cylinders, either half-immersed or completely immersed in water.

  11. Transport of E. coli in a sandy soil as impacted by depth to water table.

    PubMed

    Stall, Christopher; Amoozegar, Aziz; Lindbo, David; Graves, Alexandria; Rashash, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Septic systems are considered a source of groundwater contamination. In the study described in this article, the fate of microbes applied to a sandy loam soil from North Carolina coastal plain as impacted by water table depth was studied. Soil materials were packed to a depth of 65 cm in 17 columns (15-cm diameter), and a water table was established at 30, 45, and 60 cm depths using five replications. Each day, 200 mL of an artificial septic tank effluent inoculated with E. coli were applied to the top of each column, a 100-mL sample was collected at the water table level and analyzed for E. coli, and 100 mL was drained from the bottom to maintain the water table. Two columns were used as control and received 200 mL/day of sterilized effluent. Neither 30 nor 45 cm of unsaturated soil was adequate to attenuate bacterial contamination, while 60 cm of separation appeared to be sufficient. Little bacterial contamination moved with the water table when it was lowered from 30 to 60 cm. PMID:24645419

  12. The Depths of Hydraulic Fracturing and Accompanying Water Use Across the United States.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert B; Lowry, Ella R; Pickle, Amy; Kang, Mary; DiGiulio, Dominic; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2015-08-01

    Reports highlight the safety of hydraulic fracturing for drinking water if it occurs "many hundreds of meters to kilometers underground". To our knowledge, however, no comprehensive analysis of hydraulic fracturing depths exists. Based on fracturing depths and water use for ∼44,000 wells reported between 2010 and 2013, the average fracturing depth across the United States was 8300 ft (∼2500 m). Many wells (6900; 16%) were fractured less than a mile from the surface, and 2600 wells (6%) were fractured above 3000 ft (900 m), particularly in Texas (850 wells), California (720), Arkansas (310), and Wyoming (300). Average water use per well nationally was 2,400,000 gallons (9,200,000 L), led by Arkansas (5,200,000 gallons), Louisiana (5,100,000 gallons), West Virginia (5,000,000 gallons), and Pennsylvania (4,500,000 gallons). Two thousand wells (∼5%) shallower than one mile and 350 wells (∼1%) shallower than 3000 ft were hydraulically fractured with >1 million gallons of water, particularly in Arkansas, New Mexico, Texas, Pennsylvania, and California. Because hydraulic fractures can propagate 2000 ft upward, shallow wells may warrant special safeguards, including a mandatory registry of locations, full chemical disclosure, and, where horizontal drilling is used, predrilling water testing to a radius 1000 ft beyond the greatest lateral extent. PMID:26196164

  13. Optimal design of equivalent water depth truncated mooring system based on baton pattern simulated annealing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huo-ming; Huang, Sai-hua; Guan, Wei-bing

    2014-03-01

    The highest similarity degree of static characteristics including both horizontal and vertical restoring force-displacement characteristics of total mooring system, as well as the tension-displacement characteristics of the representative single mooring line between the truncated and full depth system are obtained by annealing simulation algorithm for hybrid discrete variables (ASFHDV, in short). A "baton" optimization approach is proposed by utilizing ASFHDV. After each baton of optimization, if a few dimensional variables reach the upper or lower limit, the boundary of certain dimensional variables shall be expanded. In consideration of the experimental requirements, the length of the upper mooring line should not be smaller than 8 m, and the diameter of the anchor chain on the bottom should be larger than 0.03 m. A 100000 t turret mooring FPSO in the water depth of 304 m, with the truncated water depth being 76 m, is taken as an example of equivalent water depth truncated mooring system optimal design and calculation, and is performed to obtain the conformation parameters of the truncated mooring system. The numerical results indicate that the present truncated mooring system design is successful and effective.

  14. Changes in late-winter snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in Maine, 1926-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodgkins, G.A.; Dudley, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-three snow-course sites in and near Maine, USA, with records spanning at least 50 years through to 2004 were tested for changes over time in snowpack depth, water equivalent, and density in March and April. Of the 23 sites, 18 had a significant decrease (Mann-Kendall test, p < 0??1) in snowpack depth or a significant increase in snowpack density over time. Data from four sites in the mountains of western Maine-northern New Hampshire with mostly complete records from 1926 to 2004 indicate that average snowpack depths have decreased by about 16% and densities have increased by about 11%. Average snowpack depths and water equivalents in western Maine-northern New Hampshire peaked in the 1950s and 1960s, and densities peaked in the most recent decade. Previous studies in western North America also found a water-equivalent peak in the third quarter of the 20th century. Published in 2006 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  16. Comparison and analysis of capacitive humidity sensors with water vapor inlet holes of different depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyo Sang; Kim, Deok Su; Yang, Hee June; Ryu, Min Soo; Chae, Ji Sung; Chang, Sung Pil

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a capacitive humidity sensor with water vapor inlet holes of different depths. The humidity sensors were composed of a SiO2 insulation layer, a bottom electrode, a polyimide (PI) sensing layer, and a top electrode containing water vapor inlet holes. The sensors were 3.5 mm3.5 mm with a 0.7-?m thick PI-based sensing layer. A humidity sensor with a partially etched PI layer in the water vapor inlet holes had the following characteristics: sensitivity 1500 fF/%RH, hysteresis 0.37%, and a response time of 70 s.

  17. Internal doses to Ukrainian populations using Dnieper River water

    SciTech Connect

    Berkovski, V.; Ratia, G.; Nasvit, O.

    1996-07-01

    The dynamics of internal doses from {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as a consequence of the use of Dnieper River water were calculated. Local peculiarities of municipal tap, irrigation, and fish consumption in the Ukraine were considered. The dynamics of {sup 90}Sr accumulation in human bone as a result of the use of Dnieper water is simulated. The dose predictions are based on de facto data and the stochastic forecast of radionuclide concentrations in Dnieper reservoirs. A large array of statistical data on the age-structures of exposed populations, food consumption rate, agricultural production, fish contamination, and site-specific parameters were used. Exposures are estimated for 12 regions of the Dnieper basin and the Crimea Republic. The maximal individual annual committed effective doses are 1.7 x 10{sup {minus}5} and 2.7 x 10{sup {minus}5} Sv from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, respectively, due to the use of water in 1986 by members of the population in the Kievska region. Commercial fishermen on the Kievska reservoir, who consumed 360 kg y{sup {minus}1} of fish in 1986, received 4.7 x 10{sup {minus}4} and 5 x 10{sup {minus}3} Sv from {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, respectively. The contributions to the collective (over 70 6) effective dose of irrigation, municipal tap water, and fish consumption for members of the general public, respectively, are 18%, 43%,39% in the Kievska region; 8%,25%,67% in the Poltavska region; 50% 50%, 0% (no Dnieper fish consumed) in the Crimea Republic. The predicted contribution of {sup 90}Sr to collective dose resulting from the use of water is 80%. The collective dose to the population of the Dnieper regions (32.5 million people) is 3,000 person-Sv, due to the use of water. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. TOPMODEL simulations of streamflow and depth to water table in Fishing Brook Watershed, New York, 2007-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    TOPMODEL uses a topographic wetness index computed from surface-elevation data to simulate streamflow and subsurface-saturation state, represented by the saturation deficit. Depth to water table was computed from simulated saturation-deficit values using computed soil properties. In the Fishing Brook Watershed, TOPMODEL was calibrated to the natural logarithm of streamflow at the study area outlet and depth to water table at Sixmile Wetland using a combined multiple-objective function. Runoff and depth to water table responded differently to some of the model parameters, and the combined multiple-objective function balanced the goodness-of-fit of the model realizations with respect to these parameters. Results show that TOPMODEL reasonably simulated runoff and depth to water table during the study period. The simulated runoff had a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.738, but the model underpredicted total runoff by 14 percent. Depth to water table computed from simulated saturation-deficit values matched observed water-table depth moderately well; the root mean squared error of absolute depth to water table was 91 millimeters (mm), compared to the mean observed depth to water table of 205 mm. The correlation coefficient for temporal depth-to-water-table fluctuations was 0.624. The variability of the TOPMODEL simulations was assessed using prediction intervals grouped using the combined multiple-objective function. The calibrated TOPMODEL results for the entire study area were applied to several subwatersheds within the study area using computed hydrogeomorphic properties of the subwatersheds.

  19. Direct absorbed dose to water determination based on water calorimetry in scanning proton beam delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, A.; Clasie, B.; Chung, E.; Lu, H. M.; Flanz, J.; Cascio, E.; Engelsman, M.; Paganetti, H.; Seuntjens, J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this manuscript is to describe the direct measurement of absolute absorbed dose to water in a scanned proton radiotherapy beam using a water calorimeter primary standard. Methods: The McGill water calorimeter, which has been validated in photon and electron beams as well as in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy, was used to measure the absorbed dose to water in double scattering and scanning proton irradiations. The measurements were made at the Massachusetts General Hospital proton radiotherapy facility. The correction factors in water calorimetry were numerically calculated and various parameters affecting their magnitude and uncertainty were studied. The absorbed dose to water was compared to that obtained using an Exradin T1 Chamber based on the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. Results: The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on absorbed dose to water amounts to 0.4% and 0.6% in scattered and scanned proton water calorimetry, respectively. This compares to an overall uncertainty of 1.9% for currently accepted IAEA TRS-398 reference absorbed dose measurement protocol. The absorbed dose from water calorimetry agrees with the results from TRS-398 well to within 1-sigma uncertainty. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that a primary absorbed dose standard based on water calorimetry is feasible in scattered and scanned proton beams.

  20. Estimation of Missing Water-Level Data for the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2009-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface elevation models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-2009) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystems Science provides support for EDEN and their goal of providing quality-assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the daily water-surface elevation model, water-level estimation equations were developed to fill missing data. To minimize the occurrences of no estimation of data due to missing data for an input station, a minimum of three linear regression equations were developed for each station using different input stations. Of the 726 water-level estimation equations developed to fill missing data at 239 stations, more than 60 percent of the equations have coefficients of determination greater than 0.90, and 92 percent have an coefficient of determination greater than 0.70.

  1. (Depth-dose curves of the beta reference fields (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2.

    PubMed

    Brunzendorf, Jens

    2012-08-01

    The most common reference fields in beta dosimetry are the ISO 6980 series 1 radiation fields produced by the beta secondary standard BSS2 and its predecessor BSS. These reference fields require sealed beta radiation sources ((147)Pm, (85)Kr or (90)Sr/(90)Y) in combination with a source-specific beam-flattening filter, and are defined only at a given distance from the source. Every radiation sources shipped with the BSS2 is sold with a calibration certificate of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt. The calibration workflow also comprises regular depth-dose measurements. This work publishes complete depth-dose curves of the series 1 sources (147)Pm, (85)Kr and (90)Sr/(90)Y in ICRU tissue up to a depth of 11 mm,when all electrons are stopped. For this purpose, the individual depth-dose curves of all BSS2 sources calibrated so far have been determined, i.e. the complete datasets of all BSS2 beta sources have been re-evaluated. It includes 191 depth-dose curves of 116 different sources comprising more than 2200 data points in total. Appropriate analytical representations of the nuclide-specific depth-dose curves are provided for the first time. PMID:22267274

  2. Depth conversion in rapidly deepening water with application to the Seychelles

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.K.; Binks, R.

    1994-12-31

    Seismic time-maps may be converted to depth by a layer-cake method where each layer above the horizon of interest is given an interval velocity obtained from wells, from velocity analyses, or estimated from lithology. Using constant or laterally varying interval velocities and ignoring vertical changes of velocity within the layers can introduce serious errors: For instance, shallow faults may project downwards causing spurious lineations on deeper maps (Davis, 1990). Such errors can be reduced by using velocity functions for the individual layers. Similar errors that occur due to rapid variations in water-depth may be reduced by allowing the instantaneous velocity in the layer below the seabed to increase with depth. These principles were applied to a structure underlying the Constant Bank, a carbonate shoal in the southern part of the Seychelles Bank.

  3. Arsenic-related water quality with depth and water quality of well-head samples from production wells, Oklahoma, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Carol J.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Greer, James R.; Smith, Kevin A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey well profiler was used to describe arsenic-related water quality with well depth and identify zones yielding water with high arsenic concentrations in two production wells in central and western Oklahoma that yield water from the Permian-aged Garber-Wellington and Rush Springs aquifers, respectively. In addition, well-head samples were collected from 12 production wells yielding water with historically large concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) from the Garber-Wellington aquifer, Rush Springs aquifer, and two minor aquifers: the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer in southern Oklahoma and a Permian-aged undefined aquifer in north-central Oklahoma. Three depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Rush Springs aquifer had similar water-quality characteristics to the well-head sample and did not show any substantial changes with depth. However, slightly larger arsenic concentrations in the two deepest depth-dependent samples indicate the zones yielding noncompliant arsenic concentrations are below the shallowest sampled depth. Five depth-dependent samples from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer showed increases in arsenic concentrations with depth. Well-bore travel-time information and water-quality data from depth-dependent and well-head samples showed that most arsenic contaminated water (about 63 percent) was entering the borehole from perforations adjacent to or below the shroud that overlaid the pump. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10.4 to 124 micrograms per liter in 11 of the 12 production wells sampled at the well head, exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 10 micrograms per liter for drinking water. pH values of the 12 well-head samples ranged from 6.9 to 9. Seven production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer had the largest arsenic concentrations ranging from 18.5 to 124 micrograms per liter. Large arsenic concentrations (10.4-18.5) and near neutral to slightly alkaline pH values (6.9-7.4) were detected in samples from one well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer, three production wells in the Rush Springs aquifer, and one well in an undefined Permian-aged aquifer. All well-head samples were oxic and arsenate was the only species of arsenic in water from 10 of the 12 production wells sampled. Arsenite was measured above the laboratory reporting level in water from a production well in the Garber-Wellington aquifer and was the only arsenic species measured in water from the Arbuckle-Timbered Hills aquifer. Fluoride and uranium were the only trace elements, other than arsenic, that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water in well-head samples collected for the study. Uranium concentrations in four production wells in the Garber-Wellington aquifer ranged from 30.2 to 99 micrograms per liter exceeding the maximum contaminant level of 30 micrograms per liter for drinking water. Water from these four wells also had the largest arsenic concentrations measured in the study ranging from 30 to 124 micrograms

  4. SU-E-T-589: A Comparison of Field Size Dependence of Electron Depth Dose From Different Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M; Zhu, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For accurate dose calculation in electron beam therapy, it is important to know the percentage depth dose (PDD) for each beam. This can vary depending on the machine make and model and the field size. Three different linear accelerators were compared in this study. Methods: PDD data was collected for different output beam energies and different field sizes for three different linear accelerators (Siemens Primus, Varian 2300ix, Varian Truebeam). Data was compared for the same energy with the same field size to see if the PDD differed among manufacturers. Furthermore, PDD was compared for different field sizes of the same machine at the same energy. Results: For the same beam energy and the same field size, the PDD curves were comparable for the three linacs with variations within 13%. PDD curves for different field sizes and beam energies were compared to verify this result. At higher beam energies, the disagreement between PDD curves is more pronounced between different field sizes for all three of the linacs compared. Conclusions: For the same energy and field size, the variation between different machines was within 13%. For the same manufacturer (Varian Clinac 2300ix and Truebeam), the agreement is within 3% with a standard deviation of less than 2.5%. PDD curves for different field sizes for the same energy were also investigated for the three linacs.

  5. Spectral model of depth-integrated water column photosynthesis and its inhibition by ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, John J.; Davis, Richard F.; Huot, Yannick

    2012-03-01

    Depth-integrated models of primary production (DIMs) are used to estimate water column photosynthesis as a function of chlorophyll concentration, irradiance at the surface, the penetration of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), and parameters of the relationship between photosynthesis and PAR. These models are inherently unable to account for variability in the ratio of photosynthetically utilizable radiation (PUR) to PAR with depth and water type, and they cannot account for the inhibition of photosynthesis by ultraviolet radiation, UVR. These important spectral effects all sensitive to climate change are readily described with numerical models that require many computations and are unsuitable for some important applications, including the estimation of aquatic productivity from remote sensing. We present a simple DIM that accounts for the spectral effects of irradiance on photosynthesis, including inhibition by UVR. Water column photosynthesis, normalized to surface chlorophyll and scaled to the maximum rate per unit chlorophyll, is described as a function of four dimensionless derived variables:E*PUR, PUR at the surface scaled to the saturation irradiance for photosynthesis; T*PUR, water transparency, normalized to a depth scale and weighted spectrally for photosynthetic absorption; E*PIR, surface irradiance weighted spectrally for inhibition of photosynthesis; and T*PIR, scaled transparency weighted for photosynthesis-inhibiting radiation. Simple functions of these variables closely approximate (within 6%) the results of a full-spectral numerical model of instantaneous and daily integrated water column photosynthesis with and without UVR for a broad range of water types, solar angles, stratospheric ozone concentrations and biological properties of phytoplankton. The spectral DIM is suitable for examining patterns in global ocean productivity and can be used to assess the biological effects of variations in solar radiation (e.g., ozone depletion) and water clarity in climate-change scenarios for lakes and oceans.

  6. Upscaling of annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in German organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, Michel; Tiemeyer, Brbel; Belting, Susanne; Laggner, Andreas; Leppelt, Thomas; Frahm, Enrico; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    Water table depth is the key parameter controlling the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from organic soils (peatlands and other organic soils). Therefore, a good estimation of the spatial distribution of water table depth is crucial in any upscaling approach for these greenhouse gases (GHGs). It is further the prerequisite to assess the effects of re-wetting measures. There are attempts to obtain maps of water table depth at large scales (e.g. national or continental) by using process-based hydrological model concepts. However, major problem of the process-based approach is the representation of the water management (ditches, tile drains, pumping and weir management), which is at the best known spatially just for the ditch patterns. Thus, this approach is hardly applicable to the diversely-drained and -used organic soils in central Europe. Here, we present an alternative, data-driven approach for upscaling annual mean and dynamics of water table depth in organic soils. Groundwater level data of a unique dataset from about 60 peatlands, 1100 dipwells and around 8000 annual data sets, is the basis of this approach. Time series were used to calculate long-term annual means, average annual amplitudes and ponding durations. In case of continuous observations, shape parameters of the annual frequency distribution of water table depths were calculated. For each well, numerous site characteristics were collected as possible explanatory variables. This collection was restricted to nationally-available data. For each dipwell, land use is taken from official land use maps (German database ATKIS), and the soil type from the national geological map (1:200.000). In case of reliable site information, maps were corrected accordingly. Additionally, from these maps, topological indicators such as the ditch distance and density, the distance to the edge of the peatland and the peatland area within different buffers were calculated. Meteorological data (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and climatic water balance) was extracted from gridded data (1x1 km) from the German Weather Service. Topographic indices were calculated using the national digital elevation model. Further, protection status (nature reserves, Natura2000, etc.) and peatland type was collected for each well. We use two data-driven models (fuzzy-logic and boosted regression trees) to analyze the influence of the site characteristics on the various water table depth target variables (mean, amplitude, etc.). First results using the fuzzy-logic approach show that a land use/vegetation and protection status categorization of the data combined with separate fuzzy models for each category can explain substantial parts of the variance seen in the data set. Variables with strong explaining power were meteorological (summer precipitation and/or climatic water balance) and topological parameters of the ditch network and the peatland body. Uncertainty of the models is evaluated using cross-validation. Models are applied with nationally-available data to generate maps of statistical measures of water table depth for the German organic soils.

  7. Shallow sea-floor reflectance and water depth derived by unmixing multispectral imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Bierwirth, P.N.; Lee, T.J.; Burne, R.V. Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor )

    1993-03-01

    A major problem for mapping shallow water zones by the analysis of remotely sensed data is that contrast effects due to water depth obscure and distort the special nature of the substrate. This paper outlines a new method which unmixes the exponential influence of depth in each pixel by employing a mathematical constraint. This leaves a multispectral residual which represents relative substrate reflectance. Input to the process are the raw multispectral data and water attenuation coefficients derived by the co-analysis of known bathymetry and remotely sensed data. Outputs are substrate-reflectance images corresponding to the input bands and a greyscale depth image. The method has been applied in the analysis of Landsat TM data at Hamelin Pool in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Algorithm derived substrate reflectance images for Landsat TM bands 1, 2, and 3 combined in color represent the optimum enhancement for mapping or classifying substrate types. As a result, this color image successfully delineated features, which were obscured in the raw data, such as the distributions of sea-grasses, microbial mats, and sandy area. 19 refs.

  8. Nematode assemblages from the Kandalaksha Depression (White Sea, 251-288 m water depth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljutin, Dmitry M.; Miljutina, Maria A.; Tchesunov, Alexei V.; Mokievsky, Vadim O.

    2014-03-01

    The shallow-water nematodes of the White Sea are relatively well studied; however, information on the nematode fauna inhabiting the deepest part of this sea is very scarce. The composition of the nematode assemblages (at species and genus level) was studied in samples collected during four sampling occasions in the deepest part of the Kandalaksha Depression (the White Sea) in July 1998, October 1998, May 1999, and November 1999. Samples were collected from a depth of 251-288 m with the aid of a multicorer. In total, 59 nematode morphotypes belonging to 37 genera and 18 families were distinguished. The genera Sabatieria and Filipjeva dominated at all stations, followed by Aponema, Desmoscolex, and Quadricoma. The composition of the dominant genera can be considered typical for this depth range in temperate and Arctic waters, although Filipjeva and Aponema were among the dominant genera for the first time. The most abundant species were Sabatieria ornata, Aponema bathyalis, and Filipjeva filipjevi. In general, diversity of the nematode assemblages was lower than in the temperate and Arctic continental shelf and slope with reduced evenness and species richness. The evenness of nematode assemblages and other diversity indices decreased with increasing sediment depth. Based on the valid species and genera recorded, the nematode fauna of the Kandalaksha Depression showed a higher resemblance to that found in the shallow waters of Kandalaksha Bay.

  9. Elemental Water Impact Test: Phase 3 Plunge Depth of a 36-Inch Aluminum Tank Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft are being designed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. The Elemental Water Impact Test (EWIT) series was undertaken to assess the accuracy of LS-DYNA water impact simulations. Phase 3 featured a composite tank head that was tested at a range of heights to verify the ability to predict structural failure of composites. To support planning for Phase 3, a test series was conducted with an aluminum tank head dropped from heights of 2, 6, 10, and 12 feet to verify that the test article would not impact the bottom of the test pool. This report focuses on the comparisons of the measured plunge depths to LS-DYNA predictions. The results for the tank head model demonstrated the following. 1. LS-DYNA provides accurate predictions for peak accelerations. 2. LS-DYNA consistently under-predicts plunge depth. An allowance of at least 20% should be added to the LS-DYNA predictions. 3. The LS-DYNA predictions for plunge depth are relatively insensitive to the fluid-structure coupling stiffness.

  10. Influence of Water Table Depth on Pore Water Chemistry and Trihalomethane Formation Potential in Peatlands.

    PubMed

    Gough, Rachel; Holliman, Peter J; Fenner, Nathalie; Peacock, Mike; Freeman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Drained peatland catchments are reported to produce more colored, dissolved organic carbon (DOC)-rich water, presenting problems for potable water treatment. The blocking of peatland drainage ditches to restore the water table is increasingly being considered as a strategy to address this deterioration in water quality. However, the effect of ditch blocking on the potential of DOC to form trihalomethanes (THMs) has not been assessed. In this study, the effect of peat rewetting on pore water DOC concentration and characteristics (including THM formation potential [THMFP]) was assessed over 12 months using peat cores collected from two drained peatland sites. The data show little evidence of differences in DOC concentration or characteristics between the different treatments. The absence of any difference in the THMFP of pore water between treatments suggests that, in the short term at least, ditch blocking may not have an effect on the THMFP of waters draining peatland catchments. PMID:26803099

  11. The effect of depth of step on the water performance of a flying-boat hull model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Joe W

    1935-01-01

    NACA model 11-C was tested with four different depths of step to obtain information as to the effect of the depth of step on the water performance. The depths of step were selected to cover the practicable range of depths and in each case the included angle between the forebody and afterbody keels was kept the same 6-1/2 degrees. Small depths of step were found to give lower resistance at speeds below and at the hump speed of the model and greater depths of step lower resistance at high speeds. For low resistance throughout the speed range of the model investigated the most desirable depth of step is from 2.5 to 4.0 percent of the beam. The change of the best trim angle caused by variation of the depth of step was not appreciable. Increased depth of step caused increases in the maximum positive trimming moments at all trim angles investigated.

  12. Modeling relationships between water table depth and peat soil carbon loss in Southeast Asian plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Goodman, Lael K.; May-Tobin, Calen C.

    2015-07-01

    Plantation-associated drainage of Southeast Asian peatlands has accelerated in recent years. Draining exposes the upper peat layer to oxygen, leading to elevated decomposition rates and net soil carbon losses. Empirical studies indicate positive relationships between long-term water table (WT) depth and soil carbon loss rate in peatlands. These correlations potentially enable using WT depth as a proxy for soil carbon losses from peatland plantations. Here, we compile data from published research assessing WT depth and carbon balance in tropical plantations on peat. We model net carbon loss from subsidence studies, as well as soil respiration (heterotrophic and total) from closed chamber studies, as a function of WT depth. WT depth across all 12 studies and 59 sites is 67 ± 20 cm (mean ± standard deviation). Mean WT depth is positively related to net carbon loss, as well as soil respiration rate. Our models explain 45% of net carbon loss variation and 45-63% of soil respiration variation. At a 70 cm WT depth, the subsidence model suggests net carbon loss of 20 tC ha-1 yr-1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 18-22 tC ha-1 yr-1) for plantations drained for >2 yr. Closed chamber-measured total soil respiration at this depth is 20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 17-24 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1) while heterotrophic respiration is 17 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1 (CI 14-20 tC-CO2 ha-1 yr-1), ˜82% of total respiration. While land use is not a significant predictor of soil respiration, WT depths are greater at acacia (75 ± 16 cm) than oil palm (59 ± 15 cm) sample sites. Improved spatio-temporal sampling of the full suite of peat soil carbon fluxes—including fluvial carbon export and organic fertilizer inputs—will clarify multiple mechanisms leading to carbon loss and gain, supporting refined assessments of the global warming potential of peatland drainage.

  13. Testing peatland water-table depth transfer functions using high-resolution hydrological monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Holden, Joseph; Raby, Cassandra L.; Turner, T. Edward; Blundell, Antony; Charman, Dan J.; Menberu, Meseret Walle; Kløve, Bjørn

    2015-07-01

    Transfer functions are now commonly used to reconstruct past environmental variability from palaeoecological data. However, such approaches need to be critically appraised. Testate amoeba-based transfer functions are an established method for the quantitative reconstruction of past water-table variations in peatlands, and have been applied to research questions in palaeoclimatology, peatland ecohydrology and archaeology. We analysed automatically-logged peatland water-table data from dipwells located in England, Wales and Finland and a suite of three year, one year and summer water-table statistics were calculated from each location. Surface moss samples were extracted from beside each dipwell and the testate amoebae community composition was determined. Two published transfer functions were applied to the testate-amoeba data for prediction of water-table depth (England and Europe). Our results show that estimated water-table depths based on the testate amoeba community reflect directional changes, but that they are poor representations of the real mean or median water-table magnitudes for the study sites. We suggest that although testate amoeba-based reconstructions can be used to identify past shifts in peat hydrology, they cannot currently be used to establish precise hydrological baselines such as those needed to inform management and restoration of peatlands. One approach to avoid confusion with contemporary water-table determinations is to use residuals or standardised values for peatland water-table reconstructions. We contend that our test of transfer functions against independent instrumental data sets may be more powerful than relying on statistical testing alone.

  14. Cetacean distribution related with depth and slope in the Mediterranean waters off southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañadas, A.; Sagarminaga, R.; García-Tiscar, S.

    2002-11-01

    The northeastern section of the Alboran Sea is currently under consideration as a Special Area for Conservation under the European Union's Habitat Directive. Within this framework, the present study focuses on the distribution of cetaceans in this area and is part of the Spanish Ministry of the Environment's "Program for the Identification of Areas of Special Interest for the Conservation of Cetaceans in the Spanish Mediterranean". Shipboard visual surveys were conducted in 1992 and from 1995 to 2001 in the north-eastern Alboran Sea, covering 14,409 km. A total of 1,134 sightings of cetaceans were made. From the data collected, the distribution of seven species of odontocete was examined with respect to two physiographic variables, water depth and slope. Analyses of χ2 and fitting of GLMs demonstrated significant differences in distribution for all species, mainly with respect to depth. Kruskal-Wallis tests, factor analysis and discriminant function analysis showed that the species could be classified in two major groups, shallow-waters (short-beaked common dolphin and bottlenose dolphin) and deep-waters (striped dolphin, Risso's dolphin, long-finned pilot whale, sperm whale and beaked whale), respectively. Preferred habitats in terms of water depth were areas deeper than 600 m for the deep-water group, and the shallower ranges from shore to 400 m for the other. The distribution of cetaceans was further matched with that of their most common prey in order to establish which habitats could be considered important for their feeding. The resulting analysis highlighted two areas in the region as important habitats for the conservation of the most vulnerable species in the Mediterranean, the bottlenose and the common dolphin.

  15. Functional traits composition predict macrophytes community productivity along a water depth gradient in a freshwater lake

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

    2014-01-01

    Functional trait composition of plant communities has been proposed as a helpful key for understanding the mechanisms of biodiversity effects on ecosystem functioning. In this study, we applied a step-wise modeling procedure to test the relative effects of taxonomic diversity, functional identity, and functional diversity on macrophytes community productivity along water depth gradient. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrophyte species. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in taxonomic diversity, functional identity (i.e., stem dry mass content, leaf [C] and leaf [N]), and functional diversity (i.e., floating leaf, mean Julian flowering date and rooting depth) with increasing water depth. For the multiple-trait functional diversity (FD) indices, functional richness decreased, while functional divergence increased with water depth gradient. Macrophyte community productivity was strongly determined by functional trait composition within community, but not significantly affected by taxonomic diversity. Community-weighted means (CWM) showed a two times higher explanatory power relative to FD indices in determining variations in community productivity. For nine of sixteen traits, CWM and FD showed significant correlations with community productivity, although the strength and direction of those relations depended on selected trait. Furthermore, functional composition in a community affected productivity through either additive or opposite effects of CWM and FD, depending on the particular traits being considered. Our results suggested both mechanisms of mass ratio and niche complementarity can operate simultaneously on variations in community productivity, and considering both CWM and FD would lead to a more profound understanding of traitsproductivity relationships. PMID:24967072

  16. The effects of burning and sheep-grazing on water table depth and soil water quality in a upland peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Armstrong, A.; Adamson, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    SummaryRotational burning of heather to improve grazing and grouse breeding is a common management practice for upland catchments in the UK. However, the effects of such practices on hydrology and water quality are not well understood because the timescale of burning rotation is typically between 7 and 20 years thus requiring long-term experiments in order to resolve the effects. Furthermore, land management, such as changes in burning or grazing practices, has been proposed as a possible strategy for the remediation of the widespread increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed across the northern hemisphere. This study is based on a long-term experiment on the effect of different rotational burning cycles and grazing intensities on upland vegetation and aims to understand the effects of these management strategies on hydrology and water quality. The main outcomes are: The depth to water table in the soil showed significant differences between different burning rotations and grazing intensities. Depth to water table was greatest on plots where burning did not occur or for longer burning cycles where livestock had been excluded. The pH and conductivity of sampled soil water showed no significant difference between grazing treatments, with the presence of burning being the most important factor (frequency of the burning cycle was not important). The DOC content showed no significant difference between grazing treatments but showed a significant decrease with the presence of burning, though no direct relationship with the depth to water table could be found. Burn management explains only a small proportion of the variance in the composition of the DOC, rather the variation is dominated by the differences between days of sampling and seasonal variation. Therefore, this study suggests that land management controls hydrology and water quality through controlling the development of vegetation.

  17. EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

  18. Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

  19. Determining the depth of a sound source in shallow water against intense background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besedina, T. N.; Kuznetsov, G. N.; Kuz'kin, V. M.; Pereselkov, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a method for estimating the depth of a sound source in a shallow water acoustic waveguide for a weak signal, based on information on the ratio of the amplitude of neighboring modes of the wave field. Results of a numerical experiment using a single receiver and a horizontal linear array in the lowfrequency region are given. We demonstrate the stability of the method to errors in measuring the amplitudes of filtered modes and variations of the waveguide model, as well as high noise immunity. It is established that the error in reconstructing the depth of a source with increasing noise tends to the established value. We give a qualitative and quantitative explanation of the simulation results.

  20. Rooting depth: a key trait connecting water and carbon metabolism of trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Tadeja; Dal Borgo, Anna; Casolo, Valentino; Bressan, Alice; Stenni, Barbara; Zini, Luca; Bertoncin, Paolo; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Drought episodes accompanied by heat waves are thought to be the main cause of increasing rates of tree decline and mortality in several biomes with consequent ecological/economical consequences. Three possible and not mutually exclusive mechanisms have been proposed to be the drivers of this phenomenon: hydraulic failure caused by massive xylem cavitation and leading to strong reduction of root-to-leaf water transport, carbon starvation caused by prolonged stomatal closure and leading to impairment of primary and secondary metabolism, and finally attacks of biotic agents. The different mechanisms have been reported to have different relevance in the different species. We analyzed the seasonal changes of water relations, xylem sap isotopic composition, and concentration of non-structural carbohydrates in four different woody species co-occurring in the same habitat during a summer drought. Analysis of rain and deep soil water isotopic composition were also performed. Different species showed differential access to deep water sources which influences the gas exchanges and the concentration of non structural carbohydrates (NSC) during the dry season. Species with access to deeper water maintained higher NSC content and were also able to better preserve the integrity of the water transport pathway. On the basis of our results, we propose that rooting depth is a key trait connecting water and carbon plant metabolism, thus mediating the likelihood of hydraulic failure vs carbon starvation in trees subjected to global warming.

  1. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock - Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Amstrong, T.R.; Sutphin, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle.

  2. Low-cost water depth, temperature and electrical conductivity (CTD) sensor for spatially distributed groundwater table and surface water measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, D.; Rivera, L.; Campbell, G.; Campbell, C.

    2012-12-01

    Traditional instrumentation suites utilized for spatially distributed, catchment scale hydrological characterization effectively sample aboveground environmental variables and water storage in the vadose zone. However, high space-time resolution quantification of shallow groundwater characteristics, critical to understand both vadose zone and groundwater hydrology, have often been under-sampled due mostly to prohibitive expense. An inexpensive CTD sensor designed specifically for distributed sensing networks was developed to fill this need. The depth measurement is optimized for shallow water, with the high resolution and accuracy necessary for shallow ground and surface water measurements. Temperature and conductivity measurements are also optimized for these scenarios and the sensor consumes very little power and is therefore ideal for wireless data acquisition networks that are common in distributed sensing applications. This new measurement tool provides an opportunity to better understand shallow groundwater and surface water hydrologic processes.

  3. Low-cost water depth, temperature and electrical conductivity (CTD) sensor for spatially distributed groundwater table and surface water measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, D.; Rivera, L.; Teare, B.; Campbell, G.; Campbell, C.

    2012-04-01

    Traditional instrumentation suites utilized for spatially distributed, catchment scale hydrological characterization effectively sample aboveground environmental variables and water storage in the vadose zone. However, spatially distributed measurements of shallow groundwater characteristics, critical to understand both vadose zone and groundwater hydrology, have often been under-sampled due mostly to prohibitive expense. An inexpensive CTD sensor designed specifically for catchment scale distributed sensing networks was developed to specifically fill this need. The depth measurement is optimized for shallow water measurements, with the high resolution and accuracy necessary for shallow ground and surface water measurements. Temperature and conductivity measurements are also optimized for these scenarios and the sensor consumes very little power and is therefore ideal for wireless data acquisition networks that are common in distributed sensing applications. This new measurement tool provides an opportunity to better understand shallow groundwater and surface water hydrologic processes.

  4. A Computer Based File of X-Ray and Electron Beam Central Axis Depth Dose Data for Use in Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, James A.; Harms, William B.; Fivozinsky, Sherman

    1980-01-01

    The central axis absorbed dose data for x-ray and electron beams generated by linear accelerators in the energy range 4 thru 25 MV are being compiled. The compilation includes specific x-ray beam parameters (surface doses, output factors, percent depth doses, tissue-phantom ratios, and wedge factors) as well as electron beam parameters (percent depth doses and output factors). The compilation includes published data sets of these parameters and those obtained directly from over 100 institutions participating in the study. The data are grouped by accelerator model and input into computer files that provide a standard format suitable for intercomparisons. The software used to construct the computer files and to manipulate the data is discussed. Selected examples of the average values of parameters obtained to date with the standard deviations, the coefficients of variation, and the maximum and minimum values will be presented for several different linear accelerator models.

  5. Troll oil pipeline: High precision seabed preparation down to 540 m water depth

    SciTech Connect

    Schuit, P.; Oeverby, S.H.

    1996-12-01

    Oil and Gas Developments are finding their way to increasingly deep waters and complicated seabed topography, for which until recently the feasibility was doubted. Statoil`s Troll Oil pipeline Development Project is a typical example of such a project which is characterized by strong undulating seabed geometries, poor bearing capacities of the subsoil and water depths up to 540 m. By means of gravel supports and stabilization berms, removing soft soils at water depths up to 350 m and installation of concrete lateral supports, the seabed has been prepared to enable the Troll Oil pipeline to be laid without being overstressed and avoiding geotechnical instabilities of the subsoil. These seabed preparatory works were executed by means of the three Fallpipe Vessels operated by A/S Jebsens ACZ. The paper addresses the most recent developments in the execution of high precision seabed preparatory works, called Pre-lay Intervention Works, which are performed prior to laying of the pipeline. Special attention will be given to the required accuracy during construction/execution and possible improvements for future seabed preparatory works.

  6. Effect of Depth of Flooding on the Rice Water Weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus, and Yield of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Tindall, Kelly V.; Bernhardt, John L.; Stout, Michael J.; Beighley, Donn H.

    2013-01-01

    The rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a semi-aquatic pest of rice and is the most destructive insect pest of rice in the United States. Adults oviposit after floods are established, and greenhouse studies have shown that plants exposed to deep floods have more eggs oviposited in leaf sheaths than plants exposed to a shallow flood. Experiments were conducted in three mid-southern states in the USA to determine if the depth of flooding would impact numbers of L. oryzophilus on rice plants under field conditions. Rice was flooded at depths of approximately 5 or 10 cm in Arkansas in 2007 and 2008 and Louisiana in 2008, and at depths between 0–20 cm in Missouri in 2008. Plants were sampled three and four weeks after floods were established in all locations, and also two weeks after flood in Missouri. On all sampling dates in four experiments over two years and at three field sites, fewer L. oryzophilus larvae were collected from rice in shallow-flooded plots than from deep-flooded plots. The number of L. oryzophilus was reduced by as much as 27% in shallow-flooded plots. However, the reduction in insect numbers did not translate to a significant increase in rice yield. We discuss how shallow floods could be used as a component of an integrated pest management program for L. oryzophilus. PMID:23906324

  7. One-hydrophone method of estimating distance and depth of phonating dolphins in shallow water.

    PubMed

    Aubauer, R; Lammers, M O; Au, W W

    2000-05-01

    Previous attempts at localizing cetaceans have generally used multiple hydrophone arrays and multichannel recording systems. In this paper, a low-budget localization technique using only one hydrophone is described. The time delays of the signals traveling via the surface and bottom reflection paths to the hydrophone, relative to the direct signal, are used to calculate the distance and the depth of a phonating animal. Only two additional measures, the depth of the bottom and hydrophone, have to be taken. The method requires relatively shallow waters and a flat bottom surface. Echolocating and burst pulsing Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) at the Waianae coast of Oahu, Hawaii, were localized over different bottom substrates. A tracking range of up to 100 m was achieved. The accuracy of the method is estimated by the total error differential technique. The relative distance estimation error is below 35% and the absolute depth error below 0.7 m, so that the location method is sufficiently precise for examining source levels in our study area. Because of its simplicity, the method ideally complements sound recordings and visual sightings of marine mammals and could lead to a better understanding of the nature and use of click trains by dolphins. PMID:10830396

  8. Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth. [South Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Soil moisture in the 0-cm to 4-cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop in eastern South Dakota. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the soil temperature. Corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. Shallow alluvial aquifers were located with HCMM predawn data. After correcting the data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer. A finite difference code simulating soil moisture and soil temperature shows that soils with different moisture profiles differed in soil temperatures in a well defined functional manner. A significant surface thermal anomaly was found to be associated with shallow water tables.

  9. Enhanced migratory waterfowl distribution modeling by inclusion of depth to water table data.

    PubMed

    Kreakie, Betty J; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H

    2012-01-01

    In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species. PMID:22272288

  10. The influence of water table depth and the free atmospheric state on convective rainfall predisposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Sara; Manoli, Gabriele; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Putti, Mario; Marani, Marco; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2015-04-01

    A mechanistic model for the soil-plant system is coupled to a conventional slab representation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) to explore the role of groundwater table (WT) variations and free atmospheric (FA) states on convective rainfall predisposition (CRP) at a Loblolly pine plantation site situated in the lower coastal plain of North Carolina. Predisposition is quantified using the crossing between modeled lifting condensation level (LCL) and convectively grown ABL depth. The LCL-ABL depth crossing is necessary for air saturation but not sufficient for cloud formation and subsequent convective rainfall occurrence. However, such crossing forms the main template for which all subsequent dynamical processes regulating the formation (or suppression) of convective rainfall operate on. If the feedback between surface fluxes and FA conditions is neglected, a reduction in latent heat flux associated with reduced WT levels is shown to enhance the ABL-LCL crossing probability. When the soil-plant system is fully coupled with ABL dynamics thereby allowing feedback with ABL temperature and humidity, FA states remain the leading control on CRP. However, vegetation water stress plays a role in controlling ABL-LCL crossing when the humidity supply by the FA is within an intermediate range of values. When FA humidity supply is low, cloud formation is suppressed independent of surface latent heat flux. Similarly, when FA moisture supply is high, cloud formation can occur independent of surface latent heat flux. In an intermediate regime of FA moisture supply, the surface latent heat flux controlled by soil water availability can supplement (or suppress) the necessary water vapor leading to reduced LCL and subsequent ABL-LCL crossing. It is shown that this intermediate state corresponds to FA values around the mode in observed humidity lapse rates γw (between -2.5 × 10-6 and -1.5 × 10-6 kg kg-1m-1), suggesting that vegetation water uptake may be controlling CRP at the study site.

  11. Enhanced Migratory Waterfowl Distribution Modeling by Inclusion of Depth to Water Table Data

    PubMed Central

    Kreakie, Betty J.; Fan, Ying; Keitt, Timothy H.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to being used as a tool for ecological understanding, management and conservation of migratory waterfowl rely heavily on distribution models; yet these models have poor accuracy when compared to models of other bird groups. The goal of this study is to offer methods to enhance our ability to accurately model the spatial distributions of six migratory waterfowl species. This goal is accomplished by creating models based on species-specific annual cycles and introducing a depth to water table (DWT) data set. The DWT data set, a wetland proxy, is a simulated long-term measure of the point either at or below the surface where climate and geological/topographic water fluxes balance. For species occurrences, the USGS' banding bird data for six relatively common species was used. Distribution models are constructed using Random Forest and MaxEnt. Random Forest classification of habitat and non-habitat provided a measure of DWT variable importance, which indicated that DWT is as important, and often more important, to model accuracy as temperature, precipitation, elevation, and an alternative wetland measure. MaxEnt models that included DWT in addition to traditional predictor variables had a considerable increase in classification accuracy. Also, MaxEnt models created with DWT often had higher accuracy when compared with models created with an alternative measure of wetland habitat. By comparing maps of predicted probability of occurrence and response curves, it is possible to explore how different species respond to water table depth and how a species responds in different seasons. The results of this analysis also illustrate that, as expected, all waterfowl species are tightly affiliated with shallow water table habitat. However, this study illustrates that the intensity of affiliation is not constant between seasons for a species, nor is it consistent between species. PMID:22272288

  12. A shallow water depth extraction model based on high resolution multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jun; Gu, Dongqi; Yang, Huiliang

    2009-10-01

    Shallow water depth extraction by remote sensing is an important research. Optical remote sensing can provide an alternative means for obtaining bathymetric data in areas where a traditional hydrographic survey may be difficult to obtain. IKONOS imagery can perform an important function in shallow water depth extraction because of its ability to provide data within three unique portions of the visible spectrum as well as a high spatial resolution of roughly four meters. But experiments indicated that, the bathymetric precision of high-resolution imagery is much lower than that of mid-resolution imagery such as TM imagery. In this paper, the affect factors of bathymetric precision of high-resolution imagery are presented. Moreover, on the basis of the conventional multi-band linear regression model , we develop an improved model by introducing a series of techniques including data processing by group averaging, image smooth, piece wise linear regression, data normalization, etc.. The improved model is more reasonable and accurate and suitable for high-resolution imagery. Using this improved mode, the shallow underwater topography of Dong-Sha Islands and nearby sea area is detected by IKONOS image. The results have preferable precision.

