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1

Reproducing Black's experiments: freezing point depression and supercooling of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

We carried out two historical experiments referred to by Joseph Black, one on freezing mixtures of salted water with ice and another on freezing supercooled pure water by a small disturbance. The results confirm thermodynamical predictions for the depression of the freezing point of salted water and for the latent heat of freezing of supercooled water respectively, which came after

J. Güémez; C. Fiolhais; M. Fiolhais

2002-01-01

2

7.NS Comparing Freezing Points  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Ocean water freezes at about $-2 \\frac12 ^\\circ C$. Fresh water freezes at $0 ^\\circ C$. Antifreeze, a liquid used in the radiators of cars, freezes at...

3

When hot water freezes before cold  

E-print Network

I suggest that the origin of the Mpemba effect (the freezing of hot water before cold) is freezing-point depression by solutes, either gaseous or solid, whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature so that they are removed when water is heated. They are concentrated ahead of the freezing front by zone refining in water that has not been heated, reduce the temperature of the freezing front, and thereby reduce the temperature gradient and heat flux, slowing the progress of the front. I present a simple calculation of this effect, and suggest experiments to test this hypothesis.

J. I. Katz

2006-04-27

4

Device and method for determining freezing points  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A freezing point method and device (10) are disclosed. The method and device pertain to an inflection point technique for determining the freezing points of mixtures. In both the method and device (10), the mixture is cooled to a point below its anticipated freezing point and then warmed at a substantially linear rate. During the warming process, the rate of increase of temperature of the mixture is monitored by, for example, thermocouple (28) with the thermocouple output signal being amplified and differentiated by a differentiator (42). The rate of increase of temperature data are analyzed and a peak rate of increase of temperature is identified. In the preferred device (10) a computer (22) is utilized to analyze the rate of increase of temperature data following the warming process. Once the maximum rate of increase of temperature is identified, the corresponding temperature of the mixture is located and earmarked as being substantially equal to the freezing point of the mixture. In a preferred device (10), the computer (22), in addition to collecting the temperature and rate of change of temperature data, controls a programmable power supply (14) to provide a predetermined amount of cooling and warming current to thermoelectric modules (56).

Mathiprakasam, Balakrishnan (Inventor)

1986-01-01

5

Freezing of Water Droplet due to Evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the feasibility of cooling/freezing of phase change.. materials(PCMs) due to evaporation for cold storage systems was experimentally examined. A pure water was used as the test PCM, since the latent heat due to evaporation of water is about 7 times larger than that due to freezing. A water droplet, the diameter of which was 1-4 mm, was suspended in a test cell by a fine metal wire (O. D.= 100?m),and the cell was suddenly evacuated up to the pressure lower than the triple-point pressure of water, so as to enhance the evaporation from the water surface. Temperature of the droplet was measured by a thermocouple, and the cooling/freezing behavior and the temperature profile of the droplet surface were captured by using a video camera and an IR thermo-camera, respectively. The obtained results showed that the water droplet in the evacuated cell is effectively cooled by the evaporation of water itself, and is frozen within a few seconds through remarkable supercooling state. When the initial temperature of the droplet is slightly higher than the room temperature, boiling phenomena occur in the droplet simultaneously with the freezing due to evaporation. Under such conditions, it was shown that the degree of supercooling of the droplet is reduced by the bubbles generated in the droplet.

Satoh, Isao; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi; Hashimoto, Yu

6

Study of freezing-point depression of selected food extracts  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of freezing-point depression that accompanies the solute concentration of selected food extracts was investigated to reveal the characteristics of solid-liquid phase equilibrium. The freezing curves of various food extracts did not exhibit ideal solution behavior in the higher concentration range. The experimental data were fitted to new freezing-point depression equations by the method of nonlinear least squares, and the results clearly indicated that the calculated freezing points at various concentrations were in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, by using the determined parameters, the freezing ratio and the activation coefficient were derived.

Tanaka, Fumihiko [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Systems Engineering; Murata, Satoshi; Habara, Kazuhiro; Amaratunga, K.S.P. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

1996-12-31

7

Infrared spectroscopy of sulfuric acid/water aerosols: Freezing characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A low-temperature flow cell has been used in conjunction with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer to study sulfuric acid/water aerosols. The aerosols were generated with a wide range of composition (28 to 85 wt%), including those characteristic of stratospheric sulfate aerosols, and studied over the temperature range from 240 K to 160 K. The particles exhibited deep supercooling, by as much as 100 K below the freezing point in some cases. Freezing of water ice was observed in the more dilute (<40 wt% sulfuric acid) particles, in agreement with the predictions of Jensen et al. and recent observations by Bertram et al. In contrast with theoretical predictions, however, the entire particle often does not immediately freeze, at least on the timescale of the present experiments (seconds to minutes). Freezing of the entire particle is observed at lower temperatures, well below that characteristic of the polar stratosphere.

Clapp, M. L.; Niedziela, R. F.; Richwine, L. J.; Dransfield, T.; Miller, R. E.; Worsnop, D. R.

1997-04-01

8

Realization of the Temperature Scale in the Range from 234.3 K (Hg Triple Point) to 1084.62°C (Cu Freezing Point) in Croatia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes the realization of the International Temperature Scale in the range from 234.3 K (mercury triple point) to 1084.62°C (copper freezing point) at the Laboratory for Process Measurement (LPM), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture (FSB), University of Zagreb. The system for the realization of the ITS-90 consists of the sealed fixed-point cells (mercury triple point, water triple point and gallium melting point) and the apparatus designed for the optimal realization of open fixed-point cells which include the gallium melting point, tin freezing point, zinc freezing point, aluminum freezing point, and copper freezing point. The maintenance of the open fixed-point cells is described, including the system for filling the cells with pure argon and for maintaining the pressure during the realization.

Zvizdic, Davor; Veliki, Tomislav; Grgec Bermanec, Lovorka

2008-06-01

9

Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.  

PubMed

Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing. PMID:19021797

Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S

2008-11-01

10

Freezing and melting water in lamellar structures.  

PubMed Central

The manner in which ice forms in lamellar suspensions of dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine, dielaidoylphosphatidylcholine, and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine in water depends strongly on the water fraction. For weight fractions between 15 and 9%, the freezing and melting temperatures are significantly depressed below 0 degree C. The ice exhibits a continuous melting transition spanning as much as 20 degrees C. When the water weight fraction is below 9%, ice never forms at temperatures as low as -40 degrees C. We show that when water contained in a lamellar lipid suspension freezes, the ice is not found between the bilayers; it exists as pools of crystalline ice in equilibrium with the bound water associated with the polar lipid headgroups. We have used this effect, together with the known chemical potential of ice, to measure hydration forces between lipid bilayers. We find exponentially decaying hydration repulsion when the bilayers are less than about 7 A apart. For larger separations, we find significant deviations from single exponential decay. PMID:7948683

Gleeson, J T; Erramilli, S; Gruner, S M

1994-01-01

11

High-freezing-point fuels used for aviation turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. The higher-freezing-point fuels can be substituted in the majority of present commercial flights, since temperature data indicate that in-flight fuel temperatures are relatively mild. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple system design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating. Both systems offer advantages that outweigh the obvious penalties.

Friedman, R.

1979-01-01

12

Nano materials for efficiently lowering the freezing point of heat transfer nanofluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report, for the first time, the effect of the lowered freezing point in a 50% water / 50% antifreeze coolant (PAC) or 50% water / 50% ethylene glycol (EG) solution by the addition of carbon nanotubes and other particles. The experimental results indicated that the nano materials are much more efficient (hundreds fold) in lowering the freezing point than the regular ionic materials (e.g. NaCl). The possible explanation for this interesting phenomenon is the colligative property of fluid and relative small size of nano material. It is quite certain that the carbon nanotubes and metal oxide nano particles could be a wonderful candidate for the nano coolant application because they could not only increase the thermal conductivity, but also efficiently lower the freezing point of traditional coolants.

Hong, Haiping; Roy, Walter

2007-09-01

13

An Equipment to Measure the Freezing Point of Soils under Higher Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil freezing point is the highest temperature at which ice can be presented in the system and soil can be referred to as frozen. The freezing temperature of soil is an important parameter for solving many practical problems in civil engineering, such as evaluation of soil freezing depth, prediction of soil heaving, force of soil suction, etc. However, as the freezing temperature is always affected by many factors like soil particle size, mineral composition, water content and the external pressure endured by soils, to measure soil freezing point is a rather difficult task until now, not to mention the soil suffering higher pressure. But recently, with the artificial freezing technology widely used in the excavation of deep underground space, the frozen wall thickness is a key factor to impact the security and stability of deep frozen wall. To determine the freeze wall thickness, the location of the freezing front must be determined firstly, which will deal with the determination of the soil freezing temperature. So how to measure the freezing temperature of soil suffering higher pressure is an important problem to be solved. This paper will introduce an equipment which was developed lately by State Key Laboratory of Frozen Soil Engineering to measure the freezing-point of soils under higher pressure. The equipment is consisted of cooling and keeping temperature system, temperature sensor and data collection system. By cooling and keeping temperature system, not only can we make the higher pressure soil sample's temperature drop to a discretionary minus temperature, but also keep it and reduce the heat exchange of soil sample with the outside. The temperature sensor is the key part to our measurement, which is featured by high precision and high sensitivity, what is more important is that the temperature sensor can work in a higher pressure condition. Moreover, the major benefit of this equipment is that the soil specimen's loads can be loaded by any microcomputer control electron universal testing machines. All of above mentioned advantages of this equipment ensures one to catch up the moment soil turns from the thawed state into ice and enable one to determine the freezing point experimentally by recording the temperature-time history (cooling curve) at particular points within the sample used for analysis. Therefore, this equipment has excellent characteristics such as compact construction, convenient operation, high reliability and the measuring accuracy. The authors would like to thank the following agents for their financial supports: the National Natural Science Foundation (No.41071048),Hundred Talent Young Scientists program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences granted to Dr. Zhi Wen.

Wang, Dayan; Guan, Hui; Wen, Zhi; Ma, Wei

2014-05-01

14

The Freezing Point Depression Law in Physical Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a change in physical chemistry courses to use a slightly more complicated but significantly more useful generalization of the simple freezing point depression law. Lists reasons for the change and presents the treatment of solid-liquid equilibria where solid-solution is allowed. Provides a mathematical treatment. (MVL)

Franzen, Hugo F.

1988-01-01

15

High freezing point fuels used for aviation turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating.

Friedman, R.

1979-01-01

16

Experimental results for the rapid determination of the freezing point of fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods for the rapid determination of the freezing point of fuels were investigated: an optical method, which detected the change in light transmission from the disappearance of solid particles in the melted fuel; and a differential thermal analysis (DTA) method, which sensed the latent heat of fusion. A laboratory apparatus was fabricated to test the two methods. Cooling was done by thermoelectric modules using an ice-water bath as a heat sink. The DTA method was later modified to eliminate the reference fuel. The data from the sample were digitized and a point of inflection, which corresponds to the ASTM D-2386 freezing point (final melting point), was identified from the derivative. The apparatus was modifified to cool the fuel to -60 C and controls were added for maintaining constant cooling rate, rewarming rate, and hold time at minimum temperature. A parametric series of tests were run for twelve fuels with freezing points from -10 C to -50 C, varying cooling rate, rewarming rate, and hold time. Based on the results, an optimum test procedure was established. The results showed good agreement with ASTM D-2386 freezing point and differential scanning calorimetry results.

Mathiprakasam, B.

1984-01-01

17

Freezing Points of Bulking Agents Used in Manufacture of Low-Calorie Frozen Desserts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing points of solutions of poly- dextrose, polydextrose partially neu- tralized with potassium hydroxide, sor- bitol, and microcrystalline cellulose at concentrations commonly used in frozen desserts were compared with those of similar concentrations of sucrose. Solu- tions of polydextrose and polydextrose partially neutralized with potassium hy- droxide exhibited higher freezing points. Freezing points of sorbitol solutions were lower and microcrystalline

Robert J. Baer; Kirk A. Baldwin

1984-01-01

18

Hot water can freeze faster than cold?!?  

E-print Network

We review the Mpemba effect, where intially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. While the effect appears impossible at first sight, it has been seen in numerous experiments, was reported on by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, and Descartes, and has been well-known as folklore around the world. It has a rich and fascinating history, which culminates in the dramatic story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon, while simple to describe, is deceptively complex, and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. We survey proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect, and the results of modern experiments on the phenomenon. Studies of the observation that hot water pipes are more likely to burst than cold water pipes are also described.

Monwhea Jeng

2005-12-29

19

Open Zinc Freezing-Point Cell Assembly and Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An open metal freezing-point cell design has been developed in the Laboratory of Metrology and Quality. According to our design, a zinc cell was successfully assembled. The paper presents the needed parts for the cell, the cleaning process, and sealing of the cell. The assembled cell was then evaluated by comparison with two commercial closed zinc cells of different manufacturers. The freezing plateaus of the cells were measured, and a direct cell comparison was made. It was shown that the assembled open cell performed better than the used closed cell and was close to the brand new closed cell. The nominal purity of the zinc used for the open cell was 7 N, but the freezing plateau measurement suggests a higher impurity concentration. It was assumed that the zinc was contaminated to some extent during the process of cutting as its original shape was an irregular cylinder. The uncertainty due to impurities for the assembled cell is estimated to be 0.3 mK. Furthermore, the immersion profile and the pressure coefficient were measured. Both results are close to their theoretical values.

Žužek, V.; Batagelj, V.; Drnovšek, J.; Bojkovski, J.

2014-07-01

20

Understanding freeze stress in biological tissues: thermodynamics of interfacial water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A thermodynamic approach to distinguish forms of freeze energy that injure plants as the temperature decreases is developed. The pattern resulting from this analysis dictated the sequence of thermal requirements for water to exist as an independent state. Improvement of freezing tolerance in biolo...

21

Spin Probe ESR Signature of Freezing in Water: Is it Global or Local?  

E-print Network

First systematic spin probe ESR study of water freezing has been conducted using TEMPOL and TEMPO as the probes. The spin probe signature of the water freezing has been described in terms of the collapse of narrow triplet spectrum into a single broad line. This spin probe signature of freezing has been observed at an anomalously low temperature when a milimoler solution of TEMPOL is slowly cooled from room temperature. A systematic observation has revealed a spin probe concentration dependence of these freezing and respective melting points. These results can be explained in terms of localization of spin probe and liquid water, most probably in the interstices of ice grains, in an ice matrix. The lowering of spin probe freezing point, along with the secondary evidences, like spin probe concentration dependence of peak-to-peak width in frozen limit signal, indicates a possible size dependence of these localizations/entrapments with spin probe concentration. A weak concentration dependence of spin probe assisted freezing and melting points, which has been observed for TEMPO in comparison to TEMPOL, indicates different natures of interactions with water of these two probes. This view is also supported by the relaxation behavior of the two probes.

Debamalya Banerjee; S. V. Bhat

2008-10-26

22

Relationship of amino acid composition and molecular weight of antifreeze glycopeptides to non-colligative freezing point depression.  

PubMed

Many polar fishes synthesize a group of eight glycopeptides that exhibit a non-colligative lowering of the freezing point of water. These glycopeptides range in molecular weight between 2600 and 33 700. The largest glycopeptides [1-5] lower the freezing point more than the small ones on a weight basis and contain only two amino acids, alanine and threonine, with the disaccharide galactose-N-acetyl-galactosamine attached to threonine. The small glycopeptides, 6, 7, and 8, also lower the freezing point and contain proline, which periodically substitutes for alanine. Glycopeptides with similar antifreeze properties isolated from the saffron cod and the Atlantic tomcod contain an additional amino acid, arginine, which substitutes for threonine in glycopeptide 6. In this study we address the question of whether differences in amino acid composition or molecular weight between large and small glycopeptides are responsible for the reduced freezing point depressing capability of the low molecular weight glycopeptides. The results indicate that the degree of amino acid substitutions that occur in glycopeptides 6-8 do not have a significant effect on the unusual freezing point lowering and that the observed decrease in freezing point depression with smaller glycopeptides can be accounted for on the basis of molecular weight. PMID:7115772

Schrag, J D; O'Grady, S M; DeVries, A L

1982-08-01

23

Photomicrographic Investigation of Spontaneous Freezing Temperatures of Supercooled Water Droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photomicrographic technique for investigating eupercooled. water droplets has been devised and. used. to determine the spontaneous freezing temperatures of eupercooled. water droplets of the size ordinarily found. in the atmosphere. The freezing temperatures of 4527 droplets ranging from 8.75 to 1000 microns in diameter supported on a platinum surface and 571 droplets supported on copper were obtained. The average spontaneous freezing temperature decreased with decrease in the size of the droplets. The effect of size on the spontaneous freezing temperature was particularly marked below 60 microns. Frequency-distribution curves of the spontaneous freezing temperatures observed for droplets of a given size were obtained. Although no droplet froze at a temperature above 20 0 F, all droplets melted at 32 F. Results obtained with a copper support did not differ essentially from those obtained with a platinum surface.

Dorsch, R. G.; Hacker, P. T.

1950-01-01

24

Estimation of Freezing Point of Hydrocarbon and Hydrofluorocarbon Mixtures for Mixed Refrigerant jt Cryocooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the freezing point of refrigerant is an essential part in designing an MR JT (Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson) cryocooler to prevent itself from clogging and to operate with stability. There were researches on estimating freezing point, but some of them resulted in the wrong prediction of clogging. In this paper, the freezing point of the MR is precisely estimated with caution of clogging. The solubility of HC (hydrocarbon) and HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) mixture components are obtained with their activity coefficients, which represent the molecular interaction among the components. The freezing points of the MR JT cryocooler are systematically investigated in the operating temperature range from 70 K to 90 K.

Hwang, G.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.

2010-04-01

25

Freezing Point of Milk: A Natural Way to Understand Colligative Properties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment is presented in which the freezing point depression is analyzed using milk as solution. The nature of milk as a mixture of different solutes makes it a suitable probe to learn about colligative properties. The first part of the experiment illustrates the analytical use of freezing point measurements to control milk quality,…

Novo, Mercedes; Reija, Belen; Al-Soufi, Wajih

2007-01-01

26

Units of freezing of deep supercooled water in woody xylem.  

PubMed

The low temperature exotherms (LTE) of 1-year-old twigs of Haralson apple (Malus pumila Mill.), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata [Mill.] K. Koch), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.), American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh] Borkh.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). In one type of experiment freezing during a DTA experiment was halted for up to 2.5 hours after part of the supercooled water had frozen at temperatures between -25 and -42 C. Upon resumption of cooling the freezing started within 2 C of the stopping temperature. In a second type of experiment living and dead cells were microscopically observed in the same ray after partial freezing in the DTA apparatus. In another experiment, the LTE persisted even after tangential and radial sectioning of the twig to 0.13 millimeters. In a final experiment the LTE of a single multiseriate ray of red oak had the same shape as the LTE of wood with many uniseriate rays.These experiments confirm that the deep supercooled water in woody xylem or pith freezes in numerous independent events over a span of as much as 20 C. The units which freeze in an event are single cells or small groups of cells. Ice grows very slowly if at all from these units, and water moves very slowly from unfrozen cells to frozen ones. Deep supercooling of ray parenchyma does not require an intact ray. PMID:16661390

Hong, S G; Sucoff, E

1980-07-01

27

Design and evaluation of aircraft heat source systems for use with high-freezing point fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives were the design, performance and economic analyses of practical aircraft fuel heating systems that would permit the use of high freezing-point fuels on long-range aircraft. Two hypothetical hydrocarbon fuels with freezing points of -29 C and -18 C were used to represent the variation from current day jet fuels. A Boeing 747-200 with JT9D-7/7A engines was used as the baseline aircraft. A 9300 Km mission was used as the mission length from which the heat requirements to maintain the fuel above its freezing point was based.

Pasion, A. J.

1979-01-01

28

Experimental research of "microcable in a microconduct" system stability to effect of freezing water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of experimental researches of "optical microcable in a microduct" system stability to effect of freezing water are presented. It is shown this system is steadier to water freezing in comparison to lighten optical cable in protective polymer tube.

Andreev, Vladimir A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Nikulina, Tatiana G.; Alekhin, Ivan N.; Gavryushin, Sergey A.; Nikulin, Aleksey G.; Praporshchikov, Denis E.

2011-12-01

29

Report to the CCT on COOMET comparison COOMET.T-K3.1 (previously COOMET.T-S1): Key regional comparison of the national standards of temperature in the range from the triple point of water to the freezing point of zinc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the CIPM MRA, a first COOMET comparison "Comparison of the ITS-90 realizations in the range from 0.01 °C to 429.7485 °C (from the triple point of water to the freezing point of zinc)", registered in the KCDB under the identifier "COOMET.T-K3", was carried out in 2005-2007. Four national metrology institutes took part in this comparison: VNIIM (Russian Federation), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Republic of Belarus) and NSC IM (Ukraine), and two of them (VNIIM and SMU) ensured the linkage with key comparisons CCT-K3 and CCT-K4, in order to disseminate the metrological equivalence to the measurement standards of NSC IM and BelGIM. NSC IM, however, had to withdraw its results, and at the meeting of Technical Committee T-10 of COOMET it was decided to carry out a supplementary bilateral comparison between VNIIM and the NSC IM for realization of the ITS-90 in the same range of temperature. This was registered in the KCDB under the identifier COOMET.T-S1 and measurements were performed in 2008-2009. From the results presented in this report, it is possible to draw the conclusion that the COOMET supplementary comparison COOMET.T-S1 demonstrates the CMC uncertainties claimed by the NSC IM for the melting point of gallium 0.236 mK (k = 2), and the freezing points of indium 1.040 mK (k = 2), tin 0.858 mK (k = 2) and zinc 0.944 mK (k = 2). In September 2012 the Working Group on key Comparisons (WG 7) of the CCT upgraded this comparison to a COOMET key comparison of the 'CCT-K3' type. It is now identified as COOMET.T-K3.1. In April 2013 this report was superseded by item 03006 in the Technical Supplement of 2013. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

Pokhodun, A. I.

2010-01-01

30

Evaluation of methods for rapid determination of freezing point of aviation fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for identification of the more promising concepts for the development of a portable instrument to rapidly determine the freezing point of aviation fuels are described. The evaluation process consisted of: (1) collection of information on techniques previously used for the determination of the freezing point, (2) screening and selection of these techniques for further evaluation of their suitability in a portable unit for rapid measurement, and (3) an extensive experimental evaluation of the selected techniques and a final selection of the most promising technique. Test apparatuses employing differential thermal analysis and the change in optical transparency during phase change were evaluated and tested. A technique similar to differential thermal analysis using no reference fuel was investigated. In this method, the freezing point was obtained by digitizing the data and locating the point of inflection. Results obtained using this technique compare well with those obtained elsewhere using different techniques. A conceptual design of a portable instrument incorporating this technique is presented.

Mathiprakasam, B.

1982-01-01

31

Heterogeneous freezing of water droplets containing kaolinite particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds composed of both ice particles and supercooled liquid water droplets exist at temperatures above ~236 K. These mixed phase clouds, which strongly impact climate, are very sensitive to the presence of solid particles that can catalyse freezing. In this paper we describe experiments to determine the conditions at which the clay mineral kaolinite nucleates ice when immersed within water droplets. These are the first immersion mode experiments in which the ice nucleating ability of kaolinite has been determined as a function of clay surface area, cooling rate and also at constant temperatures. Water droplets containing a known amount of clay mineral were supported on a hydrophobic surface and cooled at rates of between 0.8 and 10 K min-1 or held at constant sub-zero temperatures. The time and temperature at which individual 10-50 ?m diameter droplets froze were determined by optical microscopy. For a cooling rate of 10 K min-1, the median nucleation temperature of 10-40 ?m diameter droplets increased from close to the homogeneous nucleation limit (236 K) to 240.8 ± 0.6 K as the concentration of kaolinite in the droplets was increased from 0.005 wt% to 1 wt%. This data shows that the probability of freezing scales with surface area of the kaolinite inclusions. We also show that at a constant temperature the number of liquid droplets decreases exponentially as they freeze over time. The constant cooling rate experiments are consistent with the stochastic, singular and modified singular descriptions of heterogeneous nucleation; however, freezing during cooling and at constant temperature can be reconciled best with the stochastic approach. We report temperature dependent nucleation rate coefficients (nucleation events per unit time per unit area) for kaolinite and present a general parameterisation for immersion nucleation which may be suitable for cloud modelling once nucleation by other important ice nucleating species is quantified in the future.

Murray, B. J.; Broadley, S. L.; Wilson, T. W.; Atkinson, J. D.; Wills, R. H.

2011-05-01

32

Metabolic activity of permafrost bacteria below the freezing point  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metabolic activity was measured in the laboratory at temperatures between 5 and -20 degrees C on the basis of incorporation of (14)C-labeled acetate into lipids by samples of a natural population of bacteria from Siberian permafrost (permanently frozen soil). Incorporation followed a sigmoidal pattern similar to growth curves. At all temperatures, the log phase was followed, within 200 to 350 days, by a stationary phase, which was monitored until the 550th day of activity. The minimum doubling times ranged from 1 day (5 degrees C) to 20 days (-10 degrees C) to ca. 160 days (-20 degrees C). The curves reached the stationary phase at different levels, depending on the incubation temperature. We suggest that the stationary phase, which is generally considered to be reached when the availability of nutrients becomes limiting, was brought on under our conditions by the formation of diffusion barriers in the thin layers of unfrozen water known to be present in permafrost soils, the thickness of which depends on temperature.

Rivkina, E. M.; Friedmann, E. I.; McKay, C. P.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

2000-01-01

33

A Four-Zone Furnace for Realization of Silver and Gold Freezing Points  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the Thermocouple Calibration Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology has used sodium heat-pipe furnaces for the realization of ITS-90 freezing points of aluminum, silver, and gold. When using a fixed-point cell mounted in a long silica-glass tube that extends to ambient temperature at the top of the furnace, we have observed significant thermal gradients along the well of the fixed-point cell, with the top of the well up to 0.1 K colder than the bottom. Furthermore, the heat-pipe lifetime is limited when used at the gold point (1064.18 °C) for more than a few hundred hours. To address these problems, we have designed and built a four-zone furnace based on a temperature-controlled, graphite isothermal block, suspended inside a three-zone tube furnace. The three-zone furnace is of a commercial design. The graphite block is enclosed in an alloy 600 (Inconel) can, allowing the graphite to be maintained in an argon atmosphere. The argon pressure is maintained at one atmosphere at all temperatures, thereby greatly reducing the stress on the can. Heaters in intimate contact with the can allow temperature control of the fourth inner zone to high accuracy. In this paper, the measured thermal stability and uniformity achieved with this furnace are presented. We also give results of test freezes of a silver freezing-point cell.

Ripple, D. C.; Garrity, K. M.; Meyer, C. W.

2003-09-01

34

Heterogeneous freezing of water droplets containing kaolinite and montmorillonite particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds composed of both ice particles and supercooled liquid water droplets exist at temperatures above ~236 K. These mixed phase clouds, which strongly impact climate, are very sensitive to the presence of solid particles that can catalyse freezing. In this paper we describe experiments to determine the rate at which kaolinite and montmorillonite nucleate ice when immersed within water droplets. These are the first immersion mode experiments in which the ice nucleating ability of individual minerals has been determined quantitatively. Water droplets containing a known amount of clay mineral were supported on a hydrophobic surface and cooled at a rate of 10 K min-1. The temperatures at which individual 10-40 ?m diameter droplets froze were determined by optical microscopy. As the concentration of kaolinite in the droplets was increased from 0.005 wt% to 1 wt% the median nucleation temperature increased from close to the homogeneous nucleation limit (236 K) to 240.8±0.6 K. We go onto show that the probability of freezing scales with surface area of the kaolinite inclusions rather than, as is often assumed, the volume of the droplet. When droplets contained montmorillonite ice always nucleated at 245.8±0.6 K, independent of the mineral concentration. We report temperature dependent nucleation rates and present parameterisations for nucleation by these minerals which capture the surface area and cooling rate dependence of the nucleation rate. We show that our parameterisations produce significantly different results to parameterisations employed in global models. These results also highlight the importance of understanding the ice nucleating properties of individual minerals rather than complex mixtures of minerals found in natural dusts and so-called test dusts.

Murray, B. J.; Wilson, T. W.; Broadley, S. L.; Wills, R. H.

2010-04-01

35

Heterogeneous freezing of water droplets containing kaolinite and montmorillonite particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds composed of both ice particles and supercooled liquid water droplets, known as mixed phase clouds, exist at temperatures above ~236 K. These clouds, which strongly impact climate, are very sensitive to the presence of particles that can catalyse ice particle formation. In this paper we describe experiments to determine at which temperatures water droplets containing clay mineral particles froze. Water droplets containing a known amount of clay mineral were supported on a hydrophobic surface and the temperatures at which individual droplets froze, as they were cooled down, was determined by optical microscopy. The hydrophobic substrate does not significantly catalyse ice formation in droplets and pure water droplets freeze around 236 K. Droplets containing kaolinite and montmorillonite nucleate ice at warmer temperatures. The mean nucleation temperature increases from close to or at the homogeneous nucleation limit (236 K) to 240.8 ± 0.6 K as the kaolinite concentration is increased from 0.005 wt% to 1 wt%. In contrast, ice always nucleates at 245.8 ± 0.6 K when water droplets are contaminated with montmorillonite independent of mineral concentration. These results highlight the importance of understanding the ice nucleating properties of individual minerals rather than complex mixtures of minerals found in natural dusts and so-called test dusts. In addition we parameterise the results in a form suitable for modelling studies and also derive contact angles for kaolinite.

Murray, Benjamin J.; Broadley, Sarah; Wilson, Theodore; Bull, Sophia; Wills, Rebecca

2010-05-01

36

Relationship between freezing tolerance and shoot water relations of western red cedar.  

PubMed

Freezing tolerance and shoot water relations parameters of western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) seedlings were measured every 2 weeks from October 1989 to April 1990. Freezing tolerance, measured by freeze-induced electrolyte leakage, showed seasonal shifts in the temperature causing 50% foliage electrolyte leakage (LT(50)). The LT(50) value was -4 degrees C in October, it decreased to -20 degrees C in February and then increased to -6 degrees C in April. The foliage index of injury at -10 degrees C (II(-10)) also showed seasonal shifts from a high of 98% in October to a low of 18% in February followed by an increase to 82% in April. Osmotic potentials at saturation (Psi(s(sat))) and turgor loss point (Psi(s(tlp))) were, respectively, -1.07 and -1.26 MPa in October, -1.57 and -2.43 MPa in January, and -1.04 and -1.86 MPa in April. Dry weight fraction (DWF) increased and symplastic volume at full turgor (V(o)) decreased during the fall-winter acclimation phase, whereas DWF decreased and V(o) increased during the late winter-spring deacclimation phase. Relationships between seasonal patterns of freezing tolerance and shoot water relations parameters showed that LT(50) and II(-10) decreased linearly as Psi(s(tlp)) and V(o) decreased and DWF increased. There was no discernible difference in the relationship during fall acclimation or spring deacclimation. The freezing dehydration index at -10 degrees C (FDI(-10)) declined from 0.69 in November to 0.41 in February and increased to 0.56 in April. The value of II(-10) decreased linearly as FDI(-10) decreased, although a measurement made on actively growing spring foliage did not fit this relationship. The results indicate that seasonal changes in freezing tolerance of western red cedar are partially due to changes in tissue water content, symplastic volume, passive osmotic adjustment and FDI(-10). PMID:14969948

Grossnickle, S C

1992-10-01

37

Water-cooled probe technique for the study of freeze lining formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furnace protection by water-cooled freeze linings becomes increasingly important as the metal producing industry attempts\\u000a to achieve higher process intensities. Systematic investigations of the growth and the resulting microstructure and compositional\\u000a profile of freeze linings are necessary to understand the behavior of freeze linings, their relation with the industrial process,\\u000a and their interaction with the wall cooling system. We have

Karel Verscheure; Mieke Campforts; Frederik Verhaeghe; Eddy Boydens; Bart Blanpain; Patrick Wollants; Maurits Van Camp

2006-01-01

38

The migration and transformation of dissolved organic matter during the freezing processes of water.  

PubMed

This study investigated the partitioning behavior of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in liquid and ice phases, as well as the changes in the optical properties and chlorine reactivity of DOM during the freezing processes of water. DOM was rejected from the ice phase and accumulated in the remaining liquid phase during water freezing. Moreover, the decrease in freezing temperature, as well as the increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration of feed water, caused an increase in DOM captured in the ice phase. The ultraviolet-absorbing compounds, trihalomethane precursors, as well as fulvic acid- and humic acid-like fluorescent materials, were more liable to be to be rejected from the ice phase and were more easily retained in the unfrozen liquid phase during water freezing, as compared with organics (on average) that comprise DOC. In addition, it was also found a higher accumulation of these organics in the unfrozen liquid phase during water freezing at higher temperature. The freeze/thaw processes altered the quantity, optical properties, and chlorine reactivity of DOM. The decrease in ultraviolet light at 254nm as well as the production of aromatic protein- and soluble microbial byproduct-like fluorescent materials in DOM due to freeze/thaw were consistently observed. On the other hand, the changes in DOC, trihalomethane formation potential, and fulvic acid- and humic acid-like fluorescence caused by freeze/thaw varied significantly between samples. PMID:25597675

Xue, Shuang; Wen, Yang; Hui, Xiujuan; Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Zhaohong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ying

2015-01-01

39

Early Mars was wet but not warm: Erosion, fluvial features, liquid water habitats, and life below freezing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is considerable evidence that Mars had liquid water early in its history and possibly at recurrent interval. It has generally been assumed that this implied that the climate was warmer as a result of a thicker CO2 atmosphere than at the present. However, recent models suggest that Mars may have had a thick atmosphere but may not have experienced mean annual temperatures above freezing. In this paper we report on models of liquid water formation and maintenance under temperatures well below freezing. Our studies are based on work in the north and south polar regions of Earth. Our results suggest that early Mars did have a thick atmosphere but precipitation and hence erosion was rare. Transient liquid water, formed under temperature extremes and maintained under thick ice covers, could account for the observed fluvial features. The main difference between the present climate and the early climate was that the total surface pressure was well above the triple point of water.

Mckay, C. P.; Davis, W. L.

1993-01-01

40

Improvements in the realization of the ITS-90 over the temperature range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver at NIM  

SciTech Connect

The temperature primary standard over the range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver in National institute of Metrology (NIM), China, was established in the early 1990s. The performance of all of fixed-point furnaces degraded and needs to be updated due to many years of use. Nowadays, the satisfactory fixed point materials can be available with the development of the modern purification techniques. NIM plans to use a group of three cells for each defining fixed point temperature. In this way the eventual drift of individual cells can be evidenced by periodic intercomparison and this will increase the reliability in disseminating the ITS-90 in China. This article describes the recent improvements in realization of ITS-90 over temperature range from the melting point of gallium to the freezing point of silver at NIM. Taking advantages of the technological advances in the design and manufacture of furnaces, the new three-zone furnaces and the open-type fixed points were developed from the freezing point of indium to the freezing point of silver, and a furnace with the three-zone semiconductor cooling was designed to automatically realize the melting point of gallium. The reproducibility of the new melting point of gallium and the new open-type freezing points of In, Sn, Zn. Al and Ag is improved, especially the freezing points of Al and Ag with the reproducibility of 0.2mK and 0.5mK respectively. The expanded uncertainty in the realization of these defining fixed point temperatures is 0.34mK, 0.44mK, 0.54mK, 0.60mK, 1.30mK and 1.88mK respectively.

Sun, J.; Zhang, J. T.; Ping, Q. [National institute of Metrology, Beijing (China)] [National institute of Metrology, Beijing (China)

2013-09-11

41

Practical limitations of ITS-90 from the mercury triple point to the silver freeze point  

SciTech Connect

The NPL published a forward to the ITS-90 text as follows:- 'The purpose of the ITS is to define procedures by which certain specified practical thermometers of the required quality can be calibrated in such a way that the values of temperature obtained from them can be precise and reproducible, while at the same time closely approximating the corresponding thermodynamic values.' [1]. The paper investigates the properties of thirty four lots of 6N pure metal used to make cells conforming to ITS-90 from mercury through silver over a period of twenty years. Three hundred individual cells are analysed by the impurities listed and supplied with each lot, melt and freeze curve slopes are also summarised for each lot and depressions calculated. These are then compared to the slopes and depressions suggested in the Supplementary Information for the ITS-90 and in CCT/2000-13 'Optimal Realizations'. Results are summarised, tabulated and discussed. Three lots of the thirty four were found to produce cells outside 6N expectations; however the remaining thirty one lots no matter how well or badly the accompanying certification was presented produced cells that conformed to 6N expectations as suggested in Supplementary Information to ITS-90 and CCT/2000-13.

Tavener, J. P.; Tavener, S. J.; Tavener, I. F.; Davies, N. [Isothermal Technology Ltd (Isotech), Pine Grove, Southport, Merseyside, PR9 9AG, England (United Kingdom)] [Isothermal Technology Ltd (Isotech), Pine Grove, Southport, Merseyside, PR9 9AG, England (United Kingdom)

2013-09-11

42

How Circulation of Water Affects Freezing in Ponds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One means of preventing the top of a pond from freezing involves running a circulating pump near the bottom to agitate the surface and expose it to air throughout the winter months. This phenomenon is similar to that of the flowing of streams in subzero temperatures and to the running of taps to prevent pipe bursts in winter. All of these cases…

Moreau, Theresa; Lamontagne, Robert; Letzring, Daniel

2007-01-01

43

Study on the melting and freezing behaviour of high temperature binary eutectic fixed points using differential scanning calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the heat flux accompanying the melting or freezing of metal (or metalloid)-carbon eutectics, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to identify appropriate binary systems for secondary thermometry fixed points. Well-known alloy systems such as Fe-C and Ni-C showed reproducible endothermic and exothermic peaks that represent melting and freezing reactions in the DSC measurement. Furthermore, a new Si-C system with a eutectic composition showed reproducible melting and freezing peaks in the DSC measurements. Based on the results by DSC, we identified the Si-SiC eutectic point as a possible eutectic fixed point. To confirm this possibility, we made a Si-SiC cell for thermocouple thermometry and measured its melting and freezing characteristics using a Pt/Pd thermocouple. The melting temperature of the Si-SiC eutectic was reproducible to within 0.02 °C (one standard deviation). From the results, we found that Si-SiC has possibility as a new eutectic fixed point at temperatures around 1400 °C. We also concluded that DSC analysis could be used to measure the reproducibility of freezing and melting reactions that are to be used as fixed points for thermometry, because it is a rapid and easy-to-use tool for characterizing the thermal behaviour of materials with only a small sample.

Kwon, Su Yong; Kim, Yong-Gyoo; Yang, Inseok

2010-06-01

44

Effects of freezing in and out of water on length and weight of Lake Michigan bloaters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this study was to determine if freezing significantly alters the length or weight of bloaters Coregonus hoyi. Bloaters were collected from southern Lake Michigan and were frozen for periods of 2-200 d. Freezing in water caused a significant decrease in length and a significant increase in weight. These changes did not vary predictably with time. The mean change in weight was greater for adults than for juveniles, but the mean change in length was not significantly different between juveniles and adults. Regressions for weight or length after freezing versus weight or length before freezing were highly significant and can be used as correction equations for estimating the original lengths and weights of fresh specimens after fish have been frozen. Test fish that were subsequently refrozen in air shrank more than those refrozen in water.

Sayers, Richard E.

1987-01-01

45

New expressions to describe solution nonideal osmotic pressure, freezing point depression, and vapor pressure.  

PubMed

New empirical expressions for osmotic pressure, freezing point depression, and vapor pressure are proposed based on the concepts of volume occupancy and (or) hydration force. These expressions are in general inverse relationships in comparison to the standard ideal expressions for the same properties. The slopes of the new equations are determined by the molecular weight of the solute and known constants. The accuracy and precision of the molecular weights calculated from the slope are identical and approximately 1% for the experiments reported here. The nonideality of all three colligative expressions is described by a dimensionless constant called the solute-solvent interaction parameter I. The results on sucrose have the same I = 0.26 for all three solution properties. The nonideality parameter I increased from 0.26 on sucrose to 1.7 on hemoglobin to successfully describe the well-known nonideal response of macromolecules. PMID:1299270

Fullerton, G D; Zimmerman, R J; Cantu, C; Cameron, I L

1992-12-01

46

Freezing of ridges and water networks preserves the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains for millions of years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once an ice sheet grows beyond a critical thickness, the basal thermal regime favors melting and development of subglacial water networks. Subglacial water is necessary for bedrock erosion, but the exact mechanisms that lead to preservation of subglacial topography are unclear. Here we resolve the freezing mechanisms that lead to long-term, high-altitude preservation across the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in East Antarctica. Analyses of a comprehensive geophysical data set reveal a large-scale water network along valley floors. The ice sheet often drives subglacial water up steep topography where it freezes along high ridges beneath thinner ice. Statistical tests of hypsometry show the Gamburtsevs resemble younger midlatitude mountains, indicating exceptional preservation. We conclude that the Gamburtsevs have been shielded from erosion since the latest Eocene (˜34 Ma). These freezing mechanisms likely account for the spatial and temporal patterns of erosion and preservation seen in other glaciated mountain ranges.

Creyts, Timothy T.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Bell, Robin E.; Wolovick, Michael; Corr, Hugh; Rose, Kathryn C.; Frearson, Nicholas; Damaske, Detlef; Jordan, Tom; Braaten, David; Finn, Carol

2014-11-01

47

The initial freezing point temperature of beef rises with the rise in pH: a short communication.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that the initial freezing point temperature of meat is affected by pH. Sixty four bovine M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum were classified into two ultimate pH groups: low (<5.8) and high pH (>6.2) and their cooling and freezing point temperatures were determined. The initial freezing temperatures for beef ranged from -0.9 to -1.5°C (?=0.6°C) with the higher and lower temperatures associated with high and low ultimate pH respectively. There was a significant correlation (r=+0.73, P<0.01) between beef pH and freezing point temperature in the present study. The outcome of this study has implications for the meat industry where evidence of freezing (ice formation) in a shipment as a result of high pH meat could result in a container load of valuable chilled product being downgraded to a lower value frozen product. PMID:23410892

Farouk, M M; Kemp, R M; Cartwright, S; North, M

2013-05-01

48

Frontispiece: water freezing as a regiocontrol element in the multicomponent assembly of cyclic enones.  

PubMed

Water-Freezing Regiocontrol An efficient modular and regioselective synthesis of deuterated cyclic enones has been achieved by successive coupling of three simple starting materials and a deuterium source. Dialkoxy 2-cyclopentenones were generated under anhydrous conditions, whereas dialkoxy 2-cyclohexenones were formed under water-promoted solidification of the reaction mixture. This unprecedented water-freezing effect induced a total inversion of the regioselectivity in the intramolecular cyclization of allenyl-substituted alkylchromate intermediates. For more details, see the Communication by J. Flórez et al. on page?1854?ff. PMID:25601369

De la Campa, Raquel; Flórez, Josefa

2015-01-26

49

Boiling Point of Capillary-condensed Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CONSIDERABLE amount of experimental work on freezing-point depressions of capillary condensates has been reported in the literature in recent years1. Carman2 has given an account of a few more properties in which capillary-held liquids differ from the same materials in bulk conditions. Boiling points of condensates, however, do not appear to have been studied in detail. We have devised

M. L. Lakhanpal; B. R. Puri

1953-01-01

50

An evaluation of freezing as a preservation technique for analyzing dissolved organic C, N and P in surface water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for preserving surface water samples are recently in demand because of the increased interest in quantifying dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters and the frequent collection of samples in remote locations. Freezing is a common technique employed by many researchers for preserving surface water samples; however, there has been little evaluation of the effects of freezing on DOM

Jason B. Fellman; David V. D'Amore; Eran Hood

2008-01-01

51

Units of Freezing of Deep Supercooled Water in Woody Xylem 1  

PubMed Central

The low temperature exotherms (LTE) of 1-year-old twigs of Haralson apple (Malus pumila Mill.), shagbark hickory (Carya ovata [Mill.] K. Koch), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos L.), American chestnut (Castanea dentata [Marsh] Borkh.), and red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). In one type of experiment freezing during a DTA experiment was halted for up to 2.5 hours after part of the supercooled water had frozen at temperatures between ?25 and ?42 C. Upon resumption of cooling the freezing started within 2 C of the stopping temperature. In a second type of experiment living and dead cells were microscopically observed in the same ray after partial freezing in the DTA apparatus. In another experiment, the LTE persisted even after tangential and radial sectioning of the twig to 0.13 millimeters. In a final experiment the LTE of a single multiseriate ray of red oak had the same shape as the LTE of wood with many uniseriate rays. These experiments confirm that the deep supercooled water in woody xylem or pith freezes in numerous independent events over a span of as much as 20 C. The units which freeze in an event are single cells or small groups of cells. Ice grows very slowly if at all from these units, and water moves very slowly from unfrozen cells to frozen ones. Deep supercooling of ray parenchyma does not require an intact ray. Images PMID:16661390

Hong, Sung-Gak; Sucoff, Edward

1980-01-01

52

Water transport and estimated transmembrane potential during freezing of mouse oocytes.  

