Science.gov

Sample records for water electrocatalysis photocatalysis

  1. A solvothermal method to synthesize fluorescent carbon nanoparticles and application to photocatalysis and electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Hongren, Li; Feng, Li; Aimin, Deng

    2015-09-01

    A novel solvothermal approach to synthesize fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) was developed using glucose and ammonium oxalate as the carbon source, and glycol as the solvent. The solution of as-prepared CNPs emitted blue-green fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) light at 365 nm, and the carbon nanoparticle formation was investigated through XRD, TEM, DLS, FT-IR, UV, PL, XPS. The particle was well dispersed with an average diameter of about 10-30 nm. In contrast with previous methods, in this synthesis process neither strong acid treatment nor further surface modification was necessary. The solution of as-prepared CNPs were applied to photocatalytic degradation of mountain green in the present H2 O2 , and the decolorization rate was over 97% when the reaction time was more than 7 h under visible light. The as-prepared CNPs were also applied to electrocatalysis and showed excellent electrocatalytic activity. PMID:25408385

  2. Solar photocatalysis: a clean process for water detoxification.

    PubMed

    Robert, Didier; Malato, Sixto

    2002-05-27

    The photocatalytic degradation of various toxic organic compounds has been proposed as a viable process to detoxify drinking water. Irradiating pulverulent semi-conductors like TiO2 in suspension or fixed to various supports in aqueous solutions containing organic pollutants, creates a redox environment able to destroy these pollutants. Solar photocatalytic mineralization of organic water pollutants has a strong potential in the industrial destruction of toxic organics in water as this has been widely demonstrated in recent years, and the applications and target compounds are numerous. The aim of this paper is to present the basic principle of the photocatalysis and especially to show the various applications of the solar photocatalysis in the field of the decontamination of wastewater. PMID:12150445

  3. Nanoscale Effects in Water Splitting Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Osterloh, Frank E

    2016-01-01

    From a conceptual standpoint, the water photoelectrolysis reaction is the simplest way to convert solar energy into fuel. It is widely believed that nanostructured photocatalysts can improve the efficiency of the process and lower the costs. Indeed, nanostructured light absorbers have several advantages over traditional materials. This includes shorter charge transport pathways and larger redox active surface areas. It is also possible to adjust the energetics of small particles via the quantum size effect or with adsorbed ions. At the same time, nanostructured absorbers have significant disadvantages over conventional ones. The larger surface area promotes defect recombination and reduces the photovoltage that can be drawn from the absorber. The smaller size of the particles also makes electron-hole separation more difficult to achieve. This chapter discusses these issues using selected examples from the literature and from the laboratory of the author. PMID:25898972

  4. Disinfection byproduct formation resulting from settled, filtered, and finished water treated by titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Daugherty, Erin; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated strategies targeting disinfection byproduct (DBP) mitigation using TiO2 photocatalysis with varying influent water quality. A Purifics Photo-CAT Lab reactor was used to assess total trihalomethane (TTHM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) formation as a function of photocatalytic treatment using water from a conventional coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation process, granular activated carbon filtration, and a DBP hot spot in the water distribution system. Regardless of influent water quality, photocatalysis reduced DBP precursors; however, low-energy limited photocatalysis (<5 kW h m(-3)), exacerbated the production of TTHMs and HAA5s beyond initial levels. Accordingly, limited photocatalysis is not a suitable option when TTHMs and HAA5s are a concern, regardless of the level of pretreatment. Limited photocatalysis yields incomplete oxidation, wherein larger, more aromatic, humic organic compounds are broken into smaller molecular weight, less aromatic, and less humic moieties, which have considerable potential to produce DBPs. More complete mineralization of DBP precursors is obtained using extended photocatalysis (80-160 kW h m(-3)), which substantially decreases DBP precursors as well as TTHM and HAA5 concentrations. In order to balance DBP mitigation, energy, and chemical usage, targeted use of TiO2 photocatalysis is necessary in a water treatment train (e.g., extended photocatalysis at a distribution system hot spot, where the volumetrically high energy requirements may be justifiable). PMID:24972073

  5. New Photocatalysis for Effective Degradation of Organic Pollutants in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei Chaleshtori, M.; Saupe, G. B.; Masoud, S.

    2009-12-01

    The presence of harmful compounds in water supplies and in the discharge of wastewater from chemical industries, power plants, and agricultural sources is a topic of global concern. The processes and technologies available at the present time for the treatment of polluted water are varied that include traditional water treatment processes such as biological, thermal and chemical treatment. All these water treatment processes, have limitations of their own and none is cost effective. Advanced oxidation processes have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of this kind of wastewater. Heterogeneous photocatalysis has recently emerged as an efficient method for purifying water. TiO2 has generally been demonstrated to be the most active semiconductor material for decontamination water. One significant factor is the cost of separation TiO2, which is generally a powder having a very small particle size from the water after treatment by either sedimentation or ultrafiltration. The new photocatalyst, HTiNbO5, has been tested to determine whether its photocatalytic efficiency is good enough for use in photocatalytic water purification since it has high surface area and relatively large particle size. The larger particle sizes of the porous materials facilitate catalyst removal from a solution, after purification has taken place. It can be separated from water easily than TiO2, a significant technical improvement that might eliminate the tedious final filtration necessary with a slurry. These materials are characterized and tested as water decontamination photocatalysts. The new catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity, but with a strong pH dependence on the photo efficiency. These results suggest that elimination of the ion exchange character of the catalyst may greatly improve its performance at various pHs. This new research proposes to study the effects of a topotactic dehydration reaction on these new porous material catalysts.

  6. Light-harvesting photocatalysis for water oxidation using mesoporous organosilica.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Masataka; Goto, Yasutomo; Ohsuna, Tetsu; Tani, Takao; Inagaki, Shinji

    2014-07-14

    An organic-based photocatalysis system for water oxidation, with visible-light harvesting antennae, was constructed using periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO). PMO containing acridone groups in the framework (Acd-PMO), a visible-light harvesting antenna, was supported with [Ru(II)(bpy)3(2+)] complex (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridyl) coupled with iridium oxide (IrO(x)) particles in the mesochannels as photosensitizer and catalyst, respectively. Acd-PMO absorbed visible light and funneled the light energy into the Ru complex in the mesochannels through excitation energy transfer. The excited state of Ru complex is oxidatively quenched by a sacrificial oxidant (Na2S2O8) to form Ru(3+) species. The Ru(3+) species extracts an electron from IrO(x) to oxidize water for oxygen production. The reaction quantum yield was 0.34 %, which was improved to 0.68 or 1.2 % by the modifications of PMO. A unique sequence of reactions mimicking natural photosystem II, 1) light-harvesting, 2) charge separation, and 3) oxygen generation, were realized for the first time by using the light-harvesting PMO. PMID:24890840

  7. Degradation of C.I. Reactive Red 2 through photocatalysis coupled with water jet cavitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoning; Jia, Jinping; Wang, Yalin

    2011-01-15

    The decolorization of an azo dye, C.I. Reactive Red 2 was investigated using TiO(2) photocatalysis coupled with water jet cavitation. Experiments were performed in a 4.0 L solution under ultraviolet power of 9 W. The effects of TiO(2) loading, initial dye concentration, solution pH, geometry of cavitation tube, and the addition of anions on the degradation of the dye were evaluated. Degradation of the dye followed a pseudo-first order reaction. The photocatalysis coupled with water jet cavitation elevated degradation of the dye by about 136%, showing a synergistic effect compared to the individual photocatalysis and water jet cavitation. The enhancement of photocatalysis by water jet cavitation could be due to the deagglomeration of catalyst particles as well as the better contact between the catalyst surfaces and the reactants. Venturi tube with smaller diameter and shorter length of throat tube favored the dye decolorization. The degradation efficiency was found to increase with decreasing initial concentration and pH. The presence of NO(3)(-) and SO(4)(2-) enhanced the degradation of RR2, while Cl(-), and especially HCO(3)(-) significantly reduced dye decolorization. The results of this study indicated that the coupled photocatalysis and water jet cavitation is effective in degrading dye in wastewater and provides a promising alternative for treatment of dye wastewater at a large scale. PMID:20940086

  8. The combination of photocatalysis and ozonolysis as a new approach for cleaning 2,4-dichlorophenoxyaceticacid polluted water.

    PubMed

    Müller, T S; Sun, Z; Kumar, G; Itoh, K; Murabayashi, M

    1998-04-01

    Treatment of 2,4-D polluted waters with photocatalysis leads to the buildup of high concentrations of the long living intermediate 2,4-DCP. A new approach using a combination of ozonolysis and photocatalysis gave better degradation results with lower intermediate concentrations. The advantages of photocatalysis giving a constant decline in TOC and of ozonolysis giving no buildup of high intermediate concentrations were combined. Degradation data of 2,4-D for photocatalysis, ozonolysis and the combination of both for different pH ranges are given. Data on the main intermediate 2,4-DCP are given for the three different approaches. PMID:9532731

  9. Plasmonic photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Lim Chen, Yu; Liu, Ru-Shi; Tsai, Din Ping

    2013-04-01

    Plasmonic photocatalysis has recently facilitated the rapid progress in enhancing photocatalytic efficiency under visible light irradiation, increasing the prospect of using sunlight for environmental and energy applications such as wastewater treatment, water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction. Plasmonic photocatalysis makes use of noble metal nanoparticles dispersed into semiconductor photocatalysts and possesses two prominent features—a Schottky junction and localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR). The former is of benefit to charge separation and transfer whereas the latter contributes to the strong absorption of visible light and the excitation of active charge carriers. This article aims to provide a systematic study of the fundamental physical mechanisms of plasmonic photocatalysis and to rationalize many experimental observations. In particular, we show that LSPR could boost the generation of electrons and holes in semiconductor photocatalysts through two different effects—the LSPR sensitization effect and the LSPR-powered bandgap breaking effect. By classifying the plasmonic photocatalytic systems in terms of their contact form and irradiation state, we show that the enhancement effects on different properties of photocatalysis can be well-explained and systematized. Moreover, we identify popular material systems of plasmonic photocatalysis that have shown excellent performance and elucidate their key features in the context of our proposed mechanisms and classifications.

  10. Nanostructured Titanium Oxide Film- And Membrane-Based Photocatalysis For Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Titanium Oxide (TiO2) photocatalysis, one of the ultraviolet (UV)-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness ...

  11. Membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.

    PubMed

    Rivero, M J; Parsons, S A; Jeffrey, P; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B

    2006-01-01

    Urban water recycling is now becoming an important issue where water resources are becoming scarce. This paper looks at reusing grey water; the preference is treatment processes based on biological systems to remove the dissolved organic content. Here, an alternative process, photocatalysis is discussed as it is an attractive technology that could be well-suited for treating the recalcitrant organic compounds found in grey water. The photocatalytic process oxidises organic reactants at a catalyst surface in the presence of ultraviolet light. Given enough exposure time, organic compounds will be oxidized into CO2 and water. The best contact is achieved in a slurry reactor but a second step to separate and recover the catalyst is need. This paper discusses a new membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment. PMID:16605030

  12. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of moxifloxacin in water: chemical transformation and ecotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Van Doorslaer, Xander; Haylamicheal, Israel Deneke; Dewulf, Jo; Van Langenhove, Herman; Janssen, Colin R; Demeestere, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    This work provides new insights on the impact of TiO2/UV catalyzed chemical transformation of moxifloxacin on ecotoxicity effects towards the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. The moxifloxacin median effect concentration (EC-50=0.78 [0.56, 1.09] mg L(-1)), determined in accordance to the OECD 72-h growth inhibition test guideline, was 7 times lower than that of the older and widely used fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin (EC-50=5.57 [4.86, 6.38] mg L(-1)). Applying heterogeneous photocatalysis as an advanced oxidation technique to degrade moxifloxacin in aqueous solution decreased the average growth inhibition from 72% to 14% after 150 min of treatment. No significant carbon mineralization was observed and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis revealed the formation of 13 degradation products for which a chemical structure could be proposed based on accurate mass determination. Combined chemical and ecotoxicological analysis showed that as long as moxifloxacin is present in the reaction solution, it is the main compound affecting algal growth inhibition. However, also the contribution of the degradation products to the observed ecotoxicity cannot be neglected. Photocatalytically induced modifications of moxifloxacin mainly occur at the diazobicyclo-substituent as ring opening, oxidation into carbonyl groups, and hydroxylation. This results into the formation of more hydrophilic compounds with a decreased biological activity compared with moxifloxacin. The change in lipophilicity, and possibly a modified acid-base speciation, most probably also affect the cell membrane permeation of the degradation products, which might be another factor explaining the observed lower residual ecotoxicity of the photocatalytically treated reaction solutions. PMID:24735961

  13. Hybrid photocatalysis/membrane treatment for surface waters containing low concentrations of natural organic matters.

    PubMed

    Le-Clech, Pierre; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Chen, Vicki

    2006-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, numerous studies on the treatment of drinking water by photocatalysis have been reported. Once optimised, the photocatalytic process can completely degrade numerous natural and artificial organic compounds. In this study, a hybrid photocatalysis/membrane process was used as a polishing treatment of surface water containing a small concentration of natural organic matters (i.e. total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of around 3mg/L) which may be difficult to remove using conventional filtration or coagulation. An optimum pH of 4.5 and a TiO(2) concentration of 0.1g/L were found to lead to the highest removal efficiencies. The relative effect of the individual processes featuring in the hybrid system (UV radiation, TiO(2) adsorption and membrane filtration) was also assessed for different pH values. The membrane separation process was accounted to remove around 18% of the initial TOC concentration, while TiO(2) adsorption alone was generally responsible for less than 5% of TOC removal during the 120 min of the experiments. However, when the natural water was only radiated by UV light, up to 70% of TOC was removed. A synergetic effect was observed when the three processes (TiO(2), UV and membrane) were used together. Comparison of removal efficiencies obtained during real and model (International Humic Substance Society) waters treatment by photocatalysis is also presented, revealing the importance of the nature of the feed in this type of treatment. PMID:16378634

  14. Degradation of carbofuran in water by solar photocatalysis in presence of photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Kuo, W S; Chiang, Y H; Lai, L S

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the presence of photosensitizers, methylene blue (MB) and rose Bengal (RB), on the degradation of carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) in water in a solar photocatalytic system was investigated. It was found that as compared to MB, RB generally showed a stronger effect on the decomposition of carbofuran under comparable conditions. Among the conditions studied, adding 2 x 10(-6) M of RB, that corresponding to 2% of the initial concentration of carbofuran solution in the system, rendered the most effective degradation of carbofuran. As a result, a carbofuran removal percentage of 69.9%, a mineralization efficiency of 28.0%, and a microtoxicity reduction of 65.0% could be achieved. The degradation and mineralization of carbofuran was found to follow the pseudo-first order reaction kinetics. The decomposition mechanism of carbofuran was further investigated through identification of the intermediates to elaborate the influence of dye photosensitizer on the solar photocatalysis of carbofuran in water. On the basis of the intermediates identified, including carbofuran phenol, 3-hydroxy carbofuran phenol, and substituted alcohols (3-phenoxy 1-propanol, 2-ethyl 1-hexanol, 2-butoxyl ethanol), it appears that hydrolysis and hydroxylation were the two key mechanisms for decomposing carbofuran during the process of solar photocatalysis with the aid of dye photosensitizer. PMID:16893781

  15. Photocatalysis for the treatment of waste water: Applications involving the removal of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Prairie, M.R.; Stange, B.M.

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes laboratory work investigating the applicability of solar-powered photocatalysis for the treatment of water contaminated with heavy metals and organics. It was found that Ag(I), Au (HI), Cr(VI), Hg(H), Pd(H), and PT(IV) are easily treated while Cd(U), Cu(II), and NI(II) are not. The importance of the entire photocatalytic redox cycle is demonstrated by showing that the rates of oxidation (of organics) and reduction (of metals) are intrinsically interrelated. Data are presented showing that photoefficiency decreases as light intensity increases in the range of 0 to 17 suns UV. This result suggests that one-sun systems are more efficient than those using concentrated solar radiation. Preliminary data for three samples of actual waste: (1) gold mining leachate, (2) precious metals mining extract, and (3) photographic waste, are described. In general, actual applications are less effective than predicted using laboratory data for clean systems.

  16. Role of water in the chlorine evolution reaction at RuO(2)-based electrodes--understanding electrocatalysis as a resonance phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R; Menzel, Nadine; Strasser, Peter; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2012-10-01

    The reaction path of the Cl(2) evolution reaction (CER) was investigated by combining electrochemical and spectroscopic methods. It is shown that oxidation and reconstruction of the catalyst surface during CER is a consequence of the interaction between RuO(2) and water. The state of the RuO(2) surface during the electrochemical reaction was analyzed in situ by using Raman spectroscopy to monitor vibrations of the crystal lattice of RuO(2) and changes in the surface concentration of the adsorbed species as a function of the electrode potential. The role of the solvent was recognized as being crucial in the formation of an oxygen-containing hydrophilic layer, which is a key prerequisite for electrocatalytic Cl(2) formation. Water (more precisely the OH adlayer) is understood not just as a medium that allows adsorption of intermediates, but also as an integral part of the intermediate formed during the electrochemical reaction. New insights into the general understanding of electrocatalysis were obtained by utilizing the vibration frequencies of the crystal lattice as a dynamic catalytic descriptor instead of thermodynamic descriptors, such as the adsorption energy of intermediates. Interpretation of the derived "volcano" curve suggests that electrocatalysis is governed by a resonance phenomenon. PMID:22893626

  17. A Current Perspective on Photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, E.; Muckerman, J.T.; Domen, K.

    2011-02-18

    The efficient conversion of solar photons into solar electricity and solar fuels is one of the most important scientific challenges of this century owing to dwindling fossil fuel reserves and the need for clean energy. While research in the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity in the areas of low-cost photovoltaic (PV) systems based on all-inorganic semiconductors, dye-sensitized solar cells, organic, and molecular PV is more technically advanced than its direct conversion to fuels, electricity may not be the ultimate primary solar energy conversion choice owing to the intermittence of solar radiation, the considerable energy loss during transmission, the availability of cost-effective storage media for electricity, and the continuing need for liquid transportation fuels. On the other hand, the direct conversion of solar photons to fuels such as H{sub 2}, CO, alcohols, and hydrocarbons using H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} as feedstocks offers a solution for the storage and distribution of solar energy in the form of stable chemical bonds that can be activated to provide energy at arbitrary times and locations. The latter approach to photocatalysis is generally called artificial photosynthesis, and has received renewed interest over the past five or so years. While 'photocatalysis' has not traditionally been restricted to the generation of 'solar fuels,' and has included the production of other useful chemicals, polymerization, and environmental remediation applications, the recent upsurge of interest has been driven mostly by renewable energy issues. It was the pioneering work on photo-electrochemical splitting of water to H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} by n-type TiO{sub 2} using ultraviolet light, by Fujishima and Honda in 1972, that ushered in the area of research that has come to be known as 'solar fuels,' and that has led to the terms 'photocatalysis' and 'solar fuels' becoming almost synonymous. This special issue of ChemSusChem is devoted to providing a current perspective on the field of photocatalysis. It contains invited papers from leading researchers in a wide range of important aspects of the field that address materials, photophysical, photochemical, and electrocatalysis issues. The area remains primarily the domain of basic research studies because progress toward the promise offered by the early work has (at least until recently) been slow, despite its significance having become increasingly recognized. The present collection of papers deals with new semiconductor photocatalysts, molecular catalysts for hydrogen production and water oxidation, dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells, and electrochemical CO{sub 2} reduction. Overall photochemical water splitting without any applied bias potential is achieved in several systems, especially under UV irradiation. Further advances are also achieved in a few semiconductor systems, such as GaZn oxynitrides or two-step (so-called 'Z-scheme') systems to produce H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} without any sacrificial reagent under visible irradiation. When band gaps of semiconductors are narrowed to absorb more visible light for greater efficiency, or when band positions are not suitable for carrying out one-electron redox processes, multielectron catalysts are required to promote proton-coupled electron transfer reactions in producing solar fuels. In homogeneous photocatalysis systems, sacrificial reagents are typically used to investigate the catalytic activity, detailed kinetics, and mechanisms of a half reaction. Photoelectrolysis systems with immobilized catalysts (metals, metal oxides, or molecular catalysts) on electrodes can separate oxidized products, such as O{sub 2}, and reduced products, such as H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 3}OH, and others, by means of proton- or hydroxide-conducting membranes. The following paragraphs briefly summarize these contributions. In the area of UV-driven water splitting, Townsend et al. prepared Pt-and/or IrO{sub x}-coated niobate (Nb{sub 6}O{sub 17}{sup 4-}) nanoscrolls and tested photochemical water reduction with methanol as a sacrificial reagent, and water oxidation with AgNO{sub 3} as a sacrificial reagent. In this work, factors for improving the limited photocatalytic activity of the system are explored. Nishiyama et al. investigated factors controlling the photocatalytic water splitting activity, such as preparation temperature and crystallinity of the semiconductor materials, the amount of co-catalyst loading, and the degree of dispersion of the co-catalyst with RuO{sub 2}-loaded niobium and tantalum bronzes, M{sub 8}P{sub 4}O{sub 32}{sup 4-} (M=Nb, Ta). Their DFT calculations demonstrate that severe distortion of NbO{sub 6} octahedra plays an important role in photocatalytic water splitting.

  18. Reactivity of perovskites with water: Role of hydroxylation in wetting and implications for oxygen electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Hong, Wesley T.; Azimi, Gisele; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Shao-Horn, Yang; Giordano, Livia; Lee, Yueh -Lin

    2015-07-15

    Oxide materials play an important role in technical applications such as gas sensing and catalysis, where they can react notably with water in vapor or liquid form. We find that the coverage of (*OH) measured at fixed relative humidity trends with the electron donor (basic) character of wetted perovskite oxide surfaces, corresponding to low contact angles when removing a droplet of water. We report for the first time that the affinity toward hydroxylation, coincident with strong adsorption energies calculated for dissociative and molecular adsorption of water, leads to strong H-bonding detrimental to catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore, this suggests that hydrophobic oxides with low tendency to hydroxylate may demonstrate improved catalytic activity for the ORR.

  19. Reactivity of perovskites with water: Role of hydroxylation in wetting and implications for oxygen electrocatalysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Hong, Wesley T.; Azimi, Gisele; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Biegalski, Michael D.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Shao-Horn, Yang; Giordano, Livia; Lee, Yueh -Lin

    2015-07-15

    Oxide materials play an important role in technical applications such as gas sensing and catalysis, where they can react notably with water in vapor or liquid form. We find that the coverage of (*OH) measured at fixed relative humidity trends with the electron donor (basic) character of wetted perovskite oxide surfaces, corresponding to low contact angles when removing a droplet of water. We report for the first time that the affinity toward hydroxylation, coincident with strong adsorption energies calculated for dissociative and molecular adsorption of water, leads to strong H-bonding detrimental to catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore,more » this suggests that hydrophobic oxides with low tendency to hydroxylate may demonstrate improved catalytic activity for the ORR.« less

  20. Dimethylformamide-mediated synthesis of water-soluble platinum nanodendrites for ethanol oxidation electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Chirea, Mariana; Altantzis, Thomas; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Silva, Fernando; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2013-05-01

    Herein we describe the synthesis of water-soluble platinum nanodendrites in dimethylformamide (DMF), in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a stabilizing agent. The average size of the dendrites is in the range of 20-25 nm while their porosity can be tuned by modifying the concentration of the metal precursor. Electron tomography revealed different crystalline orientations of nanocrystallites in the nanodendrites and allowed a better understanding of their peculiar branching and porosity. The high surface area of the dendrites (up to 22 m2 g-1) was confirmed by BET measurements, while X-ray diffraction confirmed the abundance of high-index facets in the face-centered-cubic crystal structure of Pt. The prepared nanodendrites exhibit excellent performance in the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol in alkaline solution. Sensing, selectivity, cycleability and great tolerance toward poisoning were demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry measurements.Herein we describe the synthesis of water-soluble platinum nanodendrites in dimethylformamide (DMF), in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI) as a stabilizing agent. The average size of the dendrites is in the range of 20-25 nm while their porosity can be tuned by modifying the concentration of the metal precursor. Electron tomography revealed different crystalline orientations of nanocrystallites in the nanodendrites and allowed a better understanding of their peculiar branching and porosity. The high surface area of the dendrites (up to 22 m2 g-1) was confirmed by BET measurements, while X-ray diffraction confirmed the abundance of high-index facets in the face-centered-cubic crystal structure of Pt. The prepared nanodendrites exhibit excellent performance in the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol in alkaline solution. Sensing, selectivity, cycleability and great tolerance toward poisoning were demonstrated by cyclic voltammetry measurements. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00924f

  1. Electrocatalysis for oxygen electrodes in fuel cells and water electrolyzers for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Jai; Tryk, Donald; Yeager, Ernest

    1989-12-01

    In most instances separate electrocatalysts are needed to promote the reduction of O2 in the fuel cell mode and to generate O2 in the energy storage-water electrolysis mode in aqueous electrochemical systems operating at low and moderate temperatures (T greater than or equal to 200 C). Interesting exceptions are the lead and bismuth ruthenate pyrochlores in alkaline electrolytes. These catalysts on high area carbon supports have high catalytic activity for both O2 reduction and generation. Rotating ring-disk electrode measurements provide evidence that the O2 reduction proceeds by a parallel four-electron pathway. The ruthenates can also be used as self-supported catalysts to avoid the problems associated with carbon oxidation, but the electrode performance so far achieved in the research at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) is considerably less. At the potentials involved in the anodic mode the ruthenate pyrochlores have substantial equilibrium solubility in concentrated alkaline electrolyte. This results in the loss of catalyst into the bulk solution and a decline in catalytic activity. Furthermore, the hydrogen generation counter electrode may become contaminated with reduction products from the pyrochlores (lead, ruthenium).

  2. Electrocatalysis for oxygen electrodes in fuel cells and water electrolyzers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Jai; Tryk, Donald; Yeager, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    In most instances separate electrocatalysts are needed to promote the reduction of O2 in the fuel cell mode and to generate O2 in the energy storage-water electrolysis mode in aqueous electrochemical systems operating at low and moderate temperatures (T greater than or equal to 200 C). Interesting exceptions are the lead and bismuth ruthenate pyrochlores in alkaline electrolytes. These catalysts on high area carbon supports have high catalytic activity for both O2 reduction and generation. Rotating ring-disk electrode measurements provide evidence that the O2 reduction proceeds by a parallel four-electron pathway. The ruthenates can also be used as self-supported catalysts to avoid the problems associated with carbon oxidation, but the electrode performance so far achieved in the research at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) is considerably less. At the potentials involved in the anodic mode the ruthenate pyrochlores have substantial equilibrium solubility in concentrated alkaline electrolyte. This results in the loss of catalyst into the bulk solution and a decline in catalytic activity. Furthermore, the hydrogen generation counter electrode may become contaminated with reduction products from the pyrochlores (lead, ruthenium).

  3. Tailoring Biointerfaces for Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Milton, Ross D; Wang, Tao; Knoche, Krysti L; Minteer, Shelley D

    2016-03-15

    Bioelectrocatalysis is an expanding research area due to the use of this type of electrocatalysis in electrochemical biosensors, biofuel cells, bioelectrochemical cells, and biosolar cells. This feature article discusses recent advancements in tailoring the biointerface between electrodes and biocatalysts for facile electrocatalysis. This includes the design of pyrene moieties for directing the orientation of biocatalysts on electrode surfaces and mediation as well as the rational design of redox polymers for self-exchange-based electron transport to/from biocatalysts and the electrode and the use of bioscaffolding techniques for designing the bioelectrode structure. However, recent advances in the past decade have shown the importance of hybrid bioelectrocatalytic systems, and future work will be needed to use these same pyrene, redox polymer, and bioscaffolding techniques for hybrid bioelectrocatalysis. PMID:26898265

  4. Electrocatalysis in DNA Sensors.

    PubMed

    Furst, Ariel; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2014-12-14

    Electrocatalysis is often thought of solely in the inorganic realm, most often applied to energy conversion in fuel cells. However, the ever-growing field of bioelectrocatalysis has made great strides in advancing technology for both biofuel cells as well as biological detection platforms. Within the context of bioelectrocatalytic detection systems, DNA-based platforms are especially prevalent. One subset of these platforms, the one we have developed, takes advantage of the inherent charge transport properties of DNA. Electrocatalysis coupled with DNA-mediated charge transport has enabled specific and sensitive detection of lesions, mismatches and DNA-binding proteins. Even greater signal amplification from these platforms is now being achieved through the incorporation of a secondary electrode to the platform both for patterning DNA arrays and for detection. Here, we describe the evolution of this new DNA sensor technology. PMID:25435647

  5. Electrocatalysis in DNA Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Furst, Ariel; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2014-01-01

    Electrocatalysis is often thought of solely in the inorganic realm, most often applied to energy conversion in fuel cells. However, the ever-growing field of bioelectrocatalysis has made great strides in advancing technology for both biofuel cells as well as biological detection platforms. Within the context of bioelectrocatalytic detection systems, DNA-based platforms are especially prevalent. One subset of these platforms, the one we have developed, takes advantage of the inherent charge transport properties of DNA. Electrocatalysis coupled with DNA-mediated charge transport has enabled specific and sensitive detection of lesions, mismatches and DNA-binding proteins. Even greater signal amplification from these platforms is now being achieved through the incorporation of a secondary electrode to the platform both for patterning DNA arrays and for detection. Here, we describe the evolution of this new DNA sensor technology. PMID:25435647

  6. TiO2 photocatalysis of naproxen: effect of the water matrix, anions and diclofenac on degradation rates.

    PubMed

    Kanakaraju, Devagi; Motti, Cherie A; Glass, Beverley D; Oelgemöller, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The TiO2 photocatalytic degradation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) naproxen (NPX) has been studied using a laboratory-scale photoreactor equipped with a medium pressure mercury lamp. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis proved highly efficient in the elimination of NPX from a variety of water matrices, including distilled water, unfiltered river water and drinking water, although the rate of reaction was not always proportional to TiO2 concentration. However, the NPX degradation rate, which follows first-order kinetics, was appreciably reduced in river water spiked with phosphate and chloride ions, a dual anion system. Addition of chloride into drinking water enhanced the TiO2-photocatalysed degradation rate. Competitive degradation studies also revealed that the NPX degradation was greatly reduced in the presence of increased concentrations of another API, diclofenac (DCF). This was established by (i) the extent of mineralization, as determined by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and (ii) the formation of intermediate NPX by-products, identified using liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization (positive and negative mode) mass spectrometry techniques. This study demonstrates that competition for active sites (anions or DCF) and formation of multiple photoproducts resulting from synergistic interactions (between both APIs) are key to the TiO2-photocatalysed NPX degradation. PMID:26340372

  7. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO2 concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO2 photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO2 particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst. PMID:26938568

  8. Hybrid Processes Combining Photocatalysis and Ceramic Membrane Filtration for Degradation of Humic Acids in Saline Water.

    PubMed

    Song, Lili; Zhu, Bo; Gray, Stephen; Duke, Mikel; Muthukumaran, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the combined effects of photocatalysis with ceramic membrane filtration for the removal of humic acid in the presence of salt; to simulate saline wastewater conditions. The effects of operating parameters, such as salinity and TiO₂ concentration on permeate fluxes, total organic carbon (TOC), and UV absorbance removal, were investigated. The interaction between the humic acids and TiO₂ photocatalyst played an important role in the observed flux change during ceramic membrane filtration. The results for this hybrid system showed that the TOC removal was more than 70% for both without NaCl and with the 500 ppm NaCl concentration, and 62% and 66% for 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl concentrations. The reduction in UV absorbance was more complete in the absence of NaCl compared to the presence of NaCl. The operation of the integrated photoreactor-ceramic membrane filter over five repeat cycles is described. It can be concluded that the overall removal performance of the hybrid system was influenced by the presence of salts, as salt leads to agglomeration of TiO₂ particles by suppressing the stabilising effects of electrostatic repulsion and thereby reduces the effective surface contact between the pollutant and the photocatalyst. PMID:26938568

  9. Application of immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis to improve the inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by intense pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Feng, Daolun; Xu, Shihong; Liu, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Ballast water exotic discharge has been identified as a leading vector for marine species invasion. Here immobilized TiO2 photocatalysis is introduced to improve the performance of intense pulsed light. For intense pulsed light/TiO2 photocatalysis, a typical inactivation of 99.89±0.46% can be achieved under treatment condition of 1.78 L min(-1) flow rate, 300 V pulse peak voltage, 15 Hz pulse frequency and 5 ms pulse width. Moreover, within tested 220-260 V peak voltage, 18.37-40.51% elevation in inactivation is observed in comparison with intense pulsed light treatment alone. The rough energy consumption of the tested intense pulsed light/TiO2 treatment system is about 1.51-2.51 times higher than that of the typical commercial UV ballast water treatment system. The stability of the photocatalytic reactivity and intactness of loaded TiO2 film is proved within 20-d's test, while local erosion on stainless steel support is observed after 30-d's test. The results indicate that intense pulsed light/TiO2 photocatalysis is likely to be a competitive ballast water treatment technique, while further measures is needed to reduce the energy consumption and ensure the performance of TiO2 film in a long run. PMID:25522854

  10. Solar photocatalysis for treatment of Acid Yellow-17 (AY-17) dye contaminated water using Ag@TiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Ankita; Shetty K, Vidya

    2013-08-01

    Wastewater released from textile industries causes water pollution, and it needs to be treated before discharge to the environment by cost effective technologies. Solar photocatalysis is a promising technology for the treatment of dye wastewater. The Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles comprising of Ag core and TiO2 shell (Ag@TiO2) have unique photocatalytic property of inhibition of electron-hole recombination and visible light absorption, which makes it a promising photocatalyst for use in solar photocatalysis and with higher photocatalytic rate. Therefore, in the present work, the Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by one pot method with postcalcination step has been used for the degradation of Acid Yellow-17 (AY-17) dye under solar light irradiation. The Ag@TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The catalyst has been found to be very effective in solar photocatalysis of AY-17, as compared to other catalysts. The effects of pH, catalyst loading, initial dye concentration, and oxidants on photocatalysis were also studied. The optimized parameters for degradation of AY-17 using Ag@TiO2 were found to be pH 3, dye/catalyst ratio of 1:10 (g/g), and 2 g/L of (NH4)2S2O8 as oxidant. Efficient decolorization and mineralization of AY-17 was achieved. The kinetics of color, total organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand removal followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Ag@TiO2 catalyst can be reused thrice without much decline in efficiency. The catalyst exhibited its potential as economic photocatalyst for treatment of dye wastewater. PMID:23463278

  11. Photocatalysis Using Semiconductor Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, T.R.; Wilcoxon,J.P.

    1999-01-21

    We report on experiments using nanosize MoS{sub 2} to photo-oxidize organic pollutants in water using visible light as the energy source. We have demonstrated that we can vary the redox potentials and absorbance characteristics of these small semiconductors by adjusting their size, and our studies of the photooxidation of organic molecules have revealed that the rate of oxidation increases with increasing bandgap (i.e. more positive valence band and more negative conduction band potentials). Because these photocatalysis reactions can be performed with the nanoclusters fully dispersed and stable in solution, liquid chromatography can be used to determine both the intermediate reaction products and the state of the nanoclusters during the reaction. We have demonstrated that the MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters remain unchanged during the photooxidation process by this technique. We also report on studies of MoS{sub 2} nanoclusters deposited on TiO{sub 2} powder.

  12. Studies of the pathways open to copper water oxidation catalysts containing proximal hydroxy groups during basic electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Deidra L; Bhagan, Salome; Cruce, Alex A; Burks, Dalton B; Nieto, Ismael; Truong, Hai T; Kelley, Steven P; Herbst-Gervasoni, Corey J; Jernigan, Katherine L; Bowman, Michael K; Pan, Shanlin; Zeller, Matthias; Papish, Elizabeth T

    2014-12-15

    Water oxidation can lead to a sustainable source of energy, but for water oxidation catalysts to be economical they must use earth abundant metals. We report here 2:1 6,6'-dihydroxybipyridine (6,6'-dhbp)/copper complexes that are capable of electrocatalytic water oxidation in aqueous base (pH = 10-14). Two crystal structures of the complex that contains 6,6'-dhbp and copper(II) in a ratio of 2:1 (complex 1) are presented at different protonation states. The thermodynamic acid dissociation constants were measured for complex 1, and these show that the complex is fully deprotonated above pH = 8.3 (i.e., under water oxidation conditions). CW-EPR, ENDOR, and HYSCORE spectroscopy confirmed that the 6,6'-dhbp ligand is bound to the copper ion over a wide pH range which shows how pH influences precatalyst structure. Additional copper(II) complexes were synthesized from the ligands 4,4'-dhbp (complex 2) and 6,6'-dimethoxybipyridine (complexes 3 and 4). A zinc complex of 6,6'-dhbp was also synthesized (complex 5). Crystal structures are reported for 1 (in two protonation states), 3, 4, and 5. Water oxidation studies using several of the above compounds (1, 2, 4, and 5) at pH = 12.6 have illustrated that both copper and proximal OH groups are necessary for water oxidation at a low overpotential. Our most active catalyst 1 was found to have an overpotential of 477 mV for water oxidation at a moderate rate of kcat = 0.356 s(-1) with a competing irreversible oxidation event at a rate of 1.082 s(-1). Furthermore, our combined work supports previous observations in which OH/O(-) groups on the bipyridine rings can hydrogen bond with metal bound substrate, support unusual binding modes, and potentially facilitate proton coupled electron transfer. PMID:25427106

  13. The effect of operational parameters on electrocoagulation-flotation process followed by photocatalysis applied to the decontamination of water effluents from cellulose and paper factories.

    PubMed

    Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Cláudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Gerola, Adriana Passarella; Nozaki, Jorge; Hioka, Noboru

    2008-12-15

    Cellulose and paper pulp factories utilize a large amount of water generating several undesirable contaminants. The present work is a preliminary investigation that associates the electrocoagulation-flotation (EC) method followed by photocatalysis to treat such wastewater. For EC, the experiment with aluminium and iron electrodes showed similar efficiency. Iron electrodes (anode and cathode) were chosen. By applying 30min of EC/Fe(0), 153A m(-2) and pH 6.0, the COD values, UV-vis absorbance and turbidity underwent an intense decrease. For the subsequent UV photocatalysis (mercury lamps) TiO(2) was employed and the favourable operational conditions found were 0.25g L(-1) of the catalyst and solution pH 3.0. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (50mmol L(-1)) highly increased the photo-process performance. By employing the UV/TiO(2)/H(2)O(2) system, the COD reduction was 88% compared to pre-treated effluents and complete sample photobleaching was verified. The salt concentration on EC (iron electrodes) showed that the electrolysis duration can be reduced from 30 to 10min by the addition of 5.0g L(-1) of NaCl. The biodegradability index (BOD/COD) increased from 0.15 (pre-treated) to 0.48 (after EC) and to 0.89 (after EC/photocatalysis irradiated for 6h), showing that the employed sequence is very helpful to improve the water quality. This result was confirmed by biotoxicity tests performed with microcrustaceous Artemia salina. PMID:18417286

  14. Electrocatalysis at metal nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lin

    Direct liquid fuel cells, such as direct methanol fuel cells and direct formic acid fuel cells, have attracted much attention in the past decades due to the need of clean and efficient power sources. One of the most critical issues in the development of highly efficient fuel cells is to increase the rates of fuel-cell reactions as a commercial product. As a result, the topic of electrocatalysis plays a significant role in the investigations of fuel cell reactions. For methanol oxidation, platinum based nanomaterials are the most important catalysts. For formic acid oxidation, both platinum and palladium based nanomaterials are widely employed as the catalysts. Recently, shape-control of the nanoparticles has become an imperative task due to the fact that most of the reactions in fuel cells are sensitive to the surface structure of the catalysts. Though numerous studies have been conducted in past to elucidate the catalytic activity on the nanomaterials with different shapes, the results are inconclusive. Herein, systematic comparison of catalytic activity toward methanol and formic acid oxidation on shape-controlled cubic platinum-based alloy nanoparticles with different alloy element are reported in this dissertation. Methanol and formic acid oxidation reactions on spherical and cubic Pt-Cu nanoparticles are also studied. Cu-Pd nanoparticles are synthesized through galvanic redox reactions to provide significantly higher and much more stable formic acid oxidation activities. Interparticle distance effect is investigated on two dimensional nanoparticle array electrodes with controlled particle size, which is ideal model system for exploring the interparticle distance effects on the voltammetric behavior and reaction mechanisms.

  15. TREATMENT OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER CONTAMINATED WATER USING PHOTOCATALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of photo-oxidation treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated in three ways, 1) using a slurry falling film photo-reactor, 2) a batch solar reactor system, and 3) a combination of air-stripping and gas phase photooxidation system. MTBE-c...

  16. Ethanol photocatalysis on rutile TiO2(110): the role of defects and water

    PubMed Central

    Walenta, Constantin A.; Kollmannsberger, Sebastian L.; Kiermaier, Josef; Winbauer, Andreas; Tschurl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a stoichiometric reaction mechanism for the photocatalytic ethanol oxidation on TiO2(110). The reaction products are analyzed either under reaction conditions or after irradiation at lower temperatures. Water is identified as a quantitative by-product, which resides in a defect site. These water molecules cause a blocking of the defect sites which results in poisoning of the catalyst. By different preparation techniques of the TiO2(110) surface, the role of surface defects is further elucidated and the role of molecular oxygen is investigated. Based on the investigation, a complete photochemical reaction mechanism is given, which provides insights into general photon driven oxidation mechanisms on TiO2. PMID:26264863

  17. Electrocatalysis with vitamin B sub 12 in water-in-oil microemulsions at carbon-fiber microelectrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Owlia, A.

    1989-01-01

    Microemulsions are clear, thermodynamically stable dispersions containing oil, surfactant and water. They are crude models of biological membranes and can be used to investigate some of the organizational influence of membranes in lipid and protein synthesis, energy transduction, ion and group transport, etc. This thesis concerns the investigation of microemulsion properties as media in which catalytic reduction of vicinal dibromides can take place with the electrochemically generated Co(I) form of Vitamin B{sub 12}. Methods to study fundamental properties of resistive w/o AOT/H{sub 2}O/isoctane were developed. Microelectrodes of approximate radius of 6 {mu}m were prepared and characterized. Nonlinear regression was applied to the analysis of steady state voltammograms obtained at carbon-fiber microelectrodes. Reversible regression models were used to analyze data for oxidation of ferrocene in acetonitrile with and without added electrolyte. An estimate of cell resistance in highly resistive media was obtained by including ohmic drop in the model for reversible electron transfer. The electrocatalytic reduction of 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB), 1,2-dibromobutane (DBB), and trans-1,2-dibromocyclohexane (DBCH) with Vitamin B{sub 12} in pH {le} 3 water MeCN and w/o microemulsions of AOT/H{sub 2}O/isoctane at carbon fiber microelectrode was investigated. The microviscosity of w/o microemulsions were estimated from the Stokes-Einstein equation using ferrocene as a probe. Results show that the diffusion of molecules in the microemulsions are similar to their diffusion in organic phase (isoctane). Nonlinear regression analysis of the data for AOT w/o microemulsions describing the dependence of D{prime} on C{sub x} enables an estimate of micelle diffusion coefficients.

  18. Doping Metal–Organic Frameworks for Water Oxidation, Carbon Dioxide Reduction, and Organic Photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Cheng; Xie, Zhigang; deKrafft, Kathryn E; Lin, Wenbin

    2011-07-22

    Catalytically competent Ir, Re, and Ru complexes H2L1–H2L6 with dicarboxylic acid functionalities were incorporated into a highly stable and porous Zr6O4(OH)4(bpdc)6 (UiO-67, bpdc = para-biphenyldicarboxylic acid) framework using a mix-and-match synthetic strategy. The matching ligand lengths between bpdc and L1–L6 ligands allowed the construction of highly crystalline UiO-67 frameworks (metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) 1–6) that were doped with L1–L6 ligands. MOFs 1–6 were isostructural to the parent UiO-67 framework as shown by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and exhibited high surface areas ranging from 1092 to 1497 m2/g. MOFs 1–6 were stable in air up to 400 °C and active catalysts in a range of reactions that are relevant to solar energy utilization. MOFs 1–3 containing [Cp*IrIII(dcppy)Cl] (H2L1), [Cp*IrIII(dcbpy)Cl]Cl (H2L2), and [IrIII(dcppy)2(H2O)2]OTf (H2L3) (where Cp* is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, dcppy is 2-phenylpyridine-5,4'-dicarboxylic acid, and dcbpy is 2,2'-bipyridine-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid) were effective water oxidation catalysts (WOCs), with turnover frequencies (TOFs) of up to 4.8 h–1. The [ReI(CO)3(dcbpy)Cl] (H2L4) derivatized MOF 4 served as an active catalyst for photocatalytic CO2 reduction with a total turnover number (TON) of 10.9, three times higher than that of the homogeneous complex H2L4. MOFs 5 and 6 contained phosphorescent [IrIII(ppy)2(dcbpy)]Cl (H2L5) and [RuII(bpy)2(dcbpy)]Cl2 (H2L6) (where ppy is 2-phenylpyridine and bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine) and were used in three photocatalytic organic transformations (aza-Henry reaction, aerobic amine coupling, and aerobic oxidation of thioanisole) with very high activities. The inactivity of the parent UiO-67 framework and the reaction supernatants in catalytic water oxidation, CO2 reduction, and organic transformations indicate both the molecular origin and heterogeneous nature of these catalytic processes. The stability of the doped UiO-67 catalysts under catalytic conditions was also demonstrated by comparing PXRD patterns before and after catalysis. This work illustrates the potential of combining molecular catalysts and MOF structures in developing highly active heterogeneous catalysts for solar energy utilization.

  19. Hydrogen from Water over Openly-Structured Graphitic Carbon Nitride Polymer through Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhijun; Li, Fengbo; Chen, Bingfeng; Yuan, Guoqing

    2016-03-01

    Openly-structured g-C3 N4 microspheres (CNMS) are developed through a well-controlled strategy. These materials have unique features of open 3 D structure, ordered hierarchical porosity, and improved optical and electronic properties. Hydrogen evolution from water is performed under a 300 W Xe lamp with a cut-off filter (λ>420 nm) and Pt nanoparticles are used as the co-catalyst (3.0 wt %). The catalyst prepared at 600 °C (CNMS-600) has a hydrogen evolution rate (HER) of 392 μmol h(-1) (apparent quantum yield, AQY=6.3 %) at 420 nm. This value is higher than that of g-C3 N4 nanosheets prepared through thermal oxidation, liquid exfoliation, or chemical exfoliation. The HER value is only 27 μmol h(-1) (AQY=0.43 %) at 420 nm for bulk g-C3 N4 from melamine. The evolution of openly-structured CNMS was investigated by TEM, FTIR, and XRD. The improved optical and electronic properties were demonstrated through UV/Vis absorption spectra, valence-band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. PMID:26834034

  20. Single-crystal-like NiO colloidal nanocrystal-aggregated microspheres with mesoporous structure: Synthesis and enhanced electrochemistry, photocatalysis and water treatment properties

    SciTech Connect

    Suo, Zhirong; Dong, Xiaonan; Liu, Hui

    2013-10-15

    A new microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthetic route based on the self-assembly and subsequently controlled thermal decomposition process is proposed to fabricate nickel oxide colloidal nanocrystal aggregated microspheres (CNAMs) with mesoporous structure. XRD, EDS, SEM, TEM. FTIR, and N{sub 2} adsorption and desorption isotherm techniques are employed for morphology and structure characterizations. The as-prepared nickel oxide CNAMs, which has a high surface area (234 m{sup 2}/g) with narrow pore distribution at around 3.25 nm, are composed of numerous hexagonal mesoporous nanocrystals of approximately 50–60 nm in size, and present a single-crystal-like characteristic. The experimental results also demonstrated that the CNAMs showed outstanding performance in electrochemistry, photocatalysis and waste water treatment due to their special hierarchical and mesoporous structure, presenting the promising candidate for catalysis and catalysis support materials. - Graphical abstract: CNAMs with mesoporous structure synthesized via a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method was applied in electrochemistry and catalysis and exhibited enhanced performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: • CNAMs with mesoporous structure are achieved via a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. • Morphology, structure and pore distribution of sample particles is specifically controlled. • The samples show enhanced properties in electrochemistry and catalysis due to hierarchical structure.

  1. Multifunctional Metal-Organic Frameworks for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sibo; Wang, Xinchen

    2015-07-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted significant research attention in diverse areas due to their unique physical and chemical characteristics that allow their innovative application in various research fields. Recently, the application of MOFs in heterogeneous photocatalysis for water splitting, CO2 reduction, and organic transformation have emerged, aiming at providing alternative solutions to address the world-wide energy and environmental problems by taking advantage of the unique porous structure together with ample physicochemical properties of the metal centers and organic ligands in MOFs. In this review, the latest progress in MOF-involved solar-to-chemical energy conversion reactions are summarized according to their different roles in the photoredox chemical systems, e.g., photocatalysts, co-catalysts, and hosts. The achieved progress and existing problems are evaluated and proposed, and the opportunities and challenges of MOFs and their related materials for their advanced development in photocatalysis are discussed and anticipated. PMID:25917413

  2. A hybridized photocatalysis-microfiltration system with iron oxide-coated membranes for the removal of natural organic matter in water treatment: effects of iron oxide layers and colloids.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Moon-Hyeon

    2009-09-01

    A photocatalysis/microfiltration (MF) hybrid system, with the coating of a membrane using iron oxide particles (IOPs), was investigated with respect to natural organic matter (NOM) removal and membrane permeability during the treatment of various surface waters. A comparison of the performance between bare (uncoated) and IOP-coated membranes employed for the photocatalytic hybrid system was made. Due to the additional adsorption of NOM onto IOPs on the membrane surface, the IOP-coated membrane system always achieved greater DOC removal efficiencies during photocatalysis/MF. Particularly, the influence of colloidal particles that were present in different water sources with respect to membrane fouling was explored. Colloidal fouling occurred to both bare and IOP-coated membranes, but the interaction of colloids with IOP coating layers was in close association with the characteristics of colloids, such as size distribution, resulting in opposing fouling behaviors with varying water sources. The IOP-coated membrane was able to control fouling properly when a relatively large size of colloidal particles existed in raw water, but not for the case of small colloids. The IOP coat layer may become denser as small colloids penetrate into it, therefore leading to further fouling. The analysis of the hydraulic filtration resistances revealed that such fouling was virtually reversible in being removed by backwashing processes. Scanning electron microscopic observations, however, visualized the existence of several foulants remaining at the membrane surface after backwashing when feed water, containing a relatively large portion of small-sized colloids, was supplied. PMID:19576613

  3. Plasmon-enhanced UV photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Mitsuhiro; Saito, Yuika Kawata, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Yasuaki; Taguchi, Atsushi

    2014-02-10

    We report plasmonic nanoparticle enhanced photocatalysis on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) in the deep-UV range. Aluminum (Al) nanoparticles fabricated on TiO{sub 2} film increases the reaction rate of photocatalysis by factors as high as 14 under UV irradiation in the range of 260–340 nm. The reaction efficiency has been determined by measuring the decolorization rate of methylene blue applied on the TiO{sub 2} substrate. The enhancement of photocatalysis shows particle size and excitation wavelength dependence, which can be explained by the surface plasmon resonance of Al nanoparticles.

  4. Comparative study of the effect of pharmaceutical additives on the elimination of antibiotic activity during the treatment of oxacillin in water by the photo-Fenton, TiO2-photocatalysis and electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Serna-Galvis, Efraim A; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Giraldo, Ana L; Flórez-Acosta, Oscar A; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2016-01-15

    Synthetic pharmaceutical effluents loaded with the β-lactam antibiotic oxacillin were treated using advanced oxidation processes (the photo-Fenton system and TiO2 photocatalysis) and chloride mediated electrochemical oxidation (with Ti/IrO2 anodes). Combinations of the antibiotic with excipients (mannitol or tartaric acid), an active ingredient (calcium carbonate, i.e. bicarbonate ions due to the pH) and a cleaning agent (sodium lauryl ether sulfate) were considered. Additionally, urban wastewater that had undergone biological treatment was doped with oxacillin and treated with the tested systems. The evolution of antimicrobial activity was monitored as a parameter of processes efficiency. Although the two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) differ only in the way they produce OH, marked differences were observed between them. There were also differences between the AOPs and the electrochemical system. Interestingly, each additive had a different effect on each treatment. For water loaded with mannitol, electrochemical treatment was the most suitable option because the additive did not significantly affect the efficiency of the system. Due to the formation of a complex with Fe(3+), tartaric acid accelerated the elimination of antibiotic activity during the photo-Fenton process. For TiO2 photocatalysis, the presence of bicarbonate ions contributed to antibiotic activity elimination through the possible formation of carbonate and bicarbonate radicals. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate negatively affected all of the processes. However, due to the higher selectivity of HOCl compared with OH, electrochemical oxidation showed the least inhibited efficiency. For the urban wastewater doped with oxacillin, TiO2 photocatalysis was the most efficient process. These results will help select the most suitable technology for the treatment of water polluted with β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:26479916

  5. Aluminum plasmonic photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qi; Wang, Chenxi; Huang, Hao; Li, Wan; Du, Deyang; Han, Di; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of photocatalytic processes is dictated largely by plasmonic materials with the capability to enhance light absorption as well as the energy conversion efficiency. Herein, we demonstrate how to improve the plasmonic photocatalytic properties of TiO2/Al nano-void arrays by overlapping the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes with the TiO2 band gap. The plasmonic TiO2/Al arrays exhibit superior photocatalytic activity boasting an enhancement of 7.2 folds. The underlying mechanisms concerning the radiative energy transfer and interface energy transfer processes are discussed. Both processes occur at the TiO2/Al interface and their contributions to photocatalysis are evaluated. The results are important to the optimization of aluminum plasmonic materials in photocatalytic applications. PMID:26497411

  6. Structure sensitivity and nanoscale effects in electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koper, Marc T. M.

    2011-05-01

    This review discusses the role of the detailed nanoscale structure of catalytic surfaces on the activity of various electrocatalytic reactions of importance for fuel cells, hydrogen production, and other environmentally important catalytic reactions, such as carbon monoxide oxidation, methanol and ethanol oxidation, ammonia oxidation, nitric oxide reduction, hydrogen evolution, and oxygen reduction. Specifically, results and insights obtained from surface-science single-crystal-based model experiments are linked to experiments on well-defined shape-controlled nanoparticles. A classification of structure sensitive effects in electrocatalysis is suggested, based both on empirical grounds and on quantum-chemical viz. thermochemical considerations. The mutual relation between the two classification schemes is also discussed. The review underscores the relevance of single-crystal modeling of nanoscale effects in catalysis, and points to the special role of two kinds of active sites for electrocatalysis on nanoparticulate surfaces: (i) steps and defects in (111) terraces or facets, and (ii) long-range (100) terraces or facets.

  7. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasevich, M. R.; Korchagin, O. V.; Kuzov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references.

  8. Environmental green chemistry as defined by photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, J-M; Duchamp, C; Karkmaz, M; Hoai, Bui Thu; Lachheb, H; Puzenat, E; Guillard, C

    2007-07-31

    Photocatalysis is efficient in several fields. Firstly, in selective mild oxidation: oxidation of gas and liquid hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclo-alkanes, aromatics) into aldehydes and ketons. Primary and secondary alcohols are also oxidized into their corresponding aldehydes or ketones. The high selectivity was ascribed to a photoactive neutral, atomic oxygen species. Once platinized (only 0.5wt.% Pt) titania may catalyze reactions involving hydrogen (deuterium-alkane isotopic exchange and alcohol dehydrogenation). For fine chemicals, high initial selectivities enable titania to address most of the twelve principles of "green chemistry", such as the synthesis of 4-tert-butyl-benzaldehyde, an important intermediate in perfume industry by direct selective oxidation of 4-tert-butyl-toluene with air. A new field recently appeared: thio-photocatalysis. Oxygen was replaced by sulfur, using H(2)S as a convenient and reactive source. For instance, the conversion of propene in 1-propanthiol was successfully obtained. The reaction was performed using either CdS or TiO(2). The latter was much more active than CdS. In environmental photocatalysis, titania becomes a total oxidation catalyst once in presence of water because of the photogeneration of OH radicals by neutralization of OH(-) surface groups by positive holes. Many toxic inorganic ions are oxidized in their harmless upper oxidized state. The total degradation of organic pollutants (pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, dyes, etc. ...) is the main field of water photocatalytic decontamination. The UVA solar spectrum can de advantageously used as demonstrated by many campaigns performed in the solar pilot plant at the "Plataforma Solar de Almeria" (Spain). PMID:17532130

  9. Key parameters governing metallic nanoparticle electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yue; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-10-01

    Engineering metallic nanoparticles constitutes a powerful route to design next-generation electrocatalysts to be used in future energy and environmental industries. In this mini review, we cover recent advances in metallic nanoparticle electrocatalysis, with a focus on understanding how the parameters such as particle sizes, crystalline structures, shapes, compositions, nanoscale alloying and interfaces influence their electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. In addition, this review highlights viable approaches for fabrication of nanoparticle-based electrocatalytic electrodes and discusses their influences on the overall catalytic performances. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges ahead to program these key parameters to achieve highly durable designer electrocatalysts in future.

  10. First principles simulations of materials and processes in photo- and electro-catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selloni, Annabella

    2011-03-01

    I shall discuss applications of electronic structure calculations and molecular dynamics simulations to understand materials properties and reaction mechanisms in photo- and electro-catalysis. Examples will include studies of the interface between water and titanium dioxide (Ti O2) , a widely used photocatalyst capable of splitting water in O2 + H2 , and the cycle of H2 production from water by the active site of an enzyme of hydrogen-producing bacteria, the di-iron hydrogenase, linked to a pyrite electrode.

  11. Combine electrochemistry with photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vinodgopal, K.; Kamat, P.V.

    1996-04-01

    Because a substantial percentage of colorant is lost during the dyeing process, remediation efforts have largely been focused on removing these dyes from the wastewater effluents of textile mills and other industrial colorant users. Incomplete decolorization of the effluent before discharge shifts the burden of treatment downstream. In publicly owned water treatment facilities, these dyes often end up as sludges that are dewatered and eventually deposited in landfills. There is a substantial economic impetus to develop a flow reactor to be used onstream by mills to treat colorant effluent and recycle the water. The authors have developed a photocatalytic approach using semiconductors for degrading several azo dyes. They recently found that deposition of semiconductor nanoclusters on a conducting glass surface provides a convenient way to manipulate the photocatalytic reaction by electrochemical methods. The thin semiconductor particulate film can be used as a photosensitive electrode in an electrochemical cell. The paper describes electrode preparation, the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}, reaction mechanism, and composite semiconductor films.

  12. Graphitic carbon nitride "reloaded": emerging applications beyond (photo)catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Hongqiang; Antonietti, Markus

    2016-04-21

    Despite being one of the oldest materials described in the chemical literature, graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) has just recently experienced a renaissance as a highly active photocatalyst, and the metal-free polymer was shown to be able to generate hydrogen under visible light. The semiconductor nature of g-C3N4 has triggered tremendous endeavors on its structural manipulation for enhanced photo(electro)chemical performance, aiming at an affordable clean energy future. While pursuing the stem of g-C3N4 related catalysis (photocatalysis, electrocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis), a number of emerging intrinsic properties of g-C3N4 are certainly interesting, but less well covered, and we believe that these novel applications outside of conventional catalysis can be favorably exploited as well. Thanks to the general efforts devoted to the exploration and enrichment of g-C3N4 based chemistry, the boundaries of this area have been possibly pushed far beyond what people could imagine in the beginning. This review strives to cover the achievements of g-C3N4 related materials in these unconventional application fields for depicting the broader future of these metal-free and fully stable semiconductors. This review starts with the general protocols to engineer g-C3N4 micro/nanostructures for practical use, and then discusses the newly disclosed applications in sensing, bioimaging, novel solar energy exploitation including photocatalytic coenzyme regeneration, templating, and carbon nitride based devices. Finally, we attempt an outlook on possible further developments in g-C3N4 based research. PMID:26864963

  13. Particle size and support effects in electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Brian E

    2013-08-20

    Researchers increasingly recognize that, as with standard supported heterogeneous catalysts, the activity and selectivity of supported metal electrocatalysts are influenced by particle size, particle structure, and catalyst support. Studies using model supported heterogeneous catalysts have provided information about these effects. Similarly, model electrochemical studies on supported metal electrocatalysts can provide insight into the factors determining catalytic activity. High-throughput methods for catalyst synthesis and screening can determine systematic trends in activity as a function of support and particle size with excellent statistical certainty. In this Account, we describe several such studies investigating methods for dispersing precious metals on both carbon and oxide supports, with particular emphasis on the prospects for the development of low-temperature fuel-cell electrocatalysts. One key finding is a decrease in catalytic activity with decreasing particle size independent of the support for both oxygen reduction and CO oxidation on supported gold and platinum. For these reactions, there appears to be an intrinsic particle size effect that results in a loss of activity at particle sizes below 2-3 nm. A titania support, however, also increases activity of gold particles in the electrooxidation of CO and in the reduction of oxygen, with an optimum at 3 nm particle size. This optimum may represent the superposition of competing effects: a titania-induced enhanced activity versus deactivation at small particle sizes. The titania support shows catalytic activity at potentials where carbon-supported and bulk-gold surfaces are normally oxidized and CO electrooxidation is poisoned. On the other hand, platinum on amorphous titania shows a different effect: the oxidation reduction reaction is strongly poisoned in the same particle size range. We correlated the influence of the titania support with titania-induced changes in the surface redox behavior of the platinum particles. For both supported gold and platinum particles in electrocatalysis, we observe parallels to the effects of particle size and support in the equivalent heterogeneous catalysts. Studies of model supported-metal electrocatalysts, performs efficiently using high throughput synthetic and screening methodologies, will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for support and particle size effects in electrocatalysis, and will drive the development of more effective and robust catalysts in the future. PMID:23719578

  14. Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena, and Materials (CETM) for Innovative Energy Storage - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii

    2015-11-30

    EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of prospective organic liquid fuels was studied. During EFRC program various types of electrocatalysts, classes of fuels, and membranes have been investigated.

  15. HIgh Temperature Photocatalysis over Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westrich, Thomas A.

    Due in large part to in prevalence of solar energy, increasing demand of energy production (from all sources), and the uncertain future of petroleum energy feedstocks, solar energy harvesting and other photochemical systems will play a major role in the developing energy market. This dissertation focuses on a novel photochemical reaction process: high temperature photocatalysis (i.e., photocatalysis conducted above ambient temperatures, T ≥ 100°C). The overarching hypothesis of this process is that photo-generated charge carriers are able to constructively participate in thermo-catalytic chemical reactions, thereby increasing catalytic rates at one temperature, or maintaining catalytic rates at lower temperatures. The photocatalytic oxidation of carbon deposits in an operational hydrocarbon reformer is one envisioned application of high temperature photocatalysis. Carbon build-up during hydrocarbon reforming results in catalyst deactivation, in the worst cases, this was shown to happen in a period of minutes with a liquid hydrocarbon. In the presence of steam, oxygen, and above-ambient temperatures, carbonaceous deposits were photocatalytically oxidized over very long periods (t ≥ 24 hours). This initial experiment exemplified the necessity of a fundamental assessment of high temperature photocatalytic activity. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that affect photocatalytic activity as a function of temperatures was achieved using an ethylene photocatalytic oxidation probe reaction. Maximum ethylene photocatalytic oxidation rates were observed between 100 °C and 200 °C; the maximum photocatalytic rates were approximately a factor of 2 larger than photocatalytic rates at ambient temperatures. The loss of photocatalytic activity at temperatures above 200 °C is due to a non-radiative multi-phonon recombination mechanism. Further, it was shown that the fundamental rate of recombination (as a function of temperature) can be effectively modeled as a temperature-dependent quantum efficiency term, and is directly driven by bulk photocatalyst crystal parameters: maximum phonon energy and the number of phonons allowed per unit cell. This analysis extends to multiple photocatalysts and can explain experimental observations of photocatalytic oxidation rates with varied reactant concentrations. Lastly, this dissertation applies this knowledge to a thermo-catalytic reaction (CO-oxidation) using a Au/TiO 2 catalyst. The combined photo/thereto-catalytic reaction showed a 10-25% increase in CO conversion during a temperature programmed reaction experiment.

  16. Reductive photocatalysis and smart inks.

    PubMed

    Mills, Andrew; Wells, Nathan

    2015-05-21

    Semiconductor-sensitised photocatalysis is a well-established and growing area of research, innovation and commercialisation; the latter being mostly limited to the use of TiO2 as the semiconductor. Most of the work on semiconductor photocatalytic systems uses oxygen as the electron acceptor and explores a wide range of electron donors; such systems can be considered to be examples of oxidative photocatalysis, OP. OP underpins most current examples of commercial self-cleaning materials, such as: glass, tiles, concrete, paint and fabrics. OP, and its myriad of applications, have been reviewed extensively over the years both in this journal and elsewhere. However, the ability of TiO2, and other semiconductor sensitisers, to promote reductive photocatalysis, RP, especially of dyes, is significant and, although less well-known, is of growing importance. In such systems, the source of the electrons is some easily oxidised species, such as glycerol. One recent, significant example of a RP process is with respect to photocatalyst activity indicator inks. paiis, which provide a measure of the activity of a photocatalytic film under test via the rate of change of colour of the dye in the ink coating due to irreversible RP. In contrast, by incorporating the semiconductor sensitiser in the ink, rather than outside it, it is possible to create an effective UV dosimeter, based on RP, which can be used as a sun-burn warning indicator. In the above examples the dye is reduced irreversibly, but when the photocatalyst in an ink is used to reversibly photoreduce a dye, a novel, colourimetric oxygen-sensitive indicator ink can be created, which has commercial potential in the food packaging industry. Finally, if no dye is present in the ink, and the semiconductor photocatalyst-loaded ink film coats an easily reduced substrate, such as a metal oxide film, then it can be used to reduce the latter and so, for example, clean up tarnished steel. The above are examples of smart inks, i.e. inks that are active and provide either dynamic information (such as UV dose or O2 level) or a useful function (such as tarnish removal), and all work via a RP process and are reviewed here. PMID:25773270

  17. Heteroatom doped graphene in photocatalysis: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Lutfi Kurnianditia; Ong, Wee-Jun; Chang, Wei Sea; Chai, Siang-Piao

    2015-12-01

    Photocatalysis has been a focus of great attention due to its useful environmental applications such as eliminating hazardous pollutants and generating sustainable energy. Coincidentally, graphene, a 2D allotrope of carbon, has also infiltrated many research fields due to its outstanding properties - photocatalysis being no exception. As of recent, there has been growing research focus on heteroatom (O, N, B, P and S) doping of graphene and its emergent application opportunities. In this study, rather than the familiar graphene as the electron transfer medium that is normally integrated in a photocatalyst system, we contrarily explore the implication of heteroatom doped graphene and the underlying mechanism behind their advantageous uses in photocatalysis. This review surveys the literature and highlights recent progress and challenges in the development of chemically doped graphene in the photocatalysis scene. It is desired that this review will promote awareness and encourage further investigations for the development in this budding research area.

  18. Tungsten Oxides for Photocatalysis, Electrochemistry, and Phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen-Feng; Song, Jiajia; Pan, Lun; Zhang, Xiangwen; Wang, Li; Zou, Ji-Jun

    2015-09-23

    The conversion, storage, and utilization of renewable energy have all become more important than ever before as a response to ever-growing energy and environment concerns. The performance of energy-related technologies strongly relies on the structure and property of the material used. The earth-abundant family of tungsten oxides (WOx ≤3 ) receives considerable attention in photocatalysis, electrochemistry, and phototherapy due to their highly tunable structures and unique physicochemical properties. Great breakthroughs have been made in enhancing the optical absorption, charge separation, redox capability, and electrical conductivity of WOx ≤3 through control of the composition, crystal structure, morphology, and construction of composite structures with other materials, which significantly promotes the efficiency of processes and devices based on this material. Herein, the properties and synthesis of WOx ≤3 family are reviewed, and then their energy-related applications are highlighted, including solar-light-driven water splitting, CO2 reduction, and pollutant removal, electrochromism, supercapacitors, lithium batteries, solar and fuel cells, non-volatile memory devices, gas sensors, and cancer therapy, from the aspect of function-oriented structure design and control. PMID:26287959

  19. Using Nanomaterials to Solve Environmental Problems: Advancing the Science and Engineering of Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brame, Jonathon Andrew

    Photocatalysis is a process by which materials can transfer light energy into chemical energy in the form of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can then oxidize chemical and biological contaminants in water. Whereas photocatalysis offers the potential to treat many recalcitrant priority pollutants in a cost-effective manner, it has yet to become a viable, wide-spread treatment option due to implementation barriers that include limitations in treatment efficiency and relatively high costs of some photocatalytic material. This thesis seeks to increase the applicability and understanding of nanomaterial-enhanced photocatalytic oxidation processes to help overcome these barriers. Increased photocatalytic efficiency can be accomplished through informed choice of ROS-producing materials. For example, hydroxyl radicals are shown to be much more susceptible to hindrance by natural organic matter (NOM), phosphate and wastewater treatment plant effluent than 1O 2, which is only slightly inhibited by NOM and not by phosphate or wastewater effluent. Additionally, a novel crystallization mechanism for photocatalytic TiO2 nanotubes enabled photo-production of multiple ROS types. This "cocktail" of reactive oxygen species contributed to increased efficiency. Novel applications for nanotechnology-enhanced photocatalysis were demonstrated at the lab scale. These include (1) photocatalytic pre-treatment of weathered oil from the 2010 Gulf oil spill, which increased soluble organic carbon content (indicative of increased bioavailability) by 60% and enhanced subsequent biodegradation by 37%; and (2) a water disinfection case study in rural Swaziland, which produced a prototype fluidized bed photoreactor capable of removing 99.9% of bacteria and viruses in <60 seconds. These projects show both a variety of applications for photocatalysis, and ways to increase its efficiency and effectiveness. To achieve wide-spread implementation, however, the price of photocatalysis must be reduced. Extensive reuse of treatment materials (>60 cycles), and utilization of less-purified starting materials (>90% cost reduction) highlight possible ways to reduce the cost of nanomaterial photocatalysis. By reducing financial implementation barriers, defining niches where photocatalysis can be superiorly effective, engineering reactor systems that enable real-world testing of this technology, and increasing understanding of photocatalytic inhibition mechanisms, photocatalysis can become a tool to help solve global water challenges.

  20. HETEROGENOUS PHOTOCATALYSIS ON AEROSOL PROCESSED NANOSTRUCTURED TITANIA PARTICLES: ROLE OF PARTICLE SIZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heterogenous photocatalysis with TiO2 has been extensively investigated as a method to oxidize organic pollutants in water and air, including phenols, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and other hydrocarbons. In addition, the use of titanium dioxide as a photocatalyst has also been demon...

  1. REMOVAL OF METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) FROM GROUNDWATER USING PHOTOCATALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential of photocatalysis was determined for treating MTBE-contaminated drinking water supplies. Two liquid-phase systems, a falling film reactor, and a solar degradation system, are being evaluated. We are also conducting a gas-phase treatment method to simulate an integra...

  2. Electrocatalysis: A Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell and Surface Science Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Braunchweig, B; Hibbitts, David D; Neurock, Matthew; Wieckowski, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we discuss some of the advances in surface science and theory that have enabled a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that govern the electrocatalysis. More specifically, we examine in detail the electrooxidation of C-1 and C-2 alcohol molecules in both acidic and basic media. A combination of detailed in situ spectroscopic measurements along with density functional theory calculations have helped to establish the mechanisms that control the reaction paths and the influence of acidic and alkaline media. We discuss some of the synergies and differences between electrocatalysis and aqueous phase heterogeneous catalysis. Such analyses begin to establish a common language and framework by which to compare as well as advance both fields. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrocatalysis: A direct alcohol fuel cell and surface science perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Braunchweig, B; Neurock, Matthew; Wieckowski, A.; Hibbitts, David D

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we discuss some of the advances in surface science and theory that have ena bled a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that govern the electrocatalysis.More specifically, we examine in detail the electrooxidation ofC1 and Cz alcohol molecules in both acidic and basic media. A combination of detailed in situ spectroscopic measurements along with density functional theory calculations have helped to establish the mechanisms that control the reaction paths and the innuence of acidic and alkaline media. We discuss some of the synergies and differences between electrocatalysis and aqueous phase heterogeneous catalysis.Such analyses begin to establish a common language and framework by which to compare as well as advance both fields.

  4. Nanoalloy electrocatalysis: Simulating cyclic voltammetry from configurational thermodynamics with adsorbates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin -Lin; Tan, Teck L.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-02-27

    We simulate the adsorption isotherms for alloyed nanoparticles (nanoalloys) with adsorbates to determine cyclic voltammetry (CV) during electrocatalysis. The effect of alloying on nanoparticle adsorption isotherms is provided by a hybrid-ensemble Monte Carlo simulation that uses the cluster expansion method extended to non-exchangeable coupled lattices for nanoalloys with adsorbates. Exemplified here for the hydrogen evolution reaction, a 2-dimensional CV is mapped for Pd–Pt nanoalloys as a function of both electrochemical potential and the global Pt composition, and shows a highly non-linear alloying effect on CV. Detailed features in CV arise from the interplay among the H-adsorption in multiple sites that is closely correlated with alloy configurations, which are in turn affected by the H-coverage. The origins of specific features in CV curves are assigned. As a result, the method provides a more complete means to design nanoalloys for electrocatalysis.

  5. Nanoalloy electrocatalysis: Simulating cyclic voltammetry from configurational thermodynamics with adsorbates

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Lin -Lin; Tan, Teck L.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-02-27

    We simulate the adsorption isotherms for alloyed nanoparticles (nanoalloys) with adsorbates to determine cyclic voltammetry (CV) during electrocatalysis. The effect of alloying on nanoparticle adsorption isotherms is provided by a hybrid-ensemble Monte Carlo simulation that uses the cluster expansion method extended to non-exchangeable coupled lattices for nanoalloys with adsorbates. Exemplified here for the hydrogen evolution reaction, a 2-dimensional CV is mapped for Pd–Pt nanoalloys as a function of both electrochemical potential and the global Pt composition, and shows a highly non-linear alloying effect on CV. Detailed features in CV arise from the interplay among the H-adsorption in multiple sites thatmore » is closely correlated with alloy configurations, which are in turn affected by the H-coverage. The origins of specific features in CV curves are assigned. As a result, the method provides a more complete means to design nanoalloys for electrocatalysis.« less

  6. A comparison of pilot-scale photocatalysis and enhanced coagulation for disinfection byproduct mitigation.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Mayer, Brooke; Ryu, Hodon; Crittenden, John; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated pilot-scale photocatalysis and enhanced coagulation for their ability to remove or destroy disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors, trihalomethane (THM) formation potential (FP), and THMs in two Arizona surface waters. Limited photocatalysis (<5 kWh/m(3)) achieved reductions in most of the DBP precursor parameters (e.g., DOC, UV(254), and bromide) but led to increased chlorine demand and THMFP. In contrast, enhanced coagulation achieved reductions in the DBP precursors and THMFP. Extended photocatalysis (<320 kWh/m(3)) decreased THMFP once the energy consumption exceeded 20 kWh/m(3). The photocatalytic energy requirements for THM destruction were considerably lower (EEO=20-60 kWh/m(3)) than when focusing on precursor destruction and THMFP. However, rechlorination increased the total THM (TTHM) concentration well beyond the raw value, thereby negating the energy benefits of this application. Enhanced coagulation achieved consistent 20-30% removals of preformed THMs. Outstanding issues need to be addressed before TiO(2) photocatalysis is considered feasible for DBP mitigation; traditional strategies, including enhanced coagulation, may be more appropriate. PMID:19232668

  7. Metal-organic frameworks for photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Xu, Hua; Ouyang, Shuxin; Ye, Jinhua

    2016-03-01

    Photocatalysis is a promising technology to convert solar energy into chemical energy. Recently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as novel photocatalysts owing to their inherent structural characteristics of a large surface area and a well-ordered porous structure. Most importantly, via modulation of the organic linker/metal clusters or incorporation with metal/complex catalysts, not only the reactant adsorption and light absorption but also the charge separation and reactant activation will be largely promoted, leading to superior photocatalytic performance. In this article, we will first introduce the photophysical/chemical properties of MOFs; then various strategies of modification of MOFs towards better photocatalytic activity will be presented; finally, we will address the challenge and further perspective in MOF-based photocatalysis. PMID:26535907

  8. [Decontamination of chemical warfare agents by photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Tsutomu; Mera, Nobuaki; Sano, Taizo; Negishi, Nobuaki; Takeuchi, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Photocatalysis has been widely applied to solar-energy conversion and environmental purification. Photocatalyst, typically titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), produces active oxygen species under irradiation of ultraviolet light, and can decompose not only conventional pollutants but also different types of hazardous substances at mild conditions. We have recently started the study of photocatalytic decontamination of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) under collaboration with the National Research Institute of Police Science. This article reviews environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis, decontamination methods for CWAs, and previous photocatalytic studies applied to CWA degradation, together with some of our results obtained with CWAs and their simulant compounds. The data indicate that photocatalysis, which may not always give a striking power, certainly helps detoxification of such hazardous compounds. Unfortunately, there are not enough data obtained with real CWAs due to the difficulty in handling. We will add more scientific data using CWAs in the near future to develop useful decontamination systems that can reduce the damage caused by possible terrorism. PMID:19122438

  9. Robust cuprous phenanthroline sensitizer for solar hydrogen photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Khnayzer, Rony S; McCusker, Catherine E; Olaiya, Babatunde S; Castellano, Felix N

    2013-09-25

    The Cu(I) metal-to-ligand charge-transfer complex, [Cu(dsbtmp)2](+) (dsbtmp = 2,9-di(sec-butyl)-3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline), exhibits outstanding stability as a visible-light-absorbing photosensitizer in hydrogen-evolving homogeneous photocatalysis. In concert with the Co(dmgH)2(py)Cl water reduction catalyst and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine sacrificial donor in 1:1 H2O:CH3CN, this Cu(I) sensitizer remains active even after 5 days of visible-light-pumped (λex = 452 ± 10 nm) hydrogen evolution catalysis. Deuteration studies illustrate that the hydrogen produced from this composition does indeed originate from aqueous protons. PMID:24028290

  10. Applying controlled periodic illumination in a Taylor vortex reactor to increase the photoefficiency in heterogeneous photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sczechowski, J.G.

    1995-10-01

    This paper reviews recent research in a new aspect of TiO{sub 2} heterogeneous photocatalysis for water purification. The goal of this research was to increase the photoefficiency in photocatalysis by using controlled periodic illumination rather than continuous illumination currently used in conventional photocatalytic reactors. Optimal illumination and dark recovery times were first determined in a flowing open channel reactor. Using the results from the channel reactor, a novel Taylor vortex reactor was designed and tested. The vortices moved the TiO{sub 2} particles into and out of the illuminated portion of the reactor to generate the necessary illumination and dark recovery times. Due to the motion of the vortices, the reactor behaved as an ideal plug flow reactor. More importantly, it demonstrated that high intensity, high photoefficiency reactors are possible for large scale water purification.

  11. Laser Raman Spectroscopy in studies of corrosion and electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Melendres, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Laser Raman Spectroscopy (LRS) has become an important tool for the in-situ structural study of electrochemical systems and processes in recent years. Following a brief introduction of the experimental techniques involved in applying LRS to electrochemical systems, we survey the literature for examples of studies in the inhibition of electrode reactions by surface films (e.g., corrosion and passivation phenomena) as well as the acceleration of reactions by electro-sorbates (electrocatalysis). We deal mostly with both normal and resonance Raman effects on fairly thick surface films in contrast to surface-enhanced Raman investigations of monolayer adsorbates, which is covered in another lecture. Laser Raman spectroelectrochemical studies of corrosion and film formation on such metals as Pb, Ag, Fe, Ni, Co, Cr, Au, stainless steel, etc. in various solution conditions are discussed. Further extension of the technique to studies in high-temperature and high-pressure aqueous environments is demonstrated. Results of studies of the structure of corrosion inhibitors are also presented. As applications of the LRS technique in the area of electrocatalysis, we cite studies of the structure of transition metal macrocyclic compounds, i.e., phthalocyanines and porphyrins, used for catalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction. 104 refs., 20 figs.

  12. When small is big: the role of impurities in electrocatalysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Strmcnik, Dusan; Li, Dongguo; Lopes, Pietro P.; Tripkovic, Dusan; Kodama, Kensaku; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2015-11-01

    Improvements in the fundamental understanding of electrocatalysis have started to revolutionize the development of electrochemical interfaces for the efficient conversion of chemical energy into electricity, as well as for the utilization of electrons to produce new chemicals that then can be re-used in energy conversion systems. Here, some facets of the role of trace level of impurities (from 10-7 to 10-6 M) in electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction, hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions, and CO oxidation reactions are explored on well-characterized platinum single crystal surfaces and high surface area materials in alkaline and acidic environments. Of particular interest is the effect of anions (e.g., Cl-, NO3-) and cations (i.e., Cu2+) present in the supporting electrolytes as well as surface defects (i.e., ad-islands) that are present on metal surfaces. The examples presented are chosen to demonstrate that a small level of impurities may play a crucial role in governing the reactivity of electrochemical interfaces.

  13. Recyclable enzyme mimic of cubic Fe3O4 nanoparticles loaded on graphene oxide-dispersed carbon nanotubes with enhanced peroxidase-like catalysis and electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hua; Li, Shuai; Si, Yanmei; Sun, Zhongzhao; Li, Shuying; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-01-01

    Fe3O4 nanoparticles as nanocatalysts may present peroxidase-like catalysis activities and high electrocatalysis if loaded on conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) supports; however, their catalysis performances in an aqueous system might still be challenged by the poor aqueous dispersion of hydrophobic carbon supports and/or low stability of loaded iron catalysts. In this work, amphiphilic graphene oxide nanosheets were employed as “surfactant” to disperse CNTs to create stable graphene oxide-dispersed CNT (GCNT) supports in water for covalently loading cubic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with improved distribution and binding efficiency. Compared with original Fe3O4 nanos and CNT-loaded Fe3O4 nanocomplex, the prepared GCNT–Fe3O4 nanocomposite could achieve higher aqueous stability and, especially, much stronger peroxidase-like catalysis and electrocatalysis to H2O2, presumably resulting from the synergetic effects of two conductive carbon supports and cubic Fe3O4 nanocatalysts effectively loaded. Colorimetric and direct electrochemical detections of H2O2 and glucose using the GCNT–Fe3O4 nanocomposite were conducted with high detection sensitivities, demonstrating the feasibility of practical sensing applications. Such a magnetically recyclable “enzyme mimic” may circumvent some disadvantages of natural protein enzymes and common inorganic catalysts, featuring the multi-functions of high peroxidase-like catalysis, strong electrocatalysis, magnetic separation/recyclability, environmental stability, and direct H2O2 electrochemistry.

  14. Towards a Dithiocarbamate Ligand for CdS Nanoparticle-based Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Andrew; Lacroix, Andrew D.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; MacDonald, Janet E.

    Photocatalysis of water into H2 and O2 presents a clean, renewable route for energy storage and production. Traditionally, most semiconducting nanoparticle research on photocatalysis has focused on the ability to reduce chemical systems using the photoexcited electron. Here we employ a combination of theory and experiments to develop a possible route towards the oxidation of chemical systems via the hole from photoexcitation using an asymmetric bipyridine ligand with conjugated dithiocarbamate ligand bound to the surface of cadmium sulfide nanorods. In particular, we use density functional theory to calculate the electronic levels and optical absorption of the designer ligand, free from the cadmium sulfide surface as well as attached to the surface, with and without the copper center. These calculations are compared with experimental UV/VIS absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy measurements to understand the role of copper chelation. Furthermore, theoretical comparisons are made with a related ligand known to oxidize water under an applied potential bias. Finally, we discuss whether we expect photocatalysis from the ligand and possible improvements to its design.

  15. Bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials: layered structures meet photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Yu, Ying; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials have received more and more interest as promising photocatalysts because their unique layered structures endow them with fascinating physicochemical properties; thus, they have great potential photocatalytic applications for environment remediation and energy harvesting. In this article, we explore the synthesis strategies and growth mechanisms of layered bismuth oxyhalide nanomaterials, and propose design principles of tailoring a layered configuration to control the nanoarchitectures for high efficient photocatalysis. Subsequently, we focus on their layered structure dependent properties, including pH-related crystal facet exposure and phase transformation, facet-dependent photoactivity and molecular oxygen activation pathways, so as to clarify the origin of the layered structure dependent photoreactivity. Furthermore, we summarize various strategies for modulating the composition and arrangement of layered structures to enhance the photoactivity of nanostructured bismuth oxyhalides via internal electric field tuning, dehalogenation effect, surface functionalization, doping, plasmon modification, and heterojunction construction, which may offer efficient guidance for the design and construction of high-performance bismuth oxyhalide-based photocatalysis systems. Finally, we highlight some crucial issues in engineering the layered-structure mediated properties of bismuth oxyhalide photocatalysts and provide tentative suggestions for future research on increasing their photocatalytic performance.

  16. Improving the Performance of Perovskite in Nonaqueous Oxygen Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meihua; Xu, Chaohe; Zhan, Yi; Lee, Jim Yang

    2016-04-20

    Nanoparticle (NP) aggregates of lanthanum cobalt oxide perovskite (LCO) were compounded with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets and used as the cathode catalyst for nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries (LOBs). The LCO NP aggregates were completely surrounded by rGO nanosheets in the composite with 10.5 wt % of rGO (LCO-rGO-10.5) but were partially exposed in the composite with 7.5 wt % of rGO (LCO-rGO-7.5). Both composites performed better than pristine LCO NPs and rGO nanosheets in nonaqueous oxygen electrocatalysis. The LCO-rGO-7.5 composite excelled at capacity and rate performance, while the LCO-rGO-10.5 composite was better at cycle stability. The good performance of the LCO-rGO composites was due to the synergy of functions of LCO and rGO. PMID:26663461

  17. Efficient Solar Energy Conversion Using CaCu3Ti4O12 Photoanode for Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, H S; Madhar, Niyaz A; Ilahi, B; Thomas, P; Halder, Aditi; Vaish, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient third generation catalyst, CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) shows excellent photoelectrochemical (PEC) and photocatalytic ability. As only 4% part of the solar spectrum covers UV light, thus it is highly desirable to develop visible light active photocatalyst materials like CCTO for effective solar energy conversion. A direct band transition with a narrow band gap (1.5 eV) was observed. Under light irradiation, high photocurrent density was found to be 0.96 mA/cm(2), indicating the visible light induced photocatalytic ability of CCTO. Visible light mediated photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic degradation efficiency of CaCu3Ti4O12 pellets (CCTO) was investigated for three classes of pharmaceutical waste: erythrosin (dye), ciprofloxacin (antibiotic) and estriol (steroid). It is found that the degradation process follows first order kinetic reaction in electrocatalysis, photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis and high kinetic rate constant was observed in photoelectrocatalysis. This was quite high in comparison to previously reported methods. PMID:26725655

  18. Efficient Solar Energy Conversion Using CaCu3Ti4O12 Photoanode for Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, H. S.; Madhar, Niyaz A; Ilahi, B.; Thomas, P.; Halder, Aditi; Vaish, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient third generation catalyst, CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) shows excellent photoelectrochemical (PEC) and photocatalytic ability. As only 4% part of the solar spectrum covers UV light, thus it is highly desirable to develop visible light active photocatalyst materials like CCTO for effective solar energy conversion. A direct band transition with a narrow band gap (1.5 eV) was observed. Under light irradiation, high photocurrent density was found to be 0.96 mA/cm2, indicating the visible light induced photocatalytic ability of CCTO. Visible light mediated photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic degradation efficiency of CaCu3Ti4O12 pellets (CCTO) was investigated for three classes of pharmaceutical waste: erythrosin (dye), ciprofloxacin (antibiotic) and estriol (steroid). It is found that the degradation process follows first order kinetic reaction in electrocatalysis, photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis and high kinetic rate constant was observed in photoelectrocatalysis. This was quite high in comparison to previously reported methods. PMID:26725655

  19. Efficient Solar Energy Conversion Using CaCu3Ti4O12 Photoanode for Photocatalysis and Photoelectrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, H. S.; Madhar, Niyaz A.; Ilahi, B.; Thomas, P.; Halder, Aditi; Vaish, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient third generation catalyst, CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) shows excellent photoelectrochemical (PEC) and photocatalytic ability. As only 4% part of the solar spectrum covers UV light, thus it is highly desirable to develop visible light active photocatalyst materials like CCTO for effective solar energy conversion. A direct band transition with a narrow band gap (1.5 eV) was observed. Under light irradiation, high photocurrent density was found to be 0.96 mA/cm2, indicating the visible light induced photocatalytic ability of CCTO. Visible light mediated photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic degradation efficiency of CaCu3Ti4O12 pellets (CCTO) was investigated for three classes of pharmaceutical waste: erythrosin (dye), ciprofloxacin (antibiotic) and estriol (steroid). It is found that the degradation process follows first order kinetic reaction in electrocatalysis, photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis and high kinetic rate constant was observed in photoelectrocatalysis. This was quite high in comparison to previously reported methods.

  20. Combinative sonolysis and photocatalysis for textile dye degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, N.L.; Peller, J.; Vinodgopal, K.; Kamat, P.V.

    2000-05-01

    The merits of combining two advanced oxidation processes, viz., sonolysis and photocatalysis, have been evaluated by investigating the degradation of an azo dye, naphthol blue black (NBB), using a high-frequency ultrasonic generator and UV-photolysis. An additive effect on the degradation rate of the parent compound is observed when the sonolysis and photocatalysis experiments were carried out in a simultaneous or sequential manner. Sonolysis is effective for inducing faster degradation of the parent dye, while TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis is effective for promoting mineralization.

  1. Solar Synthesis: Prospects in Visible Light Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Danielle M.; Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2015-01-01

    Chemists have long aspired to synthesize molecules the way that plants do — using sunlight to facilitate the construction of complex molecular architectures. Nevertheless, the use of visible light in photochemical synthesis is fundamentally challenging because organic molecules tend not to interact with the wavelengths of visible light that are most strongly emitted in the solar spectrum. Recent research has begun to leverage the ability of visible light absorbing transition metal complexes to catalyze a broad range of synthetically valuable reactions. In this review, we highlight how an understanding of the mechanisms of photocatalytic activation available to these transition metal complexes, and of the general reactivity patterns of the intermediates accessible via visible light photocatalysis, has accelerated the development of this diverse suite of reactions. PMID:24578578

  2. Solar synthesis: prospects in visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Danielle M; Yoon, Tehshik P

    2014-02-28

    Chemists have long aspired to synthesize molecules the way that plants do-using sunlight to facilitate the construction of complex molecular architectures. Nevertheless, the use of visible light in photochemical synthesis is fundamentally challenging because organic molecules tend not to interact with the wavelengths of visible light that are most strongly emitted in the solar spectrum. Recent research has begun to leverage the ability of visible light-absorbing transition metal complexes to catalyze a broad range of synthetically valuable reactions. In this review, we highlight how an understanding of the mechanisms of photocatalytic activation available to these transition metal complexes, and of the general reactivity patterns of the intermediates accessible via visible light photocatalysis, has accelerated the development of this diverse suite of reactions. PMID:24578578

  3. Platinum nanocatalysts loaded on graphene oxide-dispersed carbon nanotubes with greatly enhanced peroxidase-like catalysis and electrocatalysis activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua; Li, Shuai; Si, Yanmei; Zhang, Ning; Sun, Zongzhao; Wu, Hong; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-06-01

    A powerful enzymatic mimetic has been fabricated by employing graphene oxide (GO) nanocolloids to disperse conductive carbon supports of hydrophobic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) before and after the loading of Pt nanocatalysts. The resulting GOCNT-Pt nanocomposites could present improved aqueous dispersion stability and Pt spatial distribution. Unexpectedly, they could show greatly enhanced peroxidase-like catalysis and electrocatalysis activities in water, as evidenced in the colorimetric and electrochemical investigations in comparison to some inorganic nanocatalysts commonly used. Moreover, it is found that the new enzyme mimetics could exhibit peroxidase-like catalysis activity comparable to natural enzymes; yet, they might circumvent some of their inherent problems in terms of catalysis efficiency, electron transfer, environmental stability, and cost effectiveness. Also, sandwiched electrochemical immunoassays have been successfully conducted using GOCNT-Pt as enzymatic tags. Such a fabrication avenue of noble metal nanocatalysts loaded on well-dispersed conductive carbon supports should be tailored for the design of different enzyme mimics promising the extensive catalysis applications in environmental, medical, industrial, and particularly aqueous biosensing fields.A powerful enzymatic mimetic has been fabricated by employing graphene oxide (GO) nanocolloids to disperse conductive carbon supports of hydrophobic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) before and after the loading of Pt nanocatalysts. The resulting GOCNT-Pt nanocomposites could present improved aqueous dispersion stability and Pt spatial distribution. Unexpectedly, they could show greatly enhanced peroxidase-like catalysis and electrocatalysis activities in water, as evidenced in the colorimetric and electrochemical investigations in comparison to some inorganic nanocatalysts commonly used. Moreover, it is found that the new enzyme mimetics could exhibit peroxidase-like catalysis activity comparable to natural enzymes; yet, they might circumvent some of their inherent problems in terms of catalysis efficiency, electron transfer, environmental stability, and cost effectiveness. Also, sandwiched electrochemical immunoassays have been successfully conducted using GOCNT-Pt as enzymatic tags. Such a fabrication avenue of noble metal nanocatalysts loaded on well-dispersed conductive carbon supports should be tailored for the design of different enzyme mimics promising the extensive catalysis applications in environmental, medical, industrial, and particularly aqueous biosensing fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The catalysis mechanism, catalytic dynamic parameters, the interferent effects on H2O2 detections, investigations of time-dependent dispersion stabilities, double-reciprocal plots of catalysis activities, and electrocatalysis comparison between GOCNT-Pt nanocomposites and HRP. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00983e

  4. Metal/Oxide Interface Nanostructures Generated by Surface Segregation for Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Zhe; Liu, Wen; Yin, Li-Chang; Fang, Ruopian; Li, Min; Altman, Eric I; Fan, Qi; Li, Feng; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Wang, Hailiang

    2015-11-11

    Strong metal/oxide interactions have been acknowledged to play prominent roles in chemical catalysis in the gas phase, but remain as an unexplored area in electrocatalysis in the liquid phase. Utilization of metal/oxide interface structures could generate high performance electrocatalysts for clean energy storage and conversion. However, building highly dispersed nanoscale metal/oxide interfaces on conductive scaffolds remains a significant challenge. Here, we report a novel strategy to create metal/oxide interface nanostructures by growing mixed metal oxide nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and then selectively promoting migration of one of the metal ions to the surface of the oxide nanoparticles and simultaneous reduction to metal. Employing this strategy, we have synthesized Ni/CeO2 nanointerfaces coupled with CNTs. The Ni/CeO2 interface promotes hydrogen evolution catalysis by facilitating water dissociation and modifying the hydrogen binding energy. The Ni/CeO2-CNT hybrid material exhibits superior activity for hydrogen evolution as a result of synergistic effects including strong metal/oxide interactions, inorganic/carbon coupling, and particle size control. PMID:26509583

  5. Dendritic assembly of gold nanoparticles during fuel-forming electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Manthiram, Karthish; Surendranath, Yogesh; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2014-05-21

    We observe the dendritic assembly of alkanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles on a glassy carbon support during electrochemical reduction of protons and CO2. We find that the primary mechanism by which surfactant-ligated gold nanoparticles lose surface area is by taking a random walk along the support, colliding with their neighbors, and fusing to form dendrites, a type of fractal aggregate. A random walk model reproduces the fractal dimensionality of the dendrites observed experimentally. The rate at which the dendrites form is strongly dependent on the solubility of the surfactant in the electrochemical double layer under the conditions of electrolysis. Since alkanethiolate surfactants reductively desorb at potentials close to the onset of CO2 reduction, they do not poison the catalytic activity of the gold nanoparticles. Although catalyst mobility is typically thought to be limited for room-temperature electrochemistry, our results demonstrate that nanoparticle mobility is significant under conditions at which they electrochemically catalyze gas evolution, even in the presence of a high surface area carbon and binder. A careful understanding of the electrolyte- and polarization-dependent nanoparticle aggregation kinetics informs strategies for maintaining catalyst dispersion during fuel-forming electrocatalysis. PMID:24766431

  6. Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies Program (ECUT) electrocatalysis research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. F.

    1984-01-01

    The general field of electrocatalysis, from both the technical and business standpoints is accessed and research areas and approaches most likely to lead to substantial energy/cost savings are identified. The overall approach was to compile and evaluate available information, relying heavily on inputs/recommendations of research managers and technical personnel in responsible positions in industry and at universities. Some promising approaches identified to date include the use of transition metal compounds as electrocatalysts and the use of the new electrochemical photocapacitance spectroscopy (EPS) technique for electrocatalyst characterization/development. For the first time, an oxygen electrocatalyst based on the K2NiF4 structure was synthesized, investigated and compared with a perovskite analog. Results show that this class of materials, based on Ni(3+), forms very efficient and stable O2 anodes in basic solution and suggest that other structure-types be examined in this regard. The very difficult problem of dinitrogen and carbon dioxide electroreductions is addressed through the use of biological model systems which can mimic the enzyme processes in nature.

  7. Electrocatalysis of anodic and cathodic oxygen-transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wels, B.R.

    1990-09-21

    The electrocatalysis of oxygen-transfer reactions is discussed in two parts. In Part I, the reduction of iodate (IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is examined as an example of cathodic oxygen transfer. On oxide-covered Pt electrodes (PtO), a large cathodic current is observed in the presence of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to coincide with the reduction of PtO. The total cathodic charge exceeds the amount required for reduction of PtO and IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to produce an adsorbed product. An electrocatalytic link between reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and reduction of PtO is indicated. In addition, on oxide-free Pt electrodes, the reduction of IO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} is determined to be sensitive to surface treatment. The electrocatalytic oxidation of CN{sup {minus}} is presented as an example of anodic oxygen transfer in Part II. The voltametric response of CN{sup {minus}} is virtually nonexistent at PbO{sub 2} electrodes. The response is significantly improved by doping PbO{sub 2} with Cu. Cyanide is also oxidized effectively at CuO-film electrodes. Copper is concluded to serve as an adsorption site for CN{sup {minus}}. It is proposed that an oxygen tunneling mechanism comparable to electron tunneling does not occur at the electrode-solution interface. The adsorption of CN{sup {minus}} is therefore considered to be a necessary prerequisite for oxygen transfer. 201 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Enhanced photocatalysis in a pilot laminar falling film slurry reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Puma, G.L.; Yue, P.L.

    1999-09-01

    Laminar falling film slurry (LFFS) photocatalytic reactors are one of the most efficient reactor configurations for conducting heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, particularly for wastewater treatment. This paper presents a study on the oxidation of an aqueous salicylic acid waste in a pilot continuous flow LFFS photocatalytic reactor which has an optimum design for light absorption. In conducting the oxidation reaction, heterogeneous photocatalysis was supplemented with other photon-assisted processes. The effect of light intensity, radiation wavelength, oxidizing-enhancing agents, substrate and photocatalyst concentration, and exposure time were studied. A comparison of six different photon-based processes showed that higher oxidation rates of salicylic acid were obtained when there was concomitant photocatalysis, photolysis, and UV peroxidation. The oxidation rates of salicylic acid with this combined process were at least 1 order of magnitude higher in comparison with those for UVA photocatalysis and 3-fold higher in comparison with homogeneous UVC photolysis/UVC peroxidation.

  9. Efficient microfluidic photocatalysis in a symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu; Dai, Hailang; Jiang, Bei; Shen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a symmetrical metal-cladding optical waveguide based microfluidic chip with a self-organized and free-standing TiO2 nanotube membrane was utilized to perform efficient photocatalysis. The chip has a microchannel bonded with TiO2 nanotube coated glass. The employment of microfluidic chip for hydrolysis reaction can enable the transfer of mass and photons. Moreover, the incorporation of the double metal-cladding waveguide enhances the light-matter interaction and effectively improves the efficiency of photocatalysis. PMID:26794407

  10. Combination of photocatalysis downstream the non-thermal plasma reactor for oxidation of gas-phase toluene.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haibao; Ye, Daiqi

    2009-11-15

    Ozone is an undesirable byproduct of non-thermal plasma (NTP) for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) control. Photocatalysis combined downstream the NTP reactor and ozone was utilized to oxidize toluene. The multiple synergies of O(3)/UV/TiO(2) system and the mechanism of toluene decomposition were investigated. The influence factors such as energy density, humidity and UV sources were also intensively studied. The combination of photocatalysis in the post-plasma increased the conversion of toluene and ozone to almost 80 and 90%, respectively. Water vapor played a dual role in toluene destruction and ozone removal. In total, 0.75% humidity had the best conversion of toluene and ozone at these experimental conditions. The conversion of toluene enhanced with increasing ozone removal. Among the multiple oxidation processes in the O(3)/UV/TiO(2) system, the O(3)/TiO(2) process played a key role in the decomposition of toluene. PMID:19604627

  11. Homogeneous and heterogeneous degradation of caffeic acid using photocatalysis driven by UVA and solar light.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Eliana; Santander, Paola; Contreras, David; Yáñez, Jorge; Cornejo, Lorena; Mansilla, Héctor D

    2016-01-01

    Waste water from the wine industry is characterized by a high concentration of dissolved organic matter and the presence of natural phenolic compounds with low biodegradability. High concentrations of phenolic compounds may cause environmental pollution and risks to human health. In this article caffeic acid (CA) was used as a model compound of wine effluent because it is refractory to the conventional wastewater treatments. The oxidation of caffeic acid in water solution (0.01 g L(-1)) by heterogeneous photocatalysis and photo-Fenton reaction was studied using UVA. The optimal conditions for each treatment were performed by multivariate experimental design. The optimal conditions for heterogeneous photocatalysis were pH 5.3 and 0.9 g L(-1) TiO2. In the case of photo-Fenton treatment, optimized variable were 82.4 μmol L(-1) of Fe(2+) and 558.6 μmol L(-1) of H2O2. The degradation profiles of CA were monitored by UV-Vis, HPLC, TOC and COD. To reach 90% of CA removal, 40 and 2 min of reaction, respectively, were required by heterogeneous and photo-Fenton processes, respectively. For comparison purposes, the reactions were also performed under solar light. The use of solar light does not change the efficiency of the photo-Fenton reaction, yet the performance of the heterogeneous process was significantly improved, reaching 90% of degradation in 15 min. PMID:26548918

  12. SOME RECENT STUDIES IN RUGHENIUM ELECTROCHEMISTRY AND ELECTROCATALYSIS.

    SciTech Connect

    MARINKOVIC, N.S.; VUKMIROVIC, M.B.; ADZIC, R.R.

    2006-08-01

    Ruthenium is a metal of a considerable importance in electrochemical science and technology. It is a catalyst or co-catalyst material in Pt-Ru alloys for methanol- and reformate hydrogen-oxidation in fuel cells, while ruthenium oxide, a component in chlorine-evolution catalysts, represents an attractive material for electrochemical supercapacitors. Its facile surface oxidation generates an oxygen-containing species that provides active oxygen in some reactions. Ru sites in Pt-Ru catalysts increase the ''CO tolerance'' of Pt in the catalytic oxidation-reaction in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) and in reformate hydrogen-oxidation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). The mechanism of Ru action is not completely understood, although current consensus revolves around the so-called ''bifunctional mechanism'' wherein Ru provides oxygenated species to oxidize CO that blocks Pt sites, and has an electronic effect on Pt-CO interaction. While various studies of polycrystalline Ru go back several decades those involving single crystal surfaces and the structural sensitivity of reactions on Ru surfaces emerged only recently. Using well-ordered single crystalline surfaces brings useful information as the processes on realistic catalysts are far too complex to allow identification of the microscopic reaction steps. In this article, we focus on progress in model systems and conditions, such as electrochemistry and electrocatalysis on bare and Pt-modified well-ordered Ru(0001) and Ru(10{bar 1}0) single-crystal surfaces. We also review current understanding of the mechanistic principles of Pt-Ru systems and a new development of a Pt submonolayer on Ru support electrocatalyst. Ruthenium crystallizes in a hexagonal close-packed structure, (hcp). Figure 1.1 shows the two single crystal surfaces of Ru. The Ru(0001) surface possesses the densest, i.e. hexagonal arrangement of atoms, Fig. 1.1a. The other plane, Ru(10{bar 1}0), can have one of the two terminations of the surface atoms, Fig. 1.1b. One termination can be described as a stepped surface with a trigonal arrangement of atoms in two-atom-long terraces with a step of the same orientation; the other termination is a square-symmetrical arrangement of atoms in two-atom-long terraces with the same orientation of atoms in steps. In the faced-centered cubic (fcc) system, these three structures are uniquely defined and labeled as (111), (110), and (210), respectively.

  13. Recent advances in the understanding of electrocatalysis and its relation to surface chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, E.

    1977-01-01

    It is pointed out that electrosorption plays a key role in electrocatalysis. Little information is available, however, concerning the chemical nature of the interactions of the adsorbed species with the electrode and even less about the adsorption sites. The role of adsorbed species and surface layers in electrocatalysis is reviewed for several electrode systems. In recent years, some general insights have been achieved into the relationship of hydrogen electrode kinetics to hydrogen adsorption. For a given mechanism the exchange current density is related to the standard free energy of adsorption of the particular type of adsorbed hydrogen upon which the kinetics depend. The oxygen electrode reactions are less well understood than the reactions for the hydrogen electrode. The pronounced irreversibility of the oxygen electrode reactions at moderate temperatures has severely complicated mechanistic studies.

  14. Electrocatalysis of borohydride oxidation: a review of density functional theory approach combined with experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Escaño, Mary Clare Sison; Arevalo, Ryan Lacdao; Gyenge, Elod; Kasai, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    The electrocatalysis of borohydride oxidation is a complex, up-to-eight-electron transfer process, which is essential for development of efficient direct borohydride fuel cells. Here we review the progress achieved by density functional theory (DFT) calculations in explaining the adsorption of BH4(-) on various catalyst surfaces, with implications for electrocatalyst screening and selection. Wherever possible, we correlate the theoretical predictions with experimental findings, in order to validate the proposed models and to identify potential directions for further advancements. PMID:25110306

  15. Electrocatalysis of borohydride oxidation: a review of density functional theory approach combined with experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sison Escaño, Mary Clare; Lacdao Arevalo, Ryan; Gyenge, Elod; Kasai, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    The electrocatalysis of borohydride oxidation is a complex, up-to-eight-electron transfer process, which is essential for development of efficient direct borohydride fuel cells. Here we review the progress achieved by density functional theory (DFT) calculations in explaining the adsorption of BH4- on various catalyst surfaces, with implications for electrocatalyst screening and selection. Wherever possible, we correlate the theoretical predictions with experimental findings, in order to validate the proposed models and to identify potential directions for further advancements.

  16. Insight on Tafel slopes from a microkinetic analysis of aqueous electrocatalysis for energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Garcia-Esparza, Angel T.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Microkinetic analyses of aqueous electrochemistry involving gaseous H2 or O2, i.e., hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are revisited. The Tafel slopes used to evaluate the rate determining steps generally assume extreme coverage of the adsorbed species (θ ≈ 0 or ≈1), although, in practice, the slopes are coverage-dependent. We conducted detailed kinetic analyses describing the coverage-dependent Tafel slopes for the aforementioned reactions. Our careful analyses provide a general benchmark for experimentally observed Tafel slopes that can be assigned to specific rate determining steps. The Tafel analysis is a powerful tool for discussing the rate determining steps involved in electrocatalysis, but our study also demonstrated that overly simplified assumptions led to an inaccurate description of the surface electrocatalysis. Additionally, in many studies, Tafel analyses have been performed in conjunction with the Butler-Volmer equation, where its applicability regarding only electron transfer kinetics is often overlooked. Based on the derived kinetic description of the HER/HOR as an example, the limitation of Butler-Volmer expression in electrocatalysis is also discussed in this report.

  17. Insight on Tafel slopes from a microkinetic analysis of aqueous electrocatalysis for energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Garcia-Esparza, Angel T; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Microkinetic analyses of aqueous electrochemistry involving gaseous H2 or O2, i.e., hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are revisited. The Tafel slopes used to evaluate the rate determining steps generally assume extreme coverage of the adsorbed species (θ≈0 or ≈1), although, in practice, the slopes are coverage-dependent. We conducted detailed kinetic analyses describing the coverage-dependent Tafel slopes for the aforementioned reactions. Our careful analyses provide a general benchmark for experimentally observed Tafel slopes that can be assigned to specific rate determining steps. The Tafel analysis is a powerful tool for discussing the rate determining steps involved in electrocatalysis, but our study also demonstrated that overly simplified assumptions led to an inaccurate description of the surface electrocatalysis. Additionally, in many studies, Tafel analyses have been performed in conjunction with the Butler-Volmer equation, where its applicability regarding only electron transfer kinetics is often overlooked. Based on the derived kinetic description of the HER/HOR as an example, the limitation of Butler-Volmer expression in electrocatalysis is also discussed in this report. PMID:26348156

  18. Insight on Tafel slopes from a microkinetic analysis of aqueous electrocatalysis for energy conversion

    PubMed Central

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Garcia-Esparza, Angel T.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Microkinetic analyses of aqueous electrochemistry involving gaseous H2 or O2, i.e., hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), are revisited. The Tafel slopes used to evaluate the rate determining steps generally assume extreme coverage of the adsorbed species (θ ≈ 0 or ≈1), although, in practice, the slopes are coverage-dependent. We conducted detailed kinetic analyses describing the coverage-dependent Tafel slopes for the aforementioned reactions. Our careful analyses provide a general benchmark for experimentally observed Tafel slopes that can be assigned to specific rate determining steps. The Tafel analysis is a powerful tool for discussing the rate determining steps involved in electrocatalysis, but our study also demonstrated that overly simplified assumptions led to an inaccurate description of the surface electrocatalysis. Additionally, in many studies, Tafel analyses have been performed in conjunction with the Butler-Volmer equation, where its applicability regarding only electron transfer kinetics is often overlooked. Based on the derived kinetic description of the HER/HOR as an example, the limitation of Butler-Volmer expression in electrocatalysis is also discussed in this report. PMID:26348156

  19. Research progress of perovskite materials in photocatalysis- and photovoltaics-related energy conversion and environmental treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-08-01

    Meeting the growing global energy demand is one of the important challenges of the 21st century. Currently over 80% of the world's energy requirements are supplied by the combustion of fossil fuels, which promotes global warming and has deleterious effects on our environment. Moreover, fossil fuels are non-renewable energy and will eventually be exhausted due to the high consumption rate. A new type of alternative energy that is clean, renewable and inexpensive is urgently needed. Several candidates are currently available such as hydraulic power, wind force and nuclear power. Solar energy is particularly attractive because it is essentially clean and inexhaustible. A year's worth of sunlight would provide more than 100 times the energy of the world's entire known fossil fuel reserves. Photocatalysis and photovoltaics are two of the most important routes for the utilization of solar energy. However, environmental protection is also critical to realize a sustainable future, and water pollution is a serious problem of current society. Photocatalysis is also an essential route for the degradation of organic dyes in wastewater. A type of compound with the defined structure of perovskite (ABX3) was observed to play important roles in photocatalysis and photovoltaics. These materials can be used as photocatalysts for water splitting reaction for hydrogen production and photo-degradation of organic dyes in wastewater as well as for photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells and light absorbers in perovskite-based solar cells for electricity generation. In this review paper, the recent progress of perovskites for applications in these fields is comprehensively summarized. A description of the basic principles of the water splitting reaction, photo-degradation of organic dyes and solar cells as well as the requirements for efficient photocatalysts is first provided. Then, emphasis is placed on the designation and strategies for perovskite catalysts to improve their photocatalytic activity and/or light adsorption capability. Comments on current and future challenges are also provided. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide a current summary of recent progress in perovskite materials for use in these important areas and to provide some useful guidelines for future development in these hot research areas. PMID:25976276

  20. Oxygen functional groups in graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shizhen; Li, Degang; Sun, Hongqi; Ang, Ha Ming; Tadé, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-04-15

    Metal-free semiconductors offer a new opportunity for environmental photocatalysis toward a potential breakthrough in high photo efficiency with complete prevention of metal leaching. In this study, graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) modified by oxygen functional groups was synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment of pristine GCN at different temperatures with H2O2. Insights into the emerging characteristics of the modified GCN in photocatalysis were obtained by determining the optical properties, band structure, electrochemical activity and pollutant degradation efficiency. It was found that the introduction of GCN with oxygen functional groups can enhance light absorption and accelerate electron transfer so as to improve the photocatalytic reaction efficiency. The photoinduced reactive radicals and the associated photodegradation were investigated by in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The reactive radicals, O2(-) and OH, were responsible for organic degradation. PMID:26845029

  1. Photocatalysis by tetraphenylporphyrin of the decomposition of chloroform.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Zulmarie; Cohen, Allison S; Nguyen, Linh M; McIntosh, Ted A; Hoggard, Patrick E

    2008-03-01

    Irradiation of solutions of tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) in chloroform causes decomposition of the chloroform at UV wavelengths higher than those that decompose chloroform directly. The catalytic cycle involves photooxidation of the porphyrin followed by thermal reduction. Photocatalysis continues after H2TPP has been completely protonated by the HCl produced during decomposition, and the rate of HCl production accelerates as a second pathway, in which CCl3OOH oxidizes the porphyrin, becomes important. PMID:18389151

  2. Hot electron of Au nanorods activates the electrocatalysis of hydrogen evolution on MoS2 nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Wang, Jiong; Wang, Chen; Zhai, Ting-Ting; Bao, Wen-Jing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Xia, Xing-Hua; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2015-06-17

    Efficient water splitting through electrocatalysis holds great promise for producing hydrogen fuel in modern energy devices. Its real application however suffers from sluggish reaction kinetics due to the lack of high-performance catalysts except noble metals such as platinum. Herein, we report an active system of plasmonic-metal Au nanorods/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets hybrids for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The plasmonic Au-MoS2 hybrids dramatically improve the HER, leading to a ∼3-fold increase of current under excitation of Au localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). A turnover of 8.76 s(-1) at 300 mV overpotential is measured under LSPR excitation, which by far exceeds the activity of MoS2 catalysts reported recently. The HER enhancement can be largely attributed to the increase of carrier density in MoS2 induced by the injection of hot electrons of Au nanorods. We demonstrate that the synergistic effect of the hole scavengers can further facilitate electron-hole separation, resulting in a decrease of the overpotential of HER at MoS2 to ∼120 mV. This study highlights how metal LSPR activates the HER and promises novel opportunities for enhancing intrinsic activities of semiconducting materials. PMID:26020144

  3. Selective aerobic oxidation mediated by TiO(2) photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Lang, Xianjun; Ma, Wanhong; Chen, Chuncheng; Ji, Hongwei; Zhao, Jincai

    2014-02-18

    TiO2 is one of the most studied metal oxide photocatalysts and has unparal-leled efficiency and stability. This cheap, abundant, and non-toxic material has the potential to address future environmental and energy concerns. Understanding about the photoinduced interfacial redox events on TiO2 could have profound effect on the degradation of organic pollutants, splitting of H2O into H2 and O2, and selective redox organic transformations. Scientists traditionally accept that for a semiconductor photocatalyst such as TiO2 under the illumination of light with energy larger than its band gap, two photocarriers will be created to carry out their independent reduction and oxidation processes. However, our recent discoveries indicate that it is the concerted rather than independent effect of both photocarriers of valence band hole (hvb(+)) and conduction band electron (ecb(-)) that dictate the product formation during interfacial oxidation event mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. In this Account, we describe our recent findings on the selective oxidation of organic substrates with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. The transfer of O-atoms from O2 to the corresponding products dominates the selective oxidation of alcohols, amines, and alkanes mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis. We ascribe this to the concerted effect of both hvb(+) and ecb(-) of TiO2 in contribution to the oxidation products. These findings imply that O2 plays a unique role in its transfer into the products rather than independent role of ecb(-) scavenger. More importantly, ecb(-) plays a crucial role to ensure the high selectivity for the oxygenation of organic substrates. We can also use the half reactions such as those of the conduction band electron of TiO2 for efficient oxidation reactions with O2. To this end, efficient selective oxidation of organic substrates such as alcohols, amines, and aromatic alkanes with O2 mediated by TiO2 photocatalysis under visible light irradiation has been achieved. In summary, the concerted effect of hvb(+) and ecb(-) to implement one oxidation event could pave the way for selective oxofunctionalization of organic substrates with O2 by metal oxide photocatalysis. Furthermore, it could also deepen our understanding on the role of O2 and the elusive nature of oxygen species at the interface of TiO2, which, in turn, could shed new light on avant-garde photocatalytic selective redox processes in addressing the energy and environmental challenges of the future. PMID:24164388

  4. Roles of cocatalysts in photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinhui; Wang, Donge; Han, Hongxian; Li, Can

    2013-08-20

    Since the 1970s, splitting water using solar energy has been a focus of great attention as a possible means for converting solar energy to chemical energy in the form of clean and renewable hydrogen fuel. Approaches to solar water splitting include photocatalytic water splitting with homogeneous or heterogeneous photocatalysts, photoelectrochemical or photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) water splitting with a PEC cell, and electrolysis of water with photovoltaic cells coupled to electrocatalysts. Though many materials are capable of photocatalytically producing hydrogen and/or oxygen, the overall energy conversion efficiency is still low and far from practical application. This is mainly due to the fact that the three crucial steps for the water splitting reaction: solar light harvesting, charge separation and transportation, and the catalytic reduction and oxidation reactions, are not efficient enough or simultaneously. Water splitting is a thermodynamically uphill reaction, requiring transfer of multiple electrons, making it one of the most challenging reactions in chemistry. This Account describes the important roles of cocatalysts in photocatalytic and PEC water splitting reactions. For semiconductor-based photocatalytic and PEC systems, we show that loading proper cocatalysts, especially dual cocatalysts for reduction and oxidation, on semiconductors (as light harvesters) can significantly enhance the activities of photocatalytic and PEC water splitting reactions. Loading oxidation and/or reduction cocatalysts on semiconductors can facilitate oxidation and reduction reactions by providing the active sites/reaction sites while suppressing the charge recombination and reverse reactions. In a PEC water splitting system, the water oxidation and reduction reactions occur at opposite electrodes, so cocatalysts loaded on the electrode materials mainly act as active sites/reaction sites spatially separated as natural photosynthesis does. In both cases, the nature of the loaded cocatalysts and their interaction with the semiconductor through the interface/junction are important. The cocatalyst can provide trapping sites for the photogenerated charges and promote the charge separation, thus enhancing the quantum efficiency; the cocatalysts could improve the photostability of the catalysts by timely consuming of the photogenerated charges, particularly the holes; most importantly, the cocatalysts catalyze the reactions by lowering the activation energy. Our research shows that loading suitable dual cocatalysts on semiconductors can significantly increase the photocatalytic activities of hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions, and even make the overall water splitting reaction possible. All of these findings suggest that dual cocatalysts are necessary for developing highly efficient photocatalysts for water splitting reactions. PMID:23530781

  5. Studies on degradation of glyphosate by several oxidative chemical processes: ozonation, photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Assalin, Marcia R; De Moraes, Sandra G; Queiroz, Sonia C N; Ferracini, Vera L; Duran, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Several different Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) including ozonation at pH 6.5 and 10, photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalysis using TiO(2) as semiconductor and dissolved oxygen as electron acceptor were applied to study the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) in water. The degree of glyphosate degradation, the reactions kinetic and the formation of the major metabolite, aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA), were evaluated. Ozonation at pH 10 resulted in the maximum mineralization of glyphosate. It was observed that under the experimental conditions used in this study the degradation of glyphosate followed the first-order kinetics. The half-life obtained for glyphosate degradation in the O(3)/pH 10 process was 1.8 minutes. PMID:20390936

  6. Inadequacy of carbamazepine-spiked model wastewaters for testing photocatalysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gulyas, Holger; Ogun, Moses Kolade; Meyer, Wibke; Reich, Margrit; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2016-01-15

    The study was performed in order to clarify whether carbamazepine-spiked solutions used as model wastewaters are suitable for the assessment of carbamazepine removal from real secondary municipal effluents by photocatalytic oxidation in the presence and absence of activated carbon. Therefore, carbamazepine (10 mg L(-1)) was dissolved in deionized water or in secondary municipal effluent. Photocatalytic oxidation of these model wastewaters was carried out with TiO2 "P25" (100 mg L(-1)) and UV-A lamps in the absence and in the presence of 20 mg L(-1) powdered activated carbon (PAC). Carbamazepine was analyzed photometrically. In deionized water at pH 5.5, carbamazepine was nearly completely removed with a UV dose of 6.48 kJ L(-1). A similar efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation of carbamazepine added to secondary effluent was observed when the suspension pH was 2.7, while at pH 8 and 10.6, carbamazepine removal from spiked secondary effluent with the same UV dose was only 40 and 60%, respectively. Although PAC addition resulted in an initial adsorptive carbamazepine reduction of 20 to 35% from the model wastewaters, it did not lead to markedly enhanced carbamazepine removal in the subsequent photocatalysis phase. During photocatalytic oxidation of unspiked secondary effluent (initial carbamazepine concentration: 133 ng L(-1)) at pH 7.3 with and without PAC, carbamazepine concentrations were analyzed by HPLC/MS/MS. While PAC addition resulted in the adsorption of about 90% of the initial carbamazepine, photocatalysis did not lead to any carbamazepine removal at all. This indicates that the experiments with spiked model wastewaters – even in a secondary effluent matrix – are absolutely inadequate for predicting photocatalytic carbamazepine removal under real conditions. PMID:26544890

  7. Nanostructures, systems, and methods for photocatalysis

    DOEpatents

    Reece, Steven Y.; Jarvi, Thomas D.

    2015-12-08

    The present invention generally relates to nanostructures and compositions comprising nanostructures, methods of making and using the nanostructures, and related systems. In some embodiments, a nanostructure comprises a first region and a second region, wherein a first photocatalytic reaction (e.g., an oxidation reaction) can be carried out at the first region and a second photocatalytic reaction (e.g., a reduction reaction) can be carried out at the second region. In some cases, the first photocatalytic reaction is the formation of oxygen gas from water and the second photocatalytic reaction is the formation of hydrogen gas from water. In some embodiments, a nanostructure comprises at least one semiconductor material, and, in some cases, at least one catalytic material and/or at least one photosensitizing agent.

  8. A Surface Science Perspective on TiO2 Photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Michael A.

    2011-06-15

    The field of surface science provides a unique approach to understanding bulk, surface and interfacial phenomena occurring during TiO2 photochemistry and photocatalysis. This review highlights, from a surface science perspective, recent literature providing molecular-level insights into phonon-initiated events on TiO2 surfaces obtained in seven key scientific issues: (1) photon absorption, (2) charge transport and trapping, (3) electron transfer dynamics, (4) the adsorbed state, (5) mechanisms, (6) poisons and promoters, and (7) phase and form.

  9. Direct Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis of Myoglobin Immobilized on Graphene-CTAB-Ionic Liquid Nanocomposite Film

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Honggang; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Yanxia; Sun, Shigang; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-10-01

    We have investigated direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of myoglobin immobilized on graphene-cetylramethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-ionic liquid nanocomposite film on a glassy carbon electrode. The nanocomposite was characterized by TEM, SEM, XPS, and electrochemistry. It was found that the high surface area of graphene was helpful for immobilizing more proteins and the nanocomposite film can provide a favorable microenvironment for MB to retain its native structure and activity and to achieve reversible direct electron transfer reaction at an electrode. The nanocomposite films also exhibit good stability and catalytic activities for the electrocatalytic reduction of H2O2.

  10. Ratiometric electrochemiluminescent strategy regulated by electrocatalysis of palladium nanocluster for immunosensing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yin; Lei, Jianping; Cheng, Yan; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-03-15

    This work designed a novel ratiometric electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensing approach based on two different ECL emitters: CdS quantum dots (QDs) as cathodic emitter and luminol as anodic emitter. The ECL immunosensor was constructed by a layer-by-layer modification of CdS QDs, Au nanoparticles and capture antibody on a glassy carbon electrode. With hydrogen peroxide as ECL coreactant, the immunosensor showed a cathodic ECL emission of CdS QDs at -1.5 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in air-saturated pH 8.0 buffer. Upon the formation of sandwich immunoassay, the lumiol/palladium nanoclusters (Pd NCs)@graphene oxide probe was introduced to the electrode. Therefore, the cathodic ECL intensity decreased and luminol anodic ECL emission was appeared at +0.3 V (vs Ag/AgCl) owing to the competition of the coreactant of hydrogen peroxide. Using carcino-embryonic antigen as model, this ratiometric ECL strategy could be used for immunoassay with a linear range of 1.0-100 pg mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.62 pg mL(-1). The enhanced ratiometric ECL signal resulted from the high density and excellent electrocatalysis of the loaded Pd NCs. The immunosensor exhibited good stability and acceptable fabrication reproducibility and accuracy, showing a great promising for clinical application. This electrocatalysis-regulated ratiometric ECL provides a new concept for ECL measurement, and could be conveniently extended for detection of other protein biomarkers. PMID:26499869

  11. Fuel cell applied research: electrocatalysis and materials. Quarterly report, July 1-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, S.; Isaacs, H.S.; McBreen, J.; O'Grady, W.E.; Olender, H.; Olmer, L.J.; Schouler, E.J.L.; Adzic, R.R.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of underpotential deposited metal layers on the electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions was studied. It was found that Bi, Ag and Pb form underpotential deposited metal adatom layers on gold in 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Underpotential deposited Bi enhances oxygen reduction on gold with the formation of peroxide. Underpotential deposited Ag on the other hand inhibits oxygen reduction. Results indicate the potential for developing organic compound/air fuel cells using underpotential deposited Pb adatoms to enhance the electrocatalysis of the fuel electrode. The effects of adsorbed layers of Pb, Tl and Bi on formic acid and methanol oxidation on platinum in 85% H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ were investigated. The effect of crystal orientation on formic acid oxidation on platinum in 1 M CHlO/sub 2/ was investigated. The kinetics of the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions at the electrode (metal or oxide)-solid electrolyte (yttria stabilized zirconia) interface were investigated using ac and dc techniques. Platinum point contact electrodes were also used in the preliminary studies of the fuel electrode reaction. dc, ac and potential sweep methods were used in this study. Results are reported. Progress on a survey of status studies of phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells is reported. (WHK)

  12. Carbon Dioxide reduction by non-equilibrium electrocatalysis plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouroux, J.; Cavadias, S.; Doubla, A.

    2011-03-01

    A possible strategy to increase the added value from CCS, is to consider it as a raw material for the production of liquid fuels, or chemical products. The most studied ways related to CO2 reduction, with formation of molecules such as CH3OH or syngas, is the reaction with H2 (exothermic reaction needing catalytic activation), or CH4 (endothermic reaction taking place at high temperature) with the use of a catalyst. The synthesis of CH3OH is performed on Lewis acid type sites (default of electrons) Cu/Zn/Al2O3. However the products of the reaction i.e. the water and methanol molecules, are very polar, resulting in a very low desorption rate. So in this reaction the key step is water desorption (Lewis basis). The increase of temperature in order to increase this desorption rate, leads to a cracking and the deposition of carbon in the catalyst, limiting its lifetime. Plasma driven catalysis allows firstly, a vibrational activation of CO2, H2 or CH4 through electron-molecule collisions, making easier their dissociation at low temperature and secondly expels water from the catalyst sites by supplying electrons (electropolarisation). The results show an increase of the yield in CH3OH with plasma and catalyst, confirming the action of the plasma. However energy consumption remains relatively high.

  13. Controlling the levels of airborne pollen: can heterogeneous photocatalysis help?

    PubMed

    Sapiña, M; Jimenez-Relinque, E; Castellote, M

    2013-10-15

    Airborne pollen is a worldwide problem because is a very important allergenic agent; it can be altered only by certain microorganisms and by some oxidizers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the other hand, heterogeneous photocatalysis (HPC) arose as a promising technology for reducing the level of contaminants in the air, based on their degradation by the production of ROS. In this paper, study of the feasibility of HPC to diminish the counts of pollen is undertaken. The research has been carried out at different levels, from solutions to mortar specimens with the evidence that HPC is able to reduce the amount of pollen grains. This is a major breakthrough that opens the door to a whole field of research, already full of gaps, whose implications could be quite controversial. PMID:24063577

  14. Visible light photocatalysis as a greener approach to photochemical synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tehshik P.; Ischay, Michael A.; Du, Juana

    2010-07-01

    Light can be considered an ideal reagent for environmentally friendly, 'green' chemical synthesis; unlike many conventional reagents, light is non-toxic, generates no waste, and can be obtained from renewable sources. Nevertheless, the need for high-energy ultraviolet radiation in most organic photochemical processes has limited both the practicality and environmental benefits of photochemical synthesis on industrially relevant scales. This Perspective describes recent approaches to the use of metal polypyridyl photocatalysts in synthetic organic transformations. Given the remarkable photophysical properties of these complexes, these new transformations, which use Ru(bpy)32+ and related photocatalysts, can be conducted using almost any source of visible light, including both store-bought fluorescent light bulbs and ambient sunlight. Transition metal photocatalysis thus represents a promising strategy towards the development of practical, scalable industrial processes with great environmental benefits.