  13. Dose specification for ?Ir high dose rate brachytherapy in terms of dose-to-water-in-medium and dose-to-medium-in-medium.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva; Tedgren, sa Carlsson; Reniers, Brigitte; Nilsson, Josef; Persson, Maria; Yoriyaz, Hlio; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Dose calculation in high dose rate brachytherapy with (192)Ir is usually based on the TG-43U1 protocol where all media are considered to be water. Several dose calculation algorithms have been developed that are capable of handling heterogeneities with two possibilities to report dose: dose-to-medium-in-medium (Dm,m) and dose-to-water-in-medium (Dw,m). The relation between Dm,m and Dw,m for (192)Ir is the main goal of this study, in particular the dependence of Dw,m on the dose calculation approach using either large cavity theory (LCT) or small cavity theory (SCT). A head and neck case was selected due to the presence of media with a large range of atomic numbers relevant to tissues and mass densities such as air, soft tissues and bone interfaces. This case was simulated using a Monte Carlo (MC) code to score: Dm,m, Dw,m (LCT), mean photon energy and photon fluence. Dw,m (SCT) was derived from MC simulations using the ratio between the unrestricted collisional stopping power of the actual medium and water. Differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (SCT or LCT) can be negligible (<1%) for some tissues e.g. muscle and significant for other tissues with differences of up to 14% for bone. Using SCT or LCT approaches leads to differences between Dw,m (SCT) and Dw,m (LCT) up to 29% for bone and 36% for teeth. The mean photon energy distribution ranges from 222?keV up to 356?keV. However, results obtained using mean photon energies are not equivalent to the ones obtained using the full, local photon spectrum. This work concludes that it is essential that brachytherapy studies clearly report the dose quantity. It further shows that while differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (SCT) mainly depend on tissue type, differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (LCT) are, in addition, significantly dependent on the local photon energy fluence spectrum which varies with distance to implanted sources. PMID:26009538

  14. Dose specification for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy in terms of dose-to-water-in-medium and dose-to-medium-in-medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiva Fonseca, Gabriel; Carlsson Tedgren, Åsa; Reniers, Brigitte; Nilsson, Josef; Persson, Maria; Yoriyaz, Hélio; Verhaegen, Frank

    2015-06-01

    Dose calculation in high dose rate brachytherapy with 192Ir is usually based on the TG-43U1 protocol where all media are considered to be water. Several dose calculation algorithms have been developed that are capable of handling heterogeneities with two possibilities to report dose: dose-to-medium-in-medium (Dm,m) and dose-to-water-in-medium (Dw,m). The relation between Dm,m and Dw,m for 192Ir is the main goal of this study, in particular the dependence of Dw,m on the dose calculation approach using either large cavity theory (LCT) or small cavity theory (SCT). A head and neck case was selected due to the presence of media with a large range of atomic numbers relevant to tissues and mass densities such as air, soft tissues and bone interfaces. This case was simulated using a Monte Carlo (MC) code to score: Dm,m, Dw,m (LCT), mean photon energy and photon fluence. Dw,m (SCT) was derived from MC simulations using the ratio between the unrestricted collisional stopping power of the actual medium and water. Differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (SCT or LCT) can be negligible (<1%) for some tissues e.g. muscle and significant for other tissues with differences of up to 14% for bone. Using SCT or LCT approaches leads to differences between Dw,m (SCT) and Dw,m (LCT) up to 29% for bone and 36% for teeth. The mean photon energy distribution ranges from 222 keV up to 356 keV. However, results obtained using mean photon energies are not equivalent to the ones obtained using the full, local photon spectrum. This work concludes that it is essential that brachytherapy studies clearly report the dose quantity. It further shows that while differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (SCT) mainly depend on tissue type, differences between Dm,m and Dw,m (LCT) are, in addition, significantly dependent on the local photon energy fluence spectrum which varies with distance to implanted sources.

  15. Lipid composition and molecular interactions change with depth in the avian stratum corneum to regulate cutaneous water loss.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Alex M; Allen, Heather C; Williams, Joseph B

    2015-10-01

    The outermost 10-20?m of the epidermis, the stratum corneum (SC), consists of flat, dead cells embedded in a matrix of intercellular lipids. These lipids regulate cutaneous water loss (CWL), which accounts for over half of total water loss in birds. However, the mechanisms by which lipids are able to regulate CWL and how these mechanisms change with depth in the SC are poorly understood. We used attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to measure lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions as a function of depth in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus Linnaeus) in the winter and summer. We then compared these molecular interactions at each depth with lipid composition at the same depth. We found that in both groups, water content increased with depth in the SC, and likely contributed to greater numbers of gauche defects in lipids in deeper levels of the SC. In winter-caught birds, which had lower rates of CWL than summer-caught birds, water exhibited stronger hydrogen bonding in deeper layers of the SC, and these strong hydrogen bonds were associated with greater amounts of polar lipids such as ceramides and cerebrosides. Based on these data, we propose a model by which polar lipids in deep levels of the SC form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules to increase the viscosity of water and slow the permeation of water through the SC. PMID:26447196

  16. Investigation on optimization design of an equivalent water depth truncated mooring system based on INSGA-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huoming; Gao, Wenjun; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Juan; Zhao, Zhou

    2012-06-01

    At present, equivalent water depth truncated mooring system optimization design is regarded as the priority of hybrid model testing for deep sea platforms, and will replace the full depth system test in the future. Compared with the full depth system, the working depth and span are smaller in the truncated one, and the other characteristics maintain more consistency as well. In this paper, an inner turret moored floating production storage & offloading system (FPSO) which works at a water depth of 320m, was selected to be a research example while the truncated water depth was 80m. Furthermore, an improved non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (INSGA-II) was selected to optimally calculate the equivalent water depth truncated system, considering the stress condition of the total mooring system in both the horizontal and vertical directions, as well as the static characteristic similarity of the representative single mooring line. The results of numerical calculations indicate that the mathematical model is feasible, and the optimization method is fast and effective.

  17. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  18. Sedimentological data indicate greater range of water depths for Costistricklandia lirata in the Southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, J.C. )

    1990-08-01

    Two distinct horizons of the pentamerid brachiopod Costistricklandia lirata occur in the upper part of the Red Mountain Formation (Lower Silurian) in northern Alabama. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic characteristics of the rocks associated with the brachiopods suggest water depths of 15-150 m during times of low rates of terrigenous influx. Costistricklandid assemblages from the lower horizon are composed of extremely large individuals in association with a diverse population of large corals. They are interpreted to have lived in a protected environment. In an overlying horizon, costistricklandids occur in growth position at the base of a thick siliciclastic interval. These brachiopods lived in a storm-dominated environment and were buried in situ by the rapid influx of sediment associated with a passing storm.

  19. The dependence of skin lesions on the depth-dose distribution from beta-irradiation of people in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Barabanova, A; Osanov, D P

    1990-04-01

    A detailed study was made of the conditions of exposure of 56 victims of the Chernobyl accident who suffered radiation lesions in the skin. The most typical conditions were experimentally reconstructed in order to investigate the specific characteristics of the distribution of doses to the skin according to depth for different exposure conditions. The absorbed doses at depths of 7 mg cm-2 and 150 mg cm-2 were calculated on the basis of measurements with multilayer skin dosemeters. The patients were classified into four groups. Dosimetric characteristics for each group were compared with the clinical pictures to establish the critical factors in the occurrence of lesions. It was demonstrated that the depth-dose distribution of beta-radiation to the skin is of great influence not only for the early effects of radiation but also for the later effects. Radiation lesions in the skin led to death if the area of the lesions exceeded about 50% of the total body surface, and if the doses to the skin were about 200-300 Gy at 7 mg cm-2 and more than about 30 Gy at 150 mg cm-2. PMID:1969906

  20. Influence of water vapour and permanent gases on the atmospheric optical depths and transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badescu, V.

    1991-05-01

    The influence of the atmospheric state on the extinction of direct solar radiation has been studied by using a four layer atmospheric model. Simple analytical formulae are established for the spectral optical depths of permanent gases and water vapour. These formulae use the ground level values of air pressure, temperature and relative huniidity. An additional parameter, related to the vertical distribution of the hunmidity content, is used for a better estimation of the water vapour optical depth. Good agreement between theory and measurements is found. The paper shows the dependence of the atmospheric spectral transmittance on the above mentioned parameters. L'influence de l'état atmosphérique sur l'extinction de la radiation solaire directe a été étudiée à l'aide d'un modèle atmosphérique développé antérieurement par l'auteur. Des formules simples ont été établies pour l'épaisseur optique spectrale des gaz et de la vapeur d'eau. Ces formules utilisent les valeurs de la pression atmosphérique, de la température et de l'humidité relative, mesurées au niveau du sol. Un paramètre supplémentaire, lié à la distribution verticale du contenu d'humidité, est utilisé pour calculer l'épaisseur optique due à la vapeur d'eau. La théorie est en bon accord avec les résultats des mesures. Le travail montre la dépendance de la transmittance atmosphérique spectrale en fonction des paramètres spécifiés ci-dessus.

  1. Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, M.; Tiemeyer, B.; Laggner, A.; Leppelt, T.; Frahm, E.; Belting, S.

    2014-09-01

    Fluxes of the three main greenhouse gases (GHG) CO2, CH4 and N2O from peat and other soils with high organic carbon contents are strongly controlled by water table depth. Information about the spatial distribution of water level is thus a crucial input parameter when upscaling GHG emissions to large scales. Here, we investigate the potential of statistical modeling for the regionalization of water levels in organic soils when data covers only a small fraction of the peatlands of the final map. Our study area is Germany. Phreatic water level data from 53 peatlands in Germany were compiled in a new data set comprising 1094 dip wells and 7155 years of data. For each dip well, numerous possible predictor variables were determined using nationally available data sources, which included information about land cover, ditch network, protected areas, topography, peatland characteristics and climatic boundary conditions. We applied boosted regression trees to identify dependencies between predictor variables and dip-well-specific long-term annual mean water level (WL) as well as a transformed form (WLt). The latter was obtained by assuming a hypothetical GHG transfer function and is linearly related to GHG emissions. Our results demonstrate that model calibration on WLt is superior. It increases the explained variance of the water level in the sensitive range for GHG emissions and avoids model bias in subsequent GHG upscaling. The final model explained 45% of WLt variance and was built on nine predictor variables that are based on information about land cover, peatland characteristics, drainage network, topography and climatic boundary conditions. Their individual effects on WLt and the observed parameter interactions provide insight into natural and anthropogenic boundary conditions that control water levels in organic soils. Our study also demonstrates that a large fraction of the observed WLt variance cannot be explained by nationally available predictor variables and that predictors with stronger WLt indication, relying, for example, on detailed water management maps and remote sensing products, are needed to substantially improve model predictive performance.

  2. Primary and secondary particle contributions to the depth dose distribution in a phantom shielded from solar flare and Van Allen protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, R. T.; Claiborne, H. C.; Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Calculations have been made using the nucleon-meson transport code NMTC to estimate the absorbed dose and dose equivalent distributions in astronauts inside space vehicles bombarded by solar flare and Van Allen protons. A spherical shell shield of specific radius and thickness with a 30-cm-diam. tissue ball at the geometric center was used to simulate the spacecraft-astronaut configuration. The absorbed dose and the dose equivalent from primary protons, secondary protons, heavy nuclei, charged pions, muons, photons, and positrons and electrons are given as a function of depth in the tissue phantom. Results are given for solar flare protons with a characteristic rigidity of 100 MV and for Van Allen protons in a 240-nautical-mile circular orbit at 30 degree inclination angle incident on both 20-g/sq cm-thick aluminum and polyethylene spherical shell shields.

  3. [Dose distribution in the depth of the tissue-equivalent ball phantom modeling location of human body critical organs inside the compartments of the International space station].

    PubMed

    Kartsev, I S; Shurshakov, V A; Tolochek, R V; Akatov, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    Goal of the investigation is to study and to analyze radiation dose distribution in cosmonaut's body during long-term mission aboard the International space station (ISS). The established patterns of dose distribution under different conditions of the experiment allow simplify evaluation of dose accumulation by spacecrew. Dose from ionizing space radiation was determined with the help of thermoluminescent dosimeters mounted in conditional depths of critical organs in human body modeled in a dosimetric device, i.e.--a ball-like tissue-equivalent phantom designed and manufactured in Russia for international space experiment Matreshka-R. The article reports experimental data disclosing the character and levels of exposure to ionizing radiation inside the Service module crew quarters during ISS missions 8 and 9 (425 days, 2004-2005) and the docking compartment (SO1) during ISS missions 15 and 16 (285 days, 2007-2008). PMID:20120916

  4. [Effect of a metal implant on the depth-dose curve for 6-20 MeV electron radiation].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M; Gerlach, R

    1988-03-01

    The use of compression plates for osseous fixation in the inferior maxilla causes some problems for radiation therapy. The retrodiffusion of electrons from the metal implant induces an increased dose at the surface and especially at the metal border. A dose increase up to 40% is demonstrated for the central ray by means of thermoluminescent dosimetry. A dose decrease of up to 90% is measured for 6 MeV behind the inhomogeneity. PMID:3127907

  5. Absorbed dose to water reference dosimetry using solid phantoms in the context of absorbed-dose protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Seuntjens, Jan; Olivares, Marina; Evans, Michael; Podgorsak, Ervin

    2005-09-15

    For reasons of phantom material reproducibility, the absorbed dose protocols of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) (TG-51) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (TRS-398) have made the use of liquid water as a phantom material for reference dosimetry mandatory. In this work we provide a formal framework for the measurement of absorbed dose to water using ionization chambers calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water but irradiated in solid phantoms. Such a framework is useful when there is a desire to put dose measurements using solid phantoms on an absolute basis. Putting solid phantom measurements on an absolute basis has distinct advantages in verification measurements and quality assurance. We introduce a phantom dose conversion factor that converts a measurement made in a solid phantom and analyzed using an absorbed dose calibration protocol into absorbed dose to water under reference conditions. We provide techniques to measure and calculate the dose transfer from solid phantom to water. For an Exradin A12 ionization chamber, we measured and calculated the phantom dose conversion factor for six Solid Water{sup TM} phantoms and for a single Lucite phantom for photon energies between {sup 60}Co and 18 MV photons. For Solid Water{sup TM} of certified grade, the difference between measured and calculated factors varied between 0.0% and 0.7% with the average dose conversion factor being low by 0.4% compared with the calculation whereas for Lucite, the agreement was within 0.2% for the one phantom examined. The composition of commercial plastic phantoms and their homogeneity may not always be reproducible and consistent with assumed composition. By comparing measured and calculated phantom conversion factors, our work provides methods to verify the consistency of a given plastic for the purpose of clinical reference dosimetry.

  6. Gravity and geoid anomalies of the Philippine Sea: Evidence on the depth of compensation for the negative residual water depth anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C.

    1982-01-01

    A negative free-air gravity anomaly which occurs in the central part of the Philippine Sea was examined to determine the distribution and nature of possible regional mass excesses or deficiencies. Geoid anomalies from GEOS-3 observation were positive. A negative residual geoid anomaly consistent with the area of negative free-air gravity anomalies were found. Theoretical gravity-topography and geoid-topography admittance functions indicated that high density mantle at about 60 km dept could account for the magnitudes of the gravity and residual geoid anomaly and the 1 km residual water depth anomaly in the Philippine Sea. The negative residual depth anomaly may be compensated for by excess density in the uppermost mantle, but the residual geoid and regional free-air gravity anomalies and a slow surface wave velocity structure might result from low-density warm upper mantle material lying beneath the zone of high-density uppermost mantle. From a horizontal disk approximation, the depth of the low-density warm mantle was estimated to be on the order of 200 km.

  7. Conversion from dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Rossomme, S; Palmans, H; Shipley, D; Thomas, R; Lee, N; Romano, F; Cirrone, P; Cuttone, G; Bertrand, D; Vynckier, S

    2013-08-21

    Based on experiments and numerical simulations, a study is carried out pertaining to the conversion of dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water in a carbon ion beam. This conversion is needed to establish graphite calorimeters as primary standards of absorbed dose in these beams. It is governed by the water-to-graphite mass collision stopping power ratio and fluence correction factors, which depend on the particle fluence distributions in each of the two media. The paper focuses on the experimental and numerical determination of this fluence correction factor for an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam. Measurements have been performed in the nuclear physics laboratory INFN-LNS in Catania (Sicily, Italy). The numerical simulations have been made with a Geant4 Monte Carlo code through the GATE simulation platform. The experimental data are in good agreement with the simulated results for the fluence correction factors and are found to be close to unity. The experimental values increase with depth reaching 1.010 before the Bragg peak region. They have been determined with an uncertainty of 0.25%. Different numerical results are obtained depending on the level of approximation made in calculating the fluence correction factors. When considering carbon ions only, the difference between measured and calculated values is maximal just before the Bragg peak, but its value is less than 1.005. The numerical value is close to unity at the surface and increases to 1.005 near the Bragg peak. When the fluence of all charged particles is considered, the fluence correction factors are lower than unity at the surface and increase with depth up to 1.025 before the Bragg peak. Besides carbon ions, secondary particles created due to nuclear interactions have to be included in the analysis: boron ions ((10)B and (11)B), beryllium ions ((7)Be), alpha particles and protons. At the conclusion of this work, we have the conversion of dose-to-graphite to dose-to-water to apply to the response of a graphite calorimeter in an 80 MeV/A carbon ion beam. This conversion consists of the product of two contributions: the water-to-graphite electronic mass collision stopping power ratio, which is equal to 1.115, and the fluence correction factor which varies linearly with depth, as k(fl, all) = 0.9995 + 0.0048(zw-eq). The latter has been determined on the basis of experiments and numerical simulations. PMID:23877166

  8. Predictive models of turbidity and water depth in the Doana marshes using Landsat TM and ETM+ images.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Javier; Pacios, Fernando; Daz-Delgado, Ricardo; Aragons, David

    2009-05-01

    We have used Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ images together with simultaneous ground-truth data at sample points in the Doana marshes to predict water turbidity and depth from band reflectance using Generalized Additive Models. We have point samples for 12 different dates simultaneous with 7 Landsat-5 and 5 Landsat-7 overpasses. The best model for water turbidity in the marsh explained 38% of variance in ground-truth data and included as predictors band 3 (630-690 nm), band 5 (1550-1750 nm) and the ratio between bands 1 (450-520 nm) and 4 (760-900 nm). Water turbidity is easier to predict for water bodies like the Guadalquivir River and artificial ponds that are deep and not affected by bottom soil reflectance and aquatic vegetation. For the latter, a simple model using band 3 reflectance explains 78.6% of the variance. Water depth is easier to predict than turbidity. The best model for water depth in the marsh explains 78% of the variance and includes as predictors band 1, band 5, the ratio between band 2 (520-600 nm) and band 4, and bottom soil reflectance in band 4 in September, when the marsh is dry. The water turbidity and water depth models have been developed in order to reconstruct historical changes in Doana wetlands during the last 30 years using the Landsat satellite images time series. PMID:18395320

  9. An estimate of the influence of sediment concentration and type on remote sensing penetration depth for various coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    Under the assumptions of collimated light, a homogenous water column, zero molecular scattering, and constant ratio of volume scattering function to scattering coefficient, estimates of the remote sensing depth parameter, Z90, are made for various coastal waters at 540 nm. Calculations indicate that sediment concentration and type have a strong influence on remote sensing depth when concentrations are below 5 mg/theta. Above 5 mg/theta, the absorption coefficient of the sediments becomes large in comparison to that of water, causing Z90 values to be less than 2 m with only small differences between various sediment types.

  10. Understanding patterns in global water table depth: the enormous data challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Li, H.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2013-12-01

    The depth to groundwater can tell us much about where societies and land ecosystems can potentially depend on this water resource, but to have a coherent picture of this variable in space and time requires real data support. Here we outline the key roles that groundwater plays in land surface processes, and present some rudimentary effort in compiling observations and building simple models, the latter as a case study to expose the vast deficiency in data and the need for community-level, and international coordination. Key challenges include the establishment of a global network of groundwater time series for syntheses and analyses of patterns and trends (e.g., the Pan-Africa effort led by Richard Taylor), and a global database of upper crustal porosity and permeability for supporting model simulations (e.g., MacroStrat led by Shanan Peters and the new Digital Crust initiative at NSF-USGS Powell Synthesis Center). Real steps must be taken to build these community data infrastructure if we are to understand the functions of groundwater in shaping terrestrial water fluxes.

  11. Geochemistry of the Deep Water Bamboo Coral Isidella; Intermediate Depth and Surface Ocean Chemical Recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spero, H. J.; Jang, N. A.; Adkins, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Geochemical analyses of deep water corals have provided a wealth of data on past ocean circulation and chemical changes. Information obtained from these carbonate precipitating organisms generally reflects ambient conditions at the depth of growth. The bamboo coral, Isidella sp., belongs to a group of deep water Octocorals that live at intermediate ocean depths ( 200-1500m) and produce a calcite skeleton that is divided by proteinaceous gorgonin internodes. Because, the calcite and organic regions of the skeleton are precipitated simultaneously, their chemistries are temporally coupled. Stable isotope, radiocarbon and 210Pb data were obtained from several specimens of Isidella sp. that were collected in fishing dredges from the outer continental shelf near Pt. Reyes, CA (38 N 123.4 W 220 m). 210Pb analyses on one of the specimens suggests the coral was ~15-80 years old. ? 13C and ? 18O data from the calcite skeleton display the typical nonequilibrium covariation that has been described previously, thereby limiting the use of these data in reconstructing environmental temperatures. Although ? 13C analyses of the organic internodes produced typical marine values of -16.9+/-0.1 (n=17), ? 15N values were unusually high, 13.8+/-0.4 . Because the internode geochemistry records the organic chemistry of sinking particulate matter ingested by the coral, the enriched ? 15N data reflect the chemistry of local upwelled NO3 that was strongly influenced by subsurface denitrification. AMS analyses of the center and outer edge of the skeleton (branch diameter = 2.2 cm) and adjacent organic internodes (growth proceeds from center outwards) yield 14C ages of 2065 and 2000+/-35 years for the calcite (? 14C = -226.4 and -220.3 ) and 785 and 765+/-35 years for the organic node (? 14C = -93.1 and -90.7 ) respectively. The calcite AMS ages record the 14C reservoir age of upper N. Pacific thermocline waters whereas the organic data record the surface ocean reservoir age during the corals growth. The reservoir age difference is 1250 years. Comparison of these ages with data from a mussel collected along the Pt. Reyes coast in 1913 (14C age = 710 years; M. Solomon unpub. data) suggest our coral specimen died is 80 years ago in agreement with the 210Pb data. These results demonstrate that the bamboo corals are a valuable archive of intermediate and surface ocean chemistry and could prove invaluable for reconstructing combined near surface circulation and intermediate ocean chemistry changes in the past.

  12. Evaluation of CALIOP 532-nm Aerosol Optical Depth Over Opaque Water Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Z.; Winker, D.; Omar, A.; Vaughan, M.; Kar, J.; Trepte, C.; Hu, Y.; Schuster, G.

    2015-01-01

    With its height-resolved measurements and near global coverage, the CALIOP lidar onboard the CALIPSO satellite offers a new capability for aerosol retrievals in cloudy skies. Validation of these retrievals is difficult, however, as independent, collocated and co-temporal data sets are generally not available. In this paper, we evaluate CALIOP aerosol products above opaque water clouds by applying multiple retrieval techniques to CALIOP Level 1 profile data and comparing the results. This approach allows us to both characterize the accuracy of the CALIOP above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD) and develop an error budget that quantifies the relative contributions of different error sources. We focus on two spatial domains: the African dust transport pathway over the tropical North Atlantic and the African smoke transport pathway over the southeastern Atlantic. Six years of CALIOP observations (2007-2012) from the northern hemisphere summer and early fall are analyzed. The analysis is limited to cases where aerosol layers are located above opaque water clouds so that a constrained retrieval technique can be used to directly retrieve 532 nm aerosol optical depth and lidar ratio. For the moderately dense Sahara dust layers detected in the CALIOP data used in this study, the mean/median values of the lidar ratios derived from a constrained opaque water cloud (OWC) technique are 45.1/44.4 +/- 8.8 sr, which are somewhat larger than the value of 40 +/- 20 sr used in the CALIOP Level 2 (L2) data products. Comparisons of CALIOP L2 AOD with the OWC-retrieved AOD reveal that for nighttime conditions the L2 AOD in the dust region is underestimated on average by approx. 26% (0.183 vs. 0.247). Examination of the error sources indicates that errors in the L2 dust AOD are primarily due to using a lidar ratio that is somewhat too small. The mean/median lidar ratio retrieved for smoke is 70.8/70.4 +/- 16.2 sr, which is consistent with the modeled value of 70 +/- 28 sr used in the CALIOP L2 retrieval. Smoke AOD is found to be underestimated, on average, by approx. 39% (0.191 vs. 0.311). The primary cause of AOD differences in the smoke transport region is the tendency of the CALIOP layer detection scheme to prematurely assign layer base altitudes and thus underestimate the geometric thickness of smoke layers.

  13. Waveguide invariant active sonar target detection and depth classification in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldhahn, Ryan A.

    Reverberation and clutter are two of the principle obstacles to active sonar target detection in shallow water. Diffuse seabed backscatter can obscure low energy target returns, while clutter discretes, specific features of the sea floor, produce temporally compact returns which may be mistaken for targets of interest. Detecting weak targets in the presence of reverberation and discriminating water column targets from bottom clutter are thus critical to good performance in active sonar. Both problems are addressed in this thesis using the time-frequency interference pattern described by a constant known as the waveguide invariant which summarizes in a scalar parameter the dispersive properties of the ocean environment. Conventional active sonar detection involves constant false alarm rate (CFAR) normalization of the reverberation return which does not account for the frequency-selective fading in a wideband pulse caused by multipath propagation. An alternative to conventional reverberation estimation is presented, motivated by striations observed in time-frequency analysis of active sonar data. A mathematical model for these reverberation striations is derived using waveguide invariant theory. This model is then used to motivate waveguide invariant reverberation estimation which involves averaging the time-frequency spectrum along these striations. An evaluation of this reverberation estimate using real Mediterranean data is given and its use in a generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) based CFAR detector is demonstrated. CFAR detection using waveguide invariant reverberation estimates is shown to out-perform conventional cell-averaged and frequency-invariant CFAR detection methods in shallow water environments producing strong reverberation returns which exhibit the described striations. Results are presented on simulated and real Mediterranean data from the SCARAB98 experiment. The ability to discriminate between water column targets and clutter discretes is vital to maintaining low false alarm rates in active sonar. Moreover, because of the non-stationarity of the active sonar return, classification is most typically achieved using a single snapshot of test data. As an aid to classification, the waveguide invariant property is used to derive multiple snapshots by uniformly sub-sampling the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) coefficients of a single ping of wideband active sonar data. The sub-sampled target snapshots are used to define a waveguide-invariant spectral density matrix (WI-SDM) which allows the application of adaptive matched-filtering based approaches for target depth classification. Depth classification is performed by a waveguide-invariant minimum variance filter (WI-MVF) which matches the observed WI-SDM to depth-dependent signal replica vectors generated from a normal mode model. Robustness to environmental mismatch is achieved by adding environmental perturbation constraints (EPC) and averaging the signal replica vectors over the unknown channel parameters. Simulation and real data results from the SCARAB98, CLUTTER07, and CLUTTER09 experiments in the Mediterranean Sea are presented to illustrate the approach.

  14. The lethal effects of Fermilab fast neutrons vary with the depth of cells in a water phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.K.; Ten Haken, R.K.; Awschalom, M. )

    1991-06-01

    Using V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cells grown in culture we have examined the lethal effects of fast neutrons from the Fermilab therapy facility as a function of depth in a water phantom. Exposures and dosimetry were performed from 3 to 24 cm deep in the phantom along the central axis of the neutron beam, using various collimator configurations. The results indicate that the relative biological effect (RBE), using 60Co gamma rays as the standard radiation, varies with depth in the neutron beam. Starting from d-max (approx. 3 cm), the RBE appears to decrease continuously with depth. At 24 cm deep, the relative effectiveness is 10-15% lower than at 3 cm deep. There appears to be no systematic variation of relative effectiveness with shape or size of collimator. If a hydrogenous filter is added before the beam passes into the water phantom, the variation with depth is greatly reduced.

  15. Specification of absorbed dose to water using model-based dose calculation algorithms for treatment planning in brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson Tedgren, sa; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun

    2013-04-01

    Model-based dose calculation algorithms (MBDCAs), recently introduced in treatment planning systems (TPS) for brachytherapy, calculate tissue absorbed doses. In the TPS framework, doses have hereto been reported as dose to water and water may still be preferred as a dose specification medium. Dose to tissue medium Dmed then needs to be converted into dose to water in tissue Dw,med. Methods to calculate absorbed dose to differently sized water compartments/cavities inside tissue, infinitesimal (used for definition of absorbed dose), small, large or intermediate, are reviewed. Burlin theory is applied to estimate photon energies at which cavity sizes in the range 1 nm-10 mm can be considered small or large. Photon and electron energy spectra are calculated at 1 cm distance from the central axis in cylindrical phantoms of bone, muscle and adipose tissue for 20, 50, 300 keV photons and photons from 125I, 169Yb and 192Ir sources; ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers and mass energy absorption coefficients are calculated as applicable to convert Dmed into Dw,med for small and large cavities. Results show that 1-10 nm sized cavities are small at all investigated photon energies; 100 m cavities are large only at photon energies <20 keV. A choice of an appropriate conversion coefficient Dw, med/Dmed is discussed in terms of the cavity size in relation to the size of important cellular targets. Free radicals from DNA bound water of nanometre dimensions contribute to DNA damage and cell killing and may be the most important water compartment in cells implying use of ratios of mass-collision-stopping powers for converting Dmed into Dw,med.

  16. Evaluating the value of ENVISAT ASAR Data for the mapping and monitoring of peatland water table depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtold, Michel; Schlaffer, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) onboard ENVISAT collected C-Band microwave backscatter data from 2005 to 2012. Backscatter in the C-Band depends to a large degree on the roughness and the moisture status of vegetation and soil surface with a penetration depth of ca. 3 cm. In wetlands with stable high water levels, the annual soil surface moisture dynamics are very distinct compared to the surrounding areas, which allows the monitoring of such environments with ASAR data (Reschke et al. 2012). Also in drained peatlands, moisture status of vegetation and soil surface strongly depends on water table depth due to high hydraulic conductivities of many peat soils in the low suction range (Dettmann et al. 2014). We hypothesize that this allows the characterization of water table depths with ASAR data. Here we analyze whether ASAR data can be used for the spatial and temporal estimation of water table depths in different peatlands (natural, near-natural, agriculturally-used and rewetted). Mapping and monitoring of water table depths is of crucial importance, e.g. for upscaling greenhouse gas emissions and evaluating the success of peatland rewetting projects. Here, ASAR data is analyzed with a new map of water table depths for the organic soils in Germany (Bechtold et al. 2014) as well as with a comprehensive data set of monitored peatland water levels from 1100 dip wells and 54 peatlands. ASAR time series from the years 2005-2012 with irregular temporal sampling intervals of 3-14 days were processed. Areas covered by snow were masked. Primary results about the accuracy of spatial estimates show significant correlations between long-term backscatter statistics and spatially-averaged water table depths extracted from the map at the resolution of the ASAR data. Backscatter also correlates with long-term averages of point-scale water table depth data of the monitoring wells. For the latter, correlation is highest between the dry reference backscatter values and summer mean water table depth. Using the boosted regression tree model of Bechtold et al., we evaluate whether the ASAR data can improve prediction accuracy and/or replace parts of ancillary data that is often not available in other countries. In the temporal domain primary results often show a better dependency between backscatter and water table depths compared to the spatial domain. For a variety of vegetation covers the temporal monitoring potential of ASAR data is evaluated at the level of annual water table depth statistics. Bechtold, M., Tiemeyer, B., Laggner, A., Leppelt, T., Frahm, E., and Belting, S., 2014. Large-scale regionalization of water table depth in peatlands optimized for greenhouse gas emission upscaling, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 3319-3339. Dettmann, U., Bechtold, M., Frahm, E., Tiemeyer, B., 2014. On the applicability of unimodal and bimodal van Genuchten-Mualem based models to peat and other organic soils under evaporation conditions. Journal of Hydrology, 515, 103-115. Reschke, J., Bartsch, A., Schlaffer, S., Schepaschenko, D., 2012. Capability of C-Band SAR for Operational Wetland Monitoring at High Latitudes. Remote Sens. 4, 2923-2943.

  17. Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Cucinotta, F A

    1998-03-01

    A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission. PMID:9496883

  18. Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

  19. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Radiometry: Phase Functions and the Optical Depth of Nocturnal Water Ice Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, G. A.; Barker, M. K.; Sun, X.

    2014-12-01

    Over the course of more than 3 Mars years the MOLA instrument on board Mars Global Surveyor (from 1999 to the loss of MGS in Nov. 2006) obtained passive reflectance measurements of Mars at 1064 nm wavelength from the solar background. As an altimeter, the quantity of light removed from a laser beam by scattering or absorption during the roundtrip to the surface may be calculated knowing the energy returned, the surface geometric albedo and the instrument parameters for each laser shot. These opacity measurements indicate the combined effects of dust and condensates, particularly those seen during during the night. The measure of opacity, to optical depths exceeding unity, correlates well with daytime measurements by the Hubble Space Telescope and with the broadband Thermal Emission Spectrometer. Applying a simple phase function to passive radiometric observations obtained at emission angles varying from 0 to 80 degrees, upper and lower limits are obtained for atmospheric opacity as a function of season and time of day. The implications for the effects of nocturnal water ice clouds on radiative transfer, and for future applications to the detection of icy plumes from moons of the outer solar system will be discussed.

  20. Evaluation of HCMM data for assessing soil moisture and water table depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Heilman, J. L.; Tunheim, J. A.; Westin, F. C.; Heilman, W. E.; Beutler, G. A.; Ness, S. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Data were analyzed for variations in eastern South Dakota. Soil moisture in the 0-4 cm layer could be estimated with 1-mm soil temperatures throughout the growing season of a rainfed barley crop (% cover ranging from 30% to 90%) with an r squared = 0.81. Empirical equations were developed to reduce the effect of canopy cover when radiometrically estimating the 1-mm soil temperature, r squared = 0.88. The corrective equations were applied to an aircraft simulation of HCMM data for a diversity of crop types and land cover conditions to estimate the 0-4 cm soil moisture. The average difference between observed and measured soil moisture was 1.6% of field capacity. HCMM data were used to estimate the soil moisture for four dates with an r squared = 0.55 after correction for crop conditions. Location of shallow alluvial aquifers could be accomplished with HCMM predawn data. After correction of HCMM day data for vegetation differences, equations were developed for predicting water table depths within the aquifer (r=0.8).

  1. Decadal changes in the mid-depth water mass dynamic of the Northeastern Atlantic margin (Bay of Biscay)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Serrano, Jean-Carlos; Frank, Norbert; Tisnrat-Laborde, Nadine; Colin, Christophe; Wu, Chung-Che; Lin, Ke; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Copard, Kevin; Orejas, Covadonga; Gori, Andrea; De Mol, Lies; Van Rooij, David; Reverdin, Gilles; Douville, Eric

    2013-02-01

    The lithium/magnesium (Li/Mg) molar ratios, radiocarbon measurements (?14C) and Nd-isotopic composition (?Nd) of the aragonite skeleton of a branching cold-water coral (CWC) species Madrepora oculata collected alive in the Bay of Biscay at ?691 m water depth were investigated to reconstruct a robust record of the mid-depth water mass dynamics between 1950 and 1990 AD. Temperature estimates based on the skeletons Li/Mg molar ratios reveal small decadal changes of about 1 C at thermocline depth synchronous to and of similar amplitude as surface temperature anomalies. ?14C measurements shows quasi-decadal oscillations of 15 around pre-bomb ?14C average value of -596 and post-bomb ?14C of -126, which most likely reflect decadal changes of water mass exchange across the thermocline. The coral ?Nd values remain in narrow ranges of -11.9 to -10.2, similar to the isotopic composition of East North Atlantic Central Water, but show highest values in the late 1950s, and early 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s. The punctuated changes of the coral Nd-isotopic composition may thus reflect periods of particular enhanced advection of temperate intermediate water (mid-depth Subpolar Gyre/Mediterranean Sea Water). Altogether, our robust multi-proxy record provides new evidence that Northern Hemisphere atmospheric variability (such as, North Atlantic Oscillation and East Atlantic pattern) drives changes not only in the thermocline but also in the mid-depth water-mass advection patterns in the Northeastern Atlantic margin. However, the interannual variability of our record remains to be tested.

  2. Dose and dose rate dependency of lipid peroxide formation in rat tissues by low level contamination with tritiated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisoi, N.; Petcu, I.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in peroxide level in different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine, spleen, bone marrow) of rats exposed to low levels of tritiated water were investigated in relation to tissue radiosensitivity, the irradiation dose and the dose rate domain. The radiation exposure was performed by internal contamination of rats with tritiated water, in the 0 50cGy dose domain, with dose rates in the range of 0.01 2cGy/day. For the lower dose rates (< 0.35cGy/day) the peroxide levels did not increase for doses up to 10cGy, while a dose rate of 1 1.75cGy/day induced an increase in peroxide levels starting at 5cGy. The increases were more significant for the tissues with higher radiosensitivity: spleen, small intestine and bone marrow. For the 4.2 7cGy dose domain and very low dose rates, up to 0.1cGy/day, the peroxide level seemed to have an inverse dose rate dependency. Nous avons tudi la modification du niveau des peroxydes lipidiques pour des tissus ayant des radiosensibilits diffrentes (foie, rein, rate, intestin grle, moelle osseuse) aprs irradiation de rats par contamination interne l'eau tritie dans le domaine des faibles doses (0 - 50 cGy) et faibles dbits de doses (0,01 - 2 cGy/jour). L'irradiation au dbit de dose infrieure 0,35 cGy/jour, n'augmente le niveau de peroxydation que pour des doses suprieures 10 cGy. Par contre, le dbit de 1-1.75 cGy/jour induit une augmentation significative du paramtre tudi partir de la dose de 5 cGy. Cette augmentation est plus accentue pour la rate, l'intestin grle et la moelle osseuse. Aux doses de 4,2-7 cGy et dbits de doses trs faibles (< 0.1 cGy), le niveau de peroxydation montre une dpendance inverse par rapport au dbit de dose.

  3. Some relationships between Secchi depth and inherent optical properties of natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, H. R.; Wouters, A. W.

    1978-01-01

    Relationships between the inherent and optical properties of the ocean (Gorden et al., 1975 and Preisendorfer, 1961) are combined with the Duntley-Preisendorfer equation to show the dependence of these properties on the depth at which a Secchi disk disappears from view. An expression relating the Secchi depth to the limiting contrast of the disk is derived in terms of the average beam attenuation coefficient, the average diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance, the albedo of the disk, and the reflectance functions at the Secchi depth and just below the surface. It is shown that combining Secchi depth observations with other optical properties yields significant information about the constituents of the medium.

  4. An integrated 6 MV linear accelerator model from electron gun to dose in a water tank

    SciTech Connect

    St Aubin, J.; Steciw, S.; Kirkby, C.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The details of a full simulation of an inline side-coupled 6 MV linear accelerator (linac) from the electron gun to the target are presented. Commissioning of the above simulation was performed by using the derived electron phase space at the target as an input into Monte Carlo studies of dose distributions within a water tank and matching the simulation results to measurement data. This work is motivated by linac-MR studies, where a validated full linac simulation is first required in order to perform future studies on linac performance in the presence of an external magnetic field. Methods: An electron gun was initially designed and optimized with a 2D finite difference program using Child's law. The electron gun simulation served as an input to a 6 MV linac waveguide simulation, which consisted of a 3D finite element radio-frequency field solution within the waveguide and electron trajectories determined from particle dynamics modeling. The electron gun design was constrained to match the cathode potential and electron gun current of a Varian 600C, while the linac waveguide was optimized to match the measured target current. Commissioning of the full simulation was performed by matching the simulated Monte Carlo dose distributions in a water tank to measured distributions. Results: The full linac simulation matched all the electrical measurements taken from a Varian 600C and the commissioning process lead to excellent agreements in the dose profile measurements. Greater than 99% of all points met a 1%/1mm acceptance criterion for all field sizes analyzed, with the exception of the largest 40x40 cm{sup 2} field for which 98% of all points met the 1%/1mm acceptance criterion and the depth dose curves matched measurement to within 1% deeper than 1.5 cm depth. The optimized energy and spatial intensity distributions, as given by the commissioning process, were determined to be non-Gaussian in form for the inline side-coupled 6 MV linac simulated. Conclusions: An integrated simulation of an inline side-coupled 6 MV linac has been completed and benchmarked matching all electrical and dosimetric measurements to high accuracy. The results showed non-Gaussian spatial intensity and energy distributions for the linac modeled.

  5. Evaluation of Multi-Resolution Satellite Sensors for Assessing Water Quality and Bottom Depth of Lake Garda

    PubMed Central

    Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Schenk, Karin; Rieger, Patrizia; Braga, Federica; Matta, Erica; Brando, Vittorio E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the capabilities of three satellite sensors for assessing water composition and bottom depth in Lake Garda, Italy. A consistent physics-based processing chain was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RapidEye. Images gathered on 10 June 2014 were corrected for the atmospheric effects with the 6SV code. The computed remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from MODIS and OLI were converted into water quality parameters by adopting a spectral inversion procedure based on a bio-optical model calibrated with optical properties of the lake. The same spectral inversion procedure was applied to RapidEye and to OLI data to map bottom depth. In situ measurements of Rrs and of concentrations of water quality parameters collected in five locations were used to evaluate the models. The bottom depth maps from OLI and RapidEye showed similar gradients up to 7 m (r = 0.72). The results indicate that: (1) the spatial and radiometric resolutions of OLI enabled mapping water constituents and bottom properties; (2) MODIS was appropriate for assessing water quality in the pelagic areas at a coarser spatial resolution; and (3) RapidEye had the capability to retrieve bottom depth at high spatial resolution. Future work should evaluate the performance of the three sensors in different bio-optical conditions. PMID:25517691

  6. Evaluation of multi-resolution satellite sensors for assessing water quality and bottom depth of Lake Garda.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Claudia; Bresciani, Mariano; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Schenk, Karin; Rieger, Patrizia; Braga, Federica; Matta, Erica; Brando, Vittorio E

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the capabilities of three satellite sensors for assessing water composition and bottom depth in Lake Garda, Italy. A consistent physics-based processing chain was applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and RapidEye. Images gathered on 10 June 2014 were corrected for the atmospheric effects with the 6SV code. The computed remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from MODIS and OLI were converted into water quality parameters by adopting a spectral inversion procedure based on a bio-optical model calibrated with optical properties of the lake. The same spectral inversion procedure was applied to RapidEye and to OLI data to map bottom depth. In situ measurements of Rrs and of concentrations of water quality parameters collected in five locations were used to evaluate the models. The bottom depth maps from OLI and RapidEye showed similar gradients up to 7 m (r = 0.72). The results indicate that: (1) the spatial and radiometric resolutions of OLI enabled mapping water constituents and bottom properties; (2) MODIS was appropriate for assessing water quality in the pelagic areas at a coarser spatial resolution; and (3) RapidEye had the capability to retrieve bottom depth at high spatial resolution. Future work should evaluate the performance of the three sensors in different bio-optical conditions. PMID:25517691

  7. New estimates of subducted water from depths of extensional outer rise earthquakes at the Northwestern Pacific subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emry, E. L.; Wiens, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of water within the subducting slab mantle may have important implications for subduction zone water budgets, intermediate depth earthquakes, and transport of water into Earth's deep mantle. However, the amount of water stored in hydrous slab mantle rocks prior to subduction is not well constrained. Large extensional faults formed as the plate bends at the subduction zone outer rise are thought to be the main pathway by which water can travel into and hydrate the slab mantle; yet for many subduction zones accurate depths of extensional outer rise faulting are also not well known. Therefore, we attempt to identify the maximum observed depth of extensional faulting, and thereby identify the possible depth extent of slab mantle hydration, by accurately locating and determining depths for outer rise and trench axis earthquakes at Northern and Western Pacific subduction zones. For each region, we relocate all earthquakes seaward of the trench axis as well as forearc earthquakes within 60 km landward of the trench axis using ISC arrival times and the hypocentroidal decomposition relative location algorithm. We then model P- and SH- waveforms and their associated depth phases for all earthquakes with Mw 5.0+ since 1990 that exhibit good signal-to-noise ratios and do not have shallow-dipping thrust focal mechanisms, which are indicative of subduction zone plate interface earthquakes. In total, we redetermined epicenters and depths for over 70 earthquakes at the Alaskan, Aleutian, Kamchatka, Kuril, Japan, and Izu-Bonin-Mariana trenches. We find that at most Pacific subduction zones there is evidence for extensional faulting down to 10-15 km within the top of the oceanic plate mantle, and in total, 95% of our analyzed extensional outer rise events occur within the crust or top 15 km of the mantle. However some regions, such as the Bonin and Aleutian Islands, show evidence for extensional faulting as deep as 20 km below the base of the crust. If the mantle of the subducting slab is hydrated down to ~15 km (with ~2-3.5 wt. % water), and assuming published values for the amount of water in the slab crust [1], then we expect that ~10^10 Tg/Myr of water are input into Northwestern Pacific subduction zones. This value for only the Northwestern Pacific subduction zones is then 10 times larger than previous global estimates [1] and indicates a need to reevaluate recent subduction water flux calculations. [1] Van Keken et al (2011), JGR, 116, B01401.

  8. Impact of interspecific interactions on the soil water uptake depth in a young temperate mixed species plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Berger, Sigrid; Bréchet, Claude; Hentschel, Rainer; Hommel, Robert; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bonal, Damien

    2014-11-01

    Interactions between tree species in forests can be beneficial to ecosystem functions and services related to the carbon and water cycles by improving for example transpiration and productivity. However, little is known on below- and above-ground processes leading to these positive effects. We tested whether stratification in soil water uptake depth occurred between four tree species in a 10-year-old temperate mixed species plantation during a dry summer. We selected dominant and co-dominant trees of European beech, Sessile oak, Douglas fir and Norway spruce in areas with varying species diversity, competition intensity, and where different plant functional types (broadleaf vs. conifer) were present. We applied a deuterium labelling approach that consisted of spraying labelled water to the soil surface to create a strong vertical gradient of the deuterium isotope composition in the soil water. The deuterium isotope composition of both the xylem sap and the soil water was measured before labelling, and then again three days after labelling, to estimate the soil water uptake depth using a simple modelling approach. We also sampled leaves and needles from selected trees to measure their carbon isotope composition (a proxy for water use efficiency) and total nitrogen content. At the end of the summer, we found differences in the soil water uptake depth between plant functional types but not within types: on average, coniferous species extracted water from deeper layers than did broadleaved species. Neither species diversity nor competition intensity had a detectable influence on soil water uptake depth, foliar water use efficiency or foliar nitrogen concentration in the species studied. However, when coexisting with an increasing proportion of conifers, beech extracted water from progressively deeper soil layers. We conclude that complementarity for water uptake could occur in this 10-year-old plantation because of inherent differences among functional groups (conifers and broadleaves). Furthermore, water uptake depth of beech was already influenced at this young development stage by interspecific interactions whereas no clear niche differentiation occurred for the other species. This finding does not preclude that plasticity-mediated responses to species interactions could increase as the plantation ages, leading to the coexistence of these species in adult forest stands.