PubMed

The kinetics of water transport and the changes in transmembrane potential during freezing of mouse oocytes in isotonic phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were simulated using thermodynamic models. The permeability to water at 0 degree C, Lpg, and the activation energy, ELp, of metaphase II mouse oocytes from B6D2F1 mice were determined to be 0.044 +/- 0.008 micron/min-atm and 13.3 +/- 2.5 kcal/mol during freezing at 2 degrees C/min. The inactive cell volume was determined to be 0.214 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995, indicating that the oocytes closely follow the ideal Boyle-van't Hoff relation. The mean value of the oocyte diameter was 79.41 +/- 4.62 microns. These results were used to predict the behavior of mouse oocytes under various freezing conditions. The effect of the cooling rate on the cell volume and cytoplasm undercooling was investigated. The changes in transmembrane potential were also investigated during freezing of mouse oocytes. The computer simulations showed that at the beginning of the freezing process (-1 degrees C), the fast growth of ice in the extracellular solution causes a sharp increase of the membrane potential. It is predicted that the change in membrane potential is substantial for almost all cooling rates. Estimations show that values as high as -90 mV may be reached during freezing. The hyperpolarization of the membrane may cause orientation of the dipoles within the membrane. For membrane proteins with 300 debye dipole moment, the theoretical prediction suggests that the percentage of dipoles aligned with the membrane potential increases from 16% at 0 degrees C prior to freezing to 58% at -8 degrees C after seeding of the external ice followed with a cooling at 120 degrees C/min. PMID:2374161

Toner, M; Cravalho, E G; Armant, D R

1990-05-01

53

New proposed system for freeze water desalination using auto reversed R-22 vapor compression heat pump  

Microsoft Academic Search

As natural resources are becoming limited and energy price dramatically increased, energy utilization with efficient systems is required to be used in desalination technologies. Freezing is a well known technique for water desalination. In the present paper, a new proposed system depends on optimization of utilizing the heat flow of heat pump system to increase the whole system efficiency is

Ahmed A. A. Attia

2010-01-01

54

Avoid freeze-up of steam traps and their piping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the problem of keeping steam traps free of ice in cold weather. The topics of the article include piping configurations and trap types that contribute to freezing, freeze damage, obstructions in piping, insulation of lines to retard freezing, common manifolds for heating of condensate, draining of low points, temperature-actuated devices, and water hammer damage.

OKeefe

1993-01-01

55

Avoid freeze-up of steam traps and their piping  

SciTech Connect

This article addresses the problem of keeping steam traps free of ice in cold weather. The topics of the article include piping configurations and trap types that contribute to freezing, freeze damage, obstructions in piping, insulation of lines to retard freezing, common manifolds for heating of condensate, draining of low points, temperature-actuated devices, and water hammer damage.

O'Keefe, W.

1993-12-01

56

Solutions : FreezePtDepression (20 Variations)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It takes 6.86 kg of ethylene glycol (antifreeze) to decrease the freezing point of 6.50 kg of water to -25.0 o F (-31.7 o C). How much sodium chloride (NaCl) would it take to decrease the freezing point of 6.50 kg of water to -25.0 o F? (Assuming all the salt will dissolve in that amount of water.)

57

Calculations of Freezing Point Depression, Boiling Point Elevation, Vapor Pressure and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Electrolyte Solutions by a Modified Three-Characteristic Parameter Correlation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was proposed for calculating the thermodynamic properties, freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, vapor\\u000a pressure and enthalpy of vaporization for single solute electrolyte solutions, including aqueous and nonaqueous solutions,\\u000a based on a modified three-characteristic-parameter correlation model. When compared with the corresponding literature values,\\u000a the calculated results show that this method gives a very good approximation, especially for 1-1

Xinlei Ge; Xidong Wang

2009-01-01

58

Freezing lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Finite difference solution to mixed conduction-convection limited freezing of a 10 cm thick pool of water, with benchmark against analytical timescales. Requisite software: Gnumeric or Excel to open spreadsheets in source directory.

Powell, Adam C., IV

2005-02-23

59

Water freezing as a regiocontrol element in the multicomponent assembly of cyclic enones.  

PubMed

Regioselective synthesis of dialkoxy 2-cyclopentenones and 2-cyclohexenones with novel substitution patterns has been accomplished by the one-pot combination of three simple starting materials (chromium carbene complex, Weinreb acetamide lithium enolate and 1-alkoxyallenyllithium) under either anhydrous conditions or water-promoted solidification of the reaction mixture. These results revealed an unprecedented water-freezing effect that plays a key role to completely reverse the regioselectivity of the intramolecular carbometalation of an allene moiety. PMID:25418199

De la Campa, Raquel; Flórez, Josefa

2015-01-26

60

Serum Protein and Casein Concentration: Effect on pH and Freezing Point of Milk with Added CO21  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this studywas to determine the effect of protein concentration and protein type (i.e., casein (CN) and serum protein (SP)) on pH (0°C) and freezing point (FP) of skim milk upon CO2 injection at 0°C. CN- free skim milks with increasing SP content (0, 3, and 6%) and skim milks with the same SP content (0.6%) but increasing

Y. Ma; D. M. Barbano

2003-01-01

61

[Influence of the rate and the share of freezing water on hydrogen and oxygen separation].  

PubMed

The influence of the rate nu and the share of freezing water g on the separation of hydrogen D and oxygen 18O has been studied by mass spectromertry. Evidence was obtained supporting the well known facts that, upon freezing of water: (1) the concentration of D in ice is higher than in water; (2) the degree of separation for D is higher than for 18O; (3) an increase in the concentration of D and 18O in ice takes place as the nu value decreases. It was shown for the first time that, at g < 0.05, the concentrations of D at high nu values are higher than at g > 0.05, and at low nu values, it is less than at g > 0.05. PMID:19894621

Danilov, K L; Lavrik, N L; Boriskin, V V; Fokin, G A

2009-01-01

62

An experimental evaluation of thermosiphon solar water heaters with closed loop freeze protection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to examine the performances of two thermosiphon hot water heaters. One system ran a 50-50 ethylene glycol-water solution through a flat plate type collector and a copper coil heat exchanger placed inside the storage tank. The other system is conventional and ran the storage tank water through the collector with open pipes into and out of the storage tank (i.e. no heat exchanger). Obviously the heat exchanger system will perform less efficiently because of higher fluid viscosity and losses in the heat exchanger. But because this system will not freeze, it could be used in winter and doesn't need draining to prevent pipe freezing. The research centered on determining the exact extent of the decrease in efficiency of this type of system from the more conventional type of system. The results showed that the system with the heat exchanger performed, on the average, 9% less efficiently than the system without the heat exchanger. This figure is acceptable and such an ethylene glycol system is recommended for use in winter or when there is a possibility of freezing on cool nights from radiation losses.

Bogart, J.

1980-05-01

63

Relationship between Recrystallization Rate of Ice Crystals in Sugar Solutions and Water Mobility in Freeze-Concentrated Matrix  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the relation between recrystallization rate and water mobility in freeze-concentrated matrix, isothermal ice recrystallization rates in several sugar aqueous solutions and self-diffusion coefficients of water component in corresponding freeze-concentrated matrix were measured. The sugars used were fructose, glucose, maltose, and sucrose. The sugar concentrations and temperature were varied so that ice contents for all samples were almost

Tomoaki Hagiwara; Richard W. Hartel; Shingo Matsukawa

2006-01-01

64

The Effect of Ozonolysis on the Freezing of Water Catalyzed by High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High altitude clouds may be impacted by the products of biomass burning which can be lofted into the upper troposphere through deep convection. Some high molecular weight organic compounds are efficient ice nucleators (e.g. long chain alcohols) while others are not (e.g. long chain alkanes). To further complicate the picture, once in the atmosphere organic compounds may be transformed through oxidation and photochemistry, which could change their characteristics as freezing catalysts. To develop a deeper understanding of these processes, we observed the freezing temperatures of pure water droplets covered by high molecular weight organic compounds before and after exposure to ozone. Oleic acid and oleyl alcohol, which have carbon-carbon double bonds at approximately the same position along the backbone of the molecule, display very different behaviors. The mean freezing temperature for oleic acid is unchanged after exposure to ozone while that for oleyl alcohol increases by approximately 4 K. These changes will be compared to the structure of the film that the compounds form at the water surface. We will also present results of experiments with alkenes.

Irish, S.; Cantrell, W.

2006-12-01

65

Supercooling and freezing processes in nanoconfined water by time-resolved optical Kerr effect spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Using heterodyne-detected optical Kerr effect (HD-OKE) measurements, we investigate the vibrational dynamics and the structural relaxation of water nanoconfined in Vycor porous silica samples (pore size $\\simeq~4~nm$ ) at different levels of hydration and temperatures. At low level of hydration, corresponding to two complete superficial water layers, no freezing occurs and water remains mobile at all the investigated temperatures with dynamic features similar, but not equal, to the bulk water. The fully hydrated sample shows formation of ice at about 248 K, this process does not involve all the contained water; a part of it remains in a supercooled phase. The structural relaxation times measured from the decay of the time-dependent HD-OKE signal shows temperature dependence largely affected by the hydration level; the low frequency ($\

A. Taschin; P. Bartolini; A. Marcelli; R. Righini; R. Torre

2014-08-06

66

Solubilization by freeze-milling of water-insoluble subunits in rice proteins.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effects of freeze-milling on the structural and functional properties of rice proteins (RPs). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that freeze-milling slightly influences the subunit bands of the RPs. Secondary and tertiary structures were studied by analyzing Fourier transform infrared spectra, sulfhydryl and disulfide bond contents, and surface hydrophobicities. The freeze-milled RPs (FMRPs) may possess an unfolded conformation that exposes buried functional groups. In addition, the solubility of the FMRPs is higher than that of the control, probably due to the exposure of water-protein interaction areas. In particular, the solubility of the FMRPs treated at a pH of 12.5 was 42 times that of the control. Characterization of functionalities demonstrated that both the emulsifying and foaming activities of the FMRPs were improved by solubilization. However, functional stabilities either remained unaffected or deteriorated. Generally, the FMRPs showed better emulsifying activities and stabilities than bovine serum albumin, alongside better foaming activities and stabilities than hen egg albumin. FMRPs may be of great interest to the food industry. PMID:25412155

Wang, Tao; Liu, Fengru; Wang, Ren; Wang, Li; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Zhengxing

2015-02-11

67

Particular points of water-alcohol solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper discusses the physical nature of the nontrivial properties of aqueous alcohol solutions in a range of molar concentrations x ˜ 0.05. A particular point is determined based on analysis of the temperature and concentration dependences of contraction, which is the simplest thermodynamic characteristic of solutions. The occurrence of particular points in water-alcohol solutions is shown to be directly related to the structural features of water. The concentration-temperature dependence is plotted, where the contraction behavior of an aqueous ethanol solution demonstrates a structural feature of water. The formulas to find the concentration values at particular points are proposed.

Gotsulskiy, V. Ya.; Malomuzh, N. P.; Chechko, V. E.

2015-02-01

68

HybridICE® filter: ice separation in freeze desalination of mine waste waters.  

PubMed

Freeze desalination is an alternative method for the treatment of mine waste waters. HybridICE(®) technology is a freeze desalination process which generates ice slurry in surface scraper heat exchangers that use R404a as the primary refrigerant. Ice separation from the slurry takes place in the HybridICE filter, a cylindrical unit with a centrally mounted filter element. Principally, the filter module achieves separation of the ice through buoyancy force in a continuous process. The HybridICE filter is a new and economical means of separating ice from the slurry and requires no washing of ice with water. The performance of the filter at a flow-rate of 25 L/min was evaluated over time and with varied evaporating temperature of the refrigerant. Behaviours of the ice fraction and residence time were also investigated. The objective was to find ways to improve the performance of the filter. Results showed that filter performance can be improved by controlling the refrigerant evaporating temperature and eliminating overflow. PMID:24804655

Adeniyi, A; Maree, J P; Mbaya, R K K; Popoola, A P I; Mtombeni, T; Zvinowanda, C M

2014-01-01

69

Water Relations and Low-Temperature Acclimation for Cactus Species Varying in Freezing Tolerance.  

PubMed Central

Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia streptacantha are widely cultivated cacti that can tolerate temperatures no lower than -10[deg]C, whereas Opuntia humifusa, which is native to southern Canada and the eastern United States, can tolerate -24[deg]C. As day/night air temperatures were decreased from 30/20 to 10/0[deg]C, the osmotic pressure increased 0.10 MPa for O. ficus-indica and O. streptacantha but 0.38 MPa for O. humifusa. The increases in osmotic pressures were due mostly to the synthesis of fructose, glucose, and sucrose. In addition, O. humifusa produced a substantial amount of mannitol during exposure to low temperatures. Substantial accumulation of sugars and mannitol in cells of O. humifusa may help prevent intracellular freeze dehydration and ice formation as well as provide noncolligative protection to its membranes. Mucilage was slightly higher in all three species at the lower temperatures. Extracellular nucleation of ice occurred closer to the equilibrium freezing temperature for plants at 10/0[deg]C compared with 30/20[deg]C, which could make the cellular dehydration more gradual and, thus, less damaging. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance indicated a restricted mobility of intracellular water at the lower temperatures, especially for O. humifusa, which is consistent with its lower water content and higher levels of low molecular weight solutes. PMID:12232118

Goldstein, G.; Nobel, P. S.

1994-01-01

70

Statistical characteristics of evaporating-freezing process of water droplet during quick depressurization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates experimentally flashing evaporation process of water droplets released into vacuum, particularly on the quantitative characteristics of the process, in order to reveal the influences of the randomicity of the sub-process of nucleation and non-condensable air dissolved inside the liquid. It's clearly shown that nucleation time is a random variable. That may be caused by the following facts that nucleation for ice in high-supercooled water exhibits a strong randomicity and that there exists strong perturbation during quick depressurization. Freezing temperature of liquid droplet is approximately constant after recalescence, which may be determined by the vapor partial pressure at the terminal state. Freezing time is independent of nucleation time, but exhibits an obvious dependence on terminal pressure and drop diameter. Supercooling corresponding to the nucleation is independent of terminal pressure. The averaged values of supercooling at three different terminal pressures of 450, 600 and 1000 Pa are the same, namely 10 K. Furthermore, the influences of non-condensable gases on the process are analyzed and discussed in detail based on the experimental observations.

Du, Wang-Fang; Zhao, Jian-Fu; Li, Kai

2013-07-01

71

Freezing and Melting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article tells how the freezing point of a substance is also its melting point. The energy of the substance's molecules changes with temperature, thus with changes in state. Also described is how freezing points can be lowered, or depressed, by adding a substance.

2010-01-01

72

Lethal freeze-dehydration injury of dogwood stem tissue does not change the activation energy of water permeability.  

PubMed

The Arrhenius activation energy for water permeability, (DeltaE(a,H(2)O)) through stem cortical tissue of red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) was determined after treatments which cause membrane rupture as well as after a lethal slow freeze and subsequent slow rewarming. The latter value was higher than the former, but was indistinguishable from the DeltaE(a,H(2)O) found for healthy tissue. It was concluded that membrane permeability to water is not altered during the first 24 to 48 hours after exposure of nonacclimated red osier dogwood to lethal freeze dehydration injury. PMID:16661222

Carter, J V; Braden, M

1980-03-01

73

Lethal Freeze-Dehydration Injury of Dogwood Stem Tissue Does Not Change the Activation Energy of Water Permeability 1  

PubMed Central

The Arrhenius activation energy for water permeability, (?Ea,H2O) through stem cortical tissue of red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea L.) was determined after treatments which cause membrane rupture as well as after a lethal slow freeze and subsequent slow rewarming. The latter value was higher than the former, but was indistinguishable from the ?Ea,H2O found for healthy tissue. It was concluded that membrane permeability to water is not altered during the first 24 to 48 hours after exposure of nonacclimated red osier dogwood to lethal freeze dehydration injury. PMID:16661222

Carter, John V.; Braden, Margaret

1980-01-01

74

Gas-phase ions produced by freezing water or methanol for analysis using mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Introducing water or methanol containing a low concentration of volatile or nonvolatile analyte into an inlet tube cooled with dry ice linking atmospheric pressure and the first vacuum stage of a mass spectrometer produces gas-phase ions even of small proteins that can be detected by mass spectrometry. Collision-induced dissociation experiments conducted in the first vacuum region of the mass spectrometer suggest analyte ions being protected by a solvent cage. The charges may be produced by processes similar to those proposed for charge separation under freezing conditions in thunderclouds. By this process, the surface of an ice pellet is charged positive and the interior negative so that removal of surface results in charge separation. A reversal of surface charge is expected for a heated droplet surface, and this is observed by heating rather than cooling the inlet tube. These observations are consistent with charged supercooled droplets or ice particles as intermediates in the production of analyte ions under freezing conditions. PMID:25014489

Pagnotti, Vincent S; Chakrabarty, Shubhashis; Wang, Beixi; Trimpin, Sarah; McEwen, Charles N

2014-08-01

75

Membranes and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr.  

E-print Network

Membranes and MEAs at Freezing Temperatures Thomas A. Zawodzinski, Jr. Case Western Reserve #12;5 Conductivity of Membrane at Low T Conductivity drops dramatically below freezing point Note that ~ 6 and increasingly tightly bound as decreases #12;9 DSC thermograms of PEFC membranes (water

76

Fish With Nature's Anti-freeze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using this material, students will discover that under special experimental conditions, fish have been observed functioning in ice-free cold salt water at a temperature of -6 degrees Centigrade. Research has found that these fish have eight types of anti-freeze molecules which bathe the interior surface of their skin, acting as a barrier to ice propagating in from outside. When the anti-freeze molecules are not present, ice filters through their skin at these temperatures and crystallizes (freezes) their blood and tissues. Students will experiment with lowering the freezing point of a substance, thus causing it to remain liquid at a temperature when it is normally solid. Students will compare their findings with facts about Antarctic ice-fish, which have bodily fluids that remain liquid at temperatures below freezing.

77

The fish fauna that inhabits the freezing (2C) coastal waters of the Antarctic continent in the Southern Ocean is  

E-print Network

) and to undergo subsequent adaptive radiation to become the predominant fish Antarctic fish taxon (Eastman, 19934633 The fish fauna that inhabits the freezing (­2°C) coastal waters of the Antarctic continent as affect the stability of protein structure (Hochachka and Somero, 2002), these fishes also exhibit a suite

Cheng, Chi-Hing Christina

78

Real-time Non-contact Millimeter Wave Characterization of Water-Freezing and Ice-Melting Dynamics  

E-print Network

We applied millimeter wave radiometry for the first time to monitor water-freezing and ice-melting dynamics in real-time non-contact. The measurements were completed at a frequency of 137 GHz. Small amounts (about 2 mL) ...

Woskov, Paul P.

79

An evaluation of freezing as a preservation technique for analyzing dissolved organic C, N and P in surface water samples.  

PubMed

Techniques for preserving surface water samples are recently in demand because of the increased interest in quantifying dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters and the frequent collection of samples in remote locations. Freezing is a common technique employed by many researchers for preserving surface water samples; however, there has been little evaluation of the effects of freezing on DOM concentrations. Ten streams were sampled in southeast Alaska with a range of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (1.5 to 39 mg C L(-1)) to evaluate the influence of freezing (flash and standard freeze) and filter pore size (0.2 and 0.7 mum nominal pore size) on dissolved organic C, N and P concentrations. We report a significant decrease in DOC (p<0.005) and total dissolved P (p<0.005) concentrations when streamwater samples were frozen, whereas concentrations of dissolved organic N did not significantly decrease after freezing (p=0.06). We further show that when surface water samples were frozen, there was a decrease in the specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) of DOC that is particularly evident with high concentrations of DOC. This finding suggests that spectroscopic properties of DOC have the potential to be used as indicators of whether surface water samples can be frozen. Our results lead us to recommend that surface water samples with high DOC concentrations (>5 mg C L(-1)) and/or samples with high SUVA values (>3.5-4 L mg-C(-1) m(-1)) should be analyzed immediately and not frozen. PMID:18164749

Fellman, Jason B; D'Amore, David V; Hood, Eran

2008-03-25

80

The influence of ionizable and non-ionizable compounds in milk upon its freezing point  

E-print Network

LIBRARY A d M COLLEGE OF TEXAS TES ISPLUSSCg OP IOSISJSLS kg9 SOS~IOSISLSLS COlQ'CURES Ig MILK UPOS ITS Pggggigg TOIST k Thesis Praak Piakortea Subaittod to tho Graduate Sohool of the dgrioultural aad Meohsaical College of Tosas in partial... ooatoat bye Chafrnan ot Cossatttoe Eoal of Dopartaont or Stukont visor lngust 195$ TiBLR OP COSTXXTS Page IXTRODUCT I OX . . RXVIXW Oy LITXRLTURX. XXPXRIMXRTdL PROCXDUBX. RXSUI TS, Tho Iaflueaoe of Mastitis oa the pressing Point of Milk, Per...

Pinkerton, Frank

1955-01-01

81

The effect of freezing on the sulfate-chloride and density-chloride ratios of sea-water  

E-print Network

in the sulphate-chloride ratio would be expected to have a corresponi- ingly larger effect, on density than would one of the less abundant iona. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Evidence for Sulphate Enricl ment in Ice The sulphate-chloride ratio was studied... as early as 1907 vhen Ringer performed laboratory freezing experiments vith sea-vater in which he cooled sea-water until solid salts began to freeze out. of solution. l Portions of the ice and the brine below the ice vere collected and analyzed...

Burkhalter, Albert Charles

2012-06-07

82

The effect of cold acclimation on the water relations and freezing tolerance of Hordeum vulgare L.  

PubMed

During a 5 degree C and a 5/-1 degree C cold acclimation (CA) regime there was a significant decline in the water potential of winter barley, and a concurrent decline in tissue water content of the 5/-1 degree C CA plants. Results of carbohydrate analysis illustrated a significant (P < 0.001) accumulation of sucrose, fructose and glucose in the 5/-1 degree C CA plants, which was inversely correlated to water potential. Using an infrared imaging radiometer during a convection frost test the water release time (WRT) of 5/-1 degree C CA was demonstrated to be significantly (P < 0.001) longer than that observed in non-cold acclimated plants. This observation is consistent with visual analysis of exotherm curves where the rate of cellular water release to extracellular ice is reduced in the 5/-1 degree C CA plants, compared to the non-cold acclimated plants. These biochemical and physiological changes were correlated to increased plant health following a non-lethal freezing test to -5 degree C, where non-cold acclimated plants produced 2.3 +/- 0.3 tillers and 5 degree C and 5/-1 degree C CA plants produced 2.4 +/- 0.3 and 4.7 +/- 0.7 tillers, respectively. Results from this study imply that cold acclimation leads to changes in the physical state of water that result in a less osmotically responsive cellular environment and subsequently significantly less damage to meristematic tissue. PMID:17256061

Burchett, S; Niven, S; Fuller, M P

2006-01-01

83

Activity coefficients and free energies of nonionic mixed surfactant solutions from vapor-pressure and freezing-point osmometry.  

PubMed

The thermodynamic properties of mixed surfactant solutions are widely investigated, prompted by numerous practical applications of these systems and by interest in molecular association and self-organization. General techniques for measuring thermodynamic activities, such as isopiestic equilibration, are well-established for multicomponent solutions. Surprisingly, these techniques have not yet been applied to mixed surfactant solutions, despite the importance of the free energy for micelle stability. In this study, equations are developed for the osmotic coefficients of solutions of nonionic surfactant A + nonionic surfactant B. A mass-action model is used, with virial equations for the activity coefficients of the micelles and free surfactant monomer species. The equations are fitted to osmotic coefficients of aqueous decylsulfobetaine + dodecylsulfobetaine solutions measured by vapor-pressure and freezing-point osmometry. Equilibrium constants for mixed-micelle formation are calculated from the free monomer concentrations at the critical micelle concentrations. The derived activity coefficients of the micelles and free monomers indicate large departures from ideal solution behavior, even for dilute solutions of the surfactants. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of the total surfactant components are evaluated by Gibbs-Duhem integration of the osmotic coefficients. Relatively simple colligative property measurements hold considerable promise for free energy studies of multicomponent surfactant solutions. PMID:21504169

MacNeil, Jennifer A; Ray, Gargi Basu; Leaist, Derek G

2011-05-19

84

Control of crystal growth in water purification by directional freeze crystallization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Directional Freeze Crystallization system employs an indirect contact heat exchanger to freeze a fraction of liquid to be purified. The unfrozen fraction is drained away and the purified frozen fraction is melted. The heat exchanger must be designed in accordance with a Growth Habit Index to achieve efficient separation of contaminants. If gases are dissolved in the liquid, the system must be pressurized.

Conlon, William M. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

85

Xylem embolism in response to freeze-thaw cycles and water stress in ring-porous, diffuse-porous, and conifer species.  

PubMed

Vulnerability to xylem embolism by freeze-thaw cycles and water stress was quantified in ring-porous (Quercus gambelii Nutt.), diffuse-porous (Populus tremuloides Michx., Betula occidentalis Hook.), and conifer species (Abies lasiocarpa Nutt., Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.). Embolism was measured by its reduction of xylem hydraulic conductivity; it was induced by xylem tension (water-stress response) and by a tension plus a freeze-thaw cycle (freeze response). Conifers showed little (Juniperus) or no (Abies) freeze response even to repeated cycles. In contrast, Quercus embolized more than 90% by freezing at tensions below 0.2 MPa, whereas similar embolism without freezing required tensions above 4.5 MPa. Diffuse-porous trees (Betula, Populus) showed an intermediate freeze response. The magnitude of the freeze response was correlated with conduit volume but occurred at higher tensions than predicted from theory. Large early-wood vessels (2.8 x 10(-9) m(3)) in oak were most vulnerable to embolism by freezing, small vessels in Populus and Betula were intermediate (approximately 7 x 10(-11) m(3)), and tracheids in conifers (about 3 x 10(-13) m(3)) were most resistant. The same trend was found within a stem: embolism by freeze-thawing occurred preferentially in wider conduits. The water-stress response was not correlated with conduit volume; previous work indicates it is a function of interconduit pit membrane structure. Native embolism levels during winter corroborated laboratory results on freezing: Quercus embolized 95% with the first fall freeze, Populus and Betula showed gradual increases to more than 90% embolism by winter's end, and Abies remained below 30%. PMID:16653035

Sperry, J S; Sullivan, J E

1992-10-01

86

Xylem Embolism in Response to Freeze-Thaw Cycles and Water Stress in Ring-Porous, Diffuse-Porous, and Conifer Species 1  

PubMed Central

Vulnerability to xylem embolism by freeze-thaw cycles and water stress was quantified in ring-porous (Quercus gambelii Nutt.), diffuse-porous (Populus tremuloides Michx., Betula occidentalis Hook.), and conifer species (Abies lasiocarpa Nutt., Juniperus scopulorum Sarg.). Embolism was measured by its reduction of xylem hydraulic conductivity; it was induced by xylem tension (water-stress response) and by a tension plus a freeze-thaw cycle (freeze response). Conifers showed little (Juniperus) or no (Abies) freeze response even to repeated cycles. In contrast, Quercus embolized more than 90% by freezing at tensions below 0.2 MPa, whereas similar embolism without freezing required tensions above 4.5 MPa. Diffuse-porous trees (Betula, Populus) showed an intermediate freeze response. The magnitude of the freeze response was correlated with conduit volume but occurred at higher tensions than predicted from theory. Large early-wood vessels (2.8 × 10?9 m3) in oak were most vulnerable to embolism by freezing, small vessels in Populus and Betula were intermediate (approximately 7 × 10?11 m3), and tracheids in conifers (about 3 × 10?13 m3) were most resistant. The same trend was found within a stem: embolism by freeze-thawing occurred preferentially in wider conduits. The water-stress response was not correlated with conduit volume; previous work indicates it is a function of interconduit pit membrane structure. Native embolism levels during winter corroborated laboratory results on freezing: Quercus embolized 95% with the first fall freeze, Populus and Betula showed gradual increases to more than 90% embolism by winter's end, and Abies remained below 30%. PMID:16653035

Sperry, John S.; Sullivan, June E. M.

1992-01-01

87

Freezing in confined geometries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of detailed structural studies, using elastic neutron scattering, of the freezing of liquid O2 and D2 in porous vycor glass, are presented. The experimental studies have been complemented by computer simulations of the dynamics of freezing of a Lennard-Jones liquid in narrow channels bounded by molecular walls. Results point to a new simple physical interpretation of freezing in confined geometries.

Sokol, P. E.; Ma, W. J.; Herwig, K. W.; Snow, W. M.; Wang, Y.; Koplik, Joel; Banavar, Jayanth R.

1992-01-01

88

Freezing Fish and Shellfish.  

E-print Network

means of preserving the fresh-caught quality of fish and shellfish. Why Freeze? Freezing preserves foods by lowering their tem peratures to a point not conducive to bacterial growth and natural enzyme action. Many spoilage bacteria are destroyed... by freezing, and those that survive are unable to grow at the low temperature. A fresh seafood product can spoil when bacteria are not present. Natural enzymes that help fish digest food and carry on natural metabolism in the cells of the fish...

Nickelson, Ranzell; Reddell, Annette

1980-01-01

89

Tropical anvil characteristics and water vapor of the tropical tropopause layer: Impact of heterogeneous and homogeneous freezing parameterizations  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Two isolated deep convective clouds (DCCs) that developed in clean-humid and polluted-dry air masses, observed during the TWP-ICE and ACTIVE campaigns, are simulated using a 3-dimensional cloud-resolving model with size-resolved aerosol and cloud microphysics. We examine the impacts of different homogeneous and immersion freezing parameterizations on the anvil characteristics and the water vapor content (WVC) in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) for the two DCCs that developed in contrasting environments. The modeled cloud properties such as liquid/ice water path and precipitation generally agree with the available radar and satellite retrievals and in situ aircraft measurements. We find that anvil size and anvil microphysical properties such as ice number concentration and ice effective radius (rei) are much more sensitive to the homogeneous freezing parameterization (HomFP) under the polluted-dry condition, while the strength of anvil convection is more sensitive to HomFP under the clean-humid condition. Specifically, the cloud anvil with the Koop et al. (2000) (KOOP) relative humidity dependent scheme has up to 2 and 4 times lower ice number than those with other schemes (temperature dependent) for the clean humid and polluted-dry cases, respectively. Consequently, the rei is increased in both cases, with a larger increase in the polluted-dry case. As a result, extinction coefficient of cloud anvils is reduced by over 25% for the polluted-dry case. Anvil size and evolution are also much affected by HomFPs in the polluted-dry case. Higher immersion-freezing rates leads to a stronger convective cloud, with higher precipitation and ice water path under both humid and dry conditions. As a result, homogeneous freezing rates are enhanced by over 20%. Also, the higher immersion-freezing rate results in stronger convection in cloud anvils, much larger anvil size (up to 3 times) and longer lifetime. The moistening effect of deep convection on the WVC in the TTL is very significant with a increase of more than 2 times. Homogeneous freezing parameterizations do not significantly change the WVC in the TTL, but higher immersion freezing rate leads to an increase in TTL WVC by enhancing convection.

Fan, Jiwen; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; McFarlane, Sally A.; McFarquhar, Greg; Allen, Grant

2010-06-16

90

A new optimal control model for reproducing two-point reaching movements of human three-joint arm with wrist joint's freezing mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optimal control model of human arms has been developed to simulate two-point reaching movement characteristics for human three-joint arms (shoulder, elbow, and wrist joints) and its fundamental performance has been clarified. The new model is formulated by extending the previous two-joint modified minimum torque-change model to a three-joint model with a freezing mechanism in its wrist joint and

Toshikazu Matsui

2009-01-01

91

Real-time Non-contact Millimeter Wave Characterization of Water-Freezing and Ice-Melting Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

We applied millimeter wave radiometry for the first time to monitor water-freezing and ice-melting dynamics in real-time non-contact. The measurements were completed at a frequency of 137 GHz. Small amounts (about 2 mL) of freshwater or saltwater were frozen over a Peltier cooler and the freezing and melting sequence was recorded. Saltwater was prepared in the laboratory that contained 3.5% of table salt to simulate the ocean water. The dynamics of freezing-melting was observed by measuring the millimeter wave temperature as well as the changes in the ice or water surface reflectivity and position. This was repeated using large amounts of freshwater and saltwater (800 mL) mimicking glaciers. Millimeter wave surface level fluctuations indicated as the top surface melted, the light ice below floated up indicating lower surface temperature until the ice completely melted. Our results are useful for remote sensing and tracking temperature for potentially large-scale environmental applications, e.g., global warming.

Sundaram, S. K.; Woskov, Paul P.

2008-11-12

92

Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. [Freezing-point depression  

SciTech Connect

A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

Stein, C.L.

1985-09-01

93

Immersion Freezing of Water and Aqueous Ammonium Sulfate Droplets Initiated by Humic-Like Substances as a Function of Water Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion freezing of water and aqueous (NH4)2SO4 droplets containing leonardite (LEO) and pahokee peat (PP) serving as surrogates for humic-like substances (HULIS) has been investigated. Organic aerosol containing HULIS are ubiquitous in the atmosphere; however, their potential for ice cloud formation is uncertain. Immersion freezing has been studied for temperatures as low as 215 K and solution water activity, aw, from 0.85 to 1.0. The freezing temperatures of water and aqueous solution droplets containing LEO and PP are 5-15 K warmer than homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures. Heterogeneous freezing temperatures can be represented by a horizontal shift of the ice melting curve as a function of solution aw and ?aw by 0.2703 and 0.2466, respectively. Corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, Jhet, are (9.6×2.5)x104 and (5.4×1.4)x104 cm-2 s-1 for LEO and PP containing droplets, respectively, and remain constant along freezing curves characterized by ?aw. Consequently predictions of freezing temperatures and kinetics can be made without knowledge of the solute type when relative humidity and ice nuclei (IN) surface areas are known. The acquired ice nucleation data are applied to evaluate different approaches to fit and reproduce experimentally derived frozen fractions. In addition, we apply a basic formulation of classical nucleation theory (?(T)-model) to calculate contact angles and frozen fractions. Contact angles calculated for each ice nucleus as a function of temperature, ?(T)-model, reproduce exactly experimentally derived frozen fractions without involving free-fit parameters. However, assigning the IN a single contact angle for the entire population (single-? model) is not suited to represent the frozen fractions. Application of ?-PDF, active sites, and deterministic model approaches to measured frozen fractions yield similar good representations. Furthermore, when using a single parameterization of ?-PDF or active sites distribution to fit all individual aw immersion freezing data simultaneously, frozen fraction curves are not reproduced. This implies that these fitting formulations cannot be applied to immersion freezing of aqueous solutions, and suggests that derived fit parameters do not represent independent particle properties. Thus, from fitting frozen fractions only, the underlying ice nucleation mechanism and nature of the ice nucleating sites cannot be inferred. In contrast to using fitted functions obtained to represent experimental conditions only, we suggest to use experimentally derived Jhet as a function of temperature and aw that can be applied to conditions outside of those probed in laboratory. This is because Jhet(T) is independent of time and IN surface areas in contrast to the fit parameters obtained by representation of experimentally derived frozen fractions.

Rigg, Y.; Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

2013-12-01

94

TISSUE FREEZING METHODS FOR CRYOSTAT SECTIONING  

E-print Network

that replaces the architecture with a "Swiss Cheese" effect. #12;The object is to freeze so rapidly that water ON THE SUBJECT OF WATER CRYSTAL FORMATION: "FREEZING BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES" Charles W. Scouten & Miles Cunningham OF TISSUE FREEZING 1. Fresh tissue freezing ­ Tissue is in OCT and flash frozen fresh. 2. 4% PFA fixed

Chisholm, Rex L.

95

Correlation for the Vapor Pressure of Heavy Water From the Triple Point to the Critical Point  

E-print Network

Correlation for the Vapor Pressure of Heavy Water From the Triple Point to the Critical Point Allan the vapor pressure of heavy water (D2O) from its triple point to its critical point. This work takes temperatures are converted from ITS-90 to IPTS-68 before the vapor pressure is com- puted. The new formulation

Magee, Joseph W.

96

Classical nucleation theory of homogeneous freezing of water: thermodynamic and kinetic parameters.  

PubMed

The probability of homogeneous ice nucleation under a set of ambient conditions can be described by nucleation rates using the theoretical framework of Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT). This framework consists of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, of which three are not well-defined (namely the interfacial tension between ice and water, the activation energy and the prefactor), so that any CNT-based parameterization of homogeneous ice formation is less well-constrained than desired for modeling applications. Different approaches to estimate the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of CNT are reviewed in this paper and the sensitivity of the calculated nucleation rate to the choice of parameters is investigated. We show that nucleation rates are very sensitive to this choice. The sensitivity is governed by one parameter - the interfacial tension between ice and water, which determines the energetic barrier of the nucleation process. The calculated nucleation rate can differ by more than 25 orders of magnitude depending on the choice of parameterization for this parameter. The second most important parameter is the activation energy of the nucleation process. It can lead to a variation of 16 orders of magnitude. By estimating the nucleation rate from a collection of droplet freezing experiments from the literature, the dependence of these two parameters on temperature is narrowed down. It can be seen that the temperature behavior of these two parameters assumed in the literature does not match with the predicted nucleation rates from the fit in most cases. Moreover a comparison of all possible combinations of theoretical parameterizations of the dominant two free parameters shows that one combination fits the fitted nucleation rates best, which is a description of the interfacial tension coming from a molecular model [Reinhardt and Doye, J. Chem. Phys., 2013, 139, 096102] in combination with the activation energy derived from self-diffusion measurements [Zobrist et al., J. Phys. Chem. C, 2007, 111, 2149]. However, some fundamental understanding of the processes is still missing. Further research in future might help to tackle this problem. The most important questions, which need to be answered to constrain CNT, are raised in this study. PMID:25627933

Ickes, Luisa; Welti, André; Hoose, Corinna; Lohmann, Ulrike

2015-02-10

97

State diagram and water adsorption isotherm of raspberry ( Rubus idaeus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal transitions of freeze-dried raspberry powder (Rubus idaeus) were analyzed by using differential scanning calorimetry. Freeze-dried raspberry powders containing unfreezable and freezable water were examined to develop the state diagram of raspberry. The state diagram of freeze-dried raspberry powders included the glass line; glass transition temperature versus solids content, freezing curve; initial freezing point versus solids content; end point of

Roopesh M. Syamaladevi; Shyam S. Sablani; Juming Tang; Joseph Powers; Barry G. Swanson

2009-01-01

98

Microautoradiography of water-soluble compounds in plant tissue after freeze-drying and pressure infiltration with epoxy resin  

SciTech Connect

It is difficult to retain and localize radioactive, water-soluble compounds within plant cells. Existing techniques retain water-soluble compounds with varying rates of efficiency and are limited to processing only a few samples at one time. We developed a modified pressure infiltration technique for the preparation of microautoradiographs of /sup 14/C-labeled, water-soluble compounds in plant tissue. Samples from cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) labeled with /sup 14/C were excised, quick frozen in liquid N/sub 2/, freeze-dried at -50/sup 0/C, and pressure-infiltrated with epoxy resin without intermediate solvents or prolonged incubation times. The technique facilitates the mass processing of samples for microautoradiography, gives good cellular retention of labeled water-soluble compounds, and is highly reproducible.

Vogelmann, T.C.; Dickson, R.E.

1982-08-01

99

Crystallographic analysis of freeze-fracture electron micrographs: application to the structure determination of cubic lipid-water phases.  

PubMed

An original approach combining freeze-fracture electron microscopy and quantitative image processing has been developed as an alternative to X-ray analysis. It has been applied to the crystallographic study of different lipid-water cubic phases [bicontinuous or micellar and of type I (oil-in-water) or type II (water-in-oil)] and has enabled significant advances in the study of these phases. Freeze-fracture electron microscopy has revealed that the cubic phases fracture preferentially along a few crystallographic directions which appeared on the images as noisy planar fracture surfaces containing periodic information. The visibility of the corresponding unit cells has been considerably improved by image-filtering techniques based on correlation averaging, allowing a quantitative analysis of the fracture images to be made. This analysis yielded faithful information on the symmetries of the cubic structure (rotation axes and mirror planes) as well as on the structure of the cubic phase itself. Eventually, the different parameters that determine the most favourable fracture pathways within the structures were established. This novel approach constitutes a powerful tool of general interest, complementary to X-ray diffraction, for solving complex ordered macromolecular structures at low resolution. PMID:9923420

Delacroix, H

1998-12-01

100

Shoaling of the nutricline with an increase in near-freezing temperature water in the Makarov Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water mass changes in the Makarov Basin and adjacent areas associated with the recent loss of Arctic sea ice had not been studied in detail. We combined data obtained from multiple cruises in these regions and used chemical tracers to investigate the spatial and temporal changes in water masses. Our data show that a previously present temperature maximum water has disappeared from the Makarov Basin and Chukchi Abyssal Plain due to enhanced cooling and convection in the East Siberian Sea. In addition, a large volume of water has formed by cooling and convection and is flowing into the Makarov Basin, producing a temperature minimum with relatively high nutrients and resulting in a shoaling of the nutricline. This temperature minimum water likely originated from the eastern part of the East Siberian Sea, where significant open water areas appeared after 2005 in the freeze-up season. The water mass boundary between this temperature minimum water and the Pacific-origin temperature minimum water shifted westward from the Chukchi Plateau in the early 2000s to the Mendeleyev Ridge in the late 2000s, probably owing to a westward flow of the enhanced Beaufort Gyre associated with recent sea ice loss in the Canada Basin. Although the shoaling of the nutricline in the Makarov Basin could increase phytoplankton production, such production could decrease in the southern Makarov Basin because a large amount of sea ice meltwater covers that region and might decrease the nutrient supply from the subsurface layer.

Nishino, Shigeto; Itoh, Motoyo; Williams, William J.; Semiletov, Igor

2013-02-01

101

Dissipative corrections to particle spectra and anisotropic flow from a saddle-point approximation to kinetic freeze out  

E-print Network

A significant fraction of the changes in momentum distributions induced by dissipative phenomena in the description of the fluid fireball created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions actually take place when the fluid turns into individual particles. We study these corrections in the limit of a low freeze-out temperature of the flowing medium, and we show that they mostly affect particles with a higher velocity than the fluid. For these, we derive relations between different flow harmonics, from which the functional form of the dissipative corrections could ultimately be reconstructed from experimental data.

Christian Lang; Nicolas Borghini

2014-07-10

102

Comparation Between Drinking Water Quality Of Point-Of-Use (POU) Treated Water And Tap Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of methods available to improve or enhance drinking water quality. People work very hard to improve treatments like purification and disinfections to get perfect product-drink safe for health and necessary for life called simply water. POU (Point Of Use) filters are used one or few technologies whose produced pure water in one object for drinking and

Gligorijevic Snezana; Nikolic Maj; Kocic Biljana

103

21 CFR 1240.83 - Approval of watering points.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01...2010-04-01 false Approval of watering points... § 1240.83 Approval of watering points...Commissioner of Food and Drugs shall approve...Commissioner of Food and Drugs may base his approval or...

2010-04-01

104

BACTERIAL COLONIZATION OF POINT-OF-USE WATER TREATMENT DEVICES  

EPA Science Inventory

Point-of-use water treatment devices were investigated for types of organisms that may colonize these filters, the magnitude of microbial post colonization release in the product water during daily use or after periods of non use, and the impact of tap waters of marginal bacterio...

105

40 CFR 142.57 - Bottled water, point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices. 142.57 Section 142...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices. (a) A State may require...bottled water, point-of-use devices, or point-of-entry...

2011-07-01

106

40 CFR 142.57 - Bottled water, point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices. 142.57 Section 142...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices. (a) A State may require...bottled water, point-of-use devices, or point-of-entry...

2013-07-01

107

40 CFR 142.57 - Bottled water, point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices. 142.57 Section 142...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS...point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices. (a) A State may require...bottled water, point-of-use devices, or point-of-entry...

2012-07-01

108

Non-Toxic, Low-Freezing, Drop-In Replacement Heat Transfer Fluids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A non-toxic, non-flammable, low-freezing heat transfer fluid is being developed for drop-in replacement within current and future heat transfer loops currently using water or alcohol-based coolants. Numerous water-soluble compounds were down-selected and screened for toxicological, physical, chemical, compatibility, thermodynamic, and heat transfer properties. Two fluids were developed, one with a freezing point near 0 C, and one with a suppressed freezing point. Both fluids contain an additive package to improve material compatibility and microbial resistance. The optimized sub-zero solution had a freezing point of 30 C, and a freezing volume expansion of 10-percent of water. The toxicity of the solutions was experimentally determined as LD(50) greater than 5g/kg. The solutions were found to produce minimal corrosion with materials identified by NASA as potentially existing in secondary cooling loops. Thermal/hydrodynamic performance exceeded that of glycol-based fluids with comparable freezing points for temperatures Tf greater than 20 C. The additive package was demonstrated as a buffering agent to compensate for CO2 absorption, and to prevent microbial growth. The optimized solutions were determined to have physically/chemically stable shelf lives for freeze/thaw cycles and longterm test loop tests.

Cutbirth, J. Michael

2012-01-01

109

Suppression of sub-surface freezing in free-standing thin films of a coarse-grained model of water.  

PubMed

Freezing in the vicinity of water-vapor interfaces is of considerable interest to a wide range of disciplines, most notably the atmospheric sciences. In this work, we use molecular dynamics and two advanced sampling techniques, forward flux sampling and umbrella sampling, to study homogeneous nucleation of ice in free-standing thin films of supercooled water. We use a coarse-grained monoatomic model of water, known as mW, and we find that in this model a vapor-liquid interface suppresses crystallization in its vicinity. This suppression occurs in the vicinity of flat interfaces where no net Laplace pressure in induced. Our free energy calculations reveal that the pre-critical crystalline nuclei that emerge near the interface are thermodynamically less stable than those that emerge in the bulk. We investigate the origin of this instability by computing the average asphericity of nuclei that form in different regions of the film, and observe that average asphericity increases closer to the interface, which is consistent with an increase in the free energy due to increased surface-to-volume ratios. PMID:25354427

Haji-Akbari, Amir; DeFever, Ryan S; Sarupria, Sapna; Debenedetti, Pablo G

2014-12-21

110

Suppression of Sub-surface Freezing in Free-Standing Films of a Coarse-grained Model of Water  

E-print Network

Freezing in the vicinity of water-vapor interfaces is of considerable interest to a wide range of disciplines, most notably the atmospheric sciences. In this work, we use molecular dynamics and two advanced sampling techniques, forward flux sampling and umbrella sampling, to study homogeneous nucleation of ice in free-standing thin films of supercooled water. We use a coarse-grained monoatomic model of water, known as mW, and we find that in this model a vapor-liquid interface suppresses crystallization in its vicinity. This suppression occurs in the vicinity of flat interfaces where no net Laplace pressure in induced. Our free energy calculations reveal that the pre-critical crystalline nuclei that emerge near the interface are thermodynamically less stable than those that emerge in the bulk. We investigate the origin of this instability by computing the average asphericity of nuclei that form in different regions of the film, and observe that average asphericity increases closer to the interface, which is c...

Haji-Akbari, Amir; Sarupria, Sapna; Debenedetti, Pablo G

2014-01-01

111

40 CFR 142.57 - Bottled water, point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bottled water, point-of-use, and point-of-entry...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Exemptions...

2010-07-01

112

Modelling Water Flow, Heat Transport, Soil Freezing and Thawing, and Snow Processes in a Clayey, Subsurface Drained Agricultural Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulation of hydrological processes for the purposes of agricultural water management and protection in boreal environment requires description of winter time processes, including heat transport, soil freezing and thawing, and snow accumulation and melt. Finland is located north of the latitude of 60 degrees and has one third to one fourth of the total agricultural land area (2.3 milj. ha) on clay soils (> 30% of clay). Most of the clayey fields are subsurface drained to provide efficient drainage and to enable heavy machines to operate on the fields as soon as possible after the spring snowmelt. Generation of drainflow and surface runoff in cultivated fields leads to nutrient and sediment load, which forms the major share of the total load reaching surface waters at the national level. Water, suspended sediment, and soluble nutrients on clayey field surface are conveyed through the soil profile to the subsurface drains via macropore pathways as the clayey soil matrix is almost impermeable. The objective of the study was to develop the missing winter related processes into the FLUSH model, including soil heat transport, snow pack simulation and the effects of soil freezing and thawing on the soil hydraulic conductivity. FLUSH is an open source (MIT license), distributed, process-based model designed to simulate surface runoff and drainflow in clayey, subsurface drained agricultural fields. 2-D overland flow is described with the diffuse wave approximation of the Saint Venant equations and 3-D subsurface flow with a dual-permeability model. Both macropores and soil matrix are simulated with the Richards equation. Soil heat transport is described with a modified 3-D convection-diffusion equation. Runoff and groundwater data was available from different periods from January 1994 to April 1999 measured in a clayey, subsurface drained field section (3.6 ha) in southern Finland. Soil temperature data was collected in two locations (to a depth of 0.8 m) next to the experimental field section while snow and frost depths were recorded within the experimental field section. The model was calibrated with 1994 data and validated with soil temperature and snow and frost depth data from the years 1995-1999. The main advantage of the new model was the 3-D distributed nature of the system which made it possible to simulate lateral water and heat fluxes in soil and overland flow on the field surface. Also, the possibility to simulate hydrological conditions in the experimental field continuously from 1994 to 1998 was essential because the main sediment loads in Nordic fields usually occur after snow melt and during autumn rains and the resulting runoff depends on the antecedent moisture conditions in the field. The simulation results revealed differences in soil temperatures within the field area due to the topography of the undulating field. The low lying areas were colder (up to 1 °C) during winter and also remained colder longer in the spring due to the higher water content compared to the drier, upper parts of the slopes. Repeated freezing and thawing cycles during the winter and early spring caused an ice layer to form on the soil surface which promoted generation of surface runoff. The snow cover over the field and the organic matter in the tillage layer had an insulating effect on the soil temperatures.

Warsta, L.; Turunen, M.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Karvonen, T.; Taskinen, A.

2012-12-01

113

NON-POINT SOURCE GROUND WATER POLLUTANTS IN SOUTH FLORIDA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Non-point source water pollutants resulting from agricultural areas have been implicated as a source of water quality degradation in South Florida, USA. The nutrients loading from agricultural and urban areas have increased nutrient concentrations, particularly phosphorus, at the Everglades National...

114

When water does not boil at the boiling point.  

PubMed

Every schoolchild learns that, under standard pressure, pure water always boils at 100 degrees C. Except that it does not. By the late 18th century, pioneering scientists had already discovered great variations in the boiling temperature of water under fixed pressure. So, why have most of us been taught that the boiling point of water is constant? And, if it is not constant, how can it be used as a 'fixed point' for the calibration of thermometers? History of science has the answers. PMID:17336380

Chang, Hasok

2007-03-01

115

The Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) Freeze/Thaw Product: Providing a Crucial Linkage between Earth's Water and Carbon Cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landscape transitions between seasonally frozen and thawed conditions occur each year over roughly 50 million square kilometers of Earth’s Northern Hemisphere, affecting surface meteorological conditions, ecological trace gas dynamics, energy exchange and hydrologic activity profoundly. NASA’s Soil Moisture Active-Pasiive (SMAP) mission, currently planned for launch in 2014, will employ a combined radiometer and high-resolution radar to measure surface soil moisture and freeze/thaw state, thus providing new opportunities for scientific advances and societal benefits. Major science objectives of SMAP support the understanding of processes linking terrestrial water, energy and carbon cycles, the quantification of net carbon flux and the extension of capabilities for weather and climate prediction models. The SMAP suite of data products will include global maps of landscape freeze/thaw state derived from L-band radar at 1-3 km spatial resolution with a 2-day refresh rate for the high northern latitudes (i.e. latitudes above 50 degrees north). The algorithm employed in derivation of the freeze/thaw product employs a temporal change detection scheme to delineate freeze/thaw state changes associated with temporal variations in landscape microwave dielectric constant properties. Development of the algorithm follows from application of legacy data sets provided by satellite radars, both scatterometers and Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), and radiometers. This presentation reviews algorithm development, product derivation and validation, product applications and associated SMAP science objectives addressed through the derived freeze/thaw data products. We review efforts in which contemporary and legacy active and passive microwave remote sensing data sets have been applied in prototyping the freeze/thaw product and its applications. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and at the University of Montana under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

McDonald, K. C.; Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.

2010-12-01

116

Effects of snow cover on soil freezing, water movement, and snowmelt infiltration: A paired plot experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dramatic reduction in soil frost depth has been reported for Hokkaido Island of northern Japan over the last 20 years. Since soil frost strongly affects snowmelt infiltration and runoff, the reduction in frost depth may have altered the water and nutrient cycles in this region. A paired-plot experiment was conducted in an agricultural field in Tokachi, Hokkaido, to compare

Yukiyoshi Iwata; Masaki Hayashi; Shinji Suzuki; Tomoyoshi Hirota; Shuichi Hasegawa

2010-01-01

117

Experimental and analytical investigation of a freezing point depressant fluid ice protection system. M.S. Thesis. Final Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A glycol-exuding porous leading edge ice protection system was tested in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. Stainless steel mesh, laser drilled titanium, and composite panels were tested on two general aviation wing sections. Two different glycol-water solutions were evaluated. Minimum glycol flow rates required for anti-icing were obtained as a function of angle of attack, liquid water content, volume median drop diameter, temperature, and velocity. Ice accretions formed after five minutes of icing were shed in three minutes or less using a glycol fluid flow equal to the anti-ice flow rate. Two methods of predicting anti-ice flow rates are presented and compared with a large experimental data base of anti-ice flow rates over a wide range of icing conditions. The first method presented in the ADS-4 document typically predicts flow rates lower than the experimental flow rates. The second method, originally published in 1983, typically predicts flow rates up to 25 percent higher than the experimental flow rates. This method proved to be more consistent between wing-panel configurations. Significant correlation coefficients between the predicted flow rates and the experimental flow rates ranged from .867 to .947.

Albright, A. E.

1984-01-01

118

Numerical simulation of water transport and intracellular ice formation for freezing of endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Endothelial cell detachment may cause failure of blood vessel and corneal cryopreservation, and thus successful cryopreservation of endothelial cells is regarded to be the first step to optimize cryopreservation of endothelial cells containing tissues. In this study, the pre-determined biophysical parameters were incorporated into the model for intracellular ice formation (IIF) and the growth of intracellular ice crystals (ICG) to calculate cell water loss, supercooling of intracellular solution, intracellular ice formation and the growth of intracellular ice crystals. The optimal protocols were determined according to the combination effect of both solution injury and IIF injury. PMID:23435709

Zhao, G; Xu, Y; Ding, W P; Hu, M B

2013-01-01

119

New methods of subcooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new methods of sub-cooled water recognition in dew point hygrometers are presented in this paper. The first one- impedance method use a new semiconductor mirror in which the dew point detector, the thermometer and the heaters were integrated all together. The second one an optical method based on a multi-section optical detector is discussed in the report. Experimental results of both methods are shown. New types of dew pont hydrometers of ability to recognized sub-cooled water were proposed.

Weremczuk, Jerzy; Jachowicz, Ryszard

2001-08-01

120

Freezing of Water and Crystals Formation: Double Electric Layer, Radio Emission, Dendrites, Snowflakes  

E-print Network

In the process of crystallization of deionized water its neutral molecules are forming on a surface the double electric layer (DEL) of oriented dipoles moments. Electric field of DEL will reorient approaching dipoles that leads to radio-emission in the range of 150 kHz. The attraction of such oriented dipoles to places of field gradients induces dendrites growth and formation of characteristic snowflakes at free movement of clusters through saturated vapor in atmosphere. The connection of constant electric field strengthens DELs' field and the growth of dendrite structure. Described phenomena may appear at crystallization of various substances, intensity of radio-emission can be used for monitoring corresponding processes in atmosphere and in technological devices.

Perel'man, Mark E; Tatartchenko, Vitali A

2007-01-01

121

Design of self-dispersible dry nanosuspension through wet milling and spray freeze-drying for poorly water-soluble drugs.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present research is to establish a novel nanosizing technique starting from wet nano-milling, named "dry nanosuspension" technique for poorly water-soluble drugs. The spray freeze-drying (SFD) method was applied instead of the spray-drying one previously developed. Drug particles were milled in the aqueous solution of dispersing agents using an oscillating beads-milling apparatus. The milled nanosuspension was sprayed to the surface of liquid nitrogen, and the resultant iced droplets were freeze-dried to obtain the powdery product. The loading ratio of a dispersing agent was investigated to enhance its redispersing property. Dry nanosuspension, which could be spontaneously dispersed into original nanosuspension in water, was obtained by SFD process. It was assumed that self dispersion property would be attributed to its structure with porous network, in which the primary milled drug crystals were embedded. Such unique structure contributed greatly to immediate release behaviors of the drug in gastrointestinal buffered media. These pharmaceutical properties were enhanced by increasing the ratio of the dispersing agent to the drug and the solid content in suspension to be sprayed. The present technique via wet milling and spray freeze-drying processes would be a novel dissolution-enhanced technology for poorly water-soluble drugs. PMID:23907001

Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

2013-11-20

122

Point focusing collector for an integrated water/power complex  

SciTech Connect

The utilization potential of the point focusing parabolic dish is identified. Its main design parameters are summarized. Performance tests and the utilization of the collector as primary energy source in a food-water-power complex are described. Process heat, heat storage, heat transfer, and cogeneration are discussed.

Zewen, H.; Schmidt, G.; Moustafa, S.

1982-07-01

123

Well-point sampling of reef interstitial water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is described for collecting reef interstitial water using manually-driven well points. This method does not require the use of hydraulic drills, and eliminates the problems associated with the casing of boreholes. The technique allows collection of samples from discrete depths within reef frameworks, and produces samples unaffected by atmospheric or surface seawater contamination. Data from Checker Reef, Oahu,

Francis J. Sansone; Christine C. Andrews; Robert W. Buddemeier; Gordon W. Tribble

1988-01-01

124

Satellite freeze forecast system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Provisions for back-up operations for the satellite freeze forecast system are discussed including software and hardware maintenance and DS/1000-1V linkage; troubleshooting; and digitized radar usage. The documentation developed; dissemination of data products via television and the IFAS computer network; data base management; predictive models; the installation of and progress towards the operational status of key stations; and digital data acquisition are also considered. The d addition of dew point temperature into the P-model is outlined.

Martsolf, J. D. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

125

The freezing bomb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron 'bomb' and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation suggests a maximum of about 55 MPa (8000 psi) might have been achieved, with some 2.3% of the water frozen into a hollow shell around the interior of the vessel. In a sufficiently strong alloy steel container the pressure might rise to a maximum of 210 MPa (30 460 psi), this limiting figure being due to the collapse of ordinary ice (ice I) to the denser forms ice II or ice III.

Mills, Allan

2010-03-01

126

Point based hydrodynamics applied to shallow water equations  

SciTech Connect

Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) has proven useful for many problems of scientific interest. This report is concerned with a generalization to the SPH method which may be of value for problems such as climate modeling. The main objective of the work is to carry out the new formulation, called Point Interactive Physics and to compare results for PIP and standard finite difference techniques on a simple test problem. The basic SPH approach describes a system using a set of points. These points are not associated with a grid or mesh, as in most approaches. The individual points are each assigned a mass and move with the material velocity. Thus the original SPH method is Lagrangian. Properties of the system are expressed as sums over the sample points using a weighting function called a kernel function. For most problems, tile weighting function extends over a relatively short range, called the smoothing length. The Point Interacting Physics (PIP) approach also samples information at a set of points, and then uses kernel functions to infer physical properties everywhere. The points are not assigned fixed values of miss and they are allowed to undergo arbitrary physically reasonable motion. In this report, results will be presented for fixed points arranged irregularly over a spherical surface. Thus, this version of PIP will be applied in an Eulerian fashion. The basic reason for the Eulerian treatment is enhanced efficiency arising from the fixed geometric relationships among the points. After a brief description of the SPH and PIP methods, the PIP formulation will be compared to a normal finite difference approach for a simple shallow water advection test problem. It appears that accurate simulations can be accomplished, but that computational speed is comparable to that observed for other techniques.

Eltgroth, P.

1994-05-01

127

Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

2014-01-01

128

Peculiar thermodynamics of the second critical point in supercooled water.  

PubMed

On the basis of the principle of critical-point universality, we examine the peculiar thermodynamics of the liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water. We show that the liquid-liquid criticality in water represents a special kind of critical behavior in fluids, intermediate between two limiting cases: the lattice gas, commonly used to model liquid-vapor transitions, and the lattice liquid, a weakly compressible liquid with an entropy-driven phase separation. While the ordering field in the lattice gas is associated with the chemical potential and the order parameter with the density, in the lattice liquid the ordering field is the temperature and the order parameter is the entropy. The behavior of supercooled water is much closer to lattice-liquid behavior than to lattice-gas behavior. Using new experimental data recently obtained by Mishima [J. Chem. Phys. 2010, 133, 144503], we have revised the parametric scaled equation of state, previously suggested by Fuentevilla and Anisimov [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 97, 195702], and obtain a consistent description of the thermodynamic anomalies of supercooled water by adjusting linear backgrounds, one critical amplitude, and the critical pressure. We also show how the lattice-liquid description affects the finite-size scaling description of supercooled water in confined media. PMID:21661753

Bertrand, C E; Anisimov, M A

2011-12-01

129

Freeze Technology for Nuclear Applications - 13590  

SciTech Connect

Freezing of soil materials is a complicated process of a number of physical processes: - freezing of pore water in a thermal gradient, - cryogenic suction causing water migration and - ice formation expanding pores inducing frost heave. Structural changes due to increase of effective stress during freezing also take place. The over consolidation gives a powerful dewatering/drying effect and the freeze process causes separation of contaminates. Artificial ground freezing (AGF is a well established technique first practiced in south Wales, as early as 1862. AGF is mostly used to stabilize tunnels and excavations. During the last ten years underwater applications of freeze technologies based on the AGF have been explored in Sweden. The technology can, and has been, used in many different steps in a remediation action. Freeze Sampling where undisturbed samples are removed in both soft and hard sediment/sludge, Freeze Dredging; retrieval of sediment with good precision and minimal redistribution, and Freeze Drying; volume reduction of contaminated sludge/sediment. The application of these technologies in a nuclear or radioactive environment provides several advantages. Sampling by freezing gives for example an advantage of an undisturbed sample taken at a specified depth, salvaging objects by freezing or removal of sludges is other applications of this, for the nuclear industry, novel technology. (authors)

Rostmark, Susanne C.; Knutsson, Sven [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden)] [Lulea University of Technology (Sweden); Lindberg, Maria [Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)] [Studsvik Nuclear AB, 611 82 Nykoeping (Sweden)

2013-07-01

130

Ice nucleation in solutions and freeze-avoiding insects-homogeneous or heterogeneous?  

PubMed

This article challenges the common view that solutions and cold-hardy freeze-avoiding insects always freeze by heterogeneous nucleation. Data are presented to show that the nucleation temperatures of a variety of solutions and freeze-avoiding insects are a function of the water volume as described by the data previously published by Bigg in 1953. The article also points out that the relationships between melting point depression and depression of nucleation temperature are different for samples undergoing homogeneous nucleation and those undergoing heterogeneous nucleation. Aqueous solutions and freeze-avoiding insects display a relationship like that of homogeneously nucleated samples. It is also argued that the identity of the "impurities" assumed to cause heterogeneous nucleation in aqueous solutions and insects is obscure and that the "impurities" have features which make their existence rather unlikely. PMID:15157779

Zachariassen, Karl Erik; Kristiansen, Erlend; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Hammel, Harold T

2004-06-01

131

GEOtop 2.0: simulating the combined energy and water balance at and below the land surface accounting for soil freezing, snow cover and terrain effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GEOtop is a fine-scale grid-based simulator that represents the heat and water budgets at and below the soil surface. It describes the three-dimensional water flow in the soil and the energy exchange with the atmosphere, considering the radiative and turbulent fluxes. Furthermore, it reproduces the highly non-linear interactions between the water and energy balance during soil freezing and thawing, and simulates the temporal evolution of the water and energy budgets in the snow cover and their effect on soil temperature. Here, we present the core components of GEOtop 2.0 and demonstrate its functioning. Based on a synthetic simulation, we show that the interaction of processes represented in GEOtop 2.0 can result in phenomena that are significant and relevant for applications involving permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, both in high altitude and latitude regions.

Endrizzi, S.; Gruber, S.; Dall'Amico, M.; Rigon, R.

2014-12-01

132

Quantum Zero Point Effects in Water and Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear zero point effects have recently been shown to have an interesting quantum anomaly in ice. In particular, In hexagonal ice Ih, the lattice volume increases when H is replaced by D. This anomalous isotope shift of the lattice parameter increases with temperature, contrary to normal expectations [1]. Free energy calculations within the quasiharmonic approximation, with ab initio density functional theory, explain the origin of his anomaly. In this study, we extend our study to show that the anomalous isotope effect persists in amorphous ices, inherent structures of liquid water. This indicates that the anomalous isotope effect on the density of liquid water might be intrinsically related to the one observed in ice, even if their structures are radically different. In addition, we show that clathrate hydrides, also have this anomaly. We make a detailed analysis of the origin of the anomaly and study how the Hbond interaction and the vdW bond in liquid water are modified by these nuclear zero point effects. [1] B. Pamuk et. al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193003 (2012).

Pamuk, Betül; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

2013-03-01

133

Modification of physical properties of freeze-dried rice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Freeze cycling process consists of alternately freezing and thawing precooked rice for two cycles, rice is then frozen and freeze-dehydrated in vacuum sufficient to remove water from rice by sublimitation. Process modifies rice grain structure and porosity, enabling complete rehydration in one minute in hot water.

Huber, C. S.

1971-01-01

134

Involvement of protein synthesis in the reconsolidation of memory at different time points after formation of conditioned reflex freezing in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to study the involvement of protein synthesis in the reconsolidation of memory at different\\u000a periods of time after training. In mice trained in a conditioned reflex freezing model, memory was reactivated by a reminder\\u000a combined with administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The results showed that suppression of protein\\u000a synthesis on reactivation

E. V. Murav’eva; K. V. Anokhin

2007-01-01

135

Refrigeration Requirements for Ice Cream Freezing1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat removed from an ice cream mix during freezing is a function of several variables with composition predominating. This investigation compared experimental calorimetric results with predicted refrig- eration requirements. The predictions were obtained by adding the contributions of sensible heat of mix above the initial freezing point, sensible heat of unfrozen mix portion, latent heat and sensible heat of

D. R. Heldman; T. I. Hedrick

1970-01-01

136

Effect of water content on thermal behavior of freeze-dried soy whey and their isolated proteins.  

PubMed

Thermal behavior of lyophilized soy whey (LSW) and whey soy proteins (WSP) at different water contents (WC) was studied by DSC. In anhydrous condition, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and lectin (L) were more heat stable for WSP with respect to LSW sample. The increase of WC destabilized both proteins but differently depending on the sample analyzed. Thermal stability inversion of KTI and L was observed for WSP and LSW at 50.0% and 17.0% WC, respectively, which correspond to the same water-protein content mass ratio (W/P ? 1.9). At W/P < 1.9, KTI was more heat stable than L. Before the inversion point, WC strongly modified the peak temperatures (T(p)) of KTI and L for WSP, whereas this behavior was not observed for LSW. The high sugar content was responsible for the thermal behavior of KTI and L in LSW under anhydrous condition and low WC. These results have important implications for the soy whey processing and inactivation of antinutritional factors. PMID:21413812

Sobral, Pablo A; Palazolo, Gonzalo G; Wagner, Jorge R

2011-04-27

137

Development and design of sludge freezing beds  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to develop design criteria for a new sludge dewatering unit operation called a sludge freezing bed. This bed uses natural freeze-thaw to condition the sludge for dewatering. The total depth of sludge which can be frozen, thawed and dewatered by this process in a year is the main criterion needed for design. The essential features of a freezing bed which would optimize natural freeze-thaw were identified through a literature review and site visits. Several laboratory tests were conducted to assess the dewaterability of freeze-thaw conditioned sludge at various depths. Water treatment plant sludge and both anaerobically and aerobically digested wastewater sludges were used in these tests. Mathematical models for predicting the design depth were developed and validated with data from other sludge freezing operations. Values for the input parameters to the models were obtained from the literature or from laboratory and pilot-scale experiments.

Martel, C.J.

1987-01-01

138

Fundamentals of freeze-drying.  

PubMed

Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction--the dominant mechanism of heat transfer in freeze-drying--is inefficient at the pressures used in freeze-drying. Steps should be taken to improve the thermal contact between the product and the shelf of the freeze dryer, such as eliminating metal trays from the drying process. Quantitation of the heat transfer coefficient for the geometry used is a useful way of assessing the impact of changes in the system such as elimination of product trays and changes in the vial. Because heat transfer by conduction through the vapor increases with increasing pressure, the commonly held point of view that "the lower the pressure, the better" is not true with respect to process efficiency. The optimum pressure for a given product is a function of the temperature at which freeze-drying is carried out, and lower pressures are needed at low product temperatures. The controlling resistance to mass transfer is almost always the resistance of the partially dried solids above the submination interface. This resistance can be minimized by avoiding fill volumes of more than about half the volume of the container. The development scientist should also recognize that very high concentrations of solute may not be appropriate for optimum freeze-drying, particularly if the resistance of the dried product layer increases sharply with concentration. Although the last 10 years has seen the publication of a significant body of literature of great value in allowing development scientists and engineers to "work smarter," there is still much work needed in both the science and the technology of freeze-drying. Scientific development is needed for improving analytical methodology for characterization of frozen systems and freeze-dried solids. A better understanding of the relationship between molecular mobility and reactivity is needed to allow accurate prediction of product stability at the intended storage temperature based on accelerated stability at higher temperatures. This requires that the temperature dependence of glass transition-associated mobili

Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

2002-01-01

139

An extended-X-ray-absorption-fine-structure study of freeze-dried and solution ovotransferrin. Evidence for water co-ordination at the metal-binding sites.  

PubMed Central

Our previous extended-X-ray-absorption-fine-structure (e.x.a.f.s.) study has shown that the probable iron environment in chicken ovotransferrin involves two low-Z ligands (consistent with phenolate linkages) at 0.185(1) nm and four low-Z ligands at 0.204(1) nm [Garratt, Evans, Hasnain & Lindley (1986) Biochem. J. 233, 479-484]. Herein we provide additional information from the e.x.a.f.s. and near-edge structure suggestive of a decrease in the co-ordination number of ovotransferrin-bound iron upon freeze-drying. These effects are reversible, and exposure of the freeze-dried material to a humid atmosphere results in reversion to the solution spectra. Progressive rehydration was monitored by using e.p.r. spectroscopy and was confirmed by recording the high-resolution X-ray-absorption near-edge structure (x.a.n.e.s.). The results suggest the presence of a labile water molecule at the iron-binding sites of ovotransferrin in solution. PMID:2827627

Hasnain, S S; Evans, R W; Garratt, R C; Lindley, P F

1987-01-01

140

Influence of non-water-soluble placebo pellets of different sizes on the characteristics of orally disintegrating tablets manufactured by freeze-drying.  

PubMed

The present study describes the development of an orally disintegrating tablet containing a non-water-soluble drug delivery system. A model system was applied to evaluate the effect of different-sized particles on tablet characteristics. Cellets were incorporated into tablets prepared by freeze-drying from a 100 mg/mL mannitol or sucrose solution. Particle size distributions were 200-355 µm for Cellets 200 (C200) and 500-710 µm for Cellets 500 (C500). An examination of the tablets revealed that the particles could not be sufficiently embedded in mannitol because of its crystalline nature. The tablet hardness was also inadequate. In contrast, the hardness of sucrose tablets was increased by the addition of Cellets 500. Therefore, the sucrose-based formulation was studied further. Binders [hydroxyethylstarch, sodium alginate, methylcellulose (MC), and gelatin] were added in different concentrations, and tablets were made either with or without placebo pellets. A positive effect of the Cellets on the hardness of tablets was identified. Furthermore, disintegration time could be clearly reduced by Cellets for tablets made from 100 mg/mL sucrose with addition of 10 mg/mL MC, 20 or 40 mg/mL gelatin. The freeze-dried tablet index revealed that the formulations of sucrose with 50 mg/mL hydroxyethylstarch or 20 mg/mL gelatin were particularly advantageous. PMID:23568590

Stange, Ulrike; Führling, Christian; Gieseler, Henning

2013-06-01

141

JV TASK 7-FIELD APPLICATION OF THE FREEZE-THAW/EVAPORATION (FTE) PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF NATURAL GAS PRODUCED WATER IN WYOMING  

SciTech Connect

The freeze-thaw/evaporation (FTE{reg_sign}) process treats oil and gas produced water so that the water can be beneficially used. The FTE{reg_sign} process is the coupling of evaporation and freeze-crystallization, and in climates where subfreezing temperatures seasonally occur, this coupling improves process economics compared to evaporation alone. An added benefit of the process is that water of a quality suited for a variety of beneficial uses is produced. The evolution, from concept to successful commercial deployment, of the FTE{reg_sign} process for the treatment of natural gas produced water has now been completed. In this document, the histories of two individual commercial deployments of the FTE{reg_sign} process are discussed. In Wyoming, as in many other states, the permitting and regulation of oil and gas produced water disposal and/or treatment facilities depend upon the legal relationship between owners of the facility and the owners of wells from which the water is produced. An ''owner-operated'' facility is regulated by the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (WOGCC) and is defined as an entity which only processes water which comes from the wells in fields of which they have an equity interest. However, if a facility processes water from wells in which the owners of the facility have no equity interest, the facility is considered a ''commercial'' facility and is permitted and regulated by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality. For this reason, of the two commercial FTE{reg_sign} process deployments discussed in this document, one is related to an ''owner-operated'' facility, and the other relates to a ''commercial'' facility. Case 1 summarizes the permitting, design, construction, operation, and performance of the FTE{reg_sign} process at an ''owner-operated'' facility located in the Jonah Field of southwestern Wyoming. This facility was originally owned by the McMurry Oil Company and was later purchased by the Alberta Energy Company (now EnCana). Case 2 summarizes the permitting, design, construction, operation, and performance at a ''commercial'' FTE{reg_sign} facility located in the Great Divide Basin of south central Wyoming. Permits required for the construction and operation of each facility are described in detail. The respective qualities of each feed water, treated water, and concentrate stream are presented along with the relative yields of treated water and concentrate at each facility. Treated water from the owner-operated facility has been beneficially used in drilling and dust abatement, and treated water from the commercial facility has been used for dust abatement, construction, and land application. The permitting requirements and evaluation of beneficial use of the water at each facility are discussed. The results of this research confirm that the FTE{reg_sign} process is economic at a commercial-scale for the treatment and disposal of natural gas produced water in Wyoming. Further, the treated water produced from the process is of a quality suitable for beneficial uses such as irrigation, drilling mix, wildlife or livestock watering, and/or dust abatement on local roads.

James A. Sorensen; John Boysen; Deidre Boysen; Tim Larson

2002-10-01

142

Interspecific analysis of xylem freezing responses in Acer and Betula  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Temperate woody plants have evolved two methods for coping with seasonal exposure to sub-zero temperatures. Supercooling is a freeze-avoidance strategy where cells are able to resist the freezing of intracellular water below sub-zero temperatures. Non-supercooling is a freeze-tolerance strategy wh...

143

Water balance of Pin-Point and Flush-Flood irrigated rice  

E-print Network

is know about the water balance and water use efficiency of the Pin-Point method in comparison to the conventional Flush-Flood technique. The water balance of Pin-Point and Flush-Flood were studied during the 1994 and 1995 growing seasons in Bewmont, TX...

Roel Dellazoppa, Alvaro

2012-06-07

144

Investigation of the effect of power ultrasound on the nucleation of water during freezing of agar gel samples in tubing vials.  

PubMed

Nucleation, as an important stage of freezing process, can be induced by the irradiation of power ultrasound. In this study, the effect of irradiation temperature (-2 °C, -3 °C, -4 °C and -5 °C), irradiation duration (0s, 1s, 3s, 5s, 10s or 15s) and ultrasound intensity (0.07 W cm(-2), 0.14 W cm(-2), 0.25 W cm(-2), 0.35 W cm(-2) and 0.42 W cm(-2)) on the dynamic nucleation of ice in agar gel samples was studied. The samples were frozen in an ethylene glycol-water mixture (-20 °C) in an ultrasonic bath system after putting them into tubing vials. Results indicated that ultrasound irradiation is able to initiate nucleation at different supercooled temperatures (from -5 °C to -2 °C) in agar gel if optimum intensity and duration of ultrasound were chosen. Evaluation of the effect of 0.25 W cm(-2) ultrasound intensity and different durations of ultrasound application on agar gels showed that 1s was not long enough to induce nucleation, 3s induced the nucleation repeatedly but longer irradiation durations resulted in the generation of heat and therefore nucleation was postponed. Investigation of the effect of ultrasound intensity revealed that higher intensities of ultrasound were effective when a shorter period of irradiation was used, while lower intensities only resulted in nucleation when a longer irradiation time was applied. In addition to this, higher intensities were not effective at longer irradiation times due to the heat generated in the samples by the heating effect of ultrasound. In conclusion, the use of ultrasound as a means to control the crystallization process offers promising application in freezing of solid foods, however, optimum conditions should be selected. PMID:22070859

Kiani, Hossein; Sun, Da-Wen; Delgado, Adriana; Zhang, Zhihang

2012-05-01

145

Freezing of living cells  

SciTech Connect

It can be calculated that a living cell will survive more than 5000 years at -196/sup 0/C. This ability to essentially stop biological time has important implications in medicine and agriculture, and in biological research. In medicine the chief implications are in the banking of transplantable tissues and organs and in in vitro fertilization. In agriculture the applications stem in part from the role of frozen embryos in amplifying the number of calves produced by high quanlity cows. The problem is how can cells survive both the cooling to such very low temperatures and the return to normal temperatures. The answers involve fundamental characteristics of cells such as the permeability of their surface membranes to water and solutes. These characteristics determine whether or not cells undergo lethal internal ice formation and other response during freezing and thawing. 27 refs., 12 figs.

Mazur, P.

1985-01-01

146

Factors that influence freezing in the subAntarctic springtail Tullbergia antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of 12 biotic and abiotic factors on the freezing point of the sub-Antarctic springtail, Tullbergia antarctica, were investigated. Repeated cooling of individual springtails five times resulted in very similar freezing points suggesting that ice nucleation in this freeze-susceptible species is likely to be initiated by intrinsic factors rather than being a stochastic event. Mean supercooling point (SCP) was influenced

M. Roger Worland

2005-01-01

147

Relationship between heat transfer parameters and the characteristic damage variables for the freezing of beef.  

PubMed

One of the most suitable parameters for relating the freezing rate to the volume of drip produced during the thawing of meat is the characteristic time, defined as the time necessary to reduce the temperature of the sample from -1·1°C (initial freezing point in beef) to -7°C (80% of the water frozen). However, as the freezing of beef in factories takes place with important temperature gradients, distributions of these characteristic times must be expected along the pieces of frozen meat. In order to relate these characteristic time distributions to heat transfer parameters under industrial freezing conditions, a mathematical model which simulates the freezing of beef is developed in this paper. The model establishes the heat transfer equations with simultaneous change of phase, taking into account the dependence of the thermal properties with the ice content and considering the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity according to the direction of the fibres. Boundary conditions include the possibility of thermal resistances in the refrigerated interphase. The model developed was compared with laboratory experiments performed under factory freezing conditions and showed a satisfactory agreement between theory and experiment. PMID:22055769

Mascheroni, R H; Calvelo, A

1980-08-01

148

Groundwater flow with energy transport and water-ice phase change: Numerical simulations, benchmarks, and application to freezing in peat bogs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In northern peatlands, subsurface ice formation is an important process that can control heat transport, groundwater flow, and biological activity. Temperature was measured over one and a half years in a vertical profile in the Red Lake Bog, Minnesota. To successfully simulate the transport of heat within the peat profile, the U.S. Geological Survey's SUTRA computer code was modified. The modified code simulates fully saturated, coupled porewater-energy transport, with freezing and melting porewater, and includes proportional heat capacity and thermal conductivity of water and ice, decreasing matrix permeability due to ice formation, and latent heat. The model is verified by correctly simulating the Lunardini analytical solution for ice formation in a porous medium with a mixed ice-water zone. The modified SUTRA model correctly simulates the temperature and ice distributions in the peat bog. Two possible benchmark problems for groundwater and energy transport with ice formation and melting are proposed that may be used by other researchers for code comparison. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

McKenzie, J.M.; Voss, C.I.; Siegel, D.I.

2007-01-01

149

Freezing temperatures of aqueous iron(III) sulfate solutions and crystallization of a new acidic water-rich sulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important question concerning the possibility of life under martian conditions is the existence of liquid water at low temperatures. On the martian surface, the existence of iron(III) sulfate is expected. The influence of iron(III) sulfate salt on ice deposits in respect to the formation of liquid salt brines was not investigated in the past. In this contribution, the investigation of the phase diagram of the system iron(III) sulfate-water and the influence of sulfuric acid to this system are presented. A new crystalline acidic iron(III) sulfate hydrate has been found in the ternary system iron(III) sulfate-water-sulfuric acid, which represents the most water-rich iron salt phase ever detected.

Hennings, E.; Zürner, P.; Schmidt, H.; Voigt, W.

2013-09-01

150

Freezing Characteristics of Rigid Plant Tissues (Development of Cell Tension during Extracellular Freezing).  

PubMed

The freezing characteristics and development of cell tension during extracellular freezing were examined in supercooling stem tissues of riverbank grapes (Vitis riparia) and cold-hardened leaves of live oak (Quercus virginiana) and mountain cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea). Dormant stem xylem and pith tissues of river-bank grapes were resistant to freeze-induced dehydration above the homogeneous nucleation temperature, and they developed cell tension reaching a maximum of 27 MPa. Similarly, extracellular freezing induced cell tension in the leaves of live oak and mountain cranberry. Maximum cell tension in the leaves of live oak was 16.8 MPa and 8.3 MPa in the leaves of mountain cranberry. Following peak tensions in the leaves, a decline in the pressure was observed with progressive freezing. The results suggest that resistance to cell deformation during extracellular freezing due to cell-wall rigidity can lead to reduced cell dehydration and increased cell tension. A relationship to predict freezing behavior in plant tissues based on cell rigidity is presented. Based on cell-water relations and ice nucleation rates, cell-wall rigidity has been shown to effect the freezing characteristics of plant tissues, including freeze-induced dehydration, supercooling, and homogeneous nucleation temperatures. PMID:12226313

Rajashekar, C. B.; Burke, M. J.

1996-06-01

151

The effect of water content, cooling rate, and growth temperature on the freezing temperature of 4 Tillandsia species  

E-print Network

, and weighed. Leaf sections to be frozen at 1004 RWC were immediately used for differential thermal analysis (DTA). Leaf sections to be frozen at 80% 10 RWC were hydrated to 1004 RWC and then dried in a desiccator to 80% RWC at which time they were used..., T. recurvata, and T. usneoides. METHODS Leaves from each species were cut into 6, 2. 5 cm leaf sections and soaked in de-ionized water for 45 min. They were then removed, blotted with paper towels to absorb excess surface water, and weighed...

Hagar, Christopher Flint

1990-01-01

152

Average Sequential Water Molecule Binding Enthalpies of M(H2O)19-124 (M ) Co, Fe,  

E-print Network

either to a freezing point depression or rapid evaporative cooling and kinetic trapping of the initial been used to measure sequential water molecule binding energies of hydrated divalent ions with up to 14 water binding energies

Neumark, Daniel M.

153

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production - a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was

T. Dewettinck; E. Van Houtte; D. Geenens; K. Van Hege; W. Verstraete

2001-01-01

154

A Fixed Point Charge Model for Water Optimized to the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Properties  

E-print Network

A Fixed Point Charge Model for Water Optimized to the Vapor-Liquid Coexistence Properties Jeffrey R@ipst.umd.edu #12;1 Abstract A new fixed-point charge potential model for water has been developed, targeting the accurate prediction of the vapor-liquid coexistence properties over a broad temperature range. The model

155

An analytical solution for the coupled heat and mass transfer during the freezing of high-water content materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coupled problem of heat and mass transfer during the solidification of high-water content materials like soils, foods, tissues and phase-change materials is developed. Assuming quasi-steady heat conduction in the frozen region, the system leads to a set of coupled ordinary differential equations. The model takes into account the influence of material characteristics and process variables on the advance of

Mariela C. Olguín; Viviana O. Salvadori; Rodolfo H. Mascheroni; Domingo A. Tarzia

2008-01-01

156

The importance of COâ on freezing point measurements of fluid inclusions: evidence from active geothermal systems and implications for epithermal ore deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors show how the melting point of ice may be calculated for a fluid of known composites. Fluid inclusion ice-melting data from New Zealand geothermal fields correlate well with values calculated using the equation presented and the measured compositions of discharges from wells from which the inclusion samples were obtained. Loss of the dominant dissolved gas, COâ during boiling

J. W. Hedenquist; R. W. Henley

1985-01-01

157

Development and design of sludge freezing beds  

SciTech Connect

This study develops design criteria for a new sludge dewatering unit operation called a sludge freezing bed. This bed uses natural freeze-thaw to condition the sludge. The total depth of sludge that can be frozen, thawed and dewatered by this process in a year is the main criterion needed for design. Laboratory tests assessed the dewaterability of freeze-thaw conditioned water treatment plant sludge and both anaerobically and aerobically digested wastewater sludges at various depths. Mathematical models for predicting the design depth were developed; values for the input parameters to the models were obtained from the literature or from laboratory and pilot-scale experiments. The dewaterability tests indicated that the depth of sludge that can be applied is not limited by drainability. Up to 2.0 m of each sludge drained in minutes after freeze-thaw conditioning. Except for the aerobically digested sludge, the solids content after drainage is high enough to permit mechanical removal. The physical and thermal characteristics of frozen sludge were found to be equivalent to those of ice. An analysis of the freezing and thawing models reveals that the design of a freezing bed will depend on the duration and intensity of the freezing and thawing seasons.

Martel, C.J.

1988-12-01

158

Aquaporin Expression Correlates with Freeze Tolerance in Baker's Yeast, and Overexpression Improves Freeze Tolerance in Industrial Strains  

PubMed Central

Little information is available about the precise mechanisms and determinants of freeze resistance in baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genomewide gene expression analysis and Northern analysis of different freeze-resistant and freeze-sensitive strains have now revealed a correlation between freeze resistance and the aquaporin genes AQY1 and AQY2. Deletion of these genes in a laboratory strain rendered yeast cells more sensitive to freezing, while overexpression of the respective genes, as well as heterologous expression of the human aquaporin gene hAQP1, improved freeze tolerance. These findings support a role for plasma membrane water transport activity in determination of freeze tolerance in yeast. This appears to be the first clear physiological function identified for microbial aquaporins. We suggest that a rapid, osmotically driven efflux of water during the freezing process reduces intracellular ice crystal formation and resulting cell damage. Aquaporin overexpression also improved maintenance of the viability of industrial yeast strains, both in cell suspensions and in small doughs stored frozen or submitted to freeze-thaw cycles. Furthermore, an aquaporin overexpression transformant could be selected based on its improved freeze-thaw resistance without the need for a selectable marker gene. Since aquaporin overexpression does not seem to affect the growth and fermentation characteristics of yeast, these results open new perspectives for the successful development of freeze-resistant baker's yeast strains for use in frozen dough applications. PMID:12450819

Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Dumortier, Françoise; Teunissen, Aloys; Hohmann, Stefan; Thevelein, Johan M.

2002-01-01

159

The effects of sulfur mustard exposure and freezing on transdermal penetration of tritiated water through ex vivo pig skin.  

PubMed

The percutaneous absorption of tritiated water ((3)H(2)O) through sulfur mustard (SM) exposed abdominal pig skin was measured using in vitro Franz-type static diffusion cells. The barrier function to water permeation following exposure to liquid SM for 8 min and excision 3h later did not change significantly. A small, but statistically significant difference (P<0.05) in steady state penetration (Jss), permeability coefficient (Kp) and lag time (t(L)) of (3)H(2)O was observed between fresh skin and skin stored frozen (-20 °C) for up to two weeks. Steady-state penetration and Kp values were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in skin stored frozen compared with fresh skin. Fresh naïve skin had an average Kp of 1.65 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen naïve skin was 2.04 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Fresh SM exposed skin had a mean Kp of 1.72 × 10(-3) cm h(-1), whereas frozen SM exposed skin was 2.31 × 10(-3) cm h(-1). Lag times were also shorter (P<0.05) in skin that had been stored frozen. Frozen, SM-exposed porcine abdominal skin may be used for in vitro penetration studies, but effects of treatment and storage on the barrier layer should be taken into account. PMID:23041075

Payne, O J; Graham, S J; Dalton, C H; Spencer, P M; Mansson, R; Jenner, J; Azeke, J; Braue, E

2013-02-01

160

Surface freezing of n-octane nanodroplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface freezing, at temperatures up to a few degrees above the equilibrium melting point, has been observed for intermediate chain length (16? i? 50) n-alkanes [B. M. Ocko, X. Z. Wu, E. B. Sirota, S. K. Sinha, O. Gang and M. Deutsch, Phys. Rev. E, 1997, 55, 3164-3182]. Our recent experimental results suggest that surface freezing is also the first step when highly supercooled nanodroplets of n-octane crystallize. Our data yield surface and bulk nucleation rates on the order of ˜1015/cm2.s and ˜1022/cm3.s, respectively. Complementary molecular dynamics simulations also show that the surface of the droplet freezes almost immediately, and freezing of the remainder of the droplet progresses in a layer-by-layer manner.

Modak, Viraj; Pathak, Harshad; Thayer, Mitchell; Singer, Sherwin; Wyslouzil, Barbara

2013-05-01

161

Freeze drying apparatus  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

2001-01-01

162

Freeze drying method  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser.

Coppa, Nicholas V. (Malvern, PA); Stewart, Paul (Youngstown, NY); Renzi, Ernesto (Youngstown, NY)

1999-01-01

163

RADON REMOVAL USING POINT-OF-ENTRY WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the EPA Cooperative Agreement was to evaluate the performance of POE granular activated carbon (GAC), and diffused bubble and bubble place aeration systems treating a ground water supply containing radon (35,620 ±6,717 pCi/L). The pattern of loading to the uni...

164

RADON REMOVAL USING POINT-OF-ENTRY WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this EPA Cooperative Agreement was to evaluate the performance of POE granular activated carbon (GAG), and diffused bubble and bubble place aeration systems treating a ground water supply containing radon (35,620 + or - 6,717 pCi/L. he pattern of loading to the uni...

165

Preparation of porous scaffolds by using freeze-extraction and freeze-gelation methods.  

PubMed

Freeze-fixation and freeze-gelation methods are presented in this paper which can be used to prepare highly porous scaffolds without using the time and energy consuming freeze-drying process. The porous structure was generated during the freeze of a polymer solution, following which either the solvent was extracted by a non-solvent or the polymer was gelled under the freezing condition; thus, the porous structure would not be destructed during the subsequent drying stage. Compared with the freeze-drying method, the presented methods are time and energy-saving, with less residual solvent, and easier to be scaled up. Besides, the problem of formation of surface skin can be resolved and the limitation of using solvent with low boiling point can be lifted by the presented methods. With the freeze-extraction and freeze-gelation methods, porous PLLA, PLGA, chitosan and alginate scaffolds were successfully fabricated. In addition to the presentation of the morphologies of the fabricated scaffolds, preliminary data of cell culture on them are as well included in the present work. PMID:14580916

Ho, Ming-Hua; Kuo, Pei-Yun; Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen; Hsien, Tzu-Yang; Hou, Lein-Tuan; Lai, Juin-Yih; Wang, Da-Ming

2004-01-01

166

The importance of fogdrip water to vegetation: Point Reyes Peninsula, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fog and rain were collected for stable isotopic analysis for nearly 4 years at three locations on the Point Reyes Peninsula in California. In addition, in 1990, soil water and tree water were collected at the end of the rainy season, and again at the end of the foggy season to determine the importance of fog-drip water to arboreal vegetation.

Neil L. Ingraham; Robert A. Matthews

1995-01-01

167

Freezing-thawing action in the deterioration of the stones of Chambord Castle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limestone is very common in architecture (monuments and cultural heritage buildings) and used in the sculptures. The soft and porous limestone soaks up water and show weathering patterns and forms: alveolar weathering, granular disintegration, efflorescences. Freezing-thawing actions can be considered as one of the processes that contribute in the deterioration of stones located in the "cold regions" characterized with air temperatures below freezing point temperature. The amount of water within the pore space of the stones is a crucial factor of the decay. The experimental work presented in this paper is a part of a research program that aims to study the mechanisms that lead to the degradation of stone building materials due to the variation of climatic conditions. The analysis of the meteorological data of the field around the castle of Chambord shows the magnitude of temperature variations and the frequency of freezing-thawing cycles. The critical degrees of saturation at which the stone start to deteriorate after treatment with freezing-thawing cycles were examined in the tests conducted. The study concerns two porous limestone used in the construction and conservation of Chambord castle; highly porous Tuffeau stone having a total porosity of about 48 %, and medium porous Richemont stone with a total porosity of 27 %. Richemont stone has been used as a substitute stone of the degraded Tuffeau stone on the castle. The main physical properties, total porosity, apparent dry density and skeleton density and sound velocity for mechanical properties were measured for the stone samples before and during freezing-thawing cycles. ASTM (D5312-04) procedure was applied in the freezing-thawing tests. Tuffeau and Richmond samples were prepared at nine different degrees of saturations; 0, 20, 40, 70, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 100%, and properties were measured after different freezing-thawing cycles conditions; 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 30 and 50 cycles. The results of these tests show that when the degree of saturation exceeds 80-85%, freeze-thaw damage is inevitable even for a very few freeze-thaw cycles. Moreover, results indicate that the two studied stones have similar critical degree of saturation of about 85 %. This can be attributed to the similar percentage of macro-pores in the two tested stones. Finally, the critical degree of saturation was not changed after increasing the number of freezing-thawing cycles, thus the critical degree of saturation can be considered as a stone property.

Alomari, Asaad; Brunetaud, Xavier; Beck, Kevin; Al-Mukhtar, Muzahim

2013-04-01

168

Integrated watershed approach in controlling point and non-point source pollution within Zelivka drinking water reservoir.  

PubMed

An agricultural watershed involves manipulation of soil, water and other natural resources and it has profound impacts on ecosystems. To manage these complex issues, we must understand causes and consequences and interactions-related transport of pollutants, quality of the environment, mitigation measures and policy measures. A ten year period of economic changes has been analysed with respect to sustainable development concerning Zelivka drinking water reservoir and its watershed, where agriculture and forestry are the main human activities. It is recommended that all land users within a catchment area should receive payments for their contribution to water cycle management. Setting up the prevention principles and best management practices financially subsidized by a local water company has been found very effective in both point and non-point source pollution abatement, and the newly prepared Clean Water Programme actively involves local municipal authorities as well. The first step based on systems analysis was to propose effective strategies and select alternative measures and ways for their financing. Long term monitoring of nutrient loads entering the reservoir and hazardous events statistics resulted in maps characterising the territory including vulnerable zones and risk factors. Financing involves providing annual payments to farmers, who undertake to manage specified areas of their land in a particular way and one-off payments to realise proposed issues ensuring soil conservation and watershed ecosystem benefits. PMID:12079117

Holas, J; Hrncir, M

2002-01-01

169

Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.  

PubMed

Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation between seedlot hardiness and rate of germination. Germination rate and freezing tolerance of Douglas-fir and western red cedar seedlots was negatively correlated. There was a significant correlation between LT50 after 10 days in the growth chamber and minimum spring temperature at the location of seedlot origin for interior spruce and three seedlots of western red cedar, but no relationship was apparent for lodgepole pine and Douglas-fir. PMID:14652223

Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

2003-12-01

170

Glycerol loss to water exceeds glycerol catabolism via glycerol kinase in freeze-resistant rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax).  

PubMed

Rainbow smelt accumulate high amounts of glycerol in winter. In smelt, there is a predictable profile of plasma glycerol levels that starts to increase in November (<5 ?mol/ml), peaks in mid-February (>200 ?mol/ml), and thereafter decreases to reach the initial levels in the beginning of May. The aim of this study was to investigate the respective role of the two main mechanisms that might be involved in glycerol clearance from mid-February: 1) breakdown of glycerol to glycerol-3-phosphate through the action of the glycerol kinase (GK) and 2) direct loss toward the environment. Over the entire glycerol cycle, loss to water represents a daily loss of ?10% of the total glycerol content of fish. GK activities were very low in all tissues investigated and likely have a minor quantitative role in the glycerol cycle. These results suggest that glycerol levels are dictated by the rate of glycerol synthesis (accelerated and deactivated during the accumulation and decrease stages, respectively). Although not important in glycerol clearance, GK in liver might have an important metabolic function for other purposes, such as gluconeogenesis, as evidenced by the significant increase of activity at the end of the cycle. PMID:21178128

Ditlecadet, Delphine; Short, Connie E; Driedzic, William R

2011-03-01

171

Probability of freezing in the freeze-avoiding beetle larvae Cucujus clavipes puniceus (Coleoptera: Cucujidae) from interior Alaska.  

PubMed

Freeze-avoiding insects must resist freezing or die. A suite of adaptations to low temperatures, including the production of antifreeze proteins, colligative antifreezes (polyols), and dehydration allows most individuals to prevent freezing below the lowest ambient temperatures experienced in situ; however, there can be a wide variance in the minimum temperatures that individuals of freeze-avoiding species reach before freezing. We used logistic regression to explore factors that affect this variance and to estimate the probability of freezing in larvae of the freeze-avoiding beetle Cucujus clavipes puniceus. We hypothesized that water content ?0.5 mg mg(-1) dry mass would lead to deep supercooling (avoidance of freezing below -58°C). We found a significant interaction between water content and ambient below-snow temperature and a significant difference between individuals collected from two locations in Alaska: Wiseman and Fairbanks. Individuals collected in Wiseman deep supercooled with greater water content and to a greater range of ambient temperatures than individuals collected in Fairbanks, leading to significantly different lethal water contents associated with 50% probability of freezing. PMID:21550349

Sformo, T; McIntyre, J; Walters, K R; Barnes, B M; Duman, J

2011-08-01

172

even without a freeze plants can be damaged.  

E-print Network

, orchids as well as many aroids, succulent plants and Amazon lilies. It is worth considering movable of water (e.g. a man-made lake ­ heat stored in water and released during a radiational freeze can help

Jawitz, James W.

173

Freezing Characteristics of Droplet on a Cooled Wall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study has been performed to investigate the freezing characteristics of an aqueous binary solution droplet on a cooled wall. Pure water, ethylene-glycol aqueous solutions of 1to 10 mass%, and NaCl aqueous solutions of 1 to 15 mass% in concentration were adopted as the testing solutions. The droplet was frozen under a variety of cooling conditions such as wall temperature, air temperature, air velocity, and solute concentration in both the static atmosphere and the cold air flow. The observations on both the freezing characteristics and the morphologies of the droplet were extensively carried out. In addition, the inside flow of the droplets were observed. It was found that the morphology of the droplet on the cooled wall varied markedly depending on the solution, which appears to be mainly caused by the difference in the surface tension of the solution. On the other hand, under the conditions with a cold air flow, initial freezing point of the droplet was found to be mainly owing to the cooling rate between the cooled wall and the cold air.

Horibe, Akihiko; Fukusako, Shouichiro; Yamada, Masahiko

174

Freezing in Halide Salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The static criterion that the amplitude of the principal peak of the liquid structure factor has a constant value along the freezing line and the onset of freezing are studied from the structure factors and the static dielectric functions of halide salts interacting via the effective pair potentials through the hypernetted-chain approximation. It is observed that the criterion above is restricted to the effective charge difference. The critical value of plasma parameter at freezing is affected by the mobility and number concentration of anions and cations. The distribution of the value of the static dielectric function closest to the wave number axis in the negative region is also determined by the charge difference and the ordering of ions and related to the onset of freezing.

Akdere, ?.; Y?lmaz, M.; Kavanoz, H. B.; Ta?seven, Ç.

2008-06-01

175

Freeze-fracture cytochemistry in cell biology.  

PubMed

The term freeze-fracture cytochemistry embraces a series of techniques which share the goal of chemical identification of the structural components viewed in freeze-fracture replicas. As one of the major features of freeze fracture is its ability to provide planar views of membranes, a major emphasis in freeze-fracture cytochemistry is to identify integral membrane proteins, study their spatial organization in the membrane plane, and examine their role in dynamic cellular processes. Effective techniques in freeze-fracture cytochemistry, of wide application in cell biology, are now available. These include fracture-label, label fracture, and the freeze-fracture replica immunolabeling technique (FRIL). In fracture-label, samples are frozen and fractured, thawed for labeling, and finally processed for viewing either by critical-point drying and platinum-carbon replication or by thin-section electron microscopy. Label-fracture involves immunogold labeling a cell suspension, processing as for standard freeze-fracture replication, and then examining the replica without removal of the cellular components. Of greatest versatility, however, is the FRIL technique, in which samples are frozen, fractured, and replicated with platinum-carbon as in standard freeze fracture, and then carefully treated with sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) to remove all the biological material except a fine layer of molecules attached to the replica itself. Immunogold labeling of these molecules permits the distribution of identified components to be viewed superimposed upon high resolution planar views of replicated membrane structure, for both the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes in cells and tissues. Examples of how these techniques have contributed to our understanding of cardiovascular cell function in health and disease are discussed. PMID:18617035

Severs, Nicholas J; Robenek, Horst

2008-01-01

176

Use of manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and SMART freeze dryer technology for development of an optimized freeze-drying cycle.  

PubMed

This report provides, for the first time, a summary of experiments using SMART Freeze Dryer technology during a 9 month testing period. A minimum ice sublimation area of about 300 cm(2) for the laboratory freeze dryer, with a chamber volume 107.5 L, was found consistent with data obtained during previous experiments with a smaller freeze dryer (52 L). Good reproducibility was found for cycle design with different type of excipients, formulations, and vials used. SMART primary drying end point estimates were accurate in the majority of the experiments, but showed an over prediction of primary cycle time when the product did not fully achieve steady state conditions before the first MTM measurement was performed. Product resistance data for 5% sucrose mixtures at varying fill depths were very reproducible. Product temperature determined by SMART was typically in good agreement with thermocouple data through about 50% of primary drying time, with significant deviations occurring near the end of primary drying, as expected, but showing a bias much earlier in primary drying for high solid content formulations (16.6% Pfizer product) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (40 kDa) likely due to water "re-adsorption" by the amorphous product during the MTM test. PMID:17853427

Gieseler, Henning; Kramer, Tony; Pikal, Michael J

2007-12-01

177

Investigation of PEG crystallization in frozen PEG-sucrose-water solutions. I. Characterization of the nonequilibrium behavior during freeze-thawing.  

PubMed

Our objective was to characterize the nonequilibrium thermal behavior of frozen aqueous solutions containing PEG and sucrose. Aqueous solutions of (i) sucrose (10%, w/v) with different concentrations of PEG (1-20%, w/v), and (ii) PEG (10%, w/v) with different concentrations of sucrose (2-20%, w/v), were cooled to -70 degrees C at 5 degrees C/min and heated to 25 degrees C at 2 degrees C/min in a differential scanning calorimeter. Annealing was performed at temperatures ranging from -50 to -20 degrees C for 2 or 6 h. Similar experiments were also performed in the low-temperature stage of a powder X-ray diffractometer. A limited number of additional DSC experiments were performed wherein the samples were cooled to -100 degrees C. In unannealed systems with a fixed sucrose concentration (10%, w/v), the T'g decreased from -35 to -48 degrees C when PEG concentration was increased from 1% to 20% (w/v). On annealing at -25 degrees C, PEG crystallized. This was evident from the increase in T'g and the appearance of a secondary melting endotherm in the DSC. Low-temperature XRD provided direct evidence of PEG crystallization. Annealing at temperatures water system, reflecting progressive PEG crystallization. A second glass transition at approximately -65 degrees C was evident in unannealed systems [10%, w/v sucrose and 10 (or 20%), w/v PEG] cooled to -100 degrees C. Investigation of the nonequilibrium behavior of frozen PEG-sucrose-water ternary system revealed phase separation in the freeze-concentrate. Annealing facilitated PEG crystallization. PMID:20091827

Bhatnagar, Bakul S; Martin, Susan M; Teagarden, Dirk L; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Suryanarayanan, Raj

2010-06-01

178

Two-point boundary temperature control of hot strip via water cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a two-point boundary temperature control system approach, for Run Out Table (ROT) cooling, used in hot strip mills. The system relies on a linearized model for describing heat radiated to the environment and heat transferred to cooling water. A basic feedforward control design to control the temperature at the second boundary point, the only measurable controlled parameter,

Nicholas S. Samaras; Marwan A. Simaan

1997-01-01

179

Water-cooled end-point boundary temperature control of hot strip via dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an end-point boundary temperature control approach for runout table cooling used in hot strip mills is presented. The system relies on a linearized model for describing heat radiated to the environment and heat transferred to cooling water. At first, a conventional feedforward control design to control the temperature at the end-point boundary, the only measurable controlled parameter,

Nicholas S. Samaras; Marwan A. Simaan

1998-01-01

180

POINT-OF-USE TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER IN SAN YSIDRO, NM  

EPA Science Inventory

A study was conducted to determine whether point-of-use reverse osmosis units could satisfactorily function in lieu of central treatment to remove arsenic and fluoride from the drinking water supply of a small community. Point-of-use treatment was evaluated for removal efficiency...

181

Phase separation during freezing upon warming of aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using differential scanning calorimetry, we show that the addition of solute(s) to emulsified water lowers the freezing temperature to <231 K, the homogeneous nucleation temperature of pure bulk water, or even completely suppresses freezing. In the latter case, freezing upon warming occurs above TX ? 150 K and leads to a phase separation into pure ice and a freeze-concentrated solution (FCS) which crystallizes upon further warming. We also show that emulsified 20-21.5 wt. % HCl solutions and the FCS of HCl/H2O solutions transform to glass at Tg ? 127-128 K, i.e., lower than Tg ? 136 K of water. We suggest that water nanodrops adsorbed on fumed silica resemble bulk water more than water confined in nanoscaled confinement and also more than nanoscaled water domains in aqueous solution.

Bogdan, A.; Loerting, T.

2014-11-01

182

Hydrology and Simulation of Ground-Water Flow, Lake Point, Tooele County, Utah  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water for new residential development in Lake Point, Utah may be supplied by public-supply wells completed in consolidated rock on the east side of Lake Point. Ground-water flow models were developed to help understand the effect the proposed withdrawal will have on water levels, flowing-well discharge, spring discharge, and ground-water quality in the study area. This report documents the conceptual and numerical ground-water flow models for the Lake Point area. The ground-water system in the Lake Point area receives recharge from local precipitation and irrigation, and from ground-water inflow from southwest of the area. Ground water discharges mostly to springs. Discharge also occurs to evapotranspiration, wells, and Great Salt Lake. Even though ground water discharges to Great Salt Lake, dense salt water from the lake intrudes under the less-dense ground water and forms a salt-water wedge under the valley. This salt water is responsible for some of the high dissolved-solids concentrations measured in ground water in Lake Point. A steady-state MODFLOW-2000 ground-water model of Tooele Valley adequately simulates water levels, ground-water discharge, and ground-water flow direction observed in Lake Point in 1969 and 2002. Simulating an additional 1,650 acre-feet per year withdrawal from wells causes a maximum projected drawdown of about 550 feet in consolidated rock near the simulated wells and drawdown exceeding 80 feet in an area encompassing most of the Oquirrh Mountains east of Lake Point. Drawdown in most of Lake Point ranges from 2 to 10 ft, but increases to more than 40 feet in the areas proposed for residential development. Discharge to Factory Springs, flowing wells, evapotranspiration, and Great Salt Lake is decreased by about 1,100 acre-feet per year (23 percent). The U.S. Geological Survey SUTRA variable-density ground-water-flow model generates a reasonable approximation of 2002 dissolved-solids concentration when simulating 2002 withdrawals. At most locations with measured dissolved-solids concentration in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter, the model simulates salt-water intrusion with similar concentrations. Simulating an additional 1,650 acre-feet per year withdrawal increased simulated dissolved-solids concentration by 200 to 1,000 milligrams per liter throughout much of Lake Point and near Fac-tory Springs at a depth of about 250 to 300 feet below land surface. The increase in dissolved-solids concentration with increased withdrawals is greater at a depth of about 700 to 800 feet and exceeds 1,000 milligrams per liter throughout most of Lake Point. At the north end of Lake Point, increases exceed 10,000 milligrams per liter.

Brooks, Lynette E.

2006-01-01

183

Pointed water vapor radiometer corrections for accurate Global Positioning System surveying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delay of the Global Positioning System (GPS) signal due to atmospheric water vapor is a major source of error in GPS surveying. Improved vertical accuracy is important for sea level and polar isostasy measurements, geodesy, normal fault motion, subsidence, earthquake studies, air and ground-based gravimetry, ice dynamics, and volcanology. We conducted a GPS survey using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) pointed

Randolph Ware; Christian Rocken; Fredrick Solheim; Teresa Van Hove; Chris Alber; James Johnson

1993-01-01

184

Whole-house arsenic water treatment provided more effective arsenic exposure reduction than point-of-use water treatment at New Jersey homes with arsenic in well water.  

PubMed

A comparison of the effectiveness of whole house (point-of-entry) and point-of-use arsenic water treatment systems in reducing arsenic exposure from well water was conducted. The non-randomized observational study recruited 49 subjects having elevated arsenic in their residential home well water in New Jersey. The subjects obtained either point-of-entry or point-of-use arsenic water treatment. Prior ingestion exposure to arsenic in well water was calculated by measuring arsenic concentrations in the well water and obtaining water-use histories for each subject, including years of residence with the current well and amount of water consumed from the well per day. A series of urine samples was collected from the subjects, some starting before water treatment was installed and continuing for at least nine months after treatment had begun. Urine samples were analyzed and speciated for inorganic-related arsenic concentrations. A two-phase clearance of inorganic-related arsenic from urine and the likelihood of a significant body burden from chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water were identified. After nine months of water treatment the adjusted mean of the urinary inorganic-related arsenic concentrations was significantly lower (p<0.0005) in the point-of-entry treatment group (2.5?g/g creatinine) than in the point-of-use treatment group (7.2?g/g creatinine). The results suggest that whole house arsenic water treatment systems provide a more effective reduction of arsenic exposure from well water than that obtained by point-of-use treatment. PMID:24975493

Spayd, Steven E; Robson, Mark G; Buckley, Brian T

2015-02-01

185

Freeze resistance in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax): seasonal pattern of glycerol and antifreeze protein levels and liver enzyme activity associated with glycerol production.  

PubMed

Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) inhabit inshore waters along the North American Atlantic coast. During the winter, these waters are frequently ice covered and can reach temperatures as low as -1.9 degrees C. To prevent freezing, smelt accumulate high levels of glycerol, which lower the freezing point via colligative means, and antifreeze proteins (AFP). The up-regulation of the antifreeze response (both glycerol and AFP) occurs in early fall, when water temperatures are 5 degrees -6 degrees C. The accumulation of glycerol appears to be the main mechanism of freeze resistance in smelt because it contributes more to the lowering of the body's freezing point than the activity of the AFP (0.5 degrees C vs. 0.25 degrees C for glycerol and AFP, respectively) at a water temperature of -1.5 degrees C. Moreover, AFP in smelt appears to be a safeguard mechanism to prevent freezing when glycerol levels are low. Significant increases in activities of the liver enzymes glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) during the initiation of glycerol production and significant correlations between enzyme activities and plasma glycerol levels suggest that these enzymes are closely associated with the synthesis and maintenance of elevated glycerol levels for use as an antifreeze. These findings add further support to the concept that carbon for glycerol is derived from amino acids. PMID:15286915

Lewis, Johanne M; Ewart, K Vanya; Driedzic, William R

2004-01-01

186

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of freezing-thawing on nitrogen mineralization  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Effect of freezing-thawing on nitrogen mineralization in vegetation soils of four the effect of freezing-thawing on nitrogen (N) mineralization of four vegetation soils from typical . Soil nitrogen mineralization . Soil water content . Temperate forest . Changbai Mountain 1 Introduction

Boyer, Edmond

187

7 CFR 305.18 - Quick freeze treatment schedule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Quick freeze treatment schedule. 305.18...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Quick Freeze Treatments...during the 48-hour treatment period, but the temperature...States or its territorial waters, or is otherwise...

2010-01-01

188

High-freezing-point fuel studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Considerable progress in developing the experimental and analytical techniques needed to design airplanes to accommodate fuels with less stringent low temperature specifications is reported. A computer technique for calculating fuel temperature profiles in full tanks was developed. The computer program is being extended to include the case of partially empty tanks. Ultimately, the completed package is to be incorporated into an aircraft fuel tank thermal analyser code to permit the designer to fly various thermal exposure patterns, study fuel temperatures versus time, and determine holdup.

Tolle, F. F.

1980-01-01

189

Polymerization with freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irreversible aggregation processes involving reactive and frozen clusters are investigated using the rate equation approach. In aggregation events, two clusters join irreversibly to form a larger cluster; additionally, reactive clusters may spontaneously freeze. Frozen clusters do not participate in merger events. Generally, freezing controls the nature of the aggregation process, as demonstrated by the final distribution of frozen clusters. The cluster mass distribution has a power-law tail, Fk~k-?, when the freezing process is sufficiently slow. Different exponents, ? = 1 and 3, are found for the constant and the product aggregation rates, respectively. For the latter case, the standard polymerization model, either no gels, or a single gel, or even multiple gels, may be produced.

Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

2005-12-01

190

40 CFR 141.100 - Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Criteria and procedures for public water systems using point-of-entry devices...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized...

2011-07-01

191

Impact of point and nonpoint source pollution on pore waters of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries.  

PubMed

Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are contaminated by industrial and municipal point sources and agricultural nonpoint sources of pollution. The objective of this study was to compare the porewater characteristics of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries: Wicomico River (WR) contaminated by point source and Pocomoke River (PR) contaminated by both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. Four study sites (1 mile before, adjacent to, and 1 and 2 miles after the sewage treatment plant) were chosen to collect sediment samples in both the rivers. The sediment-pore waters were analyzed for toxicity using Microtox marine luminescent bacteria-Vibrio fischeri. USEPA toxicity identification evaluation tests on these pore waters confirmed that the contaminants (ammonia and heavy metals) in WR were from municipal point sources, whereas in PR the contamination (metals, pesticides, and PCBs) was from nonpoint sources (agriculture) of pollution. The toxicity (and the concentration of contaminants) decreased both upstream and downstream from the most polluted site in both the rivers. PMID:8930508

Karuppiah, M; Gupta, G

1996-10-01

192

Glass transition in biomolecules and the liquid-liquid critical point of water  

E-print Network

Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the relation between the dynamic transitions of biomolecules (lysozyme and DNA) and the dynamic and thermodynamic properties of hydration water. We find that the dynamic transition of the macromolecules, sometimes called a ``protein glass transition'', occurs at the temperature of dynamic crossover in the diffusivity of hydration water, and also coincides with the maxima of the isobaric specific heat $C_P$ and the temperature derivative of the orientational order parameter. We relate these findings to the hypothesis of a liquid-liquid critical point in water. Our simulations are consistent with the possibility that the protein glass transition results from crossing the Widom line, which is defined as the locus of correlation length maxima emanating from the hypothesized second critical point of water.

P. Kumar; Z. Yan; L. Xu; M. G. Mazza; S. V. Buldyrev; S. -H. Chen; S. Sastry; H. E. Stanley

2006-08-28

193

The freezing rotation illusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “freezing rotation illusion” refers to decrease in perceived speed of a continuously rotating central region when a swaying surround co-rotates. We observed the following effects for rotations: First, when the centre and its surround are turning in the same direction, and their velocities are distinguishable, the perceived speed of the centre is lower than its physical speed. Second, when

Max R. Dürsteler

2008-01-01

194

Animal Anti-Freeze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor winter activity, learners search for and create hibernation sites that will protect gelatin "animals" from freezing. Learners come to understand that hibernating animals need to take care in selecting a sleeping spot that will provide protection from the winter cold.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

195

FREEZE FRAMING MUSLIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western images of Islam and Muslims have been frozen in history and are recycled with mundane regularity. These ‘freeze frames’ emerged at the beginning of Islam and have, over centuries, acquired certain key elements and descriptors. Association of Islam with promiscuity and licentiousness was common during the eight and tenth centuries. The Crusades added war-like violence to the picture, and

Ziauddin Sardar; Merryl Wyn Davies

2010-01-01

196

Modeling soil freezing dynamics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seasonally frozen soil strongly influences runoff and erosion on large areas of land around the world. In many areas, rain or snowmelt on seasonally frozen soil is the single leading cause of severe runoff and erosion events. As soils freeze, ice blocks the soil pores, greatly diminishing the permea...

197

Freeze-drying of proteins.  

PubMed

Freeze-drying has become one of the most important processes for the preservation of biological products. This chapter provides protocols for freeze-drying of proteins and discusses the importance of formulation, cycle development, and validation. Specific formulations for stabilization of proteins are presented as well as advice on common problems with freeze-drying of proteins. PMID:25428023

Liu, Baolin; Zhou, Xinli

2015-01-01

198

Cryomicroscopic analysis of freezing in liver of the freeze-tolerant wood frog.  

PubMed

The technique of directional solidification coupled with low-temperature scanning electron microscopy was applied to analyze the freezing of liver slices from the freeze-tolerant frog Rana sylvatica. Micrographs of liver slices from 5 degrees C-acclimated frogs frozen on the directional stage to -7 degrees C showed continuous ice formed along an expanded vasculature with hepatocytes that were shrunken and virtually dehydrated. However, when frogs were given a survivable freezing exposure at -4 degrees C for 24 h, liver slices subsequently frozen in vitro at -7 degrees C were much less shrunken and the presence of intracellular ice crystals (formed when samples were plunged into liquid N2 before microscopy) demonstrated that ample free water remained in these hepatocytes at -7 degrees C. This reduced level of cell dehydration was correlated with the buildup of 280 +/- 61 mumol/g wet wt glucose as a cryoprotectant in liver during the -4 degrees C exposure in vivo. The study provides the first direct cytological analysis of the freezing process in an organ of a freeze-tolerant vertebrate and the first confirmation of the relationship between maintenance of a critical minimum cell volume and freezing survival by these animals. PMID:1636785

Storey, K B; Bischof, J; Rubinsky, B

1992-07-01

199

Aquaporin-Mediated Improvement of Freeze Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Restricted to Rapid Freezing Conditions  

PubMed Central

Previous observations that aquaporin overexpression increases the freeze tolerance of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) without negatively affecting the growth or fermentation characteristics held promise for the development of commercial baker's yeast strains used in frozen dough applications. In this study we found that overexpression of the aquaporin-encoding genes AQY1-1 and AQY2-1 improves the freeze tolerance of industrial strain AT25, but only in small doughs under laboratory conditions and not in large doughs under industrial conditions. We found that the difference in the freezing rate is apparently responsible for the difference in the results. We tested six different cooling rates and found that at high cooling rates aquaporin overexpression significantly improved the survival of yeast cells, while at low cooling rates there was no significant effect. Differences in the cultivation conditions and in the thawing rate did not influence the freeze tolerance under the conditions tested. Survival after freezing is determined mainly by two factors, cellular dehydration and intracellular ice crystal formation, which depend in an inverse manner on the cooling velocity. In accordance with this so-called two-factor hypothesis of freezing injury, we suggest that water permeability is limiting, and therefore that aquaporin function is advantageous, only under rapid freezing conditions. If this hypothesis is correct, then aquaporin overexpression is not expected to affect the leavening capacity of yeast cells in large, industrial frozen doughs, which do not freeze rapidly. Our results imply that aquaporin-overexpressing strains have less potential for use in frozen doughs than originally thought. PMID:15184134

Tanghe, An; Van Dijck, Patrick; Colavizza, Didier; Thevelein, Johan M.

2004-01-01

200

Experimental evidence of the ferroelectric phase transition near the $\\lambda-$point in liquid water  

E-print Network

We studied dielectric properties of nano-sized liquid water samples confined in polymerized silicates MCM-41 characterized by the porous sizes \\sim 3-10nm. We report the direct measurements of the dielectric constant by the dielectric spectroscopy method at frequencies 25Hz-1MHz and demonstrate clear signatures of the second-order phase transition of ferroelectric nature at temperatures next to the \\lambda- point in the bulk supercooled water. The presented results support the previously developed polar liquid phenomenology and hence establish its applicability to model actual phenomena in liquid water.

Fedichev, P O; Bordonskiy, G S; Orlov, A O

2011-01-01

201

Plant responses, climate pivot points, and trade-offs in water-limited ecosystems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Plant species in dryland ecosystems are limited by water availability and may be vulnerable to increases in aridity. Methods are needed to monitor and assess the rate of change in plant abundance and composition in relation to climate, understand the potential for degradation in dryland ecosystems, and forecast future changes in plant species assemblages. I employ nearly a century of vegetation monitoring data from three North American deserts to demonstrate an approach to determine plant species responses to climate and critical points over a range of climatic conditions at which plant species shift from increases to decreases in abundance (climate pivot points). I assess these metrics from a site to regional scale and highlight how these indicators of plant performance can be modified by the physical and biotic environment. For example, shrubs were more responsive to drought and high temperatures on shallow soils with limited capacity to store water and fine-textured soils with slow percolation rates, whereas perennial grasses were more responsive to precipitation in sparse shrublands than in relatively dense grasslands and shrublands, where competition for water is likely more intense. The responses and associated climate pivot points of plant species aligned with their lifespan and structural characteristics, and the relationship between responses and climate pivot points provides evidence of the trade-off between the capacity of a plant species to increase in abundance when water is available and its drought resistance.

Munson, Seth M.

2013-01-01

202

POINT-OF-USE TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER IN SAN YSIDRO, NM  

EPA Science Inventory

This study was conducted to determine whether point-of-use (POU) reverse osmosis (RO) units could satisfactorily function in lieu of central treatment to remove arsenic and fluoride from the drinking water supply of San Ysidro, NM. POU treatment was evaluated for removal efficien...

203

A point focusing collector for an integrated water/power complex  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization potential of the point focusing parabolic dish is identified. Its main design parameters are summarized. Performance tests and the utilization of the collector as primary energy source in a food-water-power complex are described. Process heat, heat storage, heat transfer, and cogeneration are discussed.

Zewen, H.; Schmidt, G.; Moustafa, S.

1982-01-01

204

Pay Attention to Rural NonPoint Source Pollution, Guarantee the Security of Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of agricultural modernization in China great changes have taken place in the rural economy visage. But subsequently various pollution problems emerge out more frequently and especially because of the aggravating non-point source pollution the safety of drinking water in the vast rural areas has suffered a lot from severe threats which is drawing more and more

Jingdong Zhang; Yuan Zhou; Jiawen Wang

2009-01-01

205

Second critical point of water in supercooled confined water in L,L-diphenylalanine micro/nanotubes  

E-print Network

The temperature dependence (10-290 K) of the low-frequency (20-150 cm-1) Raman-active phonon modes of supercooled con?ned water in L,L-diphenylalanine micro/nanotubes was analysed. The isolated dynamics of a specific geometry of water cluster (pentamer) in supercooled confined regime was studied in detail. A particular mode concerning water-nanotube interaction was also probed. A fragile-to-strong transition at 204 K was observed and related to the crossing of the Widom line. The critical exponent analyses of the relaxation rate data based on mode-coupling theory indicated perfect agreement among experimental data and theory. Our results are consistent with the existence of a second critical point of water.

P. M. G. L. Ferreira; S. Kogikoski Jr.; W. A. Alves; H. Martinho

2014-06-26

206

A point focusing collector for an integrated water/power complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A point focusing parabolic dish was developed in order to deliver process heat and as a solar collector for small solar thermal power stations. The utilization potential of the point focusing parabolic dish was identified and its main design parameters are summarized. The utilization of the collector as primary energy source in a food/water/power complex was tested. In its present configuration, the system is capable of delivering process heat for the temperature range from 150 to 500 C. This point focusing parabolic dish is identified as the most promising solar collector for small solar thermal power stations. Fifty-six dishes were assembled in a 100 kW (electric)/500 kW (thermal) food/water/power complex, which is in operation in the Kuwait desert. The dominating factors for cost reduction are discussed.

Zewen, H.; Schmidt, G.; Moustafa, S.

207

Langevin Poisson-Boltzmann equation: point-like ions and water dipoles near a charged surface.  

PubMed

Water ordering near a charged membrane surface is important for many biological processes such as binding of ligands to a membrane or transport of ions across it. In this work, the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory for point-like ions, describing an electrolyte solution in contact with a planar charged surface, is modified by including the orientational ordering of water. Water molecules are considered as Langevin dipoles, while the number density of water is assumed to be constant everywhere in the electrolyte solution. It is shown that the dielectric permittivity of an electrolyte close to a charged surface is decreased due to the increased orientational ordering of water dipoles. The dielectric permittivity close to the charged surface is additionally decreased due to the finite size of ions and dipoles. PMID:21613667

Gongadze, Ekaterina; van Rienen, Ursula; Kralj-Igli?, Veronika; Igli?, Aleš

2011-06-01

208

Inactivation of Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat by liquid freezing.  

PubMed

Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat was inactivated using 3 distinct freezing methods?liquid freezing for 5 min, air blast freezing at ?30? for 5 h, and ?80? for 1 h. The fracture curve of olive flounder meat subjected to liquid freezing resembled that of meat stored at 4?, indicating that the structure of olive flounder muscle was well preserved. In contrast, air blast freezing induced the disappearance of the fracture point in the fracture curve, indicating that there was deterioration in the meat quality. Liquid freezing preserved the transparency of olive flounder meat to the same degree as that of meat stored at 4°C. However, air blast freezing induced meat cloudiness. These results indicate that liquid freezing can be used for K. septempunctata inactivation without affecting the meat quality. PMID:25252645

Ohnishi, Takahiro; Akuzawa, Sayuri; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2014-01-01

209

Theoretical prediction of 'optimal' freezing programmes.  

PubMed

We have developed a quantitative description of the osmotic behaviour of cells during freezing without a presupposed value of the cooling rate. Instead, at all times the intracellular supercooling is maximised provided that it does not exceed a predetermined value 'p' (e.g., 2 degrees C). This should preclude intracellular ice formation, but also ensures that the osmotic gradient and the CPA concentration gradient are limited, as well as the gradient driven transmembrane fluxes of water and CPA. Using the condition of a constant level of supercooling of p degrees C, equations can be derived to generate non-linear cooling curves in which at all times the cooling rate is maximised (to minimise slow cooling damage), while preventing conditions that could lead to fast cooling damage. Simulations of the osmotic events during freezing, and prediction of the 'optimal' freezing curve can be performed provided that values are available for the membrane permeability coefficients for water (L(p)) and cryoprotectant (P(s)), and their respective activation energies, the initial intracellular osmotically active aqueous volume, and the membrane surface area. Simulations are shown, both with and without permeant solute, to demonstrate how the predicted 'optimal' freezing curve is affected by medium composition, and by membrane permeability and osmotic cell characteristics. PMID:15615612

Woelders, H; Chaveiro, A

2004-12-01

210

P-wave velocity changes in freezing hard low-porosity rocks: a laboratory-based time-average model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P-wave refraction seismics is a key method in permafrost research but its applicability to low-porosity rocks, that constitute alpine rock walls, has been denied in prior studies. These explain p-wave velocity changes in freezing rocks exclusively due to changing velocities of pore infill, i.e. water, air and ice. In existing models, no velocity increase is expected for low-porosity bedrock. We postulate, that mixing laws apply for high-porosity rocks, but freezing in confined space in low-porosity bedrock also alters physical rock matrix properties. In the laboratory, we measured p-wave velocities of 22 decimeter-large low-porosity (<6 %) metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary permafrost rock samples with a natural texture (>100 micro-fissures) from 25 °C to -15 °C in 0.3 °C increments close to the freezing point. P-wave velocity increases by 7-78 % when freezing parallel to cleavage/bedding and matrix velocity increases from 5-59 % coincident to an anisotropy decrease in most samples. The expansion of rigid bedrock upon freezing is restricted and ice pressure will increase matrix velocity and decrease anisotropy while changing velocities of the pore infill are insignificant. Here, we present a modified Timur's 2-phase equation implementing changes in matrix velocity dependent on lithology and demonstrate the physical basis for refraction seismics in low-porosity bedrock.

Draebing, D.; Krautblatter, M.

2012-02-01

211

P-wave velocity changes in freezing hard low-porosity rocks: a laboratory-based time-average model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P-wave refraction seismics is a key method in permafrost research but its applicability to low-porosity rocks, which constitute alpine rock walls, has been denied in prior studies. These studies explain p-wave velocity changes in freezing rocks exclusively due to changing velocities of pore infill, i.e. water, air and ice. In existing models, no significant velocity increase is expected for low-porosity bedrock. We postulate, that mixing laws apply for high-porosity rocks, but freezing in confined space in low-porosity bedrock also alters physical rock matrix properties. In the laboratory, we measured p-wave velocities of 22 decimetre-large low-porosity (< 10%) metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary rock samples from permafrost sites with a natural texture (> 100 micro-fissures) from 25 °C to -15 °C in 0.3 °C increments close to the freezing point. When freezing, p-wave velocity increases by 11-166% perpendicular to cleavage/bedding and equivalent to a matrix velocity increase from 11-200% coincident to an anisotropy decrease in most samples. The expansion of rigid bedrock upon freezing is restricted and ice pressure will increase matrix velocity and decrease anisotropy while changing velocities of the pore infill are insignificant. Here, we present a modified Timur's two-phase-equation implementing changes in matrix velocity dependent on lithology and demonstrate the general applicability of refraction seismics to differentiate frozen and unfrozen low-porosity bedrock.

Draebing, D.; Krautblatter, M.

2012-10-01

212

Evaluation of Point of Use Water Treatment Devices for Removal of Mine Wastes from Well Water  

EPA Science Inventory

U.S. EPA Region VII and the Office of Research and Development (ORD) are conducting a large-scale study to identify the prevalence of lead (Pb) and other contaminants in drinking water at four mine waste areas in Washington County, Missouri. Numerous households in Potosi, Richwoo...

213

Did Water Leave Its Mark on Mars?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the missing water on Mars. Describes five experiments simulating conditions on Mars: (1) behavior of dry ice; (2) low-pressure vacuum; (3) freezing point depression; (4) water in hydrated minerals and clay; and (5) properties of carbon dioxide. (YP)

Secosky, James J.

1989-01-01

214

Condensation and freezing of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces.  

PubMed

Superhydrophobic coatings are reported as promising candidates for anti-icing applications. Various studies have shown that as well as having ultra water repellency the surfaces have reduced ice adhesion and can delay water freezing. However, the structure or texture (roughness) of the superhydrophobic surface is subject to degradation during the thermocycling or wetting process. This degradation can impair the superhydrophobicity and the icephobicity of those coatings. In this review, a brief overview of the process of droplet freezing on superhydrophobic coatings is presented with respect to their potential in anti-icing applications. To support this discussion, new data is presented about the condensation of water onto physically decorated substrates, and the associated freezing process which impacts on the freezing of macroscopic droplets on the surface. PMID:24200089

Oberli, Linda; Caruso, Dean; Hall, Colin; Fabretto, Manrico; Murphy, Peter J; Evans, Drew

2014-08-01

215

Damage Evaluation on Freeze-Thawing Process of Food by Using NMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freeze-thawing process gives significant damages for food structure. Several new techniques have been attempted for quantitative evaluation of the damages. In this study, using NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) with a stimulated echo method, restricted diffusion phenomena of water molecules was measured for damaged food (onion and tuna) tissues that were subjected to the repeat of freeze-thawing, Through experiments, water permeability of tissue membrane was calculated. The water permeability of fresh tissues for onion showed clearly restricted diffusion, but after freeze-thawing, it disappeared. On the other hand, the water permeability of fresh tuna tissue was small significantly, even though it was a little higher after freeze-thawing. After all, the damage level after freeze-thawing showed a significant difference between onion and tuna. These results support the view that plant tissue is very sensitive to freeze-thawing and that the water permeability of plant is much lower than that of animal.

Andou, Hiroko; Fukuoka, Mika; Miyawaki, Osato; Suzuki, Toru

216

Evaluation and Validation of the Messinger Freezing Fraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the most important non-dimensional parameters used in ice-accretion modeling and scaling studies is the freezing fraction defined by the heat-balance analysis of Messinger. For fifty years this parameter has been used to indicate how rapidly freezing takes place when super-cooled water strikes a solid body. The value ranges from 0 (no freezing) to 1 (water freezes immediately on impact), and the magnitude has been shown to play a major role in determining the physical appearance of the accreted ice. Because of its importance to ice shape, this parameter and the physics underlying the expressions used to calculate it have been questioned from time to time. Until now, there has been no strong evidence either validating or casting doubt on the current expressions. This paper presents experimental measurements of the leading-edge thickness of a number of ice shapes for a variety of test conditions with nominal freezing fractions from 0.3 to 1.0. From these thickness measurements, experimental freezing fractions were calculated and compared with values found from the Messinger analysis as applied by Ruff. Within the experimental uncertainty of measuring the leading-edge thickness, agreement of the experimental and analytical freezing fraction was very good. It is also shown that values of analytical freezing fraction were entirely consistent with observed ice shapes at and near rime conditions: At an analytical freezing fraction of unity, experimental ice shapes displayed the classic rime shape, while for conditions producing analytical freezing fractions slightly lower than unity, glaze features started to appear.

Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

2005-01-01

217

Comparison of Optimization and Two-point Methods in Estimation of Soil Water Retention Curve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil water retention curve (SWRC) is one of the soil hydraulic properties in which its direct measurement is time consuming and expensive. Since, its measurement is unavoidable in study of environmental sciences i.e. investigation of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and solute transport, in this study the attempt is to predict soil water retention curve from two measured points. By using Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method (two-point method) and an optimization method developed in this study on the basis of two points of SWRC, parameters of Tyler and Wheatcraft (1990) model (fractal dimension and air entry value) were estimated and then water content at different matric potentials were estimated and compared with their measured values (n=180). For each method, we used both 3 and 1500 kPa (case 1) and 33 and 1500 kPa (case 2) as two points of SWRC. The calculated RMSE values showed that in the Creswell and Paydar (1996) method, there exists no significant difference between case 1 and case 2. However, the calculated RMSE value in case 2 (2.35) was slightly less than case 1 (2.37). The results also showed that the developed optimization method in this study had significantly less RMSE values for cases 1 (1.63) and 2 (1.33) rather than Cresswell and Paydar (1996) method.

Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, B.; Liaghat, A. M.; Huang, G.

2009-04-01

218

Mechanisms of Freezing lnjuly in Cellular Leve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanisms of freezing injury in living cells were reviewed. The freezing injury takes place by at least two different factors depending upon cooling rate, those are intracellular freezing and extracellular freezing. The freezing injury caused by extracellular freezing also takes place by two different factors, those are direct and indirect effects by the formation of extracellular ice. These different stresses by freezing cause different damages on the plasma membranes in the same cell. Furthermore, freezing of different cell results in different form of membrane damage. Thus, the occurrence of freezing injury takes place by diverse mechanisms depending upon not only different freezing stresses but also difference of cell type.

Fujikawa, Seizo

219

Direct Water and Fat Determination in Two-Point Dixon Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dixon technique is a well-established method in magnetic resonance imaging for obtaining separate images of water and fat. Here we present a generalized solution to the two-point Dixon problem with a geometric interpretation, allowing for flexible echo times and a multi-peak fat model. By simulation and experiment, we have analyzed the dependence on the echo times of the error in the water, fat, and relative background phasor values due to both signal noise and T2* decay. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that broken symmetry due to the multi-peak nature of fat enables direct water and fat determination without phase correction, and we have quantified the reliability of this technique as a function of the echo times. The results may provide valuable guidance for selecting scan parameters to balance the objectives of optimizing fat-water identification, minimizing error in the pixel values, and minimizing total scan time.

Rambow, Olen Henry

220

Slow dehydration promotes desiccation and freeze tolerance in the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica.  

PubMed

Adaptations to low moisture availability are arguably as important as cold resistance for polar terrestrial invertebrates, especially because water, in the form of ice, is biologically inaccessible for much of the year. Desiccation responses under ecologically realistic soil humidity conditions--those close to the wilting points of plants [98.9% relative humidity (RH)]--have not previously been examined in polar insect species. In the current study we show that, when desiccated at 98.2% RH, larvae of the Antarctic midge Belgica antarctica are more tolerant of dehydration than larvae desiccated at lower humidities (75% RH), and develop an increased tolerance to freezing. The slow rate of desiccation at this high RH enabled more than 50% of larvae to survive the loss of >75% of their osmotically active water (OAW). Survival rates were further increased when rehydration was performed at 100% RH, rather than by direct contact with water. Two days at 98.2% RH resulted in a approximately 30% loss of OAW, and dramatically increased the freeze tolerance of larvae to -10 and -15 degrees C. The supercooling point of animals was not significantly altered by this desiccation treatment, and all larvae were frozen at -10 degrees C. This is the first evidence of desiccation increasing the freeze tolerance of a polar terrestrial arthropod. Maximum water loss and body fluid osmolality were recorded after 5 days at 98.2% RH, but osmolality values returned to predesiccated levels following just 1 h of rehydration in water, well before all the water lost through desiccation had been replenished. This suggests active removal of osmolytes from the extracellular fluids during the desiccation process, presumably to intracellular compartments. Heat-shock proteins appear not to contribute to the desiccation tolerance we observed in B. antarctica. Instead, we suggest that metabolite synthesis and membrane phospholipid adaptation are likely to be the underpinning physiological mechanisms enhancing desiccation and cold tolerance in this species. PMID:17297143

Hayward, Scott A L; Rinehart, Joseph P; Sandro, Luke H; Lee, Richard E; Denlinger, David L

2007-03-01

221

Food freezing with simultaneous surface dehydration: approximate prediction of weight loss during freezing and storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight loss of unpackaged foods during freezing and later storage is an important quality and economic issue. It is originated on surface ice sublimation due to differences in water activity between food surface and the refrigerating air. Weight loss rate is determined by refrigerating conditions and product characteristics. The modelling of this phenomenon has merited very little attention; at present

Laura A. Campañone; Viviana O. Salvadori; Rodolfo H. Mascheroni

2005-01-01

222

Freezing in the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna.  

PubMed

The process of organismal freezing in the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna, is complicated by molluscan biology. Internal ice formation is, in particular, mediated by two factors: (a) the provision of an inoculative target for ice formation in the exposed mucus-secreting foot; and (b) osmoconformity to the marine environment. With regard to the first, direct observations of the independent freezing of pedal mucus support the hypothesis that internal ice formation is delayed by the mucal film. As to the second, ice nucleation parametrics of organismal tissue (head, midgut, gonad, foot) and mucus in both inter- and subtidal populations were characterized by high melting points (range=-4.61 to -6.29 degrees C), with only c.50% of a given sample osmotically active. At this stage it would be premature to ascribe a cryo-adaptive function to the mucus as the protective effects are more readily attributed to the physical properties of the secretion (i.e. viscosity) and their corresponding effects on the rate of heat transfer. As it is difficult to thermally distinguish between the freezing of mucus and the rest of the animal, the question as to whether it is tolerant of internal as well as external ice formation remains problematic, although it may be well suited to the osmotic stresses of organismal freezing. PMID:20599885

Hawes, T C; Worland, M R; Bale, J S

2010-08-01

223

On the particle paths and the stagnation points in small-amplitude deep-water waves  

E-print Network

In order to obtain quite precise information about the shape of the particle paths below small-amplitude gravity waves travelling on irrotational deep water, analytic solutions of the nonlinear differential equation system describing the particle motion are provided. All these solutions are not closed curves. Some particle trajectories are peakon-like, others can be expressed with the aid of the Jacobi elliptic functions or with the aid of the hyperelliptic functions. Remarks on the stagnation points of the small-amplitude irrotational deep-water waves are also made.

Delia Ionescu-Kruse

2012-02-22

224

Effect of wettability on sessile drop freezing: when superhydrophobicity stimulates an extreme freezing delay.  

PubMed

An increasing number of studies directed at supercooling water droplets on surfaces with different wettabilities have appeared in recent years. This activity has been stimulated by the recognition that water supercooling phenomena can be effectively used to develop methods for protecting outdoor equipment and infrastructure elements against icing and snow accretion. In this article, we discuss the nucleation kinetics of supercooled sessile water droplets on hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and superhydrophobic surfaces under isothermal conditions at temperatures of -8, -10, and -15 °C and a saturated water vapor atmosphere. The statistics of nucleation events for the ensembles of freezing sessile droplets is completed by the detailed analysis of the contact angle temperature dependence and freezing of individual droplets in a saturated vapor atmosphere. We have demonstrated that the most essential freezing delay is characteristic of the superhydrophobic coating on aluminum, with the texture resistant to contact with ice and water. This delay can reach many hours at T = -8 °C and a few minutes at -23 °C. The observed behavior is analyzed on the basis of different nucleation mechanisms. The dissimilarity in the total nucleation rate, detected for two superhydrophobic substrates having the same apparent contact angle of the water drop but different resistivities of surface texture to the contact with water/ice, is associated with the contribution of heterogeneous nucleation on external centers located at the water droplet/air interface. PMID:24491217

Boinovich, Ludmila; Emelyanenko, Alexandre M; Korolev, Vadim V; Pashinin, Andrei S

2014-02-18

225

Contact freezing of supercooled cloud droplets on collision with mineral dust particles: effect of particle size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contact freezing of supercooled cloud droplets is one of the potentially important and the least investigated heterogeneous mechanism of ice formation in the tropospheric clouds [1]. On the time scales of cloud lifetime the freezing of supercooled water droplets via contact mechanism may occur at higher temperature compared to the same IN immersed in the droplet. However, the laboratory experiments of contact freezing are very challenging due to the number of factors affecting the probability of ice formation. In our experiment we study single water droplets freely levitated in the laminar flow of mineral dust particles acting as the contact freezing nuclei. By repeating the freezing experiment sufficient number of times we are able to reproduce statistical freezing behavior of large ensembles of supercooled droplets and measure the average rate of freezing events. We show that the rate of freezing at given temperature is governed only by the rate of droplet -particle collision and by the properties of the contact ice nuclei. In this contribution we investigate the relationship between the freezing probability and the size of mineral dust particle (represented by illite) and show that their IN efficiency scales with the particle size. Based on this observation, we discuss the similarity between the freezing of supercooled water droplets in immersion and contact modes and possible mechanisms of apparent enhancement of the contact freezing efficiency. [1] - K.C. Young, The role of contact nucleation in ice phase initiation in clouds, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 31, 1974

Hoffmann, Nadine; Duft, Denis; Kiselev, Alexei; Leisner, Thomas

2013-04-01

226

Differentiation of volcanic emanation around the boiling point of water in geothermal regions in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusion  The nature of the differentiation of the volcanic emanations around the boiling point of water has been made clear in detail\\u000a by this study in some geothermal regions.\\/The chemical composition of the parent volcanic emanation supplied at the Atosanupuri-Kawayu\\u000a geothermal district has been calculated by the theory of the differentiation of the magmatic emanation proposed by the present\\u000a authors. The

I. Iwasaki; T. Ozawa; M. Yoshida

1966-01-01

227

Ground-water conditions at the Veterans Facility, Castle Point, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rock aquifers in the vicinity of the Castle Point Veterans Hospital yield limited quantities of water which, in general, are sufficient for domestic and farm purposes only. The possibility of obtaining the stated quantity requirements of about 200,000 gallons daily or more from the bedrock formations seems poor with the exception of the Wappinger limestone underlying the Fishkill Valley three miles to the south.

Brashears, M.L., Jr.

1950-01-01

228

PEM Fuel Cell Freeze Durability and Cold Start Project  

SciTech Connect

UTC has taken advantage of the unique water management opportunities inherent in micro-porous bipolar-plates to improve the cold-start performance of its polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC). Diagnostic experiments were used to determine the limiting factors in micro-porous plate PEFC freeze performance and the causes of any performance decay. Alternative cell materials were evaluated for their freeze performance. Freeze-thaw cycling was also performed to determine micro-porous plate PEFC survivability. Data from these experiments has formed the basis for continuing development of advanced materials capable of supporting DOE's cold-start and durability objectives.

Patterson, T.; O'Neill, Jonathan

2008-01-02

229

Freeze-Tolerant Condensers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

2004-01-01

230

Tracking Non-point Fecal Pollution in the Guadalupe River: Distinguishing Urban and Rural Influences upon Water Quality  

E-print Network

, Assistant Professor University of Houston - Victoria Non-point fecal pollution is a problem in water bodiesTracking Non-point Fecal Pollution in the Guadalupe River: Distinguishing Urban and Rural Influences upon Water Quality Matthew Boyett University of Houston - Victoria boyettmr@uhv.edu Dmitri Sobolev

231

Control of glycerol production by rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to provide freeze resistance and allow foraging at low winter temperatures.  

PubMed

The rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is a small anadromous fish that actively feeds under the ice at temperatures as low as the freeze point of seawater. Freezing is avoided through the production of both non-colligative antifreeze protein (AFP) and glycerol that acts in a colligative manner. Glycerol is constantly lost across the gills and skin, thus glycerol production must continue on a sustained basis at low winter temperatures. AFP begins to accumulate in early fall while water temperatures are still high. Glycerol production is triggered when water temperatures decrease to about 5 degrees C. Glycerol levels rapidly increase with carbon flow from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) to glycerol. Glucose/glycogen serves as the initial carbon source for glycerol accumulation with amino acids contributing thereafter. The period of glycerol accumulation is associated with increases in GPDH mRNA and PEPCK mRNA followed by elevations in protein synthesis and enzyme activities. Plasma glycerol levels may reach in excess of 500 mM in winter. The high freeze resistance allows rainbow smelt to invade water of low temperature and forage for food. The lower the temperature, the higher the glycerol must be, and the higher the glycerol the greater the loss to the environment through diffusion. During the winter, rainbow smelt feed upon protein rich invertebrates with glycerol production being fueled in part by dietary amino acids via the gluconeogenic pathway. At winter temperatures, glycerol is quantitatively more important than AFP in providing freeze resistance of blood; however, the importance of AFPs to other tissues is yet to be assessed. Glycerol levels rapidly plummet in the spring when water temperature is still close to 0 degrees C. During this period, freeze resistance must be provided by AFP alone. Overall, the phenomenon of glycerol production by rainbow smelt reveals an elegant connection of biochemistry to ecology that allows this species to exploit an otherwise unavailable food resource. PMID:15544960

Driedzic, William R; Ewart, K Vanya

2004-11-01

232

Freezing of Nonwoody Plant Tissue  

PubMed Central

Temperature recordings of the freezing of plant tissues include two plateaus or regions of reduced slope. During the second of these, small positive spikes were observed. When a completely frozen tissue was thawed and refrozen, neither the second plateau nor the spikes were recorded. Both were present, however, if the initial freezing had been terminated before the second plateau had been reached. The spikes appear to represent the release of heat of crystallization during the freezing of individual cells. Such a freezing and thawing cycle destroys the ability of the cells to remain supercooled in the presence of the ice that is formed as the first plateau is recorded. PMID:16658774

Brown, M. S.; Pereira, E. Sa B.; Finkle, Bernard J.

1974-01-01

233

Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P < 0.05). An extender was developed to freeze ram semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for estrus synchronization during breeding season resulted in higher heat response and lambing rate than two injections given 10 days apart.

Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

1988-12-01

234

Economic incentives for the control of agricultural non-point-source water pollution  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this study is to analyze incentive-based policy alternatives for their potential to address agricultural non-point-source water pollution in a setting characterized by input market distortions. Policy alternatives considered include first-best policies such as taxes and standards on estimated effluent or on all inputs to effluent generation, as well as less-efficient tools including uniform taxes and taxes on a subset of the relevant inputs, In addition, a water market is examined as a policy that may not generate a least-cost solution to an externality but may be a good policy choice when transactions costs are considered. The empirical application for this analysis is the agricultural drainage problem in California's San Joaquin Valley. Drainage from this area contains salts, selenium, and other elements that can be toxic in high concentrations. Water prices and quantities are institutionally set in federal contract arrangements and do not reflect market forces. Hence, this problem is characterized by a non-point source pollutant and distortions in the market for an input (water). A nonlinear programming model is developed to predict changes in farmer decision making and effluent production in response to policy alternatives.

Weinberg, M.J.

1991-01-01

235

Point-of-use water disinfection using UV light-emitting diodes to reduce bacterial contamination.  

PubMed

The treatment process described in this research explores the impact of exposing water samples containing fecal coliforms to the radiation produced by single ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) operating at 265 nm. UV LEDs are long lasting, compact in size and produce more efficient light output than traditional mercury-vapour bulbs, making them ideal for application in point-of-use disinfection systems, such as in remote areas. In this study, contaminated water samples containing either a pure culture of Escherichia coli or tertiary effluent from the City of Regina Wastewater Treatment Plant were used to study the application and efficiency of using UV LEDs for water disinfection. The results indicate that bacterial inactivation was achieved in a time-dependent manner, with 1- and 2.5-log E. coli reductions in water following 20 and 50 min of UV LED exposure, respectively. Ultraviolet radiation was less effective in reducing coliform bacteria in wastewater samples due to the elevated turbidity levels. Further work remains to be completed to optimize the application of UV LEDs for point-of-use disinfection systems; however, the results from this study support that bacterial inactivation using UV LEDs is possible, meriting further future technological development of the LEDs. PMID:23423870

Nelson, Kristina Y; McMartin, Dena W; Yost, Christopher K; Runtz, Ken J; Ono, Takaya

2013-08-01

236

Assessment of ground-water contamination in the alluvial aquifer near West Point, Kentucky  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Well inventories, water level measurements, groundwater quality samples, surface geophysical techniques (specifically, electromagnetic techniques), and test drilling were used to investigate the extent and sources of groundwater contamination in the alluvial aquifer near West Point, Kentucky. This aquifer serves as the principal source of drinking water for over 50,000 people. Groundwater flow in the alluvial aquifer is generally unconfined and moves in a northerly direction toward the Ohio River. Two large public supply well fields and numerous domestic wells are located in this natural flow path. High concentrations of chloride in groundwater have resulted in the abandonment of several public supply wells in the West Point areas. Chloride concentrations in water samples collected for this study were as high as 11,000 mg/L. Electromagnetic techniques indicated and test drilling later confirmed that the source of chloride in well waters was probably improperly plugged or unplugged, abandoned oil and gas exploration wells. The potential for chloride contamination of wells exists in the study area and is related to proximity to improperly abandoned oil and gas exploration wells and to gradients established by drawdowns associated with pumped wells. Periodic use of surface geophysical methods, in combination with added observation wells , could be used to monitor significant changes in groundwater quality related to chloride contamination. (USGS)

Lyverse, M.A.; Unthank, M.D.

1988-01-01

237

Evaluating the sustainability of ceramic filters for point-of-use drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of ceramic filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles for point-of-use (POU) drinking water treatment in developing countries. The functional unit for this analysis was the amount of water consumed by a typical household over ten years (37,960 L), as delivered by either the POU technology or a centralized water treatment and distribution system. Results indicate that the ceramic filters are 3-6 times more cost-effective than the centralized water system for reduction of waterborne diarrheal illness among the general population and children under five. The ceramic filters also exhibit better environmental performance for four of five evaluated life cycle impacts: energy use, water use, global warming potential, and particulate matter emissions (PM10). For smog formation potential, the centralized system is preferable to the ceramic filter POU technology. This convergence of social, economic, and environmental criteria offers clear indication that the ceramic filter POU technology is a more sustainable choice for drinking water treatment in developing countries than the centralized treatment systems that have been widely adopted in industrialized countries. PMID:23991752

Ren, Dianjun; Colosi, Lisa M; Smith, James A

2013-10-01

238

Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

Hailey, A.E.

2001-08-22

239

Characterization of the TIP4P-Ew water model: Vapor pressure and boiling point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations correspond to fictitious substances (classical rigid liquids and classical rigid ideal gases) while experiments operate on real substances (liquids and real gases, with quantum effects). After applying analytical corrections the vapor pressure curve obtained from simulated free-energy changes is in excellent agreement with the experimental vapor pressure curve. The boiling point of TIP4P-Ew water under ambient pressure is found to be at 370.3±1.9K, about 7K higher than the boiling point of TIP4P water (363.7±5.1K; from simulations that employ finite range treatment of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions). This is in contrast to the approximately +15K by which the temperature of the density maximum and the melting temperature of TIP4P-Ew are shifted relative to TIP4P, indicating that the temperature range over which the liquid phase of TIP4P-Ew is stable is narrower than that of TIP4P and resembles more that of real water. The quality of the vapor pressure results highlights the success of TIP4P-Ew in describing the energetic and entropic aspects of intermolecular interactions in liquid water.

Horn, Hans W.; Swope, William C.; Pitera, Jed W.

2005-11-01

240

Characterization of the TIP4P-Ew water model: vapor pressure and boiling point.  

PubMed

The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400 K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations correspond to fictitious substances (classical rigid liquids and classical rigid ideal gases) while experiments operate on real substances (liquids and real gases, with quantum effects). After applying analytical corrections the vapor pressure curve obtained from simulated free-energy changes is in excellent agreement with the experimental vapor pressure curve. The boiling point of TIP4P-Ew water under ambient pressure is found to be at 370.3+/-1.9 K, about 7 K higher than the boiling point of TIP4P water (363.7+/-5.1 K; from simulations that employ finite range treatment of electrostatic and Lennard-Jones interactions). This is in contrast to the approximately +15 K by which the temperature of the density maximum and the melting temperature of TIP4P-Ew are shifted relative to TIP4P, indicating that the temperature range over which the liquid phase of TIP4P-Ew is stable is narrower than that of TIP4P and resembles more that of real water. The quality of the vapor pressure results highlights the success of TIP4P-Ew in describing the energetic and entropic aspects of intermolecular interactions in liquid water. PMID:16321097

Horn, Hans W; Swope, William C; Pitera, Jed W

2005-11-15

241

Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households

R. E. QUICK; L. V. VENCZEL; E. D. MINTZ; L. SOLETO; J. APARICIO; M. GIRONAZ; L. HUTWAGNER; K. GREENE; C. BOPP; K. MALONEY; D. CHAVEZ; M. SOBSEY; R. V. TAUXE

1999-01-01

242

Temperature dependence of water activity in aqueous solutions of sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive experimental data analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of temperature on the water activity coefficient and selected excess thermodynamic functions for aqueous solutions of sucrose. A four-suffix Margules equation with temperature-dependent parameters was used to fit thermodynamic data such as the vapor pressure, boiling point, osmotic coefficient, freezing point, sucrose solubility, heat of dilution and specific heat

Maciej Starzak; Mohamed Mathlouthi

2006-01-01

243

Disaggregating meteorites by automated freeze thaw  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated freeze-thaw (AFT) instrument for disaggregating meteorites is described. Meteorite samples are immersed in 18.2 M? water and hermetically sealed in a clean 30 ml Teflon vial. This vial and its contents are dipped between baths of liquid nitrogen and hot water over a number of cycles by a dual-stepper motor system controlled by LabView. Uniform and periodic intervals of freezing and thawing induce multiple expansions and contractions, such that cracks propagate along natural flaws in the meteorite for a sufficient number of AFT cycles. For the CR2 chondrite NWA801, the boundaries between different phases (i.e., silicates, metal, matrix) became progressively weaker and allowed for an efficient recovery of 500 individual chondrules and chondrule fragments spanning 0.2-4.7 mm diameters after 243 AFT cycles over 103.3 h. Further FT experiments on a basalt analog showed that the time required for freezing and thawing the same number of cycles can be reduced by a factor of ˜4.

Charles, Christopher R. J.

2011-06-01

244

Disaggregating meteorites by automated freeze thaw.  

PubMed

An automated freeze-thaw (AFT) instrument for disaggregating meteorites is described. Meteorite samples are immersed in 18.2 M? water and hermetically sealed in a clean 30 ml Teflon vial. This vial and its contents are dipped between baths of liquid nitrogen and hot water over a number of cycles by a dual-stepper motor system controlled by LabView. Uniform and periodic intervals of freezing and thawing induce multiple expansions and contractions, such that cracks propagate along natural flaws in the meteorite for a sufficient number of AFT cycles. For the CR2 chondrite NWA801, the boundaries between different phases (i.e., silicates, metal, matrix) became progressively weaker and allowed for an efficient recovery of 500 individual chondrules and chondrule fragments spanning 0.2-4.7 mm diameters after 243 AFT cycles over 103.3 h. Further FT experiments on a basalt analog showed that the time required for freezing and thawing the same number of cycles can be reduced by a factor of ?4. PMID:21721725

Charles, Christopher R J

2011-06-01

245

Repeated freezing induces oxidative stress and reduces survival in the freeze-tolerant goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis.  

PubMed

Freeze tolerant insects must not only survive extracellular ice formation but also the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during oxygen reperfusion upon thawing. Furthermore, diurnal fluctuations in temperature place temperate insects at risk of being exposed to multiple freeze-thaw cycles, yet few studies have examined metrics of survival and oxidative stress in freeze-tolerant insects subjected to successive freezing events. To address this, we assessed survival in larvae of the goldenrod gall fly Eurosta solidaginis, after being subjected to 0, 5, 10, 20, or 30 diurnally repeated cold exposures (RCE) to -18°C or a single freeze to -18°C for 20days. In addition, we measured indicators of oxidative stress, levels of cryoprotectants, and total aqueous antioxidant capacity in animals exposed to the above treatments at 8, 32, or 80h after their final thaw. Repeated freezing and thawing, rather than time spent frozen, reduced survival as only 30% of larvae subjected to 20 or 30 RCE successfully pupated, compared to those subjected to fewer RCE or a single 20d freeze, of which 82% pupated. RCE had little effect on the concentration of the cryoprotectant glycerol (4.26±0.66?gglycerol·ngprotein(-1) for all treatments and time points) or sorbitol (18.8±2.9?gsorbitol·mgprotein(-1) for all treatments and time points); however, sorbitol concentrations were more than twofold higher than controls (16.3±2.2?gsorbitol·mgprotein(-1)) initially after a thaw in larvae subjected to a single extended freeze, but levels returned to values similar to controls at 80h after thaw. Thawing likely produced ROS as total aqueous antioxidant capacities peaked at 1.8-fold higher than controls (14.7±1.6mmoltrolox·ngprotein(-1)) in animals exposed to 5, 10, or 20 RCE. By contrast, aqueous antioxidant capacities were similar to controls in larvae subjected to 30 RCE or the single 20d freeze regardless of time post final thaw, indicating these animals may have had an impaired ability to produce primary antioxidants. Larvae lacking an antioxidant response also had elevated levels of oxidized proteins, nearly twice that of controls (21.8±3.2mmolchloramine-T·mgprotein(-1)). Repeated freezing also lead to substantial oxidative damage to lipids that was independent of aqueous antioxidant capacity; peroxides were, on average, 5.6-fold higher in larvae subjected to 10, 20 or 30 RCE compared to controls (29.1±7.3mmolTMOP·?gprotein(-1)). These data suggest that oxidative stress due to repeated freeze-thaw cycles reduces the capacity of E. solidaginis larvae to survive freezing. PMID:24910457

Doelling, Adam R W; Griffis, Nicole; Williams, Jason B

2014-08-01

246

Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 - 8.8 ?g/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 - 0.09 ?g/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 ?g/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl chloride). Vinyl chloride concentrations surpassed Danish stream water quality criteria with a factor 10. The largest chemical impact occurs at the reach downstream Grindsted city revealing that the main contaminant groundwater discharge zones are found here. The contaminant plume from the factory site north of the stream is known to impact the stream whereas the impact by the old landfill south of the stream remains to be assessed. A conceptual model of the chemical impacts by the identified sources was made, and high impact was assigned to the contaminant plume from the factory site and to the diffuse sources of urban-use and agricultural pesticides. The next step will be a quantification of the sources, which will be presented at the conference.

Petersen, M. F.; Eriksson, E.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

2012-04-01

247

Point-of-use reduction of volatile halogenated organics in drinking water. Final report, September 1982-March 1985  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of drinking water by organic chemicals has become a national problem of increasing concern. Small communities faced with the problem of removing these contaminants have limited resources and often cannot afford traditional treatment approaches. One approach which has the potential to be cost effective is treatment at the home, or point-of-use treatment. This report discusses the results of a study of point-of-use treatment of contaminated ground water in two small communities. Costs for purchase, installation, monitoring, and maintenance are documented and discussed. The effect of the point-of-use treatment on the drinking-water quality is presented.

Bellen, G.; Gottler, R.; Anderson, M.

1985-09-01

248

A water quality monitoring network design methodology for the selection of critical sampling points: Part I.  

PubMed

The principal instrument to temporally and spatially manage water resources is a water quality monitoring network. However, to date in most cases, there is a clear absence of a concise strategy or methodology for designing monitoring networks, especially when deciding upon the placement of sampling stations. Since water quality monitoring networks can be quite costly, it is very important to properly design the monitoring network so that maximum information extraction can be accomplished, which in turn is vital when informing decision-makers. This paper presents the development of a methodology for identifying the critical sampling locations within a watershed. Hence, it embodies the spatial component in the design of a water quality monitoring network by designating the critical stream locations that should ideally be sampled. For illustration purposes, the methodology focuses on a single contaminant, namely total phosphorus, and is applicable to small, upland, predominantly agricultural-forested watersheds. It takes a number of hydrologic, topographic, soils, vegetative, and land use factors into account. In addition, it includes an economic as well as logistical component in order to approximate the number of sampling points required for a given budget and to only consider the logistically accessible stream reaches in the analysis, respectively. The methodology utilizes a geographic information system (GIS), hydrologic simulation model, and fuzzy logic. PMID:16404538

Strobl, R O; Robillard, P D; Shannon, R D; Day, R L; McDonnell, A J

2006-01-01

249

Melting and Freezing Under the Ross Ice Shelf: Lessons From an Impacted Cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dimensions of ice shelves are strongly influenced by the temperature and circulation of the underlying ocean. Inflow temperatures vary by about three degrees, with most ice shelves floating in seawater near the in situ freezing point. Circulation under the ice depends on modifications of the thermohaline field by melting, freezing and tidal mixing, which determine the vertical stratification and heat flux. Observations near ice fronts have previously been used to estimate the amount of meltwater present in outflows from ice shelf cavities. While limited by the seasonality and dynamic range of the measurements, along with discrete sampling methods and uncertain source water assumptions, geochemical data add valuable information to the more commonly utilized temperature and salinity fields. Here we evaluate repeat chlorofluorocarbon and thermohaline sections in a region that has experienced a multidecadal decline in shelf water salinity. Inferences about net basal melting are compared with results from numerical models and bottom-moored instruments. Ice shelf cavities are sinks for much of the high salinity shelf water produced by sea ice formation. Outflows from those cavities reflect the properties of shelf water inflows, and affect the salinity and density of downstream bottom water production. We suggest future work that could help to better understand ocean forcing of ice shelf change in an evolving climate.

Jacobs, S. S.; Smethie, W. M.; Assmann, K. M.; Holland, D. M.; Bergamasco, A.

2003-12-01

250

Solid - liquid phase diagram for ethylene glycol + water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing point data for the system (ethylene glycol + water) were measured independently by two different laboratories. Measurements were made over the entire composition range with particular emphasis on mixtures containing from 55 to 85 weight percent ethylene glycol. Using time vs. temperature cooling and warming curves, the solid-liquid phase diagram of ethylene glycol and water mixtures was determined. The

Dennis R. Cordray; Lisa R. Kaplan; Peter M. Woyciesjes; Theodore F. Kozak

1996-01-01

251

Remember the water - a comment on EPS colligative properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between water and activated sludge components was examined. Reevaluation of published data on freezing point depression, drying rates and dewatering has been performed. The basis of this has been the assumption that the water\\/sludge relationship is considered to be a colligative effect. Since the results indicate this to be the case, we suggest that the published concepts of

K. Keiding; L. Wybrandt; P. H. Nielsen

252

Freezing of barley studied by infrared video thermography.  

PubMed

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s(-1), and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s(-1). Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below -2 degrees C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

Pearce, R S; Fuller, M P

2001-01-01

253

Effects of in vitro selenium addition to the semen extender on the spermatozoa characteristics before and after freezing in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of in vitro supplementation of selenium on fresh and frozen spermatozoa quality of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ?C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 µg mL-1 sodium selenite and the sperm motility and viability were evaluated at 0 (T0) (immediately after dilution), 60 (T1) and 120 (T2) min after diluting semen. In the second step, semen samples were diluted with tris-egg yolk-glycerol extender containing the same amounts of sodium selenite, cooled to 4 ?C, equilibrated and semen parameters (motility, viability, membrane integrity and DNA damage) were estimated. Then, the semen was packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Later, the semen was thawed and analyzed for the same parameters, as well as total antioxidant capacity. Results showed that addition of 1 and 2 µgmL-1 selenium to the semen extender significantly increased the sperm motility of fresh and equilibrated semen compared to the control without affecting other parameters. However, in frozen-thawed semen, extenders containing 1 and 2 µg mL-1 selenium significantly improved sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity and semen total antioxidant capacity and also resulted in lower DNA damaged sperms. In this study selenium supplementation of semen extender of 4 and 8 µg mL-1 had deleterious effects on sperm parameters as early as the samples were prepared for freezing.

Dorostkar, Kamran; Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Mokarizadeh, Aram

2012-01-01

254

Mice use start point orientation to solve spatial problems in a water T-maze.  

PubMed

Behavioral work has demonstrated that rats solve many spatial problems using a conditional strategy based on orientation at the start point. The present study assessed whether mice use a similar strategy and whether the strategy would be affected by the poorer directional sensitivity of mice. In Experiment 1, mice were trained on a response, a direction or one of two place problems to locate a hidden platform in a water T-maze located in two positions. In the response task, mice made a right (or left) turn from two different start points located 180° apart. In the direction task, the maze was shifted (to the left or right) and the start points rotated by 180° across trials, but the platform was in a constant direction relative to room cues. In the translation place task, the mice were trained to locate the platform in a fixed location relative to extra-maze cues when the maze was shifted across trials, but the orientation of the start arm did not change. In the rotation place task, the mice were trained to locate the platform in a fixed location when the maze was shifted and the start points rotated by 90° across trials. As previously reported with rats, mice had difficulty solving the translation place problem compared with the other three problems. Unlike rats, mice learned the direction problem in significantly fewer trials than the rotation problem. This difference between acquisition of the direction and rotation problems was replicated in Experiment 2. The difficulty mice have in discriminating start point orientations that are 90° apart as opposed to 180° apart can be attributed to the broader firing ranges of HD cells in mice compared with rats. PMID:25060577

Cahill, Shaina P A; Fifield, Kathleen E; Thorpe, Christina M; Martin, Gerard M; Skinner, Darlene M

2015-01-01

255

Freeze Tolerant Radiator for an Advanced EMU  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an Extravehicular Activity (EVA), the astronaut s metabolic heat and the heat produced by the Portable Life Support Unit (PLSS) must be rejected. This heat load is currently rejected by a sublimator, which vents up to eight pounds of water each EVA. However, for advanced space missions of the future, water venting to space needs to be minimized because resupply impacts from earth will be prohibitive. If this heat load could be radiated to space from the PLSS, which has enough surface area to radiate most of the heat, the amount of water now vented could be greatly reduced. Unfortunately, a radiator rejects heat at a relatively constant rate, but the astronauts generate a variable heat load depending on how hard they are working. Without a way to vary the heat removal rate, the astronaut would experience cold discomfort or even frostbite. A proven method allowing a radiator to be turned-down is to sequentially allow tubes that carry the heat transfer fluid to the radiator to freeze. A drawback of current freezable radiators using this method is that they are far to heavy for use on a PLSS, because they use heavy construction to prevent the tubes from bursting as they freeze and thaw. This creates the need for a large radiator to reject most of the heat but with a lightweight tube that doesn t burst as it freezes and thaws. The new freezable radiator for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has features to accommodate the expansion of the radiator fluid when it freezes, and still have the high tube to fin conductance needed to minimize the number and weight of the tubes. Radiator fluid candidates are water and a propylene glycol-water mixture. This design maintains all materials within their elastic limits so that large volume changes can be achieved without breaking the tube. This concept couples this elastic expansion with an extremely lightweight, extremely high conductivity carbon fiber fin that can carry the heat needed to thaw a frozen tube. By using most of the exposed surface area of the PLSS as a radiator, the system can reject about 75% of the highest heat load, and reduce the loss of water through sublimation by a factor of four. The proposed radiator and a small water tank can be no heavier than the current system.

Copeland, Robert J.; Elliott, Jeannine; Weislogel, Mark

2004-01-01

256

Sinkholes in West-central Florida, Freeze Event of 2010  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sinkholes damage roadways and require constant maintenance for road safety. More than 110 sinkholes formed in the Dover area of Florida during a freeze event in January 2010. Ground water levels dropped to record-setting lows as farmers pumped water to irrigate their plants for protection ...

257

Sinkholes in West-central Florida, Freeze Event of 2010  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

More than 110 sinkholes formed in the Dover area of Florida during a freeze event in January 2010. Ground water levels dropped to record-setting lows as farmers pumped water to irrigate their plants for protection from the cold temperatures. The sinkholes destroyed homes, roads and se...

258

Sinkholes in West-central Florida, Freeze Event of 2010  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A sinkhole formed in a roadway caused traffic to detour around it while it is filled in, stabilized and repaved. More than 110 sinkholes formed in the Dover area of Florida during a freeze event in January 2010. Ground water levels dropped to record-setting lows as farmers pumped water to...

259

Sinkholes in West-central Florida, Freeze Event of 2010  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sinkholes affect roadway safety and require constant maintenance and monitoring. More than 110 sinkholes formed in the Dover area of Florida during a freeze event in January 2010. Ground water levels dropped to record-setting lows as farmers pumped water to irrigate their plants for p...

260

Sinkholes in West-central Florida, Freeze Event of 2010  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The entire root perimeter of this tree collapsed in response to subsidence activity. More than 110 sinkholes formed in the Dover area of Florida during a freeze event in January 2010. Ground water levels dropped to record-setting lows as farmers pumped water to irrigate their plants for pr...

261

Weight loss during freezing and storage of unpackaged foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dehydration of unwrapped foods occurs during freezing and frozen storage. Coupled heat and mass balances were proposed incorporating solidification of water and sublimation of ice. The mathematical model was solved using an implicit finite-differences method, with a variable grid to follow the moving sublimation front. The model evaluates temperature and water concentration profiles and was used to predict the kinetics

L. A. Campañone; V. O. Salvadori; R. H. Mascheroni

2001-01-01

262

On the osmotically unresponsive water compartment in cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in colligative properties (freezing point, boiling point, vapor pressure and osmotic behavior) between water in living cells and pure bulk water were investigated by re-evaluating reports of the osmotic behavior of mammalian cells. In five different animal cells, osmotically unresponsive water (OUW) values ranged from 1.1 to 2.2g per g dry mass. Detailed analysis of human red blood cell

Gary D. Fullerton; Kalpana M. Kanal; Ivan L. Cameron

2006-01-01

263

Fate of Arsenic at a Landfill Plume Discharge Point Into Surface Water, Central Massachusetts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fate of dissolved arsenic in ground water at the point of discharge into surface water raises a concern about the public health and the environment due to a potential of arsenic accumulation in the bottom sediments. Dissolved arsenic may become sorbed on amorphous precipitates of ferric hydroxides formed by a changing redox potential during the discharge and then locally deposited. Many landfill plumes and natural reducing ground waters in Central Massachusetts have dissolved arsenic well above the EPA 10 ? g/L MCL level that could cause a local arsenic accumulation. The area of this study stretches along several man-made ponds in North Central Massachusetts located down gradient from (1) a landfill plume in which dissolved arsenic ranges between 50 and 700 ? g/L occasionally up to 5,000 ? g/L; (2) reduced natural ground water where dissolved arsenic can be as high as 200 ? g/L; and (3) oxygenated natural ground water with dissolved arsenic levels below 10 ? g/L. Bottom sediments were collected at 34 separate sites and additional samples were obtained from two to three foot cores at a subset of 9 sites. All samples were analyzed for extractable As, Fe, Ni, and other metals. Samples of bottom sediments near a discharge of the landfill plume form a layer highly enriched in Fe and As. Iron approaches the composition of 100% ferric hydroxides (390,000 and 420,000 mg/kg of Fe respectively). Corresponding arsenic values are 6,800 and 3,900 mg/kg which are nearly 100x the typical background values of arsenic in soils in this area. Arsenic concentrations in other sediments of the landfill plume area have a range from 220 to 2,000 mg/kg. Depth gradients from core sections indicate a decreasing As and Fe trend, yet significantly elevated arsenic levels are still detected at 2 ft depth (30 to 1,200 mg/kg of As). Sediments from the area where a reducing natural water mixes with the surface water have arsenic values that are 3 to 5 times the background soils (As range in the sediments: 66 to 140 mg/kg); no arsenic was detected at 2 ft depth (typical detection limit between 10 and 20 mg/kg). Sediments from the discharge area of oxygenated ground water have arsenic values indistinguishable from the background soils.

Brandon, W. C.; Hon, R.

2004-12-01

264

Freezing potentials arising on solidification of dilute aqueous solutions of electrolytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theory of the Workman-Reynolds effect [E.J. Workman and S.E. Reynolds, Phys. Rev. 78 (1950) 254] - the difference in electric potentials between dilute aqueous solution (water with impurities) and an ice crystal growing from the solution - is developed. The effect arises from inequality between distribution coefficients for solute cations and anions. At the beginning of solidification, the predominantly trapped ions from in ice a space charge layer parallel to the ice-water interface. An excess of counterions accumulates in the water next to the interface. The impurity cations and anions in ice then are neutralized by highly mobile OH - and H 3O + groups (ionization defects) supplied by thermal dissociation of H 2O molecules in ice. Uncompensated ionization defects remaining after neutralization are moved by the electric field to the growing interface, encountering and neutralizing ions of solute. Thus the space charge layer of impurity follows the growth front. At the same time the oppositely charged layer of counterions is pushed ahead of the interface. The potential difference between the two layers - here considered as "capacitor plates" - is the freezing potential. It is calculated taking into account a current of OH - and H 3O + ions from water to ice. Our theory predicts that the freezing potential arises only when the product of growth rate and impurity concentration at the front exceeds a critical value that depends on pH, at which point the potential increases with the growth rate up to tens and hundreds of volts. The calculations presented in this paper qualitatively explain the experimental dependence of the transient potential difference on crystal thickness, rate of crystal growth, initial solute concentration, and the pH of water. In the case of instability of the ice crystallization front the theory predicts a rapid neutralization of the electrical charge in ice, a decrease of the crystallization potential, and a substantial change in acidity of the water remaining unfrozen. This change in pH is proportional to the logarithm of the ratio of the total ice-water interface area and the unfrozen water volume. Chemical reactions caused by this change in pH are called freezing (crystallization) hydrolysis. The experiments described demonstrate freezing hydrolysis of potassium ferricyanide (a reduction of K 3Fe(CN) 6 to K 4Fe(CN) 6) in a frozen NaCl-K 3Fe(CN) 6-H 2O solution.

Bronshteyn, Viktor L.; Chernov, Alexander A.

1991-05-01

265

Global pollution of surface waters from point and nonpoint sources of nitrogen.  

PubMed

Global 0.5- by 0.5-degree resolution estimates are presented on the fate of nitrogen (N) stemming from point and nonpoint sources, including plant uptake, denitrification, leaching from the rooting zone, rapid flow through shallow groundwater, and slow flow through deep groundwater to riverine systems. Historical N inputs are used to describe the N flows in groundwater. For nonpoint N sources (agricultural and natural ecosystems), calculations are based on local hydrology, climate, geology, soils, climate and land use combined with data for 1995 on crop production, N inputs from N fertilizers and animal manure, and estimates for ammonia emissions, biological N fixation, and N deposition. For point sources, our estimates are based on population densities and human N emissions, sanitation, and treatment. The results provide a first insight into the magnitude of the N losses from soil-plant systems and point sources in various parts of the world, and the fate of N during transport in atmosphere, groundwater, and surface water. The contribution to the river N load by anthropogenic N pollution is dominant in many river basins in Europe, Asia, and North Africa. Our model results explain much of the variation in measured N export from different world river basins. PMID:12805818

van Drecht, G; Bouwman, A F; Knoop, J M; Meinardi, C; Beusen, A

2001-11-01

266

Freezing Poultry for Home Use  

E-print Network

. ? As you work, keep the cutting surface and utensils clean. ? Work quickly and place the poultry in the freezer as quickly as possible. ? Do not let raw poultry juices contaminate ready-to-eat foods. Answering the following questions will help you decide.... Since most homes do not have a quick-freeze unit and since poultry meat freezes slowly in a regular freezer, use these tips to help your poultry freeze faster. n If you use home-processed poultry, put it in an ice slush bath to chill the carcass...

Davis, Michael

2006-08-31

267

A NEW FREEZING-ULTRAMICROTOME  

PubMed Central

The difficulties in sectioning frozen biological objects for electron microscopic investigations are overcome by Steere's freezing-etching method. In order to test this method and to open up a wide field of application, the new freezing-ultramicrotome has been designed. The apparatus consists of the combination of an ultramicrotome with freezing-drying and shadow-casting installations in the same vacuum container. The preliminary results show, on the one hand, the practicability of all preparational steps and, on the other, that it is possible to resolve internal structures of cell organelles and even macromolecular patterns. PMID:13772269

Moor, H.; Mühlethaler, K.; Waldner, H.; Frey-Wyssling, A.

1961-01-01

268

322 sperm preservation by freeze-drying in endangered animals.  

PubMed

Sperm preservation is a useful tool for conservation of endangered animals. Freeze-drying sperm have been studied as new preservation method in various mammals as samples can be preserved in a refrigerator at 4°C or ambient temperature. Sperm preservation by freeze-drying is the ultimate method by which sperm can be stored that neither required specialised cryoprotectants nor constant supply of liquid nitrogen. We established the freeze-drying method that mouse and rat sperm could be preserved long-term at 4°C after freeze-drying using a simple solution containing 10mM Tris and 1mM EDTA (TE buffer; 2012 PLoS ONE 7, e35043; 2012 Cryobiology 64, 211-214). Using this method, the fertility of the chimpanzee, giraffe, and jaguar sperm after freeze-drying were estimated. Ejaculated chimpanzee and giraffe and cauda epididymal jaguar sperm were freeze-dried using TE buffer. Sperm were rehydrated with sterile distilled water after storage at 4°C for 1 month. Sperm with normal shape were injected into mouse oocytes in CZB medium with HEPES, and oocytes were then cultured in vitro for 6 to 8h in the same media. In all animals, pronuclei and sperm tail were observed into oocytes without artificial activation after injection of freeze-dried sperm. When chimpanzee, giraffe, and jaguar sperm were injected into oocytes, 86% (12/14), 100% (12/12), and 96% (22/23) of oocytes formed 2 distinct pronuclei. This study demonstrated that the sperm of various animals could be decondensed into the mouse oocytes after freeze-drying using the same protocol. A further advantage is that freeze-dried sperm can be transported oversea at ambient temperature. Freeze-drying preservation without using liquid nitrogen can be protected strongly valuable gametes of endangered animals even in the event of unexpected accidents and disaster such as earthquakes and typhoons. Freeze-drying of sperm has been applied as a "freeze-drying zoo" for conservation of endangered animals (http://www.anim.med.kyoto-u.ac.jp/reproduction/home.aspx). PMID:25472370

Kaneko, T

2014-12-01

269

Assessing point-of-use ultraviolet disinfection for safe water in urban developing communities.  

PubMed

Residents of urban developing communities often have a tap in their home providing treated and sometimes filtered water but its microbial quality cannot be guaranteed. Point-of-use (POU) disinfection systems can provide safe drinking water to the millions who lack access to clean water in urban communities. While many POU systems exist, there are several concerns that can lead to low user acceptability, including low flow rate, taste and odor issues, high cost, recontamination, and ineffectiveness at treating common pathogens. An ultraviolet (UV) POU system was constructed utilizing developing community-appropriate materials and simple construction techniques based around an inexpensive low-wattage, low pressure UV bulb. The system was tested at the bench scale to characterize its hydrodynamic properties and microbial disinfection efficacy. Hydraulically the system most closely resembled a plug flow reactor with minor short-circuiting. The system was challenge tested and validated for a UV fluence of 50 mJ/cm(2) and greater, over varying flow rates and UV transmittances, corresponding to a greater than 4 log reduction of most pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa of public health concern. This study presents the designed system and testing results to demonstrate the potential architecture of a low-cost, open-source UV system for further prototyping and field-testing. PMID:25473974

Barstow, Christina K; Dotson, Aaron D; Linden, Karl G

2014-12-01

270

Incorporation of copper nanoparticles into paper for point-of-use water purification.  

PubMed

As a cost-effective alternative to silver nanoparticles, we have investigated the use of copper nanoparticles in paper filters for point-of-use water purification. This work reports an environmentally benign method for the direct in situ preparation of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in paper by reducing sorbed copper ions with ascorbic acid. Copper nanoparticles were quickly formed in less than 10 min and were well distributed on the paper fiber surfaces. Paper sheets were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Antibacterial activity of the CuNP sheets was assessed for by passing Escherichia coli bacteria suspensions through the papers. The effluent was analyzed for viable bacteria and copper release. The CuNP papers with higher copper content showed a high bacteria reduction of log 8.8 for E. coli. The paper sheets containing copper nanoparticles were effective in inactivating the test bacteria as they passed through the paper. The copper levels released in the effluent water were below the recommended limit for copper in drinking water (1 ppm). PMID:25014431

Dankovich, Theresa A; Smith, James A

2014-10-15

271

Correlation between the solubility of aromatic hydrocarbons in water and micellar solutions, with their normal boiling points  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linear correlation between the logarithm of the solubility in water of aromatic hydrocarbons and their normal boiling points is shown. Similarly, the logarithm of the distribution ratio of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous micellar solution is shown to be linearly related to the boiling points of the hydrocarbons. 2 figures, 2 tables.

Mats Almgren; Franz Grieser; James R. Powell; J. Kerry Thomas

1979-01-01

272

Exposing a dynamical signature of the freezing transition through the sound propagation gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional view of freezing holds that nuclei of the crystal phase form in the metastable fluid through purely stochastic thermal density fluctuations. The possibility of a change in the character of the fluctuations as the freezing point is traversed is beyond the scope of this perspective. Here we show that this perspective may be incomplete by examination of the time autocorrelation function of the longitudinal current, computed by molecular dynamics for the hard-sphere fluid around its freezing point. In the spatial window where sound is overdamped, we identify a change in the long-time decay of the correlation function at the known freezing points of monodisperse and moderately polydisperse systems. The fact that these findings agree with previous experimental studies of colloidal systems in which particle are subject to diffusive dynamics, suggests that the dynamical signature we identify with the freezing transition is a consequence of packing effects alone.

Martinez, V. A.; Zaccarelli, E.; Sanz, E.; Valeriani, C.; van Megen, W.

2014-11-01

273

Exposing a dynamical signature of the freezing transition through the sound propagation gap.  

PubMed

The conventional view of freezing holds that nuclei of the crystal phase form in the metastable fluid through purely stochastic thermal density fluctuations. The possibility of a change in the character of the fluctuations as the freezing point is traversed is beyond the scope of this perspective. Here we show that this perspective may be incomplete by examination of the time autocorrelation function of the longitudinal current, computed by molecular dynamics for the hard-sphere fluid around its freezing point. In the spatial window where sound is overdamped, we identify a change in the long-time decay of the correlation function at the known freezing points of monodisperse and moderately polydisperse systems. The fact that these findings agree with previous experimental studies of colloidal systems in which particle are subject to diffusive dynamics, suggests that the dynamical signature we identify with the freezing transition is a consequence of packing effects alone. PMID:25429604

Martinez, V A; Zaccarelli, E; Sanz, E; Valeriani, C; van Megen, W

2014-01-01

274

Cirrus crystal nucleation by homogeneous freezing of solution droplets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model consisting of a system of differential equations is used to study cirrus crystal nucleation in a rising parcel containing a distribution of cloud condensation nuclei. The evolution of the particle population and the thermodynamic variables in the parcel are examined. The results suggest that, if homogeneous freezing is not considered, liquid water should be detected below -40 C. If homogeneous freezing is considered, the rapid growth of ice crystals and vapor depletion prevent water saturation from being reached. It is shown that the likelihood of a droplet being frozen is increased by lower temperatures, larger droplet diameter, or lower solution density.

Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Sabin, Robert M.

1989-01-01

275

Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

276

Hydrogen-bond dynamics for the extended simple point-charge model of water Francis W. Starr,1,  

E-print Network

Hydrogen-bond dynamics for the extended simple point-charge model of water Francis W. Starr,1 1999; revised manuscript received 22 February 2000 We study hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquid water and geometric definitions of a hydrogen bond, and employ two analysis methods: i a history-dependent correlation

Stanley, H. Eugene

277

1. Coastal waters are often exposed to heavy metals (HM) introduced from point and diffusive sources. Chronic and  

E-print Network

1. Coastal waters are often exposed to heavy metals (HM) introduced from point and diffusive and ALF3-ALF6. Sampling during 04/2004 5. Heavy metals concentration in Amphistegina lobifera is far higher than in sea water. Heavy metals concentration in seawater 4. Most of the dissolved heavy metals

Einat, Aharonov

278

Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This

B. Onabolu; O. D. Jimoh; S. B. Igboro; M. K. C. Sridhar; G. Onyilo; A. Gege; R. Ilya

2011-01-01

279

Osmotically unresponsive water fraction on proteins: Non-ideal osmotic pressure of bovine serum albumin as a function of pH and salt concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much does protein-associated water differ in colligative properties (freezing point, boiling point, vapor pressure and osmotic behavior) from pure bulk water? This question was approached by studying the globular protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), using changes in pH and salt concentration to alter its native structural conformation and state of aggregation. BSA osmotic pressure was investigated experimentally and analyzed

Gary D. Fullerton; Kalpana M. Kanal; Ivan L. Cameron

2006-01-01

280

Semi-Lagrangian integration of a grid-point shallow water model on the sphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a semi-Lagrangian technique for integrating the equations of motion on the global domain. The technique uses an auxiliary spherical coordinate system at each near-polar gridpoint of the latitude-longitude grid; the auxiliary system is obtained by a rotation such that the new equator passes through the gridpoint in question and the new coordinate directions coincide with those of the original system at that point. The technique was applied to the shallow water equations, incorporating a semiimplicit treatment of the adjustment terms on a C-grid, with two-time levels. A five day integration was successfully carried out for a situation involving strong cross-polar flow. No filtering or diffusion was required to maintain stability over a five day period.

Mcdonald, A.; Bates, J. R.

1988-01-01

281

Freezing efficiency of Silver Iodide, ATD and Kaolinite in the contact freezing mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of heterogeneous ice nucleation via contact freezing is one of the open questions in the atmospheric science community. In our laboratory, we built the Collision Nucleation CHamber (CLINCH) (Ladino et al. 2011) in which falling cloud droplets can collide with aerosol particles. In this study, contact freezing experiments are conducted to investigate the ice nucleation ability of silver iodide (AgI), kaolinite and Arizona Test Dust (ATD). Silver iodide has been known for its ice nucleation ability since 1940s (Vonnegut 1947) while kaolinite is a clay mineral and known to be a moderate ice nucleus. ATD is a commercial dust sample used by many groups to compare different setups. In CLINCH, size selected aerosol particles collide with water droplets of 80 µm diameter. With the extension in chamber length it is possible to vary the interaction time of ice nuclei and the droplets. Our experiments are performed between -10 to -36 ºC for various concentrations of ice nuclei and different interaction times. The frozen fraction of the droplets is determined using the custom-made depolarization detector IODE (Nicolet et al., 2010). Depolarization of linearly polarized incident laser light is used to determine the ratio of frozen droplets to all droplets. Frozen fractions of the three particle types with different residence times from CLINCH will be presented in this study. The number of collisions between a single droplet and several aerosol particles can be calculated by accounting for the theoretical collision efficiency at the experimental conditions in order to obtain the freezing efficiency (frozen fraction/number of collisions). Nucleation efficiency is compared with other contact freezing studies and with immersion freezing

Nagare, Baban; Marcolli, Claudia; Stetzer, Olaf; Lohmann, Ulrike

2014-05-01

282

The Ammonia Freeze Explosion (AFEX) process  

SciTech Connect

The Ammonia Freeze Explosion (AFEX) process treats lignocellulose with high-pressure liquid ammonia, and then explosively releases the pressure. The combined chemical effect (cellulose decrystallization) and physical effect (increased accessible surface area) dramatically increase lignocellulose susceptibility to enzymatic attack. There are many adjustable parameters in the AFEX process: ammonia loading, water loading, temperature, time, blowdown pressure, and number of treatments. The effect of these parameters on enzymatic susceptibility was explored for three materials: Coastal bermudagrass, bagasse, and newspaper. Nearly quantitative sugar yields were demonstrated for Coastal bermudagrass and bagasse, using a very low enzyme loading (5 IU/g). Newspaper proved to be much more resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis.

Holtzapple, M.T.; Jae-Hoon Jun; Ganesh Ashok; Patibandla, S.L.; Dale, B.E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

1991-12-31

283

Water-quality, water-level, and lake-bottom-sediment data collected from the defense fuel supply point and adjacent properties, Hanahan, South Carolina, 1990-96  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 9-year scientific investigation to determine the potential for biore-mediation of ground-water contamination and to monitor the effectiveness of an engineered bioremediation system located at the Defense Fuel Supply Point and adjacent properties in Hanahan, S.C., has culminated in the collection of abundant water-quality and water-level data.This report presents the analytical results of the study that monitored the changes in surface- and ground-water quality and water-table elevations in the study area from December 1990 to January 1996. This report also presents analytical results of lake-bottom sediments collected in the study area.

Petkewich, M.D.; Vroblesky, D.A.; Robertson, J.F.; Bradley, P.M.

1997-01-01

284

Instantaneous normal mode analysis for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from atomic point of view  

SciTech Connect

By exploiting the instantaneous normal mode (INM) analysis for models of flexible molecules, we investigate intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from the atomic point of view. With two flexible SPC/E models, our investigations include three aspects about their INM spectra, which are separated into the unstable, intermolecular, bending, and stretching bands. First, the O- and H-atom contributions in the four INM bands are calculated and their stable INM spectra are compared with the power spectra of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions. The unstable and intermolecular bands of the flexible models are also compared with those of the SPC/E model of rigid molecules. Second, we formulate the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the INMs, respectively, for the O- and H-atom and molecule. With the IPRs, the numbers of the three species participated in the INMs are estimated so that the localization characters of the INMs in each band are studied. Further, by the ratio of the IPR of the H atom to that of the O atom, we explore the number of involved OH bond per molecule participated in the INMs. Third, by classifying simulated molecules into subensembles according to the geometry of their local environments or their H-bond configurations, we examine the local-structure effects on the bending and stretching INM bands. All of our results are verified to be insensible to the definition of H-bond. Our conclusions about the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations in water are given.

Chen, Yu-Chun; Tang, Ping-Han [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ten-Ming, E-mail: tmw@faculty.nctu.edu.tw [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2013-11-28

285

Instantaneous normal mode analysis for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from atomic point of view.  

PubMed

By exploiting the instantaneous normal mode (INM) analysis for models of flexible molecules, we investigate intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from the atomic point of view. With two flexible SPC/E models, our investigations include three aspects about their INM spectra, which are separated into the unstable, intermolecular, bending, and stretching bands. First, the O- and H-atom contributions in the four INM bands are calculated and their stable INM spectra are compared with the power spectra of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions. The unstable and intermolecular bands of the flexible models are also compared with those of the SPC/E model of rigid molecules. Second, we formulate the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the INMs, respectively, for the O- and H-atom and molecule. With the IPRs, the numbers of the three species participated in the INMs are estimated so that the localization characters of the INMs in each band are studied. Further, by the ratio of the IPR of the H atom to that of the O atom, we explore the number of involved OH bond per molecule participated in the INMs. Third, by classifying simulated molecules into subensembles according to the geometry of their local environments or their H-bond configurations, we examine the local-structure effects on the bending and stretching INM bands. All of our results are verified to be insensible to the definition of H-bond. Our conclusions about the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations in water are given. PMID:24289362

Chen, Yu-Chun; Tang, Ping-Han; Wu, Ten-Ming

2013-11-28

286

Thermal stresses from large volumetric expansion during freezing of biomaterials.  

PubMed

Thermal stresses were studied in freezing of biomaterials containing significant amounts of water. An apparent specific heat formulation of the energy equation and a viscoelastic model for the mechanics problem were used to analyze the transient axi-symmetric freezing of a long cylinder. Viscoelastic properties were measured in an Instron machine. Results show that, before phase change occurs at any location, both radial and circumferential stresses are tensile and keep increasing until phase change begins. The maximum principal tensile stress during phase change increases with a decrease in boundary temperature (faster cooling). This is consistent with experimentally observed fractures at a lower boundary temperature. Large volumetric expansion during water to ice transformation was shown to be the primary contributor to large stress development. For very rapid freezing, relaxation may not be significant, and an elastic model may be sufficient. PMID:10412455

Shi, X; Datta, A K; Mukherjee, Y

1998-12-01

287

Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300?mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

Udani, Jay K.; George, Annie A.; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N.; Abas, Azreena

2014-01-01

288

Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.  

PubMed

Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300?mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

2014-01-01

289

Frost heave susceptibility of saturated soil under constant rate of freezing  

SciTech Connect

Introduced are the results of experiments carried out to quantitatively obtain the frost heave pressure and displacement of soil subjected to artificial freezing or freezing around in-ground liquefied natural gas storage tanks. This experiment is conducted to evaluate the frost heave susceptibility of saturated soil under overconsolidation. In other words, this experiment was carried out to obtain the relation of the over-burden pressure and freezing rate to the frost heave ratio by observing the frost heave displacement and freezing time of specimens by freezing the specimens at a constant freezing rate under a constant overburden pressure, while letting water freely flow in and out of the system. Introduced are the procedures for frost heave test required to quantitatively obtain the frost heave displacement and pressure of soil. Furthermore, the relation between the frost heave susceptibility and physical properties of soil obtained by this test is reported.

Ryokai, K.; Iguro, M.; Yoneyama, K.

1982-01-01

290

The Application of Soft-sensor Technology in Measuring Water Boiling Point  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of calcifying water, the speed of calcifying water varies when the quantity is different. Taking the speed of calcifying water as a detecting signal, in the process of calcifying water, a maths model of calcifying water is established to differentiate the quantity of water for the purpose of replacing sensor through using subsection optimal slope mean to

Chen Baojun; Zhong Chongquan; Yang Suying; Yan Ming

2007-01-01

291

Freezing Tolerance of Citrus, Spinach, and Petunia Leaf Tissue 1  

PubMed Central

Seasonal variations in freezing tolerance, water content, water and osmotic potential, and levels of soluble sugars of leaves of field-grown Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis) trees were studied to determine the ability of citrus trees to cold acclimate under natural conditions. Controlled environmental studies of young potted citrus trees, spinach (Spinacia pleracea), and petunia (Petunia hybrids) were carried out to study the water relations during cold acclimation under less variable conditions. During the coolest weeks of the winter, leaf water content and osmotic potential of field-grown trees decreased about 20 to 25%, while soluble sugars increased by 100%. At the same time, freezing tolerance increased from lethal temperature for 50% (LT50) of ?2.8 to ?3.8°C. In contrast, citrus leaves cold acclimated at a constant 10°C in growth chambers were freezing tolerant to about ?6°C. The calculated freezing induced cellular dehydration at the LT50 remained relatively constant for field-grown leaves throughout the year, but increased for leaves of plants cold acclimated at 10°C in a controlled environment. Spinach leaves cold acclimated at 5°C tolerated increased cellular dehydration compared to nonacclimated leaves. Cold acclimated petunia leaves increased in freezing tolerance by decreasing osmotic potential, but had no capacity to change cellular dehydration sensitivity. The result suggest that two cold acclimation mechanisms are involved in both citrus and spinach leaves and only one in petunia leaves. The common mechanism in all three species tested was a minor increase in tolerance (about ?1°C) resulting from low temperature induced osmotic adjustment, and the second in citrus and spinach was a noncolligative mechanism that increased the cellular resistance to freeze hydration. PMID:16666563

Yelenosky, George; Guy, Charles L.

1989-01-01

292

Synchrotron x-ray visualisation of ice formation in insects during lethal and non-lethal freezing.  

PubMed

Although the biochemical correlates of freeze tolerance in insects are becoming well-known, the process of ice formation in vivo is subject to speculation. We used synchrotron x-rays to directly visualise real-time ice formation at 3.3 Hz in intact insects. We observed freezing in diapausing 3(rd) instar larvae of Chymomyza amoena (Diptera: Drosophilidae), which survive freezing if it occurs above -14 degrees C, and non-diapausing 3(rd) instar larvae of C. amoena and Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), neither of which survive freezing. Freezing was readily observed in all larvae, and on one occasion the gut was seen to freeze separately from the haemocoel. There were no apparent qualitative differences in ice formation between freeze tolerant and non-freeze tolerant larvae. The time to complete freezing was positively related to temperature of nucleation (supercooling point, SCP), and SCP declined with decreasing body size, although this relationship was less strong in diapausing C. amoena. Nucleation generally occurred at a contact point with the thermocouple or chamber wall in non-diapausing larvae, but at random in diapausing larvae, suggesting that the latter have some control over ice nucleation. There were no apparent differences between freeze tolerant and non-freeze tolerant larvae in tracheal displacement or distension of the body during freezing, although there was markedly more distension in D. melanogaster than in C. amoena regardless of diapause state. We conclude that although control of ice nucleation appears to be important in freeze tolerant individuals, the physical ice formation process itself does not differ among larvae that can and cannot survive freezing. This suggests that a focus on cellular and biochemical mechanisms is appropriate and may reveal the primary adaptations allowing freeze tolerance in insects. PMID:20011523

Sinclair, Brent J; Gibbs, Allen G; Lee, Wah-Keat; Rajamohan, Arun; Roberts, Stephen P; Socha, John J

2009-01-01

293

California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Coal Oil Point, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.0 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The cities of Goleta and Isla Vista, the main population centers in the map area, are in the western part of a contiguous urban area that extends eastward through Santa Barbara to Carpinteria. This urban area is on the south flank of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains, on coalescing alluvial fans and uplifted marine terraces underlain by folded and faulted Miocene bedrock. In the map area, the relatively low-relief, elevated coastal bajada narrows from about 2.5 km wide in the east to less than 500 m wide in the west. Several beaches line the actively utilized coastal zone, including Isla Vista County Park beach, Coal Oil Point Reserve, and Goleta Beach County Park. The beaches are subject to erosion each winter during storm-wave attack, and then they undergo gradual recovery or accretion during the more gentle wave climate of the late spring, summer, and fall months. The Offshore of Coal Oil Point map area lies in the central part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, which is characterized by littoral drift to the east-southeast. Longshore drift rates have been reported to range from about 160,000 to 800,000 tons/yr, averaging 400,000 tons/yr. Sediment supply to the western and central parts of the littoral cell, including the map area, is largely from relatively small transverse coastal watersheds. Within the map area, these coastal watersheds include (from east to west) Las Llagas Canyon, Gato Canyon, Las Varas Canyon, Dos Pueblos Canyon, Eagle Canyon, Tecolote Canyon, Winchester Canyon, Ellwood Canyon, Glen Annie Canyon, and San Jose Creek. The Santa Ynez and Santa Maria Rivers, the mouths of which are about 100 to 140 km northwest of the map area, are not significant sediment sources because Point Conception and Point Arguello provide obstacles to downcoast sediment transport and also because much of their sediment load is trapped in dams. The Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, the mouths of which are about 45 to 55 km southeast of the map area, are much larger sediment sources. Still farther east, eastward-moving sediment in the littoral cell is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported to the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The offshore part of the map area consists of a relatively flat and shallow continental shelf, which dips gently seaward (about 0.8° to 1.0°) so that water depths at the shelf break, roughly coincident with the California’s State Waters limit, are about 90 m. This part

Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Finlayson, David P.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Leifer, Ira; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Fong, Grace

2014-01-01

294

Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Freeze-Dried and Oven Dried Corn Gluten Meals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physicochemical and functional properties of convection oven- and freeze-dried gluten meals of two corn varieties were evaluated. The physicochemical properties (water solubility index, water absorption index, Hunter color parameters, and bulk density) and functional properties (water absorption, oil absorption, least gelation concentration, protein solubility, and emulsification properties) of convection-oven and freeze-dried corn gluten meals were compared with each other

Narpinder Singh; Maninder Kaur; Kawaljit Singh Sandhu

2005-01-01

295

Freezing and thawing porous media: experimental study with a dielectric capacitive method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A capacitive sensor-based apparatus has been used to study the ice/water phase change in consolidated porous media subjected to freezing and thawing. This technique relies on the dielectric properties of water, ice, air, and the mineral substrate in the radio-frequency range. It gives directly the freezing and thawing temperature depressions and indirectly provides an estimation of pore size distribution through the Gibbs-Thomson relation. It also holds good promise for evaluating the amount of liquid water in frozen porous media by combining drying and freezing tests. To cite this article: T. Fen-Chong, A. Fabbri, C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

Fen-Chong, Teddy; Fabbri, Antonin

2005-05-01

296

Freeze-fracture for scanning electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Two different freeze-fracture methods are explored for preparation of biological material for scanning electron microscopy. In the simpler method the tissues are first fixed and dehydrated. They are then frozen and fractured, and after thawing, critical-point dried. This method has already been used in a number of studies of animal tissues (heart, liver, kidney). It is applied here to the examination of plant material (leaf mesophyll cells). In the second method tissues, or cells, are first infiltrated with cryoprotectant (dimethylsulphoxide) then frozen and fractured, and not fixed until after thawing. The fixed tissues are finally dehydrated and critical-point dried. This method also has previously been used in the study of animal tissues, and is applied here to carrot protoplasts, chicken erythrocytes, and leaf mesophyll cells. PMID:599555

Haggis, G H; Phipps-Todd, B

1977-11-01

297

Critical-point universality in adsorption: the effect of charcoal on a mixture of isobutyric acid and water near the consolute point.  

PubMed

The mixture of isobutyric acid and water has a consolute point at a temperature of 25.75 °C and mole fraction 0.1148 isobutyric acid. When charcoal is added to this mixture, the concentration of isobutyric acid is reduced by adsorption. We have measured the action of charcoal on solutions of isobutyric acid and water as a function of isobutyric acid mole fraction at temperatures of 25.85 and 32.50 °C. At the higher temperature, the specific adsorption density (y(2)(?)/m) satisfies the Freundlich equation (y(2)(?)/m)=KX(2)(1/n), where y(2)(?) is the mass of isobutyric acid adsorbed, m is the mass of charcoal, X(2) is the equilibrium mole fraction of isobutyric acid, n is the Freundlich index, and K=K(T) is an amplitude that depends upon the temperature T. At 25.85 °C, a critical endpoint is located at an isobutyric acid mole fraction X(2)(ce)=0.09. When compared with the Freundlich equation at this temperature, a plot of the specific adsorption density as a function of X(2) in the vicinity of the critical-endpoint composition assumes a shape which is reminiscent of the derivative of a Dirac delta function. Using critical-point scaling theory, we show that this divergent pattern is consistent with the principle of critical point universality. PMID:21797350

Giesy, Timothy J; Chou, Alan S; McFeeters, Robert L; Baird, James K; Barlow, Douglas A

2011-06-01

298

COMBINED REVERSE OSMOSIS AND FREEZE CONCENTRATION OF BLEACH PLANT EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reverse osmosis (RO) and freeze concentration (FC) were evaluated at three different pulp and paper mills as tools for concentrating bleach plant effluents. By these concentration processes, the feed effluent was divided into two streams. The clean water stream approached drinkin...

299

Sinkholes in West-central Florida, Freeze Event of 2010  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Sinkholes affect structures as well as many types of supporting infrastructure such as buried utilities lines seen here. More than 110 sinkholes formed in the Dover area of Florida during a freeze event in January 2010. Ground water levels dropped to record-setting lows ...

300

Sinkholes in West-central Florida, Freeze Event of 2010  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Cracks shown here in the exterior and supporting structures of this home are indicative of subsidence damage associated with sinkhole activity. More than 110 sinkholes formed in the Dover area of Florida during a freeze event in January 2010. Ground water levels dropped to record-setting l...

301

Sinkholes in West-central Florida, Freeze Event of 2010  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A section of a strawberry field that was destroyed by a sinkhole and filled in, as is done with many sinkholes if possible. More than 110 sinkholes formed in the Dover area of Florida during a freeze event in January 2010. Ground water levels dropped to record-setting lows as farmers pump...

302

High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

2007-01-01

303

Method for calibrating copper-constantan thermocouples at negative temperatures by means of the boiling point of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.The suggested method for calibrating copper-constantan thermocouples is based on the linear relationship of corrections to the corresponding thermal emf evaluated at a single point.2.Temperatures in the negative range (0 to -200°C) are calibrated by means of the boiling point of water with an error of ±0.3°C.3.The interpolation of the thermal emf in the range from zero to the

A. P. Bondareva

1969-01-01

304

Radial interval chance-constrained programming for agricultural non-point source water pollution control under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inherent uncertainties in agricultural non-point source water pollution control problems cause great difficulties in relevant modeling processes. A radial interval chance-constrained programming (RICCP) approach was developed in this study for supporting source-oriented non-point source pollution control under uncertainty. The proposed RICCP approach could tackle two-layer uncertainty resulting from temporal and spatial variability of many factors and their uncertain interactions. Based

Q. Tan; G. H. Huang; Y. P. Cai

2011-01-01

305

Effects of Micro/Nano-Scale Surface Characteristics on the Leidenfrost Point Temperature of Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent film boiling heat transfer studies with nanofluids, it was reported that deposition of nanoparticles on a surface significantly increases the nominal minimum heat flux (MHF) or Leidenfrost Point (LFP) temperature, considerably accelerating the transient cooling of overheated objects. It was suggested that the thin nanoparticle deposition layer and the resulting changes in the physico-chemical characteristics of the hot surface, such as surface roughness height, wettability and porosity, could greatly affect quenching phenomena. In this study, a set of water-droplet LFP tests are conducted using custom-fabricated surfaces which systemically separate the effects of surface roughness height (0-15 um), wettability (0-83°) and nanoporosity (?23 nm). In addition, high-speed imaging of the evaporating droplets is used to explore the influence of these surface characteristics on the intermittent solid-liquid contacts in film boiling. The obtained results reveal that nanoporosity (not solely high surface wettability) is the crucial feature in efficiently increasing the LFP temperature by initiating heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles during short-lived solid-liquid contacts, which results in disruption of the vapor film, and that micro-posts on the surface intensify such effects by promoting intermittent liquid-surface contacts.

Kim, Hyungdae; Truong, Bao; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-Wen

306

Real-time retrieval of precipitable water vapor from GPS precise point positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of precipitable water vapor (PWV) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been intensively investigated in the past 2 decades. However, it still remains a challenging task at a high temporal resolution and in the real-time mode. In this study the accuracy of real-time zenith total delay (ZTD) and PWV using the GPS precise point positioning (PPP) technique is investigated. GPS observations in a 1 month period from 20 globally distributed stations are selected for testing. The derived real-time ZTDs at most stations agree well with the tropospheric products from the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service, and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are <13 mm, which meet the threshold value of 15 mm if ZTDs are input to numerical weather prediction models. The RMSE of the retrieved PWVs in comparison with the radiosonde-derived values are ?3 mm, which is the threshold RMSE of PWVs as inputs to weather nowcasting. The theoretical accuracy of PWVs is also discussed, and 3 mm quality of PWVs is proved achievable in different temperature and humidity conditions. This implies that the real-time GPS PPP technique can be complementary to current atmospheric sounding systems, especially for nowcasting of extreme weather due to its real-time, all-day, and all-weather capabilities and high temporal resolutions.

Yuan, Yubin; Zhang, Kefei; Rohm, Witold; Choy, Suelynn; Norman, Robert; Wang, Chuan-Sheng

2014-08-01

307

Pressure Dependence of Fragile-to-Strong Transition and a Possible Second Critical Point in Supercooled Confined Water  

E-print Network

By confining water in nano-pores of silica glass, we can bypass the crystallization and study the pressure effect on the dynamical behavior in deeply supercooled state using neutron scattering. We observe a clear evidence of a cusp-like fragile-to-strong (F-S) dynamic transition. Here we show that the transition temperature decreases steadily with an increasing pressure, until it intersects the homogenous nucleation temperature line of bulk water at a pressure of 1600 bar. Above this pressure, it is no longer possible to discern the characteristic feature of the F-S transition. Identification of this end point with the possible second critical point is discussed.

Li Liu; Sow-Hsin Chen; Antonio Faraone; Chun-Wan Yen; Chung-Yuan Mou

2005-08-16

308

Ground-water resources in the vicinity of the Crown Point fish hatchery, Essex County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Crown Point Fish Hatchery, one of several hatcheries operated by the New York State Conservation Department, is located in Crown Point Center, Essex County, on the eastern edge of the Adirondack Highlands and about 2 miles west of lake Champlain. Figure 1 is a location map of the vicinity of the Hatchery. This report summarizes an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Conservation Department, Division of Water Resources, to locate and evaluate sources of additional ground-water supply for the Hatchery. In order to expand the facilities at the Hatchery, an additional water supply of about 100 gpm (gallons per minute) to as much as 350 gpm is needed. In addition, the type of fish culture practiced requires a water temperature of about 7 to 13 degrees Celsius (centigrade) for optimum results.

Kantrowitz, I.H.

1968-01-01

309

Temperature and flow measurements on near-freezing aviation fuels in a wing-tank model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Freezing behavior, pumpability, and temperature profiles for aviation turbine fuels were measured in a 190-liter tank chilled to simulate internal temperature gradients encountered in commercial airplane wing tanks. When the bulk of the fuel was above the specification freezing point, pumpout of the fuel removed all fuel except a layer adhering to the bottom chilled surfaces, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the fuel temperature near these surfaces. When the bulk of the fuel was at or below the freezing point, pumpout ceased when solids blocked the pump inlet, and the unpumpable fraction depended on the overall average temperature.

Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

1980-01-01

310

Regulation of Supercooling and Nucleation in a Freeze Intolerant Beetle (Tenebrio molitor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mealworm beetle, Tenebrio m&or (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera), is a freeze-susceptible species that does not survive cooling to below the supercooling point (i.e., tissue freezing) in any stage of development. Most insects of a given age and developmental stage exhibit a relatively narrow range of supercooling point (SCP) values. However, Tenebriu larvae reared at 24°C on dry wheat bran displayed a

SEAN L. JOHNSTON; RICHARD E. LEE

1990-01-01

311

Progression of fusion during rapid freezing for electron microscopy.  

PubMed

The method used to determine the rate of fusion was based on the large difference in the dielectric constants of water and ice. A thin (50--60 micrometers) slice of a gelatin gel was used as the dielectric in a plate condenser. The slice was placed on a metal electrode built in a specimen carrier which was dropped on a silver freezing surface kept at below 70 K, forming the other plate of the condenser. Freezing of the gelatin causes a marked decrease in a 20,000 cycle current passing through the condenser. Since the thickness of the layer of frozen material was shown to be a function of the reciprocal of the current, it was possible to determine the course of fusion of the section. Freezing started at a high rate which declined during the first 5 ms but then increased again and usually became quite high at the end of fusion. PMID:379347

Van Harreveld, A; Trubatch, J

1979-04-01

312

Intact preservation of environmental samples by freezing under an alternating magnetic field.  

PubMed

Study of environmental samples requires a preservation system that stabilizes the sample structure including cells and biomolecules. To address this fundamental issue, we tested the cell alive system (CAS)-freezing technique for subseafloor sediment core samples. In the CAS-freezing technique, an alternating magnetic field is applied during the freezing process to produce vibration of water molecules, and achieve a stable, super-cooled liquid phase. Upon further cooling, the temperature decreases further, achieving a uniform freezing of sample with minimal ice crystal formation. In this study, samples were preserved using the CAS and conventional freezing techniques at 4, -20, -80, and -196 (liquid nitrogen) °C. After 6 months of storage, microbial cell counts by conventional freezing significantly decreased (down to 10.7% of initial), whereas that by CAS-freezing resulted in minimal. When E. coli cells were tested under the same freezing conditions and storage for 2.5 months, CAS-frozen E. coli cells showed higher viability than the other conditions. In addition, an alternating magnetic field does not impact on the direction of remanent magnetization in sediment core samples, although slight partial demagnetization in intensity due to freezing was observed. Consequently, our data indicate that the CAS-technique is highly useful for the preservation of environmental samples. PMID:25403324

Morono, Yuki; Terada, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Yuhji; Xiao, Nan; Hirose, Takehiro; Sugeno, Masaya; Ohwada, Norio; Inagaki, Fumio

2014-11-18

313

Impact of Point and Nonpoint Source Pollution on Pore Waters of Two Chesapeake Bay Tributaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are contaminated by industrial and municipal point sources and agricultural nonpoint sources of pollution. The objective of this study was to compare the porewater characteristics of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries: Wicomico River (WR) contaminated by point source and Pocomoke River (PR) contaminated by both point and nonpoint sources of pollution. Four study sites (1 mile

Makesh Karuppiah; Gian Gupta

1996-01-01

314

PROCEEDINGS OF THE CONFERENCE ON POINT-OF-USE TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER HELD AT CINCINNATI, OHIO ON OCTOBER 6-8, 1987  

EPA Science Inventory

A Conference on Point-of-Use Treatment of Drinking Water was held on October 6-8, 1987, to provide information on the application of point-of-use (POU) and point-of-entry (POE) systems for treating drinking water to a wide-cross section of people interested in the technology. The...

315

Karen Johnson Freeze Fellowship Fund  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Karen Johnson Freeze Fellowship Fund is an initiative of the Foundation for the History of Technology (SHT) and the Society for the History of Technology (SHOT) to encourage research in the field of history of technology in Central, Southeastern, and Eastern Europe. The fund also wants to contribute to the internatio- nal dissemination of research results. The Karen Johnson

J. W. A. Korsten

316

Freeze/Thaw-Induced Embolism: Probability of Critical Bubble Formation Depends on Speed of Ice Formation  

PubMed Central

Bubble formation in the conduits of woody plants sets a challenge for uninterrupted water transportation from the soil up to the canopy. Freezing and thawing of stems has been shown to increase the number of air-filled (embolized) conduits, especially in trees with large conduit diameters. Despite numerous experimental studies, the mechanisms leading to bubble formation during freezing have not been addressed theoretically. We used classical nucleation theory and fluid mechanics to show which mechanisms are most likely to be responsible for bubble formation during freezing and what parameters determine the likelihood of the process. Our results confirm the common assumption that bubble formation during freezing is most likely due to gas segregation by ice. If xylem conduit walls are not permeable to the salts expelled by ice during the freezing process, osmotic pressures high enough for air seeding could be created. The build-up rate of segregated solutes in front of the ice-water interface depends equally on conduit diameter and freezing velocity. Therefore, bubble formation probability depends on these variables. The dependence of bubble formation probability on freezing velocity means that the experimental results obtained for cavitation threshold conduit diameters during freeze/thaw cycles depend on the experimental setup; namely sample size and cooling rate. The velocity dependence also suggests that to avoid bubble formation during freezing trees should have narrow conduits where freezing is likely to be fast (e.g., branches or outermost layer of the xylem). Avoidance of bubble formation during freezing could thus be one piece of the explanation why xylem conduit size of temperate and boreal zone trees varies quite systematically. PMID:22685446

Sevanto, Sanna; Holbrook, N. Michele; Ball, Marilyn C.

2012-01-01

317

Embolism Formation during Freezing in the Wood of Picea abies1  

PubMed Central

Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of ?2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding. PMID:17041033

Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B.

2007-01-01

318

Source of salts in the Waianae part of the Pearl Harbor aquifer near Barbers Point water tunnel, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The salinity of the water supply of Barbers Point Naval Air Station has increased markedly since 1983. The Naval Air Station obtains its water, about 3 million gal/day, from Barbers Point shaft, a water shaft that taps the Waianae part of the Pearl Harbor aquifer underlying the dry, southeastern flank of the Waianae mountains on the island on Oahu, Hawaii. From 1983 to 1985 the chloride concentration of the water, increased from 220 to 250 mg/L and has remained near that level through 1986. The EPA has established 250 mg/L as the maximum recommended chloride concentration in drinking water because above that level many people can taste the salt. The high chloride concentration in shallow groundwater at all wells in the area indicates that most of the salts in the freshwater lens are contributed by rainfall, sea spray, and irrigation return water. At Barbers Point shaft, pumping may draw a small amount of saltwater from the transition zone and increase the chloride concentration in the pumped water by about 20 mg/L. Salinity of the lens decreases progressively inland in response to recharge from relatively fresher water and in response to an increasing lens thickness with increasing distance from the shoreline. The increase, in 1983, in the chloride concentration of water at the shaft was most probably the result of saltier recharge water reaching the water table, and not the result of increased mixing of underlying saltwater with the freshwater. The chloride concentration of the recharge water has probably increased because, in 1980, the drip method of irrigation began to replace the furrow method on sugarcane fields near the shaft. A mixing-cell model was used to estimate the effect of drip irrigation on the chloride concentration of the groundwater in the vicinity of Barbers Point shaft. The model predicted an increase in chloride concentration of about 50 mg/L. The observed increase was about 30 mg/L and the chloride concentration is presently stable at 245 to 250 mg/L; hence, the chloride concentration is not expected to increase significantly more. (Lantz-PTT)

Eyre, P.R.

1987-01-01

319

Insect Cold-Hardiness: To Freeze or Not to Freeze Richard E. Lee, Jr.  

E-print Network

. The capacity to cold-harden is required for overwintering to survive long-term or short-term exposure to lowInsect Cold-Hardiness: To Freeze or Not to Freeze Richard E. Lee, Jr. BioScience, Vol. 39, No. 5 #12;Insect Cold-hardiness: To Freeze or Not to Freeze How insects survive low temperatures

Lee Jr., Richard E.

320

Estimation of the entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point for azeotropic mixtures containing water, alcohol or acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entropy of vaporization at the normal boiling point has been estimated for binary and ternary azotropic mixtures containing water, alcohol or acetic acid. For this purpose, the Lee–Kesler correlation, developed originally for pure substances, is used with the appropriate mixing rules to estimate the heat of vaporization of the mixtures. Estimations for the entropy of vaporization of the 97

Ya?ar Demirel

1999-01-01

321

Comparison of Byproduct Formation in Waters Treated With Chlorine and Iodine: Relevance To Point-Of-Use Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to their efficacy in deactivating a range of microbial pathogens, particularly amoebic cysts, iodine-based disinfectants have been a popular option for point-of-use (POU) drinking water disinfection by campers, the military, and rural consumers in developing countries. Recent...

322

Point Sources of Emerging Contaminants Along the Colorado River Basin: Impact on Water Use and Reuse in the Arid Southwest  

EPA Science Inventory

Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf...

323

Intercomparisons of Stratospheric Water Vapor Sensors: FLASH-B and NOAA/CMDL Frost-Point Hygrometer  

E-print Network

). The comparison identified some instrumental issues, such as a low mirror-temperature calibration correctionIntercomparisons of Stratospheric Water Vapor Sensors: FLASH-B and NOAA/CMDL Frost-Point Hygrometer payload that was launched multiple times at Sodankylä, Finland. The comparison shows agreement well within

Vömel, Holger

324

Water Quality vs. Sanitation Accessibility: What is the most effective intervention point for preventing cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Every year, 3 to 5 million individuals contract cholera, an acute diarrheal infection that is caused by the ingestion of food or water containing the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Because cholera is a waterborne disease, it can be transmitted quickly in environments with inadequate water and sanitation systems where infected waste can easily pollute drinking water. Today, Bangladesh continues to struggle with endemic cholera. Donor organizations address water and sanitation via localized initiatives, including the installation of community water collection sites (i.e. tubewells; water-boiling points; etc.). At this small-scale level, water quality and sanitation accessibility can be improved independently of one another, and when resources are limited, donors must invest in the most effective disease prevention options. This study used laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence data (2000-2009) collected by the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh at their on-site hospital to compare the efficacy of interventions addressing water quality versus sanitation accessibility in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data regarding use of sanitary latrines and boiling of drinking water were extracted from sequential patient interviews conducted at the Dhaka facility and used as surrogate variables for sanitation accessibility and water quality respectively. Our analysis indicates that boiling water is 10 times more effective at preventing cholera than the use of a sanitary latrine. This finding suggests that regulating water quality is perhaps more critical to cholera prevention than increasing sanitation accessibility in an urban environment like that of Dhaka. At present, WaterAid - one of Bangladesh's most significant water and sanitation donor organizations - invests the majority of its budget on improving sanitation accessibility. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals also prioritize sanitation accessibility. However, in Bangladesh, water quality must be given greater attention. As the nation's most prevalent diarrheal disease, cholera outbreaks result in incalculable lost wages and treatment expenses, taken from the pockets of an already impoverished society. Bangladesh cannot afford cholera; prevention is the only sustainable control option, and water quality is the most effective intervention point for Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Majumder, M. S.; Gute, D.; Faruque, A. S.

2011-12-01

325

Maple Sap Uptake, Exudation, and Pressure Changes Correlated with Freezing Exotherms and Thawing Endotherms 1  

PubMed Central

Sap flow rates and sap pressure changes were measured in dormant sugar maple trees (Acer saccharum Marsh.). In the forest, sap flow rates and pressure changes were measured from tap holes drilled into tree trunks in mature trees and sap flow rates were measured from the base of excised branches. Excised branches were also brought into the laboratory where air temperature could be carefully controlled in a refrigerated box and sap flow rates and sap pressures were measured from the cut base of the branches. Under both forest and laboratory conditions, sap uptake occurred as the wood temperature declined but much more rapid sap uptake correlated with the onset of the freezing exotherm. When sap pressures were measured under conditions of negligible volume displacement, the sap pressure rapidly fell to ?60 to ?80 kilopascals at the start of the freezing exotherm. The volume of water uptake and the rate of uptake depended on the rate of freezing. A slow freezing rate correlated with a large volume of water uptake, a fast freezing rate induced a smaller volume of water uptake. The volume of water uptake ranged from 0.02 to 0.055 grams water per gram dry weight of sapwood. The volume of water exuded after thawing was usually less than the volume of uptake so that after several freezing and thawing cycles the sapwood water content increased from 0.7 to 0.8 grams water per gram dry weight. These results are discussed in terms of a physical model of the mechanism of maple sap uptake and exudation first proposed by P. E. R. O'Malley. The proposed mechanism of sap uptake is by vapor distillation in air filled wood fiber lumina during the freezing of minor branches. Gravity and pressurized air bubbles (compressed during freezing) cause sap flow from the canopy down the tree after the thaw. PMID:16663208

Tyree, Melvin T.

1983-01-01

326

Crystal structures and freezing of dipolar fluids  

E-print Network

We investigate the crystal structure of classical systems of spherical particles with an embedded point dipole at T=0. The ferroelectric ground state energy is calculated using generalizations of the Ewald summation technique. Due to the reduced symmetry compared to the nonpolar case the crystals are never strictly cubic. For the Stockmayer (i.e., Lennard-Jones plus dipolar) interaction three phases are found upon increasing the dipole moment: hexagonal, body-centered orthorhombic, and body-centered tetragonal. An even richer phase diagram arises for dipolar soft spheres with a purely repulsive inverse power law potential $\\sim r^{-n}$. A crossover between qualitatively different sequences of phases occurs near the exponent $n=12$. The results are applicable to electro- and magnetorheological fluids. In addition to the exact ground state analysis we study freezing of the Stockmayer fluid by density-functional theory.

B. Groh; S. Dietrich

2000-10-21

327

Crystal structures and freezing of dipolar fluids.  

PubMed

We investigate the crystal structure of classical systems of spherical particles with an embedded point dipole at T=0. The ferroelectric ground state energy is calculated using generalizations of the Ewald summation technique. Due to the reduced symmetry compared to the nonpolar case the crystals are never strictly cubic. For the Stockmayer (i.e., Lennard-Jones plus dipolar) interaction three phases are found upon increasing the dipole moment: hexagonal, body-centered orthorhombic, and body-centered tetragonal. An even richer phase diagram arises for dipolar soft spheres with a purely repulsive inverse power law potential approximately r(-n). A crossover between qualitatively different sequences of phases occurs near the exponent n=12. The results are applicable to electro- and magnetorheological fluids. In addition to the exact ground state analysis we study freezing of the Stockmayer fluid by density-functional theory. PMID:11308482

Groh, B; Dietrich, S

2001-02-01

328

Heat pump with freeze-up prevention  

DOEpatents

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid prevents freeze up of the second heat exchanger by keeping the temperature above the dew point; and, optionally, provides heat for efficient operation.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1981-01-01

329

Directional freezing of reproductive cells and organs.  

PubMed

Directional freezing is based on a simple thermodynamic principle where ice crystals are precisely controlled through the sample by regulating the velocity of the sample movement through the predetermined temperature gradient. Directional freezing permits a precise and uniform cooling rate in both small and large volume samples. Directional freezing was used for slow and rapid freezing, as well as for vitrification of oocytes and embryos using the minimum drop size technique. Sperm samples from a wide range of domestic and wild animals were successfully cryopreserved using the directional freezing method. The method enabled, for the first time, successful freezing of a whole ovary and freeze-drying of mammalian cells followed by thawing and transplantation and rehydration, respectively. PMID:22827370

Arav, A; Natan, D

2012-08-01

330

Freeze chromatography method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A freeze chromatography method and apparatus are provided which enable separation of the solutes contained in a sample. The apparatus includes an annular column construction comprising cylindrical inner and outer surfaces defining an annular passage therebetween. One of the surfaces is heated and the other cooled while passing an eluent through the annular passageway so that the eluent in contact with the cooled surface freezes and forms a frozen eluent layer thereon. A mixture of solutes dissolved in eluent is passed through the annular passageway in contact with the frozen layer so that the sample solutes in the mixture will tend to migrate either toward or away the frozen layer. The rate at which the mixture flows through the annular passageway is controlled so that the distribution of the sample solutes approaches that at equilibrium and thus a separation between the sample solutes occurs. 3 figs.

Scott, C.D.

1987-04-16

331

Microstructural analysis of the fast gelling freeze-dried sodium hyaluronate.  

PubMed

Although sodium hyaluronate is a very unstable and heat sensitive molecule, it can remain relatively stable during the freeze-drying process. Aqueous sodium hyaluronate (NaHA) gels were prepared and the obtained samples were freeze-dried. The freeze-dried NaHA samples showed fast gelling ability meanwhile preserved their initial viscoelasticity even after reconstitution. The microstructure of gels obtained from raw substance and freeze-dried NaHA samples was characterized with positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction patterns while their functionality-related macrostructural properties were tested based on their rheological behavior. The presence of phosphate salts improved the formation of ordered supramolecular structure retaining water in the free volume holes of the polymer chains characterized with decreased ortho-positronium lifetime values. This property may be advantageous in the development of a freeze-dried NaHA injection dosage form. PMID:25474714

Krüger-Szabó, Andrea; Aigner, Zoltán; Balogh, Emese; Sebe, István; Zelkó, Romána; Antal, István

2015-02-01

332

Investigating the significance of zero-point motion in small molecular clusters of sulphuric acid and water.  

PubMed

The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei, and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics method at the density functional level of theory. The general effect of zero-point motion is to distort the mean structure slightly, and to promote the extent of proton transfer with respect to classical behaviour. In a particular configuration of one sulphuric acid molecule with three waters, the range of positions explored by a proton between a sulphuric acid and a water molecule at 300 K (a broad range in contrast to the confinement suggested by geometry optimisation at 0 K) is clearly affected by the inclusion of zero point motion, and similar effects are observed for other configurations. PMID:24437876

Stinson, Jake L; Kathmann, Shawn M; Ford, Ian J

2014-01-14

333

Investigating the significance of zero-point motion in small molecular clusters of sulphuric acid and water  

SciTech Connect

The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei, and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics method at the density functional level of theory. The general effect of zero-point motion is to distort the mean structure slightly, and to promote the extent of proton transfer with respect to classical behaviour. In a particular configuration of one sulphuric acid molecule with three waters, the range of positions explored by a proton between a sulphuric acid and a water molecule at 300 K (a broad range in contrast to the confinement suggested by geometry optimisation at 0 K) is clearly affected by the inclusion of zero point motion, and similar effects are observed for other configurations.

Stinson, Jake L., E-mail: j.stinson@ucl.ac.uk; Ford, Ian J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kathmann, Shawn M. [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)] [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2014-01-14

334

Electrochemical Surface Potential due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface  

SciTech Connect

Herein, we present research that suggests that the underlying physics that drive simple empirical models of anions (e.g. point charge, no polarization) to the air-water interface, with water described by SPC/E, or related partial charge models is different than when both ions and water are modeled with quantum mechanical based interactions. Specifically, we will show that the driving force of ions to the air-water interface for point charge models results from both cavitation and the negative electrochemical surface potential. We will demonstrate that we can fully characterize the role of the free energy due to the electrochemical surface potential computed from simple empirical models and its role in ionic adsorption within the context of dielectric continuum theory (DCT). Our research suggests that a significant part of the electrochemical surface potential in empirical models appears to be an artifact of the failure of point charge models in the vicinity of a broken symmetry. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy‘s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle.

Baer, Marcel D.; Stern, Abraham C.; Levin, Yan; Tobias, Douglas J.; Mundy, Christopher J.

2012-06-07

335

Differential freezing resistance and photoprotection in C3 and C4 eudicots and grasses.  

PubMed

Globally, C4 plants dominate hot, open environments, but this general pattern is underpinned by important differences in the biogeography of C4 lineages. In particular, the species richness of C4 Poaceae (grasses) increases strongly with increasing temperature, whereas that of the major C4 eudicot group Chenopodiaceae correlates positively with aridity. Freezing tolerance is a crucial determinant of biogeographical relationships with temperature and is mediated by photodamage and cellular disruption by desiccation, but little is known about differences between C4 families. This study hypothesized that there is a greater risk of freezing damage via these mechanisms in C4 Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae, that freezing protection differs between the taxonomic groups, and that freezing tolerance of species is linked to arid habitat preference. Chlorophyll fluorescence, water relations, and freezing injury were compared in four C3 and six C4 species of Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae from the same Mongolian flora. Contrary to expectations, freezing-induced leaf mortality and photodamage were lower in Poaceae than Chenopodiaceae species, and unrelated to photosynthetic pathway. The freezing resistance of Poaceae species resulted from constitutive protection and cold acclimation and an ability to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from photodamage. Freezing protection was associated with low osmotic potential and low tissue elasticity, and freezing damage was accompanied by electrolyte leakage, consistent with cell-membrane disruption by ice. Both Chenopodiaceae and Poaceae had the potential to develop cold acclimation and withstand freezing during the growing season, which conflicted with the hypothesis. Instead, freezing tolerance was more closely associated with life history and ecological preference in these Mongolian species. PMID:23599273

Liu, Mei-Zhen; Osborne, Colin P

2013-05-01

336

Research Spotlight: Map of lunar hydrogen points to large amounts of water ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In October 2009, NASA's Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission smashed into a crater on the Moon and confirmed previous studies that suggested that water ice existed on the Moon. To learn more about lunar water, scientists are examining the abundance and distribution of hydrogen. Hydrogen has been detected near the lunar poles, but scientists have not been certain whether this hydrogen is the form of water ice or in other compounds such as molecular hydrogen. If hydrogen exists in a volatile compound such as water, it would remain stable only in cold, permanently shaded regions such as deep craters.

Ofori, Leslie; Tretkoff, Ernie

2010-12-01

337

Freeze core sampling to validate time-lapse resistivity monitoring of the hyporheic zone.  

PubMed

A freeze core sampler was used to characterize hyporheic zone storage during a stream tracer test. The pore water from the frozen core showed tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone after the tracer had returned to background concentration in collocated well samples. These results confirmed evidence of lingering subsurface tracer seen in time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs. The pore water exhibited brine exclusion (ion concentrations in ice lower than source water) in a sediment matrix, despite the fast freezing time. Although freeze core sampling provided qualitative evidence of lingering tracer, it proved difficult to quantify tracer concentration because the amount of brine exclusion during freezing could not be accurately determined. Nonetheless, the additional evidence for lingering tracer supports using time-lapse resistivity to detect regions of low fluid mobility within the hyporheic zone that can act as chemically reactive zones of importance in stream health. PMID:23036232

Toran, Laura; Hughes, Brian; Nyquist, Jonathan; Ryan, Robert

2013-01-01

338

[Study on water quality monitoring scheme based on non-point source pollution].  

PubMed

In order to improve standardization and normalization of non-point source pollution monitoring, this paper summarized the non-point source pollution monitoring scheme that based on conventional technology condition. The scheme firstly emphasized the preparation work before monitoring, including situation investigation and index selection of the monitoring area and so on; In the process of establishing monitoring scheme, the monitoring area was divided into three types: city, agriculture and watershed. Take urban area monitoring scheme for Xi'an as an example, through dividing function zone setting sampling point, summarized sampling time interval, frequency and sampling methods during a rainfall process. An irrigation district was an example for agricultural monitoring scheme, through unit division, setting sampling point at the approach channel and drain channel, introduced sampling times, interval time and so on in the process of irrigation. Watershed monitoring scheme's example was the Weihe GuanZhong section, raised the setting principle of each sample section, and analyzed each section's sampling law in the process of rainfall. Finally the principal character of different non-point source pollution monitoring areas was discussed, and concluded that non-point source pollution monitoring scheme is the base of non-point source pollution study and control. PMID:23947026

Wu, Xi-Jun; Li, Huai-En; Li, Jia-Ke; Li, Qiang-Kun; Dong, Wen

2013-06-01

339

Regional Risk Assessment for Point Source Pollution Based on a Water Quality Model of the Taipu River, China.  

PubMed

Point source pollution is one of the main threats to regional environmental health. Based on a water quality model, a methodology to assess the regional risk of point source pollution is proposed. The assessment procedure includes five parts: (1) identifying risk source units and estimating source emissions using Monte Carlo algorithms; (2) observing hydrological and water quality data of the assessed area, and evaluating the selected water quality model; (3) screening out the assessment endpoints and analyzing receptor vulnerability with the Choquet fuzzy integral algorithm; (4) using the water quality model introduced in the second step to predict pollutant concentrations for various source emission scenarios and analyzing hazards of risk sources; and finally, (5) using the source hazard values and receptor vulnerability scores to estimate overall regional risk. The proposed method, based on the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP), was applied in the region of the Taipu River, which is in the Taihu Basin, China. Results of source hazard and receptor vulnerability analysis allowed us to describe aquatic ecological, human health, and socioeconomic risks individually, and also integrated risks in the Taipu region, from a series of risk curves. Risk contributions of sources to receptors were ranked, and the spatial distribution of risk levels was presented. By changing the input conditions, we were able to estimate risks for a range of scenarios. Thus, the proposed procedure may also be used by decisionmakers for long-term dynamic risk prediction. PMID:25109941

Yao, Hong; Qian, Xin; Yin, Hong; Gao, Hailong; Wang, Yulei

2014-08-11

340

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THREE SUSTAINABLE POINT OF USE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

More than 1 billion people in the developing world lack access to safe, reliable sources of drinking water. Unsafe water takes a toll not only on human health but also on individuals’ economic productivity. Illness from waterborne disease robs people of time and...

341

Biopolymer-reinforced synthetic granular nanocomposites for affordable point-of-use water purification  

PubMed Central

Creation of affordable materials for constant release of silver ions in water is one of the most promising ways to provide microbially safe drinking water for all. Combining the capacity of diverse nanocomposites to scavenge toxic species such as arsenic, lead, and other contaminants along with the above capability can result in affordable, all-inclusive drinking water purifiers that can function without electricity. The critical problem in achieving this is the synthesis of stable materials that can release silver ions continuously in the presence of complex species usually present in drinking water that deposit and cause scaling on nanomaterial surfaces. Here we show that such constant release materials can be synthesized in a simple and effective fashion in water itself without the use of electrical power. The nanocomposite exhibits river sand-like properties, such as higher shear strength in loose and wet forms. These materials have been used to develop an affordable water purifier to deliver clean drinking water at US $2.5/y per family. The ability to prepare nanostructured compositions at near ambient temperature has wide relevance for adsorption-based water purification. PMID:23650396

Sankar, Mohan Udhaya; Aigal, Sahaja; Maliyekkal, Shihabudheen M.; Chaudhary, Amrita; Anshup; Kumar, Avula Anil; Chaudhari, Kamalesh; Pradeep, Thalappil

2013-01-01

342

Control of glycerol production by rainbow smelt ( Osmerus mordax) to provide freeze resistance and allow foraging at low winter temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is a small anadromous fish that actively feeds under the ice at temperatures as low as the freeze point of seawater. Freezing is avoided through the production of both non-colligative antifreeze protein (AFP) and glycerol that acts in a colligative manner. Glycerol is constantly lost across the gills and skin, thus glycerol production must continue

William R. Driedzic; K. Vanya Ewart

2004-01-01

343

Effects of Micro/Nano-Scale Surface Characteristics on the Leidenfrost Point Temperature of Water  

E-print Network

In recent film boiling heat transfer studies with nanofluids, it was reported that deposition of nanoparticles on a surface significantly increases the nominal minimum heat flux (MHF) or Leidenfrost Point (LFP) temperature, ...

Hu, Lin-Wen

344

Influence of freezing temperatures on a cactus, Coryphantha vivipara  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coryphantha vivipara (Nutt.) Britton & Rose var. deserti (Engelm.) W.T. Marshall (Cactaceae) survived snow and tissue temperatures of-12°C in southern Nevada. However, the freezing point depression of the cell sap was only about 0.9°C. When the nocturnal air temperature in the laboratory was reduced from 10°C to-10°C for one night, the optimum temperature for CO2 uptake shifted from 10°C to

Park S. Nobel

1981-01-01

345

QSPR models of boiling point, octanol- water partition coefficient and retention time index of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Quantitative Structure - Property Relationship (QSPR) analysis and study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is presented. Three physicochemical properties related to their environmental impact are studied: boiling point (bp), octanol- water partition coefficient ðlog KowÞ and retention time index (RI) for reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis. The geometry of all PAHs were optimized by the semi-empirical method AM1 and used

Fabiana Alves de Lima; Marcia Miguel Castro Ferreira

346

QSPR models of boiling point, octanol–water partition coefficient and retention time index of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Quantitative Structure–Property Relationship (QSPR) analysis and study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is presented. Three physicochemical properties related to their environmental impact are studied: boiling point (bp), octanol–water partition coefficient (logKow) and retention time index (RI) for reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis. The geometry of all PAHs were optimized by the semi-empirical method AM1 and used to calculate thermodynamic, electronic,

Fabiana Alves de Lima Ribeiro; Márcia Miguel Castro Ferreira

2003-01-01

347

Dynamics of Protein Hydration Water  

E-print Network

We present the frequency- and temperature-dependent dielectric properties of lysozyme solutions in a broad concentration regime, measured at subzero temperatures and compare the results with measurements above the freezing point of water and on hydrated lysozyme powder. Our experiments allow examining the dynamics of unfreezable hydration water in a broad temperature range including the so-called No Man's Land (160 - 235 K). The obtained results prove the bimodality of the hydration shell dynamics and are discussed in the context of the highly-debated fragile-to-strong transition of water.

M. Wolf; S. Emmert; R. Gulich; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

2014-12-08

348

COMPARISON OF MULTIPLE POINT AND COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR THE PURPOSE OF MONITORING BATHING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act (BEACH Act) requires states to develop monitoring and notification programs for recreational waters using approved bacterial indicators. Implementation of an appropriate monitoring program can, under some circumsta...

349

ORGANIC ETCH RESIDUE AND POSITIVE PHOTORESIST STRIPPER ACT CMI-S is a corrosion inhibited water-soluble solution which effectively removes hard-  

E-print Network

Freezing Point: Flash Point (Open cup): 78°C Flash Point (Closed cup): 63°C Viscosity @25°C: 1.12 c inhibited water-soluble solution which effectively removes hard- processed positive resist and organic etch and aluminum alloys · Completely water-soluble · Operating temperature of 60°C to 75°C · Compatible with wet

350

Availability of fresh ground water, Montauk Point area, Suffolk County, Long Island, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is the only source of supply at the Montauk Air Force Station n eastern Suffolk County. The water is contained in the upper 200 feet of deposits of late Pleistocene age, which are broadly divided into an upper unit of undifferentiated till and stratified drift and a lower unit of stratified drift. Fresh water in the principal aquifer, which is in the lower unit, is a lens-shaped body, which lies above salty water containing as much as 11,300 ppm of chloride. The fresh water is under artesian pressure and has a head ranging from about sea level to 3.5 feet above sea level. Pumping rates of 50 to 100 gpm cause salty water to move toward the. supply wells from below. The optimum pumping rate of most wells is about 30 gpm. New wells should be drilled as remote as possible from existing wells, and the well screens should be set as high above the zone of diffusion as the deposits permit.

Perlmutter, Nathaniel Matthew; DeLuca, Frank A.

1963-01-01

351

Characteristics of sugar surfactants in stabilizing proteins during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying.  

PubMed

Sugar surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths and sugar head groups were compared for their protein-stabilizing effect during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying. Six enzymes, different in terms of tolerance against inactivation because of freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, were used as model proteins. The enzyme activities that remained after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying in the presence of a sugar surfactant were measured for different types and concentrations of sugar surfactants. Sugar surfactants stabilized all of the tested enzymes both during freeze-thawing and freeze-drying, and a one or two order higher amount of added sugar surfactant was required for achieving protein stabilization during freeze-drying than for the cryoprotection. The comprehensive comparison showed that the C10-C12 esters of sucrose or trehalose were the most effective through the freeze-drying process: the remaining enzyme activities after freeze-thawing and freeze-drying increased at the sugar ester concentrations of 1-10 and 10-100 ?M, respectively, and increased to a greater extent than for the other surfactants at higher concentrations. Results also indicate that, when a decent amount of sugar was also added, the protein-stabilizing effect of a small amount of sugar ester through the freeze-drying process could be enhanced. PMID:24797557

Imamura, Koreyoshi; Murai, Katsuyuki; Korehisa, Tamayo; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Yamahira, Ryo; Matsuura, Tsutashi; Tada, Hiroko; Imanaka, Hiroyuki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro

2014-06-01

352

Liquid-liquid phase transition model incorporating evidence for ferroelectric state near the lambda-point anomaly in supercooled water  

E-print Network

We propose a unified model combining the first-order liquid-liquid and the second-order ferroelectric phase transitions models and explaining various features of the $\\lambda$-point of liquid water within a single theoretical framework. It becomes clear within the proposed model that not only does the long-range dipole-dipole interaction of water molecules yield a large value of dielectric constant $\\epsilon$ at room temperatures, our analysis shows that the large dipole moment of the water molecules also leads to a ferroelectric phase transition at a temperature close to the lambda-point. Our more refined model suggests that the phase transition occurs only in the low density component of the liquid and is the origin of the singularity of the dielectric constant recently observed in experiments with supercooled liquid water at temperature T~233K. This combined model agrees well with nearly every available set of experiments and explains most of the well-known and even recently obtained results of MD simulations.

Peter O. Fedichev; Leonid I. Menshikov

2012-01-30

353

Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.  

PubMed

Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225??) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of?-?53?? and vacuum of 0.22-0.11?mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150??. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change. PMID:25367889

Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

2014-11-01

354

Traditional and Molecular Analyses for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Non-point Source Subtropical Recreational Marine Waters  

PubMed Central

The use of enterococci as the primary fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) for the determination of recreational water safety has been questioned, particularly in sub/tropical marine waters without known point sources of sewage. Alternative FIB (such as the Bacteroidales group) and alternative measurement methods (such as rapid molecular testing) have been proposed to supplement or replace current marine water quality testing methods which require culturing enterococci. Moreover, environmental parameters have also been proposed to supplement current monitoring programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the health risks to humans from exposure to subtropical recreational marine waters with no known point source. The study reported symptoms between one set of human subjects randomly assigned to marine water exposure with intensive environmental monitoring compared with other subjects who did not have exposure. In addition, illness outcomes among the exposed bathers were compared to levels of traditional and alternative FIB (as measured by culture-based and molecular-based methods), and compared to easily measured environmental parameters. Results demonstrated an increase in self-reported gastrointestinal, respiratory and skin illnesses among bathers vs. non-bathers. Among the bathers, a dose-response relationship by logistic regression modeling was observed for skin illness, where illness was positively related to enterococci enumeration by membrane filtration (odds ratio =1.46 [95% confidence interval=0.97-2.21] per increasing log10 unit of enterococci exposure) and positively related to 24 hour antecedent rain fall (1.04 [1.01 – 1.07] per increasing millimeters of rain). Acute febrile respiratory illness was inversely related to water temperature (0.74 [0.56-0.98] per increasing degree of water temperature). There were no significant dose response relationships between report of human illness and any of the other FIB or environmental measures. Therefore, for non-point source subtropical recreational marine waters, this study suggests that humans may be at increased risk of reported illness, and that the currently recommended and investigational FIB may not track gastrointestinal illness under these conditions; the relationship between other human illness and environmental measures is less clear. PMID:20605185

Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Fleisher, Jay M.; Gidley, Maribeth L.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Elmir, Samir M.; Wanless, David; Bartkowiak, Jakub; Boiteau, Rene; Withum, Kelly; Abdelzaher, Amir M.; He, Guoqing; Ortega, Cristina; Zhu, Xiaofang; Wright, Mary E.; Kish, Jonathan; Hollenbeck, Julie; Scott, Troy; Backer, Lorraine C.; Fleming, Lora E.

2010-01-01

355

Diarrhoea prevention in Bolivia through point-of-use water treatment and safe storage: a promising new strategy.  

PubMed Central

A novel water quality intervention that consists of point-of-use water disinfection, safe storage and community education was field tested in Bolivia. A total of 127 households in two periurban communities were randomized into intervention and control groups, surveyed and the intervention was distributed. Monthly water quality testing and weekly diarrhoea surveillance were conducted. Over a 5-month period, intervention households had 44% fewer diarrhoea episodes than control households (P = 0.002). Infants < 1 year old (P = 0.05) and children 5-14 years old (P = 0.01) in intervention households had significantly less diarrhoea than control children. Campylobacter was less commonly isolated from intervention than control patients (P = 0.02). Stored water in intervention households was less contaminated with Escherichia coli than stored water in control households (P < 0.0001). Intervention households exhibited less E. coli contamination of stored water and less diarrhoea than control households. This promising new strategy may have broad applicability for waterborne disease prevention. PMID:10098789

Quick, R. E.; Venczel, L. V.; Mintz, E. D.; Soleto, L.; Aparicio, J.; Gironaz, M.; Hutwagner, L.; Greene, K.; Bopp, C.; Maloney, K.; Chavez, D.; Sobsey, M.; Tauxe, R. V.

1999-01-01

356

A spatial model to aggregate point-source and nonpoint-source water-quality data for large areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

More objective and consistent methods are needed to assess water quality for large areas. A spatial model, one that capitalizes on the topologic relationships among spatial entities, to aggregate pollution sources from upstream drainage areas is described that can be implemented on land surfaces having heterogeneous water-pollution effects. An infrastructure of stream networks and drainage basins, derived from 1:250,000-scale digital-elevation models, define the hydrologic system in this spatial model. The spatial relationships between point- and nonpoint pollution sources and measurement locations are referenced to the hydrologic infrastructure with the aid of a geographic information system. A maximum-branching algorithm has been developed to simulate the effects of distance from a pollutant source to an arbitrary downstream location, a function traditionally employed in deterministic water quality models. ?? 1992.

White, D.A.; Smith, R.A.; Price, C.V.; Alexander, R.B.; Robinson, K.W.

1992-01-01

357

Alternative Electrode Materials and Ceramic Filter Minimize Disinfection Byproducts in Point-of-Use Electrochemical Water Treatment  

PubMed Central

Abstract Effects of various electrodes and prefiltration to minimize disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in electrochemical water disinfection was evaluated. The target microorganism, Escherichia coli O157:H7, was effectively inactivated even applying a solar-charged storage battery for the electrolysis process. Extent of microbial inactivation decreased with lower water temperature and higher pH in the free chlorine disinfection system. The RuO2/Ti electrode was most efficient because it produced the lowest concentration of chlorate and the highest generation of free chlorine. Prefiltration using a ceramic filter inhibited formation of halogenated DBPs because it removed precursors of DBPs. For safe point-of-use water treatment, the use of a hybrid prefiltration stage with the electrolysis system is strongly recommended to reduce risks from DBPs. The system is particularly suited to use in developing regions. PMID:24381482

Yoon, Yeojoon; Jung, Youmi; Kwon, Minhwan; Cho, Eunha; Kang, Joon-Wun

2013-01-01

358

Freeze-drying of mammalian sperm.  

PubMed

Long-term preservation of mammalian sperm at suprazero temperatures is desired to save storage and space costs as well as to facilitate transport of preserved samples. This can be accomplished by the freeze-drying of sperm samples. Although freeze-drying results in immotile and membrane-compromised sperm, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to introduce such an immotile sperm into an oocyte and thus start the fertilization process. So far, it has been shown that improved freeze-drying protocols preserve chromosomal integrity and oocyte-activating factor(s) at 4 °C for several years and at ambient temperature for approximately 1 month, which permits shipping freeze-dried samples at ambient temperature. This chapter concisely reviews freeze-drying of mammalian sperm first and then presents a simple freeze-drying protocol. PMID:25428025

Keskintepe, Levent; Eroglu, Ali

2015-01-01

359

Cryo-scanning electron microscopic study on freezing behavior of xylem ray parenchyma cells in hardwood species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential thermal analysis (DTA) has indicated that xylem ray parenchyma cells (XRPCs) of hardwood species adapt to freezing of apoplastic water either by deep supercooling or by extracellular freezing, depending upon the species. DTA studies indicated that moderately cold hardy hardwood species exhibiting deep supercooling in the XRPCs were limited in latitudinal distribution within the ?40°C isotherm, while very hardy

S Fujikawa; K Kuroda

2000-01-01

360

Freeze-drying of spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Bull semen was diluted to a concentration of 2 X 10(8) cells/ml, cooled to 5 degrees C in 5 h, frozen in 0.025 ml spheres on the surface of solid carbon dioxide, and stored in liquid nitrogen. 50% by volume of the diluent was 325 m0sm Tes:N-tris (hydroxymethyl) methyl-2-amino ethane sulfonic acid titrated to pH 7.2 with 325 m0sm Tris:tris (hydroxymethyl) amino methane. The diluent also contained 30% by volume isotonic sodium citrate and 20% by volume egg yolk. The frozen spermatozoa were freeze-dried in 400 mg quantities in test tubes at -50 degrees C with a condenser at -196 degrees C. Moisture content was determined by weighing the individual samples before and after freeze-drying. Drying the samples for several days at 20 degrees C removed 868 mg from each gram of frozen material and this was considered the zero moisture level. Samples were stored at 20 degrees C or -196 degrees C after freeze-drying. The freezer-dried samples were rehydrated by flooding with five times their original volume of isotonic sodium citrate. Tests of the recovered spermatozoa included percentage motile cells, acrosome damage, enzyme release, protein denaturation, hypotonic swelling and fertility testing. Sperm motility decreased with dryness until it reached zero at 3% moisture. Acrosome morphology and enzyme release appeared normal down to 1% moisture. Preliminary results showed some fertility at all levels of dryness with -196 degrees C storage, and fertility at less than 1% moisture with 20 degrees C storage. Additional fertility testing is underway. PMID:1030432

Larson, E V; Graham, E F

1976-10-01

361

Freezing of stallion epididymal sperm.  

PubMed

Inseminations with frozen-thawed epididymal sperm have resulted in low-pregnancy rates of mares. If fertility of epididymal sperm could be improved, it would help to preserve genetic material from stallions that have suffered severe injuries, been castrated or have died. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different extenders and pre-freezing addition of capacitation media on freezability of epididymal sperm and on storage at 5 degrees C for 24h. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm samples were diluted and subsequently frozen with three different extenders: Botu-Crio, EDTA-Lactose and INRA-82. Motility analysis using computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) demonstrated better motility for sperm in Botu-Crio than in the other extenders; EDTA-Lactose yielded better motility than INRA-82 on most evaluated parameters. There was no difference in membrane integrity among the studied extenders. From 18 inseminated mares, 12 (66%) were pregnant 15 days after AI with frozen-thawed epididymal sperm showing that Botu-Crio was able to maintain the fertility potential. In experiment 2, the effect of incubation of epididymal sperm before freezing in three capacitation media (Fert Talp, Sperm Talp, Talp+Progesterone), seminal plasma, or control was tested. Based on post-thaw motility evaluation by CASA, samples incubated in Sperm Talp showed better motility values. There were no differences in plasma or acrosomal membranes or in mitochondrial potential among groups. We concluded that Botu-Crio was better than the other extenders in the ability to preserve epididymal sperm and that pre-freeze addition of Sperm Talp was also beneficial. PMID:18556154

Papa, F O; Melo, C M; Fioratti, E G; Dell'aqua, J A; Zahn, F S; Alvarenga, M A

2008-09-01

362

The effect of salinity on the freezing of coarse-grained sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unfrozen water is very important because it has a significant influence on the mechanical response of a frozen soil. It is particularly important to know if the water is available as free water or if it is bonded to the solid particles. A simple experimental setup was used to observe the freezing process of a coarse-grained soil under con- trolled

Lukas U. Arenson; Dave C. Sego

2006-01-01

363

Predicting freezing for some repulsive potentials.  

PubMed

We propose a simple method to approximately predict the freezing (fluid-solid) phase transition in systems of particles interacting via purely repulsive potentials. The method is based on the striking universality of the freezing curve for the model Yukawa and inverse-power-law interactions. This method is applied to draw an exemplary phase diagram of complex plasmas. We suggest that it can also be used to locate freezing transition in other substances with similar properties of interaction. PMID:20366260

Khrapak, S A; Morfill, G E

2009-12-18

364

A CONTINUOUS BOILING POINT ANALYZER AND ITS APPLICATION TO THE HYDROGEN FLUORIDE-WATER SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and inexpensive instrument is described which provides a ; continuously recorded analysis of binary liquid or vapor mixtures by measurement ; of the boiling point. The instrnment is insensitive to flow rate within broad ; limits. The response lag is less than one minute. The instrument may be applied ; to a sample loop of a liquid or

1960-01-01

365

Use of optical coherence tomography to monitor biological tissue freezing during cryosurgery.  

PubMed

The use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging skin during cryosurgery is evaluated. OCT provides high spatial resolution (5-10 microm) images of optical backscattering due to local variations in refractive index, such as the boundary between liquid and frozen water in tissue. Time resolved OCT images were acquired during freezing of water, Intralipid trade mark, and in vivo hamster skin. Subsurface morphological changes were evident only during freezing of Intralipid and skin. A simple thermal model was applied which predicted freezing times on the same order of magnitude as those observed in OCT images. OCT can be used as a feedback tool during cryosurgical procedures to monitor progression of the freezing front. PMID:15065892

Choi, Bernard; Milner, Thomas E; Kim, Jeehyun; Goodman, Jared N; Vargas, Gracie; Aguilar, Guillermo; Nelson, J Stuart

2004-01-01

366

Egg freezing: a breakthrough for reproductive autonomy?  

PubMed

This article describes the relatively new technology of freezing human eggs and examines whether egg freezing, specifically when it is used by healthy women as 'insurance' against age-related infertility, is a legitimate exercise of reproductive autonomy. Although egg freezing has the potential to expand women's reproductive options and thus may represent a breakthrough for reproductive autonomy, I argue that without adequate information about likely outcomes and risks, women may be choosing to freeze their eggs in a commercially exploitative context, thus undermining rather than expanding reproductive autonomy. PMID:18945249

Harwood, Karey

2009-01-01

367

Water access points and hydration pathways in CLC H+/Cl? transporters  

PubMed Central

CLC transporters catalyze transmembrane exchange of chloride for protons. Although a putative pathway for Cl? has been established, the pathway of H+ translocation remains obscure. Through a highly concerted computational and experimental approach, we characterize microscopic details essential to understanding H+-translocation. An extended (0.4 µs) equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of membrane-embedded, dimeric ClC-ec1, a CLC from Escherichia coli, reveals transient but frequent hydration of the central hydrophobic region by water molecules from the intracellular bulk phase via the interface between the two subunits. We characterize a portal region lined by E202, E203, and A404 as the main gateway for hydration. Supporting this mechanism, site-specific mutagenesis experiments show that ClC-ec1 ion transport rates decrease as the size of the portal residue at position 404 is increased. Beyond the portal, water wires form spontaneously and repeatedly to span the 15-Å hydrophobic region between the two known H+ transport sites [E148 (Gluex) and E203 (Gluin)]. Our finding that the formation of these water wires requires the presence of Cl? explains the previously mystifying fact that Cl? occupancy correlates with the ability to transport protons. To further validate the idea that these water wires are central to the H+ transport mechanism, we identified I109 as the residue that exhibits the greatest conformational coupling to water wire formation and experimentally tested the effects of mutating this residue. The results, by providing a detailed microscopic view of the dynamics of water wire formation and confirming the involvement of specific protein residues, offer a mechanism for the coupled transport of H+ and Cl? ions in CLC transporters. PMID:24379362

Han, Wei; Cheng, Ricky C.; Maduke, Merritt C.; Tajkhorshid, Emad

2014-01-01

368

Some observations in freeze-drying of recombinant bioluminescent Escherichia coli for toxicity monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant bioluminescent bacteria, containing a fabA::luxCDABE fusion gene, has been used to characterize freeze-drying methods, which may be conveniently used as a tool for the development of a portable biosensor. Through residual water, viability, biosensing activity and scanning electron microscopy analyses, the characteristics that four cryoprotectants, trehalose, sucrose, sorbitol, and mannitol, conferred on freeze-dried samples were elucidated, including the

Man Bock Gu; Sue Hyung Choi; Sung Woo Kim

2001-01-01

369

Production of CO 2 clathrate hydrate frozen desserts by flash freezing  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 clathrate hydrate is a crystalline water–carbon dioxide structure that can enable novel, strongly carbonated frozen desserts. A CO2 flash-freezing process has been developed to form CO2 hydrates during freezing of a dessert mixture. In the process, liquid CO2 and liquid dessert mixture are emulsified and then sprayed into a chamber in which the CO2 flashes to a vapor causing

T. B. Peters; J. L. Smith; J. G. Brisson

2010-01-01

370

Freezing resistance of antifreeze-deficient larval Antarctic fish.  

PubMed

Antarctic notothenioids, along with many other polar marine fishes, have evolved biological antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to survive in their icy environments. The larvae of Antarctic notothenioid fish hatch into the same frigid environment inhabited by the adults, suggesting that they must also be protected by sufficient AFPs, but this has never been verified. We have determined the contribution of AFPs to the freezing resistance of the larvae of three species: Gymnodraco acuticeps, Pagothenia borchgrevinki and Pleuragramma antarcticum. Of the three, only P. borchgrevinki larvae are protected by high, adult levels of AFPs. Hatchling G. acuticeps and P. antarcticum have drastically inadequate AFP concentrations to avoid freezing at the ambient seawater temperature (-1.91 degrees C). We raised G. acuticeps larvae and measured the AFP levels in their blood for approximately 5 months post hatching. Larval serum freezing point was -1.34+/-0.04 degrees C at the time of hatch; it began to decrease only after 30 days post hatch (d.p.h.), and finally reached the adult value (-2.61+/-0.03 degrees C) by 147 d.p.h. Additionally, AFP concentrations in their intestinal fluids were very low at hatching, and did not increase with age throughout a sampling period of 84 d.p.h. Surviving in a freezing environment without adequate AFP protection suggests that other mechanisms of larval freezing resistance exist. Accordingly, we found that G. acuticeps hatchlings survived to -3.6+/-0.1 degrees C while in contact with external ice, but only survived to -1.5+/-0.0 degrees C when ice was artificially introduced into their tissues. P. antarcticum larvae were similarly resistant to organismal freezing. The gills of all three species were found to be underdeveloped at the time of hatch, minimizing the risk of ice introduction through these delicate structures. Thus, an intact integument, underdeveloped gill structures and other physical barriers to ice propagation may contribute significantly to the freezing resistance and survival of these larval fishes in the icy conditions of the Southern Ocean. PMID:16424091

Cziko, Paul A; Evans, Clive W; Cheng, Chi-Hing C; DeVries, Arthur L

2006-02-01

371

Food freezing with simultaneous surface dehydration: approximate prediction of freezing time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing of unpackaged foods induces mass transfer in the form of surface ice sublimation, which in turn modifies heat transfer conditions. At present there are no simplified methods for predicting freezing times when surface dehydration occurs. This paper uses a previously developed model for the simulation of simultaneous heat and mass transfer during food freezing and storage to generate a

Laura A. Campañone; Viviana O. Salvadori; Rodolfo H. Mascheroni

2005-01-01

372

Investigation of an implantable dosimeter for single-point water equivalent path length verification in proton therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In vivo range verification in proton therapy is highly desirable. A recent study suggested that it was feasible to use point dose measurement for in vivo beam range verification in proton therapy, provided that the spread-out Bragg peak dose distribution is delivered in a different and rather unconventional manner. In this work, the authors investigate the possibility of using a commercial implantable dosimeter with wireless reading for this particular application. Methods: The traditional proton treatment technique delivers all the Bragg peaks required for a SOBP field in a single sequence, producing a constant dose plateau across the target volume. As a result, a point dose measurement anywhere in the target volume will produce the same value, thus providing no information regarding the water equivalent path length to the point of measurement. However, the same constant dose distribution can be achieved by splitting the field into a complementary pair of subfields, producing two oppositely ''sloped'' depth-dose distributions, respectively. The ratio between the two distributions can be a sensitive function of depth and measuring this ratio at a point inside the target volume can provide the water equivalent path length to the dosimeter location. Two types of field splits were used in the experiment, one achieved by the technique of beam current modulation and the other by manipulating the location and width of the beam pulse relative to the range modulator track. Eight MOSFET-based implantable dosimeters at four different depths in a water tank were used to measure the dose ratios for these field pairs. A method was developed to correct the effect of the well-known LET dependence of the MOSFET detectors on the depth-dose distributions using the columnar recombination model. The LET-corrected dose ratios were used to derive the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeter locations to be compared to physical measurements. Results: The implantable dosimeters measured the dose ratios with a reasonable relative uncertainty of 1%-3% at all depths, except when the ratio itself becomes very small. In total, 55% of the individual measurements reproduced the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeters within 1 mm. For three dosimeters, the difference was consistently less than 1 mm. Half of the standard deviations over the repeated measurements were equal or less than 1 mm. Conclusions: With a single fitting parameter, the LET-correction method worked remarkably well for the MOSFET detectors. The overall results were very encouraging for a potential method of in vivo beam range verification with millimeter accuracy. This is sufficient accuracy to expand range of clinical applications in which the authors could use the distal fall off of the proton depth dose for tight margins.

Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Mann, Greg; Cascio, Ethan [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Sicel Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, North Carolina 27560 (United States); Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

2010-11-15

373

Nano-pulverization of poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points by a rotation/revolution pulverizer.  

PubMed

We report a method for pulverizing poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points to nanoparticles without producing an amorphous phase using a rotation/revolution pulverizer. Fenofibrate, flurbiprofen, and probucol were used as crystalline model compounds. They were suspended in a methylcellulose aqueous solution and pulverized with zirconia balls by the rotation/revolution pulverizer. Beeswax, an amorphous compound, was also examined to investigate whether nano-pulverization of a compound with a low melting point was possible. Beeswax was suspended in ethyl alcohol cooled with liquid nitrogen and pulverized with zirconia balls by the rotation/revolution pulverizer. By optimizing the pulverization parameters, nanoparticles (D50 < 0.15 microm) of the crystalline compounds were obtained with narrow particle size distributions at a rotation/revolution speed of 1000 rpm and a rotation/revolution ratio of 1.0 when the vessel was 0 degrees C. Amorphous fenofibrate and flurbiprofen were not detected by differential scanning calorimetry or powder X-ray diffraction, whereas small amounts of amorphous probucol were detected. Beeswax was pulverized to nanoparticles (D50 = 0.14 microm) with ethyl alcohol cooled with liquid nitrogen. Fine nanoparticles of these poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points were obtained by controlling the rotation/revolution speed and reducing the vessel temperature. PMID:22957432

Yuminoki, K; Takeda, M; Kitamura, K; Numata, S; Kimura, K; Takatsuka, T; Hashimoto, N

2012-08-01

374

Chemical treatment response to variations in non-point pollution water quality: Results of a factorial design experiment.  

PubMed

Chemical treatment of non-point derived pollution often suffers from undesirable oscillations in purification efficiency due to variations in runoff water quality. This study examined the response of the chemical purification process to variations in water quality using a 2(k) factorial design for runoff water rich in humic substances. The four k factors evaluated and the levels applied were: organic matter as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (20-70 mg/L), suspended solids (SS) (10-60 mg/L), initial water pH (4.5-7), and applied coagulant dosage (ferric sulphate) (35-100 mg/L). Indicators of purification efficiency were residual concentration of DOC, SS and total phosphorus (tot-P). Analysis of variance and factor effect calculations showed that the initial DOC concentration in raw water samples and its interactions with the coagulant dosage applied exerted the most significant influence on the chemical purification process, substantially affecting the residual concentration of DOC, SS and tot-P. The variations applied to the factors SS and pH only slightly affected purification efficiency. The results can be used in the design of purification systems with high organic matter load variation, e.g. peat extraction runoff. PMID:25485936

Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Leiviskä, Tiina; Kløve, Bjørn

2015-03-01

375

Low temperature sugar-water equilibrium curve by a rapid calorimetric method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple rapid enthalpic method based upon a unique calorimetric measurement was developed and applied to sugar solutions at low temperatures to determine the amount of unfreezable water. The experimental results were in good agreement with those obtained by the usual freezing point depression method. The experimental data were also used to test the validity of several literature semi-empirical models

V. Hoff; S CORRERA

1995-01-01

376

33 CFR 150.445 - When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water?  

33 ? Navigation and Navigable Waters ? 2 ? 2014-07-01 ? 2014-07-01 ? false ? When is oil in a single point mooring-oil transfer system (SPM-OTS) displaced with water? ? 150.445 ? Section 150.445 ? Navigation and Navigable Waters ? COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ?...

2014-07-01

377

The effect of intermittent water application by surface point sources on the soil moisture dynamics and on deep percolation under the root zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of intermittent water application by surface point sources on the soil moisture dynamics and on the water losses by deep percolation under the root zone was studied through the use of a cylindrical flow model which incorporates evaporation from the soil surface and water extraction by roots. Several combinations of discharge rate and irrigation durations were tested. The

S. Elmaloglou; E. Diamantopoulos

2008-01-01

378

Factors involved in sustained use of point-of-use water disinfection methods: a field study from Flores Island, Indonesia.  

PubMed

Many scientific studies have suggested that point-of-use water treatment can improve water quality and reduce the risk of infectious diseases. Despite the ease of use and relatively low cost of such methods, experience shows the potential benefits derived from provision of such systems depend on recipients' acceptance of the technology and its sustained use. To date, few contributions have addressed the problem of user experience in the post-implementation phase. This can diagnose challenges, which undermine system longevity and its sustained use. A qualitative evaluation of two household water treatment systems, solar disinfection (SODIS) and chlorine tablets (Aquatabs), in three villages was conducted by using a diagnostic tool focusing on technology performance and experience. Cross-sectional surveys and in-depth interviews were used to investigate perceptions of involved stakeholders (users, implementers and local government). Results prove that economic and functional factors were significant in using SODIS, whilst perceptions of economic, taste and odour components were important in Aquatabs use. Conclusions relate to closing the gap between factors that technology implementers and users perceive as key to the sustained deployment of point-of-use disinfection technologies. PMID:25252361

Roma, E; Bond, T; Jeffrey, P

2014-09-01

379

Controlled freezing of nonideal solutions with application to cryosurgical processes.  

PubMed

Success of a cryosurgical procedure, i.e., maximal cell destruction, requires that the cooling rate be controlled during the freezing process. Standard cryosurgical devices are not usually designed to perform the required controlled process. In this study, a new cryosurgical device was developed which facilitates the achievement of a specified cooling rate during freezing by accurately controlling the probe temperature variation with time. The new device has been experimentally tested by applying it to an aqueous solution of mashed potatoes. The temperature field in the freezing medium, whose thermal properties are similar to those of biological tissue, was measured. The cryoprobe temperature was controlled according to a desired time varying profile which was assumed to maximize necrosis. The tracking accuracy and the stability of the closed loop control system were investigated. It was found that for most of the time the tracking accuracy was excellent and the error between the measured probe temperature and the desired set point is within +/- 0.4 degrees C. However, noticeable deviations from the set point occurred due to the supercooling phenomenon or due to the instability of the liquid nitrogen boiling regime in the cryoprobe. The experimental results were compared to those obtained by a finite elements program and very good agreement was obtained. The deviation between the two data sets seems to be mainly due to errors in positioning of the thermocouple junctions in the medium. PMID:1762441

Budman, H M; Dayan, J; Shitzer, A

1991-11-01

380

Heterologous aquaporin (AQY2-1) expression strongly enhances freeze tolerance of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.  

PubMed

Aquaporin membrane proteins enable the transport of water across membranes in various organisms. In yeast their expression has been shown to correlate strongly with freeze tolerance. When we analyzed the freeze tolerance of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an organism whose genome sequence has revealed no genes encoding a bona fide water channel, we found very low intrinsic freeze tolerance compared to other yeast species with aquaporin-encoding genes. Deletion of Spac977.17, which encodes a putative glycerol facilitator, resulted in no significant differences in freeze tolerance with its corresponding wild-type strain in all growth conditions tested. However, when we expressed the Saccharomyces cerevisiae aquaporin-encoding gene AQY2-1 in S. pombe cells, we found that the relatively low freeze tolerance of S. pombe could be significantly enhanced. Therefore, (i) the absence of a bona fide water channel in S. pombe might provide in part an explanation for its overall low freeze tolerance compared to other yeast species, and (ii) aquaporin overexpression might be a tool to improve cryopreservation of many other cell types as well, as has recently been shown for mouse oocytes and fish embryos. PMID:16254446

Tanghe, An; Kayingo, Gerald; Prior, Bernard A; Thevelein, Johan M; Van Dijck, Patrick

2005-01-01

381

At Boiling Point: Like Water for Chocolate and the Boundaries of Mexican Identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the mechanisms of Mexican identity as they are constructed in Alfonso Arau’s film Como agua para chocolate (1991) (Like Water for Chocolate). In re-designing the characters of Laura Esquivel’s novel, Arau produces a range of filmic stereotypes drawn from both the Hollywood and the Mexican traditions of film-making. Through the careful manipulation of filmic devices such as

N. Finnegan

1999-01-01

382

Characterization of the TIP4PEw water model: Vapor pressure and boiling point  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274-400 K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations

Hans W. Horn; William C. Swope; Jed W. Pitera

2005-01-01

383

Characterization of the TIP4PEw water model: Vapor pressure and boiling point  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquid-vapor-phase equilibrium properties of the previously developed TIP4P-Ew water model have been studied using thermodynamic integration free-energy simulation techniques in the temperature range of 274–400 K. We stress that free-energy results from simulations need to be corrected in order to be compared to the experiment. This is due to the fact that the thermodynamic end states accessible through simulations

Hans W. Horn; William C. Swope; Jed W. Pitera

2005-01-01

384

Non-equilibrium freezing behaviour of aqueous systems.  

PubMed

The tendencies to non-equilibrium freezing behaviour commonly noted in representative aqueous systems derive from bulk and surface properties according to the circumstances. Supercooling and supersaturation are limited by heterogeneous nucleation in the presence of solid impurities. Homogeneous nucleation has been observed in aqueous systems freed from interfering solids. Once initiated, crystal growth is ofter slowed and, very frequently, terminated with increasing viscosity. Nor does ice first formed always succeed in assuming its most stable crystalline form. Many of the more significant measurements on a given systeatter permitting the simultaneous representation of thermodynamic and non-equilibrium properties. The diagram incorporated equilibrium melting points, heterogeneous nucleation temperatures, homogeneous nucleation temperatures, glass transition and devitrification temperatures, recrystallization temperatures, and, where appropriate, solute solubilities and eutectic temperatures. Taken together, the findings on modle systems aid the identification of the kinetic and thermodynamic factors responsible for the freezing-thawing survival of living cells. PMID:17872

MacKenzie, A P

1977-03-29

385

Intracellular Freezing in the Infective Juveniles of Steinernema feltiae: An Entomopathogenic Nematode  

PubMed Central

Taking advantage of their optical transparency, we clearly observed the third stage infective juveniles (IJs) of Steinernema feltiae freezing under a cryo-stage microscope. The IJs froze when the water surrounding them froze at ?2°C and below. However, they avoid inoculative freezing at ?1°C, suggesting cryoprotective dehydration. Freezing was evident as a sudden darkening and cessation of IJs' movement. Freeze substitution and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the IJs of S. feltiae freeze intracellularly. Ice crystals were found in every compartment of the body. IJs frozen at high sub-zero temperatures (?1 and ?3°C) survived and had small ice crystals. Those frozen at ?10°C had large ice crystals and did not survive. However, the pattern of ice formation was not well-controlled and individual nematodes frozen at ?3°C had both small and large ice crystals. IJs frozen by plunging directly into liquid nitrogen had small ice crystals, but did not survive. This study thus presents the evidence that S. feltiae is only the second freeze tolerant animal, after the Antarctic nematode Panagrolaimus davidi, shown to withstand extensive intracellular freezing. PMID:24769523

Ali, Farman; Wharton, David A.

2014-01-01

386

Laboratory experiments on homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The freezing temperature of the binary H_2SO_4 / H_2O solution droplets has been measured in dependence on their acid concentrations by means of acoustic levitation laboratory experiments. Pure solution droplets were analysed, in order to freeze the droplets as far as possible homogeneously. To induce heterogeneous freezing the droplets were contanimated with substances such as graphite, and the minerals kaolin and montmorillonite. The influence of these particles present in the liquid on the freezing temperature was measured. The size radii of the suspended droplets were between 0,4 - 1,1 mm and the concentration of the liquid acid solution was varied between 5 - 25 weight percent. The experiments show that the pure solution can be supercooled well below the equilibrium curve. Furthermore the presence of foreign particles within the solution increases the freezing temperature. The collected data reveal that the quality of the used particles as nuclei for freezing also depends on the particle material properties. Not only the presence of particles in the solution alone influences the freezing temperature of the droplets, but also the chemical composition and the surface charactaristics. In this contribution details of the experimental conditions are presented together with the measured freezing temperatures.

Borrmann, S.; Ettner, M.; Mitra, S. K.; Hannemann, A.; Sommer, C.; Peter, Th.

2003-04-01

387

Penetrative Rayleigh-Bénard convection in water near its maximum density point  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of a density maximum in water near 4 °C significantly modifies the nature and onset conditions of convective flows due to imposed temperature differences. In the present study, vertical temperature gradients are imposed upon a horizontal, rectangular layer of water, with the top and bottom surfaces maintained above and below the maximum density temperature, respectively. In such an arrangement, convection beginning in the lower, unstable portion of the layer (as small as 1/3 of the layer height) may penetrate into the upper, stable region. The resulting convection patterns are visualized using schlieren or shadowgraph techniques along multiple visual axes. The measured onset conditions and observed patterns are discussed in the context of preceding predictions and experimental observations in similar penetrative systems. As expected from the non-Boussinesq nature of water in this temperature range, convection sets in at temperature differences below those predicted by linear stability theory when the unstable portion of the layer is sufficiently small. The conduction-convection transition is also hysteretic in nature. At onset, the convection pattern consists of parallel, transverse rolls due to the boundary conditions of the fluid chamber. When the unstable portion of the layer is significantly less than half of the fluid layer height, the convective motion is found to penetrate only partway into the upper stable region, within which weakly counter-rotating motions are driven. At higher Rayleigh numbers, the fluid undergoes secondary transitions to either hexagonal cellular or longitudinal roll states which are visualized for the first time. Pattern heights and wavenumbers were measured in some instances, establishing qualitative (in general) and quantitative (over some parameter ranges) agreement with linear theory.

Large, E.; Andereck, C. D.

2014-09-01

388

Freeze-drying for morphological control of high performance semi-interpenetrating polymer networks. III  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using a freeze-drying (solvent removal by sublimation) approach for controlling the morphology of a high-performance semi-IPN is assessed. A high-performance thermoplastic polyimide and commercially available 4,4'-bismaleimide diphenylenemethane were dissolved in a solvent, 1,3,5-trioxane. The solvent was removed from the constituents by freeze-drying. For purposes of comparison, the constituents were dissolved in a high-boiling-point solvent, N,N-dimethylformamide. The solvent was removed from the solution by evaporation. The physical and mechanical properties and phase morphology of the neat resins and composites prepared by freeze-drying and traditional solution methods are presented and compared. It is concluded that the TG is higher and that the magnitude of minor constituent separation is less in the freeze-dry processed materials than for the processed solution.

Hsiung, H. J.; Hansen, M. G.; Pater, R. H.

1991-01-01

389

Microphysical Modelling of the 1999-2000 Arctic Winter. 3; Impact of Homogeneous Freezing on PSCs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simulations of the 1999-2000 winter have tested the effect on polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) of the homogeneous freezing of liquid ternary solutions into nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) and nitric acid dihydrate (NAD). Proposed laboratory-derived volume-based and surface-based homogeneous freezing rates have both been examined, including different assumptions about the extrapolation of laboratory measurements to atmospheric conditions. Widespread PSC formation and denitrification are possible in several of the scenarios examined. However, the simulations are all unable to explain the solid-phase PSCs observed early in the 1999-2000 winter, and are unable to reproduce the measured extent of vortex denitrification. These problems can both be attributed to the relatively cold temperatures, more than 5 K below the NAT condensation point, necessary for effective homogeneous freezing. Therefore synoptic-scale homogeneous freezing appears unlikely to be the primary mechanism responsible for solid-phase PSC formation.

Drdla, K.

2003-01-01

390

Stabilization of liposomes in frozen solutions through control of osmotic flow and internal solution freezing by trehalose.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of trehalose distribution across the membrane on the freeze-related physical changes of liposome suspensions and their functional stability upon freeze-thawing. Cooling thermal analysis of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposome suspensions showed exotherm peaks of bulk (-15 °C to -25 °C) and intraliposomal (approx. -45 °C) solution freezing initiated by heterogeneous and homogeneous ice nucleation, respectively. The extent of the intraliposomal solution freezing exotherm depended on liposome size, lipid composition, cosolutes, and thermal history, suggesting that osmotic dehydration occurred due to the increasing difference in solute concentrations across the membrane. A freeze-thawing study of carboxyfluorescein-encapsulated liposomes suggested that controlling the osmotic properties to avoid the freeze-induced intraliposomal solution loss either by rapid cooling of suspensions containing trehalose in both sides of the membrane (retention of the intraliposomal supercooled solution) or by cooling of suspensions containing trehalose in the extraliposomal media prior to freezing (e.g., osmotic shrinkage) led to higher retention of the water-soluble marker. Evaluation and control of the osmotically mediated freezing behavior by optimizing the formulation and process factors should be relevant to the cryopreservation and freeze-drying of liposomes. PMID:21328583

Izutsu, Ken-ichi; Yomota, Chikako; Kawanishi, Toru

2011-07-01

391

Simulation and field monitoring of moisture in alpine rock walls during freeze-thaw events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detachment of rock fragments from alpine rockwalls is mainly assigned to frost weathering. However, the actual process of frost weathering as well as the contribution of further weathering processes (e.g. hydration, thermal fatigue) is poorly understood. Rock moisture distribution during freeze-thaw events is key to understanding weathering. For this purpose, different measuring systems were set up in two study areas (Dachstein - permafrost area (2700m a.s.l.) and Gesäuse - non permafrost area (900m a.s.l.), Styria, Austria) within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS (FWF-P24244). We installed small-scale 2D-geoelectric survey lines in north and in south facing rockwalls, supplemented by high resolution temperature and moisture sensors. Moisture is determined by means of resistivity measurements which are difficult to calibrate, but provide good time series. Additional novel moisture sensors were developed which use the heat capacity of the surrounding rock as a proxy of water content. These sensors give point readings from a defined depth and are independent from soluble salt contents. Pore water pressure occurring during freeze-thaw events is recorded by means of pressure transducers (piezometers). First results from the Dachstein show that short term latent heat effects during the phase change have crucial influence on the moisture content. These results are cross-checked by simulation calculations. Based on meteorologic and lithologic input values, the simulation routine calculates, in an iterative procedure, the hourly energy and water transport at different depths, the latter in the liquid and in the vapor phase. The calculated profile lines and chronological sequences of rock moisture allow - in combination with temperature data - to detect possible periods of active weathering. First simulations from the Gesäuse show that maximum values of pore saturation occur from May to September. The thresholds of the "classical" frost shattering theory (high number of freeze-thaw cycles and 90% pore saturation) are achieved predominantly in spring and autumn and in north-facing rock walls. The time spent within the effective "frost cracking window" (-3 - -8°C) is also higher for north-facing sites.

Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver

2013-04-01

392

Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Performance after Extended Periods of Freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiators operating in lunar or Martian environments must be designed to reject the maximum heat load at the maximum sink temperature, while maintaining acceptable temperatures at lower powers or sink temperatures. Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) radiators can passively adjust to these changing conditions. Due to the presence of non-condensable gas (NCG) within each VCHP, the active condensing section adjusts with changes in either thermal load or sink temperature. In a Constant Conductance Heat Pipe (CCHP) without NCG, it is possible for all of the water to freeze in the condenser, by either sublimation or vaporization. With a dry evaporator, startup is difficult or impossible. Several previous studies have shown that adding NCG suppresses evaporator dryout when the condenser is frozen. These tests have been for relatively short durations, with relatively short condensers. This paper describes freeze/thaw experiments involving a VCHP with similar dimensions to the current reactor and cavity cooling radiator heat pipe designs.

Ellis, Michael C.; Anderson, William G.

2009-03-01

393

Elastic behavior of saturated porous materials under undrained freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The elastic behavior of saturated porous materials under undrained freezing is investigated by using a poromechanical approach. Thermodynamic equilibria are used to describe the crystallization process of the partially frozen solution in bulk state and confined state in pores. By phase transition at freezing, fusion energy, thermal contraction of solid, solution and ice crystals, volume changes of crystallization build up remarkable pore pressure that induces expansion or shrinkage of solid matrix. Owing to the lower chemical potential when pore water mixes with salts, fewer ice forms in pores. Penetration of ice into the porous materials increases the capillary pressure, but limits effect on the pore liquid pressure and the strain of solid matrix. On the contrary, the pore pressure induced by solution density rises as salt concentration increases and causes significant shrinkage of solid matrix.

Zeng, Qiang; Fen-Chong, Teddy; Li, Ke-Fei

2013-12-01

394

Is Enceladus' Internal Ocean Doomed to Freeze?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enceladus is geologically hyperactive, with plumes of water vapor, other volatiles such as ammonia, and salty particles erupting from its South Polar Terrain. The plumes are spatially associated with a region of greatly increased local heat flux, with a total power output 15.8 × 3.1 GW spread over an area of 70,000 km2 (e.g., Spencer and Nimmo 2013, AREPS 41), corresponding to a regional heat flux of 180-270 mW m-2. Tidal strains of the magnitude only possible in an ice shell that is decoupled from a rocky interior by an internal ocean or regional sea are required to generate this much heat (e.g., Behounkova et al. 2012, Icarus 219). Yet, numerous studies conclude that Enceladus' ocean cannot be in present-day thermodynamic steady state with a conductive or convective ice I shell (e.g., Roberts and Nimmo 2008, Icarus 194; Behounkova et al. 2012). Regardless of where Enceladus' tidal heating is concentrated (i.e., the poles), and regardless of whether its outer ice I shell convects, Enceladus' ocean is predicted to freeze on a geologically rapid time scale, implying that activity on Enceladus is only a transient or episodic phenomenon. These arguments strictly apply only to pure water ice oceans, however. We have previously argued that if the presence of salts or ammonia is allowed for, the ocean may be cooler and can be maintained essentially permanently by tidal heating in the ice above (McKinnon and Barr 2008, LPS XXXIX). Here we elaborate on the conditions under which Enceladus' ocean can be stabilized or even increase in thickness due to present-day tidal heating within the ice shell and the presence of salts and ammonia, which we now know are there (Waite et al. 2009, Nature 460; Postberg et al. 2011, Nature 474). As previous work has found, we cannot explain the present-day heat flow, but there is no fundamental reason that Enceladus' ocean or sea should completely freeze for present-day orbital eccentricities.

McKinnon, W. B.; Barr, A. C.

2013-12-01

395

Hydrogeologic, water-level, and water-quality data from monitoring wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Unlined hazardous-waste disposal sites at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, are located near drinking-water supply wells that tap the Castle Hayne aquifer. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected near 2 of these sites from 12 monitoring wells installed in May through June 1987. Near the northernmost landfill site, differences in hydraulic head between the surficial, intermediate Yorktown, and Castle Hayne aquifers indicate a potential for migration of contaminants downward into the intermediate Yorktown and Castle Hayne aquifers. Movement would be impeded, however, by two confining units of silty sand to sandy clay that separate these aquifers. Geophysical and lithologic data show the upper confining unit to be approximately 26 feet thick near this landfill. Near the southernmost landfill, these confining units are thin and discontinuous in an area that coincides with the location of a buried paleochannel. Static water-level data collected in this area indicate that both the Castle Hayne and Yorktown aquifers discharge into the surficial aquifer, minimizing the potential for downward contaminant movement. Ground water in the surficial aquifer at both landfills moves laterally away from nearby drinking-water supply wells and toward Slocum Creek, a tributary of the Neuse River. Concentrations of organic compounds and trace inorganic constituents included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s list of priority pollutants were determined for water samples from the surficial and Yorktown aquifers. High concentrations of two purgeable organic compounds, trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene (4,600 and 4,800 micrograms per liter, respectively), were detected in water samples collected from the surficial aquifer near the southernmost landfill; much smaller concentrations of trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene were detected in samples from wells in the Yorktown aquifer (up to 16 and 12 micrograms per liter, respectively). These compounds may have migrated into the Yorktown aquifer from the surficial aquifer during periods of pumping from nearby drinking-water supply wells if the pumping were sufficient to reverse the hydraulic head between these aquifers. Only trace amounts of organic compounds were detected in the surficial and Yorktown aquifers near the northernmost landfill. Trace metals were detected in most of the wells sampled near both landfills, but none exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards except for iron and manganese. Highest concentrations of priority pollutant metals detected were for zinc (60 micrograms per liter) and chromium (36 micrograms per liter).

Murray, L.C., Jr.; Keoughan, K.M.

1990-01-01

396

Impact of discharges from point and nonpoint sources on water quality of the upper Reedy River near Greenville, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Impacts of discharge from nonpoint sources in the urban area of Greenville, South Carolina and from the point source, the Mauldin Road Wastewater Treatment Plant, on water quality of the Reedy River were studied from October 1979 through September 1980. Streamflow and water-quality data were collected before and during two storms. The pH and concentrations of organic nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate plus nitrate, ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, and orthophosphate were determined. Streamflow and concentrations of dissolved oxygen were measured continuously at three stations from May through September 1980. Discharge from the point source resulted in average daily concentrations of dissolved oxygen less than 5 milligrams per liter in the Reedy River on 34 days during low streamflow in the summer of 1980. During periods of high streamflow that resulted from the two storms. Dissolved oxygen remained at about 5 milligrams per liter in the Reedy River because increased dilution of loads of oxygen-demanding materials reduced the impacts of these loads on the quality of the Reedy River. (USGS)

Cahal, D.I.; Speiran, G.K.

1983-01-01

397

Final report on EURAMET.T-K7.2: Bilateral comparison of water triple point cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the final report of EURAMET.T-K7.2 bilateral comparison of water triple point cells. This comparison was requested by the Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, INTiBS, in its role as designated institute of Poland for participation in the CIPM MRA in the low temperature range of the thermometry field. The measurement protocol adopted was compatible with EURAMET.T-K7 with the only exception that INTiBS used capsule-type SPRTs (CSPRTs) instead of long-stem SPRTs (LSPRTs). The results showed a satisfactory degree of equivalence between VSL and INTiBS and allowed linkage to the parent key comparison EURAMET.T-K7. As a consequence, INTiBS is able to support CMCs for CSPRTs at the triple point of water and publish them in the KCDB. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

Peruzzi, A.; Szmyrka Grzebyk, A.

2012-01-01

398

Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.  

PubMed

As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

2014-12-01

399

Testing research for oil-gas-water flow pattern in Daqing oilfield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the period of the high water cut later stage, it is significant for decreasing energy consumption of gathering system to research oil-gas-water flow pattern. At the moment, the studies on oil-gas-water flow pattern are mainly focused on the temperature range of crude oil freezing point. A experimental system is designed, constructed and operated in oilfields in horizontal pipeline., which is used for experimental investigation and analysis of oil-gas-water flow pattern under freezing point in horizontal pipeline. According to the crude oil condition, the results show that oil-gas-water flow pattern includes four types that are oil contact wave flow, oil-oil particle dispersion flow, oil lamellar flow, oil puddle slugging flow.

Liu, Xiaoyan; Mao, Qianjun; Liu, Lijun; Xu, Ying; Chen, Wei

2013-07-01

400

A New Freezing Method Using Pre-Dehydration by Microwave-Vacuum Drying  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial dehydration by microwave-vacuum drying has been applied to tuna and strawberry in order to reduce cell-damages caused by the formation of large ice-crystals during freezing. The samples were subjected to microwave vacuum drying at pressure of 5 kPa and temperature less than 27°C to remove small amount of water prior to freezing. The tuna were cooled by using the freezing chamber at temperature -50°C or -150°C, while the strawberries were frozen at temperature -30°C or -80°C, respectively. The temperature transients in tuna showed that removing some water before freezing made the freezing time shorter. The observations of ice crystal clearly indicated that rapid cooling and pre-dehydration prior to freezing were effective in minimizing the size of ice crystal. It is also understood that the formation of large ice crystals has a close relation to the cell damages. After thawing, the observation of microstructure was done on the tuna and strawberry halves. The pre-dehydrated samples showed a better structure than the un-dehydrated one. It is concluded that the pre-dehydration by microwave-vacuum drying is one promising method for the cryo-preservation of foods.

Tsuruta, Takaharu; Hamidi, Nurkholis

401

Immersion freezing on mineral dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust is considered to play a major role in ice cloud nucleation in the troposphere. More than 1.000 Tg of mineral dust are aerosolized from the ground every year, 1-10% of these reach the upper troposphere [1]. At an altitude of about 8 km ice residual particle analysis has shown that about 50% of all ice nuclei (IN) are mineral dust[2]. In principle, natural occurring dusts may either be IN-active themselves or are carriers of organic and/or biological IN. Up to now the ice nucleation, i.e. cloud glaciation, has not been quantized. However, different authors report a high IN-activity for many mineral dust samples, although a systematic comparison between different minerals is still missing. Therefore, we studied selected mineral dust samples which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy before use. Oil immersion measurements were performed on the most common minerals, clay materials and volcanic ash. The median freezing temperatures range from -21°C up to homogenous freezing at 38°C. Even though quite a few dust samples show a reasonable high IN-activity, their median freezing temperatures are low compared to biological samples [3, 4]. Furthermore, heat treatment of the dusts was applied in order to decompose and to denaturize organic and/or biological surfactants. Finally, some dust samples had a high loss of activity and thus were subjects of further experiments. These mineral dust particles were suspended in water and after an incubation time were removed. In some cases the washing water had become IN-active, but lost its activity after enzymatic treatment. The observed high IN-activity can thus be explained by adsorbed biological materials. The results suggest that some mineral dusts are IN-active, and if it is not intrinsic they may even enhance IN-activity of organic and biological IN if these are adsorbed on the dust particle surface. A relatively high IN-activity of the pure mineral dusts was only observed in quartz, clays, and mixed natural dusts (ATD), which are mainly composed of SiO2 and clays. References. [1] C. S. Zender, R. L. Miller and I. Tegen, Eos Trans. AGU, 2004,85, 509. [2] K. A. Pratt, P. J. DeMott, J. R. French, Z. Wang, D. L. Westphal, A. J. Heymsfield, C. H. Twohy, A. J. Prenni, K. A. Prather, Nat. Geosci., 2009, 2, 397-400. [3] B. Pummer, H. Bauer, J. Bernardi, S. Bleicher and H. Grothe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2012, 12, 2541-2550. [4] V. T. J. Phillips, C. Andronache, B. Christner, C. E. Morris, D. C. Sands, A. Bansemer, A. Lauer, C. McNaughton and C. Seman, Biogeosciences, 2009, 6, 987-1014.

Zolles, Tobias; Grothe, Hinrich; Pummer, Bernhard

2013-04-01

402

Freeze-Thaw Stress: Effects of Temperature on Hydraulic Conductivity and Ultrasonic Activity in Ten Woody Angiosperms1  

PubMed Central

Freeze-thaw events can affect plant hydraulics by inducing embolism. This study analyzed the effect of temperature during the freezing process on hydraulic conductivity and ultrasonic emissions (UE). Stems of 10 angiosperms were dehydrated to a water potential at 12% percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) and exposed to freeze-thaw cycles. The minimal temperature of the frost cycle correlated positively with induced PLC, whereby species with wider conduits (hydraulic diameter) showed higher freeze-thaw-induced PLC. Ultrasonic activity started with the onset of freezing and increased with decreasing subzero temperatures, whereas no UE were recorded during thawing. The temperature at which 50% of UE were reached varied between ?9.1°C and ?31.0°C across species. These findings indicate that temperatures during freezing are of relevance for bubble formation and air seeding. We suggest that species-specific cavitation thresholds are reached during freezing due to the temperature-dependent decrease of water potential in the ice, while bubble expansion and the resulting PLC occur during thawing. UE analysis can be used to monitor the cavitation process and estimate freeze-thaw-induced PLC. PMID:24344170

Charrier, Guillaume; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Kasuga, Jun; Cochard, Hervé; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry

2014-01-01

403

Freeze-thaw stress: effects of temperature on hydraulic conductivity and ultrasonic activity in ten woody angiosperms.  

PubMed

Freeze-thaw events can affect plant hydraulics by inducing embolism. This study analyzed the effect of temperature during the freezing process on hydraulic conductivity and ultrasonic emissions (UE). Stems of 10 angiosperms were dehydrated to a water potential at 12% percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC) and exposed to freeze-thaw cycles. The minimal temperature of the frost cycle correlated positively with induced PLC, whereby species with wider conduits (hydraulic diameter) showed higher freeze-thaw-induced PLC. Ultrasonic activity started with the onset of freezing and increased with decreasing subzero temperatures, whereas no UE were recorded during thawing. The temperature at which 50% of UE were reached varied between -9.1°C and -31.0°C across species. These findings indicate that temperatures during freezing are of relevance for bubble formation and air seeding. We suggest that species-specific cavitation thresholds are reached during freezing due to the temperature-dependent decrease of water potential in the ice, while bubble expansion and the resulting PLC occur during thawing. UE analysis can be used to monitor the cavitation process and estimate freeze-thaw-induced PLC. PMID:24344170

Charrier, Guillaume; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Kasuga, Jun; Cochard, Hervé; Mayr, Stefan; Améglio, Thierry

2014-02-01

404

Phase-uncertainty quality map for two-point Dixon fat-water separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates and compares two different phase-correction algorithms for Dixon fat-water separation and two different quality maps (QM) for region-growing: the original QM, based on phase gradients, and a QM based on phase uncertainty, proposed in this article. A spoiled dual-gradient-echo sequence was employed at 1.5 T to acquire in-phase and out-of-phase images of joints, parotid glands, abdomen and test objects. All 97 datasets were processed eight times each: with two different phase correction algorithms (original and hierarchical phase correction), with two different QM, and with/without removing linear component of the phase drifts associated with dual-echo acquisitions and bipolar readout gradient waveforms. The linear component of the phase drift along the readout direction was found to reach 4.1° pixel-1, depending on the geometric parameters. Pre-processing to remove linear phase shifts has little impact on outcome. The hierarchic phase-correction algorithm outperformed the original phase-correction algorithm in all applications. The proposed phase-uncertainty QM provides a small performance improvement in clinical images, but can be vulnerable to flow-related phase shifts in bright vessels. Overall the most successful phase-correction technique employed phase-uncertainty QMs and hierarchic algorithms, with pre-processing to correct the linear phase drift associated with dual-echo acquisitions and bipolar readout gradient waveform.

Schmidt, Maria A.

2011-09-01

405

Dilatometrical behaviour of porous calcareous rock samples subjected to freeze-thaw cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilatometry can be used in geomorphology as an evaluation method for the behaviour of rocks during weathering by frost shattering and also for the role of unfrozen water migration during this process. It has already been demonstrated in other publications that calcareous rock cylinders undergoing humidification\\/drying cycles (no freezing) vary in length. These length changes are most significant when water

A. Prick

1995-01-01

406

Use of centrifugation–filtration for determination of syneresis in freeze–thaw starch gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several methods for measuring the freeze–thaw stability of starch gels can lead to inaccurate and imprecise estimates of syneresis due to partial reabsorption of separated water by spongy starch gels. This study evaluates a method that combines centrifugation with simultaneous separation of released water through a separator and filter paper. The evaluation procedure used low- and high-amylose rice flour gels

Sanguansri Charoenrein; Orawan Tatirat; Janya Muadklay

2008-01-01

407

THE VAPOUR PRESSURES OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PROBLEM OF THE STATE OF WATER IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the physical properties of solutions of a number of organic and inorganic substances in water has led observers, from time to time, to assume the existence of combinations between the ions or molecules of the solute with the solvent. Thus the deviation of the colligative properties (freezing point depression, osmotic pressure, etc.) of certain solutions from the

A. Grollman

1931-01-01

408

A qualitative sampling method for monitoring water quality in temporary channels or point sources and its application to pesticide contamination.  

PubMed

A water-sampling device to monitor the quality of water periodically and temporarily flowing out of concrete tubes, sewers or channels is described. It inexpensively and easily enables a qualitative characterization of contamination via these point-source entry routes. The water sampler can be reverse engineered with different sizes and materials, once installed needs no maintenance, passively samples the first surge, and the emptying procedure is short. In an agricultural catchment area in Germany we monitored an emergency overflow of a sewage sewer, an outlet of a rainwater sewer and two small drainage channels as input sources to a small stream. Seven inflow events were analysed for 20 pesticide agents (insecticides, fungicides and herbicides). All three entry routes were remarkably contaminated. We found parathion-ethyl concentrations of 0.3 microg l(-1), diuron up to 17.3 microg l(-1), ethofumesate up to 51.1 microg l(-1), metamitron up to 92 microg l(-1) and prosulfocarb up to 130 microg l(-1). PMID:12615103

Neumann, Michael; Liess, Matthias; Schulz, Ralf

2003-05-01

409

The influence of freeze–thaw cycles on the unconfined compressive strength of fiber-reinforced clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freeze–thaw cycling is a weathering process that frequently occurs in cold climates. In the freeze state, thermodynamic conditions at temperatures just below 0°C result in the translocation of water and ice. Consequently, the engineering properties of soils such as permeability, water content, stress–strain behavior, failure strength, elastic modulus, cohesion, and friction angle may be changed. Former studies have been focused

Mahmoud Ghazavi; Mahya Roustaie

2010-01-01

410

Elastic properties and freezing of argon confined in mesoporous glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the elastic properties of argon confined in mesoporous Vycor glass with a mean pore diameter of 8 nm. For this purpose volumetric adsorption and desorption measurements are combined with simultaneous ultrasonic measurements. Therewith we obtain the effective shear modulus as a function of the pore filling reflecting both the spatial arrangement and the freezing process of confined argon. Below the freezing point of argon the adsorption process proceeds in three steps. (I) The first adsorbed layers of argon do not contribute to the measured shear modulus, i.e., they do not behave like a solid. (II) In an intermediate range of pore filling the shear modulus increases linearly with increasing amount of adsorbate, i.e., the process of freezing starts, probably with the formation of capillary sublimate. (III) At a certain filling fraction an abrupt rise of the shear modulus up to a plateau value is observed. This step indicates either a change in the spatial distribution of the capillary condensate or a change in its intrinsic properties. The lower the temperature, the smaller the characteristic filling fractions at which these transitions occur. During desorption a hysteresis of the shear modulus, of the attenuation, and hence of the state of the adsorbate is observed.

Schappert, Klaus; Pelster, Rolf

2008-11-01

411

Long-term geoelectrical monitoring of laboratory freeze-thaw experiments on bedrock samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much attention has recently focussed on the continuous and near-real-time geophysical monitoring of permafrost-affected bedrock with permanently installed sensor arrays. It is hoped that such efforts will enhance process understanding in such environments (permafrost degradation, weathering mechanisms) and augment our capability to predict future instabilities of rock walls and slopes. With regard to electrical methods for example, recent work has demonstrated that temperature-calibrated electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is capable of imaging recession and re-advance of rock permafrost in response to the ambient temperature regime. However, field experience also shows that several fundamental improvements to ERT methodology are still required to achieve the desired sensitivity, spatial-temporal resolution and long-term robustness that must underpin continuous geophysical measurements. We have applied 4D geoelectrical tomography to monitoring laboratory experiments simulating permafrost growth, persistence and thaw in bedrock over a period of 26 months. Six water-saturated samples of limestone and chalk of varying porosity represented lithologies commonly affected by permafrost-related instability. Time-lapse imaging of the samples was undertaken during multiple successive freeze-thaw cycles, emulating annual seasonal change over several decades. Further experimental control was provided by simultaneous measurements of vertical profiles of temperature and moisture content within the bedrock samples. These experiments have helped develop an alternative methodology for the volumetric imaging of permafrost bedrock and tracking active layer dynamics. Capacitive resistivity imaging (CRI), a technique based upon low-frequency, capacitively-coupled measurements emulates ERT methodology, but without the need for galvanic contact on frozen rock. The latter is perceived as a key potential weakness, which could lead to significant limitations as a result of the variable quality of contact between sensors and the host material as it freezes and thaws. Our experiments have directly compared the CRI and ERT approaches. Numerical simulation of dense capacitive multi-sensor geometries shows that the basic assumptions of CRI remain valid for our experimental setup; as a consequence, conventional ERT methodology (including time-lapse inversion) becomes applicable to the capacitive measurements. Permafrost processes tend to be multi-scale in space and time; any imaging technique must therefore be capable of resolving subtle changes in rock properties over a range of spatial scales and long periods of time. Frequent data acquisition (three times per 24-hour period) allowed us to obtain 3D resistivity models of all samples as the freeze-thaw experiment progressed. Data from different stages of the simulated seasonal cycles show that CRI is capable of imaging temperature-dominated changes in resistivity, associated with an approximate temperature range between 20°C and -5°C. Volumetric temperature models of the samples were obtained using calibration curves determined by separate freeze-thaw experiments using identical material. Below the freezing point temperature dominates the resistivity response and the resistivity-based temperature models show very good agreement with point estimates from temperature probes. The CRI and ERT methodologies both hold promise for the systematic and strategic assessment of the thermal state of bedrock permafrost in the field using geoelectrical monitoring.

Kuras, Oliver; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Murton, Julian; Krautblatter, Michael

2014-05-01

412

Freeze protection valve for solar heaters  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a solar heater freeze protection valve apparatus comprising in combination: a valve housing; a remote sensor operatively connected to the valve housing from a remote position, the remote sensor including a bulb containing a liquid adapted to compress and expand with the temperature adjacent the bulb; a piston located in the valve body and slidable responsive to expansion and contraction of the liquid in the remote sensor; a first valve element located in the valve housing and attached to the valve piston for movement; a second valve element located in the valve housing and attached to the housing; a first valve seat in the second valve element forming an opening; a second valve seat positioned in a water passageway to allow the flow of fluid when the second valve element is in an open position and to cut off the flow of fluid when the second valve element is in a closed position. Liquid in a solar heater flows at predetermined temperature readings; and the second valve element is biased in one direction and has a second opening to increase the pressure therebehind when the first valve element closes on the first valve seat. The second valve element closes on the second valve seat.

Cromer, C.J.

1987-07-21

413

Investigation of an implantable dosimeter for single-point water equivalent path length verification in proton therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose:In vivo range verification in proton therapy is highly desirable. A recent study suggested that it was feasible to use point dose measurement for in vivo beam range verification in proton therapy, provided that the spread-out Bragg peak dose distribution is delivered in a different and rather unconventional manner. In this work, the authors investigate the possibility of using a commercial implantable dosimeter with wireless reading for this particular application. Methods: The traditional proton treatment technique delivers all the Bragg peaks required for a SOBP field in a single sequence, producing a constant dose plateau across the target volume. As a result, a point dose measurement anywhere in the target volume will produce the same value, thus providing no information regarding the water equivalent path length to the point of measurement. However, the same constant dose distribution can be achieved by splitting the field into a complementary pair of subfields, producing two oppositely “sloped” depth-dose distributions, respectively. The ratio between the two distributions can be a sensitive function of depth and measuring this ratio at a point inside the target volume can provide the water equivalent path length to the dosimeter location. Two types of field splits were used in the experiment, one achieved by the technique of beam current modulation and the other by manipulating the location and width of the beam pulse relative to the range modulator track. Eight MOSFET-based implantable dosimeters at four different depths in a water tank were used to measure the dose ratios for these field pairs. A method was developed to correct the effect of the well-known LET dependence of the MOSFET detectors on the depth-dose distributions using the columnar recombination model. The LET-corrected dose ratios were used to derive the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeter locations to be compared to physical measurements. Results: The implantable dosimeters measured the dose ratios with a reasonable relative uncertainty of 1%–3% at all depths, except when the ratio itself becomes very small. In total, 55% of the individual measurements reproduced the water equivalent path lengths to the dosimeters within 1 mm. For three dosimeters, the difference was consistently less than 1 mm. Half of the standard deviations over the repeated measurements were equal or less than 1 mm. Conclusions: With a single fitting parameter, the LET-correction method worked remarkably well for the MOSFET detectors. The overall results were very encouraging for a potential method of in vivo beam range verification with millimeter accuracy. This is sufficient accuracy to expand range of clinical applications in which the authors could use the distal fall off of the proton depth dose for tight margins. PMID:21158298

Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Mann, Greg; Cascio, Ethan

2010-01-01

414

Hot big bang or slow freeze?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

Wetterich, C.

2014-09-01

415

Supercooled water in austral summer in Prydz Bay, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supercooled water with temperatures below freezing point, was identified from hydrographic data obtained by Chinese and Australian expeditions to Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during the austral summer. The study shows that most supercooled waters occurred at depths of 63-271 m in the region north of the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) front. The maximum supercooling was 0.16°C below the in-situ freezing point. In temperature and salinity ranges of -2.14-1.96°C and 34.39-34.46, respectively, the water was colder and fresher than peripheral shelf water. The supercooled water had less variability in the vertical profiles compared to shelf water. Based on analysis of their thermohaline features and spatial distribution, as well as the circulation pattern in Prydz Bay, we conclude that these supercooled waters originated from a cavity beneath the AIS and resulted from upwelling just outside of the AIS front. Water emerging from the ice shelf cools to an extremely low temperature (about -2.0°C) by additional cooling from the ice shelf, and becomes buoyant with the addition of melt water from the ice shelf base. When this water flows out of the ice shelf front, its upper boundary is removed, and thus it rises abruptly. Once the temperature of this water reaches below the freezing point, supercooling takes place. In summer, the seasonal pycnocline at ˜100 m water depth acts as a barrier to upwelling and supercooling. The upwelling of ice shelf outflow water illuminates a unique mid-depth convection of the polar ocean.

Shi, Jiuxin; Cheng, Yaoyao; Jiao, Yutian; Hou, Jiaqiang

2011-03-01

416

Relationships between membrane water molecules and Patman equilibration kinetics at temperatures far above the phosphatidylcholine melting point.  

PubMed

The naphthalene-based fluorescent probes Patman and Laurdan detect bilayer polarity at the level of the phospholipid glycerol backbone. This polarity increases with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase of phosphatidylcholines and was observed even 90°C above the melting temperature. This study explores mechanisms associated with this phenomenon. Measurements of probe anisotropy and experiments conducted at 1M NaCl or KCl (to reduce water permittivity) revealed that this effect represents interactions of water molecules with the probes without proportional increases in probe mobility. Furthermore, comparison of emission spectra to Monte Carlo simulations indicated that the increased polarity represents elevation in probe access to water molecules rather than increased mobility of relevant bilayer waters. Equilibration of these probes with the membrane involves at least two steps which were distinguished by the membrane microenvironment reported by the probe. The difference in those microenvironments also changed with temperature in the liquid-crystalline phase in that the equilibrium state was less polar than the initial environment detected by Patman at temperatures near the melting point, more polar at higher temperatures, and again less polar as temperature was raised further. Laurdan also displayed this level of complexity during equilibration, although the relationship to temperature differed quantitatively from that experienced by Patman. This kinetic approach provides a novel way to study in molecular detail basic principles of what happens to the membrane environment around an individual amphipathic molecule as it penetrates the bilayer. Moreover, it provides evidence of unexpected and interesting membrane behaviors far from the phase transition. PMID:25559316

Vaughn, Alexandra R; Bell, Thomas A; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Askew, Caitlin; Franchino, Hannabeth; Hirsche, Kelsey; Kemsley, Linea; Melchor, Stephanie; Moulton, Emma; Schwab, Morgan; Nelson, Jennifer; Bell, John D

2015-04-01

417

PHYTOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN OCEANIC WATERS OFF KE-AHOLE POINT, Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

Phytoplankton activity in an oligotrophic environment was studied on six cruises over a 14-month period. Phytoplankton biomass and productivity displayed considerable temporal variability despite the relative constancy of the physical and chemical environment. No evidence of seasonality or diurnal variability in phytoplankton biomass was observed. Annual average (+ s.d.) depth-integrated values (0-260 m) for chlorophyll a, phaeopigment, ATP, and primary productivity were 24.55 + 10.31 mg {center_dot} m{sup -2}, 11.81 + 7.20 mg {center_dot} m{sup -2}, 3.00 + 1.78 mg {center_dot} m{sup -2}, and 8.79 + 7.82 mg C {center_dot} m{sup -2}, h{sup -1}, respectively; over the year these parameters were seen to vary over ranges of 3X, 6X, 10X, and 26X, respectively. The mean depths of the chlorophyll and phaeopigment maxima were 85 + 9 m and 95 + 11 m, respectively; the pheopigment maximum was always located at or below that of chlorophyll. Size fractionation studies showed that at this oceanic station about 80% of the phytoplankton biomass occurred in the < 5 {micro}m fraction. Low ambient nutrient levels were typical at the depth of the chlorophyll maximum, indicating that nutrient assimilation was actively occurring in that layer. Elevated nutrient levels were typical at the deeper phaeopigment maximum layer. The results of sinking rate and size fractionation experiments, together with evidence of physiological viability in this layer suggest that phytoplankton sinking and possibly its association with the nutrient regime influence the accumulation of biomass in this region. Productivity biomass ratios (mg carbon {center_dot} mg chlorophyll a{sup -1} {center_dot} h{sup -1}) were consistently low and indicative of strong nutrient limitation. Variations in phytoplankton biomass did not account (p > 0.10) for the high variability in photosynthetic activity among the six site visits; neither did the slopes or upper depth limits of the nitrate or phosphate gradients (as indicators of the supply rate of new nutrients) show any correlation (p > 0.10) with the observed primary productivity. There were significant correlations (p < 0.01) between depth-integrated phaeopigment stocks and integrated primary production (r = 0.92), and between integrated phaeopigments and integrated ammonium levels (r = 0.80). It is postulated that variations in the supply of regenerated nutrients via grazing (indexed by phaeopigments) were primarily responsible for the observed temporal variability in photosynthesis. Indications of a close coupling between grazing and phytoplankton activity in these waters is supportive evidence for the commonly held belief that animal excretion products are significant sources of nutrients for phytoplankton in oligotrophic systems. The observed relationship between phaeopigments and primary production may be related in part to the predominance of small cells in this phytoplankton community since the latter are probably grazed by small filter feeders which produce amorphous, slow-sinking, rather than encapsulated, fast-sinking fecal material.

Bienfang, P.K.; Szyper, J.P.

1980-07-01

418

Automated Assessment of Pavlovian Conditioned Freezing and Shock Reactivity in Mice Using the Video Freeze System  

PubMed Central

The Pavlovian conditioned freezing paradigm has become a prominent mouse and rat model of learning and memory, as well as of pathological fear. Due to its efficiency, reproducibility and well-defined neurobiology, the paradigm has become widely adopted in large-scale genetic and pharmacological screens. However, one major shortcoming of the use of freezing behavior has been that it has required the use of tedious hand scoring, or a variety of proprietary automated methods that are often poorly validated or difficult to obtain and implement. Here we report an extensive validation of the Video Freeze system in mice, a “turn-key” all-inclusive system for fear conditioning in small animals. Using digital video and near-infrared lighting, the system achieved outstanding performance in scoring both freezing and movement. Given the large-scale adoption of the conditioned freezing paradigm, we encourage similar validation of other automated systems for scoring freezing, or other behaviors. PMID:20953248

Anagnostaras, Stephan G.; Wood, Suzanne C.; Shuman, Tristan; Cai, Denise J.; LeDuc, Arthur D.; Zurn, Karl R.; Zurn, J. Brooks; Sage, Jennifer R.; Herrera, Gerald M.

2009-01-01

419

REFLECTION AND REFRACTION 32. INTERPRET This problem is about refraction at the air-water interface. The mark you see is the point at the  

E-print Network

REFLECTION AND REFRACTION 32. INTERPRET This problem is about refraction at the air-water interface. The mark you see is the point at the bottom of the tank along the refracted path. DEVELOP As shown by the data. 36. INTERPRET This problem is about the refraction of light at an air-water interface. DEVELOP

Ringwald, Frederick A.

420

Threshold temperatures mediate the impact of reduced snow cover on overwintering freeze-tolerant caterpillars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreases in snow cover due to climate change could alter the energetics and physiology of ectothermic animals that overwinter beneath snow, yet how snow cover interacts with physiological thresholds is unknown. We applied numerical simulation of overwintering metabolic rates coupled with field validation to determine the importance of snow cover and freezing to the overwintering lipid consumption of the freeze-tolerant Arctiid caterpillar Pyrrharctia isabella. Caterpillars that overwintered above the snow experienced mean temperatures 1.3°C lower than those below snow and consumed 18.36 mg less lipid of a total 68.97-mg reserve. Simulations showed that linear temperature effects on metabolic rate accounted for only 30% of the difference in lipid consumption. When metabolic suppression by freezing was included, 93% of the difference between animals that overwintered above and below snow was explained. Our results were robust to differences in temperature sensitivity of metabolic rate, changes in freezing point, and the magnitude of metabolic suppression by freezing. The majority of the energy savings was caused by the non-continuous reduction in metabolic rate due to freezing, the first example of the importance of temperature thresholds in the lipid use of overwintering insects.

Marshall, Katie E.; Sinclair, Brent J.

2012-01-01

421

SEM sample preparation for cells on 3D scaffolds by freeze-drying and HMDS.  

PubMed

Common dehydration methods of cells on biomaterials for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) include air drying, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) or tetramethysilane (TMS) treatment and critical point drying (CPD). On the other side, freeze-drying has been widely employed in dehydrating biological samples and also in preparing porous biomaterial scaffolds but not in preparing cells on three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials for SEM examination. In this study, we compare cells on porous hydroxyapatite (HA) prepared by air drying, HMDS and freeze-drying. The effects of fixation and using phosphate buffered saline (PBS) in the fixation were also assessed on three porous calcium phosphate (CaP) materials, namely, HA, ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) samples. There is no significant difference in samples prepared by HMDS treatment and freeze-drying viewed at low magnification. Besides, it is better not to use phosphate buffer in the fixation step for CaP materials to avoid undesirable spontaneous precipitation of CaPs. On the other hand, fewer exchanges of liquids are required for freeze-drying and hence chemical fixation may not be absolutely required for samples prepared by freeze-drying. Other technical details of the preparation were also investigated and discussed. This study suggests both HMDS and freeze-drying can be employed to dehydrate cells on 3D scaffolds for SEM examination. PMID:22532079

Lee, Juliana Tsz Yan; Chow, King Lau

2012-01-01

422

Simulations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds and Denitrification Using Laboratory Freezing Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 1999-2000 Arctic winter, the SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) provided evidence of widespread solid-phase polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) accompanied by severe nitrification. Previous simulations have shown that a freezing process occurring at temperatures above the ice frost point is necessary to explain these observations. In this work, the nitric acid freezing rates measured by Salcedo et al. and discussed by Tabazadeh et al. have been examined. These freezing rates have been tested in winter-long microphysical simulations of the 1999-2000 Arctic vortex evolution in order to determine whether they can explain the observations. A range of cases have been explored, including whether the PSC particles are composed of nitric acid dihydrate or trihydrate, whether the freezing process is a bulk process or occurs only on the particle surfaces, and uncertainties in the derived freezing rates. Finally, the possibility that meteoritic debris enhances the freezing rate has also been examined. The results of these simulations have been compared with key PSC and denitrification measurements made by the SOLVE campaign. The cases that best reproduce the measurements will he highlighted, with a discussion of the implications for our understanding of PSCs.

Drdla, Katja; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

423

Transverse dynamics of water across the melting point: A parallel neutron and x-ray inelastic scattering study  

SciTech Connect

Joint inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering measurements have been performed on heavy water across the melting point. The spectra bear clear evidence of low- and high-frequency inelastic shoulders related to transverse and longitudinal modes, respectively. Upon increasing the momentum transfer, the spectral shape evolves from a viscoelastic regime, where the low-frequency mode is clearly over-damped, toward an elastic one where its propagation becomes instead allowed. The crossover between the two regimes occurs whenever both the characteristic frequency and the linewidth of the low-frequency mode match the inverse of the structural relaxation time. Furthermore, we observe that the frequency of the transverse mode undergoes a discontinuity across the melting, whose extent reduces upon increasing the exchanged momentum.

Cunsolo A.; Kodituwakku C.; Bencivenga, F.; Frontzek, M.; Leu, b.M.; Said, A.H.

2012-05-29

424

Determination of trace inorganic mercury species in water samples by cloud point extraction and UV-vis spectrophotometry.  

PubMed

A new micelle-mediated extraction method was developed for preconcentration of ultratrace Hg(II) ions prior to spectrophotometric determination. 2-(2'-Thiazolylazo)-p-cresol (TAC) and Ponpe 7.5 were used as the chelating agent and nonionic surfactant, respectively. Hg(II) ions form a hydrophobic complex with TAC in a micelle medium. The main factors affecting cloud point extraction efficiency, such as pH of the medium, concentrations of TAC and Ponpe 7.5, and equilibration temperature and time, were investigated in detail. An overall preconcentration factor of 33.3 was obtained upon preconcentration of a 50 mL sample. The LOD obtained under the optimal conditions was 0.86 microg/L, and the RSD for five replicate measurements of 100 microg/L Hg(II) was 3.12%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Hg in environmental water samples. PMID:24672884

Ulusoy, Halil Ibrahim

2014-01-01

425

9 CFR 590.536 - Freezing operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.536 Freezing...

2010-01-01