Sample records for water hydroid cordylophora

  1. Salinity dependence of vanadium toxicity against the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia.

    PubMed

    Ringelband, U

    2001-01-01

    Vanadium, an abundant metal, enters the environment through natural rock weathering or by combustion of oil products. A third pathway is the leaching of vanadium-rich building materials. Stones made from steel industry residual slags, so-called slag stones, contain rather large amounts of vanadium. The increasing use of these slag stones in riverbank reinforcement has therefore led to increased interest in the toxicity of vanadium to aquatic organisms. The aim of the study was to determine the toxicity of vanadium to the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia and the effect of vanadium on the membrane-bound enzyme Na, K-ATPase at various salinities. EC50 values for population growth inhibition were determined from 1.74 to 7.96 mg x L(-1) vanadium, depending on salinity. The maximum inhibition of population growth by vanadium was observed at low salinities. Correspondingly, maximum Na, K-ATPase inhibition was also measured at low salinities and decreased with increasing salinity. The present study suggests that the observed inhibition of population growth of C. caspia caused by vanadium-contaminated rearing water is due to the vanadium-induced inhibition of phosphatases. PMID:11161673

  2. Effects of vanadium on population growth and Na-K-ATPase activity of the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia

    SciTech Connect

    Ringelband, U.; Karbe, L. [Institut fuer Hydrobiologie und Fischereiwissenschaft, Hamburg (Germany)] [Institut fuer Hydrobiologie und Fischereiwissenschaft, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    Vanadium, a relatively abundant heavy metal, enters the environment naturally through rock weathering. A large fraction of vanadium input is of human origin. The combustion of petroleum- and coal-products, which contain relatively high concentrations of vanadium, is one of the most important sources of the enrichment of vanadium in the environment. As it is used as an alloy, and vanadium rich iron-ores of various origin are used in steel production, the residual slag-stones of the steel industry can contain considerable vanadium concentrations. Wherever slag-stones serve as a cheap and convenient material in riverbank reinforcement, vanadium can leach into the aquatic environment. Vanadium is regarded as an essential trace element for higher animals. Cantley et al. indicated a regulatory function of vanadate in vivo. Although considerable information is available on the toxic effects of vanadium on humans, very little is known about the toxicity of vanadium towards aquatic organisms, especially invertebrates. Bell and Sargent have shown an inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in gills of the eel Anguilla anguilla. Holleland and Towle have demonstrated the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of vanadium towards the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia. Hydroids are known to be particularly sensitive to heavy metals and their asexual reproduction can be used in a well-established population growth test. Furthermore, the effects of vanadium on Na-K-ATPase activity in hydroids were studied in in vivo experiments, wherein the animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of vanadium. In addition, the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase was measured in vitro, by adding vanadium to a microsomal preparation. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Proline Control of the Feeding Reaction of Cordylophora

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Chandler

    1963-01-01

    The colonial hydroid Cordylophora is a carnivore whose feeding is induced by substances released from captured prey. An active molecule, probably the only one, has been isolated from a fraction of the laboratory food of Cordylophora, brine shrimp larvae, and identified on paper chromatograms as the imino acid proline. Reagent proline induces the feeding reaction at 10-5 M. The reaction is specific in that only two ?-imino acids very closely related to proline were found to possess significant activity: azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and pipecolic acid. The response to proline is inhibited by magnesium ions and enhanced by phosphate. Since previous studies have shown that the feeding reactions of Hydra, Physalia, and Campanularia are controlled by reduced glutathione, the phylogenetic implications of the proline control of feeding in Cordylophora are discussed. The feeding reactions of both Cordylophora and Hydra are also induced by proteases, suggesting similar mechanisms of induction in the two hydroids. PMID:13960251

  4. Effects of Vanadium on Population Growth and Na-K-ATPase Activity of the Brackish Water Hydroid Cordylophora caspia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Ringelband; L. Karbe

    1996-01-01

    Vanadium, a relatively abundant heavy metal, enters the environment naturally through rock weathering. A large fraction of vanadium input is of human origin. The combustion of petroleum- and coal-products, which contain relatively high concentrations of vanadium, is one of the most important sources of the enrichment of vanadium in the environment. As it is used as an alloy, and vanadium

  5. Occurrence and biogeography of hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Nizinski, Martha S.; Ross, Steve W.