  9. [Effects of water depth on the growth of Vallisneria natans and photosynthetic system II photochemical characteristics of the leaves].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Zhang, Qi-Chao; Sun, Shu-Yun; Chen, Kai-Ning

    2014-06-01

    The effects of water depth on the growth of Vallisneria natans and photosynthetic system II photochemical characteristics of the leaves were investigated at three depths of 0.6, 1.3 and 2.0 m. The rapid fluorescence induction kinetics curves (OJIP) of the leaves were measured with Plant Efficiency Analyzer and analyzed with JIP-test. The results indicated that the light intensities at water depths of 0.6, 1.3 and 2.0 m were obviously different and the growth of V. natans was restricted under water depth of 2.0 m. Biomass, number of ramets, number of leaves, total root length, root surface area and other morphological indices decreased significantly with the increasing water depth, and the maximum leaf length, average leaf length, maximum leaf width changed insignificantly with the water depth. With the increasing water depth, absorption flux per reaction center (ABS/RC), trapped energy flux per RC (TR0/RC), electron transport flux per RC (ET0/RC), reduction of end acceptors at photosynthetic system I (PS I ) electron acceptor side per RC (RE0/ RC) decreased significantly. The dissipated energy flux per RC (DI0/RC) also decreased significantly, which led to no obvious difference in quantum yield for the reduction of end acceptors of PS I per photon absorbed (phiR0) and the efficiency for the trapped exciton to move an electron into the electron transport chain from QA- to the PS I end electron acceptors (deltaR0). Because the amount of active PS II RCs per CS increased significantly, photosynthesis per area of V. natans grown at 2.0 m was significantly greater than that of V. natans grown at 0.6 m. The performance index PIs, Ples, Plabs,.otal photochemistry efficiency of leaves of V. natans grown at 2.0 m was significantly in- creased, suggesting that light stress may promote a more efficient conversion of light energy to active chemical energy. V. natans leaves accommodate the low light intensity environment through activating inactive reaction centers but not through improving light utilization efficiency per reaction center, and the water depth of 1.3 m may be more suitable for the growth of V. natans. PMID:25223016

  10. What depth should deep-sea water be pumped up from in the South China Sea for medicinal research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Liu, Hongbing; Yang, Xue; Li, Chunxia; Guan, Huashi

    2013-03-01

    In this study, seawater was pumped up from 150, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 m in the South China Sea and analyzed to make certain what depth should deep-sea water (DSW) be pumped up for medicinal usage. The pumping depth of DSW was determined on the basis of chemical ingredients. The analyses of inorganic elements and dissolved organic matter (DOM) were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) respectively. The raw data were used for hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that seawater pumped up from 500 m and 1000 m was similar in their chemical ingredients, and was different from the seawater pumped up from other depths. These results indicated that seawater from more than 500 m depth had relatively stable chemical ingredients and could be used as DSW in the South China Sea.

  11. Rooting depth and water source flexibility of Arundo donax across a wide and topographically varied floodplain inferred from stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, G. W.; West, J. B.; Li, F.; Kui, L.

    2011-12-01

    Floodplain environments can exhibit strong gradients in soil moisture availability, from very dry to saturated, with important consequences for riparian vegetation transpiration and productivity and therefore ecohydrologic flowpaths. These gradients are often driven by geomorphic features that themselves can be affected by vegetation change over relatively short timescales. The Rio Grande has undergone substantial change in the past half century, including channel narrowing and significant expansion of non-native vegetation, often across previously unvegetated sandbars and natural levees. The objective of this study was to assess water sources for Arundo donax L. (giant reed), a now common invasive grass growing along the floodplains of the Rio Grande. Our hypotheses were: a) Arundo would switch from primarily shallow soil moisture to groundwater during periods of soil moisture deficit, but that this access would be limited by increasing groundwater depths, and b) transpiration would decline with floodplain elevation and decreasing surface soil moisture because of increasing depth to groundwater and surface soil moisture deficits. We used natural-abundance stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) to determine the water sources of Arundo along four approximately 100-meter transects arrayed perpendicular to the Rio Grande in southwest Texas. Surface soil water, river water, groundwater, precipitation and rhizome sections were collected every month from summer 2010 until summer 2011 to assess potential source water isotopic composition for Arundo. Mixing models were used to estimate Arundo dependence on surface soil moisture or groundwater. The isotopic compositions of groundwater and river water were similar throughout the year, indicating significant hyporheic exchange. As expected, the isotopic composition of precipitation events and a large flood event were distinct from the slowly-changing river and allowed an assessment of Arundo use of these sources relative to groundwater. Rhizome water isotopic composition exhibited marked spatio-temporal variability that showed strong sensitivity to both soil moisture deficits and flooding. Our results demonstrate that Arundo readily switches water source from surface soil to groundwater to maintain relatively uniform transpiration across environmental gradients. Consistent with our observations of rooting depths to at least 5 m, dependence on groundwater increased with decreasing soil moisture in a similar manner across a wide range of groundwater depths (<1 m to 5 m), with no apparent influence of depth on deep water access. These trends illustrate how this now broadly-distributed species benefits from flexible use of hydrologic flowpaths unique to riparian environments. A more in-depth understanding of the ecohydrological interactions between the river, the hyporheic zone, riparian sediments and soils will improve our ability to predict ecosystem responses to changing climate and increasing human demands for water.

  12. Water temperature and mixing depth affect timing and magnitude of events during spring succession of the plankton.

    PubMed

    Berger, Stella Angela; Diehl, Sebastian; Stibor, Herwig; Trommer, Gabriele; Ruhenstroth, Miriam; Wild, Angelika; Weigert, Achim; Jger, Christoph Gerald; Striebel, Maren

    2007-01-01

    In many lakes, the most conspicuous seasonal events are the phytoplankton spring bloom and the subsequent clear-water phase, a period of low-phytoplankton biomass that is frequently caused by mesozooplankton (Daphnia) grazing. In Central European lakes, the timing of the clear-water phase is linked to large-scale climatic forcing, with warmer winters being followed by an earlier onset of the clear-water phase. Mild winters may favour an early build-up of Daphnia populations, both directly through increased surface temperatures and indirectly by reducing light limitation and enhancing algal production, all being a consequence of earlier thermal stratification. We conducted a field experiment to disentangle the separate impacts of stratification depth (affecting light supply) and temperature on the magnitude and timing of successional events in the plankton. We followed the dynamics of the phytoplankton spring bloom, the clear-water phase and the spring peak in Daphnia abundance in response to our experimental manipulations. Deeper mixing delayed the timing of all spring seasonal events and reduced the magnitudes of the phytoplankton bloom and the subsequent Daphnia peak. Colder temperatures retarded the timing of the clear-water phase and the subsequent Daphnia peak, whereas the timing of the phytoplankton peak was unrelated to temperature. Most effects of mixing depth (light) and temperature manipulations were independent, effects of mixing depth being more prevalent than effects of temperature. Because mixing depth governs both the light climate and the temperature regime in the mixed surface layer, we propose that climate-driven changes in the timing and depth of water column stratification may have far-reaching consequences for plankton dynamics and should receive increased attention. PMID:17024384

  13. Variation of Pressure with Depth of Water: Working with High-Tech and Low-Cost Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornek, Funda; Zziwa, Byansi Jude; Taganahan, Teresita D.

    2013-01-01

    When you dive underwater, you feel the pressure on your ears and, as you dive deeper, more pressure is felt. This article presents an activity that teachers might find useful for demonstrating the relationship between water depth and pressure. (Contains 5 figures and 1 table.)

  14. Lateral spread of dose distribution by therapeutic proton beams in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Isabel; de Vera, Pablo; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2015-06-01

    We have calculated the lateral spread of the dose distribution of protons in liquid water by means of the SEICS (Simulation of Energetic Ions and Clusters through Solids) code, which properly accounts for the electronic stopping force (including energy-loss straggling), multiple elastic scattering with the target nuclei, dynamical electron charge-exchange processes and nuclear fragmentation reactions between the projectile and the nuclei of the target. Due to the multiple elastic scattering processes part of the proton energy may be deposited at a given lateral distance from the initial beam direction, which is quantified by the root mean square radius (rrms). We find in our simulations that the rrms follows a parabolic dependence as a function of the depth in the target and the quotient between the rrms at the Bragg peak and the depth of the Bragg peak is around 3% independently of the proton energy. A rather good agreement is obtained when comparing our results of rrms with experimental data and with other models.

  15. Salt marsh recovery and oil spill remediation after in-situ burning: effects of water depth and burn duration.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Carney, Kenneth; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

    2002-02-15

    Effects of water depth, burn duration, and diesel fuel concentration on the relationship between recovery of marsh vegetation, soil temperature, and oil remediation during in-situ burning of oiled mesocosms were investigated. The water depth over the soil surface during in-situ burning was a major factor controlling recovery of the salt marsh grass, Spartina alterniflora. Ten centimeters of water overlying the soil surface was sufficient to protect the marsh soil from burn impacts with soil temperatures <37 degrees C and high plant survival rate. In contrast, a water table 10 cm below the soil surface resulted in mean soil temperatures > 100 degrees C at the 2-cm soil depth, which completely inhibited the post-burn recovery of S. alterniflora. Although poor plant recovery was also apparent in the treatments with 0 and 2 cm of water over the soil surface, this result was likely due to the chemical stress of the diesel fuel used to create the fire rather than the heat, per se, which never reached the estimated lethal temperature of 60 degrees C. In-situ burning effectively removed more than 95% of floating oil from the water surface. Thus, in-situ burning prevented the oil from potentially contaminating adjacent habitats. However, in-situ burning did not effectively remediate the oil that had penetrated the soil. PMID:11878369

  16. Water depth related ostracod distribution and paleo-climatic significance in Pumoyum Co of southern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Peng, P.; Ju, J.; Frenzel, P.; Wrozyna, C.

    2011-12-01

    Closed lakes are widely distributed on the Tibetan Plateau. Their water level fluctuations are real reflections to the supplies no matter from precipitation or melting water, which is closely linked to climatic changes. The proxies from lake core sediments are always chased by researchers to reconstruct the continuous paleo-lake level changes. In Tibet areas, ostracod assemblages based water depth reconstruction is an acceptable method for quantificationally paleo environmental studies. However, there are still lacking of data to explain internal linkages between ostracod assemblages and environmental parameters of their habitation. Therefore, we collected a series of data including ostracod assemblages existing in surface sediments and water parameters at different water depths from the Lake Pumayum Co of southern Tibet for getting more information to discuss the relationships of microbios and their host ecological environment. The results showed that 9 species of ostracods were identified from 55 surface sediments and 38 samples of gravity core. Ostracod species (except Limnocythere inopinata which is specially rare). Environmental variables, including 6 water parameters, 8 ions of water samples and 13 elements of surface sediments, were tested either online or in laboratories. The cluster analysis and correlation analysis are utilized for discussing correlations of ostracods and environmental variables. Generally, water depth, temperature, pH and photosynthetically active radiation are the main factors influencing the distribution of modern ostracods. The forward dentrended correspondence analysis (DCA), canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and partial canonical correspondence analysis (PCCA) were taken out and revealed that water depth significantly (44.56%) drive the distribution of ostracods in the lake. A water depth transfer function using a weighted averaging partial least squares (WA-PLS) model was set up to reconstruct palaeo-lake level based on relative abundance of ostracods. By using the transfer function, we reconstructed the lake level changes according to the ostrocods assemblages of a 72 cm long gravity core. The paleo-climatic changes are revealed in terms of the reconstructed water level, together with other proxies such as mean grain size, total organic carbon and total inorganic carbon of sediment core since past 6000 years. The results show that shallow lake level and cool condition during 6000-4300 aBP, warm and relative high lake level between 4300 aBP and 2000 aBP, warm and lake expanding period from 2000 aBP to present. This environmental change probably was a sensitive adaption to the weakening activities of India monsoon since mid-Holocene. Around 4300 aBP might be an important transfer period which strengthened the warm condition of Pumoyum Co area and caused rapid melting of glacial after 4300 aBP which caused the lake level increasing.

  17. Effects of Water Depth, Seasonal Exposure, and Substrate Orientation on Microbial Bioerosion in the Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean)

    PubMed Central

    Färber, Claudia; Wisshak, Max; Pyko, Ines; Bellou, Nikoleta; Freiwald, André

    2015-01-01

    The effects of water depth, seasonal exposure, and substrate orientation on microbioerosion were studied by means of a settlement experiment deployed in 15, 50, 100, and 250 m water depth south-west of the Peloponnese Peninsula (Greece). At each depth, an experimental platform was exposed for a summer period, a winter period, and about an entire year. On the up- and down-facing side of each platform, substrates were fixed to document the succession of bioerosion traces, and to measure variations in bioerosion and accretion rates. In total, 29 different bioerosion traces were recorded revealing a dominance of microborings produced by phototrophic and organotrophic microendoliths, complemented by few macroborings, attachment scars, and grazing traces. The highest bioerosion activity was recorded in 15 m up-facing substrates in the shallow euphotic zone, largely driven by phototrophic cyanobacteria. Towards the chlorophyte-dominated deep euphotic to dysphotic zones and the organotroph-dominated aphotic zone the intensity of bioerosion and the diversity of bioerosion traces strongly decreased. During summer the activity of phototrophs was higher than during winter, which was likely stimulated by enhanced light availability due to more hours of daylight and increased irradiance angles. Stable water column stratification and a resulting nutrient depletion in shallow water led to lower turbidity levels and caused a shift in the photic zonation that was reflected by more phototrophs being active at greater depth. With respect to the subordinate bioerosion activity of organotrophs, fluctuations in temperature and the trophic regime were assumed to be the main seasonal controls. The observed patterns in overall bioeroder distribution and abundance were mirrored by the calculated carbonate budget with bioerosion rates exceeding carbonate accretion rates in shallow water and distinctly higher bioerosion rates at all depths during summer. These findings highlight the relevance of bioerosion and accretion for the carbonate budget of the Ionian Sea. PMID:25893244

  18. Use of ground penetrating radar for determination of water table depth and subsurface soil characteristics at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengari, Gideon M.; Hall, Carlton R.; Kozusko, Tim J.; Bostater, Charles R.

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable use and management of natural resources require strategic responses using non-destructive tools to provide spatial and temporal data for decision making. Experiments conducted at John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) demonstrate ground penetrating radar (GPR) can provide high-resolution images showing depth to water tables. GPR data at KSC were acquired using a MAL Rough Terrain 100 MHz Antenna. Data indicate strong correlation (R2=0.80) between measured water table depth (shallow monitoring wells and soil auger) and GPR estimated depth. The study demonstrated the use of GPR to detect Holocene and Pleistocene depositional environments such as Anastasia Formation that consists of admixtures of sand, shell and coquinoid limestone at a depth of 20-25 ft. This corresponds well with the relatively strong reflections from 7.5 to 13 m (125-215 ns) in GPR images. Interpretations derived from radar data coupled with other non-GPR data (wells data and soil auger data) will aid in the understanding of climate change impacts due to sea level rise on the scrub vegetation composition at KSC. Climate change is believed to have a potentially significant impact potential on near coastal ground water levels and associated water table depth. Understanding the impacts of ground water levels changes will, in turn, lead to improved conceptual conservation efforts and identifications of climate change adaptation concepts related to the recovery of the Florida scrub jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) and other endangered or threatened species which are directly dependent on a healthy near coastal scrub habitat. Transfer of this inexpensive and non-destructive technology to other areas at KSC, Florida, and to other countries, may prove useful in the development of future conservation programs.

  19. Effects of water depth, seasonal exposure, and substrate orientation on microbial bioerosion in the Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Frber, Claudia; Wisshak, Max; Pyko, Ines; Bellou, Nikoleta; Freiwald, Andr

    2015-01-01

    The effects of water depth, seasonal exposure, and substrate orientation on microbioerosion were studied by means of a settlement experiment deployed in 15, 50, 100, and 250 m water depth south-west of the Peloponnese Peninsula (Greece). At each depth, an experimental platform was exposed for a summer period, a winter period, and about an entire year. On the up- and down-facing side of each platform, substrates were fixed to document the succession of bioerosion traces, and to measure variations in bioerosion and accretion rates. In total, 29 different bioerosion traces were recorded revealing a dominance of microborings produced by phototrophic and organotrophic microendoliths, complemented by few macroborings, attachment scars, and grazing traces. The highest bioerosion activity was recorded in 15 m up-facing substrates in the shallow euphotic zone, largely driven by phototrophic cyanobacteria. Towards the chlorophyte-dominated deep euphotic to dysphotic zones and the organotroph-dominated aphotic zone the intensity of bioerosion and the diversity of bioerosion traces strongly decreased. During summer the activity of phototrophs was higher than during winter, which was likely stimulated by enhanced light availability due to more hours of daylight and increased irradiance angles. Stable water column stratification and a resulting nutrient depletion in shallow water led to lower turbidity levels and caused a shift in the photic zonation that was reflected by more phototrophs being active at greater depth. With respect to the subordinate bioerosion activity of organotrophs, fluctuations in temperature and the trophic regime were assumed to be the main seasonal controls. The observed patterns in overall bioeroder distribution and abundance were mirrored by the calculated carbonate budget with bioerosion rates exceeding carbonate accretion rates in shallow water and distinctly higher bioerosion rates at all depths during summer. These findings highlight the relevance of bioerosion and accretion for the carbonate budget of the Ionian Sea. PMID:25893244

  20. Root Plasticity of Populus euphratica Seedlings in Response to Different Water Table Depths and Contrasting Sediment Types

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhao, Chengyi; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhihui; Wang, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Riparian plants in arid regions face a highly variable water environment controlled by hydrological processes. To understand whether riparian plants adapt to such environments through plastic responses, we compared the root traits, biomass allocation and growth of Populus euphratica Oliv. Seedlings grown in lysimeters filled with clay or clay/river sand sediments under inundation and varying water table conditions. We hypothesized that adaptive phenotypic plasticity is likely to develop or be advantageous in seedlings of this species to allow them to adapt desert floodplain environments. Growth was significantly reduced by inundation. However, rather than following relatively fixed trait and allocation patterns, the seedlings displayed adaptive mechanisms involving the development of adventitious roots to enhance plant stability and obtain oxygen, together with a lower proportion of root biomass. At the whole-plant level, at deeper water table depths, seedlings allocated more biomass to the roots, and total root length increased with decreasing water table depths, regardless of the sediment, consistent with optimal partitioning theory. The sediment type had a significant effect on seedling root traits. P. euphratica displayed very different root traits in different sediment types under the same hydrological conditions, showing a greater first-order root number in clay sediment under shallower water table conditions, whereas rooting depth was greater in clay/river sand sediment under deep water table conditions. In clay sediment, seedlings responded to lower water availability via greater root elongation, while the root surface area was increased through increasing the total root length in clay/river sand sediment, suggesting that seedlings facing deeper water tables are not always likely to increase their root surface area to obtain more water. Our results indicate that P. euphratica seedlings are able to adapt to a range of water table conditions through plastic responses in root traits and biomass allocation. PMID:25742175

  1. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, S.K.; Gingerich, S.B.

    1998-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized.

  2. Accurate focal depth determination of oceanic earthquakes using water-column reverberation and some implications for the shrinking plate hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jianping; Niu, Fenglin; Gordon, Richard G.; Cui, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Investigation of oceanic earthquakes is useful for constraining the lateral and depth variations of the stress and strain-rate fields in oceanic lithosphere, and the thickness of the seismogenic layer as a function of lithosphere age, thereby providing us with critical insight into thermal and dynamic processes associated with the cooling and evolution of oceanic lithosphere. With the goal of estimating hypocentral depths more accurately, we observe clear water reverberations after the direct P wave on teleseismic records of oceanic earthquakes and develop a technique to estimate earthquake depths by using these reverberations. The Z-H grid search method allows the simultaneous determination of the sea floor depth (H) and earthquake depth (Z) with an uncertainty less than 1 km, which compares favorably with alternative approaches. We apply this method to two closely located earthquakes beneath the eastern Pacific. These earthquakes occurred in ∼25 Ma-old lithosphere and were previously estimated to have similar depths of ∼10-12 km. We find that the two events actually occurred at dissimilar depths of 2.5 km and 16.8 km beneath the seafloor, respectively, within the oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle. The shallow and deep events are determined to be a thrust and normal earthquake, respectively, indicating that the stress field within the oceanic lithosphere changes from horizontal deviatoric compression to horizontal deviatoric tension as depth increases, which is consistent with the prediction of lithospheric cooling models. Furthermore, we show that the P-axis of the newly investigated thrust-faulting earthquake is perpendicular to that of the previously studied thrust event, consistent with the predictions of the shrinking-plate hypothesis.

  3. Airborne detection of oceanic turbidity cell structure using depth-resolved laser-induced water Raman backscatter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    Airborne laser-induced, depth-resolved water Raman backscatter is useful in the detection and mapping of water optical transmission variations. This test, together with other field experiments, has identified the need for additional field experiments to resolve the degree of the contribution to the depth-resolved, Raman-backscattered signal waveform that is due to (1) sea surface height or elevation probability density; (2) off-nadir laser beam angle relative to the mean sea surface; and (3) the Gelbstoff fluorescence background, and the analytical techniques required to remove it. When converted to along-track profiles, the waveforms obtained reveal cells of a decreased Raman backscatter superimposed on an overall trend of monotonically decreasing water column optical transmission.

  4. Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson Handford, C.

    1990-08-01

    Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level sauna on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to differences in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to 60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

  5. Halite depositional facies in a solar salt pond: A key to interpreting physical energy and water depth in ancient deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Handford, C.R. )

    1990-08-01

    Subaqueous deposits of aragonite, gypsum, and halite are accumulating in shallow solar salt ponds constructed in the Pekelmeer, a sea-level salina on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Several halite facies are deposited in the crystallizer ponds in response to difference in water depth and wave energy. Cumulate halite, which originates as floating rafts, is present only along the protected, upwind margins of ponds where low-energy conditions foster their formation and preservation. Cornet crystals with peculiar mushroom- and mortarboard-shaped caps precipitate in centimetre-deep brine sheets within a couple of metres of the upwind or low-energy margins. Downwind from these margins, cornet and chevron halite precipitate on the pond floors in water depths ranging from a few centimetres to {approximately} 60 cm. Halite pisoids with radial-concentric structure are precipitated in the swash zone along downwind high-energy shorelines where they form pebbly beaches. This study suggests that primary halite facies are energy and/or depth dependent and that some primary features, if preserved in ancient halite deposits, can be used to infer physical energy conditions, subenvironments such as low- to high-energy shorelines, and extremely shallow water depths in ancient evaporite basins.

  6. Impact of prior treatment and depth of response on survival in MM-003, a randomized phase 3 study comparing pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    San Miguel, Jesus F.; Weisel, Katja C.; Song, Kevin W.; Delforge, Michel; Karlin, Lionel; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moreau, Philippe; Banos, Anne; Oriol, Albert; Garderet, Laurent; Cavo, Michele; Ivanova, Valentina; Alegre, Adrian; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Chen, Christine; Renner, Christoph; Bahlis, Nizar Jacques; Yu, Xin; Teasdale, Terri; Sternas, Lars; Jacques, Christian; Zaki, Mohamed H.; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.

    2015-01-01

    Pomalidomide is a distinct oral IMiD® immunomodulatory agent with direct antimyeloma, stromal-support inhibitory, and immunomodulatory effects. The pivotal, multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial MM-003 compared pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone vs high-dose dexamethasone in 455 patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma after failure of bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment. Initial results demonstrated significantly longer progression-free survival and overall survival with an acceptable tolerability profile for pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone vs high-dose dexamethasone. This secondary analysis describes patient outcomes by treatment history and depth of response. Pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone significantly prolonged progression-free survival and favored overall survival vs high-dose dexamethasone for all subgroups analyzed, regardless of prior treatments or refractory status. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that no variable relating to either the number (≤ or > 3) or type of prior treatment was a significant predictor of progression-free survival or overall survival. No cross-resistance with prior lenalidomide or thalidomide treatment was observed. Patients achieving a minimal response or better to pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone treatment experienced a survival benefit, which was even higher in those achieving at least a partial response (17.2 and 19.9 months, respectively, as compared with 7.5 months for patients with less than minimal response). These data suggest that pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone should be considered a standard of care in patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma regardless of prior treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01311687; EudraCT: 2010-019820-30. PMID:26160879

  7. Mass Spectral Analysis of Water Column Samples from a Single Depth Profile Near the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boysen, A. K.; Kujawinski, E. B.

    2010-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill is the largest offshore oil spill in history, spilling an estimated 4.9 million barrels of oil. Additionally, over 1.8 million gallons of dispersants have been applied, both through underwater and surface applications. The depth and volume of this spill as well as the underwater dispersant applications likely allowed for the dissolution of oil components into the water column during transport to the ocean surface. We examined the water-soluble components of dissolved organic matter, oil, and dispersants at various depths and locations within 10km of the wellhead in order to assess the degree of oil dissolution into the water column. Here we present results from analysis of four samples from a depth profile collected 1.16km from the wellhead. We used ultrahigh resolution negative-ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, a technique that has been used to characterize both DOM and crude oil. We compared oil from the wellhead with the composition of different extracts from the water samples and observed hundreds of compounds which are present in both the original oil and the water column. The oil compounds contained in the extracts were similar for all four depths. Compounds within the heteroatom classes N and O were most abundant in the source oil, while oil compounds in the formula classes O2 and SO3 were enhanced in the water samples. Compounds from these classes may be good markers for tracing the impact of this spill in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem.

  8. Influence of variable water depth and turbidity on microalgae production in a shallow estuarine lake system - A modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirok, Katrin; Scharler, Ursula M.

    2014-06-01

    Strongly varying water levels and turbidities are typical characteristics of the large shallow estuarine lake system of St. Lucia, one of the largest on the African continent. This theoretical study investigated the combined effects of variable water depth and turbidity on seasonal pelagic and benthic microalgae production using a mathematical model, in order to ascertain productivity levels during variable and extreme conditions. Simulated pelagic and benthic net production varied between 0.3 and 180 g C m-2 year-1 and 0 and 220 g C m-2 year-1, respectively, dependent on depth, turbidity, and variability in turbidity. Although not surprising production and biomass decreased with increasing turbidity and depth. A high variability in turbidity, i.e. an alteration of calm and windy days, could reduce or enhance the seasonal pelagic and benthic production by more than 30% compared to a low variability. The day-to-day variability in wind-induced turbidity therefore influences production in the long term. On the other hand, varying water depth within a year did not significantly influence the seasonal production for turbidities representative of Lake St. Lucia. Reduced lake area and volume as observed during dry periods in Lake St. Lucia did not reduce primary production of the entire system since desiccation resulted in lower water depth and thus increased light availability. This agrees with field observations suggesting little light limitation and high areal microalgal biomass during a period with below average rainfall (2005-2011). Thus, microalgae potentially fulfil their function in the lake food-web even under extreme drought conditions. We believe that these results are of general interest to shallow aquatic ecosystems that are sensitive to drought periods due to either human or natural causes.

  9. The Ecological Response of Carex lasiocarpa Community in the Riparian Wetlands to the Environmental Gradient of Water Depth in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Zhaoqing; Wang, Zhongxin; Yan, Dandan; Liu, Guihua; Xu, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    The response of Carex lasiocarpa in riparian wetlands in Sanjiang Plain to the environmental gradient of water depth was analyzed by using the Gaussian Model based on the biomass and average height data, and the ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was derived. The results indicated that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on biomass was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm], while the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa based on average height was [2.31?cm, 40.11?cm]. The intersection of the ecological water-depth amplitudes based on biomass and height confirmed that the optimum ecological water-depth amplitude of Carex lasiocarpa was [13.45?cm, 29.78?cm] and the optimist growing water-depth of Carex lasiocarpa was 21.4?cm. The TWINSPAN, a polythetic and divisive classification tool, was used to classify the wetland ecological series into 6 associations. Result of TWINSPAN matrix classification reflected an obvious environmental gradient in these associations: water-depth gradient. The relation of biodiversity of Carex lasiocarpa community and water depth was determined by calculating the diversity index of each association. PMID:24065874

  10. Cumulative soil water evaporation as a function of depth and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water evaporation is an important component of the surface water balance and the surface energy balance. Accurate and dynamic measurements of soil water evaporation enhance the understanding of water and energy partitioning at the land-atmosphere interface. The objective of this study is to mea...

  11. Evaluation of dose rate reduction in a spacecraft compartment due to additional water shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Niita, K.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Yarmanova, E. N.; Nikolaev, I. V.; Iwase, H.; Sihver, L.; Mancusi, D.; Endo, A.; Matsuda, N.; Iwamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Yasuda, H.; Takada, M.; Nakamura, T.

    2011-08-01

    The dose reduction rates brought about by the installation of additional water shielding in a spacecraft are calculated in the paper using the particles and heavy ion transport code system PHITS, which can deal with transport of all kinds of hadrons and heavy ions with energies up to 100 GeV/n in three-dimensional phase spaces. In the PHITS simulation, an imaginary spacecraft was irradiated isotropically by cosmic rays with charges up to 28 and energies up to 100 GeV/n, and the dose reduction rates due to water shielding were evaluated for 5 types of doses: the dose equivalents obtained from the LET and linear energy spectra, the dose equivalents to skin and red bone marrow, and the effective dose equivalent. The results of the simulation indicate that the dose reduction rates differ according to the type of dose evaluated. For example, 5 g/cm2 water shielding reduces the effective dose equivalent and the LET dose equivalent by approximately 14% and 32%, respectively. Such degrees of dose reduction can be regarded to make water shielding worth the efforts required to install it.

  12. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  13. Discharge and water-depth estimates for ungauged rivers: Combining hydrologic, hydraulic, and inverse modeling with stage and water-area measurements from satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ganming; Schwartz, Franklin W.; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Shum, C. K.

    2015-08-01

    Anticipating future global freshwater scarcity and providing mitigation require timely knowledge of spatiotemporal dynamics of discharge for gauged and, more challengingly, ungauged rivers. This study describes a coupled hydrologic (SWAT) and hydraulic (XSECT) modeling approach set in a genetic algorithm framework for estimating discharge and water depth for ungauged rivers from space. The method was tested in the Red River of the North basin by comparing simulated discharges and depths from 2006 to 2010 to in situ observations from across the basin. Results showed that calibration using only remotely sensed data (i.e., water levels from ENVISAT altimetry and water extents from LANDSAT) along the main stem of the Red River yielded daily and monthly estimates of river discharge, which correlated to measured discharges at three gaging stations on the main stem with R2 values averaging 0.822 and 0.924, respectively. The comparisons of modeled and measured discharges were also extended to smaller tributaries, yielding a mean R2 of 0.809 over seven gaging stations. The modeling approach also provided estimates of water depth that correlated to observations at four stations with an average R2 of 0.831. We conclude that the integrated modeling approach is able to estimate discharge and water depth from space for larger ungauged rivers. This study also implies that in situ discharge data may not be necessary for successful hydrologic model calibration.

  14. Dosimetric comparison of extended dose range film with ionization measurements in water and lung equivalent heterogeneous media exposed to megavoltage photons.

    PubMed

    Charland, Paule M; Chetty, Indrin J; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Fraass, Benedick A

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a dosimetric evaluation of the new Kodak extended dose range (EDR) film versus ionization measurements has been conducted in homogeneous solid water and water-lung equivalent layered heterogeneous phantoms for a relevant range of field sizes (up to a field size of 25x25 cm2 and a depth of 15 cm) for 6 and 15 MV photon beams from a linear accelerator. The optical density of EDR film was found to be linear up to about 350 cGy and over-responded for larger fields and depths (5% for 25x25 cm2 at depth of 15 cm compared to a 10x10 cm2, 5 cm depth reference value). Central axis depth dose measurements in solid water with the film in a perpendicular orientation were within 2% of the Wellhfer IC-10 measurements for the smaller field sizes. A maximum discrepancy of 8.4% and 3.9% was found for the 25x25 cm2 field at 15 cm depth for 6 and 15 MV photons, respectively (with curve normalization at a depth of 5 cm). Compared to IC-10 measurements, film measured central axis depth dose inside the lung slab showed a slight over-response (at most 2%). At a depth of 15 cm in the lung phantom the over-response was found to be 7.4% and 3.7% for the 25x25 cm2 field for 6 and 15 MV photons, respectively. When results were presented as correction factors, the discrepancy between the IC-10 and the EDR was greatest for the lowest energy and the largest field size. The effect of the finite size of the ion chamber was most evident at smaller field sizes where profile differences versus film were observed in the penumbral region. These differences were reduced at larger field sizes and in situations where lateral electron transport resulted in a lateral spread of the beam, such as inside lung material. Film profiles across a lung tumor geometry phantom agreed with the IC-10 chamber within the experimental uncertainties. From this investigation EDR film appears to be a useful medium for relative dosimetry in higher dose ranges in both water and lung equivalent material for moderate field sizes and depths. PMID:12540816

  15. Cost of oviposition site selection in a water strider Aquarius paludum insularis: egg mortality increases with oviposition depth.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Hiroyuki; Kasuya, Eiiti

    2010-06-01

    Females generally avoid selecting sites for oviposition which have a high predation risk to increase offspring survival. Previous studies have focused on costs to ovipositing females. However, although offspring may also incur costs by being oviposited at low predation risk sites, no studies have focused on costs to offspring. Such costs to offspring were examined by using Aquarius paludum insularis, females of which avoid eggs parasitism by ovipositing at deep sites. Deep sites are safe from egg parasitism but may be unsuitable for hatching due to environmental factors. We examined the costs to offspring at deep sites by comparing the hatching rate, the duration to hatching and the proportion of drowned larvae between eggs that were set at three levels of water depth (0 cm, 25 cm and 50 cm depth). While the hatching rate at 50 cm was lower than that at 0 cm, the rate at 25 cm did not differ from that at 0 cm. Duration to hatching and the proportion of drowned larvae did not differ between the three depths. It is suggested that the declining survival rate of A. paludum eggs was due to increased water pressure at greater depth. Such a cost may exist in other species and such an observation may aid in understanding oviposition site selection. PMID:20138050

  16. An auger depth profile study of corrosion-inhibiting films formed under cooling water conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schreifels, J.; Gailey, R.; Goewert, S.; O'Brien, M.; Jost, S. ); Labine, P. )

    1989-05-01

    Various corrosion inhibitors were evaluated in a dynamic corrosion test loop which is equipped with deposit and corrosion monitors and with pH and blowdown controllers. The Auger depth profiles were used to study the compositions and thicknesses of films formed by these corrosion inhibitors as a function of pH. The profile study is discussed in this paper.

  17. Seismic evidence of tectonic control on the depth of water influx into incoming oceanic plates at subduction trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefeldt, M.; Ranero, C. R.; Grevemeyer, I.

    2012-05-01

    Water transported by slabs into the mantle at subduction zones plays key roles in tectonics, magmatism, fluid and volatiles fluxes, and most likely in the chemical evolution of the Earth's oceans and mantle. Yet, incorporation of water into oceanic plates before subduction is a poorly understood process. Several studies suggest that plates may acquire most water at subduction trenches because the ocean crust and uppermost mantle there are intensely faulted caused by bending and/or slab pull, and display anomalously low seismic velocities. The low velocities are interpreted to arise from a combination of fluid-filled fractures associated to normal faulting and mineral transformation by hydration. Mantle hydration by transformation of nominally dry peridotite to water-rich serpentinite could potentially create the largest fluid reservoir in slabs and is therefore the most relevant for the transport of water in the deep mantle. The depth of fracturing by normal-fault earthquakes is usually not well constrained, but could potentially create deep percolation paths for water that might hydrate up to tens of kilometers into the mantle, restrained only by serpentine stability. Yet, interpretation of deep intraplate mineral alteration remains speculative because active-source seismic experiments have sampled only the uppermost few kilometers of mantle, leaving the depth-extent of anomalous velocities and their relation to faulting unconstrained. Here we use a joint inversion of active-source seismic data, and both local and regional earthquakes to map the three dimensional distribution of anomalous velocities under a seismic network deployed at the trench seafloor. We found that anomalous velocities are restrained to the depth of normal-fault micro-earthquake activity recorded in the network, and are considerably shallower than either the rupture depth of teleseismic, normal-fault earthquakes, or the limit of serpentine stability. Extensional micro-earthquakes indicate that each fault in the region slips every 2-3 months which may facilitate regular water percolation. Deeper, teleseismic earthquakes are comparatively infrequent, and possibly do not cause significant fracturing that remains open long enough to promote alteration detectable with our seismic study. Our results show that the stability field of serpentine does not constrain the depth of potential mantle hydration.

  18. Offshore permafrost decay and massive seabed methane escape in water depths >20 m at the South Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnov, A.; Mienert, J.; Cherkashov, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    We study the West-Yamal Shelf in the Kara Sea, offshore Western Russia. We present new high-resolution seismic data (2-16 kHz) and gas geochemical data from 2012 cruises. In high-resolution seismic data, we found extensive acoustic anomalies in the water column, which we interpreted to be gas (bubble) flares rising from the seafloor. These anomalies were widespread throughout the study area, but seemed to be limited to water depths > 20 meters below sea level (mbsl). One seepage site in ~6m water depth released gas that reached almost to the sea surface. The hydroacoustic anomalies are limited by the 20 m isobaths, and it may be controlled by the extension of permafrost that is still present below the seafloor at these depths providing an impermeable layer through which gas and other fluids cannot migrate. We detected acoustically transparent zones in sediments in the upper 2-5 meters below seafloor (mbsf). We interpret these acoustic anomalies to record the presence of free gas. Deeper seismic data show that acoustic anomalies in sediments near the seafloor are connected to gas chimneys that extend to depths >2000 mbsf. This suggests that gas is migrating from deeper hydrocarbon reservoirs and therefore it has very likely a thermogenic origin. In addition to the more widespread and disperse acoustically transparent zones, we discovered two prominent transparent mounds that are 1.5-2 km in diameter and that are elevated 10-15 meters above the seafloor. These features bear striking resemblance to the pingo-like features (PLF) that have been studied on the Beaufort Shelf (e.g. Shearer et al., 1971; Paull et al., 2007), and Pechora Sea (Rokos, 2009). Tentative results of numerical modelling estimate the thickness of permafrost, which was during the last sea level regression 170-300 meters thick. Based on the model of permafrost melting we state, that continuous sub-seabed permafrost may extend to water depths of ~20 m offshore creating a seal through which gas cannot migrate. Discontinuous and local permafrost areas may exist further offshore in up to 115 m water depth. This study provides one of the key examples of an Arctic marine shelf where seafloor gas release is widespread and where permafrost degradation is an ongoing process. These initial results provided targets for drilling and data acquisition in the summer of 2013 and for future research cruises in the Kara Sea. A better understanding of hydrocarbon seepage at the seafloor is important for assessing both the natural release of gas to the atmosphere and the hydrocarbon potential for new exploration regions like the Kara Sea.

  19. Offshore permafrost decay and massive seabed methane escape in water depths >20 m at the South Kara Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnov, Alexey; Smith, Andrew J.; Mienert, Jürgen; Cherkashov, Georgy; Rekant, Pavel; Semenov, Peter; Serov, Pavel; Vanshtein, Boris

    2013-08-01

    Since the Last Glacial Maximum (~19 ka), coastal inundation from sea-level rise has been thawing thick subsea permafrost across the Arctic. Although subsea permafrost has been mapped on several Arctic continental shelves, permafrost distribution in the South Kara Sea and the extent to which it is acting as an impermeable seal to seabed methane escape remains poorly understood. Here we use >1300 km of high-resolution seismic data to map hydroacoustic anomalies, interpreted to record seabed gas release, on the West Yamal shelf. Gas flares are widespread over an area of at least 7500 km2 in water depths >20 m. We propose that continuous subsea permafrost extends to water depths of ~20 m offshore and creates a seal through which gas cannot migrate. This Arctic shelf region where seafloor gas release is widespread suggests that permafrost has degraded more significantly than previously thought.

  20. Determination of alpha dose rate profile at the HLW nuclear glass/water interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougnaud, S.; Tribet, M.; Rolland, S.; Renault, J.-P.; Jgou, C.

    2015-07-01

    Alpha irradiation and radiolysis can affect the alteration behavior of High Level Waste (HLW) nuclear glasses. In this study, the way the energy of alpha particles, emitted by a typical HLW glass, is deposited in water at the glass/water interface is investigated, with the aim of better characterizing the dose deposition at the glass/water interface during water-induced leaching mechanisms. A simplified chemical composition was considered for the nuclear glass under study, wherein the dose rate is about 140 Gy/h. The MCNPX calculation code was used to calculate alpha dose rate and alpha particle flux profiles at the glass/water interface in different systems: a single glass grain in water, a glass powder in water and a water-filled ideal crack in a glass package. Dose rate decreases within glass and in water as distance to the center of the grain increases. A general model has been proposed to fit a dose rate profile in water and in glass from values for dose rate in glass bulk, alpha range in water and linear energy transfer considerations. The glass powder simulation showed that there was systematic overlapping of radiation fields for neighboring glass grains, but the water dose rate always remained lower than the bulk value. Finally, for typical ideal cracks in a glass matrix, an overlapping of irradiation fields was observed while the crack aperture was lower than twice the alpha range in water. This led to significant values for the alpha dose rate within the crack volume, as long as the aperture remained lower than 60 ?m.

  1. Modeling scale-dependent runoff generation in a small semi-arid watershed accounting for rainfall intensity and water depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhans, Christoph; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan; Stone, Jeffry J.; Nearing, Mark A.

    2014-07-01

    Observed scale effects of runoff on hillslopes and small watersheds derive from complex interactions of time-varying rainfall rates with runoff, infiltration and macro- and microtopographic structures. A little studied aspect of scale effects is the concept of water depth-dependent infiltration. For semi-arid rangeland it has been demonstrated that mounds underneath shrubs have a high infiltrability and lower lying compacted or stony inter-shrub areas have a lower infiltrability. It is hypothesized that runoff accumulation further downslope leads to increased water depth, inundating high infiltrability areas, which increases the area-averaged infiltration rate. A model was developed that combines the concepts of water depth-dependent infiltration, partial contributing area under variable rainfall intensity, and the Green-Ampt theory for point-scale infiltration. The model was applied to rainfall simulation data and natural rainfall-runoff data from a small sub-watershed (0.4 ha) of the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in the semi-arid US Southwest. Its performance to reproduce observed hydrographs was compared to that of a conventional Green-Ampt model assuming complete inundation sheet flow, with runon infiltration, which is infiltration of runoff onto pervious downstream areas. Parameters were derived from rainfall simulations and from watershed-scale calibration directly from the rainfall-runoff events. The performance of the water depth-dependent model was better than that of the conventional model on the scale of a rainfall simulator plot, but on the scale of a small watershed the performance of both model types was similar. We believe that the proposed model contributes to a less scale-dependent way of modeling runoff and erosion on the hillslope-scale.

  2. Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 002

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

  3. Depth Estimation of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Clear Water Streams Using Low-Altitude Optical Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Visser, Fleur; Buis, Kerst; Verschoren, Veerle; Meire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    UAVs and other low-altitude remote sensing platforms are proving very useful tools for remote sensing of river systems. Currently consumer grade cameras are still the most commonly used sensors for this purpose. In particular, progress is being made to obtain river bathymetry from the optical image data collected with such cameras, using the strong attenuation of light in water. No studies have yet applied this method to map submergence depth of aquatic vegetation, which has rather different reflectance characteristics from river bed substrate. This study therefore looked at the possibilities to use the optical image data to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) depth in shallow clear water streams. We first applied the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis method (OBRA) of Legleiter et al. (2009) to a dataset of spectral signatures from three macrophyte species in a clear water stream. The results showed that for each species the ratio of certain wavelengths were strongly associated with depth. A combined assessment of all species resulted in equally strong associations, indicating that the effect of spectral variation in vegetation is subsidiary to spectral variation due to depth changes. Strongest associations (R²-values ranging from 0.67 to 0.90 for different species) were found for combinations including one band in the near infrared (NIR) region between 825 and 925 nm and one band in the visible light region. Currently data of both high spatial and spectral resolution is not commonly available to apply the OBRA results directly to image data for SAV depth mapping. Instead a novel, low-cost data acquisition method was used to obtain six-band high spatial resolution image composites using a NIR sensitive DSLR camera. A field dataset of SAV submergence depths was used to develop regression models for the mapping of submergence depth from image pixel values. Band (combinations) providing the best performing models (R²-values up to 0.77) corresponded with the OBRA findings. A 10% error was achieved under sub-optimal data collection conditions, which indicates that the method could be suitable for many SAV mapping applications. PMID:26437410

  4. Depth Estimation of Submerged Aquatic Vegetation in Clear Water Streams Using Low-Altitude Optical Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Fleur; Buis, Kerst; Verschoren, Veerle; Meire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    UAVs and other low-altitude remote sensing platforms are proving very useful tools for remote sensing of river systems. Currently consumer grade cameras are still the most commonly used sensors for this purpose. In particular, progress is being made to obtain river bathymetry from the optical image data collected with such cameras, using the strong attenuation of light in water. No studies have yet applied this method to map submergence depth of aquatic vegetation, which has rather different reflectance characteristics from river bed substrate. This study therefore looked at the possibilities to use the optical image data to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) depth in shallow clear water streams. We first applied the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis method (OBRA) of Legleiter et al. (2009) to a dataset of spectral signatures from three macrophyte species in a clear water stream. The results showed that for each species the ratio of certain wavelengths were strongly associated with depth. A combined assessment of all species resulted in equally strong associations, indicating that the effect of spectral variation in vegetation is subsidiary to spectral variation due to depth changes. Strongest associations (R2-values ranging from 0.67 to 0.90 for different species) were found for combinations including one band in the near infrared (NIR) region between 825 and 925 nm and one band in the visible light region. Currently data of both high spatial and spectral resolution is not commonly available to apply the OBRA results directly to image data for SAV depth mapping. Instead a novel, low-cost data acquisition method was used to obtain six-band high spatial resolution image composites using a NIR sensitive DSLR camera. A field dataset of SAV submergence depths was used to develop regression models for the mapping of submergence depth from image pixel values. Band (combinations) providing the best performing models (R2-values up to 0.77) corresponded with the OBRA findings. A 10% error was achieved under sub-optimal data collection conditions, which indicates that the method could be suitable for many SAV mapping applications. PMID:26437410

  5. Predicting shape and stability of air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of pores with arbitrary shapes and depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, B.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Gad-el-Hak, M.; Tepper, G. C.

    2012-01-01

    An integro-differential equation for the three dimensional shape of air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces comprised of pores with arbitrary shapes and depths is developed and used to predict the static critical pressure under which such surfaces depart from the non-wetting state. Our equation balances the capillary forces with the pressure of the air entrapped in the pores and that of the water over the interface. Stability of shallow and deep circular, elliptical, and polygonal pores is compared with one another and a general conclusion is drawn for designing pore shapes for superhydrophobic surfaces with maximum stability.

  6. Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth

    SciTech Connect

    Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael

    2013-08-15

    A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

  7. The influence of water depth and flow regime on phytoplankton biomass and community structure in a shallow, lowland river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leland, H.V.

    2003-01-01

    The taxonomic composition and biomass of phytoplankton in the San Joaquin River, California, were examined in relation to water depth, flow regime, and water chemistry. Without substantial tributary inflow, maintenance demands exceeded algal production during summer and autumn in this eutrophic, 'lowland type' river due to light-limiting conditions for algal growth. Streamflow from tributaries that drain the Sierra Nevada contributed to a substantial net gain in algal production during the spring and summer by increasing water transparency and the extent of turbulence. Abundances of the major taxa (centric diatoms, pennate diatoms and chlorophytes) indicated differing responses to the longitudinal variation in water depth and flow regime, with the areal extent of pools and other geomorphic features that influence time-for-development being a major contributing factor to the selection of species. Tychoplanktonic species were most abundant upstream and in tributaries that drain the San Joaquin Valley. Seasonally-varying factors such as water temperature that influence algal growth rates also contributed significantly to the selection of species. Nutrient limitation appears not to be a primary constraint on species selection in the phytoplankton of this river.

  8. Depth to water in the western Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1991-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the ISHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Protection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability of ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantham, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). Digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a soils data set developed by the SCS (Soul Conservation Service) and the IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) has developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,00-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  9. Depth to water in the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys, southwestern Idaho and eastern Oregon, calculated using water levels from 1980 to 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maupin, Molly A.

    1992-01-01

    The vulnerability of ground water to contamination in Idaho is being assessed by the IDHW/DEQ (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, Division of Environmental Quality), using a modified version of the Environmental Orotection Agency DRASTIC methods (Allers and others, 1985). The project was designed as a technique to: (1) Assign priorities for development of ground-water management and monitoring programs; (2) build support for, and public awareness of, vulnerability or ground water to contamination; (3) assist in the development of regulatory programs; and (4) provide access to technical data through the use of a GIS (geographic information system) (C. Grantha,, Idaho Department of Health and Welfare, written commun., 1989). A digital representation of first-encountered water below land surface is an important element in evaluating vulnerability of ground water to contamination. Depth-to-water values were developed using existing data and computer software to construct a GIS data set to be combined with a sols data set developed by the SCS (Soil Conservation Service) and IDHW/WQB (Idaho Department of Health and Welfare/Water Quality Bureau), and a recharge data set developed by the IDWR/RSF (Idaho Department of Water Resources/Remote Sensing Facility). The USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) developed digital depth-to-water values for eleven 1:100,000-scale quadrangles on the eastern Snake River Plain and surrounding tributary valleys.

  10. The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: Connecting with Ocean and Great Lakes Scientists to Investigate the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Chantelle M.; Adams, Jacqueline M.; Hinchey, Elizabeth K.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Patterson, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure increases rapidly with depth in a water body. Ocean and Great Lakes scientists often use this physical feature of water as the basis of a fun pastime performed aboard research vessels around the world: the shrinking of polystyrene cups. Depending on the depth to which the cups are deployed, the results can be quite striking! Capitalizing

  11. The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: Connecting with Ocean and Great Lakes Scientists to Investigate the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Chantelle M.; Adams, Jacqueline M.; Hinchey, Elizabeth K.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Patterson, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Pressure increases rapidly with depth in a water body. Ocean and Great Lakes scientists often use this physical feature of water as the basis of a fun pastime performed aboard research vessels around the world: the shrinking of polystyrene cups. Depending on the depth to which the cups are deployed, the results can be quite striking! Capitalizing…

  12. Development of a chronic noncancer oral reference dose and drinking water screening level for sulfolane using benchmark dose modeling.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Gaylor, David W; Tachovsky, J Andrew; Perry, Camarie; Carakostas, Michael C; Haws, Laurie C

    2013-12-01

    Sulfolane is a widely used industrial solvent that is often used for gas treatment (sour gas sweetening; hydrogen sulfide removal from shale and coal processes, etc.), and in the manufacture of polymers and electronics, and may be found in pharmaceuticals as a residual solvent used in the manufacturing processes. Sulfolane is considered a high production volume chemical with worldwide production around 18 000-36 000 tons per year. Given that sulfolane has been detected as a contaminant in groundwater, an important potential route of exposure is tap water ingestion. Because there are currently no federal drinking water standards for sulfolane in the USA, we developed a noncancer oral reference dose (RfD) based on benchmark dose modeling, as well as a tap water screening value that is protective of ingestion. Review of the available literature suggests that sulfolane is not likely to be mutagenic, clastogenic or carcinogenic, or pose reproductive or developmental health risks except perhaps at very high exposure concentrations. RfD values derived using benchmark dose modeling were 0.01-0.04?mg?kg(-1) per day, although modeling of developmental endpoints resulted in higher values, approximately 0.4?mg?kg(-1) per day. The lowest, most conservative, RfD of 0.01?mg?kg(-1) per day was based on reduced white blood cell counts in female rats. This RfD was used to develop a tap water screening level that is protective of ingestion, viz. 365 g l(-1). It is anticipated that these values, along with the hazard identification and dose-response modeling described herein, should be informative for risk assessors and regulators interested in setting health-protective drinking water guideline values for sulfolane. PMID:22936336

  13. Interrelationships of petiole air canal architecture, water depth and convective air flow in Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Premise of the study--Nymphaea odorata grows in water up to 2 m deep, producing fewer, larger leaves in deeper water. This species has a convective flow system that moves gases from younger leaves through submerged parts to older leaves, aerating submerged parts. Petiole air canals are in the conv...

  14. Sensible Heat Measurements Indicating Depth and Magnitude of Subsurface Soil Water Evaporation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil water evaporation is typically determined by techniques that assume the latent heat flux originates from the soil surface. Here, we describe a new technique for determining in situ soil water evaporation dynamics from fine-scale measurements of soil temperature and thermal properties with heat ...

  15. A deuterium-based labeling technique for the investigation of rooting depths, water uptake dynamics and unsaturated zone water transport in semiarid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, M.; Koeniger, P.; Gaj, M.; Hamutoko, J. T.; Wanke, H.; Himmelsbach, T.

    2016-02-01

    Non- or minimum-invasive methods for the quantification of rooting depths of plants are rare, in particular in (semi-)arid regions; yet, this information is crucial for the parameterization of SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer) models and understanding of processes within the hydrological cycle. We present a technique utilizing the stable isotope deuterium (2H) applied as artificial tracer to investigate the vertical extent of the root zone, characterize water uptake dynamics of trees and shrubs at different depths and monitor transport of water through the unsaturated zone of dry environments. One liter of 35% deuterated water (2H2O) was punctually applied at several depths (0.5 m, 1 m, 2 m, 2.5 m and 4 m) at six different plots at a natural forested site in the Cuvelai-Etosha Basin (CEB), Namibia/Angola. Subsequently, uptake of the tracer was monitored by collecting plant samples (xylem and transpired water) up to seven days after tracer injection. Soil profiles at the plots were taken after the campaign and again after six months in order to evaluate the transport and distribution of 2H within the unsaturated zone. Of 162 plant samples taken, 31 samples showed clear signals of artificially introduced 2H, of which all originate from the plots labeled up to 2 m depth. No artificially injected 2H was found in plants when tracer application occurred deeper than 2 m. Results further indicate a sharing of water resources between the investigated shrubs and trees in the upper 1 m whilst tree roots seem to have better access to deeper layers of the unsaturated zone. The soil profiles taken after six months reveal elevated 2H-concentrations from depths as great as 4 m up to 1 m below surface indicating upward transport of water vapor. Purely diffuse transport towards the soil surface yielded an estimated 0.4 mm over the dry season. Results are of particular significance for a more precise parameterization of SVAT models and the formulation of water balances in semiarid areas. The developed methodology is beneficial for site-specific investigations in complex and data scarce environments, where the root zone plays a major role for the overall water balance. For arid and semiarid environments experiencing low recharge rates, water transported in its vapor phase is found to play an important role for the overall soil water balance. The use of 2H2O is cost-effective and provides the opportunity to investigate multiple effects along the soil-vegetation interface that have been difficult to deal with previously.

  16. At what depths do magma-water eruptions breach the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-09-01

    When magma ascends upward in the Earth's crust, it can react violently with groundwater, leading to underground explosions or even full-fledged eruptions. If they breach the surface, these phreatomagmatic eruptions leave debris that falls concentrically around the crater or cone. Previously, researchers have sought to determine the depth within the vent from which the eruption originated by looking at the types of ejected rocks and their original positions beneath the volcanoes, but Valentine et al. found that these two factors are not necessarily directly related.

  17. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, M.; Pimpinella, M.; Quini, M.; D’Arienzo, M.; Astefanoaei, I.; Loreti, S.; Guerra, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm‑2, and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min‑1, results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D w, were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D w and D wK were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D w uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D w, it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.

  18. Responses to water depth and clipping of twenty−three plant species in an Indian monsoonal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.; van der Valk, Arnold; Davis, Craig B.

    2015-01-01

    Responses of species to disturbances give insights into how species might respond to future wetland changes. In this study, species of monsoonal wetlands belonging to various functional types (graminoid and non−graminoid emergents, submersed aquatic, floating−leaved aquatic) varied in their growth responses to water depth and harvesting. We tested the effects of water depth (moist soil, flooded) and clipping (unclipped, and clipped) on the biomass and longevity of twenty−three dominant plant species of monsoonal wetlands in the Keoladeo National Park, India in a controlled experiment. With respect to total biomass and survival, six species responded positively to flooding and twelve species responded negatively to clipping. Responses to flooding and clipping, however, sometimes interacted. Individualistic responses of species to water levels and clipping regimes were apparent; species within a functional group did not always respond similarly. Therefore, detailed information on the individualistic responses of species may be needed to predict the vegetation composition of post−disturbance wetlands. In particular, as demands for fresh water increase around the world, studies of life history constraints and responses to hydrological changes will aid wetland managers in developing strategies to conserve biodiversity.

  19. Chemical composition of selected Kansas brines as an aid to interpreting change in water chemistry with depth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dingman, R.J.; Angino, E.E.

    1969-01-01

    Chemical analyses of approximately 1,881 samples of water from selected Kansas brines define the variations of water chemistry with depth and aquifer age. The most concentrated brines are found in the Permian rocks which occupy the intermediate section of the geologic column of this area. Salinity decreases below the Permian until the Ordovician (Arbuckle) horizon is reached and then increases until the Precambrian basement rocks are reached. Chemically, the petroleum brines studied in this small area fit the generally accepted pattern of an increase in calcium, sodium and chloride content with increasing salinity. They do not fit the often-predicted trend of increases in the calcium to chloride ratio, calcium content and salinity with depth and geologic age. The calcium to chloride ratio tends to be asymptotic to about 0.2 with increasing chloride content. Sulfate tends to decrease with increasing calcium content. Bicarbonate content is relatively constant with depth. If many of the hypotheses concerning the chemistry of petroleum brines are valid, then the brines studied are anomolous. An alternative lies in accepting the thesis that exceptions to these hypotheses are rapidly becoming the rule and that indeed we still do not have a valid and general hypothesis to explain the origin and chemistry of petroleum brines. ?? 1969.

  20. Surface analysis and depth profiling of corrosion products formed in lead pipes used to supply low alkalinity drinking water.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C M; Peters, N J; Britton, A; Brady, L; Gardiner, P H E; Lewis, B D

    2004-01-01

    Modern analytical techniques have been applied to investigate the nature of lead pipe corrosion products formed in pH adjusted, orthophosphate-treated, low alkalinity water, under supply conditions. Depth profiling and surface analysis have been carried out on pipe samples obtained from the water distribution system in Glasgow, Scotland, UK. X-ray diffraction spectrometry identified basic lead carbonate, lead oxide and lead phosphate as the principal components. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry revealed the crystalline structure within the corrosion product and also showed spatial correlations existed between calcium, iron, lead, oxygen and phosphorus. Elemental profiling, conducted by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and secondary neutrals mass spectrometry (SNMS) indicated that the corrosion product was not uniform with depth. However, no clear stratification was apparent. Indeed, counts obtained for carbonate, phosphate and oxide were well correlated within the depth range probed by SIMS. SNMS showed relationships existed between carbon, calcium, iron, and phosphorus within the bulk of the scale, as well as at the surface. SIMS imaging confirmed the relationship between calcium and lead and suggested there might also be an association between chloride and phosphorus. PMID:14982163

  1. Variation in functional rooting depth and soil water partitioning along an elevational gradient in the southwestern U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Hungate, B. A.; Kolb, T.; KOCH, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    In semi-arid environments, co-existing plant species may vary in rooting depth, reflecting functional differences in water sources. In mountains of the southwestern U.S., moisture availability increases with elevation and winter and summer precipitation inputs differ isotopically. Examining variation in functional rooting depth among different plant communities and seasons is important to understanding how these communities may respond to the predicted warming and drying of the Southwest. The goal of this study was to assess the water partitioning of the woody plant community along an elevational moisture gradient using water isotopes as a proxy for rooting depth. We hypothesized that spatial and temporal water partitioning would be greatest in low elevation, moisture-stressed sites and would decrease as moisture availability increases with elevation. Five plots were established in each of five biotic communities: upland Sonoran desert, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, mixed-conifer forest, and spruce-fir forest. Soils (surface, 20 cm, 40 cm) and stem samples of dominant woody perennials were sampled during the late spring dry season and in late summer following monsoon rains, water was extracted using a cryo-vacuum line, and ?D and ?18O values were determined by off-axis cavity ringdown spectroscopy. Soil moisture content increased with elevation across all sites and increased with soil depth in the desert, pinyon-juniper, and ponderosa sites. The ?D values differed significantly among species in the desert and the ponderosa forest communities (p=0.014 and 0.039 ), while no species differences in ?D were found in the pinyon-juniper woodland or mixed-conifer forest. With the exception of the pinyon-juniper woodland, these data support our hypothesis that niche differentiation between species becomes less significant higher on the topographic moisture gradient, in the mixed-conifer forest. While spatial water partitioning mostly follows our predictions during the late spring, the lack of differentiation between species in the pinyon-juniper woodland indicates that temporal partitioning may be key to species coexistence in this system.

  2. A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm with explicit water column depth and substrate reflectance parameterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinna, Lachlan I. W.; Fearns, Peter R. C.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Reichstetter, Martina; Franz, Bryan A.; Shea, Donald M.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2015-03-01

    A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm was developed for improving retrievals of inherent optical properties (IOPs) in optically shallow waters. In clear, geometrically shallow waters, light reflected off the seafloor can contribute to the water-leaving radiance signal. This can have a confounding effect on ocean color algorithms developed for optically deep waters, leading to an overestimation of IOPs. The algorithm described here, the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM), uses pre-existing knowledge of bathymetry and benthic substrate brightness to account for optically shallow effects. SWIM was incorporated into the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's L2GEN code and tested in waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua time series (2002-2013). SWIM-derived values of the total non-water absorption coefficient at 443 nm, at(443), the particulate backscattering coefficient at 443 nm, bbp(443), and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 488 nm, Kd(488), were compared with values derived using the Generalized Inherent Optical Properties algorithm (GIOP) and the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA). The results indicated that in clear, optically shallow waters SWIM-derived values of at(443), bbp(443), and Kd(443) were realistically lower than values derived using GIOP and QAA, in agreement with radiative transfer modeling. This signified that the benthic reflectance correction was performing as expected. However, in more optically complex waters, SWIM had difficulty converging to a solution, a likely consequence of internal IOP parameterizations. Whilst a comprehensive study of the SWIM algorithm's behavior was conducted, further work is needed to validate the algorithm using in situ data.

  3. A Semianalytical Ocean Color Inversion Algorithm with Explicit Water Column Depth and Substrate Reflectance Parameterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinna, Lachlan I. W.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fearns, Peter R. C.; Weeks, Scarla J.; Reichstetter, Martina; Franz, Bryan A.; Shea, Donald M.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2015-01-01

    A semianalytical ocean color inversion algorithm was developed for improving retrievals of inherent optical properties (IOPs) in optically shallow waters. In clear, geometrically shallow waters, light reflected off the seafloor can contribute to the water-leaving radiance signal. This can have a confounding effect on ocean color algorithms developed for optically deep waters, leading to an overestimation of IOPs. The algorithm described here, the Shallow Water Inversion Model (SWIM), uses pre-existing knowledge of bathymetry and benthic substrate brightness to account for optically shallow effects. SWIM was incorporated into the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group's L2GEN code and tested in waters of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua time series (2002-2013). SWIM-derived values of the total non-water absorption coefficient at 443 nm, at(443), the particulate backscattering coefficient at 443 nm, bbp(443), and the diffuse attenuation coefficient at 488 nm, Kd(488), were compared with values derived using the Generalized Inherent Optical Properties algorithm (GIOP) and the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA). The results indicated that in clear, optically shallow waters SWIM-derived values of at(443), bbp(443), and Kd(443) were realistically lower than values derived using GIOP and QAA, in agreement with radiative transfer modeling. This signified that the benthic reflectance correction was performing as expected. However, in more optically complex waters, SWIM had difficulty converging to a solution, a likely consequence of internal IOP parameterizations. Whilst a comprehensive study of the SWIM algorithm's behavior was conducted, further work is needed to validate the algorithm using in situ data.

  4. Hyperscale Analysis of River Morphology Though Optical Remote Mapping of Water Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonstad, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The science of in-channel river processes and forms has profited enormously from the introduction of specialized remote sensing tools such as LiDAR and hyperspectral imaging during the past decade. However, the cost and lack of historical data make them a less than ideal choice for many geomorphic questions. As an alternative to high-performance technology, a new analytical technique applied to older color aerial imagery allows extraction of the three-dimensional river environment over enormous distances. In clearwater rivers, some light often reaches the riverbed and returns to the surface, providing optical information about different components of the physical habitat structure. The HAB-2 transform combines the Beer-Lambert law of light absorption with hydrodynamic rules to allow the estimation of river depth at each image pixel, and it allows separation of the depth effect from the remaining image information. The widespread availability of CIR digital orthophotoquads across much of the United States allows the use of HAB approaches to extract three dimensional data for large area riverscapes at scales from about a meter to that of the entire watershed. The rapid and widespread utility of image-based river DTMs allows hitherto unparalleled investigation of geomorphic structures. As one example of this utility, HAB- calibrated high-resolution imagery of the Nueces River watershed, Texas, shows systematic deviations from the classic theory of the downstream hydraulic geometry as well as an unprecedented level of randomness at most scales.

  5. CO2 snow depth and subsurface water-ice abundance in the northern hemisphere of Mars.

    PubMed

    Mitrofanov, I G; Zuber, M T; Litvak, M L; Boynton, W V; Smith, D E; Drake, D; Hamara, D; Kozyrev, A S; Sanin, A B; Shinohara, C; Saunders, R S; Tretyakov, V

    2003-06-27

    Observations of seasonal variations of neutron flux from the high-energy neutron detector (HEND) on Mars Odyssey combined with direct measurements of the thickness of condensed carbon dioxide by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on Mars Global Surveyor show a latitudinal dependence of northern winter deposition of carbon dioxide. The observations are also consistent with a shallow substrate consisting of a layer with water ice overlain by a layer of drier soil. The lower ice-rich layer contains between 50 and 75 weight % water, indicating that the shallow subsurface at northern polar latitudes on Mars is even more water rich than that in the south. PMID:12829779

  6. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nyman, J.A.; La Peyre, M.K.; Caldwell, A.; Piazza, S.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nyman, J.A.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Caldwell, Andral W.; Piazza, Sarai C.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  8. Defining restoration targets for water depth and salinity in wind-dominated Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. coastal marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, J. A.; La Peyre, M. K.; Caldwell, A.; Piazza, S.; Thom, C.; Winslow, C.

    2009-10-01

    SummaryCoastal wetlands provide valued ecosystem functions but the sustainability of those functions often is threatened by artificial hydrologic conditions. It is widely recognized that increased flooding and salinity can stress emergent plants, but there are few measurements to guide restoration, management, and mitigation. Marsh flooding can be estimated over large areas with few data where winds have little effect on water levels, but quantifying flooding requires hourly measurements over long time periods where tides are wind-dominated such as the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estimating salinity of flood water requires direct daily measurements because coastal marshes are characterized by dynamic salinity gradients. We analyzed 399,772 hourly observations of water depth and 521,561 hourly observations of water salinity from 14 sites in Louisiana coastal marshes dominated by Spartina patens (Ait.) Muhl. Unlike predicted water levels, observed water levels varied monthly and annually. We attributed those observed variations to variations in river runoff and winds. In stable marshes with slow wetland loss rates, we found that marsh elevation averaged 1 cm above mean high water, 15 cm above mean water, and 32 cm above mean low water levels. Water salinity averaged 3.7 ppt during April, May, and June, and 5.4 ppt during July, August, and September. The daily, seasonal, and annual variation in water levels and salinity that were evident would support the contention that such variation be retained when designing and operating coastal wetland management and restoration projects. Our findings might be of interest to scientists, engineers, and managers involved in restoration, management, and restoration in other regions where S. patens or similar species are common but local data are unavailable.

  9. Detailed documentation of dynamic changes in water depth and surface velocity during large flood at steep mountain stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Yuko; Uchida, Taro

    2015-04-01

    Understanding discharge capacity of the channel and changes in hydraulic property during large storms are essential for the flash flood prediction, however, those information are limited for the steep mountain channels because of complex nature of steep channels and lack of measured data. Thus, we aimed to obtain detailed water level and surface velocity data during large flood at steep mountain channel and document how complex channel morphology could affect water flows during large storms. We installed water level and surface velocity sensors at cascade and 10m downstream pool cross section of the cascade-pool channel at Aono Research Forest of the Arboricultural Research Institute of The University of Tokyo Forests, in Japan and measured for 1-minutes interval. We could obtain data for storm with total precipitation of 288 mm falling in 59 hours with maximum rainfall intensity of 25 mm/hr on relatively wet condition. During this storm, relative water depth increased from 0.35 to 1.57m and surface velocity increased from 0.35 to 4.15m/s. As expected, changes in water depth, surface velocity and velocity profiles were complex and even different between adjacent cascade and pool cross section. Changes in flow characteristics occurred fist at the cascade when discharge increased to some point, water was suddenly stagnated locally at the foot of the cascade. From this moment, water level increased remarkably but surface velocity and velocity profile stayed almost constant at the cascade cross section. Then, at the downstream pool, when most of rocks were submerged at the mean depth of 0.7m, surface velocity suddenly started to increase remarkably and velocity profile changed, as they might develop negative flow in the lower portion of the profile, but water level did not increase as much. When rainfall diminished, first, surface velocity markedly declined and velocity profile went back to original state at the pool, then submerged flows at the bottom of the cascade was cancelled. Those data proved the longtime hypothesis that marked change in flow characteristics would occur when steps became submerged based on field data. Presented temporally and spatially detailed flow measurements were effective to document and understand flow characteristics during large flood in steep mountain channel.

  10. Initial yield to depth relation for water wells drilled into crystalline bedrock--Pinardville quadrangle, New Hampshire.

    PubMed

    Drew, L J; Schuenemeyer, J H; Armstrong, T R; Sutphin, D M

    2001-01-01

    A model is proposed to explain the statistical relations between the mean initial water well yields from eight time increments from 1984 to 1998 for wells drilled into the crystalline bedrock aquifer system in the Pinardville area of southern New Hampshire and the type of bedrock, mean well depth, and mean well elevation. Statistical analyses show that the mean total yield of drilling increments is positively correlated with mean total well depth and mean well elevation. In addition, the mean total well yield varies with rock type from a minimum of 46.9 L/min (12.4 gpm) in the Damon Pond granite to a maximum of 74.5 L/min (19.7 gpm) in the Permian pegmatite and granite unit. Across the eight drilling increments that comprise 211 wells each, the percentages of very low-yield wells (1.9 L/min [0.5 gpm] or less) and high-yield wells (151.4 L/min [40 gpm] or more) increased, and those of intermediate-yield wells decreased. As housing development progressed during the 1984 to 1998 interval, the mean depth of the wells and their elevations increased, and the mix of percentages of the bedrock types drilled changed markedly. The proposed model uses a feed-forward mechanism to explain the interaction between the increasing mean elevation, mean well depth, and percentages of very low-yielding wells and the mean well yield. The increasing percentages of very low-yielding wells through time and the economics of the housing market may control the system that forces the mean well depths, percentages of high-yield wells, and mean well yields to increase. The reason for the increasing percentages of very low-yield wells is uncertain, but the explanation is believed to involve the complex structural geology and tectonic history of the Pinardville quadrangle. PMID:11554245

  11. Lake Level Reconstruction Using the Water Depth Related Distribution of Ostracoda in two Tibetan Lakes, Nam Co and Donggi Cona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, F.; Mischke, S.; Bookhagen, B.; Wrozyna, C.; Schwalb, A.

    2008-12-01

    Changes in the Asian Monsoon are reflected in paleo-lake level changes that can be reconstructed from ostracode associations of lake sediment cores. Ostracodes are one of the main micropaleontological proxies in paleolimnological research. They show high abundance and continuous presence in the often slightly saline high-altitude lakes on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). A comprehensive knowledge about the ecology and present day depth distribution of species, however, is a prerequisite for the use of this proxy. Therefore, we studied Recent ostracode associations from two lakes on the Tibetan Plateau for actualistic reference. Nam Co is situated on the south-eastern TP (30.5 N; 90.7 E) at 4719 m altitude. The surficially closed lake covers an area of 1961 km2 and has a maximum depth of 105 m. The water is slightly brackish (0.8 psu). The other lake, Donggi Cona, is located on the north-eastern TP (35.3 N; 98.9 E) at 4144 m altitude. Covering 250 km2; Donggi Cona is much smaller and shallower (38 m maximum depth) than Nam Co. Donggi Cona is a through-flow system and thus characterized by prevailing freshwater conditions. Ostracode diversity and species composition of both lakes are different; we identified six species in Nam Co and thirteen species in Donggi Cona sediments; four of the species we found in Nam Co were found in Donggi Cona as well. The most abundant species (70-95%) in Nam Co is Leucocytherella sinensis Huang, 1982, which is absent from Donggi Cona. There, Eucypris gyirongensis Huang, 1982 (shallow water indicator) and Leucocythere mirabilis (Kaufmann, 1892) (deep water indicator) are dominant. Despite these faunistic differences, our results suggest that Limnocythere inopinata (Baird, 1843) prefers shallow water and Leucocythere dorsotuberosa Huang, 1982, deep water below the thermocline in both lakes. The depth dependent distribution of ostracode species provides, together with autecological information on preferences and tolerances of species a database to establish a transfer function for the reconstruction of water depths and thus past lake levels. These transfer functions cover water depths between 3.7 m and 64 m in Nam Co, and between 0.2 m and 35 m in Donggi Cona. The standard error is approximately 7 m. Ostracodes of a 2.5 m long core and two short cores from Nam Co, for example, indicate lake levels 10 m to 20 m lower than today before 4 ka BP followed by a high stand of initially more than 10 m above the modern lake level. A distinct drop of approximately 25 m is reconstructed for the Little Ice Age. Since then until today, the lake level has been rising. Faunistic and also some ecological differences of species associations stress the need of regional modern data sets necessary for the establishment of transfer functions and their application to long sedimentary sequences from Tibetan Plateau lake systems.

  12. Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

    2002-03-12

    This map shows the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area. It was prepared utilizing gravity (Ponce and others, 2001), geologic (Jennings and others, 1977; Stewart and Carlson, 1978), and drill-hole information. Geophysical investigations of the Death Valley ground-water model area are part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (Interagency Agreement DE-AI08-96NV11967) to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwestern Nevada and parts of California. The Death Valley ground-water model is located between lat 35 degrees 00' and 38 degrees 15' N., and long 115 degrees and 118 degrees W.

  13. Mid-depth Subtropical Water Circulation and Distribution Near Tidewater Glaciers in Uummannaq Fjord, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenty, I. G.; Rignot, E. J.; Cai, C.; Menemenlis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The melting of grounded glaciers and ice sheets contribute about 65% of total global mean sea level rise and are responsible for about 50% of its acceleration from 2 to 3 mm yr-1 over the past two decades. Remote sensing and in situ observations have revealed that much of Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss has been synchronous with a temperature increase of the relatively warm subsurface waters of the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean that circulate around the island's continental shelf. At key locations, these warm waters cross the continental shelf and are able to reach fjords with outlet tidewater glaciers terminating in direct contact with the ocean. The existence of these warm waters in fjords with shrinking outlet glaciers has been previously documented at several locations around Greenland. Here we use oceanographic data collected in August 2012 and 2013 to show for the first time the existence and distribution of these warm waters throughout Uummannaq Fjord, a major fjord complex in West Greenland. The distribution of these warm waters in conjunction with estimates of ocean circulation and new ocean seafloor measurements reveals the set of glaciers that are likely venerable to enhanced submarine melting in a warming climate.

  14. Depth of immersion as a determinant of the natriuresis of water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Miller, M.; Schneider, N.

    1974-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to further assess the contribution of an immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient on the redistribution of blood volume. The rate of sodium excretion by seated subjects was significantly increased by water immersion up to the chest and neck compared to waist immersion and controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that whereas immersion to the level of the diaphragm merely cancels the intravascular hydrostatic pressure gradient by providing an identical external gradient, immersion above the diaphragm level results in increased water pressure which tends to favor a shift in blood volume from the lower extremities.

  15. Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape as a proxy for water-table depth in peatlands: validation and assessment of seasonal variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, Robert K.; Hotchkiss, Sara C.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: 1. Discoloration of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tape has been used in peatland ecological and hydrological studies as an inexpensive way to monitor changes in water-table depth and reducing conditions. 2. We investigated the relationship between depth of PVC tape discoloration and measured water-table depth at monthly time steps during the growing season within nine kettle peatlands of northern Wisconsin. Our specific objectives were to: (1) determine if PVC discoloration is an accurate method of inferring water-table depth in Sphagnum-dominated kettle peatlands of the region; (2) assess seasonal variability in the accuracy of the method; and (3) determine if systematic differences in accuracy occurred among microhabitats, PVC tape colour and peatlands. 3. Our results indicated that PVC tape discoloration can be used to describe gradients of water-table depth in kettle peatlands. However, accuracy differed among the peatlands studied, and was systematically biased in early spring and late summer/autumn. Regardless of the month when the tape was installed, the highest elevations of PVC tape discoloration showed the strongest correlation with midsummer (around July) water-table depth and average water-table depth during the growing season. 4. The PVC tape discoloration method should be used cautiously when precise estimates are needed of seasonal changes in the water-table.

  16. Oman-India pipeline sets survey challenges. Crossing involves most rugged terrain, water depths four times greater than previous attempts

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decisions concerning the route for the world`s deepest pipeline call for some of the most challenging commercial oceanographic and engineering surveys ever undertaken. Oman Oil Co.`s 1, 170-kilometer pipeline will carry 2 billion cubic feet of gas daily across the Arabian Sea from Oman to the northern coast of India at the Gulf of Kutch. Not only will the project be in water depths four times greater than any previous pipeline, but it will cross some of the world`s most rugged seabed terrain, traversing ridges and plunging into deep canyons. Project costs are likely to approach $5 billion.

  17. Assessment of satellite derived diffuse attenuation coefficients and euphotic depths in south Florida coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Optical data collected in coastal waters off South Florida and in the Caribbean Sea between January 2009 and December 2010 were used to evaluate products derived with three bio-optical inversion algorithms applied to MOIDS/Aqua, MODIS/Terra, and SeaWiFS satellite observations. Th...

  18. A simple device for the collection of water and dissolved gases at defined depths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A device, consisting of a jar fitted with an inlet comprised of a gas-tight check valve and 2-way ball valve outlet connected via tubing to a portable peristaltic pump, was constructed to collect water samples without atmospheric contamination or loss of dissolved gases. A headspace void for dissol...

  19. Utilizing Depth of Colonization of Seagrasses to Develop Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Florida Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    US EPA is working with state and local partners in Florida to develop numeric water quality criteria to protect estuaries from nutrient pollution. Similar to other nutrient management programs in Florida, EPA is considering status of seagrass habitats as an indicator of biologic...

  20. Tillage depth and timing effects on soil water profiles in two semiarid soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two-year winter wheat--fallow rotation continues to be the most profitable and productive cropping system in much of the Pacific Northwest, USA. Sustainability of soils in the region depends on our ability to halt or greatly reduce wind and water erosion. An incomplete understanding of how tille...

  1. Water uptake and hydraulic redistribution across large woody root systems to 20 m depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the occurrence of hydraulic redistribution (HR) in a semi-arid woodland in central Texas to improve our understanding of the ecohydrological consequences of HR for the dominant evergreen and deciduous tree species in this water-limited ecosystem. We measured sap flow in numerous stem...

  2. An atlas of selected beta-ray spectra and depth-dose distributions in lithium fluoride and soft tissue generated by a fast Monte-Carlo-based sampling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.; Gillespie, Timothy J.; Chris Wang, C.-K.

    1996-12-01

    A method to generate depth-dose distributions due to beta radiation in LiF and soft tissue is proposed. In this method, the EGS4 Monte Carlo radiation transport code is initially used to generate a library of monoenergetic electron depth-dose distributions in the material for electron energies in the range of 10 keV to 5 MeV in 10 keV increments. A polynomial least-squares fit is applied to each distribution. In addition, a theoretical model is developed to generate beta-ray energy spectra of selected radionuclides. A standard Monte Carlo random sampling technique is then employed to sample the spectra and generate the depth-dose distributions in LiF and soft tissue. The proposed method has an advantage over more traditional methods in that the actual radiation transport in the media is performed only once for a set of monoenergetic cases and the beta depth-dose distributions are easily generated by sampling this previously-acquired database in a matter of minutes. This method therefore reduces the demand on computer resources and time. The method can be used to calculate depth-dose distribution due to any beta-emitting nuclide or combination of nuclides with up to ten beta components.

  3. A novel method for patient exit and entrance dose prediction based on water equivalent path length measured with an amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavuma, Awusi; Glegg, Martin; Metwaly, Mohamed; Currie, Garry; Elliott, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In vivo dosimetry is one of the quality assurance tools used in radiotherapy to monitor the dose delivered to the patient. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images for a set of solid water phantoms of varying thicknesses were acquired and the data fitted onto a quadratic equation, which relates the reduction in photon beam intensity to the attenuation coefficient and material thickness at a reference condition. The quadratic model is used to convert the measured grey scale value into water equivalent path length (EPL) at each pixel for any material imaged by the detector. For any other non-reference conditions, scatter, field size and MU variation effects on the image were corrected by relative measurements using an ionization chamber and an EPID. The 2D EPL is linked to the percentage exit dose table, for different thicknesses and field sizes, thereby converting the plane pixel values at each point into a 2D dose map. The off-axis ratio is corrected using envelope and boundary profiles generated from the treatment planning system (TPS). The method requires field size, monitor unit and source-to-surface distance (SSD) as clinical input parameters to predict the exit dose, which is then used to determine the entrance dose. The measured pixel dose maps were compared with calculated doses from TPS for both entrance and exit depth of phantom. The gamma index at 3% dose difference (DD) and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) resulted in an average of 97% passing for the square fields of 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm. The exit dose EPID dose distributions predicted by the algorithm were in better agreement with TPS-calculated doses than phantom entrance dose distributions.

  4. Effective Dose Radon 222 of the Tap Water in Children and Adults People; Minab City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Kargosha, Morteza; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Rasouli Amirhajeloo, Leila; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    222Rn is a radioactive, odorless, and colorless element which has a half-life of 3.83 days. One of 222Rn main resources are Groundwater (wells, springs, etc.). Hence, the use of groundwater with high concentration of 222Rn can increase the risk of lung and stomach cancers. Concentration of 222Rn in tap water of Minab city in two temperatures 5 and 15 C was measured by radon meter model RTM1668-2. The effective dose was calculated by equations proposed by UNSCEAR. Geometric mean concentration of 222Rn in drinking water was found to be 0.780.06 and 0.460.04 Bq/l at 5 and 15 ?C (p value<0.05), respectively. The effective doses were 0.006 and 0.003 mSv/y for adults, and 0.011 and 0.007 mSv/y for the children, respectively (p value<0.05). Besides, the effective dose for adult through inhaling 222Rn at 5 and 15 ?C were estimated 0.0021 and 0.0012mSv/y, respectively. Geometric mean concentration in 222Rn drinking water and effective dose received from drinking water and inhalation of 222Rn is lower than WHO and EPA standard limits. Increasing temperature of drinking water will decrease the effective dose received. Annual Effective dose received from inhalation and consumption of 222Rn in drinking water in children is more than adults. PMID:26573047

  5. Changing Water Depths in the Eastern Part of Sydney Harbour due to Human Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhearn, Phillip

    2014-12-01

    Sydney Harbour has been significantly modified by human impacts from the start of the European settlement in 1788. Land clearing has accelerated soil erosion, resulting in increased sedimentation. Dredging has deepened many areas to accommodate ever-larger ships. In this paper a GIS method is used to map bathymetric changes in the eastern part of the harbour from 1903 to more recently. Dredged areas are apparent in the entrance and in wharfage areas, while sedimentation is most marked around the deepest section, which is well inside the harbour itself. In this latter region sediment has built up considerably, to over 3 m in some locations, and ship-induced motions appear to have had an impact. Despite these changes the overall depth of the eastern part of the harbour has changed little. This work is of interest to maritime archaeologists because it brings out the types of processes by which sediments can accumulate and be removed thus altering a harbour's seabed and potentially burying, exposing or erasing archaeological sites and artefacts.

  6. Absorbed dose to water: Standards and traceability for radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    Although the need for appropriate quantities and units for ionizing radiation has existed since shortly after discovery of X-rays, the quantities and units in general use today were not completely formalized until about 15 years ago. The development of appropriate national and international standards have also been ongoing. For many years the quantity, exposure, measured in units of roentgen was the national standard and they were also the quantity and units in which radiotherapy was described. With the introduction of megavoltage X-ray and electron-beam equipment and the adoption of the quantity {open_quotes}absorbed-dose{close_quotes} measured in units of rad (or gray) different approaches to calibrating these beams were needed. This was especially the case since the national standard in terms of exposure at a maximum photon energy for {sup 60}Co gamma rays was only available. Since the late 1960s various machine calibration protocols have been published. These protocols have to accommodate changes in modality, energy, quantities and units between the national standard and the user. Because of this, a new definition of traceability is proposed to accommodate the present system. By recording all intercomparisons and parameters used, an auditable calibration chain can be maintained. Even with the introduction of calibration protocols based upon national absorbed dose standards, the proposed traceability definition will still be needed.

  7. The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) surface-water model, version 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Telis, Pamela A.; Xie, Zhixiao; Liu, Zhongwei; Li, Yingru; Conrads, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Three applications of the EDEN-modeled water surfaces and other EDEN datasets are presented in the report to show how scientists and resource managers are using EDEN datasets to analyze biological and ecological responses to hydrologic changes in the Everglades. The biological responses of two important Everglades species, alligators and wading birds, to changes in hydrology are described. The effects of hydrology on fire dynamics in the Everglades are also discussed.

  8. Transient temperature responses of hydronic radiant floor heating system by different pipe embedding depth and water supply condition.

    PubMed

    Chung, K S; Sohn, J Y; Baik, Y K; Kang, J S

    1993-07-01

    "Ondol" is a Korean unique heating system. It is a specific radiant floor heating system using combustion heat of briquette or timber in Korea. Such traditional "Ondol" is changed to radiant heating system with pipe-coil embedded in the floor or slab. This study has contributed to the understandings of the transient behaviours of Ondol-heated floor panels and enclosure exposed to this type of heating system. The result is that the water supply temperature had a large effect on the rate of increase in floor surface and room air temperature. But, in spite of a higher water supply temperature, the heat flow rate was not increased considerably. The shallow pipe embedding depths, of course, result in a low heat flow rate. PMID:8373479

  9. Dose rate estimates from irradiated light-water-reactor fuel assemblies in air

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, W.R.; Sheaffer, M.K.; Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1994-01-31

    It is generally considered that irradiated spent fuel is so radioactive (self-protecting) that it can only be moved and processed with specialized equipment and facilities. However, a small, possibly subnational, group acting in secret with no concern for the environment (other than the reduction of signatures) and willing to incur substantial but not lethal radiation doses, could obtain plutonium by stealing and processing irradiated spent fuel that has cooled for several years. In this paper, we estimate the dose rate at various distances and directions from typical pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent-fuel assemblies as a function of cooling time. Our results show that the dose rate is reduced rapidly for the first ten years after exposure in the reactor, and that it is reduced by a factor of {approx}10 (from the one year dose rate) after 15 years. Even for fuel that has cooled for 15 years, a lethal dose (LD50) of 450 rem would be received at 1 m from the center of the fuel assembly after several minutes. However, moving from 1 to 5 m reduces the dose rate by over a factor of 10, and moving from 1 to 10 m reduces the dose rate by about a factor of 50. The dose rates 1 m from the top or bottom of the assembly are considerably less (about 10 and 22%, respectively) than 1 m from the center of the assembly, which is the direction of the maximum dose rate.

  10. Age-dependent dose assessment of 226Ra from bottled water intake.

    PubMed

    Bronzovic, Maja; Marovic, Gordana

    2005-05-01

    Water may present a source of prolonged exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides. One of the most frequently occurring radionuclides in natural mineral and spring waters is 226Ra and its decay products. The contribution of drinking water to the total exposure is very small, at about 5% of the average effective dose attributable annually to natural background radiation, but that exposure contributes to the risk of adverse health consequences. In this study the mean values of 226Ra concentration determined in natural mineral and spring bottled waters range from 6 to 412 mBq L(-1), which is in accord with Croatian legislation. 226Ra effective doses per year from spring water consumption range up to 86 microSv, while 226Ra effective doses per year from mineral water consumption show much higher values. The highest 226Ra effective doses per year from mineral waters consumption, which are up to seven times higher than the dose recommended by WHO (100 microSv), were found in infants and teens. Based on this study, drinking of certain brands of bottled mineral water is not recommended for these age groups because assessed 226Ra effective doses per year exceed the recommended limits. From other research it is known that testosterone appears in elevated concentration during these life periods and affects bone calcification. Therefore, testosterone could affect the retention of 226Ra into the bone. To make more precise conclusions further research is necessary. Adults and especially elderly people are much less susceptible to the presence of 226Ra. According to the results obtained in this study, 226Ra effective doses per year assessed for these age groups were considerably lower (i.e., 10 microSv). PMID:15824596

  11. New absorbed dose measurement with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Araki, Fujio; Onizuka, Ryota; Hioki, Kazunari; Tomiyama, Yuuki; Yamashita, Yusuke

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop new dosimetry with cylindrical water phantoms for multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The ionization measurement was performed with a Farmer ionization chamber at the center and four peripheral points in the body-type and head-type cylindrical water phantoms. The ionization was converted to the absorbed dose using a 60Co absorbed-dose-to-water calibration factor and Monte Carlo (MC) -calculated correction factors. The correction factors were calculated from MDCT (Brilliance iCT, 64-slice, Philips Electronics) modeled with GMctdospp (IMPS, Germany) software based on the EGSnrc MC code. The spectrum of incident x-ray beams and the configuration of a bowtie filter for MDCT were determined so that calculated photon intensity attenuation curves for aluminum (Al) and calculated off-center ratio (OCR) profiles in air coincided with those measured. The MC-calculated doses were calibrated by the absorbed dose measured at the center in both cylindrical water phantoms. Calculated doses were compared with measured doses at four peripheral points and the center in the phantom for various beam pitches and beam collimations. The calibration factors and the uncertainty of the absorbed dose determined using this method were also compared with those obtained by CTDIair (CT dose index in air). Calculated Al half-value layers and OCRs in air were within 0.3% and 3% agreement with the measured values, respectively. Calculated doses at four peripheral points and the centers for various beam pitches and beam collimations were within 5% and 2% agreement with measured values, respectively. The MC-calibration factors by our method were 44-50% lower than values by CTDIair due to the overbeaming effect. However, the calibration factors for CTDIair agreed within 5% with those of our method after correction for the overbeaming effect. Our method makes it possible to directly measure the absorbed dose for MDCT and is more robust and accurate than the CTDIair measurement.

  12. Depth to and concentrations of water in large bodies of silicic magma. Progress report, July 1, 1982-June 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, A.T.

    1983-03-03

    Large bodies of silicic magma are potential sources of geothermal energy and ore. They also pose threats of catastrophic eruptions. The depths of such bodies are related to their economic potential and probably to their eruption mechanisms. The concentrations of water in the magmas are important for their eruptive and dynamical behavior and for the development of ores. Estimates of viscosity and density of melt require knowledge of concentration of water. The concentration of water in melt before ascent and eruption can be measured in inclusions of glass which became trapped in crystals before extrusion. The depth of a magma body can be estimated or delimited if we can find out the concentrations of both carbon dioxide and water in the inclusions of glass. Initial results on the Bishop Tuff of Long Valley Caldera, California yield 4.9 +- 0.5 percent H/sub 2/O for glass included in quartz from the Plinian air fall pumice. This result is comparable to the estimates of Hildreth (1977) of about 3.5 to 4.9 percent H/sub 2/O in the lowermost part of the Bishop ash flow. From January 1982 through December 1982, analyses of inclusions of glass in two additional quartz phenocrysts from the Plinian air fall unit of the Bishop Tuff revealed variable H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/. The corresponding partial pressures range between about 2000 and 5000 atmospheres, assuming gas saturation. The variation may be natural or caused by an analytical artifact. A computerized data file has been constructed to facilitate the storage and retrieval of published and unpublished chemical analyses of glasses and minerals. Some data on the Bishop Tuff are presently stored.

  13. A nonlinear Schrdinger equation for capillary-gravity water waves on finite depth with constant vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hung-Chu; Kharif, Christian; Francius, Marc; Chen, Yang-Yih

    2015-04-01

    In this study a nonlinear Schrdinger equation governing the complex envelope of a capillary-gravity water wave train propagating on uniform vertical shear current is derived. When the vorticity and surface tension vanishes, the classical NLS equation is found. The influence of constant vorticity and surface tension on the well-known stability properties of weakly nonlinear wave packets is studied. It is demonstrated that vorticity and surface tension modifies significantly the modulational instability properties of weakly nonlinear plane waves, namely the growth rate and bandwidth. Comparison with a fully nonlinear approach is conducted, too.

  14. Impact of intra- versus inter-annual snow depth variation on water relations and photosynthesis for two Great Basin Desert shrubs.

    PubMed

    Loik, Michael E; Griffith, Alden B; Alpert, Holly; Concilio, Amy L; Wade, Catherine E; Martinson, Sharon J

    2015-06-01

    Snowfall provides the majority of soil water in certain ecosystems of North America. We tested the hypothesis that snow depth variation affects soil water content, which in turn drives water potential (?) and photosynthesis, over 10 years for two widespread shrubs of the western USA. Stem ? (? stem) and photosynthetic gas exchange [stomatal conductance to water vapor (g s), and CO2 assimilation (A)] were measured in mid-June each year from 2004 to 2013 for Artemisia tridentata var. vaseyana (Asteraceae) and Purshia tridentata (Rosaceae). Snow fences were used to create increased or decreased snow depth plots. Snow depth on +snow plots was about twice that of ambient plots in most years, and 20 % lower on -snow plots, consistent with several down-scaled climate model projections. Maximal soil water content at 40- and 100-cm depths was correlated with February snow depth. For both species, multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) showed that ? stem, g s, and A were significantly affected by intra-annual variation in snow depth. Within years, MANOVA showed that only A was significantly affected by spatial snow depth treatments for A. tridentata, and ? stem was significantly affected by snow depth for P. tridentata. Results show that stem water relations and photosynthetic gas exchange for these two cold desert shrub species in mid-June were more affected by inter-annual variation in snow depth by comparison to within-year spatial variation in snow depth. The results highlight the potential importance of changes in inter-annual variation in snowfall for future shrub photosynthesis in the western Great Basin Desert. PMID:25627409

  15. Comparative study of seismic techniques (refraction, SASW and borehole) for determining the depth and position of the water table in the vicinity of the Rio Grande

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalantarian, Enayatollah

    I conducted a comparison study to detect the seasonal changes in position of the water table depth using seismic refraction, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), down hole seismic and DC resistivity geophysical techniques in two silty sand areas in the vicinity of the Rio Grande (Feb 2002, June 2002 and March 2003). These areas contain slightly silty sand and friable silty clay loam, and are located near two sets of boreholes (˜200 meters apart) within the Rio Bosque Park. The seasonal fluctuation of the water table depth is a function of the amount of rain, irrigation and river levels. A combination of four geophysical surveys is used to establish a correlation between the water table depth as measured in boreholes and its various geophysical signatures. To establish the reliability of the geophysical techniques, I conducted several experiments in both the laboratory and the field to verify the velocity profiles of dry and saturated materials at the two sites. The downhole seismic, SASW and DC resistivity techniques all provided three-layer soil models with layer thicknesses and properties consistent with the known depth to the water table. The seismic refraction technique, however, overestimates the water table depth by three factors. The SASW method appears to be the best technique for locating the water table, with estimates within ˜20 cm of true water table depth.

  16. Experimental study of the water depth and rainfall intensity effects on the bed roughness coefficient used in distributed urban drainage models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraga, Ignacio; Cea, Luis; Puertas, Jernimo

    2013-11-01

    Variability of roughness coefficients with water depth and rainfall is studied.Experimental measurements and numerical calibration are performed.Results show bed friction variations, not well captured by any standard formulation.

  17. The difference of scoring dose to water or tissues in Monte Carlo dose calculations for low energy brachytherapy photon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beaulieu, Luc; Verhaegen, Frank

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The goal of this work is to compare D{sub m,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in medium) and D{sub w,m} (radiation transported in medium; dose scored in water) obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for a subset of human tissues of interest in low energy photon brachytherapy. Using low dose rate seeds and an electronic brachytherapy source (EBS), the authors quantify the large cavity theory conversion factors required. The authors also assess whether applying large cavity theory utilizing the sources' initial photon spectra and average photon energy induces errors related to spatial spectral variations. First, ideal spherical geometries were investigated, followed by clinical brachytherapy LDR seed implants for breast and prostate cancer patients. Methods: Two types of dose calculations are performed with the GEANT4 MC code. (1) For several human tissues, dose profiles are obtained in spherical geometries centered on four types of low energy brachytherapy sources: {sup 125}I, {sup 103}Pd, and {sup 131}Cs seeds, as well as an EBS operating at 50 kV. Ratios of D{sub w,m} over D{sub m,m} are evaluated in the 0-6 cm range. In addition to mean tissue composition, compositions corresponding to one standard deviation from the mean are also studied. (2) Four clinical breast (using {sup 103}Pd) and prostate (using {sup 125}I) brachytherapy seed implants are considered. MC dose calculations are performed based on postimplant CT scans using prostate and breast tissue compositions. PTV D{sub 90} values are compared for D{sub w,m} and D{sub m,m}. Results: (1) Differences (D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m}-1) of -3% to 70% are observed for the investigated tissues. For a given tissue, D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m} is similar for all sources within 4% and does not vary more than 2% with distance due to very moderate spectral shifts. Variations of tissue composition about the assumed mean composition influence the conversion factors up to 38%. (2) The ratio of D{sub 90(w,m)} over D{sub 90(m,m)} for clinical implants matches D{sub w,m}/D{sub m,m} at 1 cm from the single point sources. Conclusions: Given the small variation with distance, using conversion factors based on the emitted photon spectrum (or its mean energy) of a given source introduces minimal error. The large differences observed between scoring schemes underline the need for guidelines on choice of media for dose reporting. Providing such guidelines is beyond the scope of this work.

  18. Voigt profile introduces optical depth dependent systematic errors - Detected in high resolution laboratory spectra of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2016-02-01

    The Voigt profile commonly used in radiative transfer modeling of Earth's and planets' atmospheres for remote sensing/climate modeling produces systematic errors so far not accounted for. Saturated lines are systematically too narrow when calculated from pressure broadening parameters based on the analysis of laboratory data with the Voigt profile. This is caused by line narrowing effects leading to systematically too small fitted broadening parameters when applying the Voigt profile. These effective values are still valid to model non-saturated lines with sufficient accuracy. Saturated lines dominated by the wings of the line profile are sufficiently accurately modeled with a Voigt profile with the correct broadening parameters and are thus systematically too narrow when calculated with the effective values. The systematic error was quantified by mid infrared laboratory spectroscopy of the water ν2 fundamental. Correct Voigt profile based pressure broadening parameters for saturated lines were 3-4% larger than the effective ones in the spectroscopic database. Impacts on remote sensing and climate modeling are expected. Combination of saturated and non-saturated lines in the spectroscopic analysis will quantify line narrowing with unprecedented precision.

  19. Dose effect for Japanese due to 232Th and 238U in imported drinking water.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kunio; Kimura, Shinzo; Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Arae, Hideki

    2004-04-01

    The consumption rate of bottled mineral water in Japan has increased due to changes in eating habits and contamination of water sources. Radioactivity levels of 238U and 232Th in imported mineral water were checked from the viewpoint of internal radiation for Japanese subjects. Concentration ranges of 238U and 232Th in imported bottled mineral water, domestic bottled mineral water, domestic tap water, and domestic soft drinks were as follows: for U, N.D to 7.48 x 10(3), 1.07 to 344, 0.66 to 104, and 3.04 to 46.2 ng dm (ppt); for Th, 0.60 to 5.12, 0.65 to 22.4, 0.64 to 22.1, and 11.0 to 48.5 ng dm, respectively. In some brands of imported bottled mineral water, U concentration was sometimes much higher than domestic bottled mineral water and domestic tap water. The annual effective dose (1.5 x 10(-3) mSv y(-1) estimated from intake of 238U was approximately 7 times higher than that through dietary intake in Japanese. However, the internal dose added by drinking the imported portable water is negligible compared with total annual internal dose. Concentrations of non-radioactive elements were also compared between imported and domestic bottled water. Geometric means of cobalt, arsenic, strontium, cesium, phosphorous, and calcium in imported bottled water were higher compared with those of domestic bottled mineral water and domestic tap water. Maximum values of 11 elements (arsenic, rubidium, strontium, cesium, barium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, and manganese) were also found in imported bottled water. PMID:15057057

  20. Maps Showing Depth to Water Table, September 1976, and Area Inundated by the June 1975 Flood, Helena Valley, Lewis and Clark County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilke, Kathleen R.; Johnson, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    Depth to water table, September 1976, and area inundated by the June 1975 flood in the Helena valley, Montana, are mapped on two sheets, Helena and East Helena 7.5-minute quadrangles, at scale 1:48,000. Depth to water table was mapped using water-level measurements from existing shallow observation wells and selected domestic wells, and from field reconnaissance of topography. A hydrograph shows water-level fluctuation in two wells located in different parts of the valley. Area inundated by the June 1975 flood was mapped from aerial photos along Prickly Pear and Tenmile Creeks and by field reconnaissance along Silver Creek. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Changes in soil aggregate stability under different irrigation doses of waste water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morugán, Alicia; García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Bárcenas, Gema

    2010-05-01

    Freshwater availability and soil degradation are two of the most important environmental problems in the Mediterranean area acerbated by incorrect agricultural use of irrigation in which organic matter is not correctly managed, the use of low quality water for irrigation, and the inefficiency of dose irrigation. For these reasons strategies for saving water and for the restoration of the mean properties of soil are necessary. The use of treated waste water for the irrigation of agricultural land could be a good solution to these problems, as it reduces the utilization of fresh water and could potentially improve key soil properties. In this work we have been studying, for more than three years, the effects on soil properties of different doses of irrigation with waste water. Here we show the results on aggregate stability. The study is located in an agricultural area at Biar (Alicante, SE of Spain), with a crop of grape (Vitis labrusca). Three types of waters are being used in the irrigation of the soil: fresh water (control) (TC), and treated waste water from secondary (T2) and tertiary treatment (T3). Three different doses of irrigation have been applied to fit the efficiency of the irrigation to the crop and soil type: D10 (10 L m-2 every week during 17 months), D50 (50 L m-2 every fifteen days during 14 moths) and D30 (30 L m-2 every week during 6 months up to present day). The results showed a clear decrease of aggregate stability during the period we used the second dose (D50) independent of the type of water used. That dose of irrigation and frequency produced strong wetting and drying cycles (WD) in the soil, and this is suspected to be the main factor responsible for the results. When we changed the dose of irrigation to D30, reducing the quantity per event and increasing the frequency, the soil aggregate stability started to improve. This dose avoids strong drying periods between irrigation events and the aggregate stability is confirmed to be slowly increasing. A study in the medium or long-term is necessary to continue to ascertain the impact on soil of the irrigation and to assess the feasibility of using these waters in this type of soil. Aknowledgements: This research was supported by the Water Reuse project (Reference STREP- FP6-2003-INCO-Russia+NIS-1. PL 516731). A. Morugán acknowledge the grants from 'Caja Mediterraneo'. The authors also acknowledge the "Biar waste water treatment station", 'Entidad pública de saneamiento de aguas residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana' and "Proaguas Costablanca" for the collaboration and to Frances Young for improving the English.

  2. Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hydrogen has been reported to relieve damage in many disease models, and is a potential additive in drinking water to provide protective effects for patients as several clinical studies revealed. However, the absence of a doseresponse relationship in the application of hydrogen is puzzling. We attempted to identify the doseresponse relationship of hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water through the aspirin induced gastric injury model. Methods In this study, hydrogen-rich alkaline water was obtained by adding H2 to electrolyzed water at one atmosphere pressure. After 2weeks of drinking, we detected the gastric mucosal damage together with MPO, MDA and 8-OHdG in rat aspirin induced gastric injury model. Results Hydrogen-dose dependent inhibition was observed in stomach mucosal. Under pH8.5, 0.07, 0.22 and 0.84ppm hydrogen exhibited a high correlation with inhibitory effects showed by erosion area, MPO activity and MDA content in the stomach. Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by hydrogen-rich alkaline water. However, 8-OHdG level in serum did not have significant hydrogen-dose dependent effect. pH9.5 showed higher but not significant inhibitory response compared with pH8.5. Conclusions Hydrogen is effective in relieving the gastric injury induced by aspirin-HCl, and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The reason behind this may be that hydrogen-rich water directly interacted with the target tissue, while the hydrogen concentration in blood was buffered by liver glycogen, evoking a suppressed doseresponse effect. Drinking hydrogen-rich water may protect healthy individuals from gastric damage caused by oxidative stress. PMID:24589018

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF DUAL ANCHORED SHEET PILE WALL METHOD TO INCREASE FRONT WATER DEPTH AND SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF EXISTING QUAY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Masakatsu; Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Takahiro; Morikawa, Yoshiyuki; Hoshino, Masami; Miki, Kenichi

    Recently the dual anchored sheet pile wall method has been developed to increase a front water depth and seismic resistance of existing quay walls by providing an additional anchor in the lower level of them to reduce a flexural moment of the sheet piles and a tension of the anchors. The existing technical information is not enough to evaluate the seismic behavior and the retrofit of the quay walls with anchors at two different levels. Therefore the experiments with a scale model set on the vibration table of the centrifugal apparatus as well as two dimensional effective stress analyses have been mobilized to investigate the seismic retrofit of the dual anchored sheet pile wall. The experiments and analyses demonstrate the increase the earthquake resistance of quay walls, because they showed the additional anchor can reduce the stress of the sheet walls to one half.

  4. Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping (1:25,000) by computer analysis of LANDSAT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Computer analysis was applied to single date LANDSAT MSS imagery of a sample coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map from this sample image containing 12 classes: 5 water depth/sediment classes, 2 shoreline/tidal classes, and 5 coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%. Unsupervised image classification was applied to a subportion of the site analyzed and produced classification maps comparable in results in a spatial sense. The results of this test indicated that it is feasible to produce such quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a LANDSAT image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

  5. A measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in lead at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhart, L.; Lindote, A.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Arajo, H. M.; Barnes, E. J.; Belov, V. A.; Bewick, A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Chepel, V.; Currie, A.; DeViveiros, L.; Edwards, B.; Francis, V.; Ghag, C.; Hollingsworth, A.; Horn, M.; Kalmus, G. E.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Kudryavtsev, V. A.; Lebedenko, V. N.; Lopes, M. I.; Lscher, R.; Majewski, P.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Neves, F.; Paling, S. M.; da Cunha, J. Pinto; Preece, R.; Quenby, J. J.; Scovell, P. R.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Smith, N. J. T.; Smith, P. F.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Sumner, T. J.; Thorne, C.; Walker, R. J.

    2013-08-01

    We present results from the measurement of the neutron production rate in lead by high energy cosmic-ray muons at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent (mean muon energy of 260 GeV). A tonne-scale highly segmented plastic scintillator detector was utilised to detect both the energy depositions from the traversing muons as well as the delayed radiative capture signals of the induced neutrons. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations reproduce well the distributions of muons and detected muon-induced neutrons. Absolute agreement between simulation and data is of the order of 25%. By comparing the measured and simulated neutron capture rates a neutron yield in pure lead of (5.78-0.28+0.21)10-3 neutrons/muon/(g/cm2) has been obtained.

  6. Korean coastal water depth/sediment and land cover mapping /1:25,000/ by computer analysis of Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. Y.; Miller, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computer analysis was applied to single data Landsat MSS imagery of a coastal area near Seoul, Korea equivalent to a 1:50,000 topographic map, and featuring large dynamic sediment transport processes. Supervised image processing yielded a test classification map containing five water depth/sediment classes, two shoreline/tidal classes and five coastal land cover classes at a scale of 1:25,000 and with a training set accuracy of 76%; the training sets were selected by direct examination of the digitally displayed imagery. The unsupervised ISOCLAS (Senkus, 1976) clustering analysis was performed to assess the relative value of this approach to image classification in areas of sparse or nonexistent ground control. Results indicate that it is feasible to produce quantitative maps for detailed study of dynamic coastal processes given a Landsat image data base at sufficiently frequent time intervals.

  7. A measurement of the muon-induced neutron yield in lead at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhart, L.; Ghag, C.; Lindote, A.; Chepel, V.; DeViveiros, L.; Lopes, M. I.; Neves, F.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Burenkov, A. A.; Kobyakin, A. S.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Stekhanov, V. N.; Arajo, H. M.; Bewick, A.; Currie, A.; Horn, M.; and others

    2013-08-08

    We present results from the measurement of the neutron production rate in lead by high energy cosmic-ray muons at a depth of 2850 m water equivalent (mean muon energy of 260 GeV). A tonne-scale highly segmented plastic scintillator detector was utilised to detect both the energy depositions from the traversing muons as well as the delayed radiative capture signals of the induced neutrons. Complementary Monte Carlo simulations reproduce well the distributions of muons and detected muon-induced neutrons. Absolute agreement between simulation and data is of the order of 25%. By comparing the measured and simulated neutron capture rates a neutron yield in pure lead of (5.78{sub ?0.28}{sup +0.21})10{sup ?3} neutrons/muon/(g/cm{sup 2}) has been obtained.

  8. Effects of water depth and laser pulse numbers on size properties of colloidal nanoparticles prepared by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdieh, Mohammd Hossein; Fattahi, Behzad

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, pulsed laser ablation method was used for synthesis of colloidal nanoparticles of aluminum and titanium in a distilled water medium. The interaction was performed in a water cell in which the target was placed at different depths of water. The effects of the number of laser pulses and the water depth in which the interaction occurred on average size and size distribution of prepared colloidal nanoparticles were investigated. A UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer and a scanning electron microscope were used for the characterization of the produced nanoparticles. Using image processing techniques and analyzing the SEM images, nanoparticles size properties were achieved. According to the results, position of the target in different water depths has strong effect on size properties of the synthesized nanoparticles. Our results also showed that higher number of laser pulses produces smaller mean size nanoparticles with narrower size distribution.

  9. Radium and (40)K in Algerian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses.

    PubMed

    Seghour, A; Seghour, F Z

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and (40)K in the five most popular Algerian bottled mineral waters have been found to be 13.9 to 148.9 mBq l(-1), 7.2 to 52.9 mBq l(-1) and <0.07 to 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. Ratios of (226)Ra to (228)Ra activities ranged from 1.0 to 13.66 with a mean of 5.62. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of these waters have been estimated for three age categories (infants, children and adults) using the measured activities of these radionuclides and assuming the World Health Organisation's default water intake rate. Annual doses for children and adults have been found to be well below the 0.1 mSv y(-1) reference dose level, whereas for the most vulnerable group the annual effective dose from all the waters exceeds the reference value and contributes 12% to the mean annual dose from natural exposure. PMID:19223293

  10. Direct determination of the absorbed dose to water from 125I low dose-rate brachytherapy seeds using the new absorbed dose primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toni, M. P.; Pimpinella, M.; Pinto, M.; Quini, M.; Cappadozzi, G.; Silvestri, C.; Bottauscio, O.

    2012-10-01

    Low-intensity radioactive sources emitting low-energy photons are used in the clinic for low dose-rate brachytherapy treatments of tumours. The dosimetry of these sources is based on reference air kerma rate measurements. The absorbed dose rate to water at the reference depth d0 = 1 cm, \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} , is then obtained by a conversion procedure with a large relative standard uncertainty of about 5%. This paper describes a primary standard developed at ENEA-INMRI to directly measure \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} due to LDR sources. The standard is based on a large-angle and variable-volume ionization chamber, embedded in a graphite phantom and operating under wall-less air chamber conditions. A set of correction and conversion factors, based on experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, are determined to obtain the value of Dw,1 cm from measurements of increment of ionization current with increasing chamber volume. The relative standard uncertainty on \\dot {D}_{w,1\\,cm} is 2.6%, which is appreciably lower than the current uncertainty. Characteristics of the standard, its associated uncertainty budget, and some experimental results are given for 125I BEBIG I25.S16.C brachytherapy seeds. Finally, results of the experimental determination of the dose-rate constant ?1 cm, traceable to the Dw,1 cm and the low-energy air kerma ENEA-INMRI standards, are given. The relative standard uncertainty on ?1 cm is 2.9%, appreciably lower than the typical uncertainty (4.8%) of the values available in the literature.

  11. Instrumentation for investigation of the depth-dose distribution by the Liulin-5 instrument of a human phantom on the Russian segment of ISS for estimation of the radiation risk during long term space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semkova, J.; Koleva, R.; Todorova, G.; Kanchev, N.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Tchhernykh, I.; Kireeva, S.

    2004-01-01

    Described is the Liulin-5 experiment and instrumentation, developed for investigation of the space radiation doses depth distribution in a human phantom on the Russian Segment of the International Space Station (ISS). Liulin-5 experiment is a part of the international project MATROSHKA-R on ISS. The experiment MATROSHKA-R is aimed to study the depth dose distribution at the sites of critical organs of the human body, using models of human body-anthropomorphic and spherical tissue-equivalent phantoms. The aim of Liulin-5 experiment is long term (4-5 years) investigation of the radiation environment dynamics inside the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom, mounted in different places of the Russian Segment of ISS. Energy deposition spectra, linear energy transfer spectra, flux and dose rates for protons and the biologically-relevant heavy ion components of the galactic cosmic radiation will be measured simultaneously with near real time resolution at different depths of the phantom by a telescope of silicon detectors. Data obtained together with data from other active and passive dosimeters will be used to estimate the radiation risk to the crewmembers, verify the models of radiation environment in low Earth orbit, validate body transport model and correlate organ level dose to skin dose. Presented are the test results of the prototype unit. The spherical phantom will be flown on the ISS in 2004 year and Liulin-5 experiment is planned for 2005 year. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A depth-averaged 2-D shallow water model for breaking and non-breaking long waves affected by rigid vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a depth-averaged two-dimensional shallow water model for simulating long waves in vegetated water bodies under breaking and non-breaking conditions. The effects of rigid vegetation are modelled in the form of drag and inertia forces as sink terms in the momentum equations. The dr...

  13. Efficient wetland surface water detection and monitoring via Landsat: Comparison with in situ data from the Everglades Depth Estimation Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, John W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing new Landsat science products. One, named Dynamic Surface Water Extent (DSWE), is focused on the representation of ground surface inundation as detected in cloud-/shadow-/snow-free pixels for scenes collected over the U.S. and its territories. Characterization of DSWE uncertainty to facilitate its appropriate use in science and resource management is a primary objective. A unique evaluation dataset developed from data made publicly available through the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) was used to evaluate one candidate DSWE algorithm that is relatively simple, requires no scene-based calibration data, and is intended to detect inundation in the presence of marshland vegetation. A conceptual model of expected algorithm performance in vegetated wetland environments was postulated, tested and revised. Agreement scores were calculated at the level of scenes and vegetation communities, vegetation index classes, water depths, and individual EDEN gage sites for a variety of temporal aggregations. Landsat Archive cloud cover attribution errors were documented. Cloud cover had some effect on model performance. Error rates increased with vegetation cover. Relatively low error rates for locations of little/no vegetation were unexpectedly dominated by omission errors due to variable substrates and mixed pixel effects. Examined discrepancies between satellite and in situ modeled inundation demonstrated the utility of such comparisons for EDEN database improvement. Importantly, there seems no trend or bias in candidate algorithm performance as a function of time or general hydrologic conditions, an important finding for long-term monitoring. The developed database and knowledge gained from this analysis will be used for improved evaluation of candidate DSWE algorithms as well as other measurements made on Everglades surface inundation, surface water heights and vegetation using radar, lidar and hyperspectral instruments. Although no other sites have such an extensive in situ network or long-term records, the broader applicability of this and other candidate DSWE algorithms is being evaluated in other wetlands using this work as a guide. Continued interaction among DSWE producers and potential users will help determine whether the measured accuracies are adequate for practical utility in resource management.

  14. Water Pressure in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jean; Zenchak, John

    2011-01-01

    How can a science concept be taught in a way that generates interest, gives students the opportunity to consider other possibilities, does not lock them into one way of doing or seeing things, and gives them some ownership of their learning? These authors searched high and low for the perfect activity to illustrate a key concept for their partner

  15. Water Pressure in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jean; Zenchak, John

    2011-01-01

    How can a science concept be taught in a way that generates interest, gives students the opportunity to consider other possibilities, does not lock them into one way of doing or seeing things, and gives them some ownership of their learning? These authors searched high and low for the perfect activity to illustrate a key concept for their partner…

  16. A feasibility study to estimate minimum surface-casing depths of oil and gas wells to prevent ground-water contamination in four areas of western Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, T.F.; Squillace, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrologic data were evaluated from four areas of western Pennsylvania to estimate the minimum depth of well surface casing needed to prevent contamination of most of the fresh ground-water resources by oil and gas wells. The areas are representative of the different types of oil and gas activities and of the ground-water hydrology of most sections of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province in western Pennsylvania. Approximate delineation of the base of the fresh ground-water system was attempted by interpreting the following hydrologic data: (1) reports of freshwater and saltwater in oil and gas well-completion reports, (2) water well-completion reports, (3) geophysical logs, and (4) chemical analyses of well water. Because of the poor quality and scarcity of ground-water data, the altitude of the base of the fresh ground-water system in the four study areas cannot be accurately delineated. Consequently, minimum surface-casing depths for oil and gas wells cannot be estimated with confidence. Conscientious and reliable reporting of freshwater and saltwater during drilling of oil and gas wells would expand the existing data base. Reporting of field specific conductance of ground water would greatly enhance the value of the reports of ground water in oil and gas well-completion records. Water-bearing zones in bedrock are controlled mostly by the presence of secondary openings. The vertical and horizontal discontinuity of secondary openings may be responsible, in part, for large differences in altitudes of freshwater zones noted on completion records of adjacent oil and gas wells. In upland and hilltop topographies, maximum depths of fresh ground water are reported from several hundred feet below land surface to slightly more than 1,000 feet, but the few deep reports are not substantiated by results of laboratory analyses of dissolved-solids concentrations. Past and present drillers for shallow oil and gas wells commonly install surface casing to below the base of readily observed fresh ground water. Casing depths are selected generally to maximize drilling efficiency and to stop freshwater from entering the well and subsequently interfering with hydrocarbon recovery. The depths of surface casing generally are not selected with ground-water protection in mind. However, on the basis of existing hydrologic data, most freshwater aquifers generally are protected with current casing depths. Minimum surface-casing depths for deep gas wells are prescribed by Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources regulations and appear to be adequate to prevent ground-water contamination, in most respects, for the only study area with deep gas fields examined in Crawford County.

  17. Dose to tissue medium or water cavities as surrogate for the dose to cell nuclei at brachytherapy photon energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enger, Shirin A.; Ahnesj, Anders; Verhaegen, Frank; Beaulieu, Luc

    2012-07-01

    It has been suggested that modern dose calculation algorithms should be able to report absorbed dose both as dose to the local medium, Dm,m, and as dose to a water cavity embedded in the medium, Dw,m, using conversion factors from cavity theory. Assuming that the cell nucleus with its DNA content is the most important target for biological response, the aim of this study is to investigate, by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the relationship of the dose to a cell nucleus in a medium, Dn,m, to Dm,m and Dw,m, for different combinations of cell nucleus compositions and tissue media for different photon energies used in brachytherapy. As Dn,m is very impractical to calculate directly for routine treatment planning, while Dm,m and Dw,m are much easier to obtain, the questions arise which one of these quantities is the best surrogate for Dn,m and which cavity theory assumptions should one use for its estimate. The Geant4.9.4 MC code was used to calculate Dm,m, Dw,m and Dn,m for photon energies from 20 (representing the lower energy end of brachytherapy for 103Pd or125I) to 300 keV (close to the mean energy of 192Ir) and for the tissue media adipose, breast, prostate and muscle. To simulate the cell and its nucleus, concentric spherical cavities were placed inside a cubic phantom (10 10 10 mm3). The diameter of the simulated nuclei was set to 14 m. For each tissue medium, three different setups were simulated; (a) Dn,m was calculated with nuclei embedded in tissues (MC-Dn,m). Four different published elemental compositions of cell nuclei were used. (b) Dw,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dw,m) and compared with large cavity theory calculated Dw,m (LCT-Dw,m), and small cavity theory calculated Dw,m (SCT-Dw,m). (c) Dm,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dm,m). MC-Dw,m is a good substitute for MC-Dn,m for all photon energies and for all simulated nucleus compositions and tissue types. SCT-Dw,m can be used for most energies in brachytherapy, while LCT-Dw,m should only be considered for source spectra well below 50 keV, since contributions to the absorbed dose inside the nucleus to a large degree stem from electrons released in the surrounding medium. MC-Dm,m is not an appropriate substitute for MC-Dn,m for the lowest photon energies for adipose and breast tissues. The ratio of MC-Dm,m to MC-Dn,m for adipose and breast tissue deviates from unity by 34% and 15% respectively for the lowest photon energy (20 keV), whereas the ratio is close to unity for higher energies. For prostate and muscle tissue MC-Dm,m is a good substitute for MC-Dn,m. However, for all photon energies and tissue types the nucleus composition with the highest hydrogen content behaves differently than other compositions. Elemental compositions of the tissue and nuclei affect considerably the absorbed dose to the cell nuclei for brachytherapy sources, in particular those at the low-energy end of the spectrum. Thus, there is a need for more accurate data for the elemental compositions of tumours and healthy cells. For the nucleus compositions and tissue types investigated, MC-Dw,m is a good substitute to MC-Dn,m for all simulated photon energies. Whether other studied surrogates are good approximations to MC-Dn,m depends on the target size, target composition, composition of the surrounding tissue and photon energy.

  18. Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    U.S. Coast Guard member is preparing the Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD) for deployment in the Arctic Ocean. The CTD collects water samples and measures conductivity and temperature as a function of water depth....

  19. Modelling effects of seasonal variation in water table depth on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a tropical peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezbahuddin, M.; Grant, R. F.; Hirano, T.

    2013-08-01

    Seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD) determines the balance between aggradation and degradation of tropical peatlands. Longer dry seasons together with human interventions (e.g. drainage) can cause WTD drawdowns making tropical peatland C storage highly vulnerable. Better predictive capacity for effects of WTD on net CO2 exchange is thus essential to guide conservation of tropical peat deposits. Mathematical modelling of basic eco-hydrological processes under site-specific conditions can provide such predictive capacity. We hereby deploy a mathematical model ecosys to study effects of seasonal variation in WTD on net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of an Indonesian peatland. We simulated lower NEPs (~ -2 g C m-2 d-1) during rainy seasons with shallow WTD, higher NEPs (~ +1 g C m-2 d-1) during early dry seasons with intermediate WTD and again lower NEPs (~ -4 g C mm-2 d-1) during late dry seasons with deep WTD during 2002-2005. These values were corroborated by regressions (P < 0.0001) of hourly modelled vs. eddy covariance (EC) measured net ecosystem CO2 fluxes which yielded R2 > 0.8, intercepts approaching 0 and slopes approaching 1. We also simulated a gradual increase in annual NEPs from 2002 (-609 g C m-2) to 2005 (-373 g C m-2) with decreasing WTD which was corroborated by EC-gap filled annual NEP estimates. These WTD effects on NEP were modelled from basic eco-hydrological processes including microbial and root oxidation-reduction reactions driven by soil and root O2 transport and uptake which in turn drove soil and plant C, N and P transformations within a soil-plant-atmosphere water transfer scheme driven by water potential gradients. This modelling should therefore provide a predictive capacity for WTD management programs to reduce tropical peat degradation.

  20. Determination of the contribution of livestock water ingestion to dose from the cow-milk pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenberry, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, a series of calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contribution of different exposure pathways to thyroid doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. These evaluations include some pathways that were included in the Phase I air-pathway dose evaluations (HEDR staff 1991, page xx), as well as other potential exposure pathways being evaluated for possible inclusion in the future HEDR modeling efforts. This calculation (002) examined the possible doses that may have been received by individuals who drank milk from cows that drank from sources of water (stock tanks and farm ponds) exposed to iodine-131 in the atmosphere during 1945.

  1. The effect of dose and water treatment on EPR signals in irradiated fingernails.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, A; Ciesielski, B; Prawdzik-Dampc, A

    2014-11-01

    Fast and precise retrospective dosimetry is crucial in making decisions about medical procedures and safety measures in radiation accidents. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has a potential as one of available biodosimetry methods for use in victims of such incidents. In this study, authors present the findings on EPR dosimetry in fingernails. Authors describe changes of EPR signals in unirradiated and irradiated nails in time after cutting and the effect of water on the mechanically induced and radiation-induced EPR signals measured ex vivo in the fingernails. The effect of dose on amplitude of the EPR signal was measured in nails that were soaked for 10 min in water after their irradiation. The obtained dose-response curves, which reflect changes in concentration of the radiation-induced RIS5 radicals, reach their maximum for doses of 40-60 Gy. PMID:25004939

  2. Calculation of absorbed doses to water pools in severe accident sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    1991-12-01

    A methodology is presented for calculating the radiation dose to a water pool from the decay of uniformly distributed nuclides in that pool. Motivated by the need to accurately model radiolysis reactions of iodine, direct application is made to fission product sources dissolved or suspended in containment sumps or pools during a severe nuclear reactor accident. Two methods of calculating gamma absorption are discussed - one based on point-kernal integration and the other based on Monte Carlo techniques. Using least-squares minimization, the computed results are used to obtain a correlation that relates absorbed dose to source energy and surface-to-volume ratio of the pool. This correlation is applied to most relevant fission product nuclides and used to actually calculate transient sump dose rate in a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) severe accident sequence.

  3. Assessment of dose to man from releases of sup 99 Tc in fresh water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zeevaert, T.; Vandecasteele, C.M.; Kirchmann, R. )

    1989-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the dose to man from releases of {sup 99}Tc in a fresh water system and to identify the biospheric transfer parameters to which the total dose is the most sensitive. Only internal exposure is taken into account, as the external irradiation leads to a negligible dose contribution. Two release modes were considered: continuous (routine) releases and accidental releases. The concentrations in the biospheric compartments subsequent to routine releases were calculated according to International Atomic Energy Agency procedures. For the accidental releases, a more dynamic approach was adopted, especially for the milk and meat compartments. A routine-release scenario typical for the Mol site has been applied, and the biospheric compartment leading to the highest dose contribution was shown to be the irrigated grain. The biospheric transfer parameters to which the first-year doses were the most sensitive consisted mainly of the mass interception factor for grain and the milk transfer factor. The doses in following years were very dependent on the value of the root zone removal rate. The accidental-release scenario resulted in committed dose equivalent that are strongly influenced by the time of year at which the release occurs. 12 references.

  4. Effective Dose of Radon 222 Bottled Water in Different Age Groups Humans: Bandar Abbas City, Iran.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Amirhajeloo, Leila Rasouli; Kargosha, Morteza; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radioactive element with a half-life of 3.8 days. It is odorless and colorless as well as water-soluble. Consuming waters which contain high concentration of 222Rn would increase the effective dose received by different age groups. It would also be followed by an increased prevalence of cancer. In this research, 72 samples of the most commonly used bottled water in Bandar Abbas were collected in 3 consecutive months, May, June and July of 2013. Concentration 222Rn of was measured by radon-meter model RTM166-2. The effective dose received by the 4 age groups, male and female adults as well as children and infants was estimated using the equation proposed by UNSCEAR. The results revealed that the mean and range concentration of 222Rn in bottled waters were 6419 Bq/m3 and 0-901 Bq/m3, respectively. The mean concentration of 222Rn in the well-known Marks followed this Zam Zam>Bishe>Koohrng>Dassani>Christal>Polour>Damavand>Sivan. Infants were observed to receive a higher effective dose than children. The highest and lowest effective dose received was found to belong to male adults and children, respectively. PMID:26383192

  5. DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE OF AN ENTEROVIRUS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of this project were to determine the minimal infectious dose and medical significance of an enteric virus ingested in drinking water. The study was conducted under double-blind, placebo-controlled, random-selection conditions. A total of 149 susceptible (antibody-free)...

  6. The Fricke dosimeter as an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcolm

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this project was to develop an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy based on the Fricke dosimeter. To achieve this within the framework of the existing TG-43 protocol, a determination of the absorbed dose to water at the reference position, D(r0,?0), was undertaken. Prior to this investigation, the radiation chemical yield of the ferric ions (G-value) at the Ir-192 equivalent photon energy (0.380?MeV) was established by interpolating between G-values obtained for Co-60 and 250?kV x-rays. An irradiation geometry was developed with a cylindrical holder to contain the Fricke solution and allow irradiations in a water phantom to be conducted using a standard Nucletron microSelectron V2 HDR Ir-192 afterloader. Once the geometry and holder were optimized, the dose obtained with the Fricke system was compared to the standard method used in North America, based on air-kerma strength. Initial investigations focused on reproducible positioning of the ring-shaped holder for the Fricke solution with respect to the Ir-192 source and obtaining an acceptable type A uncertainty in the optical density measurements required to yield the absorbed dose. Source positioning was found to be reproducible to better than 0.3?mm, and a careful cleaning and control procedure reduced the variation in optical density reading due to contamination of the Fricke solution by the PMMA holder. It was found that fewer than 10 irradiations were required to yield a type A standard uncertainty of less than 0.5%. Correction factors to take account of the non-water components of the geometry and the volume averaging effect of the Fricke solution volume were obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the dependence on the input data used (e.g. interaction cross-sections) was small with a type B uncertainty for these corrections estimated to be 0.2%. The combined standard uncertainty in the determination of absorbed dose to water at the reference position for TG-43 (1?cm from the source on the transverse axis, in a water phantom) was estimated to be 0.8% with the dominant uncertainty coming from the determination of the G-value. A comparison with absorbed dose to water obtained using the product of air-kerma strength and the dose rate constant gave agreement within 1.5% for three different Ir-192 sources, which is within the combined standard uncertainties of the two methods.

  7. The Fricke dosimeter as an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    El Gamal, Islam; Cojocaru, Claudiu; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McEwen, Malcolm

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this project was to develop an absorbed dose to water primary standard for Ir-192 brachytherapy based on the Fricke dosimeter. To achieve this within the framework of the existing TG-43 protocol, a determination of the absorbed dose to water at the reference position, D(r0,?0), was undertaken. Prior to this investigation, the radiation chemical yield of the ferric ions (G-value) at the Ir-192 equivalent photon energy (0.380?MeV) was established by interpolating between G-values obtained for Co-60 and 250?kV x-rays.An irradiation geometry was developed with a cylindrical holder to contain the Fricke solution and allow irradiations in a water phantom to be conducted using a standard Nucletron microSelectron V2 HDR Ir-192 afterloader. Once the geometry and holder were optimized, the dose obtained with the Fricke system was compared to the standard method used in North America, based on air-kerma strength.Initial investigations focused on reproducible positioning of the ring-shaped holder for the Fricke solution with respect to the Ir-192 source and obtaining an acceptable type A uncertainty in the optical density measurements required to yield the absorbed dose. Source positioning was found to be reproducible to better than 0.3?mm, and a careful cleaning and control procedure reduced the variation in optical density reading due to contamination of the Fricke solution by the PMMA holder. It was found that fewer than 10 irradiations were required to yield a type A standard uncertainty of less than 0.5%.Correction factors to take account of the non-water components of the geometry and the volume averaging effect of the Fricke solution volume were obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. A sensitivity analysis showed that the dependence on the input data used (e.g. interaction cross-sections) was small with a type B uncertainty for these corrections estimated to be 0.2%.The combined standard uncertainty in the determination of absorbed dose to water at the reference position for TG-43 (1?cm from the source on the transverse axis, in a water phantom) was estimated to be 0.8% with the dominant uncertainty coming from the determination of the G-value. A comparison with absorbed dose to water obtained using the product of air-kerma strength and the dose rate constant gave agreement within 1.5% for three different Ir-192 sources, which is within the combined standard uncertainties of the two methods. PMID:25988983

  8. Development of a water calorimetry-based standard for absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, Arman; Seuntjens, Jan

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to develop and evaluate a primary standard for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy based on 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimetry. Methods: The absolute absorbed dose to water was directly measured for several different Nucletron microSelectron {sup 192}Ir sources of air kerma strength ranging between 21 000 and 38 000 U and for source-to-detector separations ranging between 25 and 70 mm. The COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS software was used to accurately calculate the heat transport in a detailed model geometry. Through a coupling of the ''conduction and convection'' module with the ''Navier-Stokes incompressible fluid'' module in the software, both the conductive and convective effects were modeled. Results: A detailed uncertainty analysis resulted in an overall uncertainty in the absorbed dose of 1.90%(1{sigma}). However, this includes a 1.5% uncertainty associated with a nonlinear predrift correction which can be substantially reduced if sufficient time is provided for the system to come to a new equilibrium in between successive calorimetric runs, an opportunity not available to the authors in their clinical setting due to time constraints on the machine. An average normalized dose rate of 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a source-to-detector separation of 55 mm was measured for the microSelectron {sup 192}Ir source based on water calorimetry. The measured absorbed dose per air kerma strength agreed to better than 0.8%(1{sigma}) with independent ionization chamber and EBT-1 Gafchromic film reference dosimetry as well as with the currently accepted AAPM TG-43 protocol measurements. Conclusions: This work paves the way toward a primary absorbed dose to water standard in {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy.

  9. Towards mapping the three-dimensional distribution of water in the transition zone from P-velocity tomography and 660-km discontinuity depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suetsugu, Daisuke; Inoue, Toru; Yamada, Akira; Zhao, Dapeng; Obayashi, Masayuki

    We estimate temperature anomalies and water content in the mantle transition zone from the depth of the "660-km discontinuity" and tomographically determined P-velocity anomalies. We assume a linear dependence of the discontinuity depths and P-velocity on temperature anomaly and water content. Beneath the Philippine Sea, where the Pacific plate is subducted, temperature anomalies are as low as -500K to -700 K within and near the stagnant Pacific slab and the water content is estimated to be in the range of 1-1.4 wt.%H2O. The west Philippine basin, away from the Pacific slab, does not have a significant temperature anomaly or water content. Beneath western Japan, where the Pacific slab is subducted, we obtain temperature anomalies up to -300 to -600 K and water content up to 1-1.5 wt.%H2O. Many problems remain to be solved for obtaining a definitive conclusion on the presence of water and quantitative estimates of temperature and water content. Estimates of the temperature anomaly and water content are highly sensitive to the input seismic parameters (the discontinuity depths and P-velocities) and the assumed dependence of the seismic parameters on temperature and water content determined from experimental studies. More accurate estimates of the seismic parameters and the experimental data measured under the pressure and temperature conditions of the mantle transition zone are necessary. Anelastic attenuation is probably enhanced by water, which might break down the linear dependence of the discontinuity depths and P-velocity on temperature anomaly and water content. A non-linear optimization approach using better seismic and experimental data may be required for obtaining more conclusive evidence for the presence of water.

  10. Upper Water Structure and Mixed Layer Depth in Sub-Tropical Waters: The Seats Station in the Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, G. T. F.; Tai, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    702 CTD profiles were collected in the subtropical northern South China Sea at and in the vicinity of the SouthEast Asian Time-series Study (SEATS) station (18.2oN, 115.8oE) between 17.5 and 18.5oN and 115.3 and 116.3oE in 64 cruises in 1997 to 2013. The hydrographic structure of the upper water above the permanent thermocline may be classified into 4 principal types: (a) classic type (an almost isopycnic upper water); (b) stepwise type (with one or more small but significant step-increases in ?? in the upper water); (c) graded type (an approximately constant depth gradient in a monotonic increase in ?? in the upper water); and (d) mixed type (a combination of the stepwise and graded types). The 4 types of upper water were found in 75, 14, 5, and 6% of the cruises, respectively. Ten schemes were applied to these data to determine the mixed layer depth (MLD): 4 fixed temperature difference (FTD) methods (0.2, 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0oC decrease from 10 m); 1 fixed density difference (FDD) method (0.125 ?? increase from 10 m); 1 fixed temperature gradient (FTG) method (at 0.05oC/m); 3 fixed density gradient (FDG) methods (at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 ??/m); and the maximum density gradient (MDG) method. MLD could not be clearly depicted in the 3 minor types of upper water. In the classical type, while similar MLD-s were found in a large majority of the cruises among all 10 methods, substantial discrepancies among methods could be found. The most consistent results, generally within 5 m, were found among the FDG method at 0.05, 0.1 ??/m and FTD method at 0.8 and 1.0oC. The MDG method gave consistently deeper MLD by ~8 m. If that difference was taken into account, the results were generally consistent with those from the other 4 methods. The remaining 5 methods could all yield MLD-s shallower than the first 4 methods by >10 m as they failed to capture the bottom of the mixed layer as indicated by visual inspection.

  11. Relation of nitrate concentrations in ground water to well depth, well use, and land use in Franklin Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey, 1970-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacLeod, Cecilia Louise; Barringer, T.H.; Vowinkel, E.F.; Price, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    A water-quality data base was developed to permit the investigation of the relation of concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in ground water to well depth, well use, and land use (agricultural, residential, urban nonresidential, and undeveloped) in Franklin Township. Nitrate concentrations in water from 868 wells tended to decrease with depth. A rank-order regression model of nitrate concen- trations and land-use percentages was fitted to data from 98 shallow domestic wells. The model, which explains about 25 percent of the variance in the data, indicated that nitrate concentration increased with the percentage of developed land in a well's buffer zone. Further stratification of the data based on well use (commercial, domestic, or agricultural/irrigation) indicated that elevated nitrate concentrations were more common in water from agricultural/irrigation wells than in water from domestic or commercial wells. Concentrations of nitrate were indicative of human activities in water from about one-third of the wells sampled but exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter in water from only 1 percent of the wells. A sampling strategy in which water from wells of different depths located within areas in each of the four land-use categories is sampled yearly and analyzed for nitrate and other constituents would facilitate determination of the effects of human activities on ground-water quality.

  12. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D w, were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D w and D wK were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D w uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D w, it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams. PMID:26841127

  13. Longitudinal dose distribution and energy absorption in PMMA and water cylinders undergoing CT scans

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xinhua; Zhang, Da; Liu, Bob

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The knowledge of longitudinal dose distribution provides the most direct view of the accumulated dose in computed tomography (CT) scanning. The purpose of this work was to perform a comprehensive study of dose distribution width and energy absorption with a wide range of subject sizes and beam irradiated lengths. Methods: Cumulative dose distribution along the z-axis was calculated based on the previously published CT dose equilibration data by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 40, 031903 (10pp.) (2013)] and a mechanism for computing dose on axial lines by Li, Zhang, and Liu [Med. Phys. 39, 5347–5352 (2012)]. Full width at half maximum (FWHM), full width at tenth maximum (FWTM), the total energy (E) absorbed in a small cylinder of unit mass per centimeter square about the central or peripheral axis, and the energy (E{sub in}) absorbed inside irradiated length (L) were subsequently extracted from the dose distribution. Results: Extensive results of FWHM, FWTM, and E{sub in}/E were presented on the central and peripheral axes of infinitely long PMMA (diameters 6–50 cm) and water (diameters 6–55 cm) cylinders with L < 100 cm. FWHM was greater than the primary beam width only on the central axes of large phantoms and also with L ranging from a few centimeter to about 33 cm. FWTM generally increased with phantom diameter, and could be up to 32 cm longer than irradiated length, depending on L, phantom diameter and axis, but was insensitive to phantom material (PMMA or water). E{sub in}/E increased with L and asymptotically approached unity for large L. As phantom diameter increased, E{sub in}/E generally decreased, but asymptotically approached constant levels on the peripheral axes of large phantoms. A heuristic explanation of dose distribution width results was presented. Conclusions: This study enables the reader to gain a comprehensive view of dose distribution width and energy absorption and provides useful data for estimating doses to organs inside or beyond the irradiated region. The dose length product (DLP) presented by CT scanners is equal to neither E nor E{sub in}. Both E and E{sub in} can be evaluated using the equations and results presented in this paper and are robust with both constant and variable tube current scanning techniques.

  14. Modelling effects of seasonal variation in water table depth on net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a tropical peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezbahuddin, M.; Grant, R. F.; Hirano, T.

    2014-02-01

    Seasonal variation in water table depth (WTD) determines the balance between aggradation and degradation of tropical peatlands. Longer dry seasons together with human interventions (e.g. drainage) can cause WTD drawdowns making tropical peatland C storage highly vulnerable. Better predictive capacity for effects of WTD on net CO2 exchange is thus essential to guide conservation of tropical peat deposits. Mathematical modelling of basic eco-hydrological processes under site-specific conditions can provide such predictive capacity. We hereby deploy a process-based mathematical model ecosys to study effects of seasonal variation in WTD on net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of a drainage affected tropical peat swamp forest at Palangkaraya, Indonesia. Simulated NEP suggested that the peatland was a C source (NEP ~ -2 g C m-2 d-1, where a negative sign represents a C source and a positive sign a C sink) during rainy seasons with shallow WTD, C neutral or a small sink (NEP ~ +1 g C m-2 d-1) during early dry seasons with intermediate WTD and a substantial C source (NEP ~ -4 g C m-2 d-1) during late dry seasons with deep WTD from 2002 to 2005. These values were corroborated by regressions (P < 0.0001) of hourly modelled vs. eddy covariance (EC) net ecosystem CO2 fluxes which yielded R2 > 0.8, intercepts approaching 0 and slopes approaching 1. We also simulated a gradual increase in annual NEP from 2002 (-609 g C m-2) to 2005 (-373 g C m-2) with decreasing WTD which was attributed to declines in duration and intensity of dry seasons following the El Nio event of 2002. This increase in modelled NEP was corroborated by EC-gap filled annual NEP estimates. Our modelling hypotheses suggested that (1) poor aeration in wet soils during shallow WTD caused slow nutrient (predominantly phosphorus) mineralization and consequent slow plant nutrient uptake that suppressed gross primary productivity (GPP) and hence NEP (2) better soil aeration during intermediate WTD enhanced nutrient mineralization and hence plant nutrient uptake, GPP and NEP and (3) deep WTD suppressed NEP through a combination of reduced GPP due to plant water stress and increased ecosystem respiration (Re) from enhanced deeper peat aeration. These WTD effects on NEP were modelled from basic eco-hydrological processes including microbial and root oxidation-reduction reactions driven by soil and root O2 transport and uptake which in turn drove soil and plant carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus transformations within a soil-plant-atmosphere water transfer scheme driven by water potential gradients. Including these processes in ecosystem models should therefore provide an improved predictive capacity for WTD management programs intended to reduce tropical peat degradation.

  15. Uranium contents and associated effective doses in drinking water from Biscay (Spain).

    PubMed

    Herranz, M; Abelairas, A; Legarda, F

    1997-06-01

    The determination of 234U and 238U content in drinking waters treated at four treatment plants supplying water to a set of municipalities located in northern Spain has given mean values of 1.14 mBq/L for 234U and 0.8 mBq/L for 238U. These contents, taking into account the population supplied with water and its distribution in age intervals, have allowed the determination of the annual intake of both radionuclides as well as the mean committed dose due to the ingestion of these radionuclides for which a value of 0.081 microSv/person is obtained. PMID:9204529

  16. Radiological characterization of tap waters in Croatia and the age dependent dose assessment.

    PubMed

    Romari?, Martina; Rogi?, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Barii?, Delko; Planinek, Petra

    2014-09-01

    Activity concentrations of (234)U, (238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in tap waters, originating from various geological regions of Croatia, were determined. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: (238)U?(234)U>(228)Ra?(210)Pb>(226)Ra?(210)Po. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual internal doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for infants, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each population group were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different age groups but for each group the lowest contribution was found for (226)Ra and the highest for (228)Ra. PMID:24997928

  17. Modelling Effects of Water Table Depth Variations on Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange of a Western Canadian Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezbahuddin, S.; Grant, R. F.; Flanagan, L. B.

    2014-12-01

    Water table depth (WTD) is one of the key drivers affecting aggradation and degradation of peatlands. Variations in WTD can alter the balance between gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) and so cause a peatland to change between a sink and a source of carbon. Process based mathematical modelling can provide insights on WTD-net ecosystem productivity (NEP) interactions over peatlands. We deployed a process-based ecosystem model ecosys to examine the WTD effects on variations in NEP of a fen peatland in Alberta, Canada. Our modelled results showed that a growing season (May-August) WTD drawdown of ~0.3m from 2004-2007 caused more rapid decomposition in deeper peat layers so that Re increased by ~180 g C m-2 growing season -1. However, similar increase in GPP (~ 170 g C m-2 growing season -1) under deeper WTD condition due to more rapid microbial and root growth, and hence more rapid mineralization and nutrient uptake, left no net effect of WTD drawdown on NEP. The modelled ecosystem was overall a large sink of C (~ 100 g C m-2 yr-1) over the study period of 2004-2009. However, gradually diminishing GPP by ~ 70 g C m-2 growing season -1 with progressively deeper WTD during 2008-2009 indicated that further drawdown of WTD could alter the source sink status of these peatlands. These modelled results were corroborated against hourly eddy covariance (EC) net CO2 fluxes, latent heat and sensible heat fluxes (R2~0.75, a?0, b?1); and annual estimates of EC-gap filled NEP and partitioned GPP and Re over the site from 2004-2009. Our findings indicated the needs for coupling of soil-plant-atmosphere schemes for gases, water, energy, carbon and nutrients in models to adequately simulate WTD effects on peatland C stocks.

  18. Results from a winter 2009-2010 nearshore mooring test in 25 m water depth off Newport, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dever, E. P.; Waldorf, B. W.; Risien, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), two surface moorings will be placed in 25 m water depth off Newport, Oregon and Grays Harbor, Washington. These moorings are intended to acquire continuous observations over the inner-shelf, where the surface boundary layer interacts continuously with the ocean bottom boundary layer. The moorings will utilize the WHOI-developed stretch hose technology implemented at several operational moorings along the US east coast. For the purposes of mooring survival, the largest significant waves need to be considered. Analysis of the historical record indicates the 100-year return period storm would generate 14.5 m high waves. The harsh wind and wave conditions encountered over the inner-shelf have the potential to cause mooring failure either by destroying surface buoy components, or by causing subsurface mooring components to fail. For example, during a winter storm in December 2007, several NDBC moorings along the Oregon and Washington coasts broke. To test modeling of mooring performance under winter conditions we constructed a test/pilot mooring with hardware, communications and power similar to the OOI buoy design. The test focused on the survivability of components. The mooring was equipped with a load cell to examine responses under varying wave and mean flow conditions. A secondary objective of the deployment was to test Ship-to-Ship/Ship-to-Shore Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) telemetry from the buoy to shore over a distance of 1.5 km. Load cell data as well as buoy instruments (conductivity, temperature) were telemetered. This test mooring was deployed near one of the OOI sites in 25 m of water off Newport, Oregon in late October 2009. The mooring parted in mid-March 2010, two weeks prior to planned recovery. We recovered all mooring components, and we will report on the mooring design, the test, and the science and engineering data received.

  19. Effect of higher order nonlinearity, directionality and finite water depth on wave statistics: Comparison of laboratory experiments, field data and numerical simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernndez, Leandro; Onorato, Miguel; Monbaliu, Jaak; Toffoli, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    This research is focused on the study of nonlinear evolution of irregular wave fields in water of arbitrary depth by comparing laboratory experiments, field measurements and numerical simulations. It is now well accepted that modulational instability, known as one of the main mechanisms for the formation of rogue waves, induces strong departures from Gaussian statistics and second order based statistics. However, whereas non-Gaussian properties are remarkable when wave fields follow one direction of propagation over an infinite water depth, wave statistics only weakly deviate from Gaussianity when waves spread over a range of different directions. Over finite water depth, furthermore, wave instability attenuates overall and eventually vanishes for relative water depths as low as kh = 1.36 (where k is the wavenumber of the dominant waves and h the water depth). Recent experimental results, nonetheless, seem to indicate that oblique perturbations are capable of triggering and sustaining modulational instability even if kh < 1.36. In this regard, the aim of this research is to understand whether the combined effect of directionality and finite water depth has a significant effect on wave statistics and particularly on the occurrence of extremes. For this purpose, laboratory experiments in a large wave basin, numerical experiments solving the Euler equation of motion with the Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and field experiments at the Lake George experimental site (Australia) have been compared to assess the role of third order nonlinearity, and particularly modulational instability, on wave statistics. Herein, we present a comparative analysis of the statistical properties (i.e. density function of the surface elevation and its statistical moments skewness and kurtosis) between laboratory experiments, simulations and in-situ data which provides a confrontation between the numerical results and real observations in laboratory and field conditions.

  20. How hydrology determines seasonal and interannual variations in water table depth, surface energy exchange, and water stress in a tropical peatland: Modeling versus measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezbahuddin, M.; Grant, R. F.; Hirano, T.

    2015-11-01

    Soil carbon stocks in tropical peatlands have declined recently from water table depth (WTD) drawdown caused by increased frequency and intensity of climate extremes like El Niño and by artificial drainage. Restoration of these carbon stocks under these climatic and anthropogenic disturbances requires improved predictive capacity for hydrological feedbacks to ecological processes. Process-based modeling of tropical peatland ecohydrology could provide us with such capacity, but such modeling has thus far been limited. We aimed at using basic processes for water and O2 transport and their effects on ecosystem water, carbon, and nitrogen cycling to model seasonal and interannual variations of WTD and surface energy exchange. We tested these processes in a process-based model ecosys in a drained tropical Indonesian peatland from an El Niño year 2002 to a wetter year 2005. WTD was modeled from hydraulically driven water transfers controlled vertically by precipitation versus evapotranspiration (ET) and laterally by discharge versus recharge to or from an external reference WTD. These transfers caused WTD drawdown and soil drying to be modeled during dry seasons, which reduced ET and increased Bowen ratio by lowering stomatal conductance. More pronounced dry seasons in drier years 2002-2004 versus wetter year 2005 caused deeper WTD, more intense peat drying, and greater plant water stress. These modeled trends were well corroborated by site measurements as apparent in regression statistics of modeled versus observed WTD (R2 > 0.8), latent heat (R2 > 0.8), and sensible heat (R2 > 0.7) fluxes. Insights gained from this modeling would aid in predicting the fate of tropical peatlands under future drier climates.

  1. The dose rate effect with radiation processing of wateran interpretative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehringer, Peter; Eschweiler, Helmut

    2002-11-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, nitrous oxide and oxygen as well were added before irradiation to tap water contaminated with trace amounts of perchloroethylene (PCE) to study their impact to the existing dose rate effect recorded with radiation-induced PCE decomposition. Hydrogen peroxide and oxygen addition as well had almost no effect at all to PCE decomposition; addition of nitrous oxide resulted in some improvement but one order of magnitude less than adequate ozone addition brought about. At present there is no alternative for ozone to eliminate the disadvantage caused by the dose rate effect.

  2. The effect of drought and interspecific interactions on depth of water uptake in deep- and shallow-rooting grassland species as determined by ?18O natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, N. J.; Finn, J. A.; Hofer, D.; Lscher, A.

    2014-08-01

    Increased incidence of drought, as predicted under climate change, has the potential to negatively affect grassland production. Compared to monocultures, vertical belowground niche complementarity between shallow- and deep-rooting species may be an important mechanism resulting in higher yields and higher resistance to drought in grassland mixtures. However, very little is known about the belowground responses in grassland systems and increased insight into these processes may yield important information both to predict the effect of future climate change and better design agricultural systems to cope with this. This study assessed the effect of a 9-week experimental summer drought on the depth of water uptake of two shallow-rooting species (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) and two deep-rooting species (Cichorium intybus L. and Trifolium pratense L.) in grassland monocultures and four-species mixtures by using the natural abundance ?18O isotope method. We tested the following three hypotheses: (1) drought results in a shift of water uptake to deeper soil layers, (2) deep-rooting species take up a higher proportion of water from deeper soil layers relative to shallow-rooting species, and (3) as a result of interspecific interactions in mixtures, the water uptake of shallow-rooting species becomes shallower when grown together with deep-rooting species and vice versa, resulting in reduced niche overlap. The natural abundance ?18O technique provided novel insights into the depth of water uptake of deep- and shallow- rooting grassland species and revealed large shifts in depth of water uptake in response to drought and interspecific interactions. Compared to control conditions, drought reduced the proportional water uptake from 0-10 cm soil depth (PCWU0-10) of L. perenne, T. repens and C. intybus in monocultures by on average 54%. In contrast, the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense in monoculture increased by 44%, and only when grown in mixture did the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense decrease under drought conditions. In line with hypothesis (2), in monoculture, the PCWU0-10 of shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens was 0.53 averaged over the two drought treatments, compared to 0.16 for the deep-rooting C. intybus. Surprisingly, in monoculture, water uptake by T. pratense was shallower than for the shallow-rooting species (PCWU0-10 = 0.68). Interspecific interactions in mixtures resulted in a shift in the depth of water uptake by the different species. As hypothesised, the shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens tended to become shallower, and the deep-rooting T. pratense made a dramatic shift to deeper soil layers (reduction in PCWU0-10 of 58% on average) in mixture compared to monoculture. However, these shifts did not result in a reduction in the proportional similarity of the proportional water uptake from different soil depth intervals (niche overlap) in mixtures compared to monocultures. There was no clear link between interspecific differences in depth of water uptake and the reduction of biomass production under drought compared to control conditions (drought resistance). Cichorium intybus, the species with water uptake from the deepest soil layers was one of the species most affected by drought. Interestingly, T. pratense, which was least affected by drought, also had the greatest plasticity in depth of water uptake. This suggests that there may be an indirect effect of rooting depth on drought resistance, as it determines the potential plasticity in the depth of water uptake.

  3. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  4. A Synthetic View of Delta Progradation, Distributary Channel Stability and Alluvial Aggradation in Terms of the Control of Basin Water Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Recent progress in experimental stratigraphy of river deltas has brought an implication that basin water depth seriously affects not only delta progradation, but also distributary channel behavior and alluvial aggradation of the delta plain. A series of experiments conducted with differential basement suggests that a prograding delta can retain its isotropic shoreline configuration even though there is significant variation in basin water depth in the transverse direction, and thus that local basin water depth affects local residence time and avulsion frequency of distributary channels. With deeper basin water, a delta progrades slowly, distributary channels migrate slowly and avulse less frequently, and the feeder alluvial system aggrades slowly. Another series of experiments, which were conducted to produce a 2D graded alluvial channel, reveals that a delta facing a very deep water basin does not prograde, its distributary channels do not migrate, and the feeder alluvial system does not aggrade at all (i.e. the state of grade). These experimental facts imply a synthetic understanding of delta progradation, distributary channel stability and alluvial aggradation, in terms of the control of basin water depth. This novel understanding can be expressed in part by a simple geometrical model. Dimensionless rates of (1) delta progradation, (2) channel migration and (3) alluvial aggradation are expressed with an identical numerical formula that can be specified only with dimensionless basin water depth and alluvial slope normalized with the delta's foreset slope. Values of those dimensionless rates, ranging between 0 and 1, denote how close the feeder alluvial system is to grade: 0 for grade and 1 for perfect aggradation. The three dimensionless rates, or grade index, are also applicable to a river delta growing with sea level change, as far as it retains an isotropic shoreline configuration.

  5. Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task.

  6. Use of iodine for water disinfection: iodine toxicity and maximum recommended dose.

    PubMed Central

    Backer, H; Hollowell, J

    2000-01-01

    Iodine is an effective, simple, and cost-efficient means of water disinfection for people who vacation, travel, or work in areas where municipal water treatment is not reliable. However, there is considerable controversy about the maximum safe iodine dose and duration of use when iodine is ingested in excess of the recommended daily dietary amount. The major health effect of concern with excess iodine ingestion is thyroid disorders, primarily hypothyroidism with or without iodine-induced goiter. A review of the human trials on the safety of iodine ingestion indicates that neither the maximum recommended dietary dose (2 mg/day) nor the maximum recommended duration of use (3 weeks) has a firm basis. Rather than a clear threshold response level or a linear and temporal dose-response relationship between iodine intake and thyroid function, there appears to be marked individual sensitivity, often resulting from unmasking of underlying thyroid disease. The use of iodine for water disinfection requires a risk-benefit decision based on iodine's benefit as a disinfectant and the changes it induces in thyroid physiology. By using appropriate disinfection techniques and monitoring thyroid function, most people can use iodine for water treatment over a prolonged period of time. PMID:10964787

  7. Depth-resolved water column spectral absorption of sunlight by phytoplankon during the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange (SOGasEx) Lagrangian tracer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, B. R.

    2008-12-01

    Optical measurements made during gas exchange tracer experiments in the Southern Ocean, Atlantic sector near 51S, 38W from March-April 2008 (SOGasEx) were used to develop daily integrated depth- resolved PAR absorbed by phytoplankton. Particulate and phytoplankton pigment spectral absorption coefficients (ap and aph), and methanol-extracted chlorophyll-a concentrations (chl-a) from discrete samples within and below the upper mixed layer (40 stations) were combined with data from optical casts where chlorophyll-a and cdom fluorescence and PAR scalar irradiance were measured (11 stations), PAR Kd was measured from a buoy free of ship shadow for 0-5m (11 stations), and Wetlabs AC-9 whole water absorption coefficients to 150m were measured (14 stations, with 3 in common with fluorescence data) to estimate depth-resolved values for both total spectral absorption and spectral PAR irradiance. By combining depth-adjusted spectral absorption of phytoplankton pigments (aph) with depth-adjusted PAR spectral irradiance we estimated depth-resolved daily PAR irradiance absorbed by photosynthetic pigments. These data can be compared with time-integrated primary production measurements conducted on deck where solar exposure or lamp exposure was modified to simulate a range of depths. Such a synthesis should improve our estimates of depth-integrated daily primary production, and ultimately contribute to refining estimates of carbon export rates to be incorporated into a carbon budget and CO2 air-sea flux models for the SOGasEx experiments.

  8. The Incredible Shrinking Cup Lab: An Investigation of the Effect of Depth and Water Pressure on Polystyrene

    EPA Science Inventory

    This activity familiarizes students with the effects of increased depth on pressure and volume. Students will determine the volume of polystyrene cups before and after they are submerged to differing depths in the ocean and the Laurentian Great Lakes. Students will also calculate...

  9. Measurement of natural radioactivity in bottled drinking water in Pakistan and consequent dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Fatima, I; Zaidi, J H; Arif, M; Tahir, S N A

    2007-01-01

    Natural radioactivity was determined in 11 different brands of commonly sold bottled drinking water in the federal capital Islamabad and Rawalpindi city of Pakistan using gamma spectrometry technique. Mean concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and (40)K were found to be 11.3 +/- 2.3, 5.2 +/- 0.4 and 140.9 +/- 30.6 mBq l(-1), respectively. The annual cumulative effective doses due to all three natural radionuclides for different age groups of 1-5 y, 5-10 y, 10-15 y and adults (>or=18 y) were estimated to be 4.0, 3.4, 3.1 and 4.1 microSv y(-1), respectively. Among the three natural radionuclides, annual effective doses for all age groups from 226Ra were significant. Children in the age group of 1-5 y appeared to be at risk with respect to the annual effective doses from 226Ra as compared to the other age groups. Results obtained in this study are compared with the reported values from other countries of the world and it was observed that measured activity concentrations of three natural radionuclides in the bottled drinking water were lower than these values. Annual estimated effective doses for all four age groups from the intake of natural radionuclides in bottled drinking water were also found below the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended limit of 0.1 mSv y(-1) as well as the average radiation dose of 0.29 mSv y(-1) received per head worldwide due to ingestion of natural radionuclides assessed by UNSCEAR (2000). PMID:16877468

  10. No shift to a deeper water uptake depth in response to summer drought of two lowland and sub-alpine C?-grasslands in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Prechsl, Ulrich E; Burri, Susanne; Gilgen, Anna K; Kahmen, Ansgar; Buchmann, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Temperate C3-grasslands are of high agricultural and ecological importance in Central Europe. Plant growth and consequently grassland yields depend strongly on water supply during the growing season, which is projected to change in the future. We therefore investigated the effect of summer drought on the water uptake of an intensively managed lowland and an extensively managed sub-alpine grassland in Switzerland. Summer drought was simulated by using transparent shelters. Standing above- and belowground biomass was sampled during three growing seasons. Soil and plant xylem waters were analyzed for oxygen (and hydrogen) stable isotope ratios, and the depths of plant water uptake were estimated by two different approaches: (1) linear interpolation method and (2) Bayesian calibrated mixing model. Relative to the control, aboveground biomass was reduced under drought conditions. In contrast to our expectations, lowland grassland plants subjected to summer drought were more likely (43-68%) to rely on water in the topsoil (0-10 cm), whereas control plants relied less on the topsoil (4-37%) and shifted to deeper soil layers (20-35 cm) during the drought period (29-48%). Sub-alpine grassland plants did not differ significantly in uptake depth between drought and control plots during the drought period. Both approaches yielded similar results and showed that the drought treatment in the two grasslands did not induce a shift to deeper uptake depths, but rather continued or shifted water uptake to even more shallower soil depths. These findings illustrate the importance of shallow soil depths for plant performance under drought conditions. PMID:25273953

  11. Ventilatory mechanics and the effects of water depth on breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans.

    PubMed

    Prabha, K C; Bernard, D G; Gardner, M; Smatresk, N J

    2000-01-01

    The breathing pattern in the aquatic caecilian Typhlonectes natans was investigated by recording airflow via a pneumotachograph under unrestrained normal physiological conditions. Ventilatory mechanics were assessed using airflow and pressure measurements from the buccal cavity and trachea. The breathing pattern consisted of an expiratory phase followed by a series of 10-15 small buccal pumps to inflate the lung, succeeded by a long non-ventilatory period. T. natans separate the expiratory and inspiratory gases in the buccal cavity and take several inspiratory pumps, distinguishing their breathing pattern from that of sarcopterygians. Hydrostatic pressure assisted exhalation. The tracheal pressure was greater than the water pressure at that depth, suggesting that pleuroperitoneal pressure as well as axial or pulmonary smooth muscles may have contributed to the process of exhalation. The frequency of lung ventilation was 6.33+/-0.84 breaths h(-)(1), and ventilation occurred via the nares. Compared with other amphibians, this low ventilatory frequency suggests that T. natans may have acquired very efficient pulmonary respiration as an adaptation for survival in their seasonally fluctuating natural habitat. Their respiratory pathway is quite unique, with the trachea separated into anterior, central and posterior regions. The anterior region serves as an air channel, the central region is attached to the tracheal lung, and the posterior region consists of a bifurcated air channel leading to the left and right posterior lungs. The lungs are narrow, elongated, profusely vascularized and compartmentalized. The posterior lungs extend to approximately two-thirds of the body length. On the basis of their breathing pattern, it appears that caecilians are phylogenetically derived from two-stroke breathers. PMID:10607536

  12. The effect of drought and interspecific interactions on the depth of water uptake in deep- and shallow-rooting grassland species as determined by ?18O natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekstra, N. J.; Finn, J. A.; Lscher, A.

    2014-03-01

    Increased incidence of weather drought, as predicted under climate change, has the potential to negatively affect grassland production. Compared to monocultures, vertical belowground niche complementarity between shallow- and deep-rooting species may be an important mechanism resulting in higher yields and higher resistance to drought in grassland mixtures. However, very little is known about the belowground responses in grassland systems and increased insight into these processes may yield important information both to predict the effect of future climate change and better design agricultural systems to cope with this. This study assessed the effect of a 10-week experimental summer drought on the depth of water uptake of two shallow-rooting species (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) and two deep-rooting species (Chicorium intybus L. and Trifolium pratense L.) in grassland monocultures and four-species-mixtures by using the natural abundance ?18O isotope method. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) drought results in a shift of water uptake to deeper soil layers, (2) deep-rooting species take up a higher proportion of water from deeper soil layers relative to shallow-rooting species, (3) as a result of interspecific interactions in mixtures, the water uptake of shallow-rooting species become shallower when grown together with deep-rooting species and vice versa, resulting in reduced niche overlap. The natural abundance ?18O technique provided novel insights into the depth of water uptake of deep- and shallow- rooting grassland species and revealed large shifts in response to drought and interspecific interactions. Compared to control conditions, drought reduced the proportional water uptake from 0-10 cm soil depth (PCWU0-10) of L. perenne, T. repens and C. intybus in monocultures by on average 54%. In contrast, the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense in monoculture increased by 44%, and only when grown in mixture did the PCWU0-10 of T. pratense decrease under drought conditions. In line with hypothesis 2, in monoculture, the PCWU0-10 of shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens was 0.53 averaged over the two drought treatments, compared to 0.16 for the deep-rooting C. intybus. Surprisingly, in monoculture, water uptake by T. pratense was shallower than for the shallow-rooting species (PCWU0-10 = 0.68). Interspecific interactions in mixtures resulted in a shift in the depth of water uptake by the different species. As hypothesised, the shallow-rooting species L. perenne and T. repens tended to become shallower, and the deep-rooting T. pratense made a dramatic shift to deeper soil layers (reduction in PCWU0-10 of 58% on average) in mixture compared to monoculture. However, these shifts did not result in a reduction in the proportional similarity of the proportional water uptake from different soil depth intervals (niche overlap) in mixtures compared to monocultures. There was no clear link between interspecific differences in depth of water uptake and drought resistance. C. intybus, the species with water uptake from the deepest soil layers was one of the species most affected by drought. However, T. pratense, the species with the highest plasticity in depth of water uptake, was least affected by drought, suggesting an indirect effect of rooting depth on drought resistance. Our results show that niche complementarity in the depth of water uptake between shallow- and deep-rooting species may have contributed to the diversity effect in mixtures.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Thalassotalea sp. Strain ND16A Isolated from Eastern Mediterranean Sea Water Collected from a Depth of 1,055Meters

    PubMed Central

    Stelling, Savannah C.; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Alshibli, Noor K.; Brown, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A belongs to the family Colwelliaceae and was isolated from eastern Mediterranean Sea water at a depth of 1,055m. Members of Colwelliaceae are ubiquitous marine heterotrophs. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Thalassotalea sp. strain ND16A, a member of the newly described genus Thalassotalea. PMID:25428976

  14. SPATIAL/TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF THE 1999-2004 SOUTH GILA DEPTH TO WATER TABLE AND 1995-2002 GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE DATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the spatial-temporal patterns in the 1999-2004 South Gila monthly depth to water table (groundwater) data and 1995-2002 discharge station pumping data. This analysis was performed as part of the ARS research agreement # 5310-13610-013-13R, an inter-agency agreement between the U...

  15. Membrane dosing units for chemicals in water and wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Kouzmanova, K; Michallov, G; Sekoulov, I

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that in the practice of the drinking water as well as of the wastewater treatment especially for the processes of pH-regulation, flocculation, precipitation or disinfection, the dosing of reagents is necessary. The costs of the automatic dosing stations are comparatively high. For the smaller water treatment plants these stations are uneconomical and charged with maintenance problems very often. In many cases the frequently observed highly fluctuating reagents needs and the recess between can cause disruption of the normal exploitation work. These disadvantages can easily be overcome by a device based on permeable or semi-permeable membranes. The use of semi-permeable membranes is favourable especially in the cases of fluctuating water quantities or standstills. It can be effective because of the possibility for their self-regulation during the dosing. When there is no inflow available some kind of concentration equilibrium is established between the internal and external membrane layers. This system is easy to install and it can be easily adapted to the local conditions. The device can be a canister filled with the desired reagent and covered with a lid of a definite semi-permeable membrane. After determining the permeability of the membranes made of different materials only the appropriate membrane area is important to be determined. Developed methods for defining the specific membrane permeability are discussed in the paper. Suggestions for the application of such devices in practice are given as well. PMID:12420972

  16. Estimation of the depth to the fresh-water/salt-water interface from vertical head gradients in wells in coastal and island aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Gingerich, Stephen B.

    An accurate estimate of the depth to the theoretical interface between fresh, water and salt water is critical to estimates of well yields in coastal and island aquifers. The Ghyben-Herzberg relation, which is commonly used to estimate interface depth, can greatly underestimate or overestimate the fresh-water thickness, because it assumes no vertical head gradients and no vertical flow. Estimation of the interface depth needs to consider the vertical head gradients and aquifer anisotropy that may be present. This paper presents a method to calculate vertical head gradients using water-level measurements made during drilling of a partially penetrating well; the gradient is then used to estimate interface depth. Application of the method to a numerically simulated fresh-water/salt-water system shows that the method is most accurate when the gradient is measured in a deeply penetrating well. Even using a shallow well, the method more accurately estimates the interface position than does the Ghyben-Herzberg relation where substantial vertical head gradients exist. Application of the method to field data shows that drilling, collection methods of water-level data, and aquifer inhomogeneities can cause difficulties, but the effects of these difficulties can be minimized. Rsum Une estimation prcise de la profondeur de l'interface thorique entre l'eau douce et l'eau sale est un lment critique dans les estimations de rendement des puits dans les aquifres insulaires et littoraux. La relation de Ghyben-Herzberg, qui est habituellement utilise pour estimer la profondeur de cette interface, peut fortement sous-estimer ou surestimer l'paisseur de l'eau douce, parce qu'elle suppose l'absence de gradient vertical de charge et d'coulement vertical. L'estimation de la profondeur de l'interface requiert de prendre en considration les gradients verticaux de charge et l'ventuelle anisotropie de l'aquifre. Cet article propose une mthode de calcul des gradients verticaux de charge partir des mesures de niveau pizomtrique faites en cours de foration d'un puits incomplet; le gradient est alors utilis pour estimer la profondeur de l'interface. L'application de cette mthode un systme eau douce - eau sale simul numriquement montre que la mthode est la plus prcise lorsque le gradient est mesur dans un puits pntrant profondment dans l'aquifre. Mme en utilisant un puits peu profond, la mthode estime la position de l'interface avec plus de prcision que ne le fait la relation de Ghyben-Herzberg lorsqu'il existe un gradient vertical de charge bien marqu. L'application de la mthode des donnes de terrain montre que la foration, les mthodes de mesure de niveau et les htrognits au sein de l'aquifre peuvent tre la cause de difficults, mais que les effets de ces difficults peuvent tre rduits. Resumen Para la estimacin de la productividad de pozos en acuferos costeros y en islas es necesaria una estimacin precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz terica entre agua dulce y agua salada. La relacin de Ghyben-Herzberg, usada habitualmente para estimar la profundidad de la interfaz, puede subestimar o sobrestimar el espesor de agua dulce, al asumir la ausencia de flujos y gradientes verticales. La estimacin de la profundidad de la interfaz debe considerar tanto estos gradientes verticales, como la posible anisotropa del acufero. En este artculo se presenta un mtodo para calcular los gradientes verticales de niveles a partir de las medidas obtenidas durante la perforacin de un pozo parcialmente penetrante para, a partir de este gradiente, estimar la profundidad de la interfaz. La aplicacin del mtodo a un sistema de agua dulce/agua salada simulado numricamente muestra que el mtodo es ms preciso cuando el gradiente se mide en un pozo profundo. Incluso en el caso de un pozo superficial, el mtodo permite una estimacin ms precisa de la profundidad de la interfaz que la aplicacin de la frmula de Ghyben-Herzberg, en los casos en l

  17. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-01-01

    222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration. PMID:25350007

  18. Apparent Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassar, Antonio B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a well-known optical refraction problem where the depth of an object in a liquid is determined. Proposes that many texts incorrectly solve the problem. Provides theory, equations, and diagrams. (MVL)

  19. Feasibility of RACT for 3D dose measurement and range verification in a water phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Alsanea, Fahed; Moskvin, Vadim; Stantz, Keith M.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to establish the feasibility of using radiation-induced acoustics to measure the range and Bragg peak dose from a pulsed proton beam. Simulation studies implementing a prototype scanner design based on computed tomographic methods were performed to investigate the sensitivity to proton range and integral dose. Methods: Derived from thermodynamic wave equation, the pressure signals generated from the dose deposited from a pulsed proton beam with a 1 cm lateral beam width and a range of 16, 20, and 27 cm in water using Monte Carlo methods were simulated. The resulting dosimetric images were reconstructed implementing a 3D filtered backprojection algorithm and the pressure signals acquired from a 71-transducer array with a cylindrical geometry (30 × 40 cm) rotated over 2π about its central axis. Dependencies on the detector bandwidth and proton beam pulse width were performed, after which, different noise levels were added to the detector signals (using 1 μs pulse width and a 0.5 MHz cutoff frequency/hydrophone) to investigate the statistical and systematic errors in the proton range (at 20 cm) and Bragg peak dose (of 1 cGy). Results: The reconstructed radioacoustic computed tomographic image intensity was shown to be linearly correlated to the dose within the Bragg peak. And, based on noise dependent studies, a detector sensitivity of 38 mPa was necessary to determine the proton range to within 1.0 mm (full-width at half-maximum) (systematic error < 150 μm) for a 1 cGy Bragg peak dose, where the integral dose within the Bragg peak was measured to within 2%. For existing hydrophone detector sensitivities, a Bragg peak dose of 1.6 cGy is possible. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that computed tomographic scanner based on ionizing radiation-induced acoustics can be used to verify dose distribution and proton range with centi-Gray sensitivity. Realizing this technology into the clinic has the potential to significantly impact beam commissioning, treatment verification during particle beam therapy and image guided techniques.

  20. Experimental effects of immersion time and water temperature on body condition, burying depth and timing of spawning of the tellinid bivalve Macoma balthica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goeij, Petra; Honkoop, Pieter

    2002-10-01

    The burying depth of many bivalve molluscs on intertidal mudflats varies throughout the year and differs between places. Many factors are known to influence burying depth on a seasonal or spatial scale, with temperature and tidal regime probably being very important. Burying depth, body condition and gonadal development of Macoma balthica were followed throughout winter and spring in an experiment in which water temperature and immersion time were manipulated. Unexpectedly, relative water temperature, in contrast to the prediction, did not generally affect body condition or burying depth. This was probably a consequence of the exceptionally overall low water temperatures during the experimental winter. Differences in temperature did, however, result in different timing of spawning: M. balthica spawned earlier at higher spring temperatures. Longer immersion times led to higher body condition only late in spring, but led to deeper burying throughout almost the whole period. There was no effect of immersion time on the timing of spawning. We conclude that a longer immersion time leads to deeper burying, independent of body condition. We also conclude that burying behaviour of M. balthica is not determined by the moment of spawning.

  1. Effect of in-water oxygen prebreathing at different depths on decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Gerardo; Yang, Zhong-jin; Di Tano, Guglielmo; Camporesi, Enrico M; Faralli, Fabio; Savini, Fabio; Landolfi, Angelo; Doria, Christian; Fan, Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    Effect of in-water oxygen prebreathing at different depths on decompression-induced bubble formation and platelet activation in scuba divers was evaluated. Six volunteers participated in four diving protocols, with 2 wk of recovery between dives. On dive 1, before diving, all divers breathed normally for 20 min at the surface of the sea (Air). On dive 2, before diving, all divers breathed 100% oxygen for 20 min at the surface of the sea [normobaric oxygenation (NBO)]. On dive 3, before diving, all divers breathed 100% O2 for 20 min at 6 m of seawater [msw; hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) 1.6 atmospheres absolute (ATA)]. On dive 4, before diving, all divers breathed 100% O2 for 20 min at 12 msw (HBO 2.2 ATA). Then they dove to 30 msw (4 ATA) for 20 min breathing air from scuba. After each dive, blood samples were collected as soon as the divers surfaced. Bubbles were measured at 20 and 50 min after decompression and converted to bubble count estimate (BCE) and numeric bubble grade (NBG). BCE and NBG were significantly lower in NBO than in Air [0.142+/-0.034 vs. 0.191+/-0.066 (P<0.05) and 1.61+/-0.25 vs. 1.89+/-0.31 (P<0.05), respectively] at 20 min, but not at 50 min. HBO at 1.6 ATA and 2.2 ATA has a similar significant effect of reducing BCE and NBG. BCE was 0.067+/-0.026 and 0.040+/-0.018 at 20 min and 0.030+/-0.022 and 0.020+/-0.020 at 50 min. NBG was 1.11+/-0.17 and 0.92+/-0.16 at 20 min and 0.83+/-0.18 and 0.75+/-0.16 at 50 min. Prebreathing NBO and HBO significantly alleviated decompression-induced platelet activation. Activation of CD62p was 3.0+/-0.4, 13.5+/-1.3, 10.7+/-0.9, 4.5+/-0.7, and 7.6+/-0.8% for baseline, Air, NBO, HBO at 1.6 ATA, and HBO at 2.2 ATA, respectively. The data show that prebreathing oxygen, more effective with HBO than NBO, decreases air bubbles and platelet activation and, therefore, may be beneficial in reducing the development of decompression sickness. PMID:20185629

  2. Temperature, water availability, and nutrient levels at various soil depths-consequences for shallow-rooted desert succulents, including nurse plant effects. [Agave deserti; Ferocactus acanthodes; hilaria rigida

    SciTech Connect

    Nobel, P.S. )

    1989-10-01

    Soil conditions were evaluated over the rooting depths for Agave deserti and Ferocactus acanthodes from the northwestern Sonoran Desert. These succulents have mean root depths of only 10 cm when adults and even shallower distribution when seedlings, which often occur is association with the nurse plant Hilaria rigida, which also has shallow roots. Maximum soil temperatures in the 2 cm beneath bare ground were predicted to exceed 65 C, which is lethal to the roots of A. deserti and F. acanthodes, whereas H. rigida reduced the maximum surface temperatures by over 10 C, providing a microhabitat suitable for seedling establishment. Water Availability was defined as the soil-to-plant drop in water potential, for periods when the plants could take up water, integrated over time. Below 4 cm under bare ground, simulated Water Availability increased slightly with depth (to 35 cm) for a wet year, was fairly constant for an average year, and decreased for a dry year, indicating that the shallow rooting habit is more advantageous in drier years. Water uptake by H. rigida substantially reduced Water Availability for seedlings associated with this nurse plant. On the other hand, a 66-90% higher soil nitrogen level occurred under H. rigida, possibly representing its harvesting of this macronutrient from a wide ground area. Phosphorus was slightly less abundant in the soil under H. rigida compared with under bare ground, the potassium level was substantially higher, and the sodium level was substantially lower. All four elements varied greatly with depth, N and K decreasing and P and Na increasing. Based on the known growth responses of A. deserti and F. acanthodes to these four elements, growth was predicted to be higher for plants in soil from the shallower layers, most of the differences being due to nitrogen.

  3. Tracing the Influence of Mediterranean Outflow Waters on the Mid-depth Portuguese Margin Between Marine Isotope Stages 9 and 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, A. H.; Martin, P.; Lea, D. W.; Lebreiro, S.

    2008-12-01

    Calypso piston core MD03-2699 was retrieved from the Estremadura promontory north of Lisbon from a water depth of 1895 m. Nowadays, this site is bathed by Northeast Atlantic Deep Water (NEADW), whose physical properties are modified by diffusive mixing with the overlying Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW; 700-1400 m). During the last glacial maximum the MOW became denser and settled deeper in the water column and its lower core's flow strength increased on millennial time scales during the Greenland stadials of the last 50 ka. In order to reconstruct deep-water variations on the mid-depth Portuguese margin during the mid-Brunhes we generated benthic stable isotope and trace element records and measured the mean grain size <63m for the interval from 300 to 510 ka. Because of the strong MOW derived salinity overprint on the benthic Mg/ Ca data we currently use the western Mediterranean equation (Cacho et al., 2006) to calculate bottom water temperatures (BWT). During the MIS 10 glacial inception, BWT and grain size records reveal millennial-scale oscillation in deep-water conditions with warmer MOW waters (8-10C) bathing the site during stadials and NEADW (5-7C) during interstadials. The lower MOW core was the dominant water mass throughout glacial MIS 10 and 12 and NEADW during interglacial MIS 9.5 and 11.31. During MIS 13.1, on the other hand, strong MOW influence on the BWT is observed nearly throughout with NEADW-level BWT occurring only between 493 and 497 ka. During termination IV the MOW/ NEADW boundary shifted upwards right at the onset of the termination, but during termination V the lower MOW core settled further up in the water column only after 408 ka. The Cd/ Ca data indicates that the glacial and stadial MOW was enriched in nutrients either by exporting nutrients from the Mediterranean Sea or by mixing with southern source waters. Overall, our records reveal that deep-water dynamics on the mid-depth Portuguese margin were very variable during the mid-Brunhes, experienced millennial-scale oscillations similar to the last glacial cycle and are driven by the density and thus settling depth of the MOW.

  4. Justification of the Nonlinear Schrdinger Equation for the Evolution of Gravity Driven 2D Surface Water Waves in a Canal of Finite Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dll, Wolf-Patrick; Schneider, Guido; Wayne, C. Eugene

    2015-10-01

    In 1968 V.E. Zakharov derived the Nonlinear Schrdinger equation for the two-dimensional water wave problem in the absence of surface tension, that is, for the evolution of gravity driven surface water waves, in order to describe slow temporal and spatial modulations of a spatially and temporarily oscillating wave packet. In this paper we give a rigorous proof that the wave packets in the two-dimensional water wave problem in a canal of finite depth can be approximated over a physically relevant timespan by solutions of the Nonlinear Schrdinger equation.

  5. SU-E-T-516: Measurement of the Absorbed Dose Rate in Water Under Reference Conditions in a CyberKnife Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon-Martinez, N; Hernandez-Guzman, A; Gomez-Munoz, A; Massillon-JL, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to measure the absorbed-dose-rate in a CyberKnife unit reference-field (6cm diameter) using three ionization chambers (IC) following the new IAEA/AAPM formalism and Gafchromic film (MD-V3-55 and EBT3) protocol according to our work reported previously. Methods: The absorbed-dose-rates were measured at 90cm and 70cm SSD in a 10cmx10cm field and at 70cm SSD in a 5.4cmx5.4cm equivalent to 6cm diameter field using a linac Varian iX. All measurements were performed at 10cm depth in water. The correction factors that account for the difference between the IC response on the reference field and the CyberKnife reference field, k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref), were evaluated and Gafchromic film were calibrated using the results obtained above. Under the CyberKnife reference conditions, the factors were used to measure the absorbed-dose-rate with IC according to the new formalism and the calibrated film was irradiated in water. The film calibration curve was used to evaluate the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife unit. Results: Difference up to 2.56% is observed between dose-rate measured with IC in the reference 10cmx10cm field, depending where the chamber was calibrated, which was not reflected in the correction factor k-(Q-msr,Q)^(f-msr,f-ref ) where variations of ~0.15%-0.5% were obtained. Within measurements uncertainties, maximum difference of 1.8% on the absorbed-dose-rate in the CyberKnife reference field is observed between all IC and the films Conclusion: Absorbed-dose-rate to water was measured in a CyberKnife reference field with acceptable accuracy (combined uncertainties ~1.32%-1.73%, k=1) using three IC and films. The MD-V3-55 film as well as the new IAEA/AAPM formalism can be considered as a suitable dosimetric method to measure absorbed-dose-rate to water in small and non-standard CyberKnife fields used in clinical treatments However, the EBT3 film is not appropriated due to the high uncertainty provided (combined uncertainty ~9%, k=1) This work is partially supported by Conacyt grant 127409 and PAPIITUNAM grant IN10581.

  6. Direct measurement of absorbed dose to water in HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy: Water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43

    SciTech Connect

    Sarfehnia, Arman; Kawrakow, Iwan; Seuntjens, Jan

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Gafchromic film and ionometric calibration procedures for HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy sources in terms of dose rate to water are presented and the experimental results are compared to the TG-43 protocol as well as with the absolute dose measurement results from a water calorimetry-based primary standard. Methods: EBT-1 Gafchromic films, an A1SL Exradin miniature Shonka thimble type chamber, and an SI HDR 1000 Plus well-type chamber (Standard Imaging, Inc., Middleton, WI) with an ADCL traceable S{sub k} calibration coefficient (following the AAPM TG-43 protocol) were used. The Farmer chamber and Gafchromic film measurements were performed directly in water. All results were compared to direct and absolute absorbed dose to water measurements from a 4 deg. C stagnant water calorimeter. Results: Based on water calorimetry, the authors measured the dose rate to water to be 361{+-}7 {mu}Gy/(h U) at a 55 mm source-to-detector separation. The dose rate normalized to air-kerma strength for all the techniques agree with the water calorimetry results to within 0.83%. The overall 1-sigma uncertainty on water calorimetry, ionization chamber, Gafchromic film, and TG-43 dose rate measurement amounts to 1.90%, 1.44%, 1.78%, and 2.50%, respectively. Conclusions: This work allows us to build a more realistic uncertainty estimate for absorbed dose to water determination using the TG-43 protocol. Furthermore, it provides the framework necessary for a shift from indirect HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy dosimetry to a more accurate, direct, and absolute measurement of absorbed dose to water.

  7. Radionuclide concentrations and dose assessment of cistern water and groundwater at the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Eagle, R.J.; Wong, K.M.; Jokela, T.A.; Robison, W.L.

    1981-03-16

    A radiological survey was conducted from September through November of 1978 to determine the concentrations of radionuclides in the terrestrial and marine environments of 11 atolls and 2 islands in the Northern Marshall Islands. More than 70 cistern and groundwater samples were collected at the atolls; the volume of each sample was between 55 and 100 l. The concentration of /sup 90/Sr in cistern water at most atolls is that expected from world-wide fallout in wet deposition. Except for Bikini and Rongelap, /sup 137/Cs concentrations in cistern water are in agreement with the average predicted concentrations from wet deposition. The /sup 239 +240/Pu concentrations are everywhere less than the predicted fallout concentrations except at Rongelap, Ailinginae, and Bikini where the measured and predicted concentrations are in general agreement. During the period sampled, most groundwater concentrations of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs were everywhere higher than the concentrations in cistern water. Concentrations of the transurancies in filtered groundwater solution were everywhere comparable to or less than the concentrations in cistern water. It is concluded that the concentrations of radionuclides detected during any single period may not necessarily reflect the long-term average concentrations or the concentrations that might be observed if a lined well were extended above the surface. In any case, at all atolls the /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs concentrations in groundwater are below the concentration guidelines for drinking water recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. The maximum annual dose rates and the 30- and 50-y integral doses are calculated for the intake of both cistern water and groundwater for each of the atolls.

  8. A Feasibility Study of Fricke Dosimetry as an Absorbed Dose to Water Standard for 192Ir HDR Sources

    PubMed Central

    deAlmeida, Carlos Eduardo; Ochoa, Ricardo; de Lima, Marilene Coelho; David, Mariano Gazineu; Pires, Evandro Jesus; Peixoto, Jos Guilherme; Salata, Camila; Bernal, Mario Antnio

    2014-01-01

    High dose rate brachytherapy (HDR) using 192Ir sources is well accepted as an important treatment option and thus requires an accurate dosimetry standard. However, a dosimetry standard for the direct measurement of the absolute dose to water for this particular source type is currently not available. An improved standard for the absorbed dose to water based on Fricke dosimetry of HDR 192Ir brachytherapy sources is presented in this study. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate the potential usefulness of the Fricke dosimetry technique for the standardization of the quantity absorbed dose to water for 192Ir sources. A molded, double-walled, spherical vessel for water containing the Fricke solution was constructed based on the Fricke system. The authors measured the absorbed dose to water and compared it with the doses calculated using the AAPM TG-43 report. The overall combined uncertainty associated with the measurements using Fricke dosimetry was 1.4% for k?=?1, which is better than the uncertainties reported in previous studies. These results are promising; hence, the use of Fricke dosimetry to measure the absorbed dose to water as a standard for HDR 192Ir may be possible in the future. PMID:25521914

  9. Estimation of m.w.e (meter water equivalent) depth of the salt mine of Slanic Prahova, Romania

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, B.; Margineanu, R.; Stoica, S.; Petcu, M.; Brancus, I. M.; Petre, M.; Toma, G.; Saftoiu, A.; Apostu, A.; Jipa, A.; Lazanu, I.; Sima, O.; Haungs, A.; Rebel, H.

    2010-11-24

    A new mobile detector was developed in IFIN-HH, Romania, for measuring muon flux at surface and in underground. The measurements have been performed in the salt mines of Slanic Prahova, Romania. The muon flux was determined for 2 different galleries of the Slanic mine at different depths. In order to test the stability of the method, also measurements of the muon flux at surface at different altitudes were performed. Based on the results, the depth of the 2 galleries was established at 610 and 790 m.w.e. respectively.

  10. Effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a dryland riparian phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota (American licorice)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andersen, Douglas C.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of soil temperature and depth to ground water on first-year growth of a facultative floodplain phreatophyte, Glycyrrhiza lepidota, in a 2-×-2 factorial greenhouse experiment. We grew plants in mesocosms subirrigated with water low in dissolved oxygen, mimicking natural systems, and set depth of ground water at 63 or 100 cm and soil temperature at cold (ambient) or warm (≤2.7°C above ambient). We hypothesized the moister (63 cm) and warmer soil would be most favorable and predicted faster growth of shoots and roots and greater nitrogen-fixation (thus, less uptake of mineral nitrogen) under those conditions. Growth in height was significantly faster in the moister treatment but was not affected by soil temperature. Final biomass of shoots and of roots, total biomass of plants, and root:shoot ratio indicated a significant effect only from depth of ground water. Final levels of soil mineral-nitrogen were as predicted, with level of nitrate in the moister treatment more than twice that in the drier treatment. No effect from soil temperature on level of soil-mineral nitrogen was detected. Our results suggest that establishment of G. lepidotarequires strict conditions of soil moisture, which may explain the patchy distribution of the species along southwestern dryland rivers.

  11. In-situ burning of oil in coastal marshes. 2. Oil spill cleanup efficiency as a function of oil type, marsh type, and water depth.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qianxin; Mendelssohn, Irving A; Carney, Kenneth; Miles, Scott M; Bryner, Nelson P; Walton, William D

    2005-03-15

    In-situ burning of spilled oil, which receives considerable attention in marine conditions, could be an effective way to cleanup wetland oil spills. An experimental in-situ burn was conducted to study the effects of oil type, marsh type, and water depth on oil chemistry and oil removal efficiency from the water surface and sediment. In-situ burning decreased the totaltargeted alkanes and total targeted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the burn residues as compared to the pre-burn diesel and crude oils. Removal was even more effective for short-chain alkanes and low ring-number PAHs. Removal efficiencies for alkanes and PAHs were >98% in terms of mass balance although concentrations of some long-chain alkanes and high ring-number PAHs increased in the burn residue as compared to the pre-burn oils. Thus, in-situ burning potentially prevents floating oil from drifting into and contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the sediment. In addition, in-situ burning significantly removed diesel oil that had penetrated the sediment for all water depths. Furthermore, in-situ burning at a water depth 2 cm below the soil surface significantly removed crude oil that had penetrated the sediment. As a result, in-situ burning may reduce the long-term impacts of oil on benthic organisms. PMID:15819247

  12. Variations in the depth distribution of phosphorus in soil profiles and implications for model-based catchment-scale predictions of phosphorus delivery to surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, P. N.; Deeks, L. K.; Wood, G. A.; Betson, M. J.; Lord, E. I.; Davison, P. S.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThe PSYCHIC process-based model for predicting sediment and phosphorus (P) transfer within catchments uses spatial data on soil-P derived from the National Soil Inventory (NSI) data set. These soil-P values are based on bulked 0-15 cm depth and do not account for variations in soil-P with depth. We describe the depth distribution of soil-P (total and Olsen) in grassland and arable soils for the dominant soil types in the two PSYCHIC study catchments: the Avon and the Wye, UK. There were clear variations in soil-P (particularly Olsen-P) concentrations with depth in untilled grassland soils while concentrations of total-P were broadly constant within the plough layer of arable soils. Concentrations of Olsen-P in arable soils, however, exhibited maximum values near the soil surface reflecting surface applications of fertilisers and manures between consecutive ploughing events. When the soil-P concentrations for the surface soil (0-5 cm average) were compared to both the profile-averaged (0-15 cm) and the NSI (0-15 cm) values, those for the surface soil were considerably greater than those for the average 0-15 cm depth. Modelled estimates of P loss using the depth-weighted average soil-P concentrations for the 0-5 cm depth layer were up to 14% greater than those based on the NSI data set due to the preferential accumulation of P at the soil surface. These findings have important implications for the use of soil-P data (and other data) in models to predict P losses from land to water and the interpretation of these predictions for river basin management.

  13. Validation of GEANT4 simulations for percentage depth dose calculations in heterogeneous media by using small photon beams from the 6-MV Cyberknife: Comparison with photon beam dosimetry with EBT2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung Il; Yoon, Sei-Chul; Shin, Jae Won; Hong, Seung-Woo; Suh, Tae Suk; Min, Kyung Joo; Lee, Sang Deok; Chung, Su Mi; Jung, Jae-Yong

    2015-04-01

    Percentage depth dose (PDD) distributions in heterogeneous phantoms with lung and soft bone equivalent media are studied by using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo code. For lung equivalent media, Balsa wood is used, and for soft bone equivalent media, a compound material with epoxy resin, hardener and calcium carbonate is used. Polystyrene slabs put together with these materials are used as a heterogeneous phantom. Dose measurements are performed with Gafchromic EBT2 film by using photon beams from the 6-MV CyberKnife at the Seoul Uridul Hospital. The cone sizes of the photon beams are varied from 5 to 10 to 30 mm. When the Balsa wood is inserted in the phantom, the dose measured with EBT2 film is found to be significantly different from the dose without the EBT2 film in and the dose beyond the Balsa wood region, particularly for small field sizes. On the other hand, when the soft bone equivalent material is inserted in the phantom, the discrepancy between the dose measured with EBT2 film and the dose without EBT2 film can be seen only in the region of the soft bone equivalent material. GEANT4 simulations are done with and without the EBT2 film to compare the simulation results with measurements. The GEANT4 simulations including EBT2 film are found to agree well with the measurements for all the cases within an error of 2.2%. The results of the present study show that GEANT4 gives reasonable results for the PDD calculations in heterogeneous media when using photon beams produced by the 6-MV CyberKnife

  14. Map showing depth to pre-Cenozoic basement in the Death Valley ground-water model area, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Ponce, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    A depth to basement map of the Death Valley groundwater model area was prepared using over 40,0000 gravity stations as part of an interagency effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Department of Energy to help characterize the geology and hydrology of southwest Nevada and parts of California.

  15. WAVECALC: an Excel-VBA spreadsheet to model the characteristics of fully developed waves and their influence on bottom sediments in different water depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Demirbilek, Zeki; Brodalka, Marysia; Flemming, Burghard W.

    2010-10-01

    The generation and growth of waves in deep water is controlled by winds blowing over the sea surface. In fully developed sea states, where winds and waves are in equilibrium, wave parameters may be calculated directly from the wind velocity. We provide an Excel spreadsheet to compute the wave period, length, height and celerity, as well as horizontal and vertical particle velocities for any water depth, bottom slope, and distance below the reference water level. The wave profile and propagation can also be visualized for any water depth, modeling the sea surface change from sinusoidal to trochoidal and finally cnoidal profiles into shallow water. Bedload entrainment is estimated under both the wave crest and the trough, using the horizontal water particle velocity at the top of the boundary layer. The calculations are programmed in an Excel file called WAVECALC, which is available online to authorized users. Although many of the recently published formulas are based on theoretical arguments, the values agree well with several existing theories and limited field and laboratory observations. WAVECALC is a user-friendly program intended for sedimentologists, coastal engineers and oceanographers, as well as marine ecologists and biologists. It provides a rapid means to calculate many wave characteristics required in coastal and shallow marine studies, and can also serve as an educational tool.

  16. Using stable isotopes to characterize differential depth of water uptake based on environmental conditions in perennial biofuel and traditional annual crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. N.; Nystrom, R.; Bernacchi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change related to fossil fuel consumption coupled with the necessity for secure, cost-effective, and renewable domestic energy is continuing to drive the development of a bioenergy industry. Numerous second-generation biofuel crops have been identified that hold promise as sustainable feedstocks for the industry, including perennial grasses that utilize the highly water and energy efficient C4 photosynthetic pathway. Among the perennial grasses, miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) stand out as having high biomass, minimal maintenance, low nutrient input requirements, and positive environmental benefits. These grasses are able to withstand a wide range of growing season temperatures and precipitation regimes, particularly in reference to the annual row crops that they are likely to replace. During the drought of 2012 traditional row crops suffered major reductions in yield whereas the perennial grasses retained relatively high biomass yields. We hypothesize that this is due to the ability of the perennial grasses to access water from deeper soil water relative to the annual row crops. To test this hypothesis, we use isotopic techniques to determine the soil depth from which the various species obtain water. Data from summer 2013 suggests that the perennial grasses preferentially use surface water when available but can extract water from depths that the annual row crops are unable to reach. These results indicate that perennial grasses, with deeper roots, will likely sustain growth under conditions when annual row crops are unable.

  17. Single Intravenous-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Carthami-flos Pharmacopuncture (WCF) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Da-jung; Choi, Yoo-min; Kim, Seok-hee; Kim, Jong-uk; Yook, Tae-han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to analyze the toxicity and to find the lethal dose of the test substance Water-soluble Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture (WCF) when used as a single intravenous-dose in 6-week-old, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: The experiment was conducted at Biotoxtech according to Good Laboratory Practices. 20 female and 20 male Spague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 female and 5 male animals per group. The rats in the three experimental groups received single intravenous injections with 0.125-mL, 0.25-mL and 0.5-mL/animal doses of WCF, Groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively, and the control group, Group 1, received a single intravenous injection with a 0.5-mL dose of normal saline. Clinical signs were observed and body weight measurements were carried out for 14 days following the injections. At the end of the observation period, hematology, clinical chemistry, histopathological tests and necropsy were performed on the injected parts. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the groups. Also, no significant changes in body weight, hematological parameters or clinical chemistry test results between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Visual inspection after necropsy showed no abnormalities. Histopathological tests on the injected parts showed no significant differences, except for Group 1 females; however, the result was spontaneous generation and had no toxicological meaning because it was not dose-dependent. Therefore, this study showed that WCF had no effect on the injected parts in terms of clinical signs, body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, and necropsy. Conclusion: As a result of single intravenous-dose tests of the test substance WCF in 4 groups of rats, the lethal dose for both males and females exceeded 0.5 mL/animal. Therefore, WCF is a relatively safe pharmacopuncture that can be used for treatment, but further studies should be performed. PMID:25780707

  18. Design and implementation of a water phantom for IMRT, arc therapy, and tomotherapy dose distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Pallotta, Stefania; Marrazzo, Livia; Bucciolini, Marta

    2007-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to present a new phantom for arc therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and tomotherapy dose distribution measurement in pretreatment verification. The presented phantom is innovative for its use of water as the tissue equivalent material, together with a technical solution specifically designed to support radiographic or radiochromic film and ionization chambers in any desired position. The phantom comprise a Plexiglas container, whose present shape and dimensions offer the possibility to simulate a human torso or abdomen; the container can be filled with water by opening the upper cover. On the internal side of the cover, a set of carbon pipes can support film in the desired coronal, axial, or sagittal planes. At one of the two ends of the phantom, an ionization chamber can be positioned parallel to the rotation axis of the accelerator gantry in all possible positions within a 20 cm diameter cylinder, for film calibration purposes. Inhomogeneities can be inserted into the phantom using the same carbon pipes and plastic sheets used to support film. An example of vertebra-shaped inserts made of bone equivalent material is reported. Radiochromic film can be dipped in water, while radiographic film must be protected to prevent damage. To accomplish this, radiographic film is laminated using a cold laminating film. In order to assess the effects of both the lamination itself and the effects of water on laminated Kodak EDR2 film, the optical density (OD) of conventional, laminated, and laminated film immersed in water and exposed to a range of doses from 0 to 300 cGy were compared. The OD of the three samples receiving the same radiation dose did not present any significant difference, thus proving that laminated EDR2 film can also be used in water. A prerequisite for any dosimetric comparison between planned and measured data is a proper film to plan registration. The solution proposed here is an extrinsic in-plane registration technique using four reference points marked on each film in predefined positions. The four points and the millimeter scales fixed on the carbon pipes that support the film are designed and manufactured so as to transfer onto the film the same reference system used during the planning procedure, thus allowing a straightforward registration. Tests to assess the accuracy of the proposed registration method demonstrate that the distances between measured and intended marker positions, evaluated for coronal, axial, and sagittal planes, were about 1 mm for both anteroposterior and lateral projections.

  19. Design and implementation of a water phantom for IMRT, arc therapy, and tomotherapy dose distribution measurements.

    PubMed

    Pallotta, Stefania; Marrazzo, Livia; Bucciolini, Marta

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new phantom for arc therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and tomotherapy dose distribution measurement in pretreatment verification. The presented phantom is innovative for its use of water as the tissue equivalent material, together with a technical solution specifically designed to support radiographic or radiochromic film and ionization chambers in any desired position. The phantom comprise a Plexiglas container, whose present shape and dimensions offer the possibility to simulate a human torso or abdomen; the container can be filled with water by opening the upper cover. On the internal side of the cover, a set of carbon pipes can support film in the desired coronal, axial, or sagittal planes. At one of the two ends of the phantom, an ionization chamber can be positioned parallel to the rotation axis of the accelerator gantry in all possible positions within a 20 cm diameter cylinder, for film calibration purposes. Inhomogeneities can be inserted into the phantom using the same carbon pipes and plastic sheets used to support film. An example of vertebra-shaped inserts made of bone equivalent material is reported. Radiochromic film can be dipped in water, while radiographic film must be protected to prevent damage. To accomplish this, radiographic film is laminated using a cold laminating film. In order to assess the effects of both the lamination itself and the effects of water on laminated Kodak EDR2 film, the optical density (OD) of conventional, laminated, and laminated film immersed in water and exposed to a range of doses from 0 to 300 cGy were compared. The OD of the three samples receiving the same radiation dose did not present any significant difference, thus proving that laminated EDR2 film can also be used in water. A prerequisite for any dosimetric comparison between planned and measured data is a proper film to plan registration. The solution proposed here is an extrinsic in-plane registration technique using four reference points marked on each film in predefined positions. The four points and the millimeter scales fixed on the carbon pipes that support the film are designed and manufactured so as to transfer onto the film the same reference system used during the planning procedure, thus allowing a straightforward registration. Tests to assess the accuracy of the proposed registration method demonstrate that the distances between measured and intended marker positions, evaluated for coronal, axial, and sagittal planes, were about 1 mm for both anteroposterior and lateral projections. PMID:17985617

  20. Fourth-order nonlinear evolution equations for counterpropagating capillary-gravity wave packets on the surface of water of infinite depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debsarma, Suma; Das, K. P.

    2002-07-01

    Asymptotically exact nonlocal fourth-order nonlinear evolution equations are derived for two counterpropagating capillary-gravity wave packets on the surface of water of infinite depth. On the basis of these equations a stability analysis is made for a uniform standing capillary-gravity wave for longitudinal perturbation. The instability conditions and an expression for the maximum growth rate of instability are obtained. Significant deviations are noticed between the results obtained from third-order and fourth-order nonlinear evolution equations.

  1. Modeling water flow, depth and inundation extent over the rivers of the Contiguous US within a Catchment-based Land Surface Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; David, C. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    With population growth and increasing demand of water supply, the need for integrated continental and global scale surface water dynamics simulation systems relying on both observations and models is ever increasing. In this study we characterize how accurately we can estimate river discharge, river depth and the corresponding inundation extent over the contiguous U.S. by combining observations and models. We present a continental-scale implementation of the Catchment-based Hydrological And Routing Modeling System (CHARMS) that includes an explicit representation of the river networks from a Geographic Information System (GIS) dataset. The river networks and contributing catchment boundaries of the Contiguous U.S are upscaled from the NHDPlus dataset. The average upscaled catchment size is 2773 km2 and the unique main river channel contained in each catchment consists of several river reaches of average length 1.6 km. We derive 18 sets of empirical relationship between channel dimension (bankfull depth and bankfull width) and drainage area based on USGS gauge observations to describe river dynamics for the 18 water resource regions of the NHDPlus representation of the United States. These relationships are used to separate the main river channel and floodplain. Modeled monthly and daily streamflow show reasonable agreement with gauge observations and initial results show that basins with fewer anthropogenic modifications are more accurately simulated. Modeled monthly and daily river depth and floodplain extent associated with each river reach are also explicitly estimated over the U.S., although such simulations are more challenging to validate. Our results have implications for capturing the seasonal-to-interannual dynamics of surface water in climate models. Such a continental-scale modeling framework development would, by design, facilitate the use of existing in situ observations and be suitable for integrating the upcoming NASA Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission measurements for a range of studies in climate, hydrology and water management.

  2. Dose to water-like media or dose to tissue in MV photons radiotherapy treatment planning: still a matter of debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The difference between Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP) based on the assumption of water-like tissues with densities obtained from CT procedures, or on tissue compositions derived from CT-determined densities, have been investigated. Stopping powers and electron fluences have been calculated for a range of media and body tissues for 6 MV photon beams, including changes in their physical data (density and stopping powers). These quantities have been used to determine absorbed doses using cavity theory. It is emphasized that tissue compositions given in ICRU or ICRP reports should not be given the standing of physical constants as they correspond to average values obtained for a limited number of human-body samples. It has been shown that mass stopping-power ratios to water are more dependent on patient-to-patient composition differences, and therefore on their mean excitation energies (I-values), than on mass density. Electron fluence in different media are also more dependent on media composition (and their I-values) than on density. However, as a consequence of the balance between fluence and stopping powers, doses calculated from their product are more constant than what the independent stopping powers and fluence variations suggest. Additionally, cancelations in dose ratios minimize the differences between the water-like and tissue approaches, yielding practically identical results except for bone, and to a lesser extent for adipose tissue. A priori, changing from one approach to another does not seem to be justified considering the large number of approximations and uncertainties involved throughout the treatment planning tissue segmentation and dose calculation procedures. The key issue continues to be the composition of tissues and their I-values, and as these cannot be obtained for individual patients, whatever approach is selected does not lead to significant differences from a water reference dose, the maximum of these being of the order of 5% for bone tissues. Considering, however, current developments in advanced dose calculation methods, planning in terms of dose-to-tissue should be the preferred choice, under the expectancy that progress in the field will gradually improve some of the crude approximations included in MCTP and numerical transport methods. The small differences obtained also show that a retrospective conversion from dose-to-tissue to dose-to-water, based on a widely used approach, would mostly increase the final uncertainty of the treatment planning process. It is demonstrated that, due to the difference between electron fluence distributions in water and in body tissues, the conversion requires an additional fluence correction that has so far been neglected. An improved expression for the conversion and data for the fluence correction factor are provided. These will be necessary even in a dose-to-tissue environment, for the normalization of the treatment plan to the reference dosimetry of the treatment unit, always calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water.

  3. Dose to 'water-like' media or dose to tissue in MV photons radiotherapy treatment planning: still a matter of debate.

    PubMed

    Andreo, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The difference between Monte Carlo Treatment Planning (MCTP) based on the assumption of 'water-like' tissues with densities obtained from CT procedures, or on tissue compositions derived from CT-determined densities, have been investigated. Stopping powers and electron fluences have been calculated for a range of media and body tissues for 6 MV photon beams, including changes in their physical data (density and stopping powers). These quantities have been used to determine absorbed doses using cavity theory. It is emphasized that tissue compositions given in ICRU or ICRP reports should not be given the standing of physical constants as they correspond to average values obtained for a limited number of human-body samples. It has been shown that mass stopping-power ratios to water are more dependent on patient-to-patient composition differences, and therefore on their mean excitation energies (I-values), than on mass density. Electron fluence in different media are also more dependent on media composition (and their I-values) than on density. However, as a consequence of the balance between fluence and stopping powers, doses calculated from their product are more constant than what the independent stopping powers and fluence variations suggest. Additionally, cancelations in dose ratios minimize the differences between the 'water-like' and 'tissue' approaches, yielding practically identical results except for bone, and to a lesser extent for adipose tissue. A priori, changing from one approach to another does not seem to be justified considering the large number of approximations and uncertainties involved throughout the treatment planning tissue segmentation and dose calculation procedures. The key issue continues to be the composition of tissues and their I-values, and as these cannot be obtained for individual patients, whatever approach is selected does not lead to significant differences from a water reference dose, the maximum of these being of the order of 5% for bone tissues. Considering, however, current developments in advanced dose calculation methods, planning in terms of dose-to-tissue should be the preferred choice, under the expectancy that progress in the field will gradually improve some of the crude approximations included in MCTP and numerical transport methods. The small differences obtained also show that a retrospective conversion from dose-to-tissue to dose-to-water, based on a widely used approach, would mostly increase the final uncertainty of the treatment planning process. It is demonstrated that, due to the difference between electron fluence distributions in water and in body tissues, the conversion requires an additional fluence correction that has so far been neglected. An improved expression for the conversion and data for the fluence correction factor are provided. These will be necessary even in a dose-to-tissue environment, for the normalization of the treatment plan to the reference dosimetry of the treatment unit, always calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to water. PMID:25503312

  4. Relations among water levels, specific conductance, and depths of bedrock fractures in four road-salt-contaminated wells in Maine, 20079

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schalk, Charles W.; Stasulis, Nicholas W.

    2012-01-01

    Data on groundwater-level, specific conductance (a surrogate for chloride), and temperature were collected continuously from 2007 through 2009 at four bedrock wells known to be affected by road salts in an effort to determine the effects of road salting and fractures in bedrock that intersect the well at a depth below the casing on the presence of chloride in groundwater. Dissolved-oxygen data collected periodically also were used to make inferences about the interaction of fractures and groundwater flow. Borehole geophysical tools were used to determine the depths of fractures in each well that were actively contributing flow to the well, under both static and pumped conditions; sample- and measurement-depths were selected to correspond to the depths of these active fractures. Samples of water from the wells, collected at depths corresponding to active bedrock fractures, were analyzed for chloride concentration and specific conductance; from these analyses, a linear relation between chloride concentration and specific conductance was established, and continuous and periodic measurements of specific conductance were assumed to represent chloride concentration of the well water at the depth of measurement. To varying degrees, specific conductance increased in at least two of the wells during winter and spring thaws; the shallowest well, which also was closest to the road receiving salt treatment during the winter, exhibited the largest changes in specific conductance during thaws. Recharge events during summer months, long after application of road salt had ceased for the year, also produced increases in specific conductance in some of the wells, indicating that chloride which had accumulated or sequestered in the overburden was transported to the wells throughout the year. Geophysical data and periodic profiles of water quality along the length of each wells borehole indicated that the greatest changes in water quality were associated with active fractures; in one case, high concentration of dissolved oxygen at the bottom of the well indicated the presence of a highly transmissive fracture that was in good connection with a surficial feature (stream or atmosphere). Data indicated that fractures have a substantial influence on the transport of chlorides to the subsurface; that elevated specific conductance occurred throughout the year, not just when road salts were applied; and that chloride contamination, as indicated by elevated specific conductance, may persist for years.

  5. TH-C-19A-01: Analytic Design Method to Make a 2D Planar, Segmented Ion Chamber Water-Equivalent for Proton Dose Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W; Hollebeek, R; Teo, B; Maughan, R; Dolney, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Quality Assurance (QA) measurements of proton therapy fields must accurately measure steep longitudinal dose gradients as well as characterize the dose distribution laterally. Currently, available devices for two-dimensional field measurements perturb the dose distribution such that routine QA measurements performed at multiple depths require multiple field deliveries and are time consuming. Methods: A design procedure for a two-dimensional detector array is introduced whereby the proton energy loss and scatter are adjusted so that the downstream dose distribution is maintained to be equivalent to that which would occur in uniform water. Starting with the design for an existing, functional two-dimensional segmented ion chamber prototype, a compensating material is introduced downstream of the detector to simultaneously equate the energy loss and lateral scatter in the detector assembly to the values in water. An analytic formalism and procedure is demonstrated to calculate the properties of the compensating material in the general case of multiple layers of arbitrary material. The resulting design is validated with Monte Carlo simulations. Results: With respect to the specific prototype design considered, the results indicate that a graphite compensating layer of the proper dimensions can yield proton beam range perturbation less than 0.1mm and beam sigma perturbation less than 2% across the energy range of therapeutic proton beams. Conclusion: We have shown that, for a 2D gas-filled detector array, a graphite-compensating layer can balance the energy loss and multiple Coulomb scattering relative to uniform water. We have demonstrated an analytic formalism and procedure to determine a compensating material in the general case of multiple layers of arbitrary material. This work was supported by the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command under Contract Agreement No. DAMD17-W81XWH-04-2-0022. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the author and are not necessarily endorsed by the US Army.

  6. Hydrologic Record Extension of Water-Level Data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) Using Artificial Neural Network Models, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-present) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystem Science provides support for EDEN and the goal of providing quality assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the water-surface models, 25 real-time water-level gaging stations were added to the network of 253 established water-level gaging stations. To incorporate the data from the newly added stations to the 7-year EDEN database in the greater Everglades, the short-term water-level records (generally less than 1 year) needed to be simulated back in time (hindcasted) to be concurrent with data from the established gaging stations in the database. A three-step modeling approach using artificial neural network models was used to estimate the water levels at the new stations. The artificial neural network models used static variables that represent the gaging station location and percent vegetation in addition to dynamic variables that represent water-level data from the established EDEN gaging stations. The final step of the modeling approach was to simulate the computed error of the initial estimate to increase the accuracy of the final water-level estimate. The three-step modeling approach for estimating water levels at the new EDEN gaging stations produced satisfactory results. The coefficients of determination (R2) for 21 of the 25 estimates were greater than 0.95, and all of the estimates (25 of 25) were greater than 0.82. The model estimates showed good agreement with the measured data. For some new EDEN stations with limited measured data, the record extension (hindcasts) included periods beyond the range of the data used to train the artificial neural network models. The comparison of the hindcasts with long-term water-level data proximal to the new EDEN gaging stations indicated that the water-level estimates were reasonable. The percent model error (root mean square error divided by the range of the measured data) was less than 6 percent, and for the majority of stations (20 of 25), the percent model error was less than 1 percent.

  7. Basis of the Massachusetts Reference Dose and Drinking Water Standard for Perchlorate

    PubMed Central

    Zewdie, Tsedash; Smith, C. Mark; Hutcheson, Michael; West, Carol Rowan

    2010-01-01

    Objective Perchlorate inhibits the uptake of iodide in the thyroid. Iodide is required to synthesize hormones critical to fetal and neonatal development. Many water supplies and foods are contaminated with perchlorate. Exposure standards are needed but controversial. Here we summarize the basis of the Massachusetts (MA) perchlorate reference dose (RfD) and drinking water standard (DWS), which are considerably lower and more health protective than related values derived by several other agencies. We also review information regarding perchlorate risk assessment and policy. Data sources MA Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) scientists, with input from a science advisory committee, assessed a wide range of perchlorate risk and exposure information. Health outcomes associated with iodine insufficiency were considered, as were data on perchlorate in drinking water disinfectants. Data synthesis We used a weight-of-the-evidence approach to evaluate perchlorate risks, paying particular attention to sensitive life stages. A health protective RfD (0.07 ?g/kg/day) was derived using an uncertainty factor approach with perchlorate-induced iodide uptake inhibition as the point of departure. The MA DWS (2 ?g/L) was based on risk management decisions weighing information on perchlorate health risks and its presence in certain disinfectant solutions used to treat drinking water for pathogens. Conclusions Current data indicate that perchlorate exposures attributable to drinking water in individuals at sensitive life stages should be minimized and support the MA DEP perchlorate RfD and DWS. Widespread exposure to perchlorate and other thyroid toxicants in drinking water and foods suggests that more comprehensive policies to reduce overall exposures and enhance iodine nutrition are needed. PMID:20056583

  8. Well Wishes: A Case on Septic Systems and Well Water Requiring In-Depth Analysis and Including Optional Laboratory Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walczak, Mary M.; Lantz, Juliette M.

    2004-01-01

    The case of Well Wishes involves students in a thorough examination of the interaction among nitrogen-composed species in the septic systems and well water, which helps to clean household water. The case supports the attainment of five goals for students, and can be analyzed through classroom discussions or laboratory experiments.

  9. Evaluation of effective dose for a patient under Ga-67 nuclear examination using TLD, water phantom and a simplified model

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Kuang Hua; Lin, Yu Ting; Hsu, Chia Chun; Chen, Chien Yi; Pan, Lung Kwang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effective dose of Ga-67 for a patient undergoing Ga-67 citrate nuclear examination by applying thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) technique and an indigenous water phantom. The Ga-67 radionuclide remaining in the body inevitably generated a measurable internal dose even though gamma camera scanning took only minutes to complete the clinical examination. For effective simulation of the cumulated effective dose for a patient undergoing examination, 150 TLDs were placed inside the water phantom for 6 days to monitor the gamma ray dose from the distributed Ga-67 citrate solution. The inserted TLDs represented internal organs, and the effective dose was calculated according to data in the ICRP-60 report. The water phantom was designed to model the body of a healthy human weighing 70 kg, and the water that was mixed with Ga-67 citrate solution was slowly replaced with fresh feed water to yield the required biological half life of the phantom. After continuously feeding in fresh water throughout the 6 days of TLD exposure, the TLDs were analyzed to determine the effective doses from the various biological half lives of the phantom. The derived effective dose of 185 MBq Ga-67 citrate solution for male/female (M/F) was 10.7/12.2, 10.7/12.0, 8.7/9.9 and 6.0/6.8 mSv, of biological half lives of 6.0, 4.5, 3.0 and 1.5 days, respectively. Although these experimental results correlated well with earlier empirical studies, they were lower than most calculated values. The cumulated uncertainty in the effective dose was 12.5–19.4%, which was acceptable in terms of both TLD counting statistic and reproducibility. PMID:22915780

  10. Depth persistence of the spatial pattern of soil-water storage along a small transect in the Loess Plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuezhang; Shao, Ming'an; Jia, Xiaoxu; Wei, Xiaorong; He, Liang

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the spatial patterns of soil-water storage (SWS) in soil profiles is important for understanding the dynamics of soil water between surface and subsurface soil layers in semiarid area. We investigated the depth persistence of the overall and scale-specific spatial patterns of SWS for different soil layers during different seasons. Soil-water contents were measured using a neutron probe on 22 occasions in 2012 and 2013 along a 1340-m transect over several sub-watersheds in the Liudaogou catchment on the Loess Plateau of China. Similarities in the spatial patterns of SWS were analyzed by Spearman's rank correlations and wavelet coherency. A spatiotemporal analysis indicated that the temporal evolution of the SWS profiles differed between the growing and non-growing seasons and that landscape position and soil texture determined the amount of SWS at each sampling location. Spearman's rank correlations were significant between any two layers within different seasons, and the correlation coefficients decreased as the distance between layers increased. Clay content controlled the spatial pattern of SWS between layers at large scales. The SWS spatial pattern had a higher depth persistence during the non-growing season than during the growing season, and the soil layer had a larger effect than season on the similarity in SWS spatial patterns. These results can improve our understanding of the hydrological processes in soil profiles and can be of considerable value in the application of hydrological models and in water management.

  11. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Maruhashi, Akira

    2006-03-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  12. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments.

    PubMed

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-10-01

    Methane (CH(4)) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 2-6% of the global atmospheric CH(4) budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH(4) that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (0-25 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH(4) oxidation potential for these shallow (?2 m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (0-1 cm) were most active in assimilating CH(4), whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (15-20 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH(4)-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes. PMID:22592821

  13. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J.; Pohlman, John W.; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 26% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (025 cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (~2m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (01 cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (1520 cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes.

  14. Diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs along depth profiles of arctic and subarctic lake water column and sediments

    PubMed Central

    He, Ruo; Wooller, Matthew J; Pohlman, John W; Quensen, John; Tiedje, James M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emitted from high-latitude lakes accounts for 26% of the global atmospheric CH4 budget. Methanotrophs in lake sediments and water columns mitigate the amount of CH4 that enters the atmosphere, yet their identity and activity in arctic and subarctic lakes are poorly understood. We used stable isotope probing (SIP), quantitative PCR (Q-PCR), pyrosequencing and enrichment cultures to determine the identity and diversity of active aerobic methanotrophs in the water columns and sediments (025?cm) from an arctic tundra lake (Lake Qalluuraq) on the north slope of Alaska and a subarctic taiga lake (Lake Killarney) in Alaska's interior. The water column CH4 oxidation potential for these shallow (?2?m deep) lakes was greatest in hypoxic bottom water from the subarctic lake. The type II methanotroph, Methylocystis, was prevalent in enrichment cultures of planktonic methanotrophs from the water columns. In the sediments, type I methanotrophs (Methylobacter, Methylosoma and Methylomonas) at the sediment-water interface (01?cm) were most active in assimilating CH4, whereas the type I methanotroph Methylobacter and/or type II methanotroph Methylocystis contributed substantially to carbon acquisition in the deeper (1520?cm) sediments. In addition to methanotrophs, an unexpectedly high abundance of methylotrophs also actively utilized CH4-derived carbon. This study provides new insight into the identity and activity of methanotrophs in the sediments and water from high-latitude lakes. PMID:22592821

  15. Spatially pooled depth-dependent reservoir storage, elevation, and water-quality data for selected reservoirs in Texas, January 1965-January 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burley, Thomas E.; Asquith, William H.; Brooks, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Texas Tech University, constructed a dataset of selected reservoir storage (daily and instantaneous values), reservoir elevation (daily and instantaneous values), and water-quality data from 59 reservoirs throughout Texas. The period of record for the data is as large as January 1965-January 2010. Data were acquired from existing databases, spreadsheets, delimited text files, and hard-copy reports. The goal was to obtain as much data as possible; therefore, no data acquisition restrictions specifying a particular time window were used. Primary data sources include the USGS National Water Information System, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Surface Water-Quality Management Information System, and the Texas Water Development Board monthly Texas Water Condition Reports. Additional water-quality data for six reservoirs were obtained from USGS Texas Annual Water Data Reports. Data were combined from the multiple sources to create as complete a set of properties and constituents as the disparate databases allowed. By devising a unique per-reservoir short name to represent all sites on a reservoir regardless of their source, all sampling sites at a reservoir were spatially pooled by reservoir and temporally combined by date. Reservoir selection was based on various criteria including the availability of water-quality properties and constituents that might affect the trophic status of the reservoir and could also be important for understanding possible effects of climate change in the future. Other considerations in the selection of reservoirs included the general reservoir-specific period of record, the availability of concurrent reservoir storage or elevation data to match with water-quality data, and the availability of sample depth measurements. Additional separate selection criteria included historic information pertaining to blooms of golden algae. Physical properties and constituents were water temperature, reservoir storage, reservoir elevation, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, unfiltered salinity, unfiltered total nitrogen, filtered total nitrogen, unfiltered nitrate plus nitrite, unfiltered phosphorus, filtered phosphorus, unfiltered carbon, carbon in suspended sediment, total hardness, unfiltered noncarbonate hardness, filtered noncarbonate hardness, unfiltered calcium, filtered calcium, unfiltered magnesium, filtered magnesium, unfiltered sodium, filtered sodium, unfiltered potassium, filtered potassium, filtered chloride, filtered sulfate, unfiltered fluoride, and filtered fluoride. When possible, USGS and Texas Commission on Environmental Quality water-quality properties and constituents were matched using the database parameter codes for individual physical properties and constituents, descriptions of each physical property or constituent, and their reporting units. This report presents a collection of delimited text files of source-aggregated, spatially pooled, depth-dependent, instantaneous water-quality data as well as instantaneous, daily, and monthly storage and elevation reservoir data.

  16. Sensitivity of water stress in a two-layered sandy grassland soil to variations in groundwater depth and soil hydraulic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; Seuntjens, P.; Joris, I.; Bonne, W.; Van Hoey, S.; Campling, P.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2015-07-01

    Monitoring and modeling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. We used non-invasive soil moisture monitoring, a crop growth and a soil hydrological model to predict soil-water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. The sensitivity of the model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions was implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis showed that changes in soil water content are mainly affected by the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and the Mualem-van Genuchten retention curve shape parameters n and ?. Results further showed that different parameter optimization strategies (two-, three-, four- or six-parameter optimizations) did not affect the calculated water stress and water content as significantly as does the bottom boundary. For this case, a two-parameter scenario, where Ks was optimized for each layer under the condition of a constant groundwater depth at 135-140 cm, performed best. A larger yield reduction, and a larger number and longer duration of stress conditions occurred in the free drainage condition as compared to constant boundary conditions. Numerical results showed that optimal irrigation scheduling using the aforementioned water stress calculations can save up to 12-22 % irrigation water as compared to the current irrigation regime. This resulted in a yield increase of 4.5-6.5 %, simulated by crop growth model.

  17. Deep depth undex simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, R. R.; Malakhoff, A.

    1985-01-29

    A deep depth underwater simulator is illustrated for determining the dual effects of nuclear type underwater explosion shockwaves and hydrostatic pressures on a test vessel while simulating, hydrostatically, that the test vessel is located at deep depths. The test vessel is positioned within a specially designed pressure vessel followed by pressurizing a fluid contained between the test and pressure vessels. The pressure vessel, with the test vessel suspended therein, is then placed in a body of water at a relatively shallow depth, and an explosive charge is detonated at a predetermined distance from the pressure vessel. The resulting shockwave is transmitted through the pressure vessel wall so that the shockwave impinging on the test vessel is representative of nuclear type explosive shockwaves transmitted to an underwater structure at great depths.

  18. Quantitative oral dosing of water soluble and lipophilic contaminants in the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irv; Reed, Stacey M.; Pratt, Amanda V.; Skillman, Ann D.

    2007-02-01

    Quantitative oral dosing in fish can be challenging, particularly with water soluble contaminants, which can leach into the aquarium water prior to ingestion. We applied a method of bioencapsulation using newly hatched brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) nauplii to study the toxicokinetics of five chlorinated and brominated halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), which are drinking water disinfection by-products. These results are compared to those obtained in a previous study using a polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-47), a highly lipophilic chemical. The HAAs and PBDE-47 were bioencapsulated using freshly hatched A. franciscana nauplii after incubation in concentrated solutions of the study chemicals for 18 h. Aliquots of the brine shrimp were quantitatively removed for chemical analysis and fed to individual fish that were able to consume 400500 nauplii in less than 5min. At select times after feeding, fish were euthanized and the HAA or PBDE-47 content determined. The absorption of HAAs was quantitatively similar to previous studies in rodents: rapid absorptionwith peak body levels occurringwithin 12 h, then rapidly declining with elimination half-life of 0.33 h depending on HAA. PBDE-47 was more slowly absorbed with peak levels occurring by 18 h and very slowly eliminated with an elimination half-life of 281 h.

  19. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junsang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, Kwangho; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in rats. Methods: All experiments were performed at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Each group contained 10 Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 males and 5 females. GP was prepared in a sterile room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under regulations of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). GP dosages were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL for the experimental groups; normal saline was administered to the control group. The animals general condition was examined daily for 14 days, and the rats were weighed on the starting day and at 3, 7 and 14 days after administration of the pharmacopuncture. Hematological and biochemistry tests and autopsies were done to test the toxicological effect of GP after 14 days. This study was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotextech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test of intramuscular injections of GP, and no significant changes in the general conditions, body weights, hematological and biochemistry tests, and autopsies were observed. The local injection site showed no changes. Based on these results, the lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results suggest that GP is relatively safe. Further studies, including a repeated toxicity test, are needed to provide more concrete evidence for the safety of GP. PMID:26120491

  20. Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    These are the lids both on top and below the water bottles on the Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD). When the CTD is placed in the ocean and reaches a desired depth, an electronic signal is sent from the ship that closes the bottles and a water sample is collected. ...

  1. Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD)

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This is the top of the Conductivity Temperature Depth Profiler (CTD). When the instrument is lowered into the water and reaches a desired depth, an electronic signal is sent along these wires from the ship that closes the bottles and a water sample is collected. ...

  2. Scavenging of aerosol particles by large water drops: 3. Washout coefficients, half-lives, and rainfall depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pranesha, T. S.; Kamra, A. K.

    1997-10-01

    Using the average values of collection efficiencies obtained from our experiments [Pranesha and Kamra, 1996, this issue] washout coefficients for the drops in the diameter (D) range 3.6?D?5.0 mm collecting micron-sized aerosol particles have been calculated when the drops are neutral, charged, or falling in an electric field. Compared with the neutral case, the values of washout coefficients are higher in both electrical cases, the increase being more pronounced for smaller particles. Washout coefficients show a maximum for a drop charge of 10-12 to 10-11 C. With an increase in electric field, the washout coefficients increase linearly for 1-?m particles, show a maximum for 4-?m particles, and change insignificantly for 7-?m particles. Combining our experimental values of collection efficiencies with the theoretical collision efficiencies of McGann and Jennings [1991] for smaller drops, washout coefficients, half-lives, and rainfall depths have been computed for the raindrop size distribution extending from 0.1- to 5 mm-diameter. Results show that raindrops of diameter >1 mm contribute dominantly in removing particles of diameter 1-2 ?m and their contributions increase with the rainfall rate. When the effect of the raindrops of diameter >1 mm is included, the values of washout coefficient increase by about 2 orders of magnitude for particles of diameter 1-2 ?m and by about 1 order of magnitude for particles of diameter >2 ?m. It can be concluded from the estimates of rainfall depth that a heavy rainfall over a short duration is more efficient in removing the particles of diameter <2.2 ?m, whereas a lower rainfall spread over a longer duration is more efficient in removing the particles of diameter >2.2 ?m.

  3. Effect of the change of bottom depth on the penetration of Kuroshio water onto the East China Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seung, Young Ho

    2007-02-01

    A theoretical problem of the penetration of a western boundary current, driven by a cross-stream sea level difference, onto a shallow basin to the west of the current is put forth to account for the penetration of the Kuroshio onto the East China Sea (ECS) shelf and formation of the Tsushima Warm Current. Different from previous studies, this study assumes that the change of bottom depth is the primary factor determining the penetration. For a given depth of the shallow basin, the penetration depends on two external parameters: speed of the western boundary current, V0, and surface elevation of the current at the edge of the shallow basin, Z0. Two penetration modes emerge, depending on the magnitude of the inertia of penetration. For sufficiently large inertia, which is favored by large Z0 and hindered by large V0, penetration occurs in the form of a free jet, mode "J." Otherwise, it is in the form of a coastal current, mode "C." Volume transport of the penetration is maximized in mode "J." In general, volume transport, width, and speed of the penetrating current increase with Z0, although the latter two are slightly more dependent on V0 in mode "C." The model considered in this study predicts that the penetration of the Kuroshio onto the ECS shelf is of mode "J," as indicated by observations. The volume transport of the penetration is somewhat overestimated, possibly because bottom friction is ignored in this model. Although this model is highly idealized, it allows one to gain insight into the behavior of the Kuroshio penetrating onto the shallow ECS shelf.

  4. Chronic toxicity and oncogenicity study with glutaraldehyde dosed in the drinking water of Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Van Miller, John P; Hermansky, Steven J; Losco, Patricia E; Ballantyne, Bryan

    2002-06-14

    Glutaraldehyde (GA) has a wide spectrum of industrial, scientific and biomedical applications. Its potential to produce chronic toxic and/or oncogenic effects was investigated in Fischer 344 rats (100/sex/group) given GA in drinking water for a maximum of 104 weeks. GA concentrations were 0 (control), 50,250 and 1000 ppm, resulting in average daily GA consumptions, respectively, of 0, 4, 17 and 64 mg/kg for males and 0, 6, 25 and 86 mg/kg for females. Interim euthanasia (10/sex/group) was performed at 52 and 78 weeks. Parameters evaluated were clinical signs, body weight, food and water consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross and microscopic pathology. There were no treatment-related effects on mortality. Absolute body weights and body weight gains of the 250 and 1000 ppm males and females were reduced over the study in a dosage-related manner. Food and water consumption by the 250 and 1000 ppm groups were decreased in a statistically significant dose-related manner over the study, and mean water consumption by the 50 ppm animals was slightly reduced but not with statistical significance. The 250 and 1000 ppm groups had a dose-related decrease in urine volume with increased osmolality, and pH was slightly reduced. Absolute kidney weights were increased in the 250 and 1000 ppm groups at the 52 and 78 week sacrifices, and decreased at 104 weeks. Relative kidney weights were increased at all sacrifice times for the 1000 ppm group, at 52 weeks for the 250 ppm group, and at 72 weeks for the 50 ppm group. The urinalysis and renal weight changes are compatible with a physiological compensatory adaptation to reduced water consumption. Gross and histological evidence for gastric irritation was observed principally in the 1000 ppm rats euthanized at 104 weeks and in animals that died during the study. Bone marrow hyperplasia and renal tubular pigmentation, seen in rats that died and the 104 week euthanasia animals, may have been secondary to a low grade hemolytic anemia in animals with large granular lymphocytic leukemia (LGLL). The only neoplasm that showed a statistically significant increase was LGLL, which occurred at a high incidence in both sexes and all groups, including the controls, for both animals that died and at the 104 week euthanasia. A few instances of LGLL were observed at 78 weeks. The overall incidence of LGLL in the spleen for the 0, 50, 250 and 1000 ppm groups was, respectively, 43, 51, 40 and 46% for males, and 24, 41, 41 and 53% for females. Statistical analyses indicated that the severity of LGLL was associated with the higher dosages of GA in female, but not male, rats. Due to the background and variable incidence of LGLL in the Fischer 344 rat, the finding of a statistical significance only for female rats, and because, there was no clear dose-response relationship, the biological significance of the LGLL findings is unclear. There is the possibility that the significance was a statistical artifact due to the low incidence of LGLL in the female control animals as a result of biological variability within the study. It is also considered to be possible that the chronic dosage of GA in the drinking water resulted in a modification of one or more of the factors responsible for the expression of this common and spontaneously occurring neoplasm in the Fischer 344 rat. PMID:12049846

  5. Major Cation, Carbon System and Trace Element Chemistry in Pore Waters from a Depth Transect of Cores on the Iberian Margin: Implications for Paleoproxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaves, M.; Elderfield, H.; Hodell, D. A.; Skinner, L. C.; Sevilgen, D.; Grauel, A. L.; de la Fuente, M.; Misra, S.

    2014-12-01

    A significant body of work exists on the chemistry of pore waters from DSDP and ODP drilling cores (e.g. Gieskes 1975; Sayles 1981) showing large gradients in sea salt cations and anions interpreted in terms of diagenetic reactions such as the formation of Mg-rich clays and dolomite formation (Higgins and Schrag, 2010). Another class of diagenetic reactions involves the breakdown of organic matter and trace element behaviour (Froelich et al., 1979). The translation of chemical gradients into fluxes requires estimates of pore water chemistry across the sea water - sediment surface boundary. Additionally, the use of the chemistry of benthic foraminiferal calcite for seawater paleochemistry requires estimation of the chemistry of pore waters which may differ from that of bottom seawater because of diagenetic reactions. In this work we have collected multi core samples from 10 core sites on cruise RRS James Cook JC089 on the southwest Iberian continental margin. Pore waters were extracted from the core surface and at 1 cm depth intervals down core (typically to ~40 cm depth) using Rhizon samplers and analysed for Alkalinity, DIC, ∂13C and Na, K, Mg, Ca, Li, Mn, Fe, Ba, B, Sr by atomic emission spectrophotometry as well as O2 penetration and pH by microelectrodes. This has allowed us to inspect chemical behavior at the bottom water - sediment interface. Some examples of results are a large gradient in ∂13C of DIC, the similarity of zero O2 penetration followed by an increase in Mn concentration and then decrease to zero, the similarity of Li to Mn and, in contrast to much DSDP/ODP work, Ca2+ and Mg2+both decrease with depth in pore waters near the sediment surface. References: Gieskes J.M. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 3, 433 (1975). Sayles F. L. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta45, 1061 (1981). Higgins J.A. and D.P. Schrag. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta.74, 5039 (2010). Froelich, P.N., et al., Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 43, 1075 (1979).

  6. Occupational dose for the water cooling system of the SEAFP project

    SciTech Connect

    Sandri, S.

    1996-12-31

    The Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) for the water primary cooling system (PCS) of the SEAFP was assessed taking into account the first wall/blanket section only. All the potential radiological sources were considered and the analysis was restricted to the most important source at the PCS, the activated corrosion products (ACP). The relevant dose rate was evaluated using the computer code MCNP. Comparison of the results with the respective values measured at the fission PWR plants made it possible to transfer the parameters relevant to the working activities to the SEAFP PCS. Maintenance and inspection were found to be the only working tasks applicable to the SEAFP circuit and the worker access was considered to be allowed 24 h after the plant shut down only. 12 refs., 11 tabs.

  7. Calculation of electron Dose Point Kernel in water with GEANT4 for medical application

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes, C. C.; Sene, F. F.; Martinelli, J. R.

    2009-06-03

    The rapid insertion of new technologies in medical physics in the last years, especially in nuclear medicine, has been followed by a great development of faster Monte Carlo algorithms. GEANT4 is a Monte Carlo toolkit that contains the tools to simulate the problems of particle transport through matter. In this work, GEANT4 was used to calculate the dose-point-kernel (DPK) for monoenergetic electrons in water, which is an important reference medium for nuclear medicine. The three different physical models of electromagnetic interactions provided by GEANT4 - Low Energy, Penelope and Standard - were employed. To verify the adequacy of these models, the results were compared with references from the literature. For all energies and physical models, the agreement between calculated DPKs and reported values is satisfactory.

  8. Experience in Wales (UK) of the optimisation of ortho-phosphate dosing for controlling lead in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hayes, C R; Incledion, S; Balch, M

    2008-06-01

    Dwr Cymru Welsh Water supplies over three million people with drinking water throughout most of Wales (UK). Ortho-phosphate has increasingly been dosed at around 1 mg/L (P) to further reduce the corrosivity of supplies to the lead pipes which connect approximately 30% of houses to water mains in the company's area, additional to long-establish pH adjustment measures. The installation of new ortho-phosphate dosing schemes and the optimisation of these and existing dosing schemes, 29 schemes in total, were subject to a regulatory programme of work, agreed with the Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI). Optimisation comprised (i) selection of appropriate ortho-phosphate doses by a procedure involving laboratory based plumbosolvency testing linked to zonal lead emission (compliance) modelling, (ii) tight dose control and (iii) extensive monitoring of lead in supply by random daytime (RDT) sampling and by the use of lead pipe test rigs. The successful outcome was confirmed by 99% of over 5,000 RDT samples complying with the future standard of 10 microg/L for lead in drinking water. PMID:18209280

  9. Interannual to decadal oxygen variability in the mid-depth water masses of the eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendardo, Ilaria; Kieke, Dagmar; Rhein, Monika; Gruber, Nicolas; Steinfeldt, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    The detection of multi-decadal trends in the oceanic oxygen content and its possible attribution to global warming is protracted by the presence of a substantial amount of interannual to decadal variability, which hitherto is poorly known and characterized. Here we address this gap by studying interannual to decadal changes of the oxygen concentration in the Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), the Intermediate Water (IW) and the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in the eastern North Atlantic. We use data from a hydrographic section located in the eastern North Atlantic at about 48N repeated 12 times over a period of 19 years from 1993 through 2011, with a nearly annual resolution up to 2005. Despite a substantial amount of year-to-year variability, we observe a long-term decrease in the oxygen concentration of all three water masses, with the largest changes occurring from 1993 to 2002. During that time period, the trends were mainly caused by a contraction of the subpolar gyre associated with a northwestward shift of the Subpolar Front (SPF) in the eastern North Atlantic. This caused SPMW to be ventilated at lighter densities and its original density range being invaded by subtropical waters with substantially lower oxygen concentrations. The contraction of the subpolar gyre reduced also the penetration of IW of subpolar origin into the region in favor of an increased northward transport of IW of subtropical origin, which is also lower in oxygen. The long-term oxygen changes in the MOW were mainly affected by the interplay between circulation and solubility changes. Besides the long-term signals, mesoscale variability leaves a substantial imprint as well, affecting the water column over at least the upper 1000 m and laterally by more than 400 km. Mesoscale eddies induced changes in the oxygen concentration of a magnitude that can substantially alias analyses of long-term changes based on repeat hydrographic data that are being collected at intervals of typically 10 years.

  10. Depth to Water, Saturated Thickness, and Other Geospatial Datasets Used in the Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Jennifer L.; Arnold, L. Rick; Paschke, Suzanne S.

    2009-01-01

    These datasets were compiled in support of U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 456, Design and Installation of a Groundwater Monitoring-Well Network in the High Plains Aquifer, Colorado. These datasets were developed as part of a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Department of Agriculture. The purpose of the project was to design a 30-well network and install 20 of the 30 wells to characterize water quality in the High Plains aquifer in areas of irrigated agriculture in Colorado. The five datasets are described as follows and are further described in Data Series 456: (1) ds472_dtw: This dataset represents the depth to groundwater in the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado in 2000. This grid was used to determine areas where the depth to water was less than 200 feet below land surface. (2) Ds472_sat: This dataset represents the saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer within Colorado in 2000. This grid was used to determine areas where the saturated thickness was greater than 50 feet. (3) Ds472_equalareas: This dataset includes 30 equal-area polygons overlying the High Plains Aquifer in Colorado having a depth to water less than 200 feet, a saturated thickness greater than 50 feet, and underlying irrigated agricultural lands. (4) Ds472_randomsites: This dataset includes 90 randomly-generated potential groundwater sampling sites. This dataset provides a first, second, and third choice placed within the 30 equal area polygons of dataset dsXX_equalareas. (5) Ds472_welldata: This dataset includes point locations and well completion data for the 20 wells installed as part of this project. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the U.S. Geological Survey's NSDI (National Spatial Data Infrastructure) Node, the links are provided on the sidebar.

  11. Effects of Low-Dose Drinking Water Arsenic on Mouse Fetal and Postnatal Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Kozul-Horvath, Courtney D.; Zandbergen, Fokko; Jackson, Brian P.; Enelow, Richard I.; Hamilton, Joshua W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Arsenic (As) exposure is a significant worldwide environmental health concern. Chronic exposure via contaminated drinking water has been associated with an increased incidence of a number of diseases, including reproductive and developmental effects. The goal of this study was to identify adverse outcomes in a mouse model of early life exposure to low-dose drinking water As (10 ppb, current U.S. EPA Maximum Contaminant Level). Methodology and Findings C57B6/J pups were exposed to 10 ppb As, via the dam in her drinking water, either in utero and/or during the postnatal period. Birth outcomes, the growth of the F1 offspring, and health of the dams were assessed by a variety of measurements. Birth outcomes including litter weight, number of pups, and gestational length were unaffected. However, exposure during the in utero and postnatal period resulted in significant growth deficits in the offspring after birth, which was principally a result of decreased nutrients in the dam's breast milk. Cross-fostering of the pups reversed the growth deficit. Arsenic exposed dams displayed altered liver and breast milk triglyceride levels and serum profiles during pregnancy and lactation. The growth deficits in the F1 offspring resolved following separation from the dam and cessation of exposure in male mice, but did not resolve in female mice up to six weeks of age. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to As at the current U.S. drinking water standard during critical windows of development induces a number of adverse health outcomes for both the dam and offspring. Such effects may contribute to the increased disease risks observed in human populations. PMID:22693606

  12. Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

    2011-11-01

    The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

  13. Modeling of depth to base of Last Glacial Maximum and seafloor sediment thickness for the California State Waters Map Series, eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Sliter, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Models of the depth to the base of Last Glacial Maximum and sediment thickness over the base of Last Glacial Maximum for the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are a key part of the maps of shallow subsurface geology and structure for offshore Refugio to Hueneme Canyon, California, in the California State Waters Map Series. A satisfactory interpolation of the two datasets that accounted for regional geologic structure was developed using geographic information systems modeling and graphics software tools. Regional sediment volumes were determined from the model. Source data files suitable for geographic information systems mapping applications are provided.

  14. Hydrologic record extension of water-level data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN), 1991-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Petkewich, Matthew D.; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2015-01-01

    To hindcast and fill data records, 214 empirical models were developed—189 are linear regression models and 25 are artificial neural network models. The coefficient of determination (R2) for 163 of the models is greater than 0.80 and the median percent model error (root mean square error divided by the range of the measured data) is 5 percent. To evaluate the performance of the hindcast models as a group, contour maps of modeled water-level surfaces at 2-centimeter (cm) intervals were generated using the hindcasted data. The 2-cm contour maps were examined for selected days to verify that water surfaces from the EDEN model are consistent with the input data. The biweekly 2-cm contour maps did show a higher number of issues during days in 1990 as compared to days after 1990. May 1990 had the lowest water levels in the Everglades of the 21-year dataset used for the hindcasting study. To hindcast these record low conditions in 1990, many of the hindcast models would require large extrapolations beyond the range of the predictive quality of the models. For these reasons, it was decided to limit the hindcasted data to the period January 1, 1991, to December 31, 1999. Overall, the hindcasted and gap-filled data are assumed to provide reasonable estimates of station-specific water-level data for an extended historical period to inform research and natural resource management in the Everglades.

  15. Container surface area and water depth influence the population dynamics of the mosquito Culex pervigilans (Diptera: Culicidae) and its associated predators in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lester, Philip J; Pike, Adrian J

    2003-12-01

    The density of larval mosquitoes in containers is related to adult mosquito ovipositional preferences and to other factors such as the abundance of predators. We examined the effects of anthropogenic container size and water depth on the population dynamics of mosquitoes and their macroinvertebrate predators in Wellington, New Zealand. Culex pervigilans was the only mosquito species observed in these containers. With the exception of one sampling date, throughout the year Cx. pevigilans larvae, egg rafts, and pupal exuviae were observed. The highest densities of Cx. pervigilans were observed in the containers with the smallest surface area. A multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the effects of container surface area and depth on the mean density of mosquito larvae in each container. This analysis showed larval densities significantly decreased with increasing container surface area, for two-thirds of the year. Although fewer Cx. pervigilans were generally observed in similarly sized containers with greater depths, this effect was not statistically significant. The significant effect of container surface area appeared to be related to adult ovipositional preferences, as few observations of predators were made in any of the container treatments. Of the predators that were observed, damselfly larvae and diving beetles tended to be more common in the larger containers. Our results suggest that mosquitoes may have strong preferences based on container size alone that influence larval population dynamics, irrespective of the abundance of aquatic predators. PMID:14714676

  16. Depth, soil type, water table, and site effects on microbial community composition in sediments of pesticide-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Marja K; Liu, Xinxin; Yu, Dan; Kontro, Merja H

    2015-07-01

    Microbial community compositions in pesticide-contaminated aquifers have not been studied, although such information is important for remediation and maintaining freshwater sources clean under changing climate. Therefore, phospholipid (PLFAs), glycolipid (GLFAs), and neutral lipid (NLFAs) fatty acids were determined from sand and clay sediments at depths of 0.3-24.8 m, all contaminated with triazines and dichlobenil/2,6-dichlorobenzamide. The portion of fungi and Gram-negative bacteria at 0.3 m was greater than at 0.8 m, where the percentage of Gram-positive bacteria, actinobacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) increased. In deeper sediments, microbial biomass, activity, and diversity decreased. Clay sediments seemed to serve as a reservoir for slow pesticide elution to groundwater, and their biomarker portion for all bacteria except actinobacteria was greater than in sand sediments. The slow pesticide dissipation seemed to occur in the main groundwater flow zone, resulting in nitrogen release simultaneously with organic matter elution from gardening and bank filtration. As a result, microbial biomass, activity, and diversity were increased. This shift in conditions towards that in surface soil may be appropriate for enhanced natural attenuation of pesticides in groundwater sources. PMID:25703619

  17. Supplementary comparison CCRI(I)-S2 of standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at radiation processing dose levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. T.; Allisy-Roberts, P. J.; Desrosiers, M. F.; Sharpe, P. H. G.; Pimpinella, M.; Lourenço, V.; Zhang, Y. L.; Miller, A.; Generalova, V.; Sochor, V.

    2011-01-01

    Eight national standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co gamma radiation at the dose levels used in radiation processing have been compared over the range from 1 kGy to 30 kGy using the alanine dosimeters of the NIST and the NPL as the transfer dosimeters. The comparison was organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, who also participated at the lowest dose level using their radiotherapy-level standard for the same quantity. The national standards are in general agreement within the standard uncertainties, which are in the range from 1 to 2 parts in 102. Evidence of a dose rate effect is presented and discussed briefly. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section I, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam -- Annual Report -- October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, Evan V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations----a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezo¬meters. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet.

  19. PGE2 exerts dose-dependent opposite effects on net water and chloride absorption from the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Kreydiyyeh, Sawsan Ibrahim; Markossian, Sarine; Hodeify, Rawad F

    2006-03-01

    This work investigated the effect of different doses of PGE2 on net water and Cl- absorption from the rat colon, using an in situ perfusion technique. PGE2 exerted opposite effects at different concentrations. Net water and Cl- absorption was significantly reduced at low doses with a minimum at 0.4 microg/100g BW, and significantly elevated at high doses with an observed maximal effect at 21 microg/100g BW. At low doses, PGE2 increased in superficial cells, the activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase and the protein expression of the Na+K+2Cl- cotransporter, but reduced them in crypt cells. Thus, the reduction in net water and Cl- absorption was ascribed to an increase in secretion by surface cells that masked absorptive processes. At high doses, PGE2 increased significantly the activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase in superficial cells only, and was without any effect on the protein expression of the cotransporter and the pump in both surface and crypt cells. The observed increase in net water and Cl- absorption was attributed in this case to an increase in absorptive processes with no effect on secretion. PMID:16516809

  20. Interpretation of Stratified Fill, Frost Depths, Water Tables, and Massive Ice within Multi-Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar Profiles Recorded Beneath Highways in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcone, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Road Radar generally refers to ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys intended to investigate pavement construction using pulses centered above 1 GHz. In interior Alaska thick sand and gravel grading and its frozen state by late winter generally afford up to 10 m of signal penetration at lower frequencies. Consequently, this penetration potentially allows identification of pavement issues involving frost heave and thaw settlement, while the smooth surface allows assessment of GPR performance in permafrost areas under ideal survey conditions. Here I discuss profiles using pulse center frequencies from 50 to 360 MHz, recorded over sections of the Steese and Elliott Highways within and just north of Fairbanks, respectively, and of the Tok Highway near Glennallen. Construction fill is easily recognized by its stratification; where marginally present along the Elliott it is replaced by steeply dipping horizons from the underlying schist. The frost depth and water table horizons are recognized by phase attributes of the reflected pulse, as dictated by the contrasts present in dielectric permittivity, their relative depths, and their continuity. Undulating stratification in the sand and gravel fill indicates thaw settlement, as caused by the melting of buried massive ice. The Tok section reveals the top and likely the bottom of massive ice. Generally, signal penetration is greatly reduced beneath the water table and so the highest resolution, at 360 MHz, covers all horizons. There is rare evidence of a permafrost table because it is most likely masked or nearly coincident with the water table. Permafrost penetration in frozen silts is a long-standing problem for GPR, for which I discuss a possible cause related to Maxwell-Wagner dielectric relaxation losses associated with unfrozen water.

  1. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2013-08-31

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges.

  2. Long-term Creep Behavior (1928-2002) of the Hayward Fault at Depth in the Claremont Water Tunnel, Berkeley, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, W. J.; Hampton, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    The Claremont Tunnel, a nine foot horseshoe shaped water tunnel conveying up to 175 million gallons per day (mgd) of treated drinking water to 800,000 residents on the east side of San Francisco Bay, crosses the Hayward Fault approximately 850 feet from the west portal of the tunnel. Creep along the fault has offset the tunnel at a depth of about 130 feet below the ground surface. Completed in 1928, the tunnel has undergone two inspections (1966 and 2002) in which detailed survey measurements have been made of the creep movements of the fault. There have been few opportunities to secure creep measurements below the ground surface. This paper will present the results of the two surveys showing the creep that has occurred at a depth of 130 feet and give time-based creep rates based on survey measurements. It will compare these measured creep rates with the tectonic creep model developed by NOAA. Due to the large time interval between the two surveys, surveying technology has dramatically changed. A discussion of the techniques used in each survey will be presented with discussions of how current technology compares with historical methods and what impact this has on the results.

  3. Freshwater lenses as archive of climate, groundwater recharge, and hydrochemical evolution: Insights from depth-specific water isotope analysis and age determination on the island of Langeoog, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Georg J.; Koeniger, Paul; Sltenfu, Jrgen

    2014-10-01

    The age stratification of a freshwater lens on the island of Langeoog, Germany, was reconstructed through depth-specific sampling and groundwater dating using the tritium-helium method. The stratification is strongly affected by the land use and resulting differences in recharge rates. Infiltration at the dune tops is significantly lower than in the valleys, due to repellency of the dry sand. Dune valleys contribute up to four times more groundwater recharge per area than other areas. Housing development in dune areas might therefore significantly decrease the available fresh groundwater. The freshwater column shows a distinct increase of stable isotope values with decreasing depths. Hence, the freshwater lens contains a climate archive which reflects changing environmental conditions at the time of recharge. Combined with tritium-helium dating, this pattern could be matched to climate records which show an increase of the temperature at the time of recharge and rainfall rates during the last 50 years. The spatial and temporal developments of water chemistry during the passage through the lens follow a marked pattern from a sodium and chloride-dominated rainwater of low conductivity to a more mineralized sodium bicarbonate water type, caused by dissolution of carbonate shells close to the surface and subsequent ion exchange of calcium for sodium in the deeper parts.

  4. Temperature and Water Depth Monitoring Within Chum Salmon Spawning Habitat Below Bonneville Dam : Annual Report October 2007-September 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, E.V.

    2009-07-14

    The overall goal of the project described in this report is to provide a sound scientific basis for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) in ways that will effectively protect and enhance chum salmon populations - a species listed in March 1999 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The study objective during fiscal year 2008 was to provide real-time data on Ives Island area water temperature and water surface elevations from the onset of chum salmon spawning through the end of chum salmon emergence. Sampling locations included areas where riverbed temperatures were elevated, potentially influencing alevin development and emergence timing. In these locations, hydrosystem operation caused large, frequent changes in river discharge that affected salmon habitat by dewatering redds and altering egg pocket temperatures. The 2008 objective was accomplished using temperature and water-level sensors deployed inside piezometers. Sensors were integrated with a radio telemetry system such that real-time data could be downloaded remotely and posted hourly on the Internet. During our overall monitoring period (October 2007 through June 2008), mean temperature in chum spawning areas was nearly 2 C warmer within the riverbed than in the overlying river. During chum salmon spawning (mid-November 2007 through December2007), mean riverbed temperature in the Ives Island area was 14.5 C, more than 5 C higher than in the river, where mean temperature was 9.4 C. During the incubation period (January 2008 through mid-May 2008), riverbed temperature was approximately 3 C greater than in the overlying river (10.5 C and 7.2 C, respectively). Chum salmon preferentially select spawning locations where riverbed temperatures are elevated; consequently the incubation time of alevin is shortened before they emerge in the spring.

  5. ERS-1 SAR monitoring of ice growth on shallow lakes to determine water depth and availability in north west Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, Martin; Morris, Kim; Liston, Glen

    1996-01-01

    Images taken by the ERS-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) were used to identify and to differentiate between the lakes that freeze completely to the bottom and those that do not, on the North Slope, in northwestern Alaska. The ice thickness at the time each lake froze completely is determined with numerical ice growth model that gives a maximum simulated thickness of 2.2 m. A method combining the ERS-1 SAR images and numerical ice growth model was used to determine the ice growth and the water availability in these regions.

  6. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    This report is the third in a series of reports sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program in which a range of water-related issues surrounding geothermal power production are evaluated. The first report made an initial attempt at quantifying the life cycle fresh water requirements of geothermal power-generating systems and explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids. The initial analysis of life cycle fresh water consumption of geothermal power-generating systems identified that operational water requirements consumed the vast majority of water across the life cycle. However, it relied upon limited operational water consumption data and did not account for belowground operational losses for enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). A second report presented an initial assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation. The current analysis builds upon this work to improve life cycle fresh water consumption estimates and incorporates regional water availability into the resource assessment to improve the identification of areas where future growth in geothermal electricity generation may encounter water challenges. This report is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 gives the background of the project and its purpose, which is to assess the water consumption of geothermal technologies and identify areas where water availability may present a challenge to utility-scale geothermal development. Water consumption refers to the water that is withdrawn from a resource such as a river, lake, or nongeothermal aquifer that is not returned to that resource. The geothermal electricity generation technologies evaluated in this study include conventional hydrothermal flash and binary systems, as well as EGSs that rely on engineering a productive reservoir where heat exists, but where water availability or permeability may be limited. Chapter 2 describes the approach and methods for this work and identifies the four power plant scenarios evaluated: a 20-MW EGS binary plant, a 50-MW EGS binary plant, a 10-MW hydrothermal binary plant, and a 50-MW hydrothermal flash plant. The methods focus on (1) the collection of data to improve estimation of EGS stimulation volumes, aboveground operational consumption for all geothermal technologies, and belowground operational consumption for EGS; and (2) the mapping of the geothermal and water resources of the western United States to assist in the identification of potential water challenges to geothermal growth. Chapters 3 and 4 present the water requirements for the power plant life cycle. Chapter 3 presents the results of the current data collection effort, and Chapter 4 presents the normalized volume of fresh water consumed at each life cycle stage per lifetime energy output for the power plant scenarios evaluated. Over the life cycle of a geothermal power plant, from construction through 30 years of operation, the majority of water is consumed by plant operations. For the EGS binary scenarios, where dry cooling was assumed, belowground operational water loss is the greatest contributor depending upon the physical and operational conditions of the reservoir. Total life cycle water consumption requirements for air-cooled EGS binary scenarios vary between 0.22 and 1.85 gal/kWh, depending upon the extent of belowground operational water consumption. The air-cooled hydrothermal binary and flash plants experience far less fresh water consumption over the life cycle, at 0.04 gal/kWh. Fresh water requirements associated with air- cooled binary operations are primarily from aboveground water needs, including dust control, maintenance, and domestic use. Although wet-cooled hydrothermal flash systems require water for cooling, these plants generally rely upon the geofluid, fluid from the geothermal reservoir, which typically has high salinity and total dissolved solids concentration and is much warmer than normal groundwater sources, for their cooling water needs; thus, while there is considerable geofluid loss at 2.7 gal/kWh, fresh water consumption during operations is similar to that of aircooled binary systems. Chapter 5 presents the assessment of water demand for future growth in deployment of utility-scale geothermal power generation. The approach combines the life cycle analysis of geothermal water consumption with a geothermal supply curve according to resource type, levelized cost of electricity (LCOE), and potential growth scenarios. A total of 17 growth scenarios were evaluated. In general, the scenarios that assumed lower costs for EGSs as a result of learning and technological improvements resulted in greater geothermal potential, but also significantly greater water demand due to the higher water consumption by EGSs. It was shown, however, that this effect could be largely mitigated if nonpotable water sources were used for belowground operational water demands. The geographical areas that showed the highest water demand for most growth scenarios were southern and northern California, as well as most of Nevada. In addition to water demand by geothermal power production, Chapter 5 includes data on water availability for geothermal development areas. A qualitative analysis is included that identifies some of the basins where the limited availability of water is most likely to affect the development of geothermal resources. The data indicate that water availability is fairly limited, especially under drought conditions, in most of the areas with significant near- and medium-term geothermal potential. Southern California was found to have the greatest potential for water-related challenges with its combination of high geothermal potential and limited water availability. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 6. Overall, this work highlights the importance of utilizing dry cooling systems for binary and EGS systems and minimizing fresh water consumption throughout the life cycle of geothermal power development. The large resource base for EGSs represents a major opportunity for the geothermal industry; however, depending upon geology, these systems can require large quantities of makeup water due to belowground reservoir losses. Identifying potential sources of compatible degraded or low-quality water for use for makeup injection for EGS and flash systems represents an important opportunity to reduce the impacts of geothermal development on fresh water resources. The importance of identifying alternative water sources for geothermal systems is heightened by the fact that a large fraction of the geothermal resource is located in areas already experiencing water stress. Chapter 7 is a glossary of the technical terms used in the report, and Chapters 8 and 9 provide references and a bibliography, respectively.

  7. Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus maculosus ) spatial distribution, breeding water depth, and use of artificial spawning habitat in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Jaquelyn; Mifsud, David A.; Briggs, Andrew S.; Boase, James C.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    2015-01-01

    Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus maculosus) populations have been declining in the Great Lakes region of North America. However, during fisheries assessments in the Detroit River, we documented Mudpuppy reproduction when we collected all life stages from egg through adult as by-catch in fisheries assessments. Ten years of fisheries sampling resulted in two occurrences of Mudpuppy egg collection and 411 Mudpuppies ranging in size from 37–392 mm Total Length, collected from water 3.5–15.1 m deep. Different types of fisheries gear collected specific life stages; spawning females used cement structures for egg deposition, larval Mudpuppies found refuge in eggmats, and we caught adults with baited setlines and minnow traps. Based on logistic regression models for setlines and minnow traps, there was a higher probability of catching adult Mudpuppies at lower temperatures and in shallower water with reduced clarity. In addition to documenting the presence of all life stages of this sensitive species in a deep and fast-flowing connecting channel, we were also able to show that standard fisheries research equipment can be used for Mudpuppy research in areas not typically sampled in herpetological studies. Our observations show that typical fisheries assessments and gear can play an important role in data collection for Mudpuppy population and spawning assessments.

  8. Sensitivity of water stress in a two-layered sandy grassland soil to variations in groundwater depth and soil hydraulic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; Seuntjens, P.; Joris, I.; Boënne, W.; Van Hoey, S.; Campling, P.; Cornelis, W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring and modelling tools may improve irrigation strategies in precision agriculture. We used non-invasive soil moisture monitoring, a crop growth and a soil hydrological model to predict soil water content fluctuations and crop yield in a heterogeneous sandy grassland soil under supplementary irrigation. The sensitivity of the soil hydrological model to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed after integrating models. Free drainage and incremental constant head conditions were implemented in a lower boundary sensitivity analysis. A time-dependent sensitivity analysis of the hydraulic parameters showed that changes in soil water content are mainly affected by the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity Ks and the Mualem-van Genuchten retention curve shape parameters n and α. Results further showed that different parameter optimization strategies (two-, three-, four- or six-parameter optimizations) did not affect the calculated water stress and water content as significantly as does the bottom boundary. In this case, a two-parameter scenario, where Ks was optimized for each layer under the condition of a constant groundwater depth at 135-140 cm, performed best. A larger yield reduction, and a larger number and longer duration of stress conditions occurred in the free drainage condition as compared to constant boundary conditions. Numerical results showed that optimal irrigation scheduling using the aforementioned water stress calculations can save up to 12-22 % irrigation water as compared to the current irrigation regime. This resulted in a yield increase of 4.5-6.5 %, simulated by the crop growth model.

  9. Co-ordination among leaf water relations and xylem vulnerability to embolism of Eucalyptus trees growing along a depth-to-groundwater gradient.

    PubMed

    Zolfaghar, Sepideh; Villalobos-Vega, Randol; Cleverly, James; Eamus, Derek

    2015-07-01

    The importance of groundwater resources in arid and semi-arid areas for plant survival is well documented. However, there have been few studies examining the importance and impacts of groundwater availability in mesic environments. The aim of this study was to determine how depth-to-groundwater (DGW) impacts on leaf water relations, leaf structure and branch xylem vulnerability to embolism in a mesic environment. We hypothesize that increasing DGW results in increased resistance to drought stress and that this will be manifested across leaf and branch attributes pertaining to water relations. We further investigate whether there is co-ordination across leaf and branch-scale level responses to increased DGW. Four species were used in this study: Eucalyptus globoidea Blakely, E. piperita Sm., E. sclerophylla (Blakely) L.A.S.Johnson & Blaxell and E. sieberi L.A.S.Johnson. Six sites were chosen along an 11 km transect to span a range of average DGW: 2.4, 4.3, 9.8, 13, 16.3 and 37.5 m. Leaf water relations of trees showed less sensitivity to drought stress as DGW increased. This was reflected in significantly lower leaf turgor loss point and maximum osmotic potential, increased maximum turgor and a reduced leaf relative water content as DGW increased. At shallow DGW sites, minimum diurnal leaf water potentials were generally more negative than leaf water potential at zero turgor, but the reverse was observed at deep sites, indicating a larger growth potential safety margin at deep sites compared with shallow sites. Leaf cell wall elasticity varied independently of DGW. Xylem vulnerability to embolism was quantified as the water potential associated with 50% loss of conductance (P 50). In both summer and winter P 50 was significantly and negatively correlated with DGW. Co-ordination between leaf- and branch-level responses to increase in DGW was apparent, which strongly supports the conclusion that groundwater supply influenced woodland structure and functional behaviour. PMID:26023059

  10. Effect of taxonomic resolution on ecological and palaeoecological inference - a test using testate amoeba water table depth transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Payne, Richard J.; Mazei, Yuri

    2014-05-01

    Sound taxonomy is a major requirement for quantitative environmental reconstruction using biological data. Transfer function performance should theoretically be expected to decrease with reduced taxonomic resolution. However for many groups of organisms taxonomy is imperfect and species level identification not always possible. We conducted numerical experiments on five testate amoeba water table (DWT) transfer function data sets. We sequentially reduced the number of taxonomic groups by successively merging morphologically similar species and removing inconspicuous species. We then assessed how these changes affected model performance and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction using two fossil data sets. Model performance decreased with decreasing taxonomic resolution, but this had only limited effects on patterns of inferred DWT, at least to detect major dry/wet shifts. Higher-resolution taxonomy may however still be useful to detect more subtle changes, or for reconstructed shifts to be significant.

  11. 210Po and 238U isotope concentrations in commercial bottled mineral water samples in Spain and their dose contribution.

    PubMed

    Daz-Francs, I; Mantero, J; Manjn, G; Daz, J; Garca-Tenorio, R

    2013-09-01

    (210)Po is a naturally occurring radionuclide, belonging to the uranium series, which is present in minute amounts in the different environmental compartments (water, soil, biota). Through its route along the trophic chain, it can be incorporated in the human body via ingestion of waters and/or food. This radionuclide is highly radiotoxic, being one of the main contributors to the committed effective dose via ingestion by the general population. In this work, the contribution of this radionuclide to the committed effective dose received by the Spanish population via consumption of bottled mineral waters is evaluated. With this end, the (210)Po activity concentrations in a total of 32 different commercial bottled mineral waters have been determined by alpha-particle spectrometry. The determined contribution is also compared with the contributions of other natural radionuclides such as (234)U and (238)U. PMID:23559586

  12. A dose calculation algorithm with correction for proton-nucleus interactions in non-water materials for proton radiotherapy treatment planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Sato, S.; Kohno, R.

    2016-01-01

    In treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, the dose measured in water is applied to the patient dose calculation with density scaling by stopping power ratio {ρ\\text{S}} . Since the body tissues are chemically different from water, this approximation may cause dose calculation errors, especially due to differences in nuclear interactions. We proposed and validated an algorithm for correcting these errors. The dose in water is decomposed into three constituents according to the physical interactions of protons in water: the dose from primary protons continuously slowing down by electromagnetic interactions, the dose from protons scattered by elastic and/or inelastic interactions, and the dose resulting from nonelastic interactions. The proportions of the three dose constituents differ between body tissues and water. We determine correction factors for the proportion of dose constituents with Monte Carlo simulations in various standard body tissues, and formulated them as functions of their {ρ\\text{S}} for patient dose calculation. The influence of nuclear interactions on dose was assessed by comparing the Monte Carlo simulated dose and the uncorrected dose in common phantom materials. The influence around the Bragg peak amounted to  ‑6% for polytetrafluoroethylene and 0.3% for polyethylene. The validity of the correction method was confirmed by comparing the simulated and corrected doses in the materials. The deviation was below 0.8% for all materials. The accuracy of the correction factors derived with Monte Carlo simulations was separately verified through irradiation experiments with a 235 MeV proton beam using common phantom materials. The corrected doses agreed with the measurements within 0.4% for all materials except graphite. The influence on tumor dose was assessed in a prostate case. The dose reduction in the tumor was below 0.5%. Our results verify that this algorithm is practical and accurate for proton radiotherapy treatment planning, and will also be useful in rapidly determining fluence correction factors for non-water phantom dosimetry.

  13. A dose calculation algorithm with correction for proton-nucleus interactions in non-water materials for proton radiotherapy treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Inaniwa, T; Kanematsu, N; Sato, S; Kohno, R

    2016-01-01

    In treatment planning for proton radiotherapy, the dose measured in water is applied to the patient dose calculation with density scaling by stopping power ratio [Formula: see text]. Since the body tissues are chemically different from water, this approximation may cause dose calculation errors, especially due to differences in nuclear interactions. We proposed and validated an algorithm for correcting these errors. The dose in water is decomposed into three constituents according to the physical interactions of protons in water: the dose from primary protons continuously slowing down by electromagnetic interactions, the dose from protons scattered by elastic and/or inelastic interactions, and the dose resulting from nonelastic interactions. The proportions of the three dose constituents differ between body tissues and water. We determine correction factors for the proportion of dose constituents with Monte Carlo simulations in various standard body tissues, and formulated them as functions of their [Formula: see text] for patient dose calculation. The influence of nuclear interactions on dose was assessed by comparing the Monte Carlo simulated dose and the uncorrected dose in common phantom materials. The influence around the Bragg peak amounted to??-6% for polytetrafluoroethylene and 0.3% for polyethylene. The validity of the correction method was confirmed by comparing the simulated and corrected doses in the materials. The deviation was below 0.8% for all materials. The accuracy of the correction factors derived with Monte Carlo simulations was separately verified through irradiation experiments with a 235 MeV proton beam using common phantom materials. The corrected doses agreed with the measurements within 0.4% for all materials except graphite. The influence on tumor dose was assessed in a prostate case. The dose reduction in the tumor was below 0.5%. Our results verify that this algorithm is practical and accurate for proton radiotherapy treatment planning, and will also be useful in rapidly determining fluence correction factors for non-water phantom dosimetry. PMID:26611641

  14. A robust method for determining the absorbed dose to water in a phantom for low-energy photon radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, T.

    2011-06-01

    The application of more and more low-energy photon radiation in brachytherapyeither in the form of low-dose-rate radioactive seeds such as Pd-103 or I-125 or in the form of miniature x-ray tubeshas induced greater interest in determining the absorbed dose to water in water in this energy range. As it seems to be hardly feasible to measure the absorbed dose with calorimetric methods in this low energy range, ionometric methods are the preferred choice. However, the determination of the absorbed dose to water in water by ionometric methods is difficult in this energy range. With decreasing energy, the relative uncertainty of the photon cross sections increases and as the mass energy transfer coefficients show a steep gradient, the spectra of the radiation field must be known precisely. In this work two ionometric methods to determine the absorbed dose to water are evaluated with respect to their sensitivity to the uncertainties of the spectra and of the atomic database. The first is the measurement of the air kerma free in air and the application of an MC-based conversion factor to the absorbed dose to water. The second is the determination of the absorbed dose to water by means of an extrapolation chamber as an integral part of a phantom. In the complementing MC-calculations, two assortments of spectra each of which is based on a separate unfolding procedure were used as well as two kinds of databases: the standard PEGS and the recently implemented NIST database of EGSnrc. Experimental results were obtained by using a parallel-plate graphite extrapolation chamber and a free-air chamber. In the case when the water kerma in a phantom is determined from the measurements of air kerma free in air, differences in the order of 10% were found, according to which the database or the kind of spectrum is used. In contrast to this, for the second method, the differences found were about 0.5%.

  15. [Estimation of absorbed dose of beta radiation into the critical tissues by a single injection of tritiated water].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, T; Norimura, T; Yamamoto, H; Hatakeyama, S; Dohi, S; Kunugita, N

    1988-12-01

    The biological effects of tritium in humans need to be clarified, because the chances of humans becoming exposed to tritium beta radiation may increase with the development of the nuclear fusion reactor. To evaluate the biological effects of tritium, it is necessary to estimate exactly the absorbed dose from the tritium beta rays in the tissue. In many reports, the absorbed dose of HTO in the tissues is estimated from the tritium content in body fluid and dose calculations are customarily based upon the water content of soft tissues, which is taken to be 0.7 to 0.8. However, these methods may not show the exact absorbed dose in the organs. In the present study, the radioactivity of the critical tissues was measured directly using a sample oxidizer and the absorbed dose was calculated from the radioactivity of tritium in the tissues. Details on the method for calculation of the absorbed dose in tissues of the mouse is shown in this report. The results suggest that the absorbed dose should be obtained from the radioactivity in the tissues. PMID:3212298

  16. Modelling water-table depth in a primary aquifer to identify potential wetland hydrogeomorphic settings on the northern Maputaland Coastal Plain, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbe, Bruce E.; Grundling, Althea T.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    The primary aquifer on the Maputaland Coastal Plain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is the principal source of water for rivers, lakes and most of the wetlands in dry periods, and is recharged by these systems in wet periods. Modelling hydrologic conditions that control regional water-table depth can provide insight into the spatial patterns of wetland occurrence and of the persistence of wet conditions that control their character. This project used a groundwater model (MODFLOW) to simulate 10-year water-table fluctuations on the Maputaland Coastal Plain from January 2000 to December 2010, to contrast the conditions between wet and dry years. Remote sensing imagery was used to map "permanent" and "temporary" wetlands in dry and wet years to evaluate the effectiveness of identifying the suitable conditions for their formation using numerical modelling techniques. The results confirm that topography plays an important role on a sub-regional and local level to support wetland formation. The wetlands' extent and distribution are directly associated with the spatial and temporal variations of the water table in relation to the topographical profile. Groundwater discharge zones in the lowland (1-50 masl) areas support more permanent wetlands with dominantly peat or high organic soil substrates, including swamp forest and most of the permanent open water areas. Most temporary wetlands associated with low-percentage clay occurrence are through-flow low-lying interdune systems characterised by regional fluctuation of the water table, while other temporary wetlands are perched or partially perched. The latter requires a more sophisticated saturated-unsaturated modelling approach.

  17. Modelling water-table depth in a primary aquifer to identify potential wetland hydrogeomorphic settings on the northern Maputaland Coastal Plain, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelbe, Bruce E.; Grundling, Althea T.; Price, Jonathan S.

    2016-02-01

    The primary aquifer on the Maputaland Coastal Plain in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, is the principal source of water for rivers, lakes and most of the wetlands in dry periods, and is recharged by these systems in wet periods. Modelling hydrologic conditions that control regional water-table depth can provide insight into the spatial patterns of wetland occurrence and of the persistence of wet conditions that control their character. This project used a groundwater model (MODFLOW) to simulate 10-year water-table fluctuations on the Maputaland Coastal Plain from January 2000 to December 2010, to contrast the conditions between wet and dry years. Remote sensing imagery was used to map "permanent" and "temporary" wetlands in dry and wet years to evaluate the effectiveness of identifying the suitable conditions for their formation using numerical modelling techniques. The results confirm that topography plays an important role on a sub-regional and local level to support wetland formation. The wetlands' extent and distribution are directly associated with the spatial and temporal variations of the water table in relation to the topographical profile. Groundwater discharge zones in the lowland (1-50 masl) areas support more permanent wetlands with dominantly peat or high organic soil substrates, including swamp forest and most of the permanent open water areas. Most temporary wetlands associated with low-percentage clay occurrence are through-flow low-lying interdune systems characterised by regional fluctuation of the water table, while other temporary wetlands are perched or partially perched. The latter requires a more sophisticated saturated-unsaturated modelling approach.