  15. Visible Light Photocatalysis: The Development of Photocatalytic Radical Ion Cycloadditions

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2013-01-01

    Photochemistry has the potential to significantly impact multiple aspects of chemical synthesis, in part because photoinduced reactions can be used to construct molecular architectures that would otherwise be difficult to produce. Nevertheless, organic chemists have been slow to embrace photochemical synthesis because of technical complications associated with the use of ultraviolet light. Our laboratory has been part of an effort to design synthetically useful reactions that utilize visible light. This strategy enables the synthesis of a diverse range of organic structures by generation of a variety of reactive intermediates under exceptionally mild conditions. This Perspective article describes the reasoning that led to the conception of our first experiments in this area, the features of our reaction design that have been most powerful in the discovery of new processes, and a few of the possible future areas in which visible light photocatalysis might have a large impact. PMID:23691491

  16. Degradation of industrial surfactants by photocatalysis combined with ozonation.

    PubMed

    Zsilák, Zoltán; Fónagy, Orsolya; Szabó-Bárdos, Erzsébet; Horváth, Ottó; Horváth, Krisztián; Hajós, Péter

    2014-10-01

    The efficiency of titanium dioxide-mediated photocatalytic degradation of pollutants can be enhanced by combination with another advanced oxidation procedure such as ozonation. Mineralization of hydroxy- and dihydroxybenzenesulfonate based on these methods, both individually and combined, was investigated by monitoring the total organic carbon content, sulfate concentration, pH, high-performance liquid chromatography as well as the absorption spectral changes. The mineralization efficiency of the combined procedure significantly exceeded the sum of those of the individual techniques. The comparison of the disappearance of the starting material and the formation of the sulfate ions indicates that desulfonation is not the primary step of the degradation. Moreover, in the case of the combined method, ring cleavage, and thus, partial mineralization can occur without desulfonation. Efficient degradation of other, widely used industrial surfactants, such as alkylbenzene sulfonates and alkyl ether sulfates, was also achieved by heterogeneous photocatalysis combined with ozonation, offering an applicable method for the removal of these pollutants. PMID:24448882

  17. Rare-earth doped colour tuneable up-conversion ZBLAN phosphor for enhancing photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Ramos, J.; Acosta-Mora, P.; Ruiz-Morales, J. C.; Sierra, M.; Redondas, A.; Ruggiero, E.; Salassa, L.; Borges, M. E.; Esparza, P.

    2015-03-01

    Rare-earth doped ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) fluoride glasses have been successfully synthesized showing outstanding UV-VIS up-conversion luminescence of Er3+ and Tm3+, sensitized by Yb3+ ions, under near-infrared excitation at 980 nm. The ratio between blue, green and red up-conversion emission bands can be adjusted by varying the pump power density of the incident infrared radiation, resulting in a controlled tuneability of the overall emitting colour from greenish to yellowish. Additionally, the observed high energy UV intense up-conversion emissions are suitable to enhance photocatalytic activity of main water-splitting semiconductor electrodes (such as TiO2) used in sustainable production of hydrogen. Photocatalysis and photolysis degradation of methylene blue in water under sun-like irradiation using benchmark photocatalyst (TiO2 Degussa P25) have been boosted by 20% and by a factor of 2.5 respectively, due to the enhancement of UV radiation that reaches the TiO2 particles by the addition of ZBLAN powder into a slurry-type photo-reactor. Hence, up-conversion ZBLAN phosphors contribute to demonstrate the possibility of transforming the incoming infrared radiation into the UV region needed to bridge the gap of photocatalytic semiconductors.

  18. Combining Metabolic Engineering and Electrocatalysis. Application to the Production of Polyamides from Sugar

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Suastegui, Miguel; Matthiesen, John E.; Carraher, Jack M.; Hernandez, Nacu; Rodriguez Quiroz, Natalia; Okerlund, Adam; Cochran, Eric W.; Shao, Zengyi; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-14

    Biorefineries aim to convert biomass into a spectrum of products ranging from biofuels to specialty chemicals. To achieve economically sustainable conversion, it is crucial to streamline the catalytic and downstream processing steps. In this work, a route that combines bio- and electrocatalysis to convert glucose into bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 is reported. An engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the initial biocatalyst for the conversion of glucose into muconic acid, with the highest reported muconic acid titer of 559.5 mg L-1 in yeast. Without any separation, muconic acid was further electrocatalytically hydrogenated to 3-hexenedioic acid in 94 % yieldmore » despite the presence of biogenic impurities. Bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 (unsaturated polyamide-6,6) was finally obtained by polymerization of 3-hexenedioic acid with hexamethylenediamine.« less

  19. Nanostructured MoS2 Nanorose/Graphene Nanoplatelet Hybrids for Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Chua, Chun Kiang; Loo, Adeline Huiling; Pumera, Martin

    2016-04-18

    Tailoring and enhancing electrocatalytic activity is of the utmost importance from the viewpoints of sustainable energy and sensing. MoS2 and graphene show great promise for the electrocatalysis of many reactions. Given that both graphene and MoS2 are highly anisotropic in nature, with edge planes that are several orders of magnitude more catalytically active than basal planes, a new hybrid material with maximized edge-plane density to provide efficient electron transfer, high catalytic activity, and conductive cores was engineered. The hybrid material consists of radial MoS2 nanosheets with a high density of edge planes and unsaturated active sulfur atoms as well as interspersed with conductive graphene nanoplatelets. This hybrid material exhibits excellent activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction and the detection of DNA nucleobases. Such a nanoengineered, nanostructured hybrid material may play a major role in future electrocatalytic devices. PMID:26968591

  20. Combining Metabolic Engineering and Electrocatalysis: Application to the Production of Polyamides from Sugar.

    PubMed

    Suastegui, Miguel; Matthiesen, John E; Carraher, Jack M; Hernandez, Nacu; Rodriguez Quiroz, Natalia; Okerlund, Adam; Cochran, Eric W; Shao, Zengyi; Tessonnier, Jean-Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries aim to convert biomass into a spectrum of products ranging from biofuels to specialty chemicals. To achieve economically sustainable conversion, it is crucial to streamline the catalytic and downstream processing steps. In this work, a route that combines bio- and electrocatalysis to convert glucose into bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 is reported. An engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the initial biocatalyst for the conversion of glucose into muconic acid, with the highest reported muconic acid titer of 559.5 mg L(-1) in yeast. Without any separation, muconic acid was further electrocatalytically hydrogenated to 3-hexenedioic acid in 94 % yield despite the presence of biogenic impurities. Bio-based unsaturated nylon-6,6 (unsaturated polyamide-6,6) was finally obtained by polymerization of 3-hexenedioic acid with hexamethylenediamine. PMID:26840213

  1. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2007-01-01

    More than 75 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban communities where people are exposed to levels of smog or pollution that exceed the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) safety standards. Urban air quality presents a unique problem because of a number of complex variables, including traffic congestion, energy production, and energy consumption activities, all of which can contribute to and affect air pollution and air quality in this environment. In environmental engineering, photocatalysis is an area of research whose potential for environmental clean-up is rapidly developing popularity and success. Photocatalysis, a natural chemical process, is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. Photocatalytic agents are activated when exposed to near UV (ultraviolet) light (320-400 nm) and water. In recent years, surfaces coated with photocatalytic materials have been extensively studied because pollutants on these surfaces will degrade when the surfaces are exposed to near UV light. Building materials, such as tiles, cement, glass, and aluminum sidings, can be coated with a thin film of a photocatalyst. These coated materials can then break down organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, into environmentally friendly compounds. These surfaces also exhibit a high affinity for water when exposed to UV light. Therefore, not only are the pollutants decomposed, but this superhydrophilic nature makes the surface self-cleaning, which helps to further increase the degradation rate by allowing rain and/or water to wash byproducts away. According to the Clean Air Act, each individual state is responsible for implementing prevention and regulatory programs to control air pollution. To operate an air quality program, states must adopt and/or develop a plan and obtain approval from the EPA. Federal approval provides a means for the EPA to maintain consistency among different state programs and ensures that they comply with the requirements of the Clean Air Act.

  2. Effectiveness of ultrasound, UV-C, and photocatalysis on inactivation kinetics of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jasjeet; Karthikeyan, Raghupathy; Pillai, Suresh D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, bactericidal effects of 24 kHz ultrasound, ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalyst were studied on inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila, an emerging pathogen listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) candidate contaminant list. Metabolic activity (using the AlamarBlue dye) assays were performed to assess the residual activity of the microbial cells after the disinfection treatments along with culture-based methods. A faster inactivation rate of 1.52 log min(-1) and inactivation of 7.62 log10 was observed within 5 min of ultrasound exposure. Ultrasound treated cells repaired by 1.4 log10 in contrast to 5.3 log10 repair for UV-C treated cells. Ultrasound treatment significantly lowered the reactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila in comparison to UV-C- and UV-C-induced photocatalysis. Ultrasound appeared to be an effective means of inactivating Aeromonas hydrophila and could be used as a potential disinfection method for water and wastewater reuse. PMID:26301848

  3. Hydrogenated blue titania with high solar absorption and greatly improved photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guilian; Shan, Yufeng; Lin, Tianquan; Zhao, Wenli; Xu, Jijian; Tian, Zhangliu; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Chong; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-18

    Hydrogenated black titania, with a crystalline core/amorphous shell structure, has attracted global interest due to its excellent photocatalytic properties. However, the understanding of its structure-property relationships remains a great challenge and a more effective method to produce hydrogenated titania is desirable. Herein, we report a TiH2 assisted reduction method to synthesize bluish hydrogenated titania (TiO2-x:H) that is highly crystallized. The characteristic amorphous shells, which are essential for the enhancement of solar absorption and photocatalysis in many reported hydrogenated titania, are completely removed by hydrogen peroxide. The blue TiO2-x:H sample without amorphous shells delivers not only significantly improved visible- and infrared-light absorption but also greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2. Its water decontamination is 2.5 times faster and the hydrogen production was 1.9-fold higher over pristine TiO2. Photoelectrochemical measurement reveals greatly improved carrier density and photocurrent (a 4.3-fold increase) in the reduced TiO2-x:H samples. This work develops a facile and versatile method to prepare hydrogenated titania and proposes a new understanding of the hydrogenated titania that doped hydrogen atoms, instead of the amorphous shells, are essential for its high photocatalytic performance. PMID:26858035

  4. TiO2 Photocatalysis Causes DNA Damage via Fenton Reaction-Generated Hydroxyl Radicals during the Recovery Period▿

    PubMed Central

    Gogniat, Gaëtan; Dukan, Sam

    2007-01-01

    Here, we show that resistance of Escherichia coli to TiO2 photocatalysis involves defenses against reactive oxygen species. Results support the idea that TiO2 photocatalysis generates damage which later becomes deleterious during recovery. We found this to be partly due to DNA attack via hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction during recovery. PMID:17933934

  5. TiO2 photocatalysis causes DNA damage via fenton reaction-generated hydroxyl radicals during the recovery period.

    PubMed

    Gogniat, Gaëtan; Dukan, Sam

    2007-12-01

    Here, we show that resistance of Escherichia coli to TiO2 photocatalysis involves defenses against reactive oxygen species. Results support the idea that TiO2 photocatalysis generates damage which later becomes deleterious during recovery. We found this to be partly due to DNA attack via hydroxyl radicals generated by the Fenton reaction during recovery. PMID:17933934

  6. Promotion of multi-electron transfer for enhanced photocatalysis: A review focused on oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changhua; Zhang, Xintong; Liu, Yichun

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted significant interest for solar light induced environmental remediation and solar fuel generation. As is well known, photocatalytic performance is determined by three steps: photoexcitation, separation and transport of photogenerated charge carriers, and surface reactions. To achieve higher efficiency, significant efforts have been made on improvement of efficiency of above first two steps, which have been well documented in recent review articles. In contrast, this review intends to focus on strategies moving onto the third step of improvement for enhanced photocatalysis wherein active oxygen species including superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical are in situ detected. Particularly, surface electron-transfer reduction of oxygen over single component photocatalysts is reviewed and systems enabling multi-electron transfer induced oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are highlighted. It is expected this review could provide a guideline for readers to better understand the critical role of ORR over photocatalyst in charge carrier separation and transfer and obtain reliable results for enhanced aerobic photocatalysis.

  7. Electrocatalysis for oxygen electrodes in fuel cells and water electrolyzers for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prakash, Jai; Tryk, Donald; Yeager, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    The lead ruthenate pyrochlore Pb2Ru2O6.5, in both high- and low-area forms, has been characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cyclic voltammetry, and O2 reduction and generation kinetic-mechanistic studies. Mechanisms are proposed. Compounds in which part of the Ru is substituted with Ir have also been prepared. They exhibit somewhat better performance for O2 reduction in porous, gas-fed electrodes than the unsubstituted compound. The anodic corrosion resistance of pyrochlore-based porous electrodes was improved by using two different anionically conducting polymer overlayers, which slow down the diffusion of ruthenate and plumbate out of the electrode. The O2 generation performance was improved with both types of electrodes. With a hydrogel overlayer, the O2 reduction performance was also improved.

  8. PTFE effect on the electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction in membraneless microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Edoardo; Grattieri, Matteo; Faggianelli, Alessio; Cristiani, Pierangela; Trasatti, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    Influence of PTFE in the external Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) of open-air cathodes applied to membraneless microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is investigated in this work. Electrochemical measurements on cathodes with different PTFE contents (200%, 100%, 80% and 60%) were carried out to characterize cathodic oxygen reduction reaction, to study the reaction kinetics. It is demonstrated that ORR is not under diffusion-limiting conditions in the tested systems. Based on cyclic voltammetry, an increase of the cathodic electrochemical active area took place with the decrease of PTFE content. This was not directly related to MFC productivity, but to the cathode wettability and the biocathode development. Low electrodic interface resistances (from 1 to 1.5 Ω at the start, to near 0.1 Ω at day 61) indicated a negligible ohmic drop. A decrease of the Tafel slopes from 120 to 80 mV during productive periods of MFCs followed the biological activity in the whole MFC system. A high PTFE content in the cathode showed a detrimental effect on the MFC productivity, acting as an inhibitor of ORR electrocatalysis in the triple contact zone. PMID:26045153

  9. Fuel cell applied research: electrocatalysis and materials. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, S.; Isaacs, H.S.; McBreen, J.; O'Grady, W.E.; Olender, H.; Olmer, L.J.; Schouler, E.J.L.; Kordesch, K.V.

    1980-05-01

    Research on electrocatalysis of phosphoric acid fuel cell reactions is reported. Five types of carbon obtained from Cabot Laboratories (Cabot designation of carbons - Monarch 1300, CSX 98, Mogul L, Vulcan XC-72R and Regan 660R) were compared as supports for platinum electrocatalysts. Experiments were conducted to determine the wetting characteristics of the carbons on the electrocatalytic activity of supported platinum for oxygen reduction. The latter was investigated by a cyclic voltammetry technique. The changes in the electrochemically active surface areas on increasing the temperature from 25/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/C and after carrying out oxygen reduction were measured from the hydrogen desorption charge in the cyclic voltammograms. Also, research on electrode kinetics in high-temperature solid electrolyte fuel cells is described. The influence of electrode material on oxygen reduction kinetics and the reaction mechanism on platinum at interfaces with solid electrolytes were investigated. Direct current and alternating current impedance techniques were used. Studies on the oxidation of H/sub 2/ on platinum and gold interfaces with the zirconia electrolyte interface were begun. Experiments on single contact ball electrodes of platinum were used. Slow potential sweep techniques (scan rate 5 mV/sec) were used. Results are presented and discussed. (WHK)

  10. Development of Cobalt Hydroxide as a Bifunctional Catalyst for Oxygen Electrocatalysis in Alkaline Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yi; Du, Guojun; Yang, Shiliu; Xu, Chaohe; Lu, Meihua; Liu, Zhaolin; Lee, Jim Yang

    2015-06-17

    Co(OH)2 in the form of hexagonal nanoplates synthesized by a simple hydrothermal reaction has shown even greater activity than cobalt oxides (CoO and Co3O4) in oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) under alkaline conditions. The bifunctionality for oxygen electrocatalysis as shown by the OER-ORR potential difference (ΔE) could be reduced to as low as 0.87 V, comparable to the state-of-the-art non-noble bifunctional catalysts, when the Co(OH)2 nanoplates were compounded with nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO). The good performance was attributed to the nanosizing of Co(OH)2 and the synergistic interaction between Co(OH)2 and N-rGO. A zinc-air cell assembled with a Co(OH)2-air electrode also showed a performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art zinc-air cells. The combination of bifunctional activity and operational stability establishes Co(OH)2 as an effective low-cost alternative to the platinum group metal catalysts. PMID:25997179

  11. Synergistic effect of titanium dioxide nanocrystal/reduced graphene oxide hybrid on enhancement of microbial electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Long; Qiao, Yan; Wu, Xiao-Shuai; Ma, Cai-Xia; Li, Xin; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-02-01

    A small sized TiO2 nanocrystal (∼10 nm)/reduced graphene oxide (TiO2/rGO) hybrid is synthesized through a sol-gel process for hybrid TiO2/GO followed by solvothermal reduction of GO to rGO and is further used as a microbial fuel cell (MFC) anode. The strong synergistic effect from a large surface area produced by uniformly deposited TiO2 nanocrystals, good hydrophilicity of TiO2 nanocrystals and superior conductivity of rGO leads to significantly improved electrocatalysis. In particular, a direct electrochemistry is realized by generating endogenous flavins from a large amount of microbes grown on the highly biocompatible TiO2 nanocrystals to mediate fast electron transfer between microbes and conductive rGO for a high performance anode. The TiO2/rGO hybrid anode delivers a maximum power density of 3169 mW m-2 in Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 MFC, which is much large than that of the conventional carbon cloth anode and reported TiO2/carbon hybrid anode, thus offering great potential for practical applications of MFC. This work is for the first time to report that the synergistic effect from tailoring the physical structure to achieve small sized TiO2 nanocrystals while rationally designing chemistry to introduce highly conductive rGO and superior biocompatible TiO2 is able to significantly boost the MFC performance.

  12. Double-Stranded Water on Stepped Platinum Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Manuel J; Farber, Rachael G; Derouin, Jonathan; Badan, Cansin; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Juurlink, Ludo B F; Killelea, Daniel R; Koper, Marc T M

    2016-04-01

    The interaction of platinum with water plays a key role in (electro)catalysis. Herein, we describe a combined theoretical and experimental study that resolves the preferred adsorption structure of water wetting the Pt(111)-step type with adjacent (111) terraces. Double stranded lines wet the step edge forming water tetragons with dissimilar hydrogen bonds within and between the lines. Our results qualitatively explain experimental observations of water desorption and impact our thinking of solvation at the Pt electrochemical interface. PMID:27081992

  13. Double-Stranded Water on Stepped Platinum Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Manuel J.; Farber, Rachael G.; Derouin, Jonathan; Badan, Cansin; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Juurlink, Ludo B. F.; Killelea, Daniel R.; Koper, Marc T. M.

    2016-04-01

    The interaction of platinum with water plays a key role in (electro)catalysis. Herein, we describe a combined theoretical and experimental study that resolves the preferred adsorption structure of water wetting the Pt(111)-step type with adjacent (111) terraces. Double stranded lines wet the step edge forming water tetragons with dissimilar hydrogen bonds within and between the lines. Our results qualitatively explain experimental observations of water desorption and impact our thinking of solvation at the Pt electrochemical interface.

  14. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.

  15. Hydrogenated blue titania with high solar absorption and greatly improved photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guilian; Shan, Yufeng; Lin, Tianquan; Zhao, Wenli; Xu, Jijian; Tian, Zhangliu; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Chong; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogenated black titania, with a crystalline core/amorphous shell structure, has attracted global interest due to its excellent photocatalytic properties. However, the understanding of its structure-property relationships remains a great challenge and a more effective method to produce hydrogenated titania is desirable. Herein, we report a TiH2 assisted reduction method to synthesize bluish hydrogenated titania (TiO2-x:H) that is highly crystallized. The characteristic amorphous shells, which are essential for the enhancement of solar absorption and photocatalysis in many reported hydrogenated titania, are completely removed by hydrogen peroxide. The blue TiO2-x:H sample without amorphous shells delivers not only significantly improved visible- and infrared-light absorption but also greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2. Its water decontamination is 2.5 times faster and the hydrogen production was 1.9-fold higher over pristine TiO2. Photoelectrochemical measurement reveals greatly improved carrier density and photocurrent (a 4.3-fold increase) in the reduced TiO2-x:H samples. This work develops a facile and versatile method to prepare hydrogenated titania and proposes a new understanding of the hydrogenated titania that doped hydrogen atoms, instead of the amorphous shells, are essential for its high photocatalytic performance.Hydrogenated black titania, with a crystalline core/amorphous shell structure, has attracted global interest due to its excellent photocatalytic properties. However, the understanding of its structure-property relationships remains a great challenge and a more effective method to produce hydrogenated titania is desirable. Herein, we report a TiH2 assisted reduction method to synthesize bluish hydrogenated titania (TiO2-x:H) that is highly crystallized. The characteristic amorphous shells, which are essential for the enhancement of solar absorption and photocatalysis in many reported hydrogenated titania, are completely removed by hydrogen peroxide. The blue TiO2-x:H sample without amorphous shells delivers not only significantly improved visible- and infrared-light absorption but also greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to pristine TiO2. Its water decontamination is 2.5 times faster and the hydrogen production was 1.9-fold higher over pristine TiO2. Photoelectrochemical measurement reveals greatly improved carrier density and photocurrent (a 4.3-fold increase) in the reduced TiO2-x:H samples. This work develops a facile and versatile method to prepare hydrogenated titania and proposes a new understanding of the hydrogenated titania that doped hydrogen atoms, instead of the amorphous shells, are essential for its high photocatalytic performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07953e

  16. UV and solar TiO(2) photocatalysis of brevetoxins (PbTxs).

    PubMed

    Khan, Urooj; Benabderrazik, Nadia; Bourdelais, Andrea J; Baden, Daniel G; Rein, Kathleen; Gardinali, Piero R; Arroyo, Luis; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2010-05-01

    Karenia brevis, the harmful alga associated with red tide, produces brevetoxins (PbTxs). Exposure to these toxins can have a negative impact on marine wildlife and serious human health consequences. The elimination of PbTxs is critical to protect the marine environment and human health. TiO(2) photocatalysis under 350 nm and solar irradiation leads to significant degradation of PbTxs via first order kinetics. ELISA results demonstrate TiO(2) photocatalysis leads to a significant decrease in the bioactivity of PbTxs as a function of treatment time. Experiments conducted in the presence of synthetic seawater, humic material and a hydroxyl scavenger showed decreased degradation. PbTxs are highly hydrophobic and partition to organic microlayer on the ocean surface. Acetonitrile was employed to probe the influence of an organic media on the TiO(2) photocatalysis of PbTxs. Our results indicate TiO(2) photocatalysis may be applicable for the degradation of PbTxs. PMID:19931554

  17. UV and Solar TiO2 Photocatalysis of Brevetoxins (PbTxs)

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Urooj; Benabderrazik, Nadia; Bourdelais, Andrea J.; Baden, Daniel G.; Rein, Kathleen; Gardinali, Piero R.; Arroyo, Luis; O’Shea, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    Karenia brevis, the harmful alga associated with red tide, produces brevetoxins (PbTxs). Exposure to these toxins can have a negative impact on marine wildlife and serious human health consequences. The elimination of PbTxs is critical to protect the marine environment and human health. TiO2 photocatalysis under 350 nm and solar irradiation leads to significant degradation of PbTxs via first order kinetics. ELISA results demonstrate TiO2 photocatalysis leads to a significant decrease in the bioactivity of PbTxs as a function of treatment time. Experiments conducted in the presence of synthetic seawater, humic material and a hydroxyl scavenger showed decreased degradation. PbTxs are highly hydrophobic and partition to organic microlayer on the ocean surface. Acetonitrile was employed to probe the influence of an organic media on the TiO2 photocatalysis of PbTxs. Our results indicate TiO2 photocatalysis may be applicable for the degradation of PbTxs. PMID:19931554

  18. Production of Hydrogen by Electrocatalysis: Making the H-H Bond by Combining Protons and Hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, R. Morris; Appel, Aaron M.; Helm, Monte L.

    2014-03-25

    Generation of hydrogen by reduction of two protons by two electrons can be catalysed by molecular electrocatalysts. Determination of the thermodynamic driving force for elimination of H2 from molecular complexes is important for the rational design of molecular electrocatalysts, and allows the design of metal complexes of abundant, inexpensive metals rather than precious metals (“Cheap Metals for Noble Tasks”). The rate of H2 evolution can be dramatically accelerated by incorporating pendant amines into diphosphine ligands. These pendant amines in the second coordination sphere function as protons relays, accelerating intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer reactions. The thermodynamics of hydride transfer from metal hydrides and the acidity of protonated pendant amines (pKa of N-H) contribute to the thermodynamics of elimination of H2; both of the hydricity and acidity can be systematically varied by changing the substituents on the ligands. A series of Ni(II) electrocatalysts with pendant amines have been developed. In addition to the thermochemical considerations, the catalytic rate is strongly influenced by the ability to deliver protons to the correct location of the pendant amine. Protonation of the amine endo to the metal leads to the N-H being positioned appropriately to favor rapid heterocoupling with the M-H. Designing ligands that include proton relays that are properly positioned and thermodynamically tuned is a key principle for molecular electrocatalysts for H2 production as well as for other multi-proton, multi-electron reactions important for energy conversions. The research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  19. Degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Affam, Augustine Chioma; Chaudhuri, Malay

    2013-11-30

    Degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis under UVA (365 nm) irradiation was examined. Enhancement of degradation and improvement in biodegradability index (BOD5/COD ratio) by H2O2 addition were also evaluated. UVA irradiation per se produced insignificant degradation of the pesticides. In UV/TiO2 photocatalysis (TiO2 1.5 g L(-1), pH 6 and 300 min irradiation), COD and TOC removal were 25.95 and 8.45%, respectively. In UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis (TiO2 1.5 g L(-1), H2O2 100 mg L(-1), pH 6 and 300 min irradiation), COD and TOC removal were 53.62 and 21.54%, respectively and biodegradability index improved to 0.26. Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) decreased from 22 to 7.8 mg L(-1) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) increased from 0.7 to 13.8 mg L(-1) in 300 min, indicating mineralization. Photocatalytic degradation followed pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) of 0.0025 and 0.0008 min(-1) for COD and TOC removal, respectively. FTIR spectra indicated degradation of the organic bonds of the pesticides. UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis is effective in degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution. UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis may be applied as pretreatment of a chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil pesticide wastewater at pH 6, for biological treatment. PMID:24076516

  20. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Molecular Electrocatalysis: Theoretical Methods and Design Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, Brian H.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2014-07-07

    Molecular electrocatalysts play an essential role in a wide range of energy conversion processes. The objective of electrocatalyst design is to maximize the turnover frequency and minimize the overpotential for the overall catalytic cycle. Typically the catalytic cycle is dominated by key proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes comprised of sequential or concerted electron transfer and proton transfer steps. A variety of theoretical methods have been developed to investigate the mechanisms, thermodynamics, and kinetics of PCET processes in electrocatalytic cycles. Electronic structure methods can be used to calculate the reduction potentials and pKa’s and to generate thermodynamic schemes, free energy reaction pathways, and Pourbaix diagrams, which indicate the most stable species at each pH and potential. These types of calculations have assisted in identifying the thermodynamically favorable mechanisms under specified experimental conditions, such as acid strength and overpotential. Such calculations have also revealed linear correlations among the thermodynamic properties, which can be used to predict the impact of modifying the ligand, substituents, or metal center. The role of non-innocent ligands, namely ligand protonation or reduction, has also been examined theoretically. In addition, the rate constants for electron and proton transfer reactions, as well as concerted PCET reactions, have been calculated to investigate the kinetics of molecular electrocatalysts. The concerted PCET mechanism is thought to lower the overpotential required for catalysis by avoiding high-energy intermediates. Rate constant calculations have revealed that the concerted mechanism involving intramolecular proton transfer will be favored by designing more flexible ligands that facilitate the proton donor-acceptor motion while also maintaining a sufficiently short equilibrium proton donor-acceptor distance. Overall, theoretical methods have assisted in the interpretation of experimental data and the design of more effective molecular electrocatalysts. The research on the Ni(P2N2)2 catalysts was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  1. Controlling algal growth in photo-dependent decolorant sludge by photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jinglan; Ma, Hua; Otaki, Masahiro

    2005-06-01

    In the treatment of synthetic dye wastewater by photosynthetic bacteria under optical irradiation, excessive algal growth and adhesion on the walls of the reactor are serious problems. The adverse effects of excessive algal growth on photosynthetic bacterial activity are significantly greater than those of the decreased optical irradiation of the solution. In this report, we investigated the effects of photocatalysis on the growth of algae (Chroococcus sp.) and photosynthetic bacteria. The different sensitivities of Chroococcus sp. and photosynthetic bacteria to photocatalysis were observed by an ATP assay. Moreover, from microscopy findings, some algae were damaged by TiO2 with UV. We suggested that some algae suffered from membrane damage and consequently cell substances were released, resulting in the increase of dissolved material following treatment using TiO2 with UV. PMID:16233836

  2. Degradability of Treated Ethion Insecticide by TiO2 Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Hassarangsee, Siriporn; Uthaibutra, Jamnong; Nomura, Nakao; Whangchai, Kanda

    2015-01-01

    Ethion, an insecticide, is widely used with fruit and vegetable crops. This research studied the reduction and oxidative degradation of standard ethion by TiO2 photocatalysis. A standard ethion solution (1 mg L(-1)) was treated with different concentrations of TiO2 powder (5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg mL(-1)) for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min. The amount of ethion residue was detected by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) and the concentration of anions produced as major degradation products was determined by Ion Chromatography (IC). The TiO2 photocatalysis efficiently reduced ethion concentrations, with the highest degradation rate occurring within the first 15 min of reaction. The reaction produced sulphate and phosphate anions. The TiO2photocatalysis reduced 1 mg L(-1) ethion to 0.18 mg L(-1) when treated with 60 mg mL(-1) TiO2 powder for 60 min. The lethal concentration (LC50) of standard ethion was also estimated and compared to the treated ethion. All treatments, especially 60 mg mL(-1) TiO2 powder, markedly detoxified ethion, as tested with brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.), with an LC50 value of 765.8 mg mL(-1), compared to the control of 1.01 mg mL(-1). PMID:26353413

  3. Imitation of phase I oxidative metabolism of anabolic steroids by titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ruokolainen, Miina; Valkonen, Minna; Sikanen, Tiina; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2014-12-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis for oxidation of anabolic steroids and for imitation of their phase I metabolism. The photocatalytic reaction products of five anabolic steroids were compared to their phase I in vitro metabolites produced by human liver microsomes (HLM). The same main reaction types - hydroxylation, dehydrogenation and combination of these two - were observed both in TiO2 photocatalysis and in microsomal incubations. Several isomers of each product type were formed in both systems. Based on the same mass, retention time and similarity of the product ion spectra, many of the products observed in HLM reactions were also formed in TiO2 photocatalytic reactions. However, products characteristic to only either one of the systems were also formed. In conclusion, TiO2 photocatalysis is a rapid, simple and inexpensive method for imitation of phase I metabolism of anabolic steroids and production of metabolite standards. PMID:25220585

  4. Impact of Photocatalysis on Fungal Cells: Depiction of Cellular and Molecular Effects on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Thabet, Sana; Simonet, France; Lemaire, Marc; Guillard, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the antimicrobial effects of photocatalysis on the yeast model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To accurately study the antimicrobial mechanisms of the photocatalytic process, we focused our investigations on two questions: the entry of the nanoparticles in treated cells and the fate of the intracellular environment. Transmission electronic microscopy did not reveal any entry of nanoparticles within the cells, even for long exposure times, despite degradation of the cell wall space and deconstruction of cellular compartments. In contrast to proteins located at the periphery of the cells, intracellular proteins did not disappear uniformly. Disappearance or persistence of proteins from the pool of oxidized intracellular isoforms was not correlated to their functions. Altogether, our data suggested that photocatalysis induces the establishment of an intracellular oxidative environment. This hypothesis was sustained by the detection of an increased level of superoxide ions (O2°−) in treated cells and by greater cell cultivability for cells expressing oxidant stress response genes during photocatalytic exposure. The increase in intracellular ROS, which was not connected to the entry of nanoparticles within the cells or to a direct contact with the plasma membrane, could be the result of an imbalance in redox status amplified by chain reactions. Moreover, we expanded our study to other yeast and filamentous fungi and pointed out that, in contrast to the laboratory model S. cerevisiae, some environmental strains are very resistant to photocatalysis. This could be related to the cell wall composition and structure. PMID:25261515

  5. Structure and photocatalysis activity of silver doped titanium oxide nanotubes array for degradation of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Arfaj, E. A.

    2013-10-01

    Semiconductor titanium oxide showed a wonderful performance as a photocatalysis for environmental remediation. Owing to high stability and promising physicochemical properties, titanium oxide nanostructures are used in various applications such as wastewater treatment, antimicrobial and air purification. In the present study, titanium oxide nanotubes and silver doped titanium oxide nanotubes were synthesized via anodic oxidation method. The morphology and composition structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results depicted that nanotubes possess anatase phase with average tube diameter of 65 nm and 230 ± 12 nm in length. The band gap of the un-doped and silver doped titanium dioxide nanotubes was determined using UV-Vis. spectrophotometer. The results showed that the band gap of titanium dioxide nanotubes is decreased when doped with silver ions. The photocatalysis activity of un-doped and silver doped TiO2 nanotubes were evaluated in terms of degradation of phenol in the presence of ultra violet irradiation. It was found that silver doped TiO2 nanotubes exhibited much higher photocatalysis activity than un-doped TiO2 nanotubes.

  6. Abatement of toxicity of effluents containing Cr(VI) by heterogeneous photocatalysis. Toxicity assessment by AMPHITOX assay.

    PubMed

    Hojman, Jonatan Y; Meichtry, J Martín; Litter, Marta I; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2015-12-01

    Toxicity of a Cr(VI) solution before and after treatment by TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis (HP) was performed with AMPHITOX bioassay. Changes in toxicity on Rhinella arenarum larvae for 10-d were monitored after exposure to an untreated Cr(VI) solution and to the same solution after HP treatment. The HP treatment of a 41.60 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) solution reduced to 37.5% the concentration of the metal ion. A 10-fold reduction in toxicity at acute exposure (72 h) and 150-fold reduction in toxicity after 240 h was found. Further, the LOEC value increased from 0.001% for the untreated solution to 0.153% after HP treatment. Moreover, the safe concentration in untreated solution corresponded to 0.0001% sample, and it was 0.01% after the treatment, i.e., 100 times higher. A saving of water of about 100,000 L per L of effluent would be possible through dilution to allow safer concentrations for discharge; the saving would reach the highest value (1,000,000 L per L) at 240 h. Sub-lethal effects were completely absent in larvae exposed to the treated solution. The AMPHITOX test allowed to detect chronic effects at low Cr concentrations, i.e. at environmentally relevant levels. PMID:26432027

  7. Function-Led Design of Aerogels: Self-Assembly of Alloyed PdNi Hollow Nanospheres for Efficient Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Bin; Wen, Dan; Liu, Wei; Herrmann, Anne-Kristin; Benad, Albrecht; Eychmüller, Alexander

    2015-10-26

    One plausible approach to endow aerogels with specific properties while preserving their other attributes is to fine-tune the building blocks. However, the preparation of metallic aerogels with designated properties, for example catalytically beneficial morphologies and transition-metal doping, still remains a challenge. Here, we report on the first aerogel electrocatalyst composed entirely of alloyed PdNi hollow nanospheres (HNSs) with controllable chemical composition and shell thickness. The combination of transition-metal doping, hollow building blocks, and the three-dimensional network structure make the PdNi HNS aerogels promising electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation. The mass activity of the Pd83 Ni17 HNS aerogel is 5.6-fold higher than that of the commercial Pd/C catalyst. This work expands the exploitation of the electrocatalysis properties of aerogels through the morphology and composition control of its building blocks. PMID:26356131

  8. Cluster size matters: Size-driven performance of subnanometer clusters in catalysis, electrocatalysis and Li-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajda, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses the strongly size-dependent performance of subnanometer cluster based catalysts in 1) heterogeneous catalysis, 2) electrocatalysis and 3) Li-air batteries. The experimental studies are based on I. fabrication of ultrasmall clusters with atomic precision control of particle size and their deposition on oxide and carbon based supports; II. test of performance, III. in situand ex situ X-ray characterization of cluster size, shape and oxidation state; and IV.electron microscopies. Heterogeneous catalysis. The pronounced effect of cluster size and support on the performance of the catalyst (catalyst activity and the yield of Cn products) will be illustrated on the example of nickel and cobalt clusters in Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Electrocatalysis. The study of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on size-selected palladium clusters supported on ultrananocrystalline diamond show pronounced size effects. While Pd4 clusters show no reaction, Pd6 and Pd17 clusters are among the most active catalysts known (in in terms of turnover rate per Pd atom). The system (soft-landed Pd4, Pd6, or Pd17 clusters on an UNCD Si coated electrode) shows stable electrochemical potentials over several cycles, and the characterization of the electrodes show no evidence for evolution or dissolution of either the support Theoretical calculations suggest that this striking difference may be a demonstration that bridging Pd-Pd sites, which are only present in three-dimensional clusters, are active for the oxygen evolution reaction in Pd6O6. Li-air batteries. The studies show that sub-nm silver clusters have dramatic size-dependent effect on the lowering of the overpotential, charge capacity, morphology of the discharge products, as well as on the morphology of the nm size building blocks of the discharge products. The results suggest that by precise control of the active surface sites on the cathode, the performance of Li-air cells can be significantly improved

  9. Fundamental aspects of electrocatalysis of the hydrogen electrode reaction and oxygen electrode reaction on platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jianer

    This dissertation work studies the fundamental aspects of the electrocatalysis of the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) and oxygen electrode reaction (OER) on platinum over a wide temperature range from ambient up to 220°C. Previously, the majority of the work reported was restricted to temperatures below 70°C due to apparatus constraints, whereas the current operation temperature for proton exchange membrane fuel cells is around 100oC and is envisioned to operate at even higher temperatures. In this work, a special apparatus for controlled hydrodynamic study was constructed, which can keep the system in a single aqueous phase at elevated temperatures. The growth kinetics and mechanism of the anodic oxide film on platinum are studied under potential sweep conditions. By fitting the current equation derived based on the framework of the point defect model (PDM) on the linear polarization curves, the kinetic parameters for film growth and dissolution are extracted, which agree well with other findings. The kinetics and mechanism of the HER are investigated both at ambient temperature with a rotating ring disk electrode and at elevated temperatures with a platinized nickel electrode. Ambient results by micropolarization analysis agree well with findings in literature, and yield an exchange current density on the order of mA/cm2. An activation energy of 17.3kJ/mol is determined. This is comparable with that of a bulk platinum electrode, and is lower than sputtered platinum and single crystal platinum electrodes in alkaline solutions. Surprisingly, the apparent Tafel slope of the hydrogen evolution reaction is almost temperature independent. The most probable reason is that two parallel reactions with different activation energy and transfer coefficients are occurring at the interface. The OER on platinum is also studied by potential sweep method and potentiostatic polarization method. The sluggish nature of this reaction is postulated to be due to the existence of a thin oxide layer on the electrode surface so that the electrons resides in the metal have to quantum mechanically tunnel (QMT) through this layer in order to reach the oxygen species in the solution or adsorbed on the surface. The exponential decay of the current with potential (the inverse Tafel's law) upon the formation of an oxide film can be accounted for by combining QMT theory for charge transfer across an interface and the PDM for film growth and dissolution. A new method for extremely thin oxide film thickness measurement is also developed by combining these two theories. This method employs the tunneling current of the hydrogen oxidation reaction as a probe and is demonstrated to be a very sensitive and convenient in situ technique. However, currently the thickness range that can be measured is limited to 1-2nm, since the passive current of platinum imposing a lower limit of the tunneling current that can be measured. The tunneling constant, which defines the blocking character of the film, is measured to be (0.57 +/- 0.035) x 108cm-1, and is temperature independent. A barrier height of 0.31eV at the film/solution interface is then yielded. Theoretical interpretation is implemented by developing a model for the electronic structure of the metal/barrier layer/solution interphase utilizing the Boltzmann's distribution law for the distribution of the energy states of the redox species in the solution phase and by noting that the barrier layer is a highly doped (and probably degenerate) defect (oxygen vacancy) semiconductor, having a Debye length that is the same order as the thickness of the film.

  10. Flower-Like Nanoparticles of Pt-BiIII Assembled on Agmatine Sulfate Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Their Electrocatalysis of H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Mingshu; Yan, Yuhua; Feng, Kai; Tian, Yanping; Miao, Yuqing

    2015-04-01

    A new electrochemical technique to detect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was developed. The Pt nanoparticles and BiIII were subsequently assembled on agmatine sulfate (AS) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and the prepared GCE-AS-Pt-BiIII was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with result showing that the flower-like nanostructure of Pt-BiIII was yielded. Compared with Pt nanoparticles, the flower-like nanostructure of Pt-BiIII greatly enhanced the electrocatalysis of GCE-AS-Pt-BiIII towards H2O2, which is ascribed to more Pt-OH obtained on GCE-AS-Pt-BiIII surface for the presence of BiIII. Based on its high electrocatalysis, GCE-AS-Pt-BiIII was used to determine the content of H2O2 in the sample of sheet bean curd with standard addition method. Meantime, its electrocatalytic activity also was studied.

  11. Visible light photocatalysis of single-walled (Zn4/6Cu2/6O)3/(Zn5/6Cu1/6O)3 superlattice nanotube for redox reaction of water calculated by generalized gradient approximations with the Hubbard U model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, D. M.; Li, J. C.; Jiang, Q.

    2012-02-01

    To use ZnO for visible light water photoelectrolysis, the bandgap Eg of ZnO should be dropped into the visible light region. This is realized by establishing a novel single-walled (Zn4/6Cu2/6O)3/(Zn5/6Cu1/6O)3 superlattice nanotube of (6,0) type, whose Eg is determined using the density functional theory of generalized gradient approximations with the Hubbard U model (GGA + U). The results show that the Eg value of the superlattice is 2.16 eV. The absorption ability of the incident solar spectrum reaches 42% in comparison with 5% of ZnO. The physical mechanism of this band structure variation is the existence of the concentration gradient of Cu at the interface within the superlattice. The corresponding location of the superlattice of the bandgap also satisfies the redox reaction of water. Thus, the superlattice can be an exciting candidate for water photoelectrolysis materials using visible light.

  12. Zinc oxide nanostructure-modified textile and its application to biosensing, photocatalysis, and as antibacterial material.

    PubMed

    Hatamie, Amir; Khan, Azam; Golabi, Mohsen; Turner, Anthony P F; Beni, Valerio; Mak, Wing Cheung; Sadollahkhani, Azar; Alnoor, Hatim; Zargar, Behrooz; Bano, Sumaira; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2015-10-01

    Recently, one-dimensional nanostructures with different morphologies (such as nanowires, nanorods (NRs), and nanotubes) have become the focus of intensive research, because of their unique properties with potential applications. Among them, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanomaterials has been found to be highly attractive, because of the remarkable potential for applications in many different areas such as solar cells, sensors, piezoelectric devices, photodiode devices, sun screens, antireflection coatings, and photocatalysis. Here, we present an innovative approach to create a new modified textile by direct in situ growth of vertically aligned one-dimensional (1D) ZnO NRs onto textile surfaces, which can serve with potential for biosensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial applications. ZnO NRs were grown by using a simple aqueous chemical growth method. Results from analyses such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the ZnO NRs were dispersed over the entire surface of the textile. We have demonstrated the following applications of these multifunctional textiles: (1) as a flexible working electrode for the detection of aldicarb (ALD) pesticide, (2) as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic molecules (i.e., Methylene Blue and Congo Red), and (3) as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. The ZnO-based textile exhibited excellent photocatalytic and antibacterial activities, and it showed a promising sensing response. The combination of sensing, photocatalysis, and antibacterial properties provided by the ZnO NRs brings us closer to the concept of smart textiles for wearable sensing without a deodorant and antibacterial control. Perhaps the best known of the products that is available in markets for such purposes are textiles with silver nanoparticles. Our modified textile is thus providing acceptable antibacterial properties, compared to available commercial modified textiles. PMID:26372851

  13. Photocatalysis of sculptured thin films of TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Ito, Tadayoshi; Taga, Yasunori

    2001-06-18

    Enhanced surface reaction efficiency has been demonstrated in the photocatalysis of obliquely deposited TiO{sub 2} thin films with variously shaped columns such as zigzag, cylinder, and helix. The columnar thickness and spacing play an important role in the enhancement of the effective surface area, while the columnar shape is less important. The optimum morphology for a surface reaction has been obtained at the deposition angle {alpha}=70{degree}, where the photocatalytic activity is 2.5 times larger than that at {alpha}=0{degree}. The morphology controlled obliquely deposited thin films are applicable for solar cell, electro- and photochromic devices besides photocatalyst. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Spectroscopic dimensions of silver nanoparticles and clusters in ZnO matrix and their role in bioinspired antifouling and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Michael, Robin Jude Vimal; Sambandam, Balaji; Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Umapathy, Manickam J; Manoharan, Periakaruppan T

    2014-05-14

    Silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by a solution combustion method. The samples characterized by a variety of spectroscopic and other techniques clearly reveal the presence of silver nanoparticles as well as silver clusters. The silver in the two forms was identified by careful deconvolution of X-ray photoelectron spectral results. Their formation was also confirmed by the presence of plasmons, the concentration and energy of which increase on increasing silver input, indicating the presence of perpendicular excitons since aggregates of clusters are known to shift the plasmon resonances depending on their topologies. Further confirmation of clusters came from EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance), HRSEM (high resolution scanning electron microscopy) and HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscopy); direct proof for clusters came from matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectral measurements. The antimicrobial activity of the silver doped zinc oxide polymer nanocomposites as biomedical devices are measured by zone of inhibition. Also, samples coated on paper disk with acacia binder are evaluated by a disk diffusion method. While pure zinc oxide does not show any antimicrobial property, the activity of silver-doped zinc oxide is comparable to that of commercial antibiotics and found to be related to nanoparticulate silver. Similarly, the microbial adherence to the surface of polymer nanocomposite which mimics a biomedical device also was influenced by nanoparticles of silver. The photocatalytic water treatment was carried out using silver carrying nanoparticles with Rhodamine-B and 4-chlorophenol as model pollutants. The increased photocatalytic activity of silver containing zinc oxide as compared to pure zinc oxide nanoparticles is attributed to the synergistic display of the properties of silver nanoparticles and clusters in zinc oxide. This activity depends upon the dispersion of silver nanoparticles over the zinc oxide lattice where charge separation plays a dominant role. The mechanisms for both photocatalysis and antimicrobial activity are discussed. PMID:24671627

  15. Optimal metal domain size for photocatalysis with hybrid semiconductor-metal nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Scotognella, Francesco; Kriegel, Ilka; Moretti, Luca; Cerullo, Giulio; Rabani, Eran; Banin, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures offer a highly controllable platform for light-induced charge separation, with direct relevance for their implementation in photocatalysis. Advances in the synthesis allow for control over the size, shape and morphology, providing tunability of the optical and electronic properties. A critical determining factor of the photocatalytic cycle is the metal domain characteristics and in particular its size, a subject that lacks deep understanding. Here, using a well-defined model system of cadmium sulfide-gold nanorods, we address the effect of the gold tip size on the photocatalytic function, including the charge transfer dynamics and hydrogen production efficiency. A combination of transient absorption, hydrogen evolution kinetics and theoretical modelling reveal a non-monotonic behaviour with size of the gold tip, leading to an optimal metal domain size for the most efficient photocatalysis. We show that this results from the size-dependent interplay of the metal domain charging, the relative band-alignments, and the resulting kinetics. PMID:26783194

  16. Mechanistic QSAR models for interpreting degradation rates of sulfonamides in UV-photocatalysis systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiangfeng; Feng, Yi; Hu, Cui; Xiao, Xiaoyu; Yu, Daliang; Zou, Xiaoming

    2015-11-01

    Photocatalysis is one of the most effective methods for treating antibiotic wastewater. Thus, it is of great significance to determine the relationship between degradation rates and structural characteristics of antibiotics in photocatalysis processes. In the present study, the photocatalytic degradation characteristics of 10 sulfonamides (SAs) were studied using two photocatalytic systems composed of nanophase titanium dioxide (nTiO2) plus ultraviolet (UV) and nTiO2/activated carbon fiber (ACF) plus UV. The results indicated that the largest apparent SA degradation rate constant (Kapp) is approximately 5 times as large as that of the smallest one. Based on the degradation mechanism and the partial least squares regression (PLS) method, optimum Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models were developed for the two systems. Mechanistic models indicated that the degradation rule of SAs in the TiO2 systems strongly relates to their highest occupied molecular orbital (Ehomo), the maximum values of nucleophilic attack (f(+)x), and the minimum values of the most negative partial charge on a main-chain atom (q(C)min), whereas the maximum values of OH radical attack (f(0)x) and the apparent adsorption rate constant values (kad) are key factors affecting the degradation rule of SAs in the TiO2/ACF system. PMID:26070083

  17. Evaluation of the tratment of metal-EDTA complexes using Ti0{sub 2} photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Madden, T.; Datyte, A.K.; Prairie, M.R.; Stange, B.M.

    1996-03-01

    This study has demonstrated the feasibility of TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis to treat EDTA and several metal-EDTA complexes that can be found in industrial wastewaters. For the EDTA complexes of metals capable of photodeposition, such as Cu and Pb, certain reaction conditions were shown to facilitate the simultaneous complex degradation and photodeposition of these metals onto the catalyst. With metals that do not easily photodeposit, such as Ni and Cd, it is shown that the complex degradation is still facilitated, and can enhance other metals removal processes after photocatalytic treatment. Because the treatment of these metal-EDTA complexes typically requires special measures, there may exist situations where TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis could actually be the preferred method of treatment. However, its use should be compared economically to other more established advanced oxidation technologies. This necessity is demonstrated in the economic comparison to ozone treatment for EDTA degradation alone, where ozone treatment appears to be the clear choice in this application.

  18. Optimal metal domain size for photocatalysis with hybrid semiconductor-metal nanorods.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Scotognella, Francesco; Kriegel, Ilka; Moretti, Luca; Cerullo, Giulio; Rabani, Eran; Banin, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures offer a highly controllable platform for light-induced charge separation, with direct relevance for their implementation in photocatalysis. Advances in the synthesis allow for control over the size, shape and morphology, providing tunability of the optical and electronic properties. A critical determining factor of the photocatalytic cycle is the metal domain characteristics and in particular its size, a subject that lacks deep understanding. Here, using a well-defined model system of cadmium sulfide-gold nanorods, we address the effect of the gold tip size on the photocatalytic function, including the charge transfer dynamics and hydrogen production efficiency. A combination of transient absorption, hydrogen evolution kinetics and theoretical modelling reveal a non-monotonic behaviour with size of the gold tip, leading to an optimal metal domain size for the most efficient photocatalysis. We show that this results from the size-dependent interplay of the metal domain charging, the relative band-alignments, and the resulting kinetics. PMID:26783194

  19. Application of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide bentonite-titanium dioxide photocatalysis technology for pretreatment of aging leachate.

    PubMed

    Cai, Fei-Fei; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Huang, Jing; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Wang, Li-Ke; Yang, Jian

    2014-06-30

    Organobentonite-photocatalysis technology was applied to pretreat aging leachate containing refractory pollutants. The organobentonite was synthesized by organic modifier cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) and natural bentonite. In characterization experiments, we could confirm that organic functional groups of cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA(+)) cations were successfully loaded on the surface of bentonite. The combination of CTMAB2.5 adsorption and TiO2 photocatalysis was superior to either running separately. Furthermore, removal efficiency of simultaneously utilizing CTMAB2.5 and TiO2 was better than them in succession. The combination technology was feasible and was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) with COD and NH3-N removal rate as the target responses. The optimal operation conditions calculated from the regression equations were CTMAB2.5 dosage of 7.5 g/L, pH at 3.5, TiO2 dosage of 1.63 g/L, and reaction time for 60.02 min, which maintained the removal of COD and NH3-N at 82% and 37%, respectively. PMID:24853137

  20. Conjugated polymer/nanocrystal nanocomposites for renewable energy applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Wei; Lin, Wei-Hao; Hsu, Yung-Jung; Wei, Kung-Hwa

    2014-11-01

    Conjugated polymer/nanocrystal composites have attracted much attention for use in renewable energy applications because of their versatile and synergistic optical and electronic properties. Upon absorbing photons, charge separation occurs in the nanocrystals, generating electrons and holes for photocurrent flow or reduction/oxidation (redox) reactions under proper conditions. Incorporating these nanocrystals into conjugated polymers can complement the visible light absorption range of the polymers for photovoltaics applications or allow the polymers to sensitize or immobilize the nanocrystals for photocatalysis. Here, the current developments of conjugated polymer/nanocrystal nanocomposites for bulk heterojunction-type photovoltaics incorporating Cd- and Pb-based nanocrystals or quantum dots are reviewed. The effects of manipulating the organic ligands and the concentration of the nanocrystal precursor, critical factors that affect the shape and aggregation of the nanocrystals, are also discussed. In the conclusion, the mechanisms through which conjugated polymers can sensitize semiconductor nanocrystals (TiO2 , ZnO) to ensure efficient charge separation, as well as how they can support immobilized nanocrystals for use in photocatalysis, are addressed. PMID:25074641

  1. Tungsten oxide--fly ash oxide composites in adsorption and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Visa, Maria; Bogatu, Cristina; Duta, Anca

    2015-05-30

    A novel composite based on tungsten oxide and fly ash was hydrothermally synthetized to be used as substrate in the advanced treatment of wastewaters with complex load resulted from the textile industry. The proposed treatment consists of one single step process combining photocatalysis and adsorption. The composite's crystalline structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction and FTIR, while atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze the morphology. The adsorption capacity and photocatalytic properties of the material were tested on mono- and multi-pollutants systems containing two dyes (Bemacid Blau - BB and Bemacid Rot - BR) and one heavy metal ion-Cu(2+), and the optimized process conditions were identified. The results indicate better removal efficiencies using the novel composite material in the combined adsorption and photocatalysis, as compared to the separated processes. Dyes removal was significantly enhanced in the photocatalytic process by adding hydrogen peroxide and the mechanism was presented and discussed. The pseudo second order kinetics model best fitted the experimental data, both in the adsorption and in the combined processes. The kinetic parameters were calculated and correlated with the properties of the composite substrate. PMID:25733398

  2. Optimal metal domain size for photocatalysis with hybrid semiconductor-metal nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Shahar, Yuval; Scotognella, Francesco; Kriegel, Ilka; Moretti, Luca; Cerullo, Giulio; Rabani, Eran; Banin, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Semiconductor-metal hybrid nanostructures offer a highly controllable platform for light-induced charge separation, with direct relevance for their implementation in photocatalysis. Advances in the synthesis allow for control over the size, shape and morphology, providing tunability of the optical and electronic properties. A critical determining factor of the photocatalytic cycle is the metal domain characteristics and in particular its size, a subject that lacks deep understanding. Here, using a well-defined model system of cadmium sulfide-gold nanorods, we address the effect of the gold tip size on the photocatalytic function, including the charge transfer dynamics and hydrogen production efficiency. A combination of transient absorption, hydrogen evolution kinetics and theoretical modelling reveal a non-monotonic behaviour with size of the gold tip, leading to an optimal metal domain size for the most efficient photocatalysis. We show that this results from the size-dependent interplay of the metal domain charging, the relative band-alignments, and the resulting kinetics.

  3. Growth of oriented vanadium pentaoxide nanostructures on transparent conducting substrates and their applications in photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hongjiang; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhou, Jiadong; Liu, Xinling; Chen, Zhang; Cao, Chuanxiang; Luo, Hongjie; Kanehira, Minoru

    2014-06-01

    A novel, hydrothermal and hard-template-free method was developed for the first time to grow oriented, single-crystalline monoclinic VO{sub 2} (B) flower-like nanorod films on transparent conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates. The length and morphology of the nanorods can be tuned by changing the growth parameters, such as growth time and initial precursor concentration. The flower-like V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films were obtained after post-calcination treatment of VO{sub 2} (B) films. The photocatalytic activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} films was investigated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV and visible light. The prepared V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good photocatalytic performance (74.6% and 63% under UV and visible light for 210 min, respectively) and more practical application in industry. - Graphical abstract: Flower nanostructured vanadium oxide film was prepared by hydrothermal reaction for photocatalysis application. - Highlights: • Monoclinic VO{sub 2} nanorod array and flower-like nanostructure were directly grown on FTO substrate by hydrothermal reaction. • The growth mechanism was analyzed by FESEM at different time. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} flower-like nanostructure film was obtained after calcining VO{sub 2} film. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film exhibited good light activity and potential application in photocatalysis.

  4. Mechanism of enhanced photocatalysis of TiO 2 by Fe 3+ in suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junwei; Fu, Dafang; Gao, Haiying; Deng, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the mechanism of enhanced photocatalysis of TiO2 with Fe3+ was studied using Sulfadiazine (SD) as the model compound. Results indicated that degradation rate of SD was enhanced by the addition of Fe3+ in TiO2 suspension. The crystalline structure of TiO2 particles was stable in suspensions. The hydroxyl radical generated by TiO2/Fe3+ (both TiO2 and Fe3+) photocatalysis was in a higher yield. Moreover, Fe2+ was found not to give an obvious impact on the SD degradation in TiO2 suspension, whereas Fe3+ had a notable effect. The adsorption amount of TiO2 was greatly enhanced by the addition of Fe3+ in suspensions. Finally, an interaction model of SD degradation in TiO2 suspension containing Fe3+ was also proposed by investigating of surface behaviors of TiO2 particles. It will be beneficial to use Fe3+ as the electron acceptors on the surface of TiO2 particles, which helps to improve the yield of hydroxyl radical.

  5. Supramolecular Packing Controls H₂ Photocatalysis in Chromophore Amphiphile Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Adam S; Kazantsev, Roman V; Palmer, Liam C; Fairfield, Daniel J; Koltonow, Andrew R; Stupp, Samuel I

    2015-12-01

    Light harvesting supramolecular assemblies are potentially useful structures as components of solar-to-fuel conversion materials. The development of these functional constructs requires an understanding of optimal packing modes for chromophores. We investigated here assembly in water and the photocatalytic function of perylene monoimide chromophore amphiphiles with different alkyl linker lengths separating their hydrophobic core and the hydrophilic carboxylate headgroup. We found that these chromophore amphiphiles (CAs) self-assemble into charged nanostructures of increasing aspect ratio as the linker length is increased. The addition of salt to screen the charged nanostructures induced the formation of hydrogels and led to internal crystallization within some of the nanostructures. For linker lengths up to seven methylenes, the CAs were found to pack into 2D crystalline unit cells within ribbon-shaped nanostructures, whereas the nine methylene CAs assembled into long nanofibers without crystalline molecular packing. At the same time, the different molecular packing arrangements after charge screening led to different absorbance spectra, despite the identical electronic properties of all PMI amphiphiles. While the crystalline CAs formed electronically coupled H-aggregates, only CAs with intermediate linker lengths showed evidence of high intermolecular orbital overlap. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using a nickel-based catalyst was observed in all hydrogels, with the highest turnovers observed for CA gels having intermediate linker lengths. We conclude that the improved photocatalytic performance of the hydrogels formed by supramolecular assemblies of the intermediate linker CA molecules likely arises from improved exciton splitting efficiencies due to their higher orbital overlap. PMID:26593389

  6. Supramolecular Packing Controls H2 Photocatalysis in Chromophore Amphiphile Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Light harvesting supramolecular assemblies are potentially useful structures as components of solar-to-fuel conversion materials. The development of these functional constructs requires an understanding of optimal packing modes for chromophores. We investigated here assembly in water and the photocatalytic function of perylene monoimide chromophore amphiphiles with different alkyl linker lengths separating their hydrophobic core and the hydrophilic carboxylate headgroup. We found that these chromophore amphiphiles (CAs) self-assemble into charged nanostructures of increasing aspect ratio as the linker length is increased. The addition of salt to screen the charged nanostructures induced the formation of hydrogels and led to internal crystallization within some of the nanostructures. For linker lengths up to seven methylenes, the CAs were found to pack into 2D crystalline unit cells within ribbon-shaped nanostructures, whereas the nine methylene CAs assembled into long nanofibers without crystalline molecular packing. At the same time, the different molecular packing arrangements after charge screening led to different absorbance spectra, despite the identical electronic properties of all PMI amphiphiles. While the crystalline CAs formed electronically coupled H-aggregates, only CAs with intermediate linker lengths showed evidence of high intermolecular orbital overlap. Photocatalytic hydrogen production using a nickel-based catalyst was observed in all hydrogels, with the highest turnovers observed for CA gels having intermediate linker lengths. We conclude that the improved photocatalytic performance of the hydrogels formed by supramolecular assemblies of the intermediate linker CA molecules likely arises from improved exciton splitting efficiencies due to their higher orbital overlap. PMID:26593389

  7. Theory and experiments for voltammetric and SECM investigations and application to ORR electrocatalysis at nanoelectrode ensembles of ultramicroelectrode dimensions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, José L; Wijesinghe, Manjula; Zoski, Cynthia G

    2015-01-20

    Theoretical and experimental approaches to characterizing nanoelectrode (NE) ensembles of ultramicroelectrode dimensions (UME-NEEs) as a function of fraction of active area and random NE distribution are described. UME-NEEs were fabricated by addressing microregions of a gold-filled polycarbonate membrane through the UMEs of an underlying microfabricated addressable array. Results of Comsol Multiphysics 3D simulations based on randomly spaced NEs of 15 nm radius on a UME disk geometry of radii up to 5 μm are shown for steady-state voltammetry (SSV) and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) experiments. Analytical equations were developed to describe the diffusion-limited steady-state current and steady-state voltammogram at an UME-NEE. These equations are shown to be in good agreement with the simulations and enabled evaluation of experimental SSVs. Comparison of experimental and simulated SECM approach curves, images, and tip voltammograms enabled the fraction of active area and distribution of NEs to be visualized and determined for individual UME-NEEs. Gold UME-NEEs are shown to be unique platforms for electrodeposition in forming nanoparticle electrodes (UME-NPEs). Electrocatalysis results for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on Pt UME-NPEs in 0.1 M H2SO4 are also shown. PMID:25495486

  8. Effect of component distribution and nanoporosity in CuPt nanotubes on electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Guo H; Liu X; Bai C; Chen Y; Wang L; Zheng M; Dong Q; Peng DL

    2015-02-01

    Pt-based bimetallic electrocatalysts hold great potential in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in current fuel-cell prototypes. However, they also face challenges from drastic dealloying of less-noble metals and coalescence of small nanoparticles. Porous and structure-ordered nanotubes may hold the potential to improve the stability of bimetallic electrocatalysts. Herein, we report a method to prepare CuPt nanotubes and porous Cu3 Pt intermetallic nanorods through a controlled galvanic replacement reaction and heat treatment process. The effect of the geometric features and compositional segregation on the electrocatalysis of the ORR was clarified. The outstanding performance of the Cu3 Pt/C-700 catalyst in the ORR relative to that of CuPt/C-RT was mainly attributed to the nanoporosity of the catalyst, whereas the enhanced specific activity on CuPt/C-RT after potential cycling was attributed to the interaction between the CuPt alloyed core and the Pt shell in the tube wall.

  9. Investigation of the electrocatalysis for oxygen reduction reaction by Pt and binary Pt alloys: an XRD, XAS and electrochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerjee, S.; McBreen, J.; Srinivasan, S.

    1995-12-31

    Electrocatalysis for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on five binary Pt alloy electrocatalysts (PtCr/C, PtMn/C, PtFe/C, PtCo/C and PtNi/C) supported on carbon have been investigated. The electrochemical characteristics for ORR in a proton conducting fuel cell environment has been correlated with the electronic and structural parameters determined under in situ conditions using XANES and EXAFS technique respectively. Results indicate that all the alloys possess higher Pt 5d band vacancies as compared to Pt/C. There is also evidence of lattice contraction in the alloys (supported by XRD results). Further, the Pt/C shows increase in Pt 5 d band vacancies during potential transitions from 0.54 to 0.84 V vs. RHE, which has been ration@ on the basis of OH type adsorption. In contrast to this, the alloys do not exhibit such an enhancement. Detailed EXAFS analysis supports the presence of OH species on Pt/C and its relative absence in the alloys. Correlation of the electrochemical results with bond distances and d-band vacancies show a volcano type behavior with the PtCr/C on top of the curve.

  10. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of heme proteins entrapped in agarose hydrogel films in room-temperature ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Fu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Shen, Xin-Cheng; Lu, Zhe-Xue; Pang, Dai-Wen; Wong, Kwok-Yin

    2005-09-27

    The electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of a number of heme proteins entrapped in agarose hydrogel films in the room-temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF(6)]) have been investigated. UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy show that the heme proteins retain their native structure in agarose film. The uniform distribution of hemoglobin in agarose-dimethylformamide film was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. Cyclic voltammetry shows that direct electron transfer between the heme proteins and glassy carbon electrode is quasi-reversible in [bmim][PF(6)]. The redox potentials for hemoglobin, myoglobin, horseradish peroxidase, cytochrome c, and catalase were found to be more negative than those in aqueous solution. The charge-transfer coefficient and the apparent electron-transfer rate constant for these heme proteins in [bmim][PF(6)] were calculated from the peak-to-peak separation as a function of scan rate. The heme proteins catalyze the electroreduction of trichloroacetic acid and tert-butyl hydroperoxide in [bmim][PF(6)]. The kinetic parameter I(max) (maximum current at saturation concentration of substrate) and the apparent K(m) (Michaelis-Menten constant) for the electrocatalytic reactions were evaluated. PMID:16171360

  11. Effect of component distribution and nanoporosity in CuPt nanotubes on electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huizhang; Liu, Xiang; Bai, Chengdong; Chen, Yuanzhi; Wang, Laisen; Zheng, Mingsen; Dong, Quanfeng; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2015-02-01

    Pt-based bimetallic electrocatalysts hold great potential in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in current fuel-cell prototypes. However, they also face challenges from drastic dealloying of less-noble metals and coalescence of small nanoparticles. Porous and structure-ordered nanotubes may hold the potential to improve the stability of bimetallic electrocatalysts. Herein, we report a method to prepare CuPt nanotubes and porous Cu3 Pt intermetallic nanorods through a controlled galvanic replacement reaction and heat treatment process. The effect of the geometric features and compositional segregation on the electrocatalysis of the ORR was clarified. The outstanding performance of the Cu3 Pt/C-700 catalyst in the ORR relative to that of CuPt/C-RT was mainly attributed to the nanoporosity of the catalyst, whereas the enhanced specific activity on CuPt/C-RT after potential cycling was attributed to the interaction between the CuPt alloyed core and the Pt shell in the tube wall. PMID:25505002

  12. Lignin depolymerization and upgrading via fast pyrolysis and electrocatalysis for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garedew, Mahlet

    The production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass is needed to replace fossil fuels, which are decreasing in supply at an unsustainable rate. Renewable fuels also address the rising levels of greenhouse gases, an issue for which the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change implicated humanity in 2013. In response, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) mandates the production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels by 2022. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) uses heat (400-600 °C) without oxygen to convert biomass to liquids fuel precursors offering an alternative to fossil fuels and a means to meet the EISA mandate. The major product, bio-oil, can be further upgraded to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, while biochar can serve as a solid fuel or soil amendment. The combustible gas co-product is typically burned for process heat. Though the most valuable of the pyrolysis products, the liquid bio-oil is highly oxygenated, corrosive, low in energy content and unstable during storage. As a means of improving bio-oil properties, electrocatalytic hydrogenation (ECH) is employed to reduce and deoxygenate reactive compounds. This work specifically focuses on lignin as a feed material for BFP. As lignin comprises up to 30% of the mass and 40% of the energy stored in biomass, it offers great potential for the production of liquid fuels and value-added products by utilizing fast pyrolysis as a conversion method coupled with electrocatalysis as an upgrading method.

  13. Optimized electrospinning synthesis of iron-nitrogen-carbon nanofibers for high electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xingxu; Liu, Kexi; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jing

    2015-04-01

    To achieve iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) nanofibers with excellent electrocatalysis for replacing high-cost Pt-based catalysts in the cathodes of fuel cells and metal-air batteries, we have investigated and evaluated the effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) concentration and the proportion of iron to PAN, along with voltage and flow rate during the electrospinning process, and thus proposed three criteria to optimize these parameters for ideal nanofiber catalysts. The best half-wave potential of an optimized catalysts is 0.82 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in an alkaline medium, which reaches the best range of the non-precious-metal catalysts reported and is very close to that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Furthermore, the electron-transfer number of our catalysts is superior to that of the Pt/C, indicating the catalysts undergo a four-electron process. The durability of the optimized Fe-N-C nanofibers is also better than that of the Pt/C, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the active sites in our catalysts.

  14. Optimized electrospinning synthesis of iron-nitrogen-carbon nanofibers for high electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction in alkaline medium.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xingxu; Liu, Kexi; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Tuo; Luo, Jun; Zhu, Jing

    2015-04-24

    To achieve iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) nanofibers with excellent electrocatalysis for replacing high-cost Pt-based catalysts in the cathodes of fuel cells and metal-air batteries, we have investigated and evaluated the effects of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) concentration and the proportion of iron to PAN, along with voltage and flow rate during the electrospinning process, and thus proposed three criteria to optimize these parameters for ideal nanofiber catalysts. The best half-wave potential of an optimized catalysts is 0.82 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode in an alkaline medium, which reaches the best range of the non-precious-metal catalysts reported and is very close to that of commercial Pt/C catalysts. Furthermore, the electron-transfer number of our catalysts is superior to that of the Pt/C, indicating the catalysts undergo a four-electron process. The durability of the optimized Fe-N-C nanofibers is also better than that of the Pt/C, which is attributed to the homogeneous distribution of the active sites in our catalysts. PMID:25815586

  15. Engaging in Curriculum Reform of Chinese Chemistry Graduate Education: An Example from a Photocatalysis--Principles and Applications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jiahai; Guo, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    As worldwide energy shortages and environmental degradation increase, along with steady increases in population, current science and technology are confronted with many challenges to successfully sustain our society. Among the existing promising choices, photocatalysis has been widely considered as a potential solution to energy and environment…

  16. Engaging in Curriculum Reform of Chinese Chemistry Graduate Education: An Example from a Photocatalysis--Principles and Applications Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Jiahai; Guo, Rongrong

    2014-01-01

    As worldwide energy shortages and environmental degradation increase, along with steady increases in population, current science and technology are confronted with many challenges to successfully sustain our society. Among the existing promising choices, photocatalysis has been widely considered as a potential solution to energy and environment

  17. Structure and Antioxidant Activity of Soy Protein Isolate-Dextran Conjugates Obtained by TiO2 Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bei; Zhou, Xiaosong; Li, Bing; Chen, Caiyan; Zhang, Xiaosa; Chen, Siqiao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics and antioxidant activities of soy protein isolate- (SPI-) dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment. Results revealed that the UV-vis absorption and the fluorescence intensity increased as the photocatalytic power increased (P < 0.05). Higher photocatalytic power could promote the extent of glycation and the formation of high molecular weight SPI-dextran conjugates, which were evidenced by free amino group content and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra suggested that the amide I, II, and III bands of SPI were altered by the glycation induced by TiO2 photocatalysis. Moreover, significant changes of secondary structure occurred in SPI-dextran conjugates. The α-helix, β-sheet, β-turns, and random coil were changed from approximately 10.6%, 37.9%, 12.9%, and 38.6% to 3.8%, 10.4%, 17.7%, and 68.8%, respectively, after treatment at photocatalytic power of 1000 W. In addition, SPI-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment exhibited high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and possessed increased reducing power. All data indicated that TiO2 photocatalysis was an efficient method for promoting protein-polysaccharide copolymerisation. PMID:26495283

  18. Synthesis and absolute configuration assignment of albucidin: a late-stage reductive deiodination by visible light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Liu, Peng-Fei; Chen, Qiong; Wu, Qiong-You; Seville, Anne; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Clough, John; Zhou, Shao-Lin; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis of albucidin and its enantiomer are described. It involves a visible-light photocatalysis deiodination at the late stage. The absolute configuration of natural albucidin is determined as (1R,3S). This work provides a basis for structural modification to develop a new type of herbicidal from an old structure. PMID:26972382

  19. On the genesis of heterogeneous photocatalysis: a brief historical perspective in the period 1910 to the mid-1980s.

    PubMed

    Serpone, N; Emeline, A V; Horikoshi, S; Kuznetsov, V N; Ryabchuk, V K

    2012-07-01

    The concept Photocatalysis and, of greater import here, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis were first introduced in the second decade (1910-1920) of the 20th century according to the CAPLUS and MEDLINE databases (SciFinder). This review reports a brief historical perspective on the origins of the two concepts, whether implied or explicitly stated, in some detail up to about the mid-1980s when heterogeneous photocatalysis witnessed the beginning of an exponential growth, with particular emphasis on the use of nanosized TiO(2) particles in powdered form as the (so-called) photocatalyst of choice in environmental applications because of its inherent properties of abundance and chemical stability in acidic and alkaline aqueous media (in the dark), in contrast to ZnO that had been the metal oxide of choice in the early days. The early workers in this area often used the term photosensitization rather than the current popular term photocatalysis, used since the early 1980s. The term Photocatalysis appeared in the literature as early as 1910 in a book by Plotnikow (Russia) and a few years later it was introduced in France by Landau. The review also reports on contributions during the early years by Terenin at the University of St. Petersburg (previously Leningrad, Soviet Union), and in the decade spanning 1975-1985 contributions by Bard's group at the University of Texas at Austin (USA) as well as those of other groups. Some activities into the conversion of light energy to chemical fuels (e.g. H(2)) during the 1975-1985 decade are also considered. PMID:22488180

  20. Recent Development of Plasmonic Resonance-Based Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics for Solar Utilization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenguang; Leung, Michael K H

    2016-01-01

    Increasing utilization of solar energy is an effective strategy to tackle our energy and energy-related environmental issues. Both solar photocatalysis (PC) and solar photovoltaics (PV) have high potential to develop technologies of many practical applications. Substantial research efforts are devoted to enhancing visible light activation of the photoelectrocatalytic reactions by various modifications of nanostructured semiconductors. This review paper emphasizes the recent advancement in material modifications by means of the promising localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) mechanisms. The principles of LSPR and its effects on the photonic efficiency of PV and PC are discussed here. Many research findings reveal the promise of Au and Ag plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs). Continual investigation for increasing the stability of the plasmonic NPs will be fruitful. PMID:26848648

  1. Nanostructure sensitization of transition metal oxides for visible-light photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    Summary To better utilize the sunlight for efficient solar energy conversion, the research on visible-light active photocatalysts has recently attracted a lot of interest. The photosensitization of transition metal oxides is a promising approach for achieving effective visible-light photocatalysis. This review article primarily discusses the recent progress in the realm of a variety of nanostructured photosensitizers such as quantum dots, plasmonic metal nanostructures, and carbon nanostructures for coupling with wide-bandgap transition metal oxides to design better visible-light active photocatalysts. The underlying mechanisms of the composite photocatalysts, e.g., the light-induced charge separation and the subsequent visible-light photocatalytic reaction processes in environmental remediation and solar fuel generation fields, are also introduced. A brief outlook on the nanostructure photosensitization is also given. PMID:24991507

  2. Increased biodegradability of Ultracid in aqueous solutions with solar TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    García-Ripoll, A; Amat, A M; Arques, A; Vicente, R; López, M F; Oller, I; Maldonado, M I; Gernjak, W

    2007-06-01

    A study of solar TiO(2) photocatalytic degradation of the insecticide Ultracidtrade mark, a commercial formulation containing methidathion as the active ingredient, is described. Total elimination of methidathion can be achieved in less than 2h of irradiation, although longer solar exposures are needed for complete mineralisation of the solution (7-8h). Activated sludge respirometry shows that when methidathion is eliminated, the solution is detoxified, so further irradiation does not seem necessary. A Zahn-Wellens test also indicates improved biodegradability of the treated sample after abatement of the active ingredient. Finally, analysis of the ions formed indicates that the thiophosphate moiety of the molecule is preferentially attacked in the early stages of the reaction, while the thiadiazole ring is more sluggish to the effect of TiO(2)-photocatalysis. PMID:17307222

  3. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of real textile wastewater: evaluation of reaction kinetics and characterization.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Chittaranjan; Gupta, Ashok K; Pillai, Indu M Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    Real textile wastewater collected from the cotton dyeing bath of a fabric dyeing and finishing plant was subjected to heterogeneous photocatalysis using Ag(+) doped TiO(2) under UV irradiation in a batch reactor. The photocatalysts were characterized by FESEM, XRD, EDS, FTIR, DRS and BET analyses. The kinetics of the reaction was also evaluated. Colour removal was more than 88%, 94% and 99%, respectively for undiluted, 2 times diluted and 5 times diluted wastewater with Ag(+) doped TiO(2) (2.5 g/L) after UV irradiation for 360 minutes. The COD removal for undiluted, 2 times diluted and 5 times diluted wastewater was 47%, 70% and 92%, respectively under similar conditions. The reaction followed Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo first order kinetic model and the data fitted well to polynomial regression analysis. PMID:22871009

  4. Accelerated Discovery in Photocatalysis using a Mechanism-Based Screening Method.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Matthew N; Gómez-Suárez, Adrián; Teders, Michael; Sahoo, Basudev; Glorius, Frank

    2016-03-18

    Herein, we report a conceptually novel mechanism-based screening approach to accelerate discovery in photocatalysis. In contrast to most screening methods, which consider reactions as discrete entities, this approach instead focuses on a single constituent mechanistic step of a catalytic reaction. Using luminescence spectroscopy to investigate the key quenching step in photocatalytic reactions, an initial screen of 100 compounds led to the discovery of two promising substrate classes. Moreover, a second, more focused screen provided mechanistic insights useful in developing proof-of-concept reactions. Overall, this fast and straightforward approach both facilitated the discovery and aided the development of new light-promoted reactions and suggests that mechanism-based screening strategies could become useful tools in the hunt for new reactivity. PMID:27000485

  5. One step syntheses of S incorporated ZnO nanowires for photocatalysis applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Madeha Ahmed; Ibrahim, Eslam Mohamed Mohamed; Ahmed, Ahmed Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    S incorporated ZnO nanowires (NWs) were prepared by vapor transport method using ZnS bulk precursor. Effects of S incorporation on the structural, morphological, optical as well as photocatalysis performance of ZnO NWs were studied. EDAX analysis revealed existence of S with low ratio. A deformation of the hexagonal nanowires was observed inasmuch to the S existence. X-ray diffraction analysis asserted the formation of a single phase of ZnO with the emergence of two weak peaks identifier for ZnS. The low value of the optical band gap (3.10 eV) was ascribed to the increase in the level of the valence band maximum induced by the S doping. The capability of S incorporated ZnO as a photocatalyst was tested by the decomposition of methylene blue.

  6. Superior oxygen reduction electrocatalysis enabled by integrating hierarchical pores, Fe3C nanoparticles and bamboo-like carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenxiu; Yue, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiangjian; Chen, Lulu; Jia, Jianbo; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-12-01

    Hierarchical porous carbon nanostructures doped with nitrogen or other active elements have been demonstrated to be of importance in enhancing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. However, their intrinsic limited active sites usually make them exhibit lower ORR activity than commercial Pt/C. In order to solve well this challenging issue, herein we develop a simple method for encapsulating more electrochemically active Fe3C nanoparticles (NPs) into the channels of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes (bCNTs) with interesting 3D hierarchical micro-, meso- and macropores by impregnating the bCNTs with a Fe(NO3)3 solution, followed by the calcination of the composite under a N2 atmosphere. The resulting bCNT/Fe3C hybrid electrocatalysts with much more active sites exhibit excellent ORR activity in acidic media with the half-wave potential of 0.710 V comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.782 V). Furthermore, they show very high ORR activity in 0.10 M KOH with the half-wave potential of 0.879 V, 67 mV more positive than that of the Pt/C catalyst. Most importantly, the as-prepared new catalysts are very stable for ORR in both acidic and alkaline solutions with almost no ORR polarization curve shift after 3000 cycles, much better than that of the Pt/C catalyst. To the best of our knowledge, our new bCNT/Fe3C catalyst is the best non-noble-metal catalyst ever reported for ORR under both acidic and alkaline conditions. The present work highlights the important roles of introducing more stable Fe3C NPs and hierarchical micro-, meso- and macropores as much more active sites in maximizing the ORR electrocatalysis performance.Hierarchical porous carbon nanostructures doped with nitrogen or other active elements have been demonstrated to be of importance in enhancing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. However, their intrinsic limited active sites usually make them exhibit lower ORR activity than commercial Pt/C. In order to solve well this challenging issue, herein we develop a simple method for encapsulating more electrochemically active Fe3C nanoparticles (NPs) into the channels of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes (bCNTs) with interesting 3D hierarchical micro-, meso- and macropores by impregnating the bCNTs with a Fe(NO3)3 solution, followed by the calcination of the composite under a N2 atmosphere. The resulting bCNT/Fe3C hybrid electrocatalysts with much more active sites exhibit excellent ORR activity in acidic media with the half-wave potential of 0.710 V comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.782 V). Furthermore, they show very high ORR activity in 0.10 M KOH with the half-wave potential of 0.879 V, 67 mV more positive than that of the Pt/C catalyst. Most importantly, the as-prepared new catalysts are very stable for ORR in both acidic and alkaline solutions with almost no ORR polarization curve shift after 3000 cycles, much better than that of the Pt/C catalyst. To the best of our knowledge, our new bCNT/Fe3C catalyst is the best non-noble-metal catalyst ever reported for ORR under both acidic and alkaline conditions. The present work highlights the important roles of introducing more stable Fe3C NPs and hierarchical micro-, meso- and macropores as much more active sites in maximizing the ORR electrocatalysis performance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ESI figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08008h

  7. Rapid Construction of ZnO@ZIF-8 Heterostructures with Size-Selective Photocatalysis Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianbiao; Liu, Jin; Leong, Sookwan; Lin, Xiaocheng; Wei, Jing; Kong, Biao; Xu, Yongfei; Low, Ze-Xian; Yao, Jianfeng; Wang, Huanting

    2016-04-13

    To selectively remove heavy metal from dye solution, inspired by the unique pore structure of ZIF-8, we developed a synthetic strategy for rapid construction of ZnO@ZIF-8 heterostructure photocatalyst for selective reduction of Cr(VI) between Cr(VI) and methylene blue (MB). In particular, ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell heterostructures were prepared by in situ ZIF-8 crystal growth using ZnO colloidal spheres as template and zinc source within 8-60 min. The shell of the resulting ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell heterostructure with a uniform thickness of around 30 nm is composed of ZIF-8 crystal polyhedrons. The concentration of organic ligand 2-methylimidazole (Hmim) was found to be crucial for the formation of ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell heterostructures. Different structures, ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell spheres and separate ZIF-8 polyhedrons could be formed by altering Hmim concentration, which significantly influences the balance between rate of Zn(2+) release from ZnO and coordinate rate. Importantly, such ZnO@ZIF-8 core-shell heterostructures exhibit size-selective photocatalysis properties due to selective adsorption and permeation effect of ZIF-8 shell. The as-synthesized ZnO@ZIF-8 heterostructures exhibited enhanced selective reduction of Cr(VI) between Cr(VI) and MB, which may find application in the dye industry. This work not only provides a general route for rapid fabrication of such core-shell heterostructures but also illustrates a strategy for selectively enhanced photocatalysis performance by utilizing adsorption and size selectivity of ZIF-8 shell. PMID:26998617

  8. Superior oxygen reduction electrocatalysis enabled by integrating hierarchical pores, Fe3C nanoparticles and bamboo-like carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenxiu; Yue, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiangjian; Chen, Lulu; Jia, Jianbo; Guo, Shaojun

    2015-12-23

    Hierarchical porous carbon nanostructures doped with nitrogen or other active elements have been demonstrated to be of importance in enhancing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. However, their intrinsic limited active sites usually make them exhibit lower ORR activity than commercial Pt/C. In order to solve well this challenging issue, herein we develop a simple method for encapsulating more electrochemically active Fe3C nanoparticles (NPs) into the channels of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes (bCNTs) with interesting 3D hierarchical micro-, meso- and macropores by impregnating the bCNTs with a Fe(NO3)3 solution, followed by the calcination of the composite under a N2 atmosphere. The resulting bCNT/Fe3C hybrid electrocatalysts with much more active sites exhibit excellent ORR activity in acidic media with the half-wave potential of 0.710 V comparable to the commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.782 V). Furthermore, they show very high ORR activity in 0.10 M KOH with the half-wave potential of 0.879 V, 67 mV more positive than that of the Pt/C catalyst. Most importantly, the as-prepared new catalysts are very stable for ORR in both acidic and alkaline solutions with almost no ORR polarization curve shift after 3000 cycles, much better than that of the Pt/C catalyst. To the best of our knowledge, our new bCNT/Fe3C catalyst is the best non-noble-metal catalyst ever reported for ORR under both acidic and alkaline conditions. The present work highlights the important roles of introducing more stable Fe3C NPs and hierarchical micro-, meso- and macropores as much more active sites in maximizing the ORR electrocatalysis performance. PMID:26658501

  9. PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION OF METHYL-TERT-BUTYL ETHER FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photo-oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated to determine the feasibility of using photocatalysis for the treatment of MTBE-contaminated drinking water. The feasibility assessment was conducted using slurries of titanium dioxide in both a photo-...

  10. Atomically isolated nickel species anchored on graphitized carbon for efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lili; Liu, Peng Fei; Yan, Xuecheng; Gu, Lin; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Yang, Hua Gui; Qiu, Shilun; Yao, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production through electrochemical process is at the heart of key renewable energy technologies including water splitting and hydrogen fuel cells. Despite tremendous efforts, exploring cheap, efficient and durable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution still remains as a great challenge. Here we synthesize a nickel–carbon-based catalyst, from carbonization of metal-organic frameworks, to replace currently best-known platinum-based materials for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. This nickel-carbon-based catalyst can be activated to obtain isolated nickel atoms on the graphitic carbon support when applying electrochemical potential, exhibiting highly efficient hydrogen evolution performance with high exchange current density of 1.2 mA cm−2 and impressive durability. This work may enable new opportunities for designing and tuning properties of electrocatalysts at atomic scale for large-scale water electrolysis. PMID:26861684

  11. Atomically isolated nickel species anchored on graphitized carbon for efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lili; Liu, Peng Fei; Yan, Xuecheng; Gu, Lin; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Yang, Hua Gui; Qiu, Shilun; Yao, Xiangdong

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogen production through electrochemical process is at the heart of key renewable energy technologies including water splitting and hydrogen fuel cells. Despite tremendous efforts, exploring cheap, efficient and durable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution still remains as a great challenge. Here we synthesize a nickel-carbon-based catalyst, from carbonization of metal-organic frameworks, to replace currently best-known platinum-based materials for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. This nickel-carbon-based catalyst can be activated to obtain isolated nickel atoms on the graphitic carbon support when applying electrochemical potential, exhibiting highly efficient hydrogen evolution performance with high exchange current density of 1.2 mA cm-2 and impressive durability. This work may enable new opportunities for designing and tuning properties of electrocatalysts at atomic scale for large-scale water electrolysis.

  12. Nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures for active hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ming; Zhou, Wu; Tsai, Mon-Che; Zhou, Jigang; Guan, Mingyun; Lin, Meng-Chang; Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yongfeng; Wang, Di-Yan; Yang, Jiang; Pennycook, Stephen J; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Dai, Hongjie

    2014-01-01

    Active, stable and cost-effective electrocatalysts are a key to water splitting for hydrogen production through electrolysis or photoelectrochemistry. Here we report nanoscale nickel oxide/nickel heterostructures formed on carbon nanotube sidewalls as highly effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction with activity similar to platinum. Partially reduced nickel interfaced with nickel oxide results from thermal decomposition of nickel hydroxide precursors bonded to carbon nanotube sidewalls. The metal ion-carbon nanotube interactions impede complete reduction and Ostwald ripening of nickel species into the less hydrogen evolution reaction active pure nickel phase. A water electrolyzer that achieves ~20 mA cm(-2) at a voltage of 1.5 V, and which may be operated by a single-cell alkaline battery, is fabricated using cheap, non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts. PMID:25146255

  13. Atomically isolated nickel species anchored on graphitized carbon for efficient hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lili; Liu, Peng Fei; Yan, Xuecheng; Gu, Lin; Yang, Zhen Zhong; Yang, Hua Gui; Qiu, Shilun; Yao, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen production through electrochemical process is at the heart of key renewable energy technologies including water splitting and hydrogen fuel cells. Despite tremendous efforts, exploring cheap, efficient and durable electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution still remains as a great challenge. Here we synthesize a nickel-carbon-based catalyst, from carbonization of metal-organic frameworks, to replace currently best-known platinum-based materials for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. This nickel-carbon-based catalyst can be activated to obtain isolated nickel atoms on the graphitic carbon support when applying electrochemical potential, exhibiting highly efficient hydrogen evolution performance with high exchange current density of 1.2 mA cm(-2) and impressive durability. This work may enable new opportunities for designing and tuning properties of electrocatalysts at atomic scale for large-scale water electrolysis. PMID:26861684

  14. The bactericidal effect of TiO2 photocatalysis involves adsorption onto catalyst and the loss of membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Gogniat, Gaëtan; Thyssen, Melilotus; Denis, Michel; Pulgarin, Cesar; Dukan, Sam

    2006-05-01

    The bactericidal effect of photocatalysis with TiO2 is well recognized, although its mode of action is still poorly characterized. It may involve oxidation, as illuminated TiO2 generates reactive oxygen species. Here we analyze the bactericidal effect of illuminated TiO2 in NaCl-KCl or sodium phosphate solutions. We found that adsorption of bacteria on the catalyst occurred immediately in NaCl-KCl solution, whereas it was delayed in the sodium phosphate solution. We also show that the rate of adsorption of cells onto TiO2 is positively correlated with its bactericidal effect. Importantly, adsorption was consistently associated with a reduction or loss of bacterial membrane integrity, as revealed by flow cytometry. Our work suggests that adsorption of cells onto aggregated TiO2, followed by loss of membrane integrity, is key to the bactericidal effect of photocatalysis. PMID:16630249

  15. Bio-inspired Plasmonic Nanoarchitectured Hybrid System Towards Enhanced Far Red-to-Near Infrared Solar Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Runyu; Chen, Min; Zhou, Han; Liu, Tian; Tang, Xingwei; Zhang, Ke; Zhu, Hanxing; Ye, Jinhua; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar conversion to fuels or to electricity in semiconductors using far red-to-near infrared (NIR) light, which accounts for about 40% of solar energy, is highly significant. One main challenge is the development of novel strategies for activity promotion and new basic mechanisms for NIR response. Mother Nature has evolved to smartly capture far red-to-NIR light via their intelligent systems due to unique micro/nanoarchitectures, thus motivating us for biomimetic design. Here we report the first demonstration of a new strategy, based on adopting nature’s far red-to-NIR responsive architectures for an efficient bio-inspired photocatalytic system. The system is constructed by controlled assembly of light-harvesting plasmonic nanoantennas onto a typical photocatalytic unit with butterfly wings’ 3D micro/nanoarchitectures. Experiments and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations demonstrate the structural effects on obvious far red-to-NIR photocatalysis enhancement, which originates from (1) Enhancing far red-to-NIR (700~1200 nm) harvesting, up to 25%. (2) Enhancing electric-field amplitude of localized surface plasmon (LSPs) to more than 3.5 times than that of the non-structured one, which promotes the rate of electron-hole pair formation, thus substantially reinforcing photocatalysis. This proof-of-concept study provides a new methodology for NIR photocatalysis and would potentially guide future conceptually new NIR responsive system designs. PMID:26818680

  16. Bio-inspired Plasmonic Nanoarchitectured Hybrid System Towards Enhanced Far Red-to-Near Infrared Solar Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Runyu; Chen, Min; Zhou, Han; Liu, Tian; Tang, Xingwei; Zhang, Ke; Zhu, Hanxing; Ye, Jinhua; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar conversion to fuels or to electricity in semiconductors using far red-to-near infrared (NIR) light, which accounts for about 40% of solar energy, is highly significant. One main challenge is the development of novel strategies for activity promotion and new basic mechanisms for NIR response. Mother Nature has evolved to smartly capture far red-to-NIR light via their intelligent systems due to unique micro/nanoarchitectures, thus motivating us for biomimetic design. Here we report the first demonstration of a new strategy, based on adopting nature’s far red-to-NIR responsive architectures for an efficient bio-inspired photocatalytic system. The system is constructed by controlled assembly of light-harvesting plasmonic nanoantennas onto a typical photocatalytic unit with butterfly wings’ 3D micro/nanoarchitectures. Experiments and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations demonstrate the structural effects on obvious far red-to-NIR photocatalysis enhancement, which originates from (1) Enhancing far red-to-NIR (700~1200 nm) harvesting, up to 25%. (2) Enhancing electric-field amplitude of localized surface plasmon (LSPs) to more than 3.5 times than that of the non-structured one, which promotes the rate of electron-hole pair formation, thus substantially reinforcing photocatalysis. This proof-of-concept study provides a new methodology for NIR photocatalysis and would potentially guide future conceptually new NIR responsive system designs.

  17. Bio-inspired Plasmonic Nanoarchitectured Hybrid System Towards Enhanced Far Red-to-Near Infrared Solar Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Runyu; Chen, Min; Zhou, Han; Liu, Tian; Tang, Xingwei; Zhang, Ke; Zhu, Hanxing; Ye, Jinhua; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar conversion to fuels or to electricity in semiconductors using far red-to-near infrared (NIR) light, which accounts for about 40% of solar energy, is highly significant. One main challenge is the development of novel strategies for activity promotion and new basic mechanisms for NIR response. Mother Nature has evolved to smartly capture far red-to-NIR light via their intelligent systems due to unique micro/nanoarchitectures, thus motivating us for biomimetic design. Here we report the first demonstration of a new strategy, based on adopting nature's far red-to-NIR responsive architectures for an efficient bio-inspired photocatalytic system. The system is constructed by controlled assembly of light-harvesting plasmonic nanoantennas onto a typical photocatalytic unit with butterfly wings' 3D micro/nanoarchitectures. Experiments and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations demonstrate the structural effects on obvious far red-to-NIR photocatalysis enhancement, which originates from (1) Enhancing far red-to-NIR (700~1200 nm) harvesting, up to 25%. (2) Enhancing electric-field amplitude of localized surface plasmon (LSPs) to more than 3.5 times than that of the non-structured one, which promotes the rate of electron-hole pair formation, thus substantially reinforcing photocatalysis. This proof-of-concept study provides a new methodology for NIR photocatalysis and would potentially guide future conceptually new NIR responsive system designs. PMID:26818680

  18. In situ hydrothermal synthesis of a novel hierarchically porous TS-1/modified-diatomite composite for methylene blue (MB) removal by the synergistic effect of adsorption and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weiwei; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Dong; Yu, Wenbin; Laipan, Minwang; Deng, Liangliang; Chen, Fanrong

    2016-01-15

    Hierarchically porous TS-1/modified-diatomite composites with high removal efficiency for methylene blue (MB) were prepared via a facile in situ hydrothermal route. The surface charge state of the diatomite was modified to enhance the electrostatic interactions, followed by in situ hydrothermal coating with TS-1 nanoparticles. The zeolite loading amount in the composites could be adjusted by changing the hydrothermal time. The highest specific surface area and micropore volume of the obtained composites were 521.3m(2)/g and 0.254cm(3)/g, respectively, with an optimized zeolite loading amount of 96.8%. Based on the synergistic effect of efficient adsorption and photocatalysis resulting from the newly formed hierarchically porous structure and improved dispersion of TS-1 nanoparticles onto diatomite, the composites' removal efficiency for MB reached 99.1% after 2h of photocatalytic reaction, even higher than that observed using pure TS-1 nanoparticles. Moreover, the superior MB removal kinetics of the composites were well represented by a pseudo-first-order model, with a rate constant (5.28×10(-2)min(-1)) more than twice as high as that of pure TS-1 nanoparticles (2.43×10(-2)min(-1)). The significant dye removal performance of this novel TS-1/modified-diatomite composite indicates that it is a promising candidate for use in waste water treatment. PMID:26454378

  19. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  20. Challenges towards Economic Fuel Generation from Renewable Electricity: The Need for Efficient Electro-Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Formal, Florian Le; Bourée, Wiktor S; Prévot, Mathieu S; Sivula, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing renewable sources of energy is very attractive to provide the growing population on earth in the future but demands the development of efficient storage to mitigate their intermittent nature. Chemical storage, with energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds such as hydrogen or carbon-containing molecules, is promising as these energy vectors can be reserved and transported easily. In this review, we aim to present the advantages and drawbacks of the main water electrolysis technologies available today: alkaline and PEM electrolysis. The choice of electrode materials for utilization in very basic and very acid conditions is discussed, with specific focus on anodes for the oxygen evolution reaction, considered as the most demanding and energy consuming reaction in an electrolyzer. State-of-the-art performance of materials academically developed for two alternative technologies: electrolysis in neutral or seawater, and the direct electrochemical conversion from solar to hydrogen are also introduced. PMID:26842332

  1. Development of Novel Electrode Materials for the Electrocatalysis of Oxygen-Transfer and Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Brett Kimball Simpson

    2002-08-27

    Throughout this thesis, the fundamental aspects involved in the electrocatalysis of anodic O-transfer reactions and cathodic H-transfer reactions have been studied. The investigation into anodic O-transfer reactions at undoped and Fe(III)[doped MnO{sub 2} films] revealed that MnO{sub 2} film electrodes prepared by a cycling voltammetry deposition show improved response for DMSO oxidation at the film electrodes vs. the Au substrate. Doping of the MnO{sub 2} films with Fe(III) further enhanced electrode activity. Reasons for this increase are believed to involve the adsorption of DMSO by the Fe(III) sites. The investigation into anodic O-transfer reactions at undoped and Fe(III)-doped RuO{sub 2} films showed that the Fe(III)-doped RuO{sub 2}-film electrodes are applicable for anodic detection of sulfur compounds. The Fe(III) sites in the Fe-RuO{sub 2} films are speculated to act as adsorption sites for the sulfur species while the Ru(IV) sites function for anodic discharge of H{sub 2}O to generate the adsorbed OH species. The investigation into cathodic H-transfer reactions, specifically nitrate reduction, at various pure metals and their alloys demonstrated that the incorporation of metals into alloy materials can create a material that exhibits bifunctional properties for the various steps involved in the overall nitrate reduction reaction. The Sb{sub 10}Sn{sub 20}Ti{sub 70}, Cu{sub 63}Ni{sub 37} and Cu{sub 25}Ni{sub 75} alloy electrodes exhibited improved activity for nitrate reduction as compared to their pure component metals. The Cu{sub 63}Ni{sub 37} alloy displayed the highest activity for nitrate reduction. The final investigation was a detailed study of the electrocatalytic activity of cathodic H-transfer reactions (nitrate reduction) at various compositions of Cu-Ni alloy electrodes. Voltammetric response for NO{sub 3}{sup -} at the Cu-Ni alloy electrode is superior to the response at the pure Cu and Ni electrodes. This is explained on the basis of the synergism of the two different metal sites at these binary alloy electrodes acting within the proposed response mechanism. Accordingly, adsorbed H-atoms are generated by cathodic discharge of H{sup +} at the Ni-sites whereas adsorption of NO{sub 3}{sup -} occurs at the Cu-sites.

  2. Porous ZnO-ZnSe nanocomposites for visible light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Seungho; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2012-03-01

    We report the synthesis of porous ZnO-ZnSe nanocomposites for use in visible light photocatalysis. Porous ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal reaction then converted into porous ZnO-ZnSe nanocomposites by a microwave-assisted dissolution-recrystallization process using an aqueous solution containing selenium ions. ZnO and ZnSe nanocrystallites of the nanocomposites were well-mixed (rather than forming simple core-shell (ZnO-ZnSe) structures), particularly, in the outer regions. Both ZnO and ZnSe were present at the surface and exposed to the environment. The porous ZnO-ZnSe nanocomposites showed absorption bands in the visible region as well as in the UV region. The porous ZnO-ZnSe nanocomposites had much higher activities than the porous ZnO nanostructures. Control experiments using cutoff filters revealed that the main photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanostructures arose from photo-excitation of the semiconductor (ZnO or ZnSe) via absorption of light of an energy equal to or exceeding the band gap energy.We report the synthesis of porous ZnO-ZnSe nanocomposites for use in visible light photocatalysis. Porous ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal reaction then converted into porous ZnO-ZnSe nanocomposites by a microwave-assisted dissolution-recrystallization process using an aqueous solution containing selenium ions. ZnO and ZnSe nanocrystallites of the nanocomposites were well-mixed (rather than forming simple core-shell (ZnO-ZnSe) structures), particularly, in the outer regions. Both ZnO and ZnSe were present at the surface and exposed to the environment. The porous ZnO-ZnSe nanocomposites showed absorption bands in the visible region as well as in the UV region. The porous ZnO-ZnSe nanocomposites had much higher activities than the porous ZnO nanostructures. Control experiments using cutoff filters revealed that the main photocatalytic activity of the synthesized nanostructures arose from photo-excitation of the semiconductor (ZnO or ZnSe) via absorption of light of an energy equal to or exceeding the band gap energy. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: ZnO-ZnSe (core-shell) structures (Fig. S1). Photocatalytic H2 evolution tests (Fig. S2). See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr11869f

  3. Monte-Carlo modelling of nano-material photocatalysis: bridging photocatalytic activity and microscopic charge kinetics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshun

    2016-04-20

    In photocatalysis, it is known that light intensity, organic concentration, and temperature affect the photocatalytic activity by changing the microscopic kinetics of holes and electrons. However, how the microscopic kinetics of holes and electrons relates to the photocatalytic activity was not well known. In the present research, we developed a Monte-Carlo random walking model that involved all of the charge kinetics, including the photo-generation, the recombination, the transport, and the interfacial transfer of holes and electrons, to simulate the overall photocatalytic reaction, which we called a "computer experiment" of photocatalysis. By using this model, we simulated the effect of light intensity, temperature, and organic surface coverage on the photocatalytic activity and the density of the free electrons that accumulate in the simulated system. It was seen that the increase of light intensity increases the electron density and its mobility, which increases the probability for a hole/electron to find an electron/hole for recombination, and consequently led to an apparent kinetics that the quantum yield (QY) decreases with the increase of light intensity. It was also seen that the increase of organic surface coverage could increase the rate of hole interfacial transfer and result in the decrease of the probability for an electron to recombine with a hole. Moreover, the increase of organic coverage on the nano-material surface can also increase the accumulation of electrons, which enhances the mobility for electrons to undergo interfacial transfer, and finally leads to the increase of photocatalytic activity. The simulation showed that the temperature had a more complicated effect, as it can simultaneously change the activation of electrons, the interfacial transfer of holes, and the interfacial transfer of electrons. It was shown that the interfacial transfer of holes might play a main role at low temperature, with the temperature-dependence of QY conforming to the Arrhenius model. The activation of electrons from the traps to the conduction band might become important at high temperature, which accelerates the electron movement for recombination and leads to a temperature dependence of QY that deviates from the Arrhenius model. PMID:27063486

  4. Bi-phasic titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with nitrogen and neodymium for enhanced photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Virginia; Bear, Joseph C.; McNaughter, Paul D.; McGettrick, James D.; Watson, Trystan; Charbonneau, Cecile; O'Brien, Paul; Barron, Andrew R.; Dunnill, Charles W.

    2015-10-01

    Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with ``Janus-like'' characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped particles under white light.Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with ``Janus-like'' characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped particles under white light. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06025g

  5. Kinetic study of the heterogeneous photocatalysis of porous nanocrystalline TiO₂ assemblies using a continuous random walk simulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baoshun; Zhao, Xiujian

    2014-10-28

    The continuous time random walk (CTRW) simulation was used to study the photocatalytic kinetics of nanocrystalline (nc)-TiO2 assemblies in this research. nc-TiO2 assemblies, such as nc-TiO2 porous films and nc-TiO2 hierarchical structures, are now widely used in photocatalysis. The nc-TiO2 assemblies have quasi-disordered networks consisting of many tiny nanoparticles, so the charge transport within them can be studied by CTRW simulation. We considered the experimental facts that the holes can be quickly trapped and transferred to organic species just after photogeneration, and the electrons transfer to O2 slowly and accumulate in the conduction band of TiO2, which is believed to be the rate-limiting process of the photocatalysis under low light intensity and low organic concentration. Due to the existence of numerous traps, the electron transport within the nc-TiO2 assemblies follows a multi-trapping (MT) mechanism, which significantly limits the electron diffusion speed. The electrons need to undergo several steps of MT transport before transferring to oxygen, so it is highly important that the electron transport in nc-TiO2 networks is determined for standard photocatalytic reactions. Based on the MT transport model, the transient decays of photocurrents during the photocatalytic oxidation of formic acid were studied by CTRW simulation, and are in good accordance with experiments. The steady state photocatalysis was also simulated. The effects of organic concentration, light intensity, temperature, and nc-TiO2 crystallinity on the photocatalytic kinetics were investigated, and were also consistent with the experimental results. Due to the agreement between the simulation and the experiments for both the transient and the steady state photocatalysis, the MT charge transport should be an important mechanism that controls the kinetics of recombination and photocatalysis in nc-TiO2 assemblies. Also, our research provides a new methodology to study the photocatalytic dynamics from the random event viewpoint, which can be revised to investigate the kinetic processes of other kinds of material. PMID:25224752

  6. Solar Water Splitting Using Semiconductor Photocatalyst Powders.

    PubMed

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy conversion is essential to address the gap between energy production and increasing demand. Large scale energy generation from solar energy can only be achieved through equally large scale collection of the solar spectrum. Overall water splitting using heterogeneous photocatalysts with a single semiconductor enables the direct generation of H2 from photoreactors and is one of the most economical technologies for large-scale production of solar fuels. Efficient photocatalyst materials are essential to make this process feasible for future technologies. To achieve efficient photocatalysis for overall water splitting, all of the parameters involved at different time scales should be improved because the overall efficiency is obtained by the multiplication of all these fundamental efficiencies. Accumulation of knowledge ranging from solid-state physics to electrochemistry and a multidisciplinary approach to conduct various measurements are inevitable to be able to understand photocatalysis fully and to improve its efficiency. PMID:26134367

  7. Palladium nanotubes formed by lipid tubule templating and their application in ethanol electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Ma, Shenghua; Su, Yingchun; Han, Xiaojun

    2015-04-13

    Palladium nanotubes were fabricated by using lipid tubules as templates for the first time in a controlled manner. The positively charged lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) was doped into lipid tubules to adsorb PdCl4 (2-) on the tubule surfaces for further reduction. The lipid tubule formation was optimized by studying the growing dynamics and ethanol/water ratio. The DOTAP-doped tubules showed pH stability from 0 to 14, which makes them ideal templates for metal plating. The Pd nanotubes are open-ended with a tunable wall thickness. They exhibited good electrocatalytic performance in ethanol. Their electrochemically active surface areas were 6.5, 10.6, and 83.2 m(2)  g(-1) for Pd nanotubes with 77, 101, and 150 nm wall thickness, respectively. These Pd nanotubes have great potential in fuel cells. The method demonstrated also opens up a way to synthesize hollow metal nanotubes. PMID:25766748

  8. Comparison of TiO2 photocatalysis, electrochemically assisted Fenton reaction and direct electrochemistry for simulation of phase I metabolism reactions of drugs.

    PubMed

    Ruokolainen, Miina; Gul, Turan; Permentier, Hjalmar; Sikanen, Tiina; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2016-02-15

    The feasibility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis, electrochemically assisted Fenton reaction (EC-Fenton) and direct electrochemical oxidation (EC) for simulation of phase I metabolism of drugs was studied by comparing the reaction products of buspirone, promazine, testosterone and 7-ethoxycoumarin with phase I metabolites of the same compounds produced in vitro by human liver microsomes (HLM). Reaction products were analysed by UHPLC-MS. TiO2 photocatalysis simulated the in vitro phase I metabolism in HLM more comprehensively than did EC-Fenton or EC. Even though TiO2 photocatalysis, EC-Fenton and EC do not allow comprehensive prediction of phase I metabolism, all three methods produce several important metabolites without the need for demanding purification steps to remove the biological matrix. Importantly, TiO2 photocatalysis produces aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation products where direct EC fails. Furthermore, TiO2 photocatalysis is an extremely rapid, simple and inexpensive way to generate oxidation products in a clean matrix and the reaction can be simply initiated and quenched by switching the UV lamp on/off. PMID:26690045

  9. Role of self-assembly coated Er(3+): YAlO3/TiO2 in intimate coupling of visible-light-responsive photocatalysis and biodegradation reactions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shanshan; Dong, Shuangshi; Tian, Xiadi; Xu, Zhengxue; Ma, Dongmei; Cui, Bin; Ren, Nanqi; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-01-25

    Conventionally used ultraviolet light can result in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increasing and biofilm damage in intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB). Visible-light-responsive photocatalysis offers an alternative for achieving ICPB. In this study, composite-cubes were developed using self-assembly to coat a thin and even layer of visible-light-responsive photocatalyst (Er(3+): YAlO3/TiO2) on sponge-type carriers, followed by biofilm cultivation. The degradations of phenol (50 mg L(-1)) were compared for four protocols in circulating beds: adsorption (AD), visible-light-responsive photocatalysis (VPC), biodegradation (B), and intimately coupled visible-light-responsive photocatalysis and biodegradation (VPCB). The phenol and DOC removal efficiencies using VPCB in 16 h were 99.8% and 65.2%, respectively, i.e., higher than those achieved using VPC (71.6% and 50.0%) or B (99.4% and 58.2%). The phenol removal of 96.3% could be obtained even after 3 additional cycles. The 6.17-min intermediate detected by HPLC, continuously accumulated for VPC, appeared at 1-6 h and then was completely removed for VPCB in 10 h. ICPB was further illustrated in that most of the biofilm was protected in the carrier interiors, with less protection on the carrier exterior in VPCB. A self-regulation mechanism that helped photocatalyst exposure to visible-light irradiation was identified, promoting the combined photocatalysis and biodegradation. PMID:26489913

  10. ZnO nanoflowers with single crystal structure towards enhanced gas sensing and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sha; Chen, Hsueh-Shih; Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna; Yang, Ping

    2015-11-11

    In this paper, ZnO nanoflowers (NFs) were fabricated by thermal decomposition in an organic solvent and their application in gas sensors and photocatalysis was investigated. These single crystal ZnO NFs, which were observed for the first time, with an average size of ∼60 nm and were grown along the {100} facet. It was suggested that oleylamine used in the synthesis inhibited the growth and agglomeration of ZnO through the coordination of the oleylamine N atoms. The NFs exhibited excellent selectivity to acetone with a concentration of 25 ppm at 300 °C because they had a high specific surface area that provided more active sites and the surface adsorbed oxygen species for interaction with acetone. In addition, the ZnO NFs showed enhanced gas sensing response which was also ascribed to abundant oxygen vacancies at the junctions between petals of the NFs. Furthermore, ZnO-reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composites were fabricated by loading the ZnO NFs on the surface of the stratiform RGO sheet. In the photodegradation of rhodamine B tests, the composite revealed an enhanced photocatalytic performance compared with ZnO NFs under UV light irradiation. PMID:26507913

  11. Photocatalysis and photoinduced hydrophilicity of WO3 thin films with underlying Pt nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Masahiro

    2008-11-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation and photoinduced hydrophilicity of thin tungsten trioxide (WO(3)) films coupled with platinum (Pt) nanoparticles were investigated. WO(3) films with underlying Pt nanoparticles (WO(3)/Pt/substrate) and those with overlying Pt nanoparticles (Pt/WO(3)/substrate) were synthesized by sputtering and sol-gel methods. Between these films, underlying Pt nanoparticles greatly enhanced the photocatalytic oxidation activity of WO(3) without decreasing the photoinduced hydrophilic conversion. However, overlying Pt nanoparticles deteriorated the hydrophilicity of WO(3) because the Pt nanoparticle surface was hydrophobic. The enhanced photocatalytic reaction by the Pt nanoparticles was attributed to the multi-electron reduction in Pt, which is caused by the injected electrons from the conduction band of WO(3). The relationship between photocatalytic activity and thin film structure, including the size of Pt nanoparticles, the thickness and porosity of the WO(3) layer, were investigated. Consequently, the optimum structure for high performance in both photocatalysis and photoinduced hydrophilicity was WO(3) (50 nm)/Pt(1.5 nm)/substrate, and this film exhibited a significant self-cleaning property even under visible light irradiation. PMID:18936850

  12. Surface Plasmon Enhanced Photocatalysis of Au/Pt-decorated TiO2 Nanopillar Arrays.

    PubMed

    Shuang, Shuang; Lv, Ruitao; Xie, Zheng; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    The low quantum yields and lack of visible light utilization hinder the practical application of TiO2 in high-performance photocatalysis. Herein, we present a design of TiO2 nanopillar arrays (NPAs) decorated with both Au and Pt nanoparticles (NPs) directly synthesized through successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) at room temperature. Au/Pt NPs with sizes of ~4 nm are well-dispersed on the TiO2 NPAs as evidenced by electron microscopic analyses. The present design of Au/Pt co-decoration on the TiO2 NPAs shows much higher visible and ultraviolet (UV) light absorption response, which leads to remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activities on both the dye degradation and photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance. Its photocatalytic reaction efficiency is 21 and 13 times higher than that of pure TiO2 sample under UV-vis and visible light, respectively. This great enhancement can be attributed to the synergy of electron-sink function of Pt and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Au NPs, which significantly improves charge separation of photoexcited TiO2. Our studies demonstrate that through rational design of composite nanostructures one can harvest visible light through the SPR effect to enhance the photocatalytic activities initiated by UV-light, and thus realize more effectively utilization of the whole solar spectrum for energy conversion. PMID:27215703

  13. Controlling the Electronic Structures of Perovskite Oxynitrides and their Solid Solutions for Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Naoto; Janotti, Anderson

    2016-05-10

    Band-gap engineering of oxide materials is of great interest for optoelectronics, photovoltaics, and photocatalysis applications. In this study, electronic structures of perovskite oxynitrides, LaTiO2 N and SrNbO2 N, and solid solutions, (SrTiO3 )1-x (LaTiO2 N)x and (SrTiO3 )1-x (SrNbO2 N)x , are investigated using hybrid density functional calculations. Band gaps of LaTiO2 N and SrNbO2 N are much smaller than that of SrTiO3 owing to the formation of a N 2p band, which is higher in energy than the O 2p band. The valence- and conduction-band offsets of SrTiO3 /LaTiO2 N and SrTiO3 /SrNbO2 N are computed, and the adequacy for H2 evolution is analyzed by comparing the positions of the band edges with respect to the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). The band gap of (SrTiO3 )1-x (LaTiO2 N)x and (SrTiO3 )1-x (SrNbO2 N)x solid solutions are also discussed. PMID:27072042

  14. Reduction of hexavalent chromium: photocatalysis and photochemistry and their application in wastewater remediation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Tiele Caprioli; Lansarin, Marla Azário; Matte, Natália

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium present in wastewater discharge of galvanic industries is toxic to most microorganisms and potentially harmful to human health. This work examines the photochemical reduction of Cr(VI) with ethanol under ultraviolet (UV) and visible radiation, and photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) with TiO2 in the presence of ethanol under UV radiation. By means of different experimental designs, this study investigates the influence of the initial pH, ethanol amount, catalyst concentration and initial Cr(VI) concentration on total Cr(VI) reduction. The results obtained showed that photochemistry with ethanol under UV radiation (96.10%) was more efficient than photochemistry with ethanol under visible light (48.07%). Furthermore, photocatalysis with TiO2 in the presence of ethanol under UV radiation showed high values of total Cr(VI) reduction: 94.15%, under the optimal conditions established by the experimental design. Finally, experiments were carried out with wastewater discharge from an electroplating plant in its original concentration, and higher values of total Cr(VI) reduction were observed. PMID:25026579

  15. CuO quantum-dot-sensitized mesoporous ZnO for visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunxin; Shi, Jianxin; Peng, Qing; Li, Yadong

    2013-03-25

    How to extend ultraviolet photocatalysts to the visible-light region is a key challenge for solar-driven photocatalysis. Herein, we show that ultraviolet ZnO photocatalysts can present high visible-light photocatalytic activity when combined with CuO quantum dots (QDs; <3?nm). Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the quantum size effect plays a key role in the photoactivity of the CuO/ZnO composite. For CuO QDs smaller than 3?nm, the separated charges could transfer from CuO QDs to the conduction bands of ZnO due to quantum splitting of the CuO energy level and phonon compensation for the difference in the conduction band minimum of CuO and ZnO; however, this process would not occur with the disappearance of the quantum size effect. Further structural analysis demonstrates that interfacial charge separation and transfer between ZnO and CuO dominate the photocatalytic processes instead of a single CuO or ZnO surface. Compared with ZnO-noble metal structures (e.g., ZnO-Ag or ZnO-Au), these ZnO-CuO QD composites present wider absorption bands, higher visible photocatalytic efficiencies, and lower costs. PMID:23447144

  16. Artificial Photosystem I and II: Highly Selective solar fuels and tandem photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yuchen; Castellanos, Ignacio; Cerkovnik, Logan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, or generation of solar fuels from CO2/H2O, can provide an important alternative for rising CO2 emission and renewable energy generation. In our recent work, composite photocatalysts (CPCs) made from widebandgap nanotubes and different QDs were used to mimic Photosystem II (PS680) and I (PS700), respectively. By tuning the redox potentials using the size, composition and energy band alignment of QDs, we demonstrate highly selective (>90%) and efficient production of ethane, ethanol and acetaldehyde as solar fuels with different wavelengths of light. We also show that this selectivity is a result of precise energy band alignments (using cationic/anionic doping of nanotubes, QD size etc.), confirmed using measurements of electronic density of states, and alignment of higher redox potentials with hot-carriers can also lead to hot-carrier photocatalysis. This wavelength-selective CPCs can have important implications for inexpensive production of solar fuels including alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes and hydrogen, and making tandem structures (red, green, blue) with three CPCs, allowing almost full visible spectrum (410 ~ 730nm) utilization with different fuels produced simultaneously.

  17. Photocatalysis enhancement of Au/BFO nanoparticles using plasmon resonance of Au NPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Cai, Zhongyang; Ma, Xueming

    2015-12-01

    BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles was synthesized via sol-gel technique, and successfully loaded with small sizes of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) by impregnation-reduction method to extremely enhance the BFO photocatalytic activity. The obviously stronger optical absorption of Au/BFO observed from the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum confirmed that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect occured on the surface of Au NPs. And the surface plasmon-induced localized electric field could allow the formation of electron/hole pairs in the near surface region of BFO which can migrate to the surface without undergoing electron/hole (e-/h+) pair recombination. The more electrons and holes formed, the more ·OH will be generated to decompose the CR solution. When the gold loading in Au/BFO nanoparticles is 3.36 wt%, the obtained Au/BFO catalyst exhibits best photocatalytic activity evaluated by photocatalysis degradation of Congo red (CR) solution under the visible light irradiation.

  18. Degradation of diclofenac sodium using combined processes based on hydrodynamic cavitation and heterogeneous photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Bagal, Manisha V; Gogate, Parag R

    2014-05-01

    Diclofenac sodium, a widely detected pharmaceutical drug in wastewater samples, has been selected as a model pollutant for degradation using novel combined approach of hydrodynamic cavitation and heterogeneous photocatalysis. A slit venturi has been used as cavitating device in the hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. The effect of various operating parameters such as inlet fluid pressure (2-4 bar) and initial pH of the solution (4-7.5) on the extent of degradation have been studied. The maximum extent of degradation of diclofenac sodium was obtained at inlet fluid pressure of 3 bar and initial pH as 4 using hydrodynamic cavitation alone. The loadings of TiO2 and H2O2 have been optimised to maximise the extent of degradation of diclofenac sodium. Kinetic study revealed that the degradation of diclofenac sodium fitted first order kinetics over the selected range of operating protocols. It has been observed that combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with UV, UV/TiO2 and UV/TiO2/H2O2 results in enhanced extents of degradation as compared to the individual schemes. The maximum extent of degradation as 95% with 76% reduction in TOC has been observed using hydrodynamic cavitation in conjunction with UV/TiO2/H2O2 under the optimised operating conditions. The diclofenac sodium degradation byproducts have been identified using LC/MS analysis. PMID:24262760

  19. Enhanced ferroelectric-nanocrystal-based hybrid photocatalysis by ultrasonic-wave-generated piezophototronic effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Haidong; Sang, Yuanhua; Chang, Sujie; Huang, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Rusen; Jiang, Huaidong; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-04-01

    An electric field built inside a crystal was proposed to enhance photoinduced carrier separation for improving photocatalytic property of semiconductor photocatalysts. However, a static built-in electric field can easily be saturated by the free carriers due to electrostatic screening, and the enhancement of photocatalysis, thus, is halted. To overcome this problem, here, we propose sonophotocatalysis based on a new hybrid photocatalyst, which combines ferroelectric nanocrystals (BaTiO3) and semiconductor nanoparticles (Ag2O) to form an Ag2O-BaTiO3 hybrid photocatalyst. Under periodic ultrasonic excitation, a spontaneous polarization potential of BaTiO3 nanocrystals in responding to ultrasonic wave can act as alternating built-in electric field to separate photoinduced carriers incessantly, which can significantly enhance the photocatalytic activity and cyclic performance of the Ag2O-BaTiO3 hybrid structure. The piezoelectric effect combined with photoelectric conversion realizes an ultrasonic-wave-driven piezophototronic process in the hybrid photocatalyst, which is the fundamental of sonophotocatalysis. PMID:25803813

  20. Efficiency comparison of ozonation, photolysis, photocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis methods in real textile wastewater decolorization.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Juliano Carvalho; Bessegato, Guilherme Garcia; Boldrin Zanoni, Maria Valnice

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of real effluents from industries using AOPs stands to be an imperative task of crucial importance yet quite huge a challenge largely given the nature of complexity of these wastewaters. The present work sought to develop a versatile system aimed at the treatment of real wastewater using a bubbling annular reactor, which enables us to test the efficiency of photolysis; photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis and direct ozonation using oxygen or ozone as gas flow. A TiO2 nanotubes electrode was used as photocatalyst in photocatalytic and photoelectrocatalytic measurements with and without coupling with ozonation under pH 3.0 and pH 8.0 leading to 50% of color removal after 60 min reaction. However, the results indicated 90% of color removal upon the bubbling of ozone after 15 min of treatment. A synergistic effect was observed in all experiments using the AOPs in the presence of ozone under both pH values. Interestingly though, 85% of decolorization was obtained through direct ozonation without any change in the effluent following 10 min of treatment. The results were discussed in terms of electric energy per order and were compared to those reported previously. For real textile wastewater, ozonation appears to be a promising candidate for full-scale effluent decolorization. PMID:27076061

  1. Bi-phasic titanium dioxide nanoparticles doped with nitrogen and neodymium for enhanced photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Virginia; Bear, Joseph C; McNaughter, Paul D; McGettrick, James D; Watson, Trystan; Charbonneau, Cecile; O'Brien, Paul; Barron, Andrew R; Dunnill, Charles W

    2015-11-14

    Bi-phasic or multi-phasic composite nanoparticles for use in photocatalysis have been produced by a new synthetic approach. Sol-gel methods are used to deposit multiple layers of active material onto soluble substrates. In this work, a layer of rutile (TiO2) was deposited onto sodium chloride pellets followed by an annealing step and a layer of anatase. After dissolving the substrate, bi-phasic nanoparticles containing half anatase and half rutile TiO2; with "Janus-like" characteristics are obtained. Nitrogen and neodymium doping of the materials were observed to enhance the photocatalytic properties both under UV and white light irradiation. The unique advantage of this synthetic method is the ability to systematically dope separate sides of the nanoparticles. Nitrogen doping was found to be most effective on the anatase side of the nanoparticle while neodymium was found to be most effective on the rutile side. Rhodamine B dye was effectively photodegraded by co-doped particles under white light. PMID:26455738

  2. Photocatalysis-Induced Renewable Field-Effect Transistor for Protein Detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changliang; Xu, Jia-Quan; Li, Yu-Tao; Huang, Le; Pang, Dai-Wen; Ning, Yong; Huang, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-04-01

    The field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor has attracted extensive attentions, due to its unique features in detecting various biomolecules with high sensitivity and selectivity. However, currently used FET biosensors obtaining from expensive and elaborate micro/nanofabrication are always disposable because the analyte cannot be efficiently removed after detection. In this work, we established a photocatalysis-induced renewable graphene-FET (G-FET) biosensor for protein detection, by layer-to-layer assembling reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and RGO-encapsulated TiO2 composites to form a sandwiching RGO@TiO2 structure on a prefabricated FET sensor surface. After immobilization of anti-D-Dimer on the graphene surface, sensitive detection of D-Dimer was achieved with the detection limits of 10 pg/mL in PBS and 100 pg/mL in serum, respectively. Notably, renewal of the FET biosensor for recycling measurements was significantly realized by photocatalytically cleaning the substances on the graphene surface. This work demonstrates for the first time the development and application of photocatalytically renewable G-FET biosensor, paving a new way for G-FET sensor toward a plethora of diverse applications. PMID:26990067

  3. Growth of non-phototrophic microorganisms using solar energy through mineral photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Anhuai; Li, Yan; Jin, Song; Wang, Xin; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Zeng, Cuiping; Li, Yan; Ding, Hongrui; Hao, Ruixia; Lv, Ming; Wang, Changqiu; Tang, Yueqin; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-01-01

    Phototrophy and chemotrophy are two dominant modes of microbial metabolism. To date, non-phototrophic microorganisms have been excluded from the solar light-centered phototrophic metabolism. Here we report a pathway that demonstrates a role of light in non-phototrophic microbial activity. In lab simulations, visible light-excited photoelectrons from metal oxide, metal sulfide, and iron oxide stimulated the growth of chemoautotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. The measured bacterial growth was dependent on light wavelength and intensity, and the growth pattern matched the light absorption spectra of the minerals. The photon-to-biomass conversion efficiency was in the range of 0.13-1.90‰. Similar observations were obtained in a natural soil sample containing both bacteria and semiconducting minerals. Results from this study provide evidence for a newly identified, but possibly long-existing pathway, in which the metabolisms and growth of non-phototrophic bacteria can be stimulated by solar light through photocatalysis of semiconducting minerals. PMID:22473012

  4. Dual C-F, C-H Functionalization via Photocatalysis: Access to Multifluorinated Biaryls.

    PubMed

    Senaweera, Sameera; Weaver, Jimmie D

    2016-03-01

    Multifluorinated biaryls are challenging to synthesize and yet are an important class of molecules. Because of the difficulty associated with selective fluorination, this class of molecules represent a formidable synthetic challenge. An alternative approach to selective fluorination of biaryls is to couple an arene that already possesses C-F bonds in the desired location. This strategy has been regularly utilized and relies heavily on traditional cross-coupling strategies that employ organometallics and halides (or pseudohalides) in order to achieve the coupling. Herein we report conditions for the photocatalytic coupling via direct functionalization of the C-F bond of a perfluoroarene and C-H bond of the other arene to provide an expedient route to multifluorinated biaryls. The mild conditions and good functional group tolerance enable a broad scope, including access to the anti-Minisci product of basic heterocycles. Finally, we demonstrate the value of the C-F functionalization approach by utilizing the high fluorine content to systematically build complex biaryls containing between two and five Caryl-F bonds via the synergistic use of photocatalysis and SNAr chemistry. PMID:26890498

  5. Gas phase trichloroethylene (TCE) photooxidation and byproduct formation: photolysis vs. titania/silica based photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Madjid

    2005-04-01

    Photooxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) was examined in comparative study using photolysis and photocatalysis. Degussa P25 titania coated on reactor wall and deposited on silica based microporous support were used as photocatalyst. The destruction of TCE and formation of potential byproducts were investigated under steady state conditions using annular photoreactors. Experimental work involved passing polluted air containing TCE through the UV photoreactor at varying concentrations and residence times. Ultraviolet illumination was provided by low pressure mercury lamps with outputs at either 254 nm, 365 nm, or 185/254 nm. Silica supported photocatalyst yielded maximum removal capacity of up to about 6 kg TCE per m3 per hour, nearly twice that provided by the coated titania. Direct photolysis with ozone generating UV also provided very high TCE conversion of up to 6kg TCE per m3 per hour. However, major quantities of phosgene and dichloroacetyle chloride (DCAC) were produced as byproducts. TCE removal using silica based photocatalyst did not result in any detectable DCAC. Only phosgene along with trace amounts of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were identified as oxidation byproducts with silica based photocatalyst. PMID:15763086

  6. TiO2 Hollow Spheres: One-Pot Synthesis and Enhanced Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Changchao; Cao, Yongqiang; Yang, Ping

    2013-06-01

    Hollow TiO2 microspheres were successfully fabricated by metal salts with low solubility in ethanol acting as intelligent templates using a simple one-pot solvothermal method. Hollow spheres with large diameter were obtained using CuSO4ṡ5H2O as templates while small ones were obtained using Sr(NO3)2 as templates. It is found that titanium precursor plays an important role for the morphology of samples. Solid TiO2 microspheres were prepared by using titanium tetrabutoxide (TBT). In contrast, bowl-like hollow microspheres were obtained by using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4). Furthermore, the amount of H2O can stimulate the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4 to form solid spheres. Compared with solid microspheres, hollow TiO2 microspheres depending on their interior cavity structure exhibited enhanced photocatalysis efficiency for the UV-light photodegradation of methyl orange. Quantificationally, the apparent photocatalytic degradation pseudo-first-rate constant of the hollow microspheres is 1.25 times of that of the solid ones.

  7. Dimeric [Mo2 S12 ](2-) Cluster: A Molecular Analogue of MoS2 Edges for Superior Hydrogen-Evolution Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhongjie; Luo, Wenjia; Ma, Lu; Yu, Mingzhe; Ren, Xiaodi; He, Mingfu; Polen, Shane; Click, Kevin; Garrett, Benjamin; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Hadad, Christopher; Chen, Weilin; Asthagiri, Aravind; Wu, Yiying

    2015-12-01

    Proton reduction is one of the most fundamental and important reactions in nature. MoS2 edges have been identified as the active sites for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysis. Designing molecular mimics of MoS2 edge sites is an attractive strategy to understand the underlying catalytic mechanism of different edge sites and improve their activities. Herein we report a dimeric molecular analogue [Mo2 S12 ](2-) , as the smallest unit possessing both the terminal and bridging disulfide ligands. Our electrochemical tests show that [Mo2 S12 ](2-) is a superior heterogeneous HER catalyst under acidic conditions. Computations suggest that the bridging disulfide ligand of [Mo2 S12 ](2-) exhibits a hydrogen adsorption free energy near zero (-0.05 eV). This work helps shed light on the rational design of HER catalysts and biomimetics of hydrogen-evolving enzymes. PMID:26482571

  8. Dimeric [Mo₂S₁₂]²⁻ Cluster: A Molecular Analogue of MoS₂ Edges for Superior Hydrogen-Evolution Electrocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhongjie; Luo, Wenjia; Ma, Lu; Yu, Mingzhe; Ren, Xiaodi; He, Mingfu; Polen, Shan; Click, Kevin; Garrett, Benjamin R.; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2015-12-07

    Proton reduction is one of the most fundamental and important reactions in nature. MoS2 edges have been identified as the active sites for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysis. Designing molecular mimics of MoS2 edge sites is an attractive strategy to understand the underlying catalytic mechanism of different edge sites and improve their activities. Herein we report a dimeric molecular analogue [Mo₂S₁₂]²⁻, as the smallest unit possessing both the terminal and bridging disulfide ligands. Our electrochemical tests show that [Mo₂S₁₂]²⁻ is a superior heterogeneous HER catalyst under acidic conditions. Computations suggest that the bridging disulfide ligand of [Mo₂S₁₂]²⁻ exhibits a hydrogen adsorption free energy near zero (-0.05eV). This work helps shed light on the rational design of HER catalysts and biomimetics of hydrogen-evolving enzymes.

  9. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse

    EPA Science Inventory

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  10. The investigation of the LED-activated FeFNS-TiO2 nanocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of organophosphate pesticides in water.

    PubMed

    Hossaini, Hiwa; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Farrokhi, Mehrdad

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the preparation and characterization of an efficient doped TiO2 as a novel catalyst for degradation of diazinon model pesticide using LED-activated photocatalysis. TiO2 was doped using N, NS, FeNS, and FeFNS. The FeFNS-doped TiO2 showed the highest catalytic activity in LED/photocatalysis. FeFNS-doped TiO2 is a mesoporous nanocrystal powder with a mean pore diameter of 10.2 nm, a specific surface area of 104.4 m(2)/g and a crystallite size of 6.7 nm. LED/photocatalysis using FeFNS-doped TiO2 improved diazinon degradation by 52.3% over that of as-made plain TiO2 at an optimum solution pH of 7. The diazinon degradation in LED/photocatalysis using FeFNS-doped TiO2 increased from 44.8% to 96.3% when the catalyst concentration increased from 25% to 300%at a reaction time of 100 min. The degradation and mineralization of diazinon during LED/photocatalysis with FeFNS-doped TiO2 catalyst followed the pseudo-first-order reaction model with the rate constants of 0.973 h(-1) and 0.541 h(-1), respectively. The FeFNS-doped TiO2 was found to be an efficient catalyst that was photoactivated using UV-LED lamps. LED/photocatalysis with FeFNS-doped TiO2 catalyst is a promising alternative to conventional UV/TiO2photocatalysis for producing free OH radicals for use in the degradation and mineralization of water toxic contaminants. PMID:24793111

  11. Superiority of solar Fenton oxidation over TiO2 photocatalysis for the degradation of trimethoprim in secondary treated effluents.

    PubMed

    Michael, I; Hapeshi, E; Michael, C; Fatta-Kassinos, D

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this work was to examine the degradation of trimethoprim (TMP), which is an antibacterial agent, during the application of two advanced oxidation process (AOP) systems in secondary treated domestic effluents. The homogeneous solar Fenton process (hv/Fe(2+)/H2O2) and heterogeneous photocatalysis with titanium dioxide (TiO2) suspensions were tested. It was found that the degradation of TMP depends on several parameters such as the amount of iron salt and H2O2, concentration of TiO2, pH of solution, solar irradiation, temperature and initial substrate concentration. The optimum dosages of Fe(2+) and H2O2 for homogeneous ([Fe(2+)] = 5 mg L(-1), [H2O2] = 3.062 mmol L(-1)) and TiO2 ([TiO2] = 3 g L(-1)) for heterogeneous photocatalysis were established. The study indicated that the degradation of TMP during the solar Fenton process is described by a pseudo-first-order reaction and the substrate degradation during the heterogeneous photocatalysis by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The toxicity of the treated samples was evaluated using a Daphnia magna bioassay and was finally decreased by both processes. The results indicated that solar Fenton is more effective than the solar TiO2 process, yielding complete degradation of the examined substrate within 30 min of illumination and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reduction of about 44% whereas the respective values for the TiO2 process were ∼70% degradation of TMP within 120 min of treatment and 13% DOC removal. PMID:23508150

  12. Piezotronic Effect Enhanced Photocatalysis in Strained Anisotropic ZnO/TiO2 Nanoplatelets via Thermal Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Longfei; Liu, Shuhai; Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Yongli; Qin, Yong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-23

    Effective piezoelectric semiconductor based hybrid photocatalysts are successfully developed by assembling TiO2 nanoparticles on ZnO monocrystalline nanoplatelets. The piezopotential can be introduced and tuned by thermal stress on the piezoelectric material of ZnO monocrystalline nanoplatelets through cooling hybrid photocatalysts from high temperature to room temperature with different rates based on the mismatched thermal expansion coefficient of the two materials, which can be used to engineer the heterojunction band structure and significantly enhance the photocatalytic performance in a wide range by improving charge separation. It is proposed that the piezotronic effect enhanced photocatalyst will provide a strategy for high-performance photocatalysis applications. PMID:26745209

  13. One-pot self-assembly of Cu2O/RGO composite aerogel for aqueous photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jingyu; Liu, Wenjun; Li, Zhaohui

    2015-12-01

    Cu2O/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) composite aerogel was fabricated by a one-pot hydrothermal method using glucose as a reducing agent and cross-linker. The as-obtained Cu2O/RGO composite aerogel showed superior photocatalytic activity for MO degradation owing to its improved light absorption capability, enhanced adsorption toward pollutant and the RGO promoted charge carrier separation. The Cu2O/RGO composite aerogel can also be facilely separated from the reaction system for recycling, which makes it especially appealing for using as a visible light responsive photocatalyst in aqueous photocatalysis.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Urchin-like Mischcrystal TiO{sub 2} and Its Photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Shixiang; Jiang, Zhongsheng; Liu, Wenjie; Yao, Chao; Chen, Qun; Liu, Xiaoheng

    2014-10-15

    The urchin-like mischcrystal TiO{sub 2} using acid attapulgite as an introducer was synthesized after a subsequent low-temperature hydrolyzation and crystallization followed by removal of acid attapulgite. The samples were characterized by transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Acid attapulgite plays a critical role in the morphology and crystal structure of TiO{sub 2}. The results suggest that the perfect urchin-like mischcrystal TiO{sub 2} is fabricated when the mass ratio of TiO{sub 2} and acid attapulgite is 0.7:1. The single urchin-like TiO{sub 2} is comprised of a nanosphere and plentiful nanoneedles. The nanoneedles grow radially on the surface of the nanosphere. The urchin-like TiO{sub 2} is around 100 nm, and the nanoneedles have a diameter ranging from 2 to 5 nm. It has been confirmed that the chemical groups of acid attapulgite have a significant influence on the growth of TiO{sub 2}. In addition, the urchin-like mischcrystal TiO{sub 2} exhibits excellent activity to assist photodegradation of Rhodamine B aqueous solution under ultraviolet light, and the degradation rate is about 94.15% for 80 min. The photocatalytic kinetics can be well described by the pseudo-first rate equation. - Highlights: • Acid attapulgite (HATP) is acted as a sacrificial introducer. • The urchin-like mischcrystal TiO{sub 2} is produced by a low-temperature method. • The morphology and crystal are controllable with the dosage of HATP. • The fabricated TiO{sub 2} exhibits excellent photocatalysis for Rhodamine B.

  15. Silver decorated titanate/titania nanostructures for efficient solar driven photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Dangguo; Ho, Weng Chye Jeffrey; Tang Yuxin; Tay Qiuling; Lai Yuekun; Highfield, James George; Chen Zhong

    2012-05-15

    Photocatalysis has attracted significant interest to solve both the energy crisis and effectively combat environmental contamination. However, as the most widely used photocatalyst, titania (TiO{sub 2}) suffers from inefficient utilization of solar energy due to its wide band gap. In the present paper, we describe a method to extend the absorption edge of photocatalyst to visible region by the surface plasmon effect of silver. Silver ions are photo-reduced onto the surface of titanate nanotubes, which are synthesized by a conventional hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized Ag/titanate composite is transformed into Ag/titania nanoparticles by annealing at different temperatures. It is found that the interaction of Ag nanoparticles with the supports (titanate/titania) plays a key role for the visible light activity. The samples annealed at low temperature (<350 Degree-Sign C) do not show significant activity under our conditions, while the one annealed at 450 Degree-Sign C shows fast-degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation. The detailed mechanisms are also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles decorated titanate/titania as visible light active photocatalysts: silver nanoparticles could be excited by visible light due to its surface plasmon effect and excited electrons could be transferred to the conduction band of the semiconductor, where the reduction process occurs. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uniform Ag nanoparticles are photo-reduced onto titanate and titania nanostructures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titania crystal is formed by annealing hydrogen titanate at different temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Best visible-light activity is achieved by Ag-loaded titania annealed at 450 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The visible light activity is attributed to the surface plasmonic resonance effect.

  16. Dramatic activities of vanadate intercalated bismuth doped LDH for solar light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Lagnamayee; Parida, K M

    2014-08-28

    To harvest solar energy efficiently, a series of Zn/Bi layered double hydroxide (LDH) photocatalysts with different molar ratios of Zn/Bi (2 : 1, 3 : 1, 4 : 1) has been synthesized by a coprecipitation method at constant pH. All the Bi doped LDH samples displayed hydrotalcite-like structure with interlayer carbonate, in which crystallinity decreases as the bismuth content increases. The Zn/Bi (4 : 1) LDH with a small amount of bismuth in the brucite layer and possessing high crystallinity was further modified hydrothermally by intercalating decavanadate and it showed high photochemical stability and photocatalytic activity for the degradation of different organic pollutants for practical applications under solar light irradiation. The structural integrity of the materials has been successfully characterized by studying their structural, morphological, electronic and optical properties by various physico-chemical techniques. The present study provided an insight into oxo-bridged MMCT of the LDH and established that the Zn(II)-O-Bi(III) units resulted in the generation of superoxide radicals which is clearly observed by the EPR technique. The ˙OH radicals formed during photocatalysis were revealed by means of the terephthalic acid fluorescence probe method. The photoelectrochemical measurement confirmed that the intercalated vanadate anion was crucial to obtain an optimal synergistic effect for the degradation of organic pollutants. The prolonged lifetime of photogenerated charges and improved charge transfer capability were confirmed by time-resolved fluorescence emission spectra. Furthermore, a detailed mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity was discussed. PMID:25005613

  17. Distant protonated pyridine groups in water-soluble iron porphyrin electrocatalysts promote selective oxygen reduction to water

    SciTech Connect

    Matson, Benjamin D.; Carver, Colin T.; Von Ruden, Amber L.; Yang, Jenny Y.; Raugei, Simone; Mayer, James M.

    2012-11-08

    Fe(III)-meso-tetra(pyridyl)porphines are selective electrocatalysts for the reduction of dioxygen to water in aqueous acidic solution. The 2-pyridyl derivatives, both the triflate and chloride salts, are more selective than the isomeric 4-pyridyl complexes. The improved selectivity of is ascribed to the inward-pointing pyridinium groups acting as intramolecular proton relays. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  18. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Orange Fruit Surfaces and in Juice Using Photocatalysis and High Hydrostatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sungyul; Ghafoor, Kashif; Kim, Jeong Un; Kim, Sanghun; Jung, Bora; Lee, Dong-Un; Park, Jiyong

    2015-06-01

    Nonpasteurized orange juice is manufactured by squeezing juice from fruit without peel removal. Fruit surfaces may carry pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate squeezed juice. Titanium dioxide-UVC photocatalysis (TUVP), a nonthermal technique capable of microbial inactivation via generation of hydroxyl radicals, was used to decontaminate orange surfaces. Levels of spot-inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 (initial level of 7.0 log CFU/cm(2)) on oranges (12 cm(2)) were reduced by 4.3 log CFU/ml when treated with TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2)). Reductions of 1.5, 3.9, and 3.6 log CFU/ml were achieved using tap water, chlorine (200 ppm), and UVC alone (23.7 mW/cm(2)), respectively. E. coli O157:H7 in juice from TUVP (17.2 mW/cm(2))-treated oranges was reduced by 1.7 log CFU/ml. After orange juice was treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) at 400 MPa for 1 min without any prior fruit surface disinfection, the level of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.4 log CFU/ml. However, the E. coli O157:H7 level in juice was reduced by 4.7 log CFU/ml (to lower than the detection limit) when TUVP treatment of oranges was followed by HHP treatment of juice, indicating a synergistic inactivation effect. The inactivation kinetics of E. coli O157:H7 on orange surfaces followed a biphasic model. HHP treatment did not affect the pH, °Brix, or color of juice. However, the ascorbic acid concentration and pectinmethylesterase activity were reduced by 35.1 and 34.7%, respectively. PMID:26038898

  19. Photocatalysis of sub-ppm limonene over multiwalled carbon nanotubes/titania composite nanofiber under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Kang, Hyun-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted under visible-light exposure to investigate the photocatalytic characteristics of a multiwalled carbon nanotube/titania (TiO2) composite nanofiber (MTCN) using a continuous-flow tubular reactor. The MTCN was prepared by a sol-gel process, followed by an electrospinning technique. The photocatalytic decomposition efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was higher than those obtained from reference TiO2 nanofibers or P25 TiO2, and the experimental results agreed well with the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The CO concentrations generated during the photocatalysis did not reach levels toxic to humans. The mineralization efficiency for limonene on the MTCN was also higher than that for P25 TiO2. Moreover, the mineralization efficiency obtained using the MTCN increased steeply from 8.3 to 91.1% as the residence time increased from 7.8 to 78.0s, compared to the increase in the decomposition efficiencies for limonene from 90.1 to 99.9%. Three gas-phase intermediates (methacrolein, acetic acid, and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined for the photocatalysis for limonene over the MTCN, whereas only two intermediates (acetic acid and limonene oxide) were quantitatively determined over P25 TiO2. Other provisional gas-phase intermediates included cyclopropyl methyl ketone and 2-ethylbutanal. PMID:25464310

  20. Intimate Coupling of Photocatalysis and Biodegradation for Degrading Phenol Using Different Light Types: Visible Light vs UV Light.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dandan; Xu, Zhengxue; Dong, Shanshan; Huo, Mingxin; Dong, Shuangshi; Tian, Xiadi; Cui, Bin; Xiong, Houfeng; Li, Tingting; Ma, Dongmei

    2015-07-01

    Intimate coupling of photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) technology is attractive for phenolic wastewater treatment, but has only been investigated using UV light (called UPCB). We examined the intimate coupling of visible-light-induced photocatalysis and biodegradation (VPCB) for the first time. Our catalyst was prepared doping both of Er(3+) and YAlO3 into TiO2 which were supported on macroporous carriers. The macroporous carriers was used to support for the biofilms as well. 99.8% removal efficiency of phenol was achieved in the VPCB, and this was 32.6% higher than that in the UPCB. Mineralization capability of UPCB was even worse, due to less adsorbable intermediates and cell lysis induced soluble microbial products release. The lower phenol degradation in the UPCB was due to the serious detachment of the biofilms, and then the microbes responsible for phenol degradation were insufficient due to disinfection by UV irradiation. In contrast, microbial communities in the carriers were well protected under visible light irradiation and extracellular polymeric substances secretion was enhanced. Thus, we found that the photocatalytic reaction and biodegradation were intimately coupled in the VPCB, resulting in 64.0% removal of dissolved organic carbon. Therefore, we found visible light has some advantages over UV light in the ICPB technology. PMID:26076382

  1. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells and springs). Everything that ... body is water. 4. How much of the earth’s surface is water? About 80 percent of the ...

  2. Study of photocatalytic degradation of tributyltin, dibutylin and monobutyltin in water and marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Brosillon, Stephan; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Mendret, Julie

    2014-08-01

    This study reports on the first assessment of the treatment of sediments contaminated by organotin compounds using heterogeneous photocatalysis. Photocatalysis of organotins in water was carried out under realistic concentration conditions (μgL(-1)). Degradation compounds were analyzed by GC-ICP-MS; a quasi-complete degradation of tributyltin (TBT) in water (99.8%) was achieved after 30min of photocatalytic treatment. The degradation by photolysis was about (10%) in the same conditions. For the first time decontamination of highly polluted marine sediments (certified reference material and harbor sediments) by photocatalysis proves that the use of UV and the production of hydroxyl radicals are an efficient way to treat organotins adsorbed onto marine sediment despite the complexity of the matrix. In sediment, TBT degradation yield ranged from 32% to 37% after only 2h of irradiation (TiO2-UV) and the by-products: dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) were degraded very rapidly in comparison with TBT. It was shown that during photocatalysis of organotins in sediments, the hydroxyl radical attack and photolysis are the two ways for the degradation of adsorbed TBT. PMID:24613444

  3. The Photocatalysis of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) Using Dispersions of Degussa P-25 TiO2 Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The photocatalysis of N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was examined using aqueous Degussa P-25 TiO2 dispersions and a 350 nm high pressure Hg lamp UV reactor. Various concentrations of humic acid (HA) were added to the photocatalytic sample matrix in order to simulat...

  4. TiO2 nanotube arrays for photocatalysis: Effects of crystallinity, local order, and electronic structure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Jing; Hosseinpour, Pegah M.; Luo, Si; Heiman, Don; Menon, Latika; Arena, Dario A.; Lewis, Laura H.

    2014-11-19

    To furnish insight into correlations of electronic and local structure and photoactivity, arrays of short and long TiO₂ nanotubes were synthesized by electrochemical anodization of Ti foil, followed by thermal treatment in O₂ (oxidizing), Ar (inert), and H₂ (reducing) environments. The physical and electronic structures of these nanotubes were probed with x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and correlated with their photocatalytic properties. The photocatalytic activity of the nanotubes was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange under UV-VIS light irradiation. Results show that upon annealing at 350 °C all as-anodized amorphous TiO₂ nanotube samplesmore » partially transform to the anatase structure, with variations in the degree of crystallinity and in the concentration of local defects near the nanotubes' surface (~5 nm) depending on the annealing conditions. Degradation of methyl orange was not detectable for the as-anodized TiO₂ nanotubes regardless of their length. The annealed long nanotubes demonstrated detectable catalytic activity, which was more significant with the H₂-annealed nanotubes than with the Ar- and O₂-annealed nanotube samples. This enhanced photocatalytic response of the H₂-annealed long nanotubes relative to the other samples is positively correlated with the presence of a larger concentration of lattice defects (such as Ti3+ and anticipated oxygen vacancies) and a slightly lower degree of crystallinity near the nanotube surface. These physical and electronic structural attributes impact the efficacy of visible light absorption; moreover, the increased concentration of surface defects is postulated to promote the generation of hydroxyl radicals and thus accelerate the photodegradation of the methyl orange. The information obtained from this study provides unique insight into the role of the near-surface electronic and defect structure, crystal structure, and the local chemical environment on the photocatalytic activity and may be employed for tailoring the materials' properties for photocatalysis and other energy-related applications.« less

  5. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  6. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shopping Tips Food Safety Common Questions Learn More Water Printer-friendly It’s important for your body to have plenty of fluids each day. Water helps you digest food, absorb nutrients from food, ...

  7. New insights into electrocatalysis based on plasmon resonance for the real-time monitoring of catalytic events on single gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Jing, Chao; Rawson, Frankie James; Zhou, Hao; Shi, Xin; Li, Wen-Hui; Li, Da-Wei; Long, Yi-Tao

    2014-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been widely applied in industrial catalysis and electrocatalysis. Owing to their wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions, a range of different catalytic properties is possible. Thus, it is important to monitor catalytic processes and their mechanisms on single GNP surfaces to avoid averaging effects in bulk systems. Therefore, a novel method based on dark-field scattering spectroscopy was developed to monitor, in real-time, the electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen peroxide on a single gold nanoparticle surface. The catalytic mechanism was revealed via the plasmon resonance scattering spectral shift of single gold nanorod with the elimination of bulk effect. Moreover, we found that the presence of chloride ions could block the catalytic activity of nanorods for the oxidation of H2O2. Most importantly, it was discovered that individual nanoparticles have variable properties with different spectra shifts during the catalytic process. The obtained optical signals from individual nanorods not only offer versatile information regarding the reaction but also improve the understanding of electrochemistry and the catalysis mechanism of single nanoparticles. PMID:24766541

  8. In situ precipitation preparation of ZnO hollow spheres and their photocatalysis and gas-sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xiaohua; Tian, Minggang; Liu, Yingying; Wu, Xiangyang; Song, Haojie

    2015-06-01

    ZnO hollow spheres were synthesized by in situ precipitation method in the presence of surfactant polyvinylpyrrolidone combined with subsequent calcination. The prepared ZnO was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that the prepared ZnO hollow spheres were well crystalline with wurtzite hexagonal phase. The formation mechanism of ZnO hollow spheres was discussed. Furthermore, the gas-sensing properties for detection of organic gas and photocatalytic activities for the degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) of the prepared ZnO hollow spheres were investigated. The results indicated that the prepared ZnO hollow spheres exhibited superior photocatalysis properties on decomposition of RhB and high gas-sensing properties for detection of acetone gas.

  9. Plant uptake-assisted round-the-clock photocatalysis for complete purification of aquaculture wastewater using sunlight.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zhenfeng; Cao, Fenglei; Zhu, Jian; Li, Hexing

    2015-02-17

    A novel reactor equipped with solar batteries, Bi2O3/TiO2 film photocatalyst, and celery plant was designed and used for purification of aquaculture wastewater. The Bi2O3/TiO2 film photocatalyst started photocatalytic degradation of organonitrogen compounds under irradiation of sunlight. Meanwhile, the solar batteries absorbed and converted excess sunlight into electric energy and then started UV lamps at night, leading to round-the-clock photocatalysis. Subsequently, the inorganic nitrogen species including NH4(+), NO2(-), and NO3(-) resulting from photocatalytic degradation of the organonitrogen compounds could subsequently be uptaken by the celery plant as the fertilizer to reduce the secondary pollution. It was found that, after 24 h circulation, both organonitrogen compounds and NO2(-) species were completely removed, while NH4(+) and NO3(-) contents also decreased by 30% and 50%, respectively. The reactor could be used repetitively, showing a good potential in practical application. PMID:25625860

  10. Photocatalysis and wave-absorbing properties of polyaniline/TiO 2 microbelts composite by in situ polymerization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiaoling; Zhang, Cunrui; Li, Jianqiang

    2010-11-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/TiO 2 composite is prepared by in situ polymerization of polyaniline on the surface of TiO 2 template obtained by the sol-gel process via cotton template. The TiO 2 microbelts are prepared by sol-gel method using the absorbent cotton as template for the first time. Then the TiO 2 microtubules are used as template for the preparation of polyaniline/TiO 2 composites. The structure, morphology and properties of the composites are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), IR, Net-wok Analyzer. A possible formation mechanism of TiO 2 microtubules and polyaniline/TiO 2 composites has been proposed. The effect of the mol ratio of polyaniline/TiO 2 on the microwave loss properties and photocatalysis properties of the composites is investigated.

  11. TiO₂ sol-gel for formaldehyde photodegradation using polymeric support: photocatalysis efficiency versus material stability.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Monique S; Oliveira, Michel P; Waldman, Walter R; Sánchez, Benigno; Canela, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts supported on polymers are not frequently used in heterogeneous photocatalysis because of problems such as wettability and stability that affect photocatalysis conditions. In this work, we used polypropylene as support for TiO2 sol-gel to evaluate its stability and efficiency under UV radiation. We also tested the effect of the thermo-pressing PP/TiO2 system on the photocatalytic efficiency and stability under UV radiation. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM micrographs showed that the films of TiO2 sol-gel onto PP has approximately 1.0-μm thick and regular surface and the generation of polypropylene nanowires on hot-pressed samples. XRD showed the formation of TiO2 anatase on the surface of the films made by dip-coating. All photocatalysts were tested in decontaminating air-containing gaseous formaldehyde (70 ppmv) presenting degradation of the target compound to the limit of detection. The photocatalysts showed no deactivation during the entire period tested (30 h), and its reuse after washing showed better photocatalytic performance than on first use. The photocatalyst showed the best results were tested for 360 h with no observed deactivation. Aging studies showed that the film of TiO2 causes different effects on the photostability of composites, with stabilizing effect when exposed to most energetic UVC radiation (λmax = 254 nm) and degradative effects when exposed to UVA radiation (λmax = 365 nm). PMID:24604273

  12. Photocatalytic degradation of bezacryl yellow in batch reactors--feasibility of the combination of photocatalysis and a biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Khenniche, Lamia; Favier, Lidia; Bouzaza, Abdelkrim; Fourcade, Florence; Aissani, Farida; Amrane, Abdeltif

    2015-01-01

    A combined process coupling photocatalysis and a biological treatment was investigated for the removal of Bezacryl yellow (BZY), an industrial-use textile dye. Photocatalytic degradation experiments of BZY were carried out in two stirred reactors, operating in batch mode with internal or external irradiation. Two photocatalysts (TiO2P25 and TiO2PC500) were tested and the dye degradation was studied for different initial pollutant concentrations (10-117 mg L(-1)). A comparative study showed that the photocatalytic degradation led to the highest degradation and mineralization yields in a stirred reactor with internal irradiation in the presence of the P25 catalyst. Regardless of the photocatalyst, discoloration yields up to 99% were obtained for 10 and 20 mg L(-1) dye concentrations in the reactor with internal irradiation. Moreover, the first-order kinetic and Langmuir-Hinshelwood models were examined by using the nonlinear method for different initial concentrations and showed that the two models lead to completely different predicted kinetics suggesting that they were completely different.According to the BOD5/ Chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio, the non-treated solution (20 mg L(-1) of BZY) was estimated as non-biodegradable. After photocatalytic pretreatment of bezacryl solution containing 20 mg/L of initial dye, the biodegradability test showed a BOD5/COD ratio of 0.5, which is above the limit of biodegradability (0.4). These results were promising regarding the feasibility of combining photocatalysis and biological mineralization for the removal of BZY. PMID:25409577

  13. Water as a promoter and catalyst for dioxygen electrochemistry in aqueous and organic media.

    SciTech Connect

    Staszak-Jirkovsky, Jakub; Subbaraman, Ram; Strmcnik, Dusan; Harrison, Katherine L.; Diesendruck, Charles E.; Assary, Rajeev; Frank, Otakar; Kobr, Lukas; Wiberg, Gustav K.H; Genorio, Bostjan; Connell, Justin G.; Lopes, Pietro P.; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Curtiss, Larry; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2015-11-01

    Water and oxygen electrochemistry lies at the heart of interfacial processes controlling energy transformations in fuel cells, electrolyzers, and batteries. Here, by comparing results for the ORR obtained in alkaline aqueous media to those obtained in ultradry organic electrolytes with known amounts of H2O added intentionally, we propose a new rationale in which water itself plays an important role in determining the reaction kinetics. This effect derives from the formation of HOad center dot center dot center dot H2O (aqueous solutions) and LiO2 center dot center dot center dot H2O (organic solvents) complexes that place water in a configurationally favorable position for proton transfer to weakly adsorbed intermediates. We also find that, even at low concentrations (<10 ppm), water acts simultaneously as a promoter and as a catalyst in the production of Li2O2, regenerating itself through a sequence of steps that include the formation and recombination of H+ and OH-. We conclude that, although the binding energy between metal surfaces and oxygen intermediates is an important descriptor in electrocatalysis, understanding the role of water as a proton-donor reactant may explain many anomalous features in electrocatalysis at metal-liquid interfaces.

  14. Ag/BiOBr Film in a Rotating-Disk Reactor Containing Long-Afterglow Phosphor for Round-the-Clock Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haibo; Chen, Xiaofang; Hou, Rujing; Zhu, Huijuan; Li, Shiqing; Huo, Yuning; Li, Hexing

    2015-09-16

    Ag/BiOBr film coated on the glass substrate was synthesized by a solvothermal method and a subsequent photoreduction process. Such a Ag/BiOBr film was then adhered to a hollow rotating disk filled with long-afterglow phosphor inside the chamber. The Ag/BiOBr film exhibited high photocatalytic activity for organic pollutant degradation owing to the improved visible-light harvesting and the separation of photoinduced charges. The long-afterglow phosphor could absorb the excessive daylight and emit light around 488 nm, activating the Ag/BiOBr film to realize round-the-clock photocatalysis. Because the Ag nanoparticles could extend the light absorbance of the Ag/BiOBr film to wavelengths of around 500 nm via a surface plasma resonance effect, they played a key role in realizing photocatalysis induced by long-afterglow phosphor. PMID:26317239

  15. Synergy of photocatalysis and adsorption for simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) with TiO₂ and titanate nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Ni, Jinren; Yin, Xiaochen

    2014-04-15

    An one-step efficient simultaneous removal of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was achieved with mixture of TiO₂ and titanate nanotubes (TNTs). Unlike the conventional two-step Cr removal with a first photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and a subsequent adsorption of Cr(III), the proposed single process significantly reduced reaction time (over 50%). The synergy of photocatalysis and adsorption played an important role in enhancing Cr removal process. The synergetic mechanism was interpreted and indirectly confirmed with H₂O₂ variation during photocatalysis. The instant transfer of the reduced Cr from TiO₂ surface to TNTs interlayer greatly promoted the release of photocatalytic sites of TiO₂, which in turn considerably enhanced photocatalytic activity of TNTs by inhibiting electron-hole pairs recombination. The optimum condition for the whole process was at pH 5. Adsorption of Cr(III) was primarily in the interlayer of TNTs at pH ≤ 5. However, higher pH would lead to precipitation of Cr(OH)₃ onto TNTs as observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Addition of Ca(2+) could promoted photocatalysis owing to its ionic bridging function and form of ≡TiOH(+)-Cr(VI)-Ca(2+)-Cr(VI) linkages, while SO₄(2-) only slightly inhibited photo-reduction of Cr(VI), indicating good synergy of photocatalysis and adsorption even at high ionic strength of electrolyte. Besides, the desorbed TNTs could be easily regenerated by remedying the damaged tubular structure and reused for Cr removal with excellent performance. The outstanding synergetic effects with essential explanation of the mechanism make this study not only fundamentally important but also potentially practical applicable. PMID:24486715

  16. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide nanomaterials for solar water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andoshe, Dinsefa M.; Jeon, Jong-Myeong; Kim, Soo Young; Jang, Ho Won

    2015-05-01

    Recently, 2-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have received great attention for solar water splitting and electrocatalysis. In addition to their wide variety of electronic and microstructural properties, their promising catalytic activities for hydrogen production make 2D TMDs as earth-abundant and inexpensive catalysts that can replace noble metals. This paper reviews the electronic, structural, and optical properties of 2D TMDs. We highlight the various synthetic methods for 2D TMDs and their applications in hydrogen evolution based on photoelectrochemical and electrocatalytic cells. We also discuss perspectives and challenges of 2D TMDs for hydrogen production and artificial photosynthesis.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Coupling of solar photoelectro-Fenton with a BDD anode and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis for the mineralization of the herbicide atrazine.

    PubMed

    Garza-Campos, Benjamín R; Guzmán-Mar, Jorge Luis; Reyes, Laura Hinojosa; Brillas, Enric; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Ruiz-Ruiz, Edgar J

    2014-02-01

    Here, the synergetic effect of coupling solar photoelectro-Fenton (SPEF) and solar heterogeneous photocatalysis (SPC) on the mineralization of 200mL of a 20mg L(-1) atrazine solution, prepared from the commercial herbicide Gesaprim, at pH 3.0 was studied. Uniform, homogeneous and adherent anatase-TiO2 films onto glass spheres of 5mm diameter were prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating method and used as catalyst for SPC. However, this procedure yielded a poor removal of the substrate because of the low oxidation ability of positive holes and OH formed at the catalyst surface to destroy it. Atrazine decay was improved using anodic oxidation (AO), electro-Fenton (EF), SPEF and coupled SPEF-SPC at 100mA. The electrolytic cell contained a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and H2O2 was generated at a BDD cathode fed with an air flow. The removal and mineralization of atrazine increased when more oxidizing agents were generated in the sequence AOwater oxidation at the BDD anode in AO, along with OH formed from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and generated H2O2 in EF. In SPEF, solar radiation produced higher amounts of OH induced from the photolysis of Fe(III) species and photodecomposed intermediates like Fe(III)-carboxylate complexes. The synergistic action of sunlight in the most potent coupled SPEF-SPC was ascribed to the additional quick removal of several intermediates with the oxidizing agents formed at the TiO2 surface. After 300min of this treatment, 80% mineralization, 9% mineralization current efficiency and 1.93kWhg(-1) TOC energy cost were obtained. The mineralization of atrazine was inhibited by the production of cyanuric acid, which was the main byproduct detected at the end of the coupled SPEF-SPC process. PMID:24231044

  18. Electronic structure and visible light photocatalysis water splitting property of chromium-doped SrTiO 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. W.; Chen, G.; Li, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2006-12-01

    Cr-doped SrTi 1-xCr xO 3 ( x=0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.10) powders, prepared by solvothermal method, were further characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy. The UV-vis spectra indicate that the SrTi 1-xCr xO 3 powders can absorb not only UV light like pure SrTiO 3 powder but also the visible-light spectrum ( λ>420 nm). The results of density functional theory (DFT) calculation illuminate that the visible-light absorption bands in the SrTi 1-xCr xO 3 catalyst are attributed to the band transition from the Cr 3 d to the Cr 3 d+Ti 3 d hybrid orbital. The photocatalytic activities of chromium-doped SrTiO 3 both under UV and visible light are increased with the increase in the amounts of chromium.

  19. Bacterial inactivation in water, DNA strand breaking, and membrane damage induced by ultraviolet-assisted titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soohyun; Ghafoor, Kashif; Lee, Jooyoung; Feng, Mei; Hong, Jungyeon; Lee, Dong-Un; Park, Jiyong

    2013-09-01

    The effects of UV-assisted TiO2-photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) inactivation of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium) in a liquid culture using different domains of UV irradiation (A, B and C) were evaluated. Structural changes in super-coiled plasmid DNA (pUC19) and genomic DNA of E. coli were observed using gel electrophoresis to demonstrate the photodynamic DNA strand breaking activity of UV-assisted TiO2-PCO. Membrane damage in bacterial cells was observed using both a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Both UVC-TiO2-PCO and UVC alone resulted in an earlier bactericidal phase (initial counts of approximately 6 log CFU/mL) in 60 s and 90 s, respectively, in liquid culture. UVC-TiO2-PCO treatment for 6 min converted all plasmid DNA to the linear form; however, under UVC irradiation alone, super-coiled DNA remained. Prolonged UVC-TiO2-PCO treatment resulted in structural changes in genomic DNA from E. coli. SEM observations revealed that bacteria suffered severe visible cell damage after UVC-TiO2-PCO treatment for 30-60 min. S. typhimurium cells showed visible damage after 30 min, which was confirmed using CLSM. All treated cells were stained red using propidium iodide under a fluorescent light. PMID:23764591

  20. NASA's Potential Contributions for Remediation of Retention Ponds Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation and Photocatalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Lauren W.; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution uses NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data (1) to help improve the prediction capabilities of water runoff models that are used to estimate runoff pollution from retention ponds, and (2) to understand the pollutant removal contribution and potential of photocatalytically coated materials that could be used in these ponds. Models (the EPA's SWMM and the USGS SLAMM) exist that estimate the release of pollutants into the environment from storm-water-related retention pond runoff. UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and from the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be incorporated into these models to enhance their capabilities, not only by increasing the general understanding of retention pond function (both the efficacy and efficiency) but additionally by adding photocatalytic materials to these retention ponds, augmenting their performance. State and local officials who run pollution protection programs could then develop and implement photocatalytic technologies for water pollution control in retention ponds and use them in conjunction with existing runoff models. More effective decisions about water pollution protection programs could be made, the persistence and toxicity of waste generated could be minimized, and subsequently our natural water resources would be improved. This Candidate Solution is in alignment with the Water Management and Public Health National Applications.

  1. Heterogeneous photocatalysis of aromatic and chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for non-occupational indoor air application.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Park, Kun-Ho

    2004-11-01

    The current study evaluated the technical feasibility of applying TiO2 photocatalysis to the removal of low-ppb concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly associated with non-occupational indoor air quality issues. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate five parameters (relative humidity (RH), hydraulic diameter (HD), feeding type (FT) for VOCs, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactor material (RM), and inlet port size (IPS) of PCO reactor) in relation to the PCO destruction efficiencies of the selected target VOCs. None of the target VOCs exhibited any significant dependence on the RH, which is inconsistent with a previous study where, under conditions of low humidity and a ppm toluene inlet level, a drop in the PCO efficiency was reported with a decreasing humidity. However, the other four parameters (HD, RM, FT, and IPS) were found to be important for better VOC removal efficiencies as regards the application of TiO2 photocatalytic technology for cleansing non-occupational indoor air. The PCO destruction of VOCs at concentrations associated with non-occupational indoor air quality issues was up to nearly 100%, and the CO generated during PCO was a negligible addition to indoor CO levels. Accordingly, a PCO reactor would appear to be an important tool in the effort to improve non-occupational indoor air quality. PMID:15488917

  2. Detoxification and/or increase of the biodegradability of aqueous solutions of dimethoate by means of solar photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Arques, A; Amat, A M; García-Ripoll, A; Vicente, R

    2007-07-31

    Different methods have been used to measure changes in biodegradability/toxicity of aqueous solutions of the pesticide Laition (a commercial formula of methidathion) when it is treated by means of TiO(2) photocatalysis: short time biological oxygen demand (BOD(st)) was used to determine the instantaneous biodegradability of the sample; BOD(5) was also chosen to determine biodegradability, employing in this case the manometric method; the BOD(5)/COD ratio was also calculated. Finally, the Zahn-Wellens test was employed to evaluate the long-term biodegradation of the effluents. The inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge in the presence of toxic pollutants was used to test the toxicity of the treated sample. An alternative method based on the decrease of BOD(5) of a very biodegradable mixture (glucose+glutamic acid) upon addition of the toxic solution was also employed. Similar trends were obtained with all methods and allowed us to distinguish between two periods: At the beginning of the reaction, there is a decrease in the concentration of dimethoate to reach complete abatement of this pesticide; this produces a nearly complete detoxification of the solution and a very significant increase of biodegradability (BOD(5)/COD ratio reached values close to 0.5 and important increase of BOD(5) and BOD(st) were observed). Beyond this point, slow mineralization is detected, but further improvement of the biodegradability cannot be achieved. PMID:17513040

  3. Synergic Effect between Adsorption and Photocatalysis of Metal-Free g-C3N4 Derived from Different Precursors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan-Yan; Wu, Li-Cheng; Zhao, Hang; Jin, Li-Guo; Qi, Shu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) used in this work was obtained by heating dicyandiamide and melamine, respectively, at different temperatures. The differences of g-C3N4 derived from different precursors in phase composition, functional group, surface morphology, microstructure, surface property, band gap and specific surface area were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy and BET surface area analyzer, respectively. The photocatalytic discoloration of an active cationic dye, Methylene Blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation indicated that g-C3N4 derived from melamine at 500°C (CN-M500) had higher adsorption capacity and better photocatalytic activity than that from dicyandiamide at 500°C (CN-D500), which was attributed to the larger surface area of CN-M500. MB discoloration ratio over CN-M500 was affected by initial MB concentration and photocatalyst dosage. After 120 min reaction time, the blue color of MB solution disappeared completely. Subsequently, based on the measurement of the surface Zeta potentials of CN-M500 at different pHs, an active anionic dye, Methyl Orange (MO) was selected as the contrastive target pollutant with MB to reveal the synergic effect between adsorption and photocatalysis. Finally, the photocatalytic mechanism was discussed. PMID:26565712

  4. Photochemical preparation of CdS hollow microspheres at room temperature and their use in visible-light photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuying; Sun, Fengqiang; Wu, Tianxing; Wu, Qingsong; Huang, Zhong; Su, Heng; Zhang, Zihe

    2011-03-01

    CdS hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by a photochemical preparation technology at room temperature, using polystyrene latex particles as templates, CdSO 4 as cadmium source and Na 2S 2O 3 as both sulphur source and photo-initiator. The process involved the deposition of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of polystyrene latex particles under the irradiation of an 8 W UV lamp and the subsequent removal of the latex particles by dispersing in dichloromethane. Photochemical reactions at the sphere/solution interface should be responsible for the formation of hollow spheres. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Such hollow spheres could be used in photocatalysis and showed high photocatalytic activities in photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) in the presence of H 2O 2. The method is green, simple, universal and can be extended to prepare other sulphide and oxide hollow spheres.

  5. Solar photo-Fenton using peroxymonosulfate for organic micropollutants removal from domestic wastewater: comparison with heterogeneous TiO₂ photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Moussa Mahdi; Brienza, Monica; Goetz, Vincent; Chiron, Serge

    2014-12-01

    This work aims at decontaminating biologically treated domestic wastewater effluents from organic micropollutants by sulfate radical based (SO4(-)) homogeneous photo-Fenton involving peroxymonosulfate as an oxidant, ferrous iron (Fe(II)) as a catalyst and simulated solar irradiation as a light source. This oxidative system was evaluated by using several probe compounds belonging to pesticides (bifenthrin, mesotrione and clothianidin) and pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and carbamazepine) classes and its kinetic efficiency was compared to that to the well known UV-Vis/TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis. Except for carbamazepine, apparent kinetic rate constants were always 10 times higher in PMS/Fe(II)/UV-Vis than in TiO2/UV-Vis system and more than 70% of total organic carbon abatement was reached in less than one hour treatment. Hydroxyl radical (OH) and SO4(-) reactivity was investigated using mesotrione as a probe compound through by-products identification by liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry and transformation pathways elucidation. In addition to two OH based transformation pathways, a specific SO4(-) transformation pathway which first involved degradation through one electron transfer oxidation processes followed by decarboxylation were probably responsible for mesotrione degradation kinetic improvement upon UV-Vis/PMS/Fe(II) system in comparison to UVVis/TiO2 system. PMID:25108605

  6. Bifunctional AgCl/Ag composites for SERS monitoring and low temperature visible light photocatalysis degradation of pollutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Lihong; Zhu, Junyi; Xia, Guangqing

    2014-12-01

    With the assistance of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), AgCl/Ag composites were fabricated in N, N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) solvent via a photoactivated route. The size of AgCl particles was in the range of 500 nm to 1 μm and the Ag particle's diameter was about 10-20 nm. Different from those core-shell structures reported before, the Ag nanoparticles were dispersed uniformly both on the surface and in the body of AgCl particles. The generation of such kind of composites was resulted from the reducing ability of DMF and light irradiation during the formation of AgCl particles. The as-obtained AgCl/Ag composites presented great activity for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection and visible light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes. Additionally, the AgCl/Ag composites could maintain high photocatalytic activity even though the ambient temperature was as low as 15 °C and recycle photocatalysis experiments indicated that the photocatalyst exhibited higher stability. Such kind of AgCl/Ag composites holds great potential for environmental monitoring devices and pollutant treatments.

  7. Synergic Effect between Adsorption and Photocatalysis of Metal-Free g-C3N4 Derived from Different Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan-Yan; Wu, Li-Cheng; Zhao, Hang; Jin, Li-Guo; Qi, Shu-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) used in this work was obtained by heating dicyandiamide and melamine, respectively, at different temperatures. The differences of g-C3N4 derived from different precursors in phase composition, functional group, surface morphology, microstructure, surface property, band gap and specific surface area were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy and BET surface area analyzer, respectively. The photocatalytic discoloration of an active cationic dye, Methylene Blue (MB) under visible-light irradiation indicated that g-C3N4 derived from melamine at 500°C (CN-M500) had higher adsorption capacity and better photocatalytic activity than that from dicyandiamide at 500°C (CN-D500), which was attributed to the larger surface area of CN-M500. MB discoloration ratio over CN-M500 was affected by initial MB concentration and photocatalyst dosage. After 120 min reaction time, the blue color of MB solution disappeared completely. Subsequently, based on the measurement of the surface Zeta potentials of CN-M500 at different pHs, an active anionic dye, Methyl Orange (MO) was selected as the contrastive target pollutant with MB to reveal the synergic effect between adsorption and photocatalysis. Finally, the photocatalytic mechanism was discussed. PMID:26565712

  8. COD removal and toxicity decrease from tannery wastewater by zinc oxide-assisted photocatalysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Maria Claudia; Daniel, Juliana Feijó de Souza; Takashima, Keiko; Batista, Gisselma A; da Silva, Sandra M C P

    2014-08-01

    This work reports the optimization of degradation conditions and toxicity decrease in the tannery wastewater, collected in the retanning and dyeing steps. This effluent was filtered, diluted in a 1:200 proportion, and investigated as a case study on a bench scale by heterogeneous photocatalysis. These conditions were attained when the suspension, containing 1 g L-1 of ZnO and effluent, was irradiated for 4h at pH 8.0 and 30 degrees C. Physico-chemical parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 15,023 to 350 mg O2 L-1; fifth-day biochemical oxygen demand (BODs) from 4374 to 10 mg O2 L-1; total solids from 28,500 to 188 mg L-1; total organic carbon (TOC) from 4685 to 4.93 mg L-1, and turbidity from 331 to 1.15NTU after 4h of irradiation. The LC50 increase from 14.90% to 56.82% in the lethality assay of Artemia salina L. microcrustacean as well as the dissolved oxygen of 6.45mg L-1 indicated efficiency in this treatment. PMID:24956748

  9. Visible Light Photocatalysis with Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Plasma Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Buzby,S.; Barakat, M.; Lin, H.; Ni, C.; Rykov, S.; Chen, J.; Shah, S.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized via plasma assisted metal organic chemical vapor deposition. Nitrogen dopant concentration was varied from 0 to 1.61 at. %. The effect of nitrogen ion doping on visible light photocatalysis has been investigated. Samples were analyzed by various analytical techniques such as x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure. Titanium tetraisopropoxide was used as the titanium precursor, while rf-plasma-decomposed ammonia was used as the source for nitrogen doping. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were deposited on stainless steel mesh under a flow of Ar and O2 gases at 600 {sup o}C in a tube reactor. The photocatalytic activity of the prepared N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples was tested by the degradation of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in an aqueous solution using a visible lamp equipped with an UV filter. The efficiency of photocatalytic oxidation of 2-CP was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Results obtained revealed the formation of N-doped TiO{sub 2} samples as TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, and a corresponding increase in the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  10. Electrochemical surface science twenty years later: Expeditions into the electrocatalysis of reactions at the core of artificial photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriaga, Manuel P.; Baricuatro, Jack H.; Cummins, Kyle D.; Kim, Youn-Geun; Saadi, Fadl H.; Sun, Guofeng; McCrory, Charles C. L.; McKone, James R.; Velazquez, Jesus M.; Ferrer, Ivonne M.; Carim, Azhar I.; Javier, Alnald; Chmielowiec, Brian; Lacy, David C.; Gregoire, John M.; Sanabria-Chinchilla, Jean; Amashukeli, Xenia; Royea, William J.; Brunschwig, Bruce S.; Hemminger, John C.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Stickney, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Surface science research fixated on phenomena and processes that transpire at the electrode-electrolyte interface has been pursued in the past. A considerable proportion of the earlier work was on materials and reactions pertinent to the operation of small-molecule fuel cells. The experimental approach integrated a handful of surface-sensitive physical-analytical methods with traditional electrochemical techniques, all harbored in a single environment-controlled electrochemistry-surface science apparatus (EC-SSA); the catalyst samples were typically precious noble metals constituted of well-defined single-crystal surfaces. More recently, attention has been diverted from fuel-to-energy generation to its converse, (solar) energy-to-fuel transformation; e.g., instead of water synthesis (from hydrogen and oxygen) in fuel cells, water decomposition (to hydrogen and oxygen) in artificial photosynthesis. The rigorous surface-science protocols remain unchanged but the experimental capabilities have been expanded by the addition of several characterization techniques, either as EC-SSA components or as stand-alone instruments. The present manuscript describes results selected from on-going studies of earth-abundant electrocatalysts for the reactions that underpin artificial photosynthesis: nickel-molybdenum alloys for the hydrogen evolution reaction, calcium birnessite as a heterogeneous analogue for the oxygen-evolving complex in natural photosynthesis, and single-crystalline copper in relation to the carbon dioxide reduction reaction.

  11. Adsorbent Assisted in Situ Electrocatalysis: An Ultra-Sensitive Detection of As(III) in Water at Fe3O4 Nanosphere Densely Decorated with Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wei, Juan; Li, Shan-Shan; Guo, Zheng; Chen, Xing; Liu, Jin-Huai; Huang, Xing-Jiu

    2016-01-19

    Most gold nanoparticle-based electrodes have been utilized for the analysis of highly toxic As(III), while nano-Fe3O4 materials are currently attracting considerable interest as an adsorbent for the removal of As(III). However, the combination of gold nanoparticles with Fe3O4 nanoadsorbents for stripping voltammetry is, to the best of our knowledge, unexplored. Here, a sensing interface for ultrasensitive detection of As(III) is designed and constructed by abundantly dispersing Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on the surface of the Fe3O4 nanosphere. The Au@Fe3O4 nanospheres are covered by the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) and then modified on the screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). By combining the excellent catalytic properties of the Au nanoparticles (?3-9 nm in diameter) with the good adsorption capacity of Fe3O4 nanospheres toward As(III), as well as the good conductivity of RTIL, the Au@Fe3O4-RTIL shows excellent performance in the detection of arsenic under nearly neutral conditions without modifying the morphology of the sensing interface. Through optimization of the experimental conditions, an ultrahigh sensitivity of 458.66 ?A ppb(-1) cm(-2) from 0.1 to 1 ppb with a detection limit (3? method) of 0.0022 ppb was obtained. The reproducibility and reliability of the Au@Fe3O4-RTIL sensing interface was also evaluated with good results. Finally, we used this platform to analyze real samples. PMID:26694876

  12. DOE Laboratory Catalysis Research Symposium - Abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, T.

    1999-02-01

    The conference consisted of two sessions with the following subtopics: (1) Heterogeneous Session: Novel Catalytic Materials; Photocatalysis; Novel Processing Conditions; Metals and Sulfides; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; Metal Oxides and Partial Oxidation; Electrocatalysis; and Automotive Catalysis. (2) Homogeneous Catalysis: H-Transfer and Alkane Functionalization; Biocatalysis; Oxidation and Photocatalysis; and Novel Medical, Methods, and Catalyzed Reactions.

  13. Single-Crystalline Ultrathin Nickel Nanosheets Array from In Situ Topotactic Reduction for Active and Stable Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yun; Feng, Guang; Li, Pengsong; Bi, Yongmin; Li, Yaping; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-01-11

    Simultaneously synthesizing and structuring atomically thick or ultrathin 2D non-precious metal nanocrystal may offer a new class of materials to replace the state-of-art noble-metal electrocatalysts; however, the synthetic strategy is the bottleneck which should be urgently solved. Here we report the synthesis of an ultrathin nickel nanosheet array (Ni-NSA) through in situ topotactic reduction from Ni(OH)2 array precursors. The Ni nanosheets showed a single-crystalline lamellar structure with only ten atomic layers in thickness and an exposed (111) facet. Combined with a superaerophobic (low bubble adhesive) arrayed structure the Ni-NSAs exhibited a dramatic enhancement on both activity and stability towards the hydrazine-oxidation reaction (HzOR) relative to platinum. Furthermore, the partial oxidization of Ni-NSAs in ambient atmosphere resulted in effective water-splitting electrocatalysts for the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER). PMID:26582545

  14. Single-Crystalline Ultrathin Nickel Nanosheets Array from In Situ Topotactic Reduction for Active and Stable Electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Yun; Feng, Guang; Li, Pengsong; Bi, Yongmin; Li, Yaping; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously synthesizing and structuring atomically thick or ultrathin 2D non-precious metal nanocrystal may offer a new class of materials to replace the state-of-art noble-metal electrocatalysts; however, the synthetic strategy is the bottleneck which should be urgently solved. Here we report the synthesis of an ultrathin nickel nanosheet array (Ni-NSA) through in situ topotactic reduction from Ni(OH)2 array precursors. The Ni nanosheets showed a single-crystalline lamellar structure with only ten atomic layers in thickness and an exposed (111) facet. Combined with a superaerophobic (low bubble adhesive) arrayed structure the Ni-NSAs exhibited a dramatic enhancement on both activity and stability towards the hydrazine-oxidation reaction (HzOR) relative to platinum. Furthermore, the partial oxidization of Ni-NSAs in ambient atmosphere resulted in effective water-splitting electrocatalysts for the hydrogen-evolution reaction (HER). PMID:26582545

  15. Simultaneous cellulose conversion and hydrogen production assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guan; Ni, Chengsheng; Huang, Xiubing; Welgamage, Aakash; Lawton, Linda A; Robertson, Peter K J; Irvine, John T S

    2016-01-28

    Photocatalytic conversion of cellulose to sugars and carbon dioxide with simultaneous production of hydrogen assisted by cellulose decomposition under UV or solar light irradiation was achieved upon immobilization of cellulose onto a TiO2 photocatalyst. This approach enables production of hydrogen from water without using valuable sacrificial agents, and provides the possibility for recovering sugars as liquid fuels. PMID:26661296

  16. Synergetic degradation of rhodamine B at a porous ZnWO4 film electrode by combined electro-oxidation and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Zhu, Yongfa

    2006-05-15

    Synergetic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated by combining electro-oxidation and photocatalysis using porous ZnWO4 film at various bias potentials. The applied bias potential below 0.8 V enhanced the photocatalytic degradation of RhB by promoting the separation and transfer of photogenerated holes and electrons. At the potential between 0.8 and 1.0 V, the degradation of RhB was further enhanced, which is induced by direct electro-oxidation and photocatalysis. At the potential greater than 1.3 V, indirect electro-oxidation of RhB occurred with the largest synergetic effect. The synergetic effect can also increase the mineralization degree of the RhB. On the basis of the X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) analysis of the surface of the electrode after electrochemical reaction, the electropolymerization occurred which blocked the electrode and slowed the electro-oxidation of RhB. Active species generated via the photocatalytic process can activate the passivated electrode and promote the electro-oxidation of RhB. The O2 electrochemically generated at the anode promoted the photocatalysis by capturing the photogenerated electrons and may induce the formation of H2O2. Thus, more active species could be formed through new reactive routines in the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) process. RhB degradation was mainlythrough decomposition of the conjugated chromophore structure with slight occurrence of de-ethylation. The stability of the electrode in the PEC process was confirmed based on the XPS and Raman analysis. PMID:16749707

  17. Phase-Controlled Iron Oxide Nanobox Deposited on Hierarchically Structured Graphene Networks for Lithium Ion Storage and Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sol; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Ho Seok

    2016-01-01

    The phase control, hierarchical architecturing and hybridization of iron oxide is important for achieving multifunctional capability for many practical applications. Herein, hierarchically structured reduced graphene oxide (hrGO)/α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe3O4 nanobox hybrids (hrGO/α-Fe and hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs) are synthesized via a one-pot, hydrothermal process and their functionality controlled by the crystalline phases is adapted for energy storage and photocatalysis. The three-dimensionally (3D) macroporous structure of hrGO/α-Fe NBhs is constructed, while α-Fe2O3 nanoboxes (NBs) in a proximate contact with the hrGO surface are simultaneously grown during a hydrothermal treatment. The discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs are uniformly distributed on the surface of the hrGO/α-Fe and confined in the 3D architecture, thereby inhibiting the restacking of rGO. After the subsequent phase transition into γ-Fe3O4, the hierarchical structure and the uniform distribution of NBs are preserved. Despite lower initial capacity, the hrGO/α-Fe NBhs show better rate and cyclic performances than those of commercial rGO/α-Fe due to the uniform distribution of discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs and electronic conductivity, macroporosity, and buffering effect of the hrGO for lithium ion battery anodes. Moreover, the catalytic activity and kinetics of hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs are enhanced for photo-Fenton reaction because of the uniform distribution of discrete γ-Fe3O4 NBs on the 3D hierarchical architecture. PMID:26821937

  18. TiO2 nanotube arrays for photocatalysis: Effects of crystallinity, local order, and electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jing; Hosseinpour, Pegah M.; Luo, Si; Heiman, Don; Menon, Latika; Arena, Dario A.; Lewis, Laura H.

    2014-11-19

    To furnish insight into correlations of electronic and local structure and photoactivity, arrays of short and long TiO₂ nanotubes were synthesized by electrochemical anodization of Ti foil, followed by thermal treatment in O₂ (oxidizing), Ar (inert), and H₂ (reducing) environments. The physical and electronic structures of these nanotubes were probed with x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and correlated with their photocatalytic properties. The photocatalytic activity of the nanotubes was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange under UV-VIS light irradiation. Results show that upon annealing at 350 °C all as-anodized amorphous TiO₂ nanotube samples partially transform to the anatase structure, with variations in the degree of crystallinity and in the concentration of local defects near the nanotubes' surface (~5 nm) depending on the annealing conditions. Degradation of methyl orange was not detectable for the as-anodized TiO₂ nanotubes regardless of their length. The annealed long nanotubes demonstrated detectable catalytic activity, which was more significant with the H₂-annealed nanotubes than with the Ar- and O₂-annealed nanotube samples. This enhanced photocatalytic response of the H₂-annealed long nanotubes relative to the other samples is positively correlated with the presence of a larger concentration of lattice defects (such as Ti3+ and anticipated oxygen vacancies) and a slightly lower degree of crystallinity near the nanotube surface. These physical and electronic structural attributes impact the efficacy of visible light absorption; moreover, the increased concentration of surface defects is postulated to promote the generation of hydroxyl radicals and thus accelerate the photodegradation of the methyl orange. The information obtained from this study provides unique insight into the role of the near-surface electronic and defect structure, crystal structure, and the local chemical environment on the photocatalytic activity and may be employed for tailoring the materials' properties for photocatalysis and other energy-related applications.

  19. Photochemical preparation of CdS hollow microspheres at room temperature and their use in visible-light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yuying; Sun Fengqiang; Wu Tianxing; Wu Qingsong; Huang Zhong; Su Heng; Zhang Zihe

    2011-03-15

    CdS hollow microspheres have been successfully prepared by a photochemical preparation technology at room temperature, using polystyrene latex particles as templates, CdSO{sub 4} as cadmium source and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} as both sulphur source and photo-initiator. The process involved the deposition of CdS nanoparticles on the surface of polystyrene latex particles under the irradiation of an 8 W UV lamp and the subsequent removal of the latex particles by dispersing in dichloromethane. Photochemical reactions at the sphere/solution interface should be responsible for the formation of hollow spheres. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Such hollow spheres could be used in photocatalysis and showed high photocatalytic activities in photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The method is green, simple, universal and can be extended to prepare other sulphide and oxide hollow spheres. -- Graphical abstract: Taking polystyrene spheres dispersed in a precursor solution as templates, CdS hollow microspheres composed of nanoparticles were successfully prepared via a new photochemical route at room temperature. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Photochemical method was first employed to prepare hollow microspheres. {yields} CdS hollow spheres were first prepared at room temperature using latex spheres. {yields} The polystyrene spheres used as templates were not modified with special groups. {yields}The CdS hollow microspheres showed high visible-light photocatalytic activities.

  20. Surface-structure sensitivity of CeO2 nanocrystals in photocatalysis and enhancing the reactivity with nanogold

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lei, Wanying; Zhang, Tingting; Gu, Lin; Liu, Ping; Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Gang; Liu, Minghua

    2015-06-19

    Structure–function correlations are a central theme in heterogeneous (photo)catalysis. In this research, using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), the atomic surface structures of well-defined one-dimensional (1D) CeO2 nanorods (NRs) and 3D nanocubes (NCs) are directly visualized at subangstrom resolution. CeO2 NCs predominantly expose the {100} facet, with {110} and {111} as minor cutoff facets at the respective edges and corners. Notably, the outermost surface layer of the {100} facet is nearly O-terminated. Neither surface relaxations nor reconstructions on {100} are observed, indicating unusual polarity compensation, which is primarily mediated by near-surface oxygen vacancies. The surface of CeO2 NRs ismore » highly stepped, with the enclosed {110} facet exposing Ce cations and O anions on terraces. On the basis of STEM profile-view imaging and electronic structure analysis, the photoreactivity of CeO2 nanocrystals toward aqueous methyl orange degradation under UV is revealed to be surface-structure-sensitive, following the order: {110} >> {100}. The underlying surface-structure sensitivity can be attributed to the variation in low-coordinate surface cerium cations between {110} and {100} facets. To further enhance light absorption, Au nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited on CeO2 NRs to form Au/CeO2 plasmonic nanocomposites, which dramatically promotes the photoreactivity that is Au particle size- and excitation light wavelength-dependent. The mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity are discussed, highlighting the crucial role of photoexcited charge carrier transfer.« less

  1. Bio-inspired synthesis of Y2O3: Eu(3+) red nanophosphor for eco-friendly photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Prasanna kumar, J B; Ramgopal, G; Vidya, Y S; Anantharaju, K S; Daruka Prasad, B; Sharma, S C; Prashantha, S C; Premkumar, H B; Nagabhushana, H

    2015-04-15

    We report the synthesis of Y2O3: Eu(3+) (1-11 mol%) nanoparticles (NPs) with different morphologies via eco-friendly, inexpensive and simple low temperature solution combustion method using Aloe Vera gel as fuel. The formation of different morphologies of Y2O3: Eu(3+) NPs were characterized by PXRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, UV-Visible and PL techniques. The PXRD data and Rietveld analysis confirms the formation of single phase Y2O3 with cubic crystal structure. The influence of Eu(3+) ion concentration on the morphology, UV-Visible absorption, PL emission and photocatalytic activity of Y2O3: Eu(3+) nanostructures were investigated. Y2O3: Eu(3+) NPs exhibit intense red emission with CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.50, 0.47) and correlated color temperature values at different excitation ranges from 1868 to 2600 K. The control of Eu(3+) ion on Y2O3 matrix influences the photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) as a model compound was evaluated under UVA light. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of conical shaped Y2O3: Eu(3+) (1 mol%) was attributed to dopant concentration, crystallite size, textural properties and capability of reducing the electron-hole pair recombination. The trend of inhibitory effect in the presence of different radical scavengers followed the order SO4(2-)>Cl(-)>C2H5OH>HCO3(-)>CO3(2-). These findings show great promise of Y2O3: Eu(3+) NPs as a red phosphor in warm white LEDs as well as eco-friendly heterogeneous photocatalysis. PMID:25668696

  2. Graphene oxide/α-Bi(2)O(3) composites for visible-light photocatalysis, chemical catalysis, and solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Som, Tirtha; Troppenz, Gerald V; Wendt, R Robert; Wollgarten, Markus; Rappich, Jörg; Emmerling, Franziska; Rademann, Klaus

    2014-03-01

    The growing challenges of environmental purification by solar photocatalysis, precious-metal-free catalysis, and photocurrent generation in photovoltaic cells receive the utmost global attention. Here we demonstrate a one-pot, green chemical synthesis of a new stable heterostructured, ecofriendly, multifunctional microcomposite that consists of α-Bi2 O3 microneedles intercalated with anchored graphene oxide (GO) microsheets (1.0 wt %) for the above-mentioned applications on a large economical scale. The bare α-Bi2 O3 microneedles display two times better photocatalytic activities than commercial TiO2 (Degussa-P25), whereas the GO-hybridized composite exhibits approximately four to six times enhanced photocatalytic activities than the neat TiO2 photocatalyst in the degradation of colored aromatic organic dyes (crystal violet and rhodamine 6G) under visible-light irradiation (300 W tungsten lamp). The highly efficient activity is associated with the strong surface adsorption ability of GO for aromatic dye molecules, the high carrier acceptability, and the efficient electron-hole pair separation in Bi2 O3 by individual adjoining GO sheets. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles (2.0 wt %) further enhances the photocatalytic performance of the composite over eightfold because of a plasmon-induced electron-transfer process from Ag nanoparticles through the GO sheets into the conduction band of Bi2 O3 . The new composites are also catalytically active and catalyze the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of borohydride ions. Photoanodes assembled from GO/α-Bi2 O3 and Ag/GO/α-Bi2 O3 composites display an improved photocurrent response (power conversion efficiency ∼20 % higher) over those prepared without GO in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:24578169

  3. Bio-inspired synthesis of Y2O3: Eu3+ red nanophosphor for eco-friendly photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna kumar, J. B.; Ramgopal, G.; Vidya, Y. S.; Anantharaju, K. S.; Daruka Prasad, B.; Sharma, S. C.; Prashantha, S. C.; Premkumar, H. B.; Nagabhushana, H.

    2015-04-01

    We report the synthesis of Y2O3: Eu3+ (1-11 mol%) nanoparticles (NPs) with different morphologies via eco-friendly, inexpensive and simple low temperature solution combustion method using Aloe Vera gel as fuel. The formation of different morphologies of Y2O3: Eu3+ NPs were characterized by PXRD, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, UV-Visible and PL techniques. The PXRD data and Rietveld analysis confirms the formation of single phase Y2O3 with cubic crystal structure. The influence of Eu3+ ion concentration on the morphology, UV-Visible absorption, PL emission and photocatalytic activity of Y2O3: Eu3+ nanostructures were investigated. Y2O3: Eu3+ NPs exhibit intense red emission with CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.50, 0.47) and correlated color temperature values at different excitation ranges from 1868 to 2600 K. The control of Eu3+ ion on Y2O3 matrix influences the photocatalytic decolorization of methylene blue (MB) as a model compound was evaluated under UVA light. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of conical shaped Y2O3: Eu3+ (1 mol%) was attributed to dopant concentration, crystallite size, textural properties and capability of reducing the electron-hole pair recombination. The trend of inhibitory effect in the presence of different radical scavengers followed the order SO42- > Cl- > C2H5OH > HCO3- > CO32-. These findings show great promise of Y2O3: Eu3+ NPs as a red phosphor in warm white LEDs as well as eco-friendly heterogeneous photocatalysis.

  4. Surface-structure sensitivity of CeO2 nanocrystals in photocatalysis and enhancing the reactivity with nanogold

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Wanying; Zhang, Tingting; Gu, Lin; Liu, Ping; Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Gang; Liu, Minghua

    2015-06-19

    Structure–function correlations are a central theme in heterogeneous (photo)catalysis. In this research, using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), the atomic surface structures of well-defined one-dimensional (1D) CeO2 nanorods (NRs) and 3D nanocubes (NCs) are directly visualized at subangstrom resolution. CeO2 NCs predominantly expose the {100} facet, with {110} and {111} as minor cutoff facets at the respective edges and corners. Notably, the outermost surface layer of the {100} facet is nearly O-terminated. Neither surface relaxations nor reconstructions on {100} are observed, indicating unusual polarity compensation, which is primarily mediated by near-surface oxygen vacancies. The surface of CeO2 NRs is highly stepped, with the enclosed {110} facet exposing Ce cations and O anions on terraces. On the basis of STEM profile-view imaging and electronic structure analysis, the photoreactivity of CeO2 nanocrystals toward aqueous methyl orange degradation under UV is revealed to be surface-structure-sensitive, following the order: {110} >> {100}. The underlying surface-structure sensitivity can be attributed to the variation in low-coordinate surface cerium cations between {110} and {100} facets. To further enhance light absorption, Au nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited on CeO2 NRs to form Au/CeO2 plasmonic nanocomposites, which dramatically promotes the photoreactivity that is Au particle size- and excitation light wavelength-dependent. The mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of photocatalytic activity are discussed, highlighting the crucial role of photoexcited charge carrier transfer.

  5. Phase-Controlled Iron Oxide Nanobox Deposited on Hierarchically Structured Graphene Networks for Lithium Ion Storage and Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Sol; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Ho Seok

    2016-01-01

    The phase control, hierarchical architecturing and hybridization of iron oxide is important for achieving multifunctional capability for many practical applications. Herein, hierarchically structured reduced graphene oxide (hrGO)/α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe3O4 nanobox hybrids (hrGO/α-Fe and hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs) are synthesized via a one-pot, hydrothermal process and their functionality controlled by the crystalline phases is adapted for energy storage and photocatalysis. The three-dimensionally (3D) macroporous structure of hrGO/α-Fe NBhs is constructed, while α-Fe2O3 nanoboxes (NBs) in a proximate contact with the hrGO surface are simultaneously grown during a hydrothermal treatment. The discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs are uniformly distributed on the surface of the hrGO/α-Fe and confined in the 3D architecture, thereby inhibiting the restacking of rGO. After the subsequent phase transition into γ-Fe3O4, the hierarchical structure and the uniform distribution of NBs are preserved. Despite lower initial capacity, the hrGO/α-Fe NBhs show better rate and cyclic performances than those of commercial rGO/α-Fe due to the uniform distribution of discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs and electronic conductivity, macroporosity, and buffering effect of the hrGO for lithium ion battery anodes. Moreover, the catalytic activity and kinetics of hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs are enhanced for photo-Fenton reaction because of the uniform distribution of discrete γ-Fe3O4 NBs on the 3D hierarchical architecture.

  6. Phase-Controlled Iron Oxide Nanobox Deposited on Hierarchically Structured Graphene Networks for Lithium Ion Storage and Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sol; Lee, Young-Chul; Park, Ho Seok

    2016-01-01

    The phase control, hierarchical architecturing and hybridization of iron oxide is important for achieving multifunctional capability for many practical applications. Herein, hierarchically structured reduced graphene oxide (hrGO)/α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe3O4 nanobox hybrids (hrGO/α-Fe and hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs) are synthesized via a one-pot, hydrothermal process and their functionality controlled by the crystalline phases is adapted for energy storage and photocatalysis. The three-dimensionally (3D) macroporous structure of hrGO/α-Fe NBhs is constructed, while α-Fe2O3 nanoboxes (NBs) in a proximate contact with the hrGO surface are simultaneously grown during a hydrothermal treatment. The discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs are uniformly distributed on the surface of the hrGO/α-Fe and confined in the 3D architecture, thereby inhibiting the restacking of rGO. After the subsequent phase transition into γ-Fe3O4, the hierarchical structure and the uniform distribution of NBs are preserved. Despite lower initial capacity, the hrGO/α-Fe NBhs show better rate and cyclic performances than those of commercial rGO/α-Fe due to the uniform distribution of discrete α-Fe2O3 NBs and electronic conductivity, macroporosity, and buffering effect of the hrGO for lithium ion battery anodes. Moreover, the catalytic activity and kinetics of hrGO/γ-Fe NBhs are enhanced for photo-Fenton reaction because of the uniform distribution of discrete γ-Fe3O4 NBs on the 3D hierarchical architecture. PMID:26821937

  7. Prolonged hot electron dynamics in plasmonic-metal/semiconductor heterostructures with implications for solar photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    DuChene, Joseph S; Sweeny, Brendan C; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C; Su, Dong; Stach, Eric A; Wei, Wei David

    2014-07-21

    Ideal solar-to-fuel photocatalysts must effectively harvest sunlight to generate significant quantities of long-lived charge carriers necessary for chemical reactions. Here we demonstrate the merits of augmenting traditional photoelectrochemical cells with plasmonic nanoparticles to satisfy these daunting photocatalytic requirements. Electrochemical techniques were employed to elucidate the mechanics of plasmon-mediated electron transfer within Au/TiO2 heterostructures under visible-light (λ>515 nm) irradiation in solution. Significantly, we discovered that these transferred electrons displayed excited-state lifetimes two orders of magnitude longer than those of electrons photogenerated directly within TiO2 via UV excitation. These long-lived electrons further enable visible-light-driven H2 evolution from water, heralding a new photocatalytic paradigm for solar energy conversion. PMID:24920227

  8. Visible Light Photocatalysis via CdS/ TiO 2 Nanocomposite Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Wade, Jeremy; Stefanakos, Elias K.

    2006-01-01

    Nmore » anostructured colloidal semiconductors with heterogeneous photocatalytic behavior have drawn considerable attention over the past few years. This is due to their large surface area, high redox potential of the photogenerated charge carriers, and selective reduction/oxidation of different classes of organic compounds. In the present paper, we have carried out a systematic synthesis of nanostructured CdS- TiO 2 via reverse micelle process. The structural and microstructural characterizations of the as-prepared CdS- TiO 2 nanocomposites are determined using XRD and SEM-EDS techniques. The visible light assisted photocatalytic performance is monitored by means of degradation of phenol in water suspension.« less

  9. The degradation mechanism of methyl orange under photo-catalysis of TiO2.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lihong; Xi, Jingyu; Li, Ming-De; Chan, Hung Tat; Su, Tao; Phillips, David Lee; Chan, Wai Kin

    2012-03-14

    The properties of photo-generated reactive species, holes and electrons in bulk TiO(2) (anatase) film and nano-sized TiO(2) were studied and their effects towards decomposing pollutant dye methyl orange (MO) were compared by transient absorption spectroscopies. The recombination of holes and electrons in nano-sized TiO(2) was found to be on the microsecond time scale consistent with previous reports in the literature. However, in bulk TiO(2) film, the holes and electrons were found to be on the order of picoseconds due to ultra fast free electrons. The time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) technique combined with confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that the fluorescence intensity of MO is at first enhanced noticeably by TiO(2) under UV excitation and soon afterwards weakened dramatically, with the lifetime prolonged. Photo-generated holes in nano-sized TiO(2) can directly oxidize MO on the time scale of nanoseconds, while free electrons photo-generated in bulk TiO(2) film can directly inject into MO on the order of picoseconds. Through cyclic voltammetry measurements, it was found that MO can be reduced at -0.28 V and oxidized at 1.4 V (vs. SCE) and this provides thermodynamic evidence for MO to be degraded by electrons and holes in TiO(2). Through comparison of the hole-scavenging effect of MO and water, it was found that in polluted water when MO is above 1.6 × 10(-4) M, the degradation is mainly due to a direct hole oxidation process, while below 1.6 × 10(-4) M, hydroxyl oxidation competes strongly and might exceed the hole oxidation. PMID:22310904

  10. Impact of metal ions in porphyrin-based applied materials for visible-light photocatalysis: key information from ultrafast electronic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kar, Prasenjit; Sardar, Samim; Alarousu, Erkki; Sun, Jingya; Seddigi, Zaki S; Ahmed, Saleh A; Danish, Ekram Y; Mohammed, Omar F; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2014-08-11

    Protoporphyrin IX-zinc oxide (PP-ZnO) nanohybrids have been synthesized for applications in photocatalytic devices. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and steady-state infrared, absorption, and emission spectroscopies have been used to analyze the structural details and optical properties of these nanohybrids. Time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption techniques have been applied to study the ultrafast dynamic events that are key to photocatalytic activities. The photocatalytic efficiency under visible-light irradiation in the presence of naturally abundant iron(III) and copper(II) ions has been found to be significantly retarded in the former case, but enhanced in the latter case. More importantly, femtosecond (fs) transient absorption data have clearly demonstrated that the residence of photoexcited electrons from the sensitizer PP in the centrally located iron moiety hinders ground-state bleach recovery of the sensitizer, affecting the overall photocatalytic rate of the nanohybrid. The presence of copper(II) ions, on the other hand, offers additional stability against photobleaching and eventually enhances the efficiency of photocatalysis. In addition, we have also explored the role of UV light in the efficiency of photocatalysis and have rationalized our observations from femtosecond- to picosecond-resolved studies. PMID:25044047

  11. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. PMID:25934578

  12. Simultaneous monitoring of photocatalysis of three pharmaceuticals by immobilized TiO2 nanoparticles: Chemometric assessment, intermediates identification and ecotoxicological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, A. R.; Fathinia, M.; Joo, S. W.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of three pharmaceuticals, Metronidazole (MET), Atenolol (ATL) and Chlorpromazine (CPR), was quantified simultaneously during the UV/TiO2 process. The investigated TiO2 was Millennium PC-500 immobilized on ceramic plates by sol-gel based method. The partial least squares modeling was successfully applied for the multivariate calibration of the spectrophotometric data. The central composite design was applied to model and optimize the UV/TiO2 process. Predicted values of removal efficiency were found to be in good agreement with experimental values for MET, ATL and CPR (R2 = 0.947 and Adj-R2 = 0.906, R2 = 0.977 and Adj-R2 = 0.960 and R2 = 0.982 and Adj-R2 = 0.969, respectively). The optimum initial concentration of pharmaceuticals, reaction time and UV light intensity was found to be 10 mg L-1, 150 min and 38.45 W m-2, respectively. The main degradation intermediates of pharmaceuticals produced in this process were identified by GC-MS technique. The chronic ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals was evaluated using aquatic species Spirodela polyrrhiza prior to and after photocatalysis. The TOC results (90% removal after 16 h) and ecotoxicological experiments revealed that the photocatalysis process could effectively mineralize and reduce the ecotoxicity of the pharmaceuticals from their aqueous solutions.

  13. Band-engineered SrTiO{sub 3} nanowires for visible light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Q.; He, T.; Li, J. L.; Yang, G. W.

    2012-11-15

    We have theoretically investigated the structural, electronic, and optical properties of perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} nanowires for use in visible light photocatalytic applications using pseudopotential density-functional theory calculations. The electronic structure calculations show that the band gap is modified in the SrTiO{sub 3} nanowires compared with that of the bulk. For TiO{sub 2}-terminated nanowires, the mid-band states induced by the combination of oxygen and strontium atoms on the surface lead to a shift in the valence band toward the conduction band without interference from the edge of the conduction band, which reduces the band gap. On the contrary, the electronic states induced by the combination of oxygen and strontium atoms on the surface of SrO-terminated nanowires lead to a shift in the conduction band toward the valence band. The calculated optical results indicate that the absorption edge of the nanowires shift towards the red-light region. These theoretical results suggest that perovskite SrTiO{sub 3} nanowires are promising candidates for use in visible light photocatalytic processes such as solar-assisted water splitting reactions.

  14. Carbon functionalized TiO2 nanofibers for high efficiency photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghava Reddy, Kakarla; Gomes, Vincent G.; Hassan, Mahbub

    2014-03-01

    TiO2 nanofibers (30-50 nm diameter), fabricated by the electro-spinning process, were modified with organo-silane agents via a coupling reaction and were grafted with carbohydrate molecules. The mixture was carbonized to produce a uniform coating of amorphous carbon on the surface of the TiO2 nanofibers. The TiO2@C nanofibers were characterized by high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photocatalytic property of the functional TiO2 and carbon nanocomposite was tested via the decomposition of an organic pollutant. The catalytic activity of the covalently functionalized nanocomposite was found to be significantly enhanced in comparison to unfunctionalized composite and pristine TiO2 due to the synergistic effect of nanostructured TiO2 and amorphous carbon bound via covalent bonds. The improvement in performance is due to bandgap modification in the 1D co-axial nanostructure where the anatase phase is bound by nano-carbon, providing a large surface to volume ratio within a confined space. The superior photocatalytic performance and recyclability of 1D TiO2@C nanofiber composites for water purification were established through dye degradation experiments.

  15. Visible light Cr(VI) reduction and organic chemical oxidation by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Reddy, Ettireddy P; Smirniotis, Panagiotis G

    2005-08-15

    Here we report the simultaneous Cr(VI) reduction and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) oxidation in water under visible light (wavelength > 400 nm) using commercial Degussa P25 TiO2. This remarkable observation was attributed to a synergistic effect among TiO2, Cr(VI), and 4-CP. It is well known that TiO2 alone cannot remove either 4-CP or Cr(VI) efficiently under visible light. Moreover, the interaction between Cr(VI) and 4-CP is minimal if not negligible. However, we found that the combination of TiO2, Cr(VI), and 4-CP together can enable efficient Cr(VI) reduction and 4-CP oxidation under visible light. The specific roles of the three ingredients in the synergistic system were studied parametrically. It was found that optimal concentrations of Cr(VI) and TiO2 exist for the Cr(VI) reduction and 4-CP oxidation. Cr(VI) was compared experimentally with other metals such as Cu(ll), Fe(lll), Mn(IV), Ce(IV), and V(V). Among all these metal ions, only Cr(VI) promotes the photocatalytic oxidation of 4-CP. The amount of 4-CP removed was directly related to the initial concentration of Cr(VI). The system was also tested with four other chemicals (aniline, salicylic acid, formic acid, and diethyl phosphoramidate). We found that the same phenomenon occurred for organics containing acid and/or phenolic groups. Cr(VI) was reduced at the same time as the organic chemicals being oxidized during photoreaction under visible light. The synergistic effect was also found with pure anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2. This study demonstrates a possible economical way for environmental cleanup under visible light. PMID:16173589

  16. TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for photocatalysis: Effects of crystallinity, local order, and electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jing; Hosseinpour, Pegah M.; Lewis, Laura H.; Luo, Si; Heiman, Don; Menon, Latika; Arena, Dario A.

    2015-03-15

    To furnish insight into correlations of electronic and local structure and photoactivity, arrays of short and long TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were synthesized by electrochemical anodization of Ti foil, followed by thermal treatment in O{sub 2} (oxidizing), Ar (inert), and H{sub 2} (reducing) environments. The physical and electronic structures of these nanotubes were probed with x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and correlated with their photocatalytic properties. The photocatalytic activity of the nanotubes was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange under UV-VIS light irradiation. Results show that upon annealing at 350 °C all as-anodized amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotube samples partially transform to the anatase structure, with variations in the degree of crystallinity and in the concentration of local defects near the nanotubes' surface (∼5 nm) depending on the annealing conditions. Degradation of methyl orange was not detectable for the as-anodized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes regardless of their length. However, the annealed long nanotubes demonstrated detectable catalytic activity, which was more significant with the H{sub 2}-annealed nanotubes than with the Ar- and O{sub 2}-annealed nanotube samples. This enhanced photocatalytic response of the H{sub 2}-annealed long nanotubes relative to the other samples is positively correlated with the presence of a larger concentration of lattice defects (such as Ti{sup 3+} and anticipated oxygen vacancies) and a slightly lower degree of crystallinity near the nanotube surface. These physical and electronic structural attributes impact the efficacy of visible light absorption; moreover, the increased concentration of surface defects is postulated to promote the generation of hydroxyl radicals and thus accelerate the photodegradation of the methyl orange. The information obtained from this study provides unique insight into the role of the near-surface electronic and defect structure, crystal structure, and the local chemical environment on the photocatalytic activity and may be employed for tailoring the materials' properties for photocatalysis and other energy-related applications.

  17. Investigations of the effects of photocatalysis on the molecular assembly behavior of titanium alkoxide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musgraves, Jonathan David

    The present work focuses on the use of engineered, photoactive metal alkoxide precursors in the sol-gel processing of metal-oxide materials. The strategy under investigation seeks to integrate photoinduced structural modification with conventional sol-gel chemical preparations to enable the selective photo-activation of reaction points about the metal center during material formation. The approach thus has the potential to influence the development of intermolecular bonding geometry and to provide an opportunity to enforce or bias longer range structural development processes and resulting network topology. This ability to bias the long range structural development has been shown to provide opportunities both for photoinduced material formation and the potential to control multi-length scale structural characteristics of these materials. The response of a mononuclear, heteroleptic titanium alkoxide (OPy) 2Ti(4MP)2 [where OPy = pyridine carbinoxide and 4MP = 4-mercaptophenoxide] to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in dilute solution and in solid-state samples has been measured. Vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR absorption and Raman scattering) was used to monitor changes in molecular structure upon exposure to 337.1 and 365 nm light. Assignment of spectral features to vibrational modes of the molecule was aided by a normal-mode analysis of the energy-minimized molecular structure within a density functional theory (DFT) framework. Photoinduced decreases in peak areas were observed in both FTIR spectra of the precursor solutions and Raman data collected from solution-cast films of the precursor material. These changes were associated with vibrational modes localized at the 4MP ligands. Conversely, no significant modification of vibrational structure associated with the OPy moiety was observed under the excitation conditions examined. Excitation, with 248 nm light, of a solution of (OPy)2Ti(TAP) 2 [where OPy = pyridine carbinoxide and TAP = 2,4,6 tris(dimethylamino)phenoxide] in watercontaining pyridine has been shown to create an insoluble photoproduct in the region of the incident laser beam. Analysis of the photoproduct by Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of hydrolysis and condensation products as well as features consistent with the unreacted metal alkoxide, indicating destabilization of the alkoxide material that leads to intermolecular linking reactions. Further analysis indicates that it is excitations resonant with the pi -- pi* transitions in the aromatic ligands, as well as in the solvent, that provide this destabilization rather than excitations resonant with the charge transfer band in the molecule. These fundamental studies of the intrinsic molecular-level response of (OPy)2Ti(TAP)2 to ultraviolet irradiation have lead to the development of a novel thin film deposition process wherein the film is deposited directly from solution onto a substrate only in the regions in which it is exposed to ultraviolet light. The nanoscale porosity of films deposited from solution using this technique was found to be dependent on the chemistry of the precursor solution used, with a 1 part addition of water to the precursor producing films with 100 nm diameter surface pores, and an 8 part addition of water to the precursor producing films with no visible surface porosity. Post-deposition thermal treatments have been explored as a means to modify the as-deposited chemistry and nanostructure of the photodeposited films. Films that were fired to 350C under an oxygen atmosphere no longer showed FTIR features corresponding to ligand-based vibrational modes, with the Raman spectrum of the material showing an increase in the wavenumber range that is indicative of Ti-O-Ti bonding, leading to the conclusion that the residual alkoxide ligands had been removed. In contrast films fired to this temperature under argon showed Raman features assigned to graphite-like structures, indicating that the reducing atmosphere led to the retention of the phenyl moieties in the fired films. The experimental results obtained from optical spectroscopy for both (OPy)2Ti(4MP)2 and (OPy)2Ti(TAP)2 have been interpreted through the aid of quantum computational models. This modeling procedure, based in the Density Functional Theory framework, has allowed for an optimization of the proposed molecular structures into ground state geometries, from which normal mode analysis routines have been used to produce theoretical Raman and FTIR spectra. These calculations provided insight into the nature of the photoexcitation pathways available to the molecule upon the absorption of ultraviolet irradiation and the possible nature of the photoproducts formed as a result. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  18. Facile Synthesis of Defective TiO2−x Nanocrystals with High Surface Area and Tailoring Bandgap for Visible-light Photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Wajid Shah, Muhammad; Zhu, Yunqing; Fan, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yingxuan; Asim, Sumreen; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-01-01

    A facile hydrothermal approach has been developed to prepare defective TiO2−x nanocrystals using Ti(III)-salt as a precursor and L-ascorbic acid as reductant and structure direction agent. The prepared TiO2−x nanocrystals are composed of a highly crystallized TiO2 core and a disordered TiO2−x outer layer, possessing high surface area, controlled oxygen vacancy concentration and tunable bandgap via simply adjusting the amount of added L-ascorbic acid. The defective TiO2−x shows high photocatalytic efficiency in methylene blue and phenol degradation as well as in hydrogen evolution under visible light, underlining the significance of the present strategy for structural and bandgap manipulation in TiO2-based photocatalysis. PMID:26515503

  19. Facile Synthesis of Defective TiO2‑x Nanocrystals with High Surface Area and Tailoring Bandgap for Visible-light Photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wajid Shah, Muhammad; Zhu, Yunqing; Fan, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yingxuan; Asim, Sumreen; Wang, Chuanyi

    2015-10-01

    A facile hydrothermal approach has been developed to prepare defective TiO2‑x nanocrystals using Ti(III)-salt as a precursor and L-ascorbic acid as reductant and structure direction agent. The prepared TiO2‑x nanocrystals are composed of a highly crystallized TiO2 core and a disordered TiO2‑x outer layer, possessing high surface area, controlled oxygen vacancy concentration and tunable bandgap via simply adjusting the amount of added L-ascorbic acid. The defective TiO2‑x shows high photocatalytic efficiency in methylene blue and phenol degradation as well as in hydrogen evolution under visible light, underlining the significance of the present strategy for structural and bandgap manipulation in TiO2-based photocatalysis.

  20. A perfectly aligned 63 helical tubular cuprous bromide single crystal for selective photo-catalysis, luminescence and sensing of nitro-explosives.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ru-Xin; Hailili, Reshalaiti; Cui, Xin; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2015-02-21

    A perfectly aligned 63 helical tubular cuprous bromide single crystal has been synthesized and characterized, which can selectively decompose negatively charged dyes of Methyl Orange (MO) and Kermes Red (KR), and the photocatalytic efficiency is higher than that of nanosized (∼25 nm) TiO2 and ZnO. The direction and magnitude of the dipole moments as well as the band structure were calculated to reveal high photocatalytic efficiency. Moreover, luminescence studies indicate that the CuBr tube materials show very strong yellowish green emissions in the solid state and emulsion even at room temperature, and exhibit extremely high detection sensitivity towards nitro-explosives via fluorescence quenching. Detectable luminescence responses were observed at a very low concentration of 20 ppm with a high quenching efficiency of 94.90%. The results suggest that they may be promising multifunctional materials for photo-catalysis, luminescence and sensing of nitro-explosives. PMID:25601196

  1. Surface nanostructures in photocatalysts for visible-light-driven water splitting.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiko; Domen, Kazunari

    2011-01-01

    Overall water splitting to form hydrogen and oxygen over a heterogeneous (particulate) photocatalyst with solar energy is a promising process for clean and recyclable hydrogen production on a large-scale. In recent years, numerous attempts have been made for the development of photocatalysts that work under visible-light to utilize solar energy efficiently. This chapter describes recent research progress on heterogeneous photocatalysis for water splitting with visible light, particularly focusing on the development of nanostructured cocatalysts made by the authors' group. PMID:21516390

  2. Small Titanium Oxo Clusters: Primary Structures of Titanium(IV) in Water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanyun; Hou, Jie; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-01

    For sol-gel synthesis of titanium oxide, the titanium(IV) precursors are dissolved in water to form clear solutions. However, the solution status of titanium(IV) remains unclear. Herein three new and rare types of titanium oxo clusters are isolated from aqueous solutions of TiOSO4 and TiCl4 without using organic ligands. Our results indicate that titanium(IV) is readily hydrolyzed into oxo oligomers even in highly acidic solutions. The present clusters provide precise structural information for future characterization of the solution species and structural evolution of titanium(IV) in water and, meanwhile, are new molecular materials for photocatalysis. PMID:26990885

  3. Visible-Light Organic Photocatalysis for Latent Radical-Initiated Polymerization via 2e–/1H+ Transfers: Initiation with Parallels to Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the latent production of free radicals from energy stored in a redox potential through a 2e–/1H+ transfer process, analogous to energy harvesting in photosynthesis, using visible-light organic photoredox catalysis (photocatalysis) of methylene blue chromophore with a sacrificial sterically hindered amine reductant and an onium salt oxidant. This enables light-initiated free-radical polymerization to continue over extended time intervals (hours) in the dark after brief (seconds) low-intensity illumination and beyond the spatial reach of light by diffusion of the metastable leuco-methylene blue photoproduct. The present organic photoredox catalysis system functions via a 2e–/1H+ shuttle mechanism, as opposed to the 1e– transfer process typical of organometallic-based and conventional organic multicomponent photoinitiator formulations. This prevents immediate formation of open-shell (radical) intermediates from the amine upon light absorption and enables the “storage” of light-energy without spontaneous initiation of the polymerization. Latent energy release and radical production are then controlled by the subsequent light-independent reaction (analogous to the Calvin cycle) between leuco-methylene blue and the onium salt oxidant that is responsible for regeneration of the organic methylene blue photocatalyst. This robust approach for photocatalysis-based energy harvesting and extended release in the dark enables temporally controlled redox initiation of polymer syntheses under low-intensity short exposure conditions and permits visible-light-mediated synthesis of polymers at least 1 order of magnitude thicker than achievable with conventional photoinitiated formulations and irradiation regimes. PMID:24786755

  4. Efficient Water Splitting Catalyzed by Cobalt Phosphide-Based Nanoneedle Arrays Supported on Carbon Cloth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Song, Fang; Amal, Rose; Ng, Yun Hau; Hu, Xile

    2016-03-01

    Efficient and low-cost electrocatalysts for water splitting are essential for solar fuel production. Herein, we report that nanoarrays of CoP supported on carbon cloth are an efficient bifunctional catalyst for overall water splitting. The catalyst exhibits remarkable activity for both the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline media, delivering a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of 281 mV for OER and 95 mV for HER. During electrocatalysis, the surface of the CoP catalyst was covered with a layer of CoOx , which was the active species. However, the CoP core and the nanoarray morphology contributed significantly to the activity. PMID:26811938

  5. A novel copper(II) complex constructed with mixed ligands of biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (H 2bpdc) and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq): Synthesis, structure, electrochemistry and electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, HongYan; Wang, XiuLi; Hu, HaiLiang; Chen, BaoKuan; Liu, GuoCheng

    2009-03-01

    A novel metal-organic framework [Cu 2(bpdc) 2(Dpq) 2(H 2O)]·H 2O ( 1) has been obtained from hydrothermal reaction of copper chloride with the mixed ligands [biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (H 2bpdc) and dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline (Dpq)], and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TG and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The unique feature is that there simultaneously exist two kinds of one-dimensional (1-D) zigzag polymeric chains in complex 1. Moreover, the 1-D polymeric chains are ultimately packed into a three-dimensional (3-D) supramolecular framework through two different hydrogen bonding interactions. The adjacent different chains are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonding interactions, and the same kind chains are further connected through C-H⋯π stacking interactions. Additionally, the complex 1 was used as solid bulk-modifier to fabricate renewable carbon paste electrode (Cu-CPE) by the direct mixing method. The electrochemical behavior and electrocatalysis of Cu-CPE have been studied in detail. The results indicate that Cu-CPE give one-electron quasi-reversible redox waves in potential range of 400 to -300 mV due to the metal copper ion Cu(II)/Cu(I). The Cu-CPE showed good electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of the bromate, nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. The electrocatalytic reduction peak currents of KBrO 3, KNO 2 and H 2O 2 showed a linear dependence on their concentrations. All of the results revealed that the Cu-CPE had a good reproducibility, remarkable long-term stability and especially good surface renewability by simple mechanical polishing in the event of surface fouling, which is important for practical application.

  6. In situ synthesis of TiO2/SnO(x)-Au ternary heterostructures effectively promoting visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhao; Wu, Minghua; Wu, Jiaying; Ma, Yuanyuan; Ma, Zhenzhen

    2015-07-14

    TiO2/SnOx-Au ternary heterostructures were successfully fabricated via a simple in situ reduction of AuCl4(-) on TiO2 surfaces pre-modified with Sn(2+). The samples were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, N2 physical absorption and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra. Photocatalytic activity toward degradation of methylene blue (MB) aqueous solution under visible light irradiation was investigated. The results suggested that the highly dispersive and ultrafine Au nanoparticles (NPs) covered with SnOx were deposited onto the surface of TiO2. The heterostructures significantly enhanced the photocatalytic activity compared with the traditional TiO2/Au sample prepared by the impregnation method and also enhanced the activity more than the binary TiO2/SnOx sample. Moreover, the size of the Au NPs could be well controlled by simply tuning the dosage of HAuCl4, and the optimized catalytic activity of the ternary heterostructures was obtained when the dosage of Au was 1% and the Au particle size was ∼2.65 nm. The enhancement of photocatalytic performance could be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance effect of the Au NPs and the electron-sink function of the SnOx, which improve the optical absorption properties as well as photoinduced charge carrier separation, synergistically facilitating the photocatalysis. PMID:26061220

  7. Photo-induced transformation process at gold clusters-semiconductor interface: Implications for the complexity of gold clusters-based photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siqi; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The recent thrust in utilizing atomically precise organic ligands protected gold clusters (Au clusters) as photosensitizer coupled with semiconductors for nano-catalysts has led to the claims of improved efficiency in photocatalysis. Nonetheless, the influence of photo-stability of organic ligands protected-Au clusters at the Au/semiconductor interface on the photocatalytic properties remains rather elusive. Taking Au clusters–TiO2 composites as a prototype, we for the first time demonstrate the photo-induced transformation of small molecular-like Au clusters to larger metallic Au nanoparticles under different illumination conditions, which leads to the diverse photocatalytic reaction mechanism. This transformation process undergoes a diffusion/aggregation mechanism accompanied with the onslaught of Au clusters by active oxygen species and holes resulting from photo-excited TiO2 and Au clusters. However, such Au clusters aggregation can be efficiently inhibited by tuning reaction conditions. This work would trigger rational structural design and fine condition control of organic ligands protected-metal clusters-semiconductor composites for diverse photocatalytic applications with long-term photo-stability. PMID:26947754

  8. Field performance test of an air-cleaner with photocatalysis-plasma synergistic reactors for practical and long-term use.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Ichihashi, Erina; Nishida, Naoki; Machida, Tadashi; Uchida, Yoshitsugu; Hayashi, Yuji; Morito, Yuko; Fujishima, Akira

    2014-01-01

    A practical and long-term usable air-cleaner based on the synergy of photocatalysis and plasma treatments has been developed. A field test of the air-cleaner was carried out in an office smoking room. The results were compared to previously reported laboratory test results. Even after a treatment of 12,000 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke, the air-cleaner maintained high-level air-purification activity (98.9% ± 0.1% and 88% ± 1% removal of the total suspended particulate (TSP) and total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations, respectively) at single-pass conditions. Although the removal ratio of TSP concentrations was 98.6% ± 0.2%, the ratio of TVOC concentrations was 43.8% after a treatment of 21,900 cigarettes-worth of tobacco smoke in the field test. These results indicate the importance of suitable maintenance of the reactors in the air-cleaner during field use. PMID:25356565

  9. Photo-induced transformation process at gold clusters-semiconductor interface: Implications for the complexity of gold clusters-based photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2016-03-01

    The recent thrust in utilizing atomically precise organic ligands protected gold clusters (Au clusters) as photosensitizer coupled with semiconductors for nano-catalysts has led to the claims of improved efficiency in photocatalysis. Nonetheless, the influence of photo-stability of organic ligands protected-Au clusters at the Au/semiconductor interface on the photocatalytic properties remains rather elusive. Taking Au clusters–TiO2 composites as a prototype, we for the first time demonstrate the photo-induced transformation of small molecular-like Au clusters to larger metallic Au nanoparticles under different illumination conditions, which leads to the diverse photocatalytic reaction mechanism. This transformation process undergoes a diffusion/aggregation mechanism accompanied with the onslaught of Au clusters by active oxygen species and holes resulting from photo-excited TiO2 and Au clusters. However, such Au clusters aggregation can be efficiently inhibited by tuning reaction conditions. This work would trigger rational structural design and fine condition control of organic ligands protected-metal clusters-semiconductor composites for diverse photocatalytic applications with long-term photo-stability.

  10. Synthesis of novel 3D SnO flower-like hierarchical architectures self-assembled by nano-leaves and its photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Yongkui; Wang, Fengping Iqbal, M. Zubair; Wang, Ziya; Li, Yan; Tu, Jianhai

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Novel 3D SnO flowers self-assembled by 2D nano-leaves were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • The SnO nano-leaf is of single crystalline nature. • The band gap of 2.59 eV of as-prepared products was obtained. • The as-synthesized material will be a promising photocatalytic material. - Abstract: In this report, the novel 3D SnO flower-like hierarchical architectures self-assembled by 2D SnO nano-leaves are successfully synthesized via template-free hydrothermal approach under facile conditions. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy results demonstrate that the 2D nano-leaves structure is of single crystalline nature. The band gap 2.59 eV for prepared product is obtained from UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrum. The photocatalysis of the as prepared SnO for degrading methyl orange (MO) has been studied. A good photocatalytic activity is obtained and the mechanism is discussed in detail. Results indicate that the SnO nanostructures are the potential candidates for photocatalyst applications.

  11. Highly efficient photocatalysis of p-type Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} under visible-light illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Xian; Li, Yan Yan, Jian-Jun; Wang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Kesterite CZTS nanocrystal powder was synthesized by one-pot method. • First successful use CZTS nanocrystal powder as photocatalyst. • CZTS shows an efficient photocatalysis under visible light irradiation. • CZTS photocatalyst having excellent stability. - Abstract: Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}, as a very promising p-type semiconductor material, has been extensively used in the study of solar cells owing to its suitable band gap (1.1–1.5 eV), large absorption coefficient of 10{sup 4} cm{sup −1} in the visible spectrum, good photo stability, nontoxicity and relative abundance of the component elements. In this paper, we have successfully synthesized p-type kesterite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystal powder by facile one-pot method, and made our first successful attempt to use Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystal powder as a photocatalyst to degradation methyl orange under visible-light irradiation. The exciting results show that in the visible light region, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystal powder possesses an excellent photocatalytic performance of K = 0.0317 min{sup −1}, nearly about 6 times of well known commercial P25 titania powder performance under the same conditions, which suggests that the p-type kesterite Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} nanocrystal would be a promising candidate of photocatalyst.

  12. Soft chemical synthesis of carbon-modified Ti3+ self-doped hierarchical porous TiO2 with enhanced photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunxia; Wang, Zongsheng; Chen, Wen; Song, Yanbao; Chen, Xuehua; Xie, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Carbon-modified Ti3+ self-doped hierarchical porous titanium dioxides were synthesized by one-step soft chemical method. The contents of carbon and Ti3+ of the catalysts were tuned through a facile heat treatment. The prepared photocatalysts possess well-packed uniform macropores with the size of ˜200nm, mesoporous structure with the pore size of 5.9-6.8nm, and the specific surface area of 50-200m2/g. The results illustrate the carbon combined with TiO2 via the interfacial C‑O‑Ti bonds and the rich existence of Ti3+. The catalyst with 18wt.% carbon content exhibits a degradation ratio of crystal violet up to 97.5%. The enhanced photocatalysis is ascribed to the synergistic effect of carbon and Ti3+. The interfacial C‑O‑Ti bonds act as the pathway to transfer excited electrons and the Ti3+ can trap the electrons to hinder the recombination of electrons and holes.

  13. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation and Increasing Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Lauren; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data as a means to predict and evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytically created surfaces (building materials like glass, tile and cement) for air pollution mitigation purposes. When these surfaces are exposed to near UV light, organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, will degrade into environmentally friendly compounds. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is responsible for forecasting daily air quality by using the Air Quality Index (AQI) that is provided by AIRNow. EPA is partnered with AIRNow and is responsible for calculating the AQI for five major air pollutants that are regulated by the Clean Air Act. In this Solution, UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be used to help understand both the efficacy and efficiency of the photocatalytic decomposition process these surfaces facilitate, and their ability to reduce air pollutants. Prediction models that estimate photocatalytic function do not exist. NASA UV irradiance data will enable this capability, so that air quality agencies that are run by state and local officials can develop and implement programs that utilize photocatalysis for urban air pollution control and, enable them to make effective decisions about air pollution protection programs.

  14. Broad-spectrum antimicrobial photocatalysis mediated by titanium dioxide and UVA is potentiated by addition of bromide ion via formation of hypobromite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ximing; Huang, Ying-Ying; Kushida, Yu; Bhayana, Brijesh; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-06-01

    Antimicrobial photocatalysis involves the UVA excitation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (particularly the anatase form) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) that kill microbial cells. For the first time we report that the addition of sodium bromide to photoactivated TiO2 (P25) potentiates the killing of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi by up to three logs. The potentiation increased with increasing bromide concentration in the range of 0-10mM. The mechanism of potentiation is probably due to generation of both short and long-lived oxidized bromine species including hypobromite as shown by the following observations. There is some antimicrobial activity remaining in solution after switching off the light, that lasts for 30min but not 2h, and oxidizes 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine. N-acetyl tyrosine ethyl ester was brominated in a light dose-dependent manner, however no bromine or tribromide ion could be detected by spectrophotometry or LC-MS. The mechanism appears to have elements in common with the antimicrobial system (myeloperoxidase+hydrogen peroxide+bromide). PMID:27012419

  15. Combination of heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction and photocatalysis using Co-TiO₂nanocatalyst for activation of KHSO₅ with visible light irradiation at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingkong; Ji, Fangying; Guo, Qian; Fan, Jianping; Xu, Xuan

    2014-12-01

    A novel coupled system using Co-TiO₂was successfully designed which combined two different heterogeneous advanced oxidation processes, sulfate radical based Fenton-like reaction (SR-Fenton) and visible light photocatalysis (Vis-Photo), for degradation of organic contaminants. The synergistic effect of SR-Fenton and Vis-Photo was observed through comparative tests of 50mg/L Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation and TOC removal. The Rhodamine B degradation rate and TOC removal were 100% and 68.1% using the SR-Fenton/Vis-Photo combined process under ambient conditions, respectively. Moreover, based on XRD, XPS and UV-DRS characterization, it can be deduced that tricobalt tetroxide located on the surface of the catalyst is the SR-Fenton active site, and cobalt ion implanted in the TiO₂lattice is the reason for the visible light photocatalytic activity of Co-TiO₂. Finally, the effects of the calcination temperature and cobalt concentration on the synergistic performance were also investigated and a possible mechanism for the synergistic system was proposed. This coupled system exhibited excellent catalytic stability and reusability, and almost no dissolution of Co²⁺ was found. PMID:25499492

  16. Photo-induced transformation process at gold clusters-semiconductor interface: Implications for the complexity of gold clusters-based photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siqi; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The recent thrust in utilizing atomically precise organic ligands protected gold clusters (Au clusters) as photosensitizer coupled with semiconductors for nano-catalysts has led to the claims of improved efficiency in photocatalysis. Nonetheless, the influence of photo-stability of organic ligands protected-Au clusters at the Au/semiconductor interface on the photocatalytic properties remains rather elusive. Taking Au clusters-TiO2 composites as a prototype, we for the first time demonstrate the photo-induced transformation of small molecular-like Au clusters to larger metallic Au nanoparticles under different illumination conditions, which leads to the diverse photocatalytic reaction mechanism. This transformation process undergoes a diffusion/aggregation mechanism accompanied with the onslaught of Au clusters by active oxygen species and holes resulting from photo-excited TiO2 and Au clusters. However, such Au clusters aggregation can be efficiently inhibited by tuning reaction conditions. This work would trigger rational structural design and fine condition control of organic ligands protected-metal clusters-semiconductor composites for diverse photocatalytic applications with long-term photo-stability. PMID:26947754

  17. Synergistic photocatalysis of Cr(VI) reduction and 4-Chlorophenol degradation over hydroxylated α-Fe2O3 under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Chao; Ren, Juan; Yao, Hong-Chang; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Jian-She; Zang, Shuang-Quan; Han, Li-Feng; Li, Zhong-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A series of Fe2O3 materials with hydroxyl are synthesized in different monohydric alcohol (C2-C5) solvents by solvothermal method and characterized by XRD, BET, XPS, TG and EA. The amount of hydroxyl is demonstrated to be emerged on the surface of the as-synthesized Fe2O3 particles and their contents are determined to be from 7.99 to 3.74wt%. The Cr(VI) reduction experiments show that the hydroxyl content of Fe2O3 samples exacts great influence on the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation (λ>400nm) and that the Fe2O3 sample synthesized in n-butyl alcohol exhibits the optimal photocatalytic activity. The synergistic photocatalysis for 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) degradation and Cr(VI) reduction over above Fe2O3 sample is further investigated. The photocatalytic ratio of Cr(VI) reduction are enhanced from 24.8% to 70.2% while that of 4-CP oxidation are increased from 13.5% to 47.8% after 1h visible light irradiation. The Fe2O3 sample keeps good degradation rates of mixed pollutants after 9 runs. The active oxygen intermediates O2(-), OH and H2O2 formed in the photoreaction process are discovered by ESR measurement and UV-vis test. The photocatalytic degradation mechanism is proposed accordingly. PMID:26954471

  18. Recent developments of zinc oxide based photocatalyst in water treatment technology: A review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kian Mun; Lai, Chin Wei; Ngai, Koh Sing; Juan, Joon Ching

    2016-01-01

    Today, a major issue about water pollution is the residual dyes from different sources (e.g., textile industries, paper and pulp industries, dye and dye intermediates industries, pharmaceutical industries, tannery and craft bleaching industries, etc.), and a wide variety of persistent organic pollutants have been introduced into our natural water resources or wastewater treatment systems. In fact, it is highly toxic and hazardous to the living organism; thus, the removal of these organic contaminants prior to discharge into the environment is essential. Varieties of techniques have been employed to degrade those organic contaminants and advanced heterogeneous photocatalysis involving zinc oxide (ZnO) photocatalyst appears to be one of the most promising technology. In recent years, ZnO photocatalyst have attracted much attention due to their extraordinary characteristics. The high efficiency of ZnO photocatalyst in heterogeneous photocatalysis reaction requires a suitable architecture that minimizes electron loss during excitation state and maximizes photon absorption. In order to further improve the immigration of photo-induced charge carriers during excitation state, considerable effort has to be exerted to further improve the heterogeneous photocatalysis under UV/visible/solar illumination. Lately, interesting and unique features of metal doping or binary oxide photocatalyst system have gained much attention and became favourite research matter among various groups of scientists. It was noted that the properties of this metal doping or binary oxide photocatalyst system primarily depend on the nature of the preparation method and the role of optimum dopants content incorporated into the ZnO photocatalyst. Therefore, this paper presents a critical review of recent achievements in the modification of ZnO photocatalyst for organic contaminants degradation. PMID:26519627

  19. Interplay between Water and TiO2 Anatase (101) Surface with Subsurface Oxygen Vacancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yadong; Gao, Yi

    2014-05-01

    The interaction between water and the TiO2 anatase (101) surface with a subsurface VO is studied using first-principles calculations. Upon water adsorption, the relative stability of the subsurface and surface VO reverses. The surface VO becomes energetically more stable than its subsurface counterpart, which induces VO to migrate from the subsurface to the surface with a very low energy barrier. Then the adsorbed water molecule can easily dissociate through a barrierless pathway facilitated by surface VO. This reaction pathway has a similar energy barrier with another pathway under which water dissociates with the presence of subsurface VO followed by VO migration from the subsurface layer to the surface layer, indicating that subsurface VO can facilitate water dissociation directly, or, via surface VO indirectly. This novel interplay between the adsorbate and substrate defects may provide a new way to explain the origin of the activity of anatase (101) in photocatalysis in aqueous surroundings.

  20. Synthesis and visible light photocatalysis water splitting property of Cu-doped NaInS{sub 2} synthesized by a hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, HongJie; Chen, Gang; He, Xiaodong; Xu, Jing

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Cu-doped NaInS{sub 2} powders were prepared by the solvethermal method. ► The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, and DRS (diffuse reflection spectra). ► The effects of Cu doping ion on the photocatalytic activity were studied. ► The effects of Pt loading on the photocatalytic activity were investigated. -- Abstract: Copper-doped NaInS{sub 2} with hexagonal blocks morphology was prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method and the photocatalytic activity was investigated. The as-synthesized products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–vis spectroscopy. XRD patterns show that the Cu ions doping has no effect on the crystal structure of NaInS{sub 2}. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra show that the absorption wavelength of Cu-doped NaInS{sub 2} occurs red-shift which originated from Cu3d orbital forming impurity level. The photocatalytic activity was increased by Cu doping. The optimal doping amount of Cu{sup 2+} is 1.5 ml.

  1. Destruction of trace organics in otherwise ultra pure water

    SciTech Connect

    Prairie, M.R.; Stange, B.M.; Showalter, S.K.; Magrini, K.A.

    1995-12-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to determine the economic viability of applying various ultraviolet (UV) oxidation processes to a waste water stream containing approximately 12 mg/L total organic carbon (TOC), predominately ethylene glycol. In all experiments, a test solution was illuminated with either near-UV or a far-UV light alone or in combination with a variety of photocatalysts and oxidants. Based upon the outcomes of this project, both UV/photocatalysis and UV/ozone processes are capable of treating the water sample to below detection capabilities of TOC. However, the processes are fairly energy intensive; the most efficient case tested required 11 kWh per order of magnitude reduction in TOC per 1000 L. If energy consumption rates of 5-10 kWh/1000 L are deemed reasonable, then further investigation is recommended.

  2. Destruction of Trace Organics in Otherwise Ultra Pure Water

    SciTech Connect

    Prairie, M. R.; Stange, B. M.; Showalter, S. K.; Magrini, K. A.

    1995-12-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to determine the economic viability of applying various ultraviolet (UV) oxidation processes to a waste water stream containing approximately 12 mg/L total organic carbon (TOC), predominately ethylene glycol. In all experiments, a test solution was illuminated with either near-UV or a far-UV light alone or in combination with a variety of photocatalysts and oxidants. Based upon the outcomes of this project, both UV/photocatalysis and UV/ozone processes are capable of treating the water sample to below detection capabilities of TOC. However, the processes are fairly energy intensive; the most efficient case tested required 11 kWh per order of magnitude reduction in TOC per 1000 L. If energy consumption rates of 5-10 kWh/1000 L are deemed reasonable, then further investigation is recommended.

  3. Hybrid Density Functional Study on Mono- and Codoped NaNbO3 for Visible-Light Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Zhao; Chen, Hong; Wu, Gang; Kuang, An-Long; Yuan, Hong-Kuang

    2016-02-01

    Monodoping with Mo, Cr, and N atoms, and codoping with Mo-N and Cr-N atom pairs, are utilized to adjust the band structure of NaNbO3 , so that NaNbO3 can effectively make use of visible light for the photocatalytic decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, as determined by using the hybrid density functional. Codoping is energetically favorable compared with the corresponding monodoping, due to strong Coulombic interactions between the dopants and other atoms, and the effective band gap and stability for codoped systems increase with decreasing dopant concentration and the distance between dopants. The molybdenum, chromium, and nitrogen monodoped systems, as well as chromium-nitrogen codoped systems, are unsuitable for the photocatalytic decomposition of water by using visible light, because defects introduced by monodoping or the presence of unoccupied states above the Fermi level, which promotes electron-hole recombination processes, suppress their photocatalytic performance. The Mo-N codoped NaNbO3 sample is a promising photocatalyst for the decomposition of water by using visible light because Mo-N codoping can reduce the band gap to a suitable value with respect to the water redox level without introducing unoccupied states. PMID:26748542

  4. TiO2 nanotube arrays grown in ionic liquids: high-efficiency in photocatalysis and pore-widening

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huaqing; Qu, Jun; Cui, Qingzhou; Xu, Hanbing; Luo, Huimin; Chi, Miaofang; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Wang, Wei; Dai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Debris-free, long, well-separated TiO2 nanotube arrays were obtained using an ionic liquid (IL) as electrolyte. The high conductivity of IL resulted in fast pore widening and few contaminants from electrolyte decomposition leading to high photocatalytic efficiency in water splitting.

  5. Visible-Light Responsive Catalysts Using Quantum Dot-Modified TiO2 for Air and Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Clausen, Christian A.; Richards, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Photocatalysis, the oxidation or reduction of contaminants by light-activated catalysts, utilizing titanium dioxide (TiO2) as the catalytic substrate has been widely studied for trace contaminant control in both air and water applications. The interest in this process is due primarily to its low energy consumption and capacity for catalyst regeneration. Titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its relatively large band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Traditionally, Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in PCO reactors; however, the use of mercury precludes the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure.

  6. Synergy of metal and nonmetal dopants for visible-light photocatalysis: a case-study of Sn and N co-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yingguang; Chu, Zhenwei; Long, Jinlin; An, Xiaohan; Zhang, Hongwen; Lin, Huaxiang; Zhang, Zizhong; Wang, Xuxu

    2016-04-14

    This paper mainly focuses on the synergistic effect of Sn and N dopants to enhance the photocatalytic performance of anatase TiO2 under visible light or simulated solar light irradiation. The Sn and N co-doped TiO2 (SNT-x) photocatalysts were successfully prepared by the facile sol-gel method and the post-nitridation route in the temperature range of 400-550 °C. All the as-prepared samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron and electron spin resonance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. The characterization results reveal that the co-incorporation of Sn and N atoms remarkably modifies the electronic structure of TiO2, which gives rise to a prominent separation of photogenerated charge carriers and more efficient interfacial charge-transfer reactions in a photocatalytic process. The enhanced photocatalytic activity is attributed to the intensified active oxygen species including hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) and superoxide anion radicals (O2˙(-)) for degradation of organic pollutants. And the result of photocatalytic hydrogen production further confirms the existence of the synergistic effect in the SNT-x samples, because they exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than the sum of N/TiO2 and Sn/TiO2. This work provides a paradigm to consolidate the understanding of the synergistic effect of metal and non-metal co-doped TiO2 in domains of photocatalysis and photoelectrochemistry. PMID:26996319

  7. Effect of Ag/Au bilayer assisted etching on the strongly enhanced photoluminescence and visible light photocatalysis by Si nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ramesh; Imakita, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru; Giri, P K

    2016-03-01

    We report on the strongly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) and visible light photocatalysis by arrays of vertically aligned single crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) grown by Ag/Au bilayer assisted etching. High resolution FESEM and TEM imaging reveals that the Si NWs are decorated with ultra-small size arbitrary shaped Si nanocrystals (NCs) due to the lateral etching of the NWs. A strong broad band and tunable visible to near-infrared (NIR) photoluminescence (PL) in the range 1.3-2.4 eV are observed for these Si NWs/NCs at room temperature, depending on the etching conditions. Our studies reveal that the visible-NIR PL intensity is about two orders of magnitude higher and it exhibits faster decay dynamics in the bilayer assisted etching case as compared to the Ag or Au single layer etching case. The enhanced PL in the bimetal case is attributed to the longer length and higher density of the Si NWs/NCs, surface plasmon resonance enhanced absorption by residual bimetal NPs and the enhanced radiative recombination rate. Studies on the time evolution of PL spectral features with laser exposure under ambient conditions and laser power dependence reveal that both the quantum confinement of carriers in Si NCs and the nonbridging oxygen hole defects in the SiOx layer contribute to the tunable PL. Interestingly, Si NWs grown by Ag/Au bilayer assisted etching exhibit enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in comparison to Si NWs grown by single layer Ag or Au assisted etching. The Schottky barrier present between bimetallic NPs and nanoporous Si NWs with Si-H bonds facilitates the photocatalytic activity by efficient separation of photogenerated e-h pairs. Our results demonstrate the superiority of the Si NW array grown by bilayer assisted etching for their cutting edge applications in optoelectronics and environmental cleaning. PMID:26907170

  8. Disinfection of urban wastewater by solar driven and UV lamp - TiO₂ photocatalysis: effect on a multi drug resistant Escherichia coli strain.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, L; Della Sala, A; Fiorentino, A; Li Puma, G

    2014-04-15

    The effect of TiO₂ photocatalysis on the inactivation of an antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli strain selected from an urban wastewater treatment plant (UWWTP) effluent was investigated. Different light sources including a 250 W wide spectrum lamp, a 125 W UV-A lamp and solar radiation, as well as, photocatalysts loadings (TiO₂ Degussa P25) in the range from 0.05 to 2.00 g TiO₂ L(-1) were evaluated. The higher efficiency (total bacterial inactivation after 10 min of irradiation) was observed in the absence of TiO₂ when the wastewater was irradiated using the 250 W lamp. In the presence of TiO₂ a decreasing inactivation trend was observed (99.76% and 72.22% inactivation after 10 min irradiation at 0.10 and 2.00 g TiO₂ L(-1) respectively). Under solar simulated conditions the highest inactivation efficiency (93.17%) after 10 min of irradiation was achieved at the lower photocatalyst loading (0.05 g TiO₂ L(-1)). The concept of "reactor optical thickness" was introduced to explain the rates of disinfection observed. The optimum photocatalyst loading estimated by radiation absorption-scattering modeling was found to be 0.1 g TiO₂ L(-1) for all lamps. The difference between experimental tests and modeling may be due to TiO₂ particles aggregation. Comparative kinetic tests between solar and solar simulated photocatalytic (SSP) processes using 0.05 g TiO₂ L(-1) in suspension showed a quite similar inactivation behavior up to 30 min of irradiation, but only the SSP process resulted in a total inactivation of bacteria after 60 min of exposure. Antibiotic resistant test (Kirby-Bauer) on survived colonies showed that the SSP and SP processes affected in different ways the resistance of E. coli strain to the target antibiotics. PMID:24525064

  9. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem and high resolution mass spectrometry for the characterisation of ofloxacin transformation products after titanium dioxide photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Villarin, Javier; Serra-Clusellas, Anna; Martínez, Cristina; Conesa, Aleix; Garcia-Montaño, Júlia; Moyano, Encarnación

    2016-04-22

    The characterization of pharmaceutical drugs and their transformation products have become an important analytical research field because its presence in the environment could induce bacterial resistance. Despite all efforts made by the scientific community, detection and structure identification of unknown chemicals still remains the most challenging task in non-targeted analytics. Given that, the objective of the present study was to develop an untargeted workflow to detect, quantify, identify and characterize ofloxacin and its transformation products (OFX TPs) after photocatalytic treatments based on TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanofibers. For the characterization and chemical structure assignment of OFX TPs, mass defect filters, mass accurate measurements (HRMS), tandem mass spectrometry in a q-Orbitrap (MS/HRMS) and the photocatalysis of the isotopically labelled ofloxacin (OFX-d3) were used. Since a large set of data was obtained in each run, data treatment based on statistical analysis and mass defect filtering was used to reduce the number of potential TP candidates from 2497m/z peaks to 70. Moreover, ions generated by in-source CID and by redox reactions in the electrospray source (ESI) were also detected and discarded from the TP candidate list. Moreover, the whole kinetics evolution of the generated TPs provided a deeper insight into the degradation mechanism and was used to propose a degradation pathway for the OFX in the aqueous phase. The time evolution of the TPs generated during the photocatalytic process using both types of catalysts (NPs and NFs) and different set-ups (suspended and supported conditions) indicated that OFX was completely removed from the aqueous solution in less than 4h. Among the condition tested TiO2 nanoparticles in suspended conditions showed the fastest kinetics (k: 0.161min(-1)). PMID:27025791

  10. Towards multielectron photocatalysis: a porphyrin array for lateral hole transfer and capture on a metal oxide surface.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Bradley J; Durrell, Alec C; Koepf, Matthieu; Crabtree, Robert H; Brudvig, Gary W

    2015-05-21

    Current molecular water-oxidation photoelectrocatalytic cells have substantial kinetic limitations under normal solar photon flux where electron-hole recombination processes may outcompete charge buildup on the catalytic centers. One method of overcoming these limitations is to design a system where multiple light-harvesting dyes work cooperatively with a single catalyst. We report a porphyrin monomer/dyad array for analysis of lateral hole transfer on a SnO2 surface consisting of a free-base porphyrin that functions to absorb light and initiate charge injection into the conduction band of SnO2, which leaves a positive charge on the organic moiety, and a free-base porphyrin/Zn-porphyrin dyad molecule that functions as a thermodynamic trap for the photoinduced holes. By using transient absorption spectroscopy, we have determined that the holes on the surface-bound free-base porphyrins are highly mobile via electron self-exchange between close-packed neighbors. The lateral charge-transfer processes were modelled by treating the system statistically with a random-walk method that utilizes experimentally derived kinetic parameters. The results of the modelling indicate that each self-exchange (hop) occurs within 25 ns and that the holes are efficiently transferred to the Zn-porphyrin. This hole-harvesting scheme provides a framework for enhancing the efficiency of multielectron photoelectrocatalytic reactions such as the four-electron oxidation of water. PMID:25904199

  11. Polydopamine-Coated Porous Substrates as a Platform for Mineralized β-FeOOH Nanorods with Photocatalysis under Sunlight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Yang, Hao-Cheng; Wan, Ling-Shu; Liang, Hong-Qing; Li, Hanying; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2015-06-01

    Immobilization of photo-Fenton catalysts on porous materials is crucial to the efficiency and stability for water purification. Here we report polydopamine (PDA)-coated porous substrates as a platform for in situ mineralizing β-FeOOH nanorods with enhanced photocatalytic performance under sunlight. The PDA coating plays multiple roles as an adhesive interface, a medium inducing mineral generation, and an electron transfer layer. The mineralized β-FeOOH nanorods perfectly wrap various porous substrates and are stable on the substrates that have a PDA coating. The immobilized β-FeOOH nanorods have been shown to be efficient for degrading dyes in water via a photo-Fenton reaction. The degradation efficiency reaches approximately 100% in 60 min when the reaction was carried out with H2O2 under visible light, and it remains higher than 90% after five cycles. We demonstrate that the PDA coating promotes electron transfer to reduce the electron-hole recombination rate. As a result, the β-FeOOH nanorods wrapped on the PDA-coated substrates show enhanced photocatalytic performance under direct sunlight in the presence of H2O2. Moreover, this versatile platform using porous materials as the substrate is useful in fabricating β-FeOOH nanorods-based membrane reactor for wastewater treatment. PMID:25969860

  12. Strongly Coupled 3D Hybrids of N-doped Porous Carbon Nanosheet/CoNi Alloy-Encapsulated Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Cui, Shumao; Wen, Zhenhai; Guo, Xiaoru; Feng, Xinliang; Chen, Junhong

    2015-11-25

    A novel 3D nanoarchitecture comprising in situ-formed N-doped CoNi alloy-encapsulated carbon nanotubes (CoNi-NCNTs) grown on N-doped porous carbon nanosheets (NPCNs) is designed and constructed for both oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). When evaluated as an electrocatalyst for ORR, the hybrid shows efficient catalytic activity, high selectivity, superior durability, and strong tolerance against methanol crossover compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst. Such good oxygen reduction reaction performance is comparable to most of the previously reported results and the synergistic effect is found to boost the catalytic performance. Moreover, the constructed hybrid exhibits an excellent ORR activity with a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at 1.59 V and an onset potential of 1.57 V, even beyond the state-of-the-art Ir/C catalyst in alkaline media. The enhancement in electrochemical performance can be attributed to the unique morphology and defect structures, high porosity, good conductive networks, and strongly interacting CoNi-NCNT and NPCN in the hybrid. These results suggest the possibility for the development of effective nanocarbon electrocatalysts to replace commercial noble metal catalysts for direct use in fuel cells and water splitting devices. PMID:26449376

  13. Enhanced Reduced Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide electrocatalysis onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes-decorated gold nanoparticles and their use in hybrid biofuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino Neto, S.; Almeida, T. S.; Belnap, D. M.; Minteer, S. D.; De Andrade, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the preparation of Au nanoparticles synthetized by different protocols and supported on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes containing different functional groups, focusing on their electrochemical performance towards NADH oxidation, ethanol bioelectrocatalysis, and ethanol/O2 biofuel cell. We describe four different synthesis protocols: microwave-assisted heating, water-in-oil, and dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles using acid or thiol species in the extraction step. The physical characterization of the metallic nanoparticles indicated that both the synthetic protocol as well as the type of functional groups on the carbon nanotubes affect the final particle size (varying from 13.4 to 2.4 nm) and their distribution onto the carbon surface. Moreover, the electrochemical data indicated that these two factors also influence their performance toward the electrooxidation of NADH. We observed that the samples containing Au nanoparticles with smaller size leads to higher catalytic currents and also shifts the oxidation potential of the targeted reaction, which varied from 0.13 to -0.06 V vs Ag/AgCl. Ethanol/O2 biofuel cell tests indicated that the hybrid bioelectrodes containing smaller and better distributed Au nanoparticles on the surface of carbon nanotubes generates higher power output, confirming that the electrochemical regeneration of NAD+ plays an important role in the overall biofuel cell performance.

  14. Predicting Single-Layer Technetium Dichalcogenides (TcX2, X = S, Se) with Promising Applications in Photovoltaics and Photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yalong; Zhou, Liujiang; Ma, Fengxian; Gao, Guoping; Kou, Liangzhi; Bell, John; Sanvito, Stefano; Du, Aijun

    2016-03-01

    One of the least known compounds among transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) is the layered triclinic technetium dichalcogenides (TcX2, X = S, Se). In this work, we systematically study the structural, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers based on density functional theory (DFT). We find that TcS2 and TcSe2 can be easily exfoliated in a monolayer form because their formation and cleavage energy are analogous to those of other experimentally realized TMDCs monolayer. By using a hybrid DFT functional, the TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers are calculated to be indirect semiconductors with band gaps of 1.91 and 1.69 eV, respectively. However, bilayer TcS2 exhibits direct-bandgap character, and both TcS2 and TcSe2 monolayers can be tuned from semiconductor to metal under effective tensile/compressive strains. Calculations of visible light absorption indicate that 2D TcS2 and TcSe2 generally possess better capability of harvesting sunlight compared to single-layer MoS2 and ReSe2, implying their potential as excellent light-absorbers. Most interestingly, we have discovered that the TcSe2 monolayer is an excellent photocatalyst for splitting water into hydrogen due to the perfect fit of band edge positions with respect to the water reduction and oxidation potentials. Our predictions expand the two-dimensional (2D) family of TMDCs, and the remarkable electronic/optical properties of monolayer TcS2 and TcSe2 will place them among the most promising 2D TMDCs for renewable energy application in the future. PMID:26859697

  15. Fabrication of TiO2 film with different morphologies on Ni anode and application in photoassisted water electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongbo; Chen, Aiping; Lv, Hui; Dong, Haijun; Chang, Ming; Li, Chunzhong

    2013-02-01

    The anode of an alkaline electrolytic cell for water electrolysis was modified by TiO2 photocatalysts with different morphologies. The water electrolysis was coupled with photocatalytic decomposition of water by irradiation of UV light on the modified anode. And a feasible process for the hydrogen production of water electrolysis assisted by photocatalysis (WEAP) was proposed and experimentally confirmed. The results show that the highly ordered, vertically oriented tubular arrays structure on Ni anode surface has better hydrogen production performance than random TiO2. In WEAP process, the maximum rate of hydrogen production is 2.77 ml/(h*cm2) when the anode modified by ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays, compared to traditional alkaline electrolytic cell for water electrolysis with Ni anode, H2-production rate increased by 139%.

  16. A strain or electric field induced direct bandgap in ultrathin silicon film and its application in photovoltaics or photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tengfei; Wang, Da; Geng, Dong-Sheng; Liu, Li-Min; Zhao, Jijun

    2016-03-01

    The indirect bandgap character of silicon greatly limits its applications in electronic or optoelectronic devices, and direct bandgaps are highly desirable in all silicon allotropes. The successful synthesis of ultrathin or even monolayer silicon films experimentally has opened new opportunities to further modulate the electronic structure of silicon through external modulation. In this work, strain or electric field effects on the electronic structure of ultrathin silicon film (USF) are systematically explored. The results demonstrate that all USFs are indirect band-gap semiconductors; interestingly, tensile strain or electric field efficiently tunes the USFs into direct band gap semiconductors. The indirect to direct band gap transition in the USFs not only extends their light adsorption spectra into the visible light region but also greatly enhances the adsorption intensity. Because of this, strained USFs have great potential to be used as a high-performance photovoltaic material. Furthermore, the high stability, moderate band-gap and proper band edge positions demonstrate that monolayer and bilayer USFs can also be used as photocatalysts for water splitting. PMID:26888664

  17. Fe ion-implanted TiO{sub 2} thin film for efficient visible-light photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Impellizzeri, G. Scuderi, V.; Sanz, R.; Privitera, V.; Romano, L.; Sberna, P. M.; Arcadipane, E.; Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G.; Bayle, M.; Carles, R.; Simone, F.

    2014-11-07

    This work shows the application of metal ion-implantation to realize an efficient second-generation TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. High fluence Fe{sup +} ions were implanted into thin TiO{sub 2} films and subsequently annealed up to 550 °C. The ion-implantation process modified the TiO{sub 2} pure film, locally lowering its band-gap energy from 3.2 eV to 1.6–1.9 eV, making the material sensitive to visible light. The measured optical band-gap of 1.6–1.9 eV was associated with the presence of effective energy levels in the energy band structure of the titanium dioxide, due to implantation-induced defects. An accurate structural characterization was performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The synthesized materials revealed a remarkable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds in water under visible light irradiation, without the help of any thermal treatments. The photocatalytic activity has been correlated with the amount of defects induced by the ion-implantation process, clarifying the operative physical mechanism. These results can be fruitfully applied for environmental applications of TiO{sub 2}.

  18. Combined photocatalysis and membrane bioreactor for the treatment of feedwater containing thin film transistor-liquid crystal display discharge.

    PubMed

    You, Sheng-Jie; Semblante, Galilee Uy; Chen, Yu-Pu; Chang, Tien-Chin

    2015-01-01

    The nitrogen content of waste water generated by the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) industry is not satisfactorily removed through the conventional aerobic-activated sludge process. In this study, the performance of three reactors – suspended type TiO2 membrane photoreactor (MPR), anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (AOMBR), and their combination (MPR-AOMBR) – was evaluated using feedwater containing TFT-LCD discharge. The parameters that maximized monoethanolamine (MEA) removal in the MPR were continuous ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and pH 11. Among the tested loadings, 0.1 g/l of TiO2 promoted MEA removal but degradation rate may further increase with photocatalyst concentration. The nitrified sludge recycle ratio R of the AOMBR was adjusted to 1.5 to minimize the amount of nitrate in the effluent. The AOMBR greatly decreased chemical oxygen demand and MEA, but removed only 32.7% of tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The MPR was configured as the pre-treatment unit for AOMBR, and the combined MPR-AOMBR has improved TMAH removal by 80.1%. The MPR bolstered performance by decomposing slowly biodegradable compounds, and had no negative effects on denitrification and carbon removal. PMID:25952015

  19. Daylight photocatalysis performance of biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers prepared with lens cleaning paper as biotemplate

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Junchao; Chen, Feng; Wang, Fang; Zhao, Xiaobing; Chen, Zhigang; Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Environment Functional Materials, 215009 Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou; State Key laboratory of Crystal Material, Shandong University, 250100 Jinan

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► A novel, simple and eco-friendly approach for hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls is presented by using paper as template. ► The biomorphic CeO{sub 2} fibers was composed of nanosheets with bimodal pore-size mesoporous distribution and exhibited high light-harvesting under sunlight irradiation. ► The CeO{sub 2} microfibers biomimicking the natural plant structures have promising application for photodegradation of organic pollutants in water. -- Abstract: Hierarchical, biomorphic CeO{sub 2} hollow fibers with mesoporous tube walls have been fabricated using lens cleaning paper as biotemplates. After sintered at 550 °C in air, the cellulosic fibers of paper were converted into micro-tubes composing of CeO{sub 2} crystallites with grain size about 8 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the CeO{sub 2} fibers was evaluated by photodegradation efficiency of methylene blue in aqueous solution under daylight irradiation. The characterized results show that the CeO{sub 2} fibers faithfully replicated micro-fibrous structure derived from original template and possessed dramatic enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with bulk CeO{sub 2}. This simple biotemplate method provides a cost-effective and eco-friendly route to obtain high performance photocatalysts.

  20. Pulsed laser deposition of cluster-assembled films for catalysis and the photocatalysis relevant to energy and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotello, A.; Patel, N.

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) catalysts are under intense investigation in the catalysis community due to their exceptional activity and selective nature in catalytic processes as compared to the corresponding bulk counterpart, especially because of their large surface-to-volume atomic ratio, size- and shape-dependent properties, and high concentration of low-coordinated active surface sites. However, there is no general strategy to synthesize NPs of various materials with narrow size distribution, tailored properties, and desired morphologies. The development of a technique able to prepare NPs is thus a goal of great importance to avoid present trial and error approaches. Here we report on selected examples where pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique greatly contributes toward NPs synthesis. Co NPs embedded in B matrix films have been synthesized by PLD technique by taking advantage of the phase explosion process of superheated liquid where a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets leave the irradiated target surface and get deposited on the substrate. The deposited NPs exhibit catalytic properties comparable to that of precious metals in hydrogen production by hydrolysis of NaBH4 and NH3BH3. These NPs, when supported on rough carbon film prepared by PLD, show about 30% increase in catalytic activity for H2 production as compared to unsupported NPs. Co3O4 NPs assembled coating has been produced by reactive PLD in oxygen atmosphere at various substrate temperatures from room temperature to 250 °C. It was proved that the Co3O4 NPs can be obtained in a single step at low temperatures with mixed disordered-nanocrystalline phase that is a relevant feature for catalysis. The Co3O4 NPs assembled thin coating, employed in degradation of methylene blue solution, in water, via photo Fenton reaction in presence of H2O2, exhibits significantly higher activity as compared to the corresponding homogeneous catalyst.

  1. Functional metal sulfides and selenides for the removal of hazardous dyes from Water.

    PubMed

    Shamraiz, Umair; Hussain, Raja Azadar; Badshah, Amin; Raza, Bareera; Saba, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Water contamination by organic dyes, is among the most alarming threats to healthy green environment. Complete removal of organic dyes is necessary to make water healthy for drinking, cooking, and for other useful aspects. Recently use of nanotechnology for removing organic dyes, became fruitful because of high surface to volume ratio and adsorption properties. Among these materials, metal chalcogenides emerge as new class of active materials for water purification. In this review article, we gathered information related to sulfide and selenide based nanomaterials which include metal sulfides and selenides, their binary composites, and use of different capping agents and dopants for enhancing photocatalysis. We have discussed in detail, about adsorption power of different dyes, relative percentage degradation, reaction time and concentration. PMID:27010842

  2. Development of solar-driven electrochemical and photocatalytic water treatment system using a boron-doped diamond electrode and TiO2 photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Nakata, Kazuya; Murakami, Taketoshi; Fujishima, Akira; Yao, Yanyan; Tryk, Donald A; Kubota, Yoshinobu

    2010-02-01

    A high-performance, environmentally friendly water treatment system was developed. The system consists mainly of an electrochemical and a photocatalytic oxidation unit, with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode and TiO(2) photocatalyst, respectively. All electric power for the mechanical systems and the electrolysis was able to be provided by photovoltaic cells. Thus, this system is totally driven by solar energy. The treatment ability of the electrolysis and photocatalysis units was investigated by phenol degradation kinetics. An observed rate constant of 5.1 x 10(-3)dm(3)cm(-2)h(-1) was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetic analysis for the electrolysis, and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate constant of 5.6 microM(-1)min(-1) was calculated by kinetic analysis of the photocatalysis. According to previous reports, these values are sufficient for the mineralization of phenol. In a treatment test of river water samples, large amounts of chemical and biological contaminants were totally wet-incinerated by the system. This system could provide 12L/day of drinking water from the Tama River using only solar energy. Therefore, this system may be useful for supplying drinking water during a disaster. PMID:19863989

  3. Solar photocatalytic degradation of naphthenic acids in oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Leshuk, Tim; Wong, Timothy; Linley, Stuart; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Gu, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Bitumen mining in the Canadian oil sands creates large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), the toxicity of which is due in part to naphthenic acids (NAs) and other acid extractable organics (AEO). The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of solar photocatalysis over TiO2 to remove AEO from OSPW. One day of photocatalytic treatment under natural sunlight (25 MJ/m(2) over ∼14 h daylight) eradicated AEO from raw OSPW, and acute toxicity of the OSPW toward Vibrio fischeri was eliminated. Nearly complete mineralization of organic carbon was achieved within 1-7 day equivalents of sunlight exposure, and degradation was shown to proceed through a superoxide-mediated oxidation pathway. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis of oxidized intermediate compounds indicated preferential degradation of the heavier and more cyclic NAs (higher number of double bond equivalents), which are the most environmentally persistent fractions. The photocatalyst was shown to be recyclable for multiple uses, and thus solar photocatalysis may be a promising "green" advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW treatment. PMID:26539710

  4. Perovskite oxides: Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  5. Fuel cell applied research: Electrocatalysis and materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, S.; Isaacs, H. S.; McBreen, J.; Ogrady, W. E.; Olender, H.; Olmer, L. J.; Schouler, E. J. L.; Kordesch, K. V.

    1980-05-01

    Five types of carbon were compared as supports for platinum electrocatalysts. Experiments were conducted to determine the wetting characteristics of the carbons on the electrocatalytic activity of supported platinum for oxygen reduction. The latter was investigated by a cyclic voltammetry technqiue. The changes in the electrochemically active surface areas on increasing the temperature from 250 to 1350C and after carrying out oxygen reduction were measured from the hydrogen desorption charge in the cyclic voltammograms. Also, research on electrode kinetics in high-temperature solid electrolyte fuel cells is described. The influence of electrode material on oxygen reduction kinetics and the reaction mechanism on platinum at interfaces with solid electrolytes were investigated.

  6. Selective isolation of the electron or hole in photocatalysis: ZnO-TiO2 and TiO2-ZnO core-shell structured heterojunction nanofibers via electrospinning and atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayaci, Fatma; Vempati, Sesha; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Uyar, Tamer

    2014-05-01

    Heterojunctions are a well-studied material combination in photocatalysis studies, the majority of which aim to improve the efficacy of the catalysts. Developing novel catalysts begs the question of which photo-generated charge carrier is more efficient in the process of catalysis and the associated mechanism. To address this issue we have fabricated core-shell heterojunction (CSHJ) nanofibers from ZnO and TiO2 in two combinations where only the `shell' part of the heterojunction is exposed to the environment to participate in the photocatalysis. Core and shell structures were fabricated via electrospinning and atomic layer deposition, respectively which were then subjected to calcination. These CSHJs were characterized and studied for photocatalytic activity (PCA). These two combinations expose electrons or holes selectively to the environment. Under suitable illumination of the ZnO-TiO2 CSHJ, e/h pairs are created mainly in TiO2 and the electrons take part in catalysis (i.e. reduce the organic dye) at the conduction band or oxygen vacancy sites of the `shell', while holes migrate to the core of the structure. Conversely, holes take part in catalysis and electrons diffuse to the core in the case of a TiO2-ZnO CSHJ. The results further revealed that the TiO2-ZnO CSHJ shows ~1.6 times faster PCA when compared to the ZnO-TiO2 CSHJ because of efficient hole capture by oxygen vacancies, and the lower mobility of holes.Heterojunctions are a well-studied material combination in photocatalysis studies, the majority of which aim to improve the efficacy of the catalysts. Developing novel catalysts begs the question of which photo-generated charge carrier is more efficient in the process of catalysis and the associated mechanism. To address this issue we have fabricated core-shell heterojunction (CSHJ) nanofibers from ZnO and TiO2 in two combinations where only the `shell' part of the heterojunction is exposed to the environment to participate in the photocatalysis. Core and shell structures were fabricated via electrospinning and atomic layer deposition, respectively which were then subjected to calcination. These CSHJs were characterized and studied for photocatalytic activity (PCA). These two combinations expose electrons or holes selectively to the environment. Under suitable illumination of the ZnO-TiO2 CSHJ, e/h pairs are created mainly in TiO2 and the electrons take part in catalysis (i.e. reduce the organic dye) at the conduction band or oxygen vacancy sites of the `shell', while holes migrate to the core of the structure. Conversely, holes take part in catalysis and electrons diffuse to the core in the case of a TiO2-ZnO CSHJ. The results further revealed that the TiO2-ZnO CSHJ shows ~1.6 times faster PCA when compared to the ZnO-TiO2 CSHJ because of efficient hole capture by oxygen vacancies, and the lower mobility of holes. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM image of the CSHJ, XPS spectra and mechanism demonstrating PCA at the surface of pure TiO2. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06665g

  7. Overview of Photocatalysis, Photocatalytic Surface Materials Studies, and Demonstration of Self-Cleaning Materials for Space and Terrestrial Based Applications at the Infinity Science Center at NASA Stennis Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Lauren W.

    2012-01-01

    Research into photocatalytic technology has been progressing for over three decades in the early 1990s Japanese and European companies initiate research into photocatalytic technology. In the 1996 specific focus on the technology with the first large-scale application: the construction of a church in Rome (Jubilee Church). And in 2000 Europe and Japan research into the benefits of photocatalytic technology. Currently, photocatalytic technology continues to improve, and with time development is becoming more efficient and effective. What is Photocatalysis? Photo: phenomenon induced by the light, having specifically a wavelength around 320-400 nm (artificial or natural sunlight). Catalyst: a material that induces a reaction but is not consumed or transformed by it. The catalyst remains constantly available. In this case, the catalyst is made with nano-particles of titanium oxide (Ti02).

  8. Photocatalysis on TiO{sub 2} surfaces investigated by atomic force microscopy: Photodegradation of partial and full monolayers of stearic acid on TiO{sub 2}(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Sawunyama, P.; Fujishima, Akira; Hashimoto, Kazuhito

    1999-05-11

    The photocatalytic properties of TiO{sub 2} are of practical significance in applications ranging from solar energy conversion through environmental remediation to antibacterial, self-cleaning, and antifogging functions. The authors have studied the nature and surface morphological changes associated with the photodegradation of stearic acid LB films on TiO{sub 2}(110). Interestingly, submonolayers of stearic acid consisted of circular domains of various sizes--a feature very attractive for monitoring TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis by AFM. The authors noted that there was no bulk differential reactivity at island edges compared to the interior. This suggests that the rate of photodegradation of the stearic acid molecules is independent of their location in the island. Accordingly, the overall surface reactivity trends were similar for both partial films and complete films. Likewise, the observed inhomogeneous reactivity patterns appear to be a reflection of the transient distribution of the reaction centers.

  9. Boosting water oxidation layer-by-layer.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Acosta, Jonnathan C; Scanlon, Micheál D; Méndez, Manuel A; Amstutz, Véronique; Vrubel, Heron; Opallo, Marcin; Girault, Hubert H

    2016-04-01

    Electrocatalysis of water oxidation was achieved using fluorinated tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with layer-by-layer deposited films consisting of bilayers of negatively charged citrate-stabilized IrO2 NPs and positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) polymer. The IrO2 NP surface coverage can be fine-tuned by controlling the number of bilayers. The IrO2 NP films were amorphous, with the NPs therein being well-dispersed and retaining their as-synthesized shape and sizes. UV/vis spectroscopic and spectro-electrochemical studies confirmed that the total surface coverage and electrochemically addressable surface coverage of IrO2 NPs increased linearly with the number of bilayers up to 10 bilayers. The voltammetry of the modified electrode was that of hydrous iridium oxide films (HIROFs) with an observed super-Nernstian pH response of the Ir(iii)/Ir(iv) and Ir(iv)-Ir(iv)/Ir(iv)-Ir(v) redox transitions and Nernstian shift of the oxygen evolution onset potential. The overpotential of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was essentially pH independent, varying only from 0.22 V to 0.28 V (at a current density of 0.1 mA cm(-2)), moving from acidic to alkaline conditions. Bulk electrolysis experiments revealed that the IrO2/PDDA films were stable and adherent under acidic and neutral conditions but degraded in alkaline solutions. Oxygen was evolved with Faradaic efficiencies approaching 100% under acidic (pH 1) and neutral (pH 7) conditions, and 88% in alkaline solutions (pH 13). This layer-by-layer approach forms the basis of future large-scale OER electrode development using ink-jet printing technology. PMID:26977761

  10. Iron-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Catalysts for Visible Light-Driven Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chi, Le; Xu, Qian; Liang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jide; Su, Xintai

    2016-03-01

    The development of earth-abundant, active, and stable catalysts is important for solar energy conversion. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been viewed as a promising class of porous materials, which may have innovative application in photocatalysis. In this paper, three types of Fe-based MOFs and their aminofunctionalized derivatives have been fabricated and systematically studied as water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for oxygen evolution under visible light irradiation. MIL-101(Fe) possesses a higher current density and earlier onset potential and exhibits excellent visible light-driven oxygen evolution activity than the other Fe-based catalysts. It speeds up the oxygen evolution reaction rate with the higher initial turnover frequencies value of 0.10 s(-1) . Our study demonstrates that Fe-based MOFs as efficient WOCs are promising candidates for photocatalytic water oxidation process. PMID:26756919

  11. Selective isolation of the electron or hole in photocatalysis: ZnO-TiO2 and TiO2-ZnO core-shell structured heterojunction nanofibers via electrospinning and atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Kayaci, Fatma; Vempati, Sesha; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Uyar, Tamer

    2014-06-01

    Heterojunctions are a well-studied material combination in photocatalysis studies, the majority of which aim to improve the efficacy of the catalysts. Developing novel catalysts begs the question of which photo-generated charge carrier is more efficient in the process of catalysis and the associated mechanism. To address this issue we have fabricated core-shell heterojunction (CSHJ) nanofibers from ZnO and TiO2 in two combinations where only the 'shell' part of the heterojunction is exposed to the environment to participate in the photocatalysis. Core and shell structures were fabricated via electrospinning and atomic layer deposition, respectively which were then subjected to calcination. These CSHJs were characterized and studied for photocatalytic activity (PCA). These two combinations expose electrons or holes selectively to the environment. Under suitable illumination of the ZnO-TiO2 CSHJ, e/h pairs are created mainly in TiO2 and the electrons take part in catalysis (i.e. reduce the organic dye) at the conduction band or oxygen vacancy sites of the 'shell', while holes migrate to the core of the structure. Conversely, holes take part in catalysis and electrons diffuse to the core in the case of a TiO2-ZnO CSHJ. The results further revealed that the TiO2-ZnO CSHJ shows ?1.6 times faster PCA when compared to the ZnO-TiO2 CSHJ because of efficient hole capture by oxygen vacancies, and the lower mobility of holes. PMID:24664354

  12. Assessment of the roles of reactive oxygen species in the UV and visible light photocatalytic degradation of cyanotoxins and water taste and odor compounds using C-TiO2.

    PubMed

    Fotiou, Theodora; Triantis, Theodoros M; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; O'Shea, Kevin E; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; Hiskia, Anastasia

    2016-03-01

    Visible light (VIS) photocatalysis has large potential as a sustainable water treatment process, however the reaction pathways and degradation processes of organic pollutants are not yet clearly defined. The presence of cyanobacteria cause water quality problems since several genera can produce potent cyanotoxins, harmful to human health. In addition, cyanobacteria produce taste and odor compounds, which pose serious aesthetic problems in drinking water. Although photocatalytic degradation of cyanotoxins and taste and odor compounds have been reported under UV-A light in the presence of TiO2, limited studies have been reported on their degradation pathways by VIS photocatalysis of these problematic compounds. The main objectives of this work were to study the VIS photocatalytic degradation process, define the reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved and elucidate the reaction mechanisms. We report carbon doped TiO2 (C-TiO2) under VIS leads to the slow degradation of cyanotoxins, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), while taste and odor compounds, geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, were not appreciably degraded. Further studies were carried-out employing several specific radical scavengers (potassium bromide, isopropyl alcohol, sodium azide, superoxide dismutase and catalase) and probes (coumarin) to assess the role of different ROS (hydroxyl radical OH, singlet oxygen (1)O2, superoxide radical anion [Formula: see text] ) in the degradation processes. Reaction pathways of MC-LR and CYN were defined through identification and monitoring of intermediates using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for VIS in comparison with UV-A photocatalytic treatment. The effects of scavengers and probes on the degradation process under VIS, as well as the differences in product distributions under VIS and UV-A, suggested that the main species in VIS photocatalysis is [Formula: see text] , with OH and (1)O2 playing minor roles in the degradation. PMID:26724439

  13. Nickel-Oxide-Modified SrTiO3(110)-(4 × 1) Surfaces and Their Interaction with Water

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO), deposited onto the strontium titanate (SrTiO3) (110)-(4 × 1) surface, was studied using photoemission spectroscopy (PES), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and low-energy He+ ion scattering (LEIS), as well as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The main motivation for studying this system comes from the prominent role it plays in photocatalysis. The (4 × 1) reconstructed SrTiO3(110) surface was previously found to be remarkably inert toward water adsorption under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Nickel oxide grows on this surface as patches without any apparent ordered structure. PES and LEIS reveal an upward band bending, a reduction of the band gap, and reactivity toward water adsorption upon deposition of NiO. Spectroscopic results are discussed with respect to the enhanced reactivity toward water of the NiO-loaded surface. PMID:26617682

  14. A review on g-C3N4 for photocatalytic water splitting and CO2 reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Sheng; Wang, Rong; Wu, Ming-Zai; Yuan, Yu-Peng

    2015-12-01

    Solar fuel generation through water splitting and CO2 photoreduction is an ideal route to provide the renewable energy sources and mitigate global warming. The main challenge in photocatalysis is finding a low-cost photocatalyst that can work efficiently to split water into hydrogen and reduce CO2 to hydrocarbon fuels. Metal-free g-C3N4 photocatalyst shows great potentials for solar fuel production. In this mini review, we summarize the most current advances on novel design idea and new synthesis strategy for g-C3N4 preparation, insightful ideas on extending optical absorption of pristine g-C3N4, overall water splitting and CO2 photoreduction over g-C3N4 based systems. The research challenges and perspectives on g-C3N4 based photocatalysts were also suggested.

  15. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  16. Heterophase Photocatalysts from Water-Soluble Conjugated Polyelectrolytes: An Example of Self-Initiation under Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Ghasimi, Saman; Prescher, Simon; Wang, Zi Jun; Landfester, Katharina; Yuan, Jiayin; Zhang, Kai A I

    2015-11-23

    We herein report a new design route to stable, heterophase photocatalysts, which function as highly dispersible conjugated polymer nanoparticles and porous monoliths under visible light in aqueous medium. They were constructed by attachment of the ionic-liquid species 1-alkyl-3-vinylimidazolium bromide onto the side chains of a photoactive polymer. The structure configuration allows not only photocatalysis in aqueous environment but also a unique self-initiation radical cross-linking process to transform the water-soluble photoactive polymer into a heterophase system, either as nanoparticles or a porous monolith. High photocatalytic activity and reusability of the heterophase system were demonstrated in the degradation of organic dyes and reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in water under visible-light irradiation. PMID:26447637

  17. Competitive removal of pharmaceuticals from environmental waters by adsorption and photocatalytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Rioja, N; Benguria, P; Peñas, F J; Zorita, S

    2014-10-01

    This work explores the competitive removal of pharmaceuticals from synthetic and environmental waters by combined adsorption-photolysis treatment. Five drugs usually present in waterways have been used as target compounds, some are pseudo-persistent pollutants (carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and sulfamethoxazole) and others are largely consumed (diclofenac and ibuprofen). The effect of the light source on adsorption of drugs onto activated carbons followed by photolysis with TiO2 was assessed, being UV-C light the most effective for drug removal in both deionized water and river water. Different composites prepared from titania nanoparticles and powdered activated carbons were tested in several combined adsorption-photocatalysis assays. The composites prepared by calcination at 400 °C exhibited much better performance than those synthesized at 500 °C, being the C400 composite the most effective one. Furthermore, some synthetic waters containing dissolved species and environmental waters were used to investigate the effect of the aqueous matrix on each drug removal. In general, photocatalyst deactivation was found in synthetic and environmental waters. This was particularly evident in the experiments performed with bicarbonate ions as well as with wastewater effluent. In contrast, tests conducted in seawater showed adsorption and photocatalytic degradation yields comparable to those obtained in deionized water. Considering the peculiarities of substrate competition in each aqueous matrix, the combined adsorption-photolysis treatment generally increased the overall elimination of drugs in water. PMID:24532206

  18. Photocatalytic degradation of RhB and TNT and photocatalytic water splitting with CZTS microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, S. S.

    2015-07-01

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a main candidate material for solar energy conversion through both photovoltaics and photocatalysis based on environmentally friendly elements and with a direct band gap of 1.5 eV. We report the synthesis of quasi Cu2ZnSnS4 microparticles with unprecedented narrow size distributions. The structural, morphological and core level analysis has been carried out by XRD, SEM and XPS techniques. These microparticles have shown excellent photocatalytic activity toward degradation of Rhodamine B dye (RhB) and TNT under visible light. The extent of mineralization has been analyzed by COD and TOC values. Photocatalytic water splitting for H2 generation has also been reported.

  19. Nanocomposite heterojunctions as sunlight-driven photocatalysts for hydrogen production from water splitting.

    PubMed

    Reza Gholipour, Mohammad; Dinh, Cao-Thang; Béland, François; Do, Trong-On

    2015-05-14

    Hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting using sunlight has enormous potential in solving the worldwide energy and environmental crisis. The key challenge in this process is to develop efficient photocatalysts which must satisfy several criteria such as high chemical and photochemical stability, effective charge separation and strong sunlight absorption. The combination of different semiconductors to create composite materials offers a promising way to achieve efficient photocatalysts because doing so can improve the charge separation, light absorption and stability of the photocatalysts. In this review article, we summarized the most recent studies on semiconductor composites for hydrogen production under visible light irradiation. After a general introduction about the photocatalysis phenomenon, typical heterojunctions of widely studied heterogeneous semiconductors, including titanium dioxide, cadmium sulfide and graphitic carbon nitride are discussed in detail. PMID:25804291

  20. Nanocomposite heterojunctions as sunlight-driven photocatalysts for hydrogen production from water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Gholipour, Mohammad; Dinh, Cao-Thang; Béland, François; Do, Trong-On

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting using sunlight has enormous potential in solving the worldwide energy and environmental crisis. The key challenge in this process is to develop efficient photocatalysts which must satisfy several criteria such as high chemical and photochemical stability, effective charge separation and strong sunlight absorption. The combination of different semiconductors to create composite materials offers a promising way to achieve efficient photocatalysts because doing so can improve the charge separation, light absorption and stability of the photocatalysts. In this review article, we summarized the most recent studies on semiconductor composites for hydrogen production under visible light irradiation. After a general introduction about the photocatalysis phenomenon, typical heterojunctions of widely studied heterogeneous semiconductors, including titanium dioxide, cadmium sulfide and graphitic carbon nitride are discussed in detail.

  1. Photocatalytic antifouling graphene oxide-mediated hierarchical filtration membranes with potential applications on water purification.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Xu, Yuelian; Zhu, Jiaoli

    2014-09-24

    Graphene oxide-based filtration membranes with photocatalytic antifouling function have been successfully synthesized by a two-step method for the first time. First, graphene oxide particles composite sheets are prepared by decorating graphene oxide sheets with appropriate amount of TiO2 nanoparticles, which can be assembled into filtration membranes with suitable permeation and retention rates. Then, an additional TiO2 particle layer (P25) with strong photocatalysis activity is coated on these films by filtration, forming hierarchical structure membranes. The filtration properties of the as-obtained films are investigated by treating dye solution, and the results demonstrate that these membranes possess favorable photocatalytic antifouling function under UV light irradiation, which can maintain the clean films and their filtration properties, broadening the horizon for the vast use of these graphene-involved films in water purification. PMID:25148296

  2. Plasmon-enhanced water splitting on TiO2-passivated GaP photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jing; Zeng, Guangtong; Pavaskar, Prathamesh; Li, Zhen; Cronin, Stephen B

    2014-02-21

    Integrating plasmon resonant nanostructures with photocatalytic semiconductors shows great promise for high efficiency photocatalytic water splitting. However, the electrochemical instability of most III-V semiconductors severely limits their applicability in photocatalysis. In this work, we passivate p-type GaP with a thin layer of n-type TiO2 using atomic layer deposition. The TiO2 passivation layer prevents corrosion of the GaP, as evidenced by atomic force microscopy and photoelectrochemical measurements. In addition, the TiO2 passivation layer provides an enhancement in photoconversion efficiency through the formation of a charge separating pn-region. Plasmonic Au nanoparticles deposited on top of the TiO2-passivated GaP further increases the photoconversion efficiency through local field enhancement. These two enhancement mechanisms are separated by systematically varying the thickness of the TiO2 layer. Because of the tradeoff between the quickly decaying plasmonic fields and the formation of the pn-charge separation region, an optimum performance is achieved for a TiO2 thickness of 0.5 nm. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the electric field profiles in this photocatalytic heterostructure corroborate these results. The effects of plasmonic enhancement are distinguished from the natural catalytic properties of Au by evaluating similar photocatalytic TiO2/GaP structures with catalytic, non-plasmonic metals (i.e., Pt) instead of Au. This general approach of passivating narrower band gap semiconductors enables a wider range of materials to be considered for plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis for high efficiency water splitting. PMID:24401904

  3. Achieving solar overall water splitting with hybrid photosystems of photosystem II and artificial photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wangyin; Chen, Jun; Li, Can; Tian, Wenming

    2014-01-01

    Solar overall water splitting is a promising sustainable approach for solar-to-chemical energy conversion, which harnesses solar irradiation to oxidize water to oxygen and reduce the protons to hydrogen. The water oxidation step is vital but difficult to achieve through inorganic photocatalysis. However, nature offers an efficient light-driven water-oxidizing enzyme, photosystem II (PSII). Here we report an overall water splitting natural-artificial hybrid system, in which the plant PSII and inorganic photocatalysts (for example, Ru/SrTiO3:Rh), coupled with an inorganic electron shuttle [Fe(CN)6(3-)/Fe(CN)6(4-)], are integrated and dispersed in aqueous solutions. The activity of this hybrid photosystem reaches to around 2,489 mol H2 (mol PSII)(-1) h(-1) under visible light irradiation, and solar overall water splitting is also achieved under solar irradiation outdoors. The optical imaging shows that the hybrid photosystems are constructed through the self-assembly of PSII adhered onto the inorganic photocatalyst surface. Our work may provide a prototype of natural-artificial hybrids for developing autonomous solar water splitting system. PMID:25115942

  4. Modeling the photocatalytic mineralization in water of commercial formulation of estrogens 17-β estradiol (E2) and nomegestrol acetate in contraceptive pills in a solar powered compound parabolic collector.

    PubMed

    Colina-Márquez, José; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors in water are contaminants of emerging concern due to the potential risks they pose to the environment and to the aquatic ecosystems. In this study, a solar photocatalytic treatment process in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) was used to remove commercial estradiol formulations (17-β estradiol and nomegestrol acetate) from water. Photolysis alone degraded up to 50% of estradiol and removed 11% of the total organic carbon (TOC). In contrast, solar photocatalysis degraded up to 57% of estrogens and the TOC removal was 31%, with 0.6 g/L of catalyst load (TiO2 Aeroxide P-25) and 213.6 ppm of TOC as initial concentration of the commercial estradiols formulation. The adsorption of estrogens over the catalyst was insignificant and was modeled by the Langmuir isotherm. The TOC removal via photocatalysis in the photoreactor was modeled considering the reactor fluid-dynamics, the radiation field, the estrogens mass balance, and a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law, that was expressed in terms of the rate of photon adsorption. The optimum removal of the estrogens and TOC was achieved at a catalyst concentration of 0.4 g/L in 29 mm diameter tubular CPC reactors which approached the optimum catalyst concentration and optical thickness determined from the modeling of the absorption of solar radiation in the CPC, by the six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM). PMID:26205059

  5. Evaluation of the Role of Water in the H2 Bond Formation by Ni(II)-based Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Ming-Hsun; Raugei, Simone; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-07-17

    We investigate the role of water in the H-H bond formation by a family of nickel molecular catalysts that exhibit high rates for H2 production in acetonitrile solvent. A key feature leading to the high reactivity is the Lewis acidity of the Ni(II) center and pendant amines in the diphosphine ligand that function as Lewis bases, facilitating H-H bond formation or cleavage. Significant increases in the rate of H2 production have been reported in the presence of added water. Our calculations show that molecular water can displace an acetonitrile solvent molecule in the first solvation shell of the metal. One or two water molecules can also participate in shuttling a proton that can combine with a metal hydride to form the H-H bond. However the participation of the water molecules does not lower the barrier to H-H bond formation. Thus these calculations suggest that the rate increase due to water in these electrocatalysts is not associated with the elementary step of H-H bond formation or cleavage, but rather with the proton delivery steps. We attribute the higher barrier in the H-H bond formation in the presence of water to a decrease in direct interaction between the protic and hydridic hydrogen atoms forced by the water molecules. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the Jaguar supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  6. Novel cobalt quantum dot/graphene nanocomposites as highly efficient electrocatalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Mao, Brennan; Chen, Aicheng

    2016-01-01

    A cost-effective, non-noble metal based high-performance electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical to energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we report on a facile and effective in situ strategy for the synthesis of an advanced nanocomposite material that is comprised of cobalt quantum dots (Co QDs, ∼3.2 nm), uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst platform. This nanocomposite electrocatalyst afforded a mass activity of 1250 A g(-1) at a low overpotential (η) of 0.37 V, a small Tafel slope of ∼37 mV dec(-1) and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 0.188 s(-1) in 0.1 M KOH, comparing favorably with state-of-the-art RuO2, IrO2 and Pt/C catalysts. The synergy between abundant catalytically active sites through the fine dispersion of Co QDs, and enhanced electron transfer generated from the graphene resulted in first-rate electrocatalytic properties toward the OER. These merits coupled with the higher stability of the nanocomposite hold great promise for triggering breakthroughs in electrocatalysis for water splitting. PMID:26677009

  7. Characterization of a non-aggregating silicon(IV) phthalocyanine in aqueous solution: toward red-light-driven photocatalysis based on earth-abundant materials.

    PubMed

    Uslan, Canan; Oppelt, Kerstin T; Reith, Lorenz M; Sesalan, Behice Şebnem; Knör, Günther

    2013-09-21

    Photophysical and photochemical characterization of a novel cationic silicon phthalocyanine with excellent water solubility properties is reported. The robust red-light responsive compound shows very attractive features as a sensitizer for reductive and oxidative quenching processes to trigger photocatalytic substrate conversion in aqueous solution. PMID:23925110

  8. LC/MS/MS structure elucidation of reaction intermediates formed during the TiO2 photocatalysis of microcystin-LR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a cyanotoxin and emerging drinking water contaminant, was treated with TiO(2) photocatalysts immobilized on stainless steel plates as an alternative to nanoparticles in slurry. The reaction intermediates of MC-LR were identified with mass spectrometry (MS)...

  9. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu

    2015-11-01

    Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation.Two important properties--the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles--are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Elemental distribution and the specific surface area of PBZT10. SEM images of PBZT3, PBZT10 and PBZT20. Water and oil contact angles on prepared samples. FTIR spectra of OA/PBZT10 before and after heating. Images of water droplets on PBZT10 before and during rolling when the base was tilted. Video recordings of the cyclohexane droplet on PBZT10, an oil/water separation process and a self-cleaning process. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06425b

  10. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  11. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  12. Water, water everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Pennisi, E.

    1993-02-20

    The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.

  13. Cost-effective and eco-friendly synthesis of novel and stable N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 core-shell nanoplates with excellent visible-light responsive photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Baruah, Arabinda; Tonda, Surendar; Kumar, Bharat; Shanker, Vishnu; Sreedhar, B.

    2014-04-01

    N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 hybrid core-shell nanoplates have been successfully prepared via a facile, cost-effective and eco-friendly ultrasonic dispersion method for the first time. HRTEM studies confirm the formation of the N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 hybrid core-shell nanoplates with an average diameter of 50 nm and the g-C3N4 shell thickness can be tuned by varying the content of loaded g-C3N4. The direct contact of the N-doped ZnO surface and g-C3N4 shell without any adhesive interlayer introduced a new carbon energy level in the N-doped ZnO band gap and thereby effectively lowered the band gap energy. Consequently, the as-prepared hybrid core-shell nanoplates showed a greatly enhanced visible-light photocatalysis for the degradation of Rhodamine B compare to that of pure N-doped ZnO surface and g-C3N4. Based on the experimental results, a proposed mechanism for the N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst was discussed. Interestingly, the hybrid core-shell nanoplates possess high photostability. The improved photocatalytic performance is due to a synergistic effect at the interface of the N-doped ZnO and g-C3N4 including large surface-exposure area, energy band structure and enhanced charge-separation properties. Significantly, the enhanced performance also demonstrates the importance of evaluating new core-shell composite photocatalysts with g-C3N4 as shell material.N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 hybrid core-shell nanoplates have been successfully prepared via a facile, cost-effective and eco-friendly ultrasonic dispersion method for the first time. HRTEM studies confirm the formation of the N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 hybrid core-shell nanoplates with an average diameter of 50 nm and the g-C3N4 shell thickness can be tuned by varying the content of loaded g-C3N4. The direct contact of the N-doped ZnO surface and g-C3N4 shell without any adhesive interlayer introduced a new carbon energy level in the N-doped ZnO band gap and thereby effectively lowered the band gap energy. Consequently, the as-prepared hybrid core-shell nanoplates showed a greatly enhanced visible-light photocatalysis for the degradation of Rhodamine B compare to that of pure N-doped ZnO surface and g-C3N4. Based on the experimental results, a proposed mechanism for the N-doped ZnO/g-C3N4 photocatalyst was discussed. Interestingly, the hybrid core-shell nanoplates possess high photostability. The improved photocatalytic performance is due to a synergistic effect at the interface of the N-doped ZnO and g-C3N4 including large surface-exposure area, energy band structure and enhanced charge-separation properties. Significantly, the enhanced performance also demonstrates the importance of evaluating new core-shell composite photocatalysts with g-C3N4 as shell material. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05271k

  14. Water, Water Everywhere!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sible, Kathleen P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

  15. Noble metals can have different effects on photocatalysis over metal-organic frameworks (MOFs): a case study on M/NH₂-MIL-125(Ti) (M=Pt and Au).

    PubMed

    Sun, Dengrong; Liu, Wenjun; Fu, Yanghe; Fang, Zhenxing; Sun, Fangxiang; Fu, Xianzhi; Zhang, Yongfan; Li, Zhaohui

    2014-04-14

    M-doped NH2-MIL-125(Ti) (M=Pt and Au) were prepared by using the wetness impregnation method followed by a treatment with H2 flow. The resultant samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analyses, N2-sorption BET surface area, and UV/Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic reaction carried out in saturated CO2 with triethanolamine (TEOA) as sacrificial agent under visible-light irradiations showed that the noble metal-doping on NH2-MIL-125(Ti) promoted the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Unlike that over pure NH2-MIL-125(Ti), in which only formate was produced, both hydrogen and formate were formed over Pt- and Au-loaded NH2-MIL-125(Ti). However, Pt and Au have different effects on the photocatalytic performance for formate production. Compared with pure NH2-MIL-125(Ti), Pt/NH2-MIL-125(Ti) showed an enhanced activity for photocatalytic formate formation, whereas Au has a negative effect on this reaction. To elucidate the origin of the different photocatalytic performance, electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses and density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out over M/NH2-MIL-125(Ti).The photocatalytic mechanisms over M/NH2-MIL-125(Ti) (M=Pt and Au) were proposed. For the first time, the hydrogen spillover from the noble metal Pt to the framework of NH2-MIL-125(Ti) and its promoting effect on the photocatalytic CO2 reduction is revealed. The elucidation of the mechanism on the photocatalysis over M/NH2-MIL-125(Ti) can provide some guidance in the development of new photocatalysts based on MOF materials. This study also demonstrates the potential of using noble metal-doped MOFs in photocatalytic reactions involving hydrogen as a reactant, like hydrogenation reactions. PMID:24644131

  16. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  17. Diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil remediation by titanium dioxide (P25) photocatalysis: Degradation pathway, optimization of operating parameters and effects of soil properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, A-nan; Teng, Ying; Hu, Xue-feng; Wu, Long-hua; Huang, Yu-juan; Luo, Yong-ming; Christie, Peter

    2016-01-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) is formed during the leakage of arsenic chemical weapons in sites and poses a high risk to biota. However, remediation methods for DPAA contaminated soils are rare. Here, the photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) process by nano-sized titanium dioxide (TiO2) was applied to degrade DPAA in soil. The degradation pathway was firstly studied, and arsenate was identified as the final product. Then, an orthogonal array experimental design of L9(3)(4), only 9 experiments were needed, instead of 81 experiments in a conventional one-factor-at-a-time, was used to optimize the operational parameters soil:water ratio, TiO2 dosage, irradiation time and light intensity to increase DPAA removal efficiency. Soil:water ratio was found to have a more significant effect on DPAA removal efficiency than other properties. The optimum conditions to treat 4 g soil with a DPAA concentration of 20 mg kg(-1) were found to be a 1:10 soil: water ratio, 40 mW cm(-2) light intensity, 5% TiO2 in soil, and a 3-hour irradiation time, with a removal efficiency of up to 82.7%. Furthermore, this method (except for a change in irradiation time from 3 to 1.5h) was validated in nine different soils and the removal efficiencies ranged from 57.0 to 78.6%. Removal efficiencies were found to be negatively correlated with soil electrical conductivity, organic matter content, pH and total phosphorus content. Finally, coupled with electron spin resonance (ESR) measurement, these soil properties affected the generation of OH• by TiO2 in soil slurry. This study suggests that TiO2 photocatalytic oxidation is a promising treatment for removing DPAA from soil. PMID:26410709

  18. Heterogeneous photocatalytic disinfection of wash waters from the fresh-cut vegetable industry.

    PubMed

    Selma, María Victoria; Allende, Ana; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Conesa, María Angeles; Gil, María Isabel

    2008-02-01

    The effectiveness of photocatalytic disinfection for control of natural and potentially pathogenic microflora in wash waters used for fresh-cut vegetables was evaluated. Wash waters for lettuce, escarole, chicory, carrot, onion, and spinach from a fresh-cut vegetable processing plant were treated with a titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalytic system. The vegetable wash waters were impelled out with a pump at a flow rate of 1,000 liters/h and conducted through a stainless steel circuit to the filtration system to reach the TiO2 photocatalyst fiber, which was illuminated with a 40-W UV-C lamp. The microbial and physicochemical qualities of the wash water were analyzed. Heterogeneous photocatalysis was an effective disinfection method, reducing counts of bacteria, molds, and yeasts. Most of the treated wash waters had total bacteria reductions of 4.1 +/- 1.3 to 4.8 +/- 0.4 log CFU/ml after 10 min of treatment when compared with untreated water. Higher decontamination efficacy was observed in carrot wash water (6.2 +/- 0.1-log reductions), where turbidity and organic matter were lower than those in the wash waters for other vegetables. The tested heterogeneous photocatalytic system also was effective for reducing water turbidity, although chemical oxygen demand was unaffected after the treatments. The efficacy of the photocatalytic system for reducing microbial load depended on the physicochemical characteristics of the wash water, which depended on the vegetable being washed. The conclusions derived from this study illustrate that implementation of a heterogeneous photocatalytic system in the fresh-cut vegetable washing processes could allow the reuse of wash water. PMID:18326177

  19. Environmentally Responsible Use of Nanomaterials for the Photocatalytic Reduction of Nitrate in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudrick, Kyle

    Nitrate is the most prevalent water pollutant limiting the use of groundwater as a potable water source. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to leverage advances in nanotechnology to improve nitrate photocatalysis and transition treatment to the full-scale. The research objectives were to (1) examine commercial and synthesized photocatalysts, (2) determine the effect of water quality parameters (e.g., pH), (3) conduct responsible engineering by ensuring detection methods were in place for novel materials, and (4) develop a conceptual framework for designing nitrate-specific photocatalysts. The key issues for implementing photocatalysis for nitrate drinking water treatment were efficient nitrate removal at neutral pH and by-product selectivity toward nitrogen gases, rather than by-products that pose a human health concern (e.g., nitrite). Photocatalytic nitrate reduction was found to follow a series of proton-coupled electron transfers. The nitrate reduction rate was limited by the electron-hole recombination rate, and the addition of an electron donor (e.g., formate) was necessary to reduce the recombination rate and achieve efficient nitrate removal. Nano-sized photocatalysts with high surface areas mitigated the negative effects of competing aqueous anions. The key water quality parameter impacting by-product selectivity was pH. For pH < 4, the by-product selectivity was mostly N-gas with some NH4 +, but this shifted to NO2- above pH = 4, which suggests the need for proton localization to move beyond NO2 -. Co-catalysts that form a Schottky barrier, allowing for localization of electrons, were best for nitrate reduction. Silver was optimal in heterogeneous systems because of its ability to improve nitrate reduction activity and N-gas by-product selectivity, and graphene was optimal in two-electrode systems because of its ability to shuttle electrons to the working electrode. "Environmentally responsible use of nanomaterials" is to ensure that detection methods are in place for the nanomaterials tested. While methods exist for the metals and metal oxides examined, there are currently none for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene. Acknowledging that risk assessment encompasses dose-response and exposure, new analytical methods were developed for extracting and detecting CNTs and graphene in complex organic environmental (e.g., urban air) and biological matrices (e.g. rat lungs).

  20. Recent advances in carbon-based dots for electroanalysis.

    PubMed

    Yulong, Ying; Xinsheng, Peng

    2016-04-25

    Carbon-based dots represent a new type of quantum dot with unique and well-defined properties owing to their quantum confinement and edge effects, which are widely employed in sensing, light-emitting diodes, nanomedicine, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, bioimaging, etc. In this review, we update the latest research results of carbon-based dots in this rapidly evolving field of electroanalysis, place emphases on their applications as sensors and give future perspectives for developing more smart sensors. PMID:26797087

  1. Preparation and Photocatalysis of Schlumbergera bridgesii-Like CdS Modified One-Dimensional TiO2 Nanowires on Zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhichao; Liu, Zhifeng; Cui, Ting; Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Yufeng; Han, Jianhua; Guo, Keying; Domenico, Caputo

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, composite semiconductor photocatalytic materials have received significant attention as a novel type of materials and technical means. So in this work, CdS-modified TiO2 nanowires are fabricated on natural zeolite by simple sol-gel and hydrothermal synthesis method. This novel composite semiconductor photocatalytic material has almost solved the shortcomings of pure TiO2, such as easy cohesion, low utilization rate, and exceedingly weak photocatalytic activities under visible light. The degradation efficiency of methylene blue dye in water is near to 90% with CdS-modified TiO2 nanowires/zeolite composite materials after 60 min under visible light, which indicated its huge potential application in wastewater treatment.

  2. Design of Advanced Photocatalysis System by Adatom Decoration in 2D Nanosheets of Group-IV and III–V Binary Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hao; Dai, Ying; Huang, Bai-Biao

    2016-03-01

    Searching for novel photocatalysts is one of the most important topic in photocatalytic fields. In the present work, we propose a feasible approach to improve the photocatalytic activities of 2D bilayers through surface decoration, i.e. hydrogenation, halogenation, and hydroxylation. Our investigations demonstrate that after surface modification, the optical adsorption expands into the visible region, while a built-in electric field is induced due to the interlayer coupling, which can promote the charge separation for photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Our results show that the indirect-direct band gap transition of SiC, SnC, BN and GaN can be realised through adatom decoration. Furthermore, the surface-modified 2D bilayers have suitable VBM and CBM alignments with the oxidation and reduction potentials for water splitting, suggesting powerful potentials in energy and environmental applications.

  3. Design of Advanced Photocatalysis System by Adatom Decoration in 2D Nanosheets of Group-IV and III–V Binary Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hao; Dai, Ying; Huang, Bai-Biao

    2016-01-01

    Searching for novel photocatalysts is one of the most important topic in photocatalytic fields. In the present work, we propose a feasible approach to improve the photocatalytic activities of 2D bilayers through surface decoration, i.e. hydrogenation, halogenation, and hydroxylation. Our investigations demonstrate that after surface modification, the optical adsorption expands into the visible region, while a built-in electric field is induced due to the interlayer coupling, which can promote the charge separation for photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Our results show that the indirect-direct band gap transition of SiC, SnC, BN and GaN can be realised through adatom decoration. Furthermore, the surface-modified 2D bilayers have suitable VBM and CBM alignments with the oxidation and reduction potentials for water splitting, suggesting powerful potentials in energy and environmental applications. PMID:26983908

  4. Design of Advanced Photocatalysis System by Adatom Decoration in 2D Nanosheets of Group-IV and III-V Binary Compounds.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hao; Dai, Ying; Huang, Bai-Biao

    2016-01-01

    Searching for novel photocatalysts is one of the most important topic in photocatalytic fields. In the present work, we propose a feasible approach to improve the photocatalytic activities of 2D bilayers through surface decoration, i.e. hydrogenation, halogenation, and hydroxylation. Our investigations demonstrate that after surface modification, the optical adsorption expands into the visible region, while a built-in electric field is induced due to the interlayer coupling, which can promote the charge separation for photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Our results show that the indirect-direct band gap transition of SiC, SnC, BN and GaN can be realised through adatom decoration. Furthermore, the surface-modified 2D bilayers have suitable VBM and CBM alignments with the oxidation and reduction potentials for water splitting, suggesting powerful potentials in energy and environmental applications. PMID:26983908

  5. Solar-Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment: Simultaneous Removal of Pathogens and Chemical Pollutants.

    PubMed

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Batoev, Valeriy; Batoeva, Agniya

    2015-08-01

    The review explores the feasibility of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by solar-enhanced advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The AOPs are based on in-situ generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), most notably hydroxyl radicals •OH, that are capable of destroying both pollutant molecules and pathogen cells. The review presents evidence of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by photocatalytic processes, namely TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton. Complex water matrices with high loads of pathogens and chemical pollutants negatively affect the efficiency of disinfection and pollutant removal. This is due to competition between chemical substances and pathogens for generated ROS. Other possible negative effects include light screening, competitive photon absorption, adsorption on the catalyst surface (thereby inhibiting its photocatalytic activity), etc. Besides, some matrix components may serve as nutrients for pathogens, thus hindering the disinfection process. Each type of water/wastewater would require a tailor-made approach and the variables that were shown to influence the processes-catalyst/oxidant concentrations, incident radiation flux, and pH-need to be adjusted in order to achieve the required degree of pollutant and pathogen removal. Overall, the solar-enhanced AOPs hold promise as an environmentally-friendly way to substitute or supplement conventional water/wastewater treatment, particularly in areas without access to centralized drinking water or sewage/wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26287222

  6. Role(s) of adsorbed water in the surface chemistry of environmental interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rubasinghege, Gayan; Grassian, Vicki H

    2013-04-18

    The chemistry of environmental interfaces such as oxide and carbonate surfaces under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity is of great interest from many perspectives including heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis, sensor technology, corrosion science, and cultural heritage science. As discussed here, adsorbed water plays important roles in the reaction chemistry of oxide and carbonate surfaces with indoor and outdoor pollutant molecules including nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, ozone and organic acids. Mechanisms of these reactions are just beginning to be unraveled and found to depend on the details of the reaction mechanism as well as the coverage of water on the surface. As discussed here, adsorbed water can: (i) alter reaction pathways and surface speciation relative to the dry surface; (ii) hydrolyze reactants, intermediates and products; (iii) enhance surface reactivity by providing a medium for ionic dissociation; (iv) inhibit surface reactivity by blocking sites; (v) solvate ions; (vi) enhance ion mobility on surfaces and (vii) alter the stability of surface adsorbed species. In this feature article, drawing on research that has been going on for over a decade on the reaction chemistry of oxide and carbonate surfaces under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity, a number of specific examples showing the multi-faceted roles of adsorbed water are presented. PMID:23417201

  7. Photoelectrocatalytic disinfection of water and wastewater: performance evaluation by qPCR and culture techniques.

    PubMed

    Venieri, Danae; Chatzisymeon, Efthalia; Politi, Eleonora; Sofianos, Spiridon S; Katsaounis, Alexandros; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2013-03-01

    Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation (PEC) was evaluated as a disinfection technique using water and secondary treated wastewater spiked with Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. PEC experiments were carried out using a TiO(2)/Ti-film anode and a zirconium cathode under simulated solar radiation. Bacterial inactivation was monitored by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Inactivation rates were enhanced when the duration of the treatment was prolonged and when the bacterial density and the complexity of the water matrix were decreased. E. coli cells were reduced by approximately 6 orders of magnitude after 15 min of PEC treatment in water at 2V of applied potential and an initial concentration of 10(7) CFU/mL; pure photocatalysis (PC) led to about 5 log reduction, while electrochemical oxidation alone resulted in negligible inactivation. The superiority of PEC relative to PC can be attributed to a more efficient separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. Regarding disinfection in mixed bacterial suspensions, E. coli was more susceptible than E. faecalis at a potential of 2V. The complex composition of wastewater affected disinfection efficiency, yielding lower inactivation rates compared to water treatment. qPCR yielded lower inactivation rates at longer treatment times than culture techniques, presumably due to the fact that the latter do not take into account the viable but not culturable state of microorganisms. PMID:23428546

  8. Solar-Enhanced Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water Treatment: Simultaneous Removal of Pathogens and Chemical Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Tsydenova, Oyuna; Batoev, Valeriy; Batoeva, Agniya

    2015-01-01

    The review explores the feasibility of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by solar-enhanced advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). The AOPs are based on in-situ generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), most notably hydroxyl radicals •OH, that are capable of destroying both pollutant molecules and pathogen cells. The review presents evidence of simultaneous removal of pathogens and chemical pollutants by photocatalytic processes, namely TiO2 photocatalysis and photo-Fenton. Complex water matrices with high loads of pathogens and chemical pollutants negatively affect the efficiency of disinfection and pollutant removal. This is due to competition between chemical substances and pathogens for generated ROS. Other possible negative effects include light screening, competitive photon absorption, adsorption on the catalyst surface (thereby inhibiting its photocatalytic activity), etc. Besides, some matrix components may serve as nutrients for pathogens, thus hindering the disinfection process. Each type of water/wastewater would require a tailor-made approach and the variables that were shown to influence the processes—catalyst/oxidant concentrations, incident radiation flux, and pH—need to be adjusted in order to achieve the required degree of pollutant and pathogen removal. Overall, the solar-enhanced AOPs hold promise as an environmentally-friendly way to substitute or supplement conventional water/wastewater treatment, particularly in areas without access to centralized drinking water or sewage/wastewater treatment facilities. PMID:26287222

  9. LC/MS/MS structure elucidation of reaction intermediates formed during the TiO(2) photocatalysis of microcystin-LR.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Maria G; Shoemaker, Jody A; de la Cruz, Armah A; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2008-05-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR), a cyanotoxin and emerging drinking water contaminant, was treated with TiO(2) photocatalysts immobilized on stainless steel plates as an alternative to nanoparticles in slurry. The reaction intermediates of MC-LR were identified with mass spectrometry (MS) at pH of Milli-Q water (pH(sq)=5.7). Eleven new [M+H](+) were observed in the liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) chromatogram with some of them giving multiple peaks. Most of these reaction intermediates have not been reported from previous studies employing TiO(2) nanoparticles at acidic conditions (pH=4.0). Investigating the effects of pH (for 3.0

  10. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  11. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic

  12. [Drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dartois, A M; Casamitjana, F

    1991-01-01

    Water is essential for life. Thirst is a pressing need which always has to be satisfied. Infants need 3 times more water than adults if the requirements is calculated according to body weight. A correct balance in the sensory, physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities of water make it drinkable. Two laws have been passed recently concerning drinking water in France: one deals with water for human consumption (January 3 1989 decree), and the other deals with drinkable bottled mineral water (June 3 1989 decree). Tap water and bottled water are under strict vigilance. For babies under 4 months of age, it is better to use bottled water with a low mineral content (nitrates less than 15 mg/l). Hard water is safe; water softeners are useful only for hot water. Fluorination supplies of water is good for dental health at a concentration of 1 mg/l. Plastic bottles are as safe as glass ones. PMID:1662352

  13. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  14. Photo-catalysis of bromacil under simulated solar light using Au/TiO₂: evaluation of main degradation products and toxicity implications.

    PubMed

    Angthararuk, Dusit; Sutthivaiyakit, Pakawadee; Blaise, Christian; Gagné, François; Sutthivaiyakit, Somyote

    2015-01-01

    Bromacil (5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil) is a substituted uracil herbicide used worldwide. It is not readily biodegradable and has the potential to contaminate different types of water bodies with possible impact on diverse non-target species. In this work, degradation of bromacil in aqueous Au/TiO2 suspension under simulated sunlight allowed fourteen degradation products to be identified. The photodegradation of bromacil followed (pseudo) first order kinetics in the presence of 0.2 g L(-1) of Au/TiO2 with a half-life of 25.66 ± 1.60 min and a rate constant of 0.0271 ± 0.0023 min(-1). Transformation routes of the photo-catalytic degradation of bromacil were then proposed. Complementary toxicity assessment of the treated bromacil solution revealed a marked decrease in toxicity, thereby confirming that by-products formed would be less harmful from an environmental point of view. Photo-catalytic degradation of bromacil thus appears to hold promise as a cost-effective treatment technology to diminish the presence of this herbicide in aquatic systems. PMID:25163558

  15. Synthesis and visible light photocatalysis of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} mesoporous layers deposited on hollow glass microbeads

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Lifeng; Wang Yuansheng; Niu Mutong; Chen Guoxin; Cheng Yao

    2009-10-15

    Nano-composite of Fe-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals loaded on the hollow glass microbeads was prepared by co-thermal hydrolysis deposition and calcining treatment. The adherence of TiO{sub 2} mesoporous layers to the surfaces of hollow glass microbeads prevented the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and benefited to their catalytic activity. The doping of Fe ions makes the absorption edge of the TiO{sub 2} based nano-composite red-shifted into the visible region. An effective photodegradation of the methyl orange aqueous solution was achieved under visible light (lambda>420 nm) irradiation, revealing the potential applicability of such nano-composite in some industry fields, such as air and water purifications. - Graphical abstract: Nano-composite of Fe-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals loaded on the hollow glass microbeads was prepared by co-thermal hydrolysis deposition. Photodegradation of the methyl orange was achieved under visible light irradiation, revealing the potential applicability of such nano-composite in some industry fields.

  16. Mechanistic Features of the TiO2 Heterogeneous Photocatalysis of Arsenic and Uranyl Nitrate in Aqueous Suspensions Studied by the Stopped-Flow Technique.

    PubMed

    Meichtry, Jorge M; Levy, Ivana K; Mohamed, Hanan H; Dillert, Ralf; Bahnemann, Detlef W; Litter, Marta I

    2016-03-16

    The dynamics of the transfer of electrons stored in TiO2 nanoparticles to As(III) , As(V) , and uranyl nitrate in water was investigated by using the stopped-flow technique. Suspensions of TiO2 nanoparticles with stored trapped electrons (etrap (-) ) were mixed with solutions of acceptor species to evaluate the reactivity by following the temporal evolution of etrap (-) by the decrease in the absorbance at λ=600 nm. The results indicate that As(V) and As(III) cannot be reduced by etrap (-) under the reaction conditions. In addition, it was observed that the presence of As(V) and As(III) strongly modified the reaction rate between O2 and etrap (-) : an increase in the rate was observed if As(V) was present and a decrease in the rate was observed in the presence of As(III) . In contrast with the As system, U(VI) was observed to react easily with etrap (-) and U(IV) formation was observed spectroscopically at λ=650 nm. The possible competence of U(VI) and NO3 (-) for their reduction by etrap (-) was analyzed. The inhibition of the U(VI) photocatalytic reduction by O2 could be attributed to the fast oxidation of U(V) and/or U(IV) . PMID:26710930

  17. Biomimetic Method To Assemble Nanostructured Ag@ZnO on Cotton Fabrics: Application as Self-Cleaning Flexible Materials with Visible-Light Photocatalysis and Antibacterial Activities.

    PubMed

    Manna, Joydeb; Goswami, Srishti; Shilpa, Nagaraju; Sahu, Nivedita; Rana, Rohit K

    2015-04-22

    A bioinspired mineralization route to prepare self-cleaning cotton fabrics by functionalizing their surface with nanostructured Ag@ZnO is demonstrated herein. In a polyamine-mediated mineralization process, while the nucleation, organization and coating of ZnO is done directly from water-soluble zinc salts under mild conditions, the entrapped polyamine in the ZnO matrix acts as reducing agent to generate Ag(0) from Ag(I) at room temperature. The Ag@ZnO coated cotton fabrics are characterized by FESEM, HRTEM, XRD, and UV-vis-DRS to confirm the formation and coating of Ag@ZnO particles on individual threads of the fabric. The presence of Ag nanoparticles not only enables the ZnO-coated fabrics exhibiting improved photocatalytic property but also allows for visible-light-driven activities. Furthermore, it exhibits efficient antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, besides these multifunctional properties, the polyamine-mediated bioinspired approach is expected to pave way for functionalization of flexible substrates under mild conditions as desirable for the development and fabrication of smart, lightweight, and wearable devices for various niche applications. PMID:25823715

  18. Water Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how experiences with water provide children with opportunities to be artists. Describes different types of water play for children. Believes that experiences with water introduce children to the principles of painting. (CMK)

  19. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Water Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Water Safety Print A ... best measure of protection. previous continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ...

  20. Fluoridated Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  1. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include adding fluoride to ...

  2. The loading effect of silver nanoparticles prepared by impregnation and solution plasma methods on the photocatalysis of Ga2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Muneaki; Yoshida, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Naoto; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Yagi, Shinya

    2015-09-01

    Ag loaded Ga2O3 (Ag/Ga2O3) photocatalysts for the reduction of CO2 with water have been prepared by impregnation (IMP) and two types of solution plasma methods (SPM1 and SPM2). Using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopies, we have investigated the local electronic structures of Ag/Ga2O3 photocatalysts as well as the adsorption behaviors of CO2 during the reaction. Both Ag L3-edge and O K-edge XANES analyses reveal the Ag-Ga2O3 interaction, i.e., the charge-transfer from O atoms to Ag atoms, by demonstrating the decrease in the unoccupied Ag 4d-state density and increase in the unoccupied O 2p-state density. The strength of the interaction depends on the preparation method, and increases in the order of Ag/Ga2O3 (SPM2), Ag/Ga2O3 (SPM1) and Ag/Ga2O3 (IMP). In addition, FT-IR measurements have disclosed that Ag/Ga2O3 (IMP) obtains a larger amount of strongly basic sites as a result of the strongest interaction between Ag and Ga2O3. Although the amount of the adsorbed CO2 is different in each Ag/Ga2O3 sample, in the following formation process of bidentate formate species, no remarkable difference is detected among all samples. The bidentate formate species are likely to interact with H2O molecules to produce CO under photoirradiation, and this process would be affected by the strength of the Ag-Ga2O3 interaction, because this reaction hardly proceeds over Ag/Ga2O3 (SPM2) having the weakest Ag-Ga2O3 interaction.

  3. Preparation of magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} microspheres and their application in photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Su-Hua; Yin, Zhen; Luo, Sheng-Lian; Au, Chak-Tong; Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong ; Li, Xue-Jun

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► We described the preparation and characterization of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} magnetic microspheres composites. ► The photocatalytic activities of the composites were also investigated. ► With the combination of photocatalysts and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}, good stability and magnetic separability can be achieved. ► And to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} nanoparticles loaded on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} particles. -- Abstract: Magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} microspheres with photocatalytic properties have been synthesized using a silica layer for “bonding” (adhering Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). The morphology, composition and magnetic properties of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry, and BET surface area analysis. The activity of the material in photocatalytic decoloration of aqueous rhodamine B (RhB) solution under visible light was evaluated. The results showed that Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} combined well with the magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} composites were spherical in shape, having a mean size of 2 μm. The spent catalyst could be recycled with only slight decline in catalytic activity. It is envisaged that the stability, reusability, and magnetic nature of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2}/Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} catalyst warrants its application in photocatalysis.

  4. The detrimental influence of bacteria (E. coli, Shigella and Salmonella) on the degradation of organic compounds (and vice versa) in TiO2 photocatalysis and near-neutral photo-Fenton processes under simulated solar light.

    PubMed

    Moncayo-Lasso, Alejandro; Mora-Arismendi, Luis Enrique; Rengifo-Herrera, Julián Andrés; Sanabria, Janeth; Benítez, Norberto; Pulgarin, César

    2012-05-01

    TiO2 photocatalytic and near-neutral photo-Fenton processes were tested under simulated solar light to degrade two models of natural organic matter - resorcinol (R) (which should interact strongly with TiO2 surfaces) and hydroquinone (H) - separately or in the presence of bacteria. Under similar oxidative conditions, inactivation of Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Salmonella typhimurium was carried out in the absence and in the presence of 10 mg L(-1) of R and H. The 100% abatement of R and H by using a TiO2 photocatalytic process in the absence of bacteria was observed in 90 min for R and in 120 min for H, while in the presence of microorganisms abatement was only of 55% and 35% for R and H, respectively. Photo-Fenton reagent at pH 5.0 completely removed R and H in 40 min, whereas in the presence of microorganisms their degradation was of 60% to 80%. On the other hand, 2 h of TiO2 photocatalytic process inactivated S. typhimurium and E. coli cells in three and six orders of magnitude, respectively, while S. sonnei was completely inactivated in 10 min. In the presence of R or H, the bacterial inactivation via TiO2 photocatalysis was significantly decreased. With photo-Fenton reagent at pH 5 all the microorganisms tested were completely inactivated in 40 min of simulated solar light irradiation in the absence of organics. When R and H were present, bacterial photo-Fenton inactivation was less affected. The obtained results suggest that in both TiO2 and iron photo-assisted processes, there is competition between organic substances and bacteria simultaneously present for generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). This competition is most important in heterogeneous systems, mainly when there are strong organic-TiO2 surface interactions, as in the resorcinol case, suggesting that bacteria-TiO2 interactions could play a key role in photocatalytic cell inactivation processes. PMID:22370626

  5. Band gap engineering of ZnO using core/shell morphology with environmentally benign Ag₂S sensitizer for efficient light harvesting and enhanced visible-light photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Khanchandani, Sunita; Srivastava, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Ghosh, Subhasis; Ganguli, Ashok K

    2014-09-01

    Band gap engineering offers tunable optical and electronic properties of semiconductors in the development of efficient photovoltaic cells and photocatalysts. Our study demonstrates the band gap engineering of ZnO nanorods to develop a highly efficient visible-light photocatalyst. We engineered the band gap of ZnO nanorods by introducing the core/shell geometry with Ag2S sensitizer as the shell. Introduction of the core/shell geometry evinces great promise for expanding the light-harvesting range and substantial suppression of charge carrier recombination, which are of supreme importance in the realm of photocatalysis. To unveil the superiority of Ag2S as a sensitizer in engineering the band gap of ZnO in comparison to the Cd-based sensitizers, we also designed ZnO/CdS core/shell nanostructures having the same shell thickness. The photocatalytic performance of the resultant core/shell nanostructures toward methylene blue (MB) dye degradation has been studied. The results imply that the ZnO/Ag2S core/shell nanostructures reveal 40- and 2-fold enhancement in degradation constant in comparison to the pure ZnO and ZnO/CdS core/shell nanostructures, respectively. This high efficiency is elucidated in terms of (i) efficient light harvesting owing to the incorporation of Ag2S and (ii) smaller conduction band offset between ZnO and Ag2S, promoting more efficient charge separation at the core/shell interface. A credible photodegradation mechanism for the MB dye deploying ZnO/Ag2S core/shell nanostructures is proposed from the analysis of involved active species such as hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)), electrons (e(-)(CB)), holes (h(+)(VB)), and superoxide radical anions (O2(•-)) in the photodegradation process utilizing various active species scavengers and EPR spectroscopy. The findings show that the MB oxidation is directed mainly by the assistance of hydroxyl radicals (OH(•)). The results presented here provide new insights for developing band gap engineered semiconductor nanostructures for energy-harvesting applications and demonstrate Ag2S to be a potential sensitizer to supersede Cd-based sensitizers for eco-friendly applications. PMID:25144692

  6. Laser-enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants from water using ZnO semiconductor catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Sayeed, Mohammad N

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater contaminated with organic pollutants creates serious environmental problems. Laser induced photocatalysis has been investigated for removal of organic pollutant like phenol from water. The important mechanism for degradation of phenol by UV laser irradiation is redox reactions triggered by semiconductor catalyst in presence of water. In this study the potential of a ZnO semiconductor catalyst has been explored as an effective catalyst for the photodegradation of phenol using a Nd:YAG laser-emitting at 355 nm in UV-radiation in a batch reactor. The influences of different parameters such as catalyst concentration, UV-radiation intensity, and pH on the extent of photo degradation have been investigated. Overall degradation of phenol achieved was 70% after 60 minutes of laser irradiation of 100 ppm phenol solution in water. The reaction rate constant fit a first-order reaction model for phenol degradation and was estimated as 0.0088 min(-1). This study proved that laser induced photocatalytic removal of phenol is highly efficient as compared with the broadband spectral sources such as lamps being applied in majority of setups worldwide. PMID:18161560

  7. Summary of engineering-scale experiments for the Solar Detoxification of Water project

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E.; Yellowhorse, L.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a summary of large-scale experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the Solar Detoxification of Water project. The objectives of the work performed were to determine the potential of using solar radiation to destroy organic contaminants in water by photocatalysis and to develop the process and improve its performance. For these experiments, we used parabolic troughs to focus sunlight onto glass pipes mounted at the trough's focus. Water spiked with a contaminant and containing suspended titanium dioxide catalyst was pumped through the illuminated glass pipe, activating the catalyst with the ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum. The activated catalyst creates oxidizers that attack and destroy the organics. Included in this report are a summary and discussion of the implications of experiments conducted to determine: the effect of process kinetics on the destruction of chlorinated solvents (such trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, trichloroethane, methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride), the enhancement due to added hydrogen peroxide, the optimal catalyst loading, the effect of light intensity, the inhibition due to bicarbonates, and catalyst issues.

  8. Summary of engineering-scale experiments for the Solar Detoxification of Water project

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, J.E.; Yellowhorse, L.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains a summary of large-scale experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the Solar Detoxification of Water project. The objectives of the work performed were to determine the potential of using solar radiation to destroy organic contaminants in water by photocatalysis and to develop the process and improve its performance. For these experiments, we used parabolic troughs to focus sunlight onto glass pipes mounted at the trough`s focus. Water spiked with a contaminant and containing suspended titanium dioxide catalyst was pumped through the illuminated glass pipe, activating the catalyst with the ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum. The activated catalyst creates oxidizers that attack and destroy the organics. Included in this report are a summary and discussion of the implications of experiments conducted to determine: the effect of process kinetics on the destruction of chlorinated solvents (such trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, trichloroethane, methylene chloride, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride), the enhancement due to added hydrogen peroxide, the optimal catalyst loading, the effect of light intensity, the inhibition due to bicarbonates, and catalyst issues.

  9. [Spectral Analysis of CdZnSe Ternary Quantum Dots Sensitized TiO2 Tubes and Its Application in Visible-Light Photocatalysis].

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-zhong; Ren, Li-li; Pan, Hai-bo; Li, Chun-yan; Chen, Jing-hua; Chen, Jian-zhong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, cadmium nitrate hexahydrate [Cd(NO₃)₂ · 6H₂O] is as a source of cadmium, zinc nitrate [Zn(NO₃)₂] as a source of zinc source, and NaHSe as a source of selenium which was prepared through reducing the elemental selenium with sodium borohydride (NaBH₄). Then water-soluble Cd₁₋xZnxSe ternary quantum dots with different component were prepared by colloid chemistry. The as-prepared Cd₁₋xZnx Se ternary quantum dots exhibit stable fluorescent property in aqueous solution, and can still maintain good dispersivity at room temperature for four months. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) were used to analyze crystal structure and morphology of the prepared Cd₁₋xZnxSe. It is found that the as-prepared ternary quantum dots are cubic phase, show as sphere, and the average of particle size is approximate 4 nm. The spectral properties and energy band structure of the as-prepared ternary quantum dots were modulated through changing the atom ratio of elements Zn and Cd. Compared with binary quantum dots CdSe and ZnSe, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Visible) absorption spectrum and fluorescence (FL) emission spectrum of ternary quantum dots are both red-shift. The composites (Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs) of Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes (TNTs) were prepared by directly immerging TNTs into quantum dots dispersive solution for 5 hours. TEM image shows that the Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots were closely combined to nanotube surface. The infrared spectra show that the Ti-Se bond was formed between Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots and TiO₂ nanotubes, which improve the stability of the composite. Compared to pristine TNTs, UV-Visible absorption spectrum of the composites is significantly enhanced in the visible region of light. And the absorption band edge of Cd₀.₅Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs red-shift from 400 to 700 nm. The recombination of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs was restrained with the as-prepared ternary quantum dots. Therefore, the visible-light photocatalytic efficiency was greatly improved. After visible-light irradiation for 60 min, the degradation of Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se@TNTs photocatalysts for RhB is nearly 100%, which is about 3. 3 times of that of pristine TNTs and 2. 5 times of that of pure Cd₀.₅ Zn₀.₅ Se ternary quantum dots, respectively. PMID:26978928

  10. Earth-Abundant Metal Pyrites (FeS2, CoS2, NiS2, and Their Alloys) for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution and Polysulfide Reduction Electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many materials have been explored as potential hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts to generate clean hydrogen fuel via water electrolysis, but none so far compete with the highly efficient and stable (but cost prohibitive) noble metals. Similarly, noble metals often excel as electrocatalytic counter electrode materials in regenerative liquid-junction photoelectrochemical solar cells, such as quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) that employ the sulfide/polysulfide redox electrolyte as the hole mediator. Here, we systematically investigate thin films of the earth-abundant pyrite-phase transition metal disulfides (FeS2, CoS2, NiS2, and their alloys) as promising alternative electrocatalysts for both the HER and polysulfide reduction. Their electrocatalytic activity toward the HER is correlated to their composition and morphology. The emergent trends in their performance suggest that cobalt plays an important role in facilitating the HER, with CoS2 exhibiting highest overall performance. Additionally, we demonstrate the high activity of the transition metal pyrites toward polysulfide reduction and highlight the particularly high intrinsic activity of NiS2, which could enable improved QDSSC performance. Furthermore, structural disorder introduced by alloying different transition metal pyrites could increase their areal density of active sites for catalysis, leading to enhanced performance. PMID:25247028

  11. Earth-Abundant Metal Pyrites (FeS2, CoS2, NiS2, and Their Alloys) for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Evolution and Polysulfide Reduction Electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Faber, Matthew S; Lukowski, Mark A; Ding, Qi; Kaiser, Nicholas S; Jin, Song

    2014-09-18

    Many materials have been explored as potential hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrocatalysts to generate clean hydrogen fuel via water electrolysis, but none so far compete with the highly efficient and stable (but cost prohibitive) noble metals. Similarly, noble metals often excel as electrocatalytic counter electrode materials in regenerative liquid-junction photoelectrochemical solar cells, such as quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) that employ the sulfide/polysulfide redox electrolyte as the hole mediator. Here, we systematically investigate thin films of the earth-abundant pyrite-phase transition metal disulfides (FeS2, CoS2, NiS2, and their alloys) as promising alternative electrocatalysts for both the HER and polysulfide reduction. Their electrocatalytic activity toward the HER is correlated to their composition and morphology. The emergent trends in their performance suggest that cobalt plays an important role in facilitating the HER, with CoS2 exhibiting highest overall performance. Additionally, we demonstrate the high activity of the transition metal pyrites toward polysulfide reduction and highlight the particularly high intrinsic activity of NiS2, which could enable improved QDSSC performance. Furthermore, structural disorder introduced by alloying different transition metal pyrites could increase their areal density of active sites for catalysis, leading to enhanced performance. PMID:25247028

  12. Water Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents a Project WET water education activity. Students use a Water Log (journal or portfolio) to write or illustrate their observations, feelings, and actions related to water. The log serves as an assessment tool to monitor changes over time in knowledge of and attitudes toward the water. (LZ)

  13. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water

  14. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... water, they can spread the parasite into the water and continue the cycle of contamination and infection. Schistosomiasis can be spread when people swim in or have contact with freshwater lakes that are contaminated ... drinking water or recreational water. Individuals spending time in the ...

  15. A self-cleaning polybenzoxazine/TiO2 surface with superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity for oil/water separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenfei; Lu, Xin; Xin, Zhong; Zhou, Changlu

    2015-12-14

    Two important properties-the low surface free energy of polybenzoxazine (PBZ) and the photocatalysis-induced self-cleaning property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles-are combined to develop a promising approach for oil/water separation. They are integrated into a multifunctional superhydrophobic and superoleophilic material, PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics (PBZT), through a simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method. The resulting PBZT reveals excellent mechanical durability and strong resistance to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation as well as acid and alkali. This durable superhydrophobic and superoleophilic fabric is efficient for separating oil/water mixtures by gravity with high separation efficiency, and it can also purify wastewater that contains soluble dyes, which makes it more effective and promising in treating water pollution. Importantly, PBZT demonstrates an integrated self-cleaning performance on the removal of both oil and particle contamination. It is expected that this simple process can be readily adopted for the design of multifunctional PBZ/TiO2 based materials for oil/water separation. PMID:26530425

  16. Water tight.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures. Multilateral development agencies have identified some developing country cities as demonstrated sites for urban water conservation. PMID:12286138

  17. Water Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

  18. Novel cobalt quantum dot/graphene nanocomposites as highly efficient electrocatalysts for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Mao, Brennan; Chen, Aicheng

    2016-01-01

    A cost-effective, non-noble metal based high-performance electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical to energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we report on a facile and effective in situ strategy for the synthesis of an advanced nanocomposite material that is comprised of cobalt quantum dots (Co QDs, ~3.2 nm), uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst platform. This nanocomposite electrocatalyst afforded a mass activity of 1250 A g-1 at a low overpotential (η) of 0.37 V, a small Tafel slope of ~37 mV dec-1 and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 0.188 s-1 in 0.1 M KOH, comparing favorably with state-of-the-art RuO2, IrO2 and Pt/C catalysts. The synergy between abundant catalytically active sites through the fine dispersion of Co QDs, and enhanced electron transfer generated from the graphene resulted in first-rate electrocatalytic properties toward the OER. These merits coupled with the higher stability of the nanocomposite hold great promise for triggering breakthroughs in electrocatalysis for water splitting.A cost-effective, non-noble metal based high-performance electrocatalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is critical to energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we report on a facile and effective in situ strategy for the synthesis of an advanced nanocomposite material that is comprised of cobalt quantum dots (Co QDs, ~3.2 nm), uniformly dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a highly efficient OER electrocatalyst platform. This nanocomposite electrocatalyst afforded a mass activity of 1250 A g-1 at a low overpotential (η) of 0.37 V, a small Tafel slope of ~37 mV dec-1 and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 0.188 s-1 in 0.1 M KOH, comparing favorably with state-of-the-art RuO2, IrO2 and Pt/C catalysts. The synergy between abundant catalytically active sites through the fine dispersion of Co QDs, and enhanced electron transfer generated from the graphene resulted in first-rate electrocatalytic properties toward the OER. These merits coupled with the higher stability of the nanocomposite hold great promise for triggering breakthroughs in electrocatalysis for water splitting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD and FT-IR measurements for the Co QD/rGO nanocomposite; the plot of onset potentials (Eonset) and oxidation potentials at 5 mA cm-2 of different eletrocatalysts; chronopotentiometric and amperometric curves of the GC electrode modified with Co nanoparticles recorded under various current densities and electrode potentials in 0.1 M KOH. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06726j

  19. Wasted waters.

    PubMed

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water. PMID:12295784

  20. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  1. Branding water

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  2. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  3. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  4. Water Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Water Safety KidsHealth > For Teens > Water Safety Print A A ... fun — one to your doctor or dentist. Boating Safety More people die in boating accidents every year ...

  5. Cobalt-phosphate-assisted photoelectrochemical water oxidation by arrays of molybdenum-doped zinc oxide nanorods.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Gu; Hsu, Yu-Kuei; Chen, Ying-Chu; Lee, Bing-Wei; Hwang, Jih-Shang; Chen, Li-Chyong; Chen, Kuei-Hsien

    2014-09-01

    We report the first demonstration of cobalt phosphate (Co-Pi)-assisted molybdenum-doped zinc oxide nanorods (Zn(1-x)Mo(x)O NRs) as visible-light-sensitive photofunctional electrodes to fundamentally improve the performance of ZnO NRs for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. A maximum photoconversion efficiency as high as 1.05% was achieved, at a photocurrent density of 1.4?mA?cm(-2). More importantly, in addition to achieve the maximum incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) value of 86%, it could be noted that the IPCE of Zn(1-x)Mo(x)O photoanodes under monochromatic illumination (450?nm) is up to 12%. Our PEC performances are comparable to those of many oxide-based photoanodes in recent reports. The improvement in photoactivity of PEC water splitting may be attributed to the enhanced visible-light absorption, increased charge-carrier densities, and improved interfacial charge-transfer kinetics due to the combined effect of molybdenum incorporation and Co-Pi modification, contributing to photocatalysis. The new design of constructing highly photoactive Co-Pi-assisted Zn(1-x)Mo(x)O photoanodes enriches knowledge on doping and advances the development of high-efficiency photoelectrodes in the solar-hydrogen field. PMID:25044962

  6. Zinc oxide nanorod mediated visible light photoinactivation of model microbes in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Ajaya; Anceno, Alfredo J.; Baruah, Sunandan; Shipin, Oleg V.; Dutta, Joydeep

    2011-05-01

    The inactivation of model microbes in aqueous matrix by visible light photocatalysis as mediated by ZnO nanorods was investigated. ZnO nanorods were grown on glass substrate following a hydrothermal route and employed in the inactivation of gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus subtilis in MilliQ water. The concentration of Zn2 + ions in the aqueous matrix, bacterial cell membrane damage, and DNA degradation at post-exposure were also studied. The inactivation efficiencies for both organisms under light conditions were about two times higher than under dark conditions across the cell concentrations assayed. Anomalies in supernatant Zn2 + concentration were observed under both conditions as compared to control treatments, while cell membrane damage and DNA degradation were observed only under light conditions. Inactivation under dark conditions was hence attributed to the bactericidal effect of Zn2 + ions, while inactivation under light conditions was due to the combined effects of Zn2 + ions and photocatalytically mediated electron injection. The reduction of pathogenic bacterial densities by the photocatalytically active ZnO nanorods in the presence of visible light implies potential ex situ application in water decontamination at ambient conditions under sunlight.

  7. Nanotechnology: a clean and sustainable technology for the degradation of pharmaceuticals present in water and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Rengaraj; Al Fahdi, Tharaya; Al-Wahaibi, Bushra; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Al-Nofli, Kholood; Al-Lawati, Haider

    2016-03-01

    Pharmaceuticals, newly recognized classes of environmental pollutants, are becoming increasingly problematic contaminants of either surface water or ground water around industrial and residential communities. Pharmaceuticals are constantly released into aquatic environments, mainly due to their widespread consumption and complicated removal in wastewater treatment plants. Heterogeneous photocatalysis appear to be one of the most destructive advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) for organic contaminants and are possible to obtain complete mineralization of organic pollutants into eco-friendly end products under visible and solar light irradiation. In this study, flower-like In2S3 hierarchical nanostructures were successfully prepared via a facile solution-phase route, using thioacetamide as both sulfur source and capping agent. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) of the flowers revealed that the cubic structure of In2S3; morphological studies examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the synthesized In2S3 nanostructure was flower-like hierarchitecture assembled from nanoscale flakes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the stoichiometry of In2S3 nanoflowers. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activity studies revealed that the prepared indium(III) sulfide(In2S3) nanoflowers exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance, degrading rapidly the aqueous pharmaceutical solution of Lisinopril under visible light irradiation. These results suggest that In2S3 nanoflowers will be a promising candidate of photocatalyst working in thevisible light range. PMID:26812846

  8. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  9. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…

  10. Coconut Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the grated meat of a mature coconut. Coconut water is commonly used as a beverage and as a solution for treating dehydration related ... that it is any more effective than other beverages for this use. ... use coconut water to replace fluids after exercise. Coconut water seems ...

  11. Managing photons and carriers for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, Isabell; Robatjazi, Hossein; Bahauddin, Shah; Doiron, Chloe; Liu, Xuejun; Tumkur, Thejaswi; Wang, Wei-Ren; Wray, Parker

    While small plasmonic nanoparticles efficiently generate energetic hot carriers, light absorption in a monolayer of such particles is inefficient, and practical utilization of the hot carriers in addition requires efficient charge-separation. Here we describe our approach to address both challenges. By designing an optical cavity structure for the plasmonic photoelectrode, light absorption in these particles can be significantly enhanced, resulting in efficient hot electron generation. Rather than utilizing a Schottky barrier to preserve the energy of the carriers, our structure allows for their direct injection into the adjacent electrolyte. On the substrate side, the plasmonic particles are in contact with a wide band gap oxide film that serves as an electron blocking layer but accepts holes and transfers them to the counter electrode. The observed photocurrent spectra follow the plasmon spectrum, and demonstrate that the extracted electrons are energetic enough to drive the hydrogen evolution reaction. A similar structure can be designed to achieve broadband absorption enhancement in monolayer MoS2. Time permitting, I will discuss charge carrier dynamics in hybrid nanoparticles composed of plasmonic / two-dimensional materials, and applications of photo-induced force microscopy to study photocatalytic processes.

  12. Multicomponent Protein Cage Architectures for Photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, Trevor

    2014-11-21

    The central focus of the work performed under this award has been to develop the bacteriophage P22 viral capsid as a vehicle for the encapsulation of catalyticaly active cargo materials and study their utility towards economic energy harvesting systems. We have demonstrated that the capsid of the bacteriophage P22 can be used to genetically program the assembly and encapsulation of a range of inorganic nanoparticles and protein cargoes. The P22 capsid uses a scaffold protein (SP) to direct the assembly of its coat protein (CP) into icosahedral capsids. By creating a genetic fusion of a desired cargo enzyme or a small peptide that can act as a nucleation site for subsequent NP growth, we have demonstrated the co-assembly of these SP-fusions and CP into stable “nano-reactors”. The cargo is sequestered inside the engineered capsid and can either be used directly as a nanocatalyst or for the nucleation and growth of inorganic or organic nanoparticles or polymers. The synthetic cargos (NP or polymers) were shown to have photocatalytic activity. The time dependent photophysics of a select few of these systems were studied to determine the underlying mechanisms and efficiency of light harversting. Enzyme cargos encapsulated within the P22 were thermally activated catalysts and their kinetic behavior was characterized. During the course of this work we have demonstrated that the method is a robust means to harness biology for materials applications and have initiated work into assembling the P22 nanoreactors into hierarchically ordered materials. The successful implementation of the work performed under this DOE grant provides us with a great deal of knowledge and a library of components to go forward towards the development of bioinspired catalytic materials for energy harvesting.

  13. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  14. Water Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  15. Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1986-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

  16. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  17. Water Purifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

  18. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

  19. The effect of phosphoric acid concentration on electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Jeffrey T.; Cahen, George L., Jr.; Stoner, Glenn E.

    1989-03-01

    Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is the electrolyte used in the most advanced H2/air fuel cell developed for power generation and for on-site integrated energy systems. Oxygen reduction kinetics in this electrolyte are relatively poor and thus limit the efficiency of such fuel cells. Therefore, in order to better understand oxygen interactions with platinum in these cells, oxygen adsorption and the kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were studied utilizing a Pt rotating disk electrode in several concentrations of highly purified H3PO4. Although the kinetics of the ORR remained first order in all concentrations, it was found that its Tafel slope increased from about 110 mV/dec in low H3PO4 concentrations to about 134 mV/dec in 85 wt pct H3PO4. Anodic adsorption isotherms indicated that the higher H3PO4 concentrations also hindered adsorption of oxygen from solution. These effects were attributed to the blockage of electroactive sites by the adsorption of H3PO4 molecules.

  20. Perovskite-type oxides - Oxygen electrocatalysis and bulk structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carbonio, R. E.; Fierro, C.; Tryk, D.; Scherson, D.; Yeager, E.

    1988-01-01

    Perovskite type oxides were considered for use as oxygen reduction and generation electrocatalysts in alkaline electrolytes. Perovskite stability and electrocatalytic activity are studied along with possible relationships of the latter with the bulk solid state properties. A series of compounds of the type LaFe(x)Ni1(-x)O3 was used as a model system to gain information on the possible relationships between surface catalytic activity and bulk structure. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition rate constants were measured for these compounds. Ex situ Mossbauer effect spectroscopy (MES), and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to study the solid state properties. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to examine the surface. MES has indicated the presence of a paramagnetic to magnetically ordered phase transition for values of x between 0.4 and 0.5. A correlation was found between the values of the MES isomer shift and the catalytic activity for peroxide decomposition. Thus, the catalytic activity can be correlated to the d-electron density for the transition metal cations.

  1. Modified nanocarbon surfaces for high performance supercapacitor and electrocatalysis applications.

    PubMed

    Es-Souni, Mohammed; Schopf, Dimitri

    2015-09-14

    An efficient and easy method is described which allows modification of supported nanocarbon films with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from an aqueous colloidal suspension. Subsequently CNTs can be decorated with Pt-nanoparticles directly from an aqueous solution of Pt ions without the need for reducing agents. High performance supercapacitors and electrocatalysts are obtained. PMID:26226291

  2. Characterizing nano-scale electrocatalysis during partial oxidation of methane.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daehee; Kim, Dongha; Kim, Joosun; Moon, Jooho

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical analysis allows in situ characterization of solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOCs) under operating conditions. However, the SOCs that have been analyzed in this way have ill-defined or uncommon microstructures in terms of porosity and tortuosity. Therefore, the nano-scale characterization of SOCs with respect to three-phase boundaries has been hindered. We introduce novel in situ electrochemical analysis for SOCs that uses combined solid electrolyte potentiometry (SEP) and impedance measurements. This method is employed to investigate the oscillatory behavior of a porous Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode during the partial oxidation of methane under ambient pressure at 800C. The cyclic oxidation and reduction of nickel induces the oscillatory behavior in the impedance and electrode potential. The in situ characterization of the nickel surface suggests that the oxidation of the nickel occurs predominantly at the two-phase boundaries, whereas the nickel at the three-phase boundaries remains in the metallic state during the cyclic redox reaction. PMID:24487242

  3. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

  4. Zirconium alkoxide interfaces for adhesion enhancement and electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkam, Susan Killian

    Tetra(tert-butoxy)zirconium was chemisorbed onto the native oxide layers of aluminum, iron, copper, and porous silicon, forming surface bound di- or tri-alkoxy zirconium species. Poly(ethylene- co-acrylic acid) was subsequently reacted with the surface forming chemically bound copolymer through carboxyzirconium linkages. Copolymer bound through the zirconium complex adhered to the metal oxide surfaces better than without the zirconium alkoxide intermediate, as determined by FTIR spectroscopy. Copper substrates were subjected to a variety of stability tests, including exposure to ambient conditions, base washing, and chronocoulometry. The copper-zirconium-copolymer ensemble was shown to be very stable in all of these tests. Indium tin oxide (ITO) powder was titrated to determine surface hydroxyl content per unit area. ITO-coated glass slides were reacted with tetra( tert-butoxy)zirconium, and subsequently with both carboxylic acid and phenol derivatives. Ferrocene-carboxyzirconium-coated ITO was characterized electrochemically, and the surface loading of ferrocene was found to be approximately one monolayer. Phenoxyzirconium-coated ITO was also characterized electrochemically and tested for electrocatalytic properties for the oxidation of several compounds in solution. Phenoxyzirconium-coated ITO was found to improve the oxidation kinetics for ferrocene and tetramethylphenylenediamine in acetonitrile.

  5. Electrocatalysis using transition metal carbide and oxide nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regmi, Yagya N.

    Carbides are one of the several families of transition metal compounds that are considered economic alternatives to catalysts based on noble metals and their compounds. Phase pure transition metal carbides of group 4-6 metals, in the first three periods, were synthesized using a common eutectic salt flux synthesis method, and their electrocatalytic activities compared under uniform electrochemical conditions. Mo2C showed highest hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities among the nine metal carbides investigated, but all other metal carbides also showed substantial activities. All the metal carbides showed remarkable enhancement in catalytic activities as supports, when compared to traditional graphitic carbon as platinum support. Mo2C, the most active transition metal carbide electrocatalyst, was prepared using four different synthesis routes, and the synthesis route dependent activities compared. Bifunctional Mo 2C that is HER as well as oxygen evolution reaction (OER) active, was achieved when the carbide was templated on a multiwalled carbon nanotube using carbothermic reduction method. Bimetallic carbides of Fe, Co, and Ni with Mo or W were prepared using a common carbothermic reduction method. Two different stoichiometries of bimetallic carbides were obtained for each system within a 60 °C temperature window. While the bimetallic carbides showed relatively lower electrocatalytic activities towards HER and ORR in comparison to Mo2C and WC, they revealed remarkably higher OER activities than IrO2 and RuO2, the state-of-the-art OER catalysts. Bimetallic oxides of Fe, Co, and Ni with Mo and W were also prepared using a hydrothermal synthesis method and they also revealed OER activities that are much higher than RuO2 and IrO2. Additionally, the OER activities were dependent on the degree and nature of hydration in the bimetallic oxide crystal lattice, with the completely hydrated, as synthesized, cobalt molybdate and nickel molybdate showing the highest OER activities.

  6. ELECTROCATALYSIS ON SURFACES MODIFIED BY METAL MONOLAYERS DEPOSITED AT UNDERPOTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    ADZIC,R.

    2000-12-01

    The remarkable catalytic properties of electrode surfaces modified by monolayer amounts of metal adatoms obtained by underpotential deposition (UPD) have been the subject of a large number of studies during the last couple of decades. This interest stems from the possibility of implementing strictly surface modifications of electrocatalysts in an elegant, well-controlled way, and these bi-metallic surfaces can serve as models for the design of new catalysts. In addition, some of these systems may have potential for practical applications. The UPD of metals, which in general involves the deposition of up to a monolayer of metal on a foreign substrate at potentials positive to the reversible thermodynamic potential, facilitates this type of surface modification, which can be performed repeatedly by potential control. Recent studies of these surfaces and their catalytic properties by new in situ surface structure sensitive techniques have greatly improved the understanding of these systems.

  7. Microfluidic platforms and fundamental electrocatalysis studies for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Jamie Lee

    The fabrication and testing of a planar membraneless microchannel fuel cell, based on a silicon microchannel, is described in detail. Laminar flow of fuel and oxidant streams, one on top of the other, prevents fuel crossover while allowing ionic transport at the interface between the two solutions. By employing laminar flow, the useful functions of a membrane are retained, while bypassing its inherent limitations. The planar design maximizes the anode and cathode areas, and elimination of the membrane affords broad flexibility in the choice of fuel and oxidant. Fuels including formic acid, methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and hydrogen were tested along with oxidants such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate. Steps taken to improve voltage, current density, and overall power output have been addressed, including the testing of a dual electrolyte system and the use of micro-patterned electrode surfaces to enhance fuel utilization. As the complexity of the fuels studied in the microchannel fuel cell increased, it was imperative to characterize these fuels using electrochemical techniques prior to utilization in the fuel cell. The oxidation pathway of the liquid fuel methanol was studied rigorously because of its importance for micro-fuel cell applications. Activation energies for methanol oxidation at a Ptpoly surface were determined using electrochemical techniques, providing a benchmark for the comparison of activation energies of other Pt-based electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation at a given potential. A protocol to obtain Ea values was established in three different electrolytes and experimental parameters that influence the magnitude of these values are discussed in detail. The oxidation pathways of sodium borohydride were also examined at Au, Pt, and Pd surfaces using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and rotating disk electrode voltammetry. In addition to studies on bulk Ptpoly surfaces, new bulk intermetallic catalysts were characterized for their electrocatalytic activity in formic acid. These intermetallics, including Pt2Ta, Pt3Ta, and PtTi, were compared to Pt in terms of onset of oxidation potential and current density at a given potential. The intermetallic PtPb was also extensively characterized in nine different fuels at room temperature, and at 70°C, and compared to Ptpoly.

  8. Characterizing nano-scale electrocatalysis during partial oxidation of methane

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daehee; Kim, Dongha; Kim, Joosun; Moon, Jooho

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical analysis allows in situ characterization of solid oxide electrochemical cells (SOCs) under operating conditions. However, the SOCs that have been analyzed in this way have ill-defined or uncommon microstructures in terms of porosity and tortuosity. Therefore, the nano-scale characterization of SOCs with respect to three-phase boundaries has been hindered. We introduce novel in situ electrochemical analysis for SOCs that uses combined solid electrolyte potentiometry (SEP) and impedance measurements. This method is employed to investigate the oscillatory behavior of a porous Ni-yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode during the partial oxidation of methane under ambient pressure at 800°C. The cyclic oxidation and reduction of nickel induces the oscillatory behavior in the impedance and electrode potential. The in situ characterization of the nickel surface suggests that the oxidation of the nickel occurs predominantly at the two-phase boundaries, whereas the nickel at the three-phase boundaries remains in the metallic state during the cyclic redox reaction. PMID:24487242

  9. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

  10. Electrocatalysis and Vapor Phase Catalysis: Reaction Mechanisms and Catalyst Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herron, Jeffrey A.

    The world energy crisis requires innovation in the production and utilization of energy resources. Renewable, clean energy sources like wind power and solar energy are promising, but due to their intermittent nature, are difficult to utilize directly. Energy stored in chemical bonds (i.e. fuel) can be utilized in a variety of applications, including the crucial transportation sector. In order to economically and energy efficiently store, and later extract, this energy, catalysts must be used. These catalysts must be optimized for high activity, selectivity, and low cost. In this dissertation, self-consistent density functional theory calculations are employed to design catalysts for important energy-related reactions. The design methodology begins by first elucidating the atomic-scale elementary steps that are active in the reaction mechanisms. Through knowledge of the atomic-scale mechanisms, and the specific chemical challenges in these mechanisms, we developed a framework for the design of catalytic materials that overcome these challenges, while also conforming to other important design criteria (e.g. cost and stability). Together with state-of-the-art synthesis techniques, characterization methods, and reactivity studies, the utility of these methods is demonstrated. The work in this dissertation provides examples of the aspects of this design methodology, applied to various catalytic systems with an emphasis on electrocatalytic reactions for fuel cell applications. The four main areas of discussion include 1) elucidation of atomic-scale reaction mechanisms, 2) developing reactivity descriptors for rapid screening of materials, 3) assessment of materials stability under reaction conditions, and 4) collaboration of theory with experiments.

  11. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  12. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  13. Ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains, plains, and deserts. It is not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and describe. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old.

  14. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  15. WATER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  16. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  17. WATER EROSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water erosion is caused by the detachment and transport of soil by runoff, melting snow or ice, and irrigation. Excessive erosion could threaten the production of agricultural and forest products. Erosion may also impact water conveyance and storage structures, and contribute to pollution from land ...

  18. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  19. Virginia's Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; And Others

    This booklet describes the water resources in Virginia. Main sections included are: (1) "Introduction" (providing a general overview of the richness and diversity of Virginia's water resources both economic and recreational); (2) "River Basins" (illustrating the area drained by nine rivers and their tributaries); (3) "Bays" (including the…

  20. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    SciTech Connect

    Costle, D.M.

    1980-09-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents found most frequently. Because 100 million Americans may be threatened by unfit drinking water, EPA has developed a new ground water strategy. It will enlist the help of State and local governments who already have programs under way and it will involve broad public debate and participation.

  1. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Casey, Justin

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  2. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  3. Fe vs. TiO2 Photo-assisted Processes for Enhancing the Solar Inactivation of Bacteria in Water.

    PubMed

    Pulgarin, César

    2015-01-01

    Batch solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a known, simple and low-cost water treatment technology. SODIS is based on the synergistic action of temperature increase and light-assisted generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) on bacteria. ROS are generated via the action of solar photons on i) Natural Organic Matter (NOM), ii) some mineral components of water (Fe oxides or Fe-organic complexes, nitrogen compounds) and iii) endogenous bacteria photosensitizers (e.g. cytochrome). SODIS has proven its effectiveness for remote settlements or urban slums in regions with high incident solar radiation. All of the internal and external simultaneous processes are often driven by photoactive Fe-species present in the cell, as well as in the natural water sources. In SODIS, a temperature of 50 °C is required and due to this temperature dependence, only 1-2 L can be treated at a time. As required exposure time strongly depends on irradiation intensity and temperature, some SODIS households could be overburdened, leading to inadequate treatment and probable bacterial re-growth. This is why TiO(2) photocatalysis and Fe photo-assisted systems (i.e. photo-Fenton reactants) have been considered to enhance the photo-catalytic processes already present in natural water sources when exposed to solar light. Both TiO(2) and Fe-photoassisted processes, when applied to water disinfection aim to improve the performance of solar bacteria inactivation systems by i) enhancing ROS production, ii) making the process independent from the rise in temperature and as a consequence iii) allowing the treatment of larger volumes than 1-2 L of water and iv) prevent bacterial (re)growth, sometimes observed after sole solar treatment. PMID:26507082

  4. Search for the ANSER (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum

    ScienceCinema

    Wasielewski, Michael R. (Director, Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center); ANSER Staff

    2011-11-02

    'Search for the ANSER' was submitted by the Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center (ANSER) to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. ANSER, an EFRC directed by Michael Wasielewski at Argonne National Laboratory is a partnership of scientists from five institutions: Argonne National Laboratory, Northwestern University, University of Chicago, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and Yale. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. At ANSER, the mission is 'to revolutionize our understanding of molecules, materials and methods necessary to create dramatically more efficient technologies for solar fuels and electricity production.' Research topics are: catalysis (water), electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, solar photovoltaic, solar fuels, solar electrodes, photosynthesis, transportation fuels, bio-inspired, spin dynamics, hydrogen (fuel), ultrafast physics, interfacial characterization, matter by design, novel materials synthesis, charge transport, and self-assembly.

  5. UNC EFRC: Fuels from Sunlight (A "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" contest entry from the 2011 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Meyer, Thomas J. (Director, UNC EFRC: Solar Fuels and Next Generation Photovoltaics); UNC EFRC Staff

    2011-11-02

    'Fuels from Sunlight' was submitted by the University of North Carolina (UNC) EFRC: Solar Fuels and Next Generation Photovoltaics to the 'Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research' video contest at the 2011 Science for Our Nation's Energy Future: Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) Summit and Forum. Twenty-six EFRCs created short videos to highlight their mission and their work. The UNC EFRC directed by Thomas J. Meyer is a partnership of scientists from six institutions: UNC (lead), Duke University, University of Florida, North Caroline Central University, North Carolina State University, and the Research Triangle Institute. The Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science established the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) in 2009. These collaboratively-organized centers conduct fundamental research focused on 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The overall purpose is to accelerate scientific progress toward meeting the nation's critical energy challenges. The mission of Solar Fuels and Next Generation Photovoltaics is 'to combine the best features of academic and translational research to study light/matter interactions and chemical processes for the efficient collection, transfer, and conversion of solar energy into chemical fuels and electricity.' Research topics are: catalysis (CO{sub 2}, hydrocarbons, water), electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, photoelectrocatalysis, solar photovoltaic, solar fuels, photonic, solar electrodes, photosynthesis, fuel cells, CO{sub 2} (convert), greenhosue gas, hydrogen (fuel), interfacial characterization, novel materials synthesis, charge transport, and self-assembly.

  6. Efficient Solar Energy Conversion Systems for Hydrogen Production from Water using Semiconductor Photoelectrodes and Photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayama, K.; Arai, T.

    2008-02-01

    Efficient solar energy conversion system for hydrogen production from water, solar-hydrogen system, is one of most important technologies for genuinely sustainable development of the society in the world wide scale. However, there are many problems to breakthrough such as low solar-to-H2 efficiency (STH), high cost, low stability, etc in order to realize the system practically and economically. The solar-hydrogen systems using semiconductors are mainly classified as follows; solar cell-electrolysis system, semiconductor photoelectrode system, and photocatalyst system. There are various merits and demerits in each system. The solar cell-electrolysis system is very efficient but is very high cost. The photocatalyst system is very simple and relatively low cost, but the efficiency is still very low. On the other hand, various semiconductor systems with high efficiency have been investigated. A high STH more than 10% was reported using non-oxide semiconductor photoelectrodes such as InGaP, while the preparation methods were costly. In a European project, some simple oxide semiconductor photoelectrodes such as Fe2O3 and WO3 are mainly studied. Here, we investigated various photoelectrodes using mixed metal oxide especially on BiVO4 semiconductor, and a high throughput screening system of new visible light responsible semiconductors for photoelectrode and photocatalyst. Moreover, photocatalysis-electrolysis hybrid system for economical H2 production is studied to overcome the demerit of photocatalyst system on the gas separation and low efficiency.

  7. On the similarity and dissimilarity between photocatalytic water splitting and photocatalytic degradation of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Sagi; Paz, Yaron

    2013-07-22

    The last four decades have shown a remarkable increase in scientific interest in photocatalysis as a tool for tackling the world's energy and waste problems. The apparent similarity between photocatalytic water splitting and photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, which have been studied so far by two different scientific communities, raises the question regarding the extent to which one may utilize knowledge obtained in one field for the benefit of the other. This review examines the common features and differences between the two areas. The main similarities stem from the common dependence on the absorption of photons and on subsequent charge-carrier dynamics. The main dissimilarities are linked to thermodynamics, the type of reactants and end products, and to the role of adsorption and desorption. At present the fundamental differences between storing energy and using it to solve environmental issues affect practical solutions. Yet, easy transfer of knowledge, research resources, and personnel between the two is not only possible but should be encouraged. PMID:23754793

  8. Photoinactivation of virus on iron-oxide coated sand: enhancing inactivation in sunlit waters.

    PubMed

    Pecson, Brian M; Decrey, Loïc; Kohn, Tamar

    2012-04-15

    Adsorption onto iron oxides can enhance the removal of waterborne viruses in constructed wetlands and soils. If reversible adsorption is not coupled with inactivation, however, infective viruses may be released when changes in solution conditions cause desorption. The goals of this study were to investigate the release of infective bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 (two human viral indicators) after adsorption onto an iron oxide coated sand (IOCS), and to promote viral inactivation by exploiting the photoreactive properties of the IOCS. The iron oxide coating greatly enhanced viral adsorption (adsorption densities up to ≈ 10(9) infective viruses/g IOCS) onto the sand, but had no affect on infectivity. Viruses that were adsorbed onto IOCS under control conditions (pH 7.5, 10 mM Tris, 1250 μS/cm) were released into solution in an infective state with increases in pH and humic acid concentrations. The exposure of IOCS-adsorbed MS2 to sunlight irradiation caused significant inactivation via a photocatalytic mechanism in both buffered solutions and in wastewater samples (4.9 log(10) and 3.3 log(10) inactivation after 24-h exposure, respectively). Unlike MS2, ΦX174 inactivation was not enhanced by photocatalysis. In summary, IOCS enhanced the separation of viruses from the water column, and additionally provided a photocatalytic mechanism to promote inactivation of one of the surrogates studied. These qualities make it an attractive option for improving viral control strategies in constructed wetlands. PMID:22264797

  9. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  10. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  11. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  12. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  13. Water Spout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2013-02-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase. However, when I came back nine months later to give a talk about the apparatus, I realized that it was really an early Bernoulli effect demonstration. In the right-hand picture the spigot is open and water can be seen coming out of the spout. The water level in the narrow tube has fallen appreciably, thus showing that the pressure at this point has decreased, in agreement with the non-zero velocity of the water in the horizontal tube. The device was made ca. 1880 by E. S. Ritchie of Boston, MA. (Photos by Thomas B. Greenslade Jr.)

  14. WATER ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

  15. Healthy Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... Keep Drinking Water Safe Healthy and Safe Swimming Week May 23-29, 2016 - Make a Healthy Splash: Share the Fun, not the Germs! Clean Hands Save Lives - Visit CDC’s Handwashing Hub. A-Z Index of Water-related Topics A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z With its many uses for ...

  16. Water quality.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

    1979-01-01

    Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

  17. A high-performance doped photocatalysts for inactivation of total coliforms in superficial waters using different sources of radiation.

    PubMed

    Claro, Elis Marina Turini; Bidoia, Ederio Dino; de Moraes, Peterson Bueno

    2016-07-15

    Photocatalytic water treatment has a currently elevated electricity demand and maintenance costs, but the photocatalytic water treatment may also assist in overcoming the limitations and drawbacks of conventional water treatment processes. Among the Advanced Oxidation Processes, heterogeneous photocatalysis is one of the most widely and efficiently used processes to degrade and/or remove a wide range of polluting compounds. The goal of this work was to find out a highly efficient photocatalytic disinfection process in superficial water with different doped photocatalysts and using three sources of radiation: mercury vapor lamp, solar simulator and UV-A LED. Three doped photocatalysts were prepared, SiZnO, NSiZnO and FNSiZnO. The inactivation efficiency of each synthesized photocatalysts was compared to a TiO2 P25 (Degussa(®)) 0.5 g L(-1) control. Photolysis inactivation efficiency was 85% with UV-A LED, which is considered very high, demanding low electricity consumption in the process, whereas mercury vapor lamp and solar simulator yielded 19% and 13% inactivation efficiency, respectively. The best conditions were found with photocatalysts SiZnO, FNSiZnO and NSiZnO irradiated with UV-A LED, where efficiency exceeded 95% that matched inactivation of coliforms using the same irradiation and photocatalyst TiO2. All photocatalysts showed photocatalytic activity with all three radiation sources able to inactivate total coliforms from river water. The use of UV-A LED as the light source without photocatalyst is very promising, allowing the creation of cost-effective and highly efficient water treatment plants. PMID:27107952

  18. Thin-film fixed-bed reactor for solar photocatalytic inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila: influence of water quality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Controlling fish disease is one of the major concerns in contemporary aquaculture. The use of antibiotics or chemical disinfection cannot provide a healthy aquaculture system without residual effects. Water quality is also important in determining the success or failure of fish production. Several solar photocatalytic reactors have been used to treat drinking water or waste water without leaving chemical residues. This study has investigated the impact of several key aspects of water quality on the inactivation of the pathogenic bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila using a pilot-scale thin-film fixed-bed reactor (TFFBR) system. Results The level of inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 35654 was determined using a TFFBR with a photocatalytic area of 0.47 m2 under the influence of various water quality variables (pH, conductivity, turbidity and colour) under high solar irradiance conditions (980–1100 W m-2), at a flow rate of 4.8 L h-1 through the reactor. Bacterial enumeration were obtained through conventional plate count using trypticase soy agar media, cultured in conventional aerobic conditions to detect healthy cells and under ROS-neutralised conditions to detect both healthy and sub-lethally injured (oxygen-sensitive) cells. The results showed that turbidity has a major influence on solar photocatalytic inactivation of A. hydrophila. Humic acids appear to decrease TiO2 effectiveness under full sunlight and reduce microbial inactivation. pH in the range 7–9 and salinity both have no major effect on the extent of photoinactivation or sub-lethal injury. Conclusions This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the TFFBR in the inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila under the influence of several water quality variables at high solar irradiance, providing an opportunity for the application of solar photocatalysis in aquaculture systems, as long as turbidity remains low. PMID:23194331

  19. Amorphous water.

    PubMed

    Angell, C Austen

    2004-01-01

    After providing some background material to establish the interest content of this subject, we summarize the many different ways in which water can be prepared in the amorphous state, making clear that there seems to be more than one distinct amorphous state to be considered. We then give some space to structural and spectroscopic characterization of the distinct states, recognizing that whereas there seems to be unambiguously two distinct states, there may be in fact be more, the additional states mimicking the structures of the higher-density crystalline polymorphs. The low-frequency vibrational properties of the amorphous solid states are then examined in some detail because of the gathering evidence that glassy water, while difficult to form directly from the liquid like other glasses, may have some unusual and almost ideal glassy features, manifested by unusually low states of disorder. This notion is pursued in the following section dealing with thermodynamic and relaxational properties, where the uniquely low excess entropy of the vitreous state of water is confirmed by three different estimates. The fact that the most nearly ideal glass known has no properly established glass transition temperature is highlighted, using known dielectric loss data for amorphous solid water (ASW) and relevant molecular glasses. Finally, the polyamorphism of glassy water, and the kinetic aspects of transformation from one form to the other, are reviewed. PMID:15117262

  20. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  1. Incorporation of Water-Oxidation Catalysts into Photoinduced Electron Transfer Systems: Toward Solar Fuel Generation via Artificial Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagnini, Michael Thomas

    A key goal of artificial photosynthesis is to mimic the photochemistry of photosystem II and oxidize water using light energy, with the ultimate aim of using the liberated electrons for reductive, fuel-forming reactions. One of the more recent challenges in the field of solar fuels chemistry is the efficient activation of molecular water-oxidation catalysts with photoinduced electron transfer, an effort that would benefit from detailed knowledge of the energetics and kinetics of each electron transfer step in a light-driven catalytic cycle. The focus of this thesis is the synthesis and photophysical characterization of covalent assemblies comprising a redox-active organic chromophore and the iridium(III)-based water-oxidation catalyst Cp*Ir(ppy)Cl (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine), and the rates and pathways for photogeneration of higher-valence states of the catalyst are determined with femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and other time-resolved spectroscopic techniques. In linking the photooxidant perylene-3,4:9,10-bis (dicarboximide) (PDI) to the Ir(III) catalyst, fast photoinduced electron transfer from the metal complex to PDI outcompetes heavy-atom quenching of the dye excited state, and the catalytic integrity of the complex is retained, as determined by electrocatalysis experiments. Long-lived higher-valence states of the catalyst are necessary for the accumulation of oxidizing equivalents for oxygen evolution, and the lifetime of photogenerated Ir(IV) has been extended by over two orders of magnitude by catalyst incorporation into a covalent electron acceptor--chromophore--catalyst triad, in which the dye is perylene-3,4-dicarboximide (PMI). Time resolved X-ray absorption studies of the triad confirm the photogeneration of an Ir(IV) metal center, a species that is too unstable to observe with chemical or electrochemical oxidation methods. This approach to preparing higher-valence states of water-oxidation catalysts has great promise for deducing catalytic mechanisms and probing highly-reactive intermediates, and it also establishes a basis in systems design for photodriving catalytic processes. Covalent dye-catalyst assemblies have been gaining recognition as a useful motif for incorporation into dye-sensitized photoanodes for photoelectrochemical water-splitting cells, and the PMI-Ir catalyst unit is well-poised, both in the energetics and kinetics of its electron transfer properties, to improve upon current solar-driven fuel-forming devices.

  2. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  3. Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Every day, the nation's sewers collect 34 billion gallons of wastewater from homes, businesses, and industry; some of this water contains toxic substances that threaten aquatic life and may cause cancer and other diseases in people. Because sewage treatment plants are typically not designed to treat toxic material, many of these substances simply pass untreated into receiving waters. This paper examines the range, sources, and seriousness of pollutants found in nonindustrial wastewater; the strategies and programs developed by local and state governments to better manage and control these pollutants; and federal options that might encourage or require better management and control of these pollutants.

  4. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  5. An overview on the advanced oxidation processes applied for the treatment of water pollutants defined in the recently launched Directive 2013/39/EU.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana R; Nunes, Olga C; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2015-02-01

    Environmental pollution is a recognized issue of major concern since a wide range of contaminants has been found in aquatic environment at ngL(-1) to μgL(-1) levels. In the year 2000, a strategy was defined to identify the priority substances concerning aquatic ecosystems, followed by the definition of environmental quality standards (EQS) in 2008. Recently it was launched the Directive 2013/39/EU that updates the water framework policy highlighting the need to develop new water treatment technologies to deal with such problem. This review summarizes the data published in the last decade regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat priority compounds and certain other pollutants defined in this Directive, excluding the inorganic species (cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and their derivatives). The Directive 2013/39/EU includes several pesticides (aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dicofol, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlor, lindane, pentachlorophenol, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, atrazine, simazine, terbutryn, diuron, isoproturon, trifluralin, cypermethrin, alachlor), solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nonylphenol and octylphenol, as well as the three compounds included in the recommendation for the first watch list of substances (diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2)). Some particular pesticides (aclonifen, bifenox, cybutryne, quinoxyfen), organotin compounds (tributyltin), dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, brominated diphenylethers, hexabromocyclododecanes and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate are also defined in this Directive, but studies dealing with AOPs are missing. AOPs are recognized tools to destroy recalcitrant compounds or, at least, to transform them into biodegradable species. Diuron (a phenylurea herbicide) and atrazine (from the triazine chemical class) are the most studied pesticides from Directive 2013/39/EU. Fenton-based processes are the most frequently applied to treat priority compounds in water and their efficiency typically increases with the operating temperature as well as under UV or solar light. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is the second most used treatment to destroy pollutants defined in the Directive. Ozone alone promotes the partial oxidation of pollutants, and an increase in the effluent biodegradability, but complete mineralization of pollutants is difficult. To overcome this drawback, ozonation has been combined with heterogeneous catalysts, addition of H2O2, other AOPs (such as photocatalysis) or membrane technologies. PMID:25461413

  6. Water Spout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.

  7. Water Crossings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Describes the use of "Water Crossings," a Project WET activity, with preservice elementary teachers in a science methods course. Discusses how the activity integrates applications from physical science with history and geography concepts. Explains that the teaching strategy used is a version of the scientific method. (WRM)

  8. Water Sampling

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

  9. Water Spout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  10. Blue Water

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

  11. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  12. Water Hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye in water solutions in the presence of MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} composites

    SciTech Connect

    Da Dalt, S.; Alves, A.K.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► MWCNTs/TiO{sub 2} composites were obtained to degrade organic dyes in water. ► MWCNT/TiO{sub 2} composites were analyzed by photocatalysis and structural characterization. ► The photocatalytic shows efficient method for the degradation of dyes from aqueous effluents. - Abstract: The textile and dyestuff industries are the primary sources of the release of synthetic dyes into the environment and usually there are major pollutants in dye wastewaters. Because of their toxicity and slow degradation, these dyes are categorized as environmentally hazardous materials. In this context, carbon nanotubes/TiO{sub 2} (CNTs/TiO{sub 2}) composites were prepared using multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs), titanium (IV) propoxide and commercial TiO{sub 2} (P25{sup ®}) as titanium oxide sources, to degrade the methyl orange dye in solution through photocatalyst activity using UV irradiation. The composites were prepared by solution processing followed by thermal treatment at 400, 500 and 600 °C. The heterojunction between nanotubes and TiO{sub 2} was confirmed by XRD, specific surface area. The coating morphology was observed with SEM and TEM.

  14. The role of direct photolysis and indirect photochemistry in the environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Vione, D; Calza, P; Galli, F; Fabbri, D; Santoro, V; Medana, C

    2015-12-15

    The aquatic environmental fate of ethylhexyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC), one of the most used UVB filters worldwide, was studied by assessing its environmental persistence and photoinduced transformations. The role of direct and indirect photolysis was evaluated. Direct photolysis was shown to play a key role, and this process is expected to be the main attenuation route of EHMC in sunlit surface waters. In contrast, the reaction with OH radicals would be negligible and that with (3)CDOM* would at most be a secondary process. The measurement of the quantum yield of direct photolysis and of the rate constants of reaction with photogenerated transient species (or, sometimes, the use of reasonable values for the latter) allowed the prediction of the EHMC half-life time in surface waters, by means of a validated photochemical model. The predicted EHMC lifetime is of the order of hours to a few days in fair-weather summertime, and the main factors controlling the EHMC phototransformation in sunlit surface waters would be the water depth and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The formation of transformation products (TPs) was followed as well via HPLC/HRMS. Three TPs were detected in the samples exposed to UVA radiation, while one additional TP was detected in the samples exposed to UVB radiation. The detected TPs comprised 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, a hydroxylated derivative and dimeric species. Through the use of heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2, seven additional TPs were identified, most of them resulting from the further degradation of primary TPs formed through direct photolysis and that might be detected in aquatic systems as well. The photodegradation of EHMC in the presence of TiO2 yielded more toxic TPs than the parent compound (as determined with the Vibrio fischeri Microtox assay). The increased toxicity is partially accounted for by the formation of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde. PMID:26282740

  15. Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting from Si quantum dots/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays composite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhong; Cui, Xiaoli; Hao, Hongchen; Lu, Ming; Lin, Yuehe

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Si quantum dots were firstly applied to modify TiO{sub 2} nanotubes and enhanced visible light response was demonstrated for the resulted Si QDs/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite. Si QDs are promising in photoelectrochemical water splitting and photocatalysis since their low cost, abundance and environmentally-friendliness. - Highlights: • A novel nanocomposite Si QDs/TiO{sub 2} nanotubes was fabricated and characterized. • Enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting was firstly demonstrated for Si QDs/TiO{sub 2}. • The visible light response of TiO{sub 2} increased with the presence of Si QDs. - Abstract: This work firstly introduced Si quantum dots (QDs) to modify TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting. A systematic study using surface and optical characterization tools reveals the nature of the combination of Si QDs and TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that Si QDs were assembled on the surface of vertically aligned TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays. The UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicate the improved visible light absorbance. The enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting was demonstrated under visible light illumination and the photocurrent density was 1.6 times larger than that of pristine TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Electrochemical impedance behavior was measured for the electrodes and the impedance is slightly reduced for the nanocomposite electrode with the presence of Si QDs. This work demonstrated that Si QDs would be a novel and effective choice for improving the utilization of visible light for TiO{sub 2} nanotubes.

  16. Cadmium sulfide/graphitic carbon nitride heterostructure nanowire loading with a nickel hydroxide cocatalyst for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production in water under visible light.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiping; Sun, Zijun; Liu, Xiang; Jia, Hongxing; Du, Pingwu

    2016-02-18

    Photocatalytic hydrogen production from water in a noble-metal-free system has attracted much attention in recent years. Herein we report on the use of core/shell cadmium sulfide/graphitic carbon nitride (CdS/g-C3N4) heterojunction nanorods modified by nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) as a highly efficient photocatalyst for visible light-driven hydrogen production from water. Due to efficient separation of the photoexcited charge carriers in the CdS/g-C3N4 core/shell nanorods and the synergistic effect of Ni(OH)2, the optimal hydrogen evolution rate over Ni(OH)2-CdS/g-C3N4 is 115.18 μmol h(-1) mg(-1) under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm), which is ∼26 times higher than the CdS/g-C3N4 nanorod composite without Ni(OH)2 and ∼7 times better than the 0.5 wt% Pt-CdS/g-C3N4 nanorod composite. The apparent quantum efficiency is ∼16.7% at an excitation of 450 nm. During photocatalysis, no degradation of Ni(OH)2 was observed based on the XPS data, indicating that it is a robust cocatalyst. Moreover, the present photocatalyst showed excellent photocatalytic stability for hydrogen production and the turnover number (TON) reached ∼24 600 over 90 hours. PMID:26862011

  17. (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx)-rGO composites with enhanced photocatalytic performance for visible-light driven water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuedong; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Hognzhi; Li, Yaogang

    2015-12-01

    (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx)-rGO (reduced graphene oxide) composites photocatalysis with different GO contents were prepared by hydrothermal method and subsequent nitridation. (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx)-rGO composites were characterized via XRD, SEM, XPS, Raman spectra, and N2 adsorption-desorption isothermals. The rGO sheets in the nanocomposite photocatalyst are decorated with (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) nanoparticles. Compared with bare (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx), the (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx)-rGO showed higher specific surface area and mobility of charge carriers and enhanced photocatalytic activity for visible-light driven water splitting. The photocatalyst with 30 wt.% original GO shows the best activity, that the rate of H2 production is almost 4.5 times higher than that of bare (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) particles. Herein, the results provide new insights into (Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx)-rGO composite as high performance photocatalyst and their potential application in visible-light driven water splitting H2 production.

  18. Detecting the oxyl radical of photocatalytic water oxidation at an n-SrTiO3/aqueous interface through its subsurface vibration.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, David M; Waegele, Matthias M; Chen, Xihan; Pemmaraju, C D; Prendergast, David; Cuk, Tanja

    2016-06-01

    Although the water oxidation cycle involves the critical step of O-O bond formation, the transition metal oxide radical thought to be the catalytic intermediate for this step has eluded direct observation. The radical represents the transformation of charge into a nascent catalytic intermediate, which lacks a newly formed bond and is therefore inherently difficult to detect. Here, using theoretical calculations and ultrafast in situ infrared spectroscopy of photocatalysis at an n-SrTiO3/aqueous interface, we reveal a subsurface vibration of the oxygen directly below, and uniquely generated by, the oxyl radical (Ti-O(•)). Intriguingly, this interfacial Ti-O stretch vibration, once decoupled from the lattice, couples to reactant dynamics (water librations). These experiments demonstrate subsurface vibrations and their coupling to solvent and electron dynamics to detect nascent catalytic intermediates at the solid-liquid interface at the molecular level. One can envision using the subsurface vibrations and their coupling across the interface to track and control catalysis dynamically. PMID:27219698

  19. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only for 73 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 66 surface-water stations (including 39 gaging stations) and 92 wells; and water levels for 205 observation wells. Also included are data for 166 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  20. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 66 gaging stations; stage only for 70 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 25 gaging stations) and 108 wells; and water levels for 221 observation wells. Also included are data for 204 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.