    2008-06-01

    Deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern USA (SEUS) support diverse fish and invertebrate assemblages, but are poorly explored. This study is the first to report on the hydroids collected from these habitats in this area. Thirty-five species, including two species that are likely new to science, were identified from samples collected primarily by manned submersible during 2001-2005 from deep-water coral habitats off North Carolina to east-central Florida. Eleven of the species had not been reported since the 19th to mid-20th century. Ten species, and one family, the Rosalindidae, are documented for the first time in the SEUS. Latitudinal ranges of 15 species are extended, and the deepest records in the western North Atlantic for 10 species are reported. A species accumulation curve illustrated that we continue to add to our knowledge of hydroid diversity in these habitats. Sexually mature individuals were collected for 19 species during the summer to early autumn months. Most of the observed species (89%) liberate planula larvae as part of their life cycles, suggesting that these species exhibit a reproductive strategy that reduces the risk of dispersal to sub-optimal habitats. Hydroids occurred across various substrata including coral rubble, live corals, rock and other animal hosts including hydroids themselves. All observed species were regionally widespread with typically deep-neritic to bathyal sub-tropical/tropical distributions. Hydroid assemblages from deep-water SEUS coral habitats were most similar to those from adjacent deep-water habitats off the SEUS (17 shared species), and those in the Straits of Florida/Bahamas and Caribbean/West Indian regions (14 and 8 shared species, respectively). The similarity to sub-tropical and tropical assemblages and the richness of plumularioids in the SEUS deep-water coral habitats support the idea of a Pleistocene intrusion of tropical species northwards following an intensification of the Gulf Stream from the Caribbean.

  6. Distribution, abundance and benthic-pelagic coupling of suspended hydroids on Georges Bank1, 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concelman, Stephanie; Bollens, Stephen M.; Sullivan, Barbara K.; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich; Butler, Mari; van Keuren, Donna

    Clytia spp. hydroids (Phylum Cnidaria), typically attached to a substrate during their asexual, polyp stage, have been found in significant numbers within the mesozooplankton on Georges Bank, North Atlantic Ocean. We examined unpublished historical records of the 1939-1941 cruises of the R/V Atlantis and obtained samples at four-study sites on Georges Bank in June/July 1995 in an attempt to (1) quantify the planktonic and benthic distributions of hydroids on Georges Bank, and (2) determine the coupling between benthic and pelagic habitats of this population. We found that planktonic hydroids have a patchy distribution, varying both spatially and temporally (most abundant in summer months, absent in winter). In 1939-1941 the planktonic hydroids were most broadly distributed following a spring (1940) with strong wind events; hydroids were absent from all samples in 1941. In 1995 we found the highest abundance of planktonic Clytia spp. hydroids (6213.5±1343.6 hydranths m -3) in the central crest of the bank, "downstream" in the Georges Bank circulation pattern from sites along the northeast peak of the Bank where large populations of benthic Clytia spp. hydroids were found (up to 6465 hydranths m -2). Our plankton sampling did not show significant numbers of hydroids in the water column at the Northeast peak sites, indicating that large numbers of planktonic hydroids are not being introduced into the Bank's circulation patterns from off-Bank sites to the northeast (e.g. Scotian shelf). The source population for planktonic hydroids found in the central region of the Bank is most likely the benthic habitats on the northeast peak of the Bank. We hypothesize, and our limited data suggest, that hydroids are detached from the benthos by storm action or other disturbance, advected clockwise with the mean residual circulation, and concentrated and retained in the central, low-advective region of the Bank.

  7. Drag on hydroid-fouled nets — An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lader, Pål; Fredriksson, David W.; Guenther, Jana; Volent, Zsolt; Blocher, Nina; Kristiansen, David; Gansel, Lars; Decew, Jud

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the drag increase on aquaculture nets due to biofouling of the colonial hydroid Ectopleura larynx. It had two main parts: firstly the growth characteristics of E. larynx were investigated by use of field tests at a Norwegian aquaculture site; secondly the hydrodynamic drag on the fouled twines was studied in a towing tank by using fabricated models of net twines with artificial hydroid fouling. In the field tests, the growth of the hydroids was first measured after three weeks of immersion and then again after six weeks. During this interval, the density of hydroids and the thickness of the hydroid stem were almost constant (1.4 hydroids/mm and 0.29 mm, respectively), while the average length of the hydroids increased from 6.4 to 11.2 mm. The hydroid length followed a Rayleigh distribution, while the thickness was normal (Gaussian) distributed. Replicas of twines with three different levels of hydroid growth were made (1.5 hydroids/mm twine, hydroid length 9 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm), and the drag on these twines was measured at different towing velocities (0.1 to 1.4 m/s) and with different twine configurations. For the twine with the shortest hydroids (9 mm), the drag was from 1.5 times ( Re=4000) to 2.2 times ( Re=1000) the drag on a clean twine. For the longest hydroids (21 mm), the drag was 2 times and 3.8 times, respectively.

  8. Culture of a Colonial Hydroid under Controlled Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fulton, C

    1960-08-19

    A simple method has been developed for the cultivation of colonies of Cordylophora lacustris. The colonies, attached to microscope slides slanted in beakers, are grown in a culture solution containing five required ions. Artemia larvae are supplied as food. Increase in hydranth number is exponential with a doubling time of about 3 days. PMID:17816030

  9. Shared Skeletal Support in a Coral-Hydroid Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Pantos, Olga; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Hydroids form symbiotic relationships with a range of invertebrate hosts. Where they live with colonial invertebrates such as corals or bryozoans the hydroids may benefit from the physical support and protection of their host's hard exoskeleton, but how they interact with them is unknown. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the physical interactions between the colonial hydroid Zanclea margaritae and its reef-building coral host Acropora muricata. The hydroid tissues extend below the coral tissue surface sitting in direct contact with the host's skeleton. Although this arrangement provides the hydroid with protective support, it also presents problems of potential interference with the coral's growth processes and exposes the hydroid to overgrowth and smothering. Desmocytes located within the epidermal layer of the hydroid's perisarc-free hydrorhizae fasten it to the coral skeleton. The large apical surface area of the desmocyte and high bifurcation of the distal end within the mesoglea, as well as the clustering of desmocytes suggests that a very strong attachment between the hydroid and the coral skeleton. This is the first study to provide a detailed description of how symbiotic hydroids attach to their host's skeleton, utilising it for physical support. Results suggest that the loss of perisarc, a characteristic commonly associated with symbiosis, allows the hydroid to utilise desmocytes for attachment. The use of these anchoring structures provides a dynamic method of attachment, facilitating detachment from the coral skeleton during extension, thereby avoiding overgrowth and smothering enabling the hydroid to remain within the host colony for prolonged periods of time. PMID:21695083

  10. Effects of oil pollution on hydroid behavior and neurophysiology. [Tubularic crocea; Myrionema hargitti

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The hydroids, Tubularia crocea and Myrionema hargitti are sensitive organisms for assessing the effects of oil pollution. The abilities of these hydroids to capture Artemia nauplii were reduced after 1 hr exposure to a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Monterey Formation crude oil. Algal symbionts within Myrionema contribute photosynthetically-fixed carbon to the host hydroid. No significant effects upon these symbionts were noted after 1 or 3 h but significant reductions in the mitotic index, photosynthesis and carbon translocation rates were observed after a 24-48 h exposure to 100% WSF. Myrionema hargitti was less responsive to mechanical stimuli after a brief 100% WSF exposure. The responsiveness to a feeding stimulant (proline) and concert frequency of 100% WSF-treated Tubularia crocea were lower than controls. Significant increases in epithelial activity were also recorded at 1% WSF and the increased firing frequency did not persist beyond the duration of the exposure. Bioaccumulation of /sup 3/H-toluene (20 ppm) from 100% WSF reached a maximum within 1 min but declined over the next hour. Higher concentrations of /sup 3/H-toluene evoked increased hydranth shedding with 1 h but these hydranths never accumulated as much /sup 3/H-toluene as hydranths exposed to lower concentrations.

  11. MEDDELELSER OM GRNLAND BIOSCIENCE 53 2001 Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    MEDDELELSER OM GRØNLAND · BIOSCIENCE 53 · 2001 Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) PETER SCHUCHERT #12;PETER SCHUCHERT. Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa Meddelelser om Grønland Meddelelser om Grønland, which is Danish for Monographs on Greenland, has published

  12. Cambrian and Ordovician dendroids and hydroids of Tasmania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick G. Quilty

    1971-01-01

    All known Cambrian and Ordovician dendroids and hydroids of Tasmania are reviewed. Protohalecium hallianum Chapman & Thomas is revised at both generic and specific levels. Archaeocryptolaria recta var. flexilis Chapman & Thomas is revised to Protohalecium flexilis. Archaeolafoea serialis (Chapman & Thomas) (Hydroidea) is transferred to Mastigograptus (Dendroidea). The following species are described as new: Acanthograptus antiquus (Cambrian), A. banksi,

  13. Voracious planktonic hydroids: unexpected predatory impact on a coastal marine ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence P. Madin; Stephen M. Bollens; Erich Horgan; Mari Butler; Jeffrey Runge; Barbara K. Sullivan; Grace Klein-Macphee; Edward Durbin; Ann G. Durbin; Donna Van Keuren; Stéphane Plourde; Ann Bucklin; M. Elizabeth Clarke

    1996-01-01

    Hydroids are typically attached, benthic cnidarians that feed on a variety of small prey. During sampling on Georges Bank in spring 1994, we found huge numbers of hydroids suspended in the plankton. They fed on young stages of copepods that are an important prey for fish, as well as on young fish themselves. Two independent methods were used to estimate

  14. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5. - This study reviews. Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - revision - taxonomy - north- eastern Atlantic - Mediterranean

  15. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3. - This study reviews belonging to Turritopsis dohrnii (Weismann, 1883). Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - Hydractiniidae

  16. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4. - This study reviews not replace M. hargitti or M. amboinense. Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa ­ Eudendriidae - revision

  17. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2. - This study reviews affinis (Hartlaub, 1914). Keywords: Cnidaria - Hydrozoa - Bougainvilliidae - Pandeidae - Cytaeididae

  18. 137HYDROIDS OF THE DANISH EXPEDITION TO THE KEI ISLANDS Steenstrupia

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    -256. Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the Danish expedition to the Kei Islands PETER SCHUCHERT Schuchert, P. Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the Danish expedition to the Kei Islands. ­ Steenstrupia 27 (2): 137. sibogae, n. status. Keywords: marine Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata, Leptothecata, taxonomy, revision

  19. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1. - This study reviews used since their original introduction by Haeckel. Keywords: Marine invertebrates - Cnidaria - Hydrozoa

  20. Quantification of sexual reproduction in the marine benthic hydroid Campanularia everta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Coma; I. Llobet; J.-M. Gili; M. Zabala

    1996-01-01

    Campanularia everta is an epiphytic hydroid that may form dense populations on the macroalga Halimeda tuna. The main objects of this study were to quantify sexual reporduction and estimate sexual reproductive output of this hydroid. Sexual reproduction occurred from mid-October to mid-December 1991 along the Spanish Mediterranean coast. During this period, male and female colonies formed gonangia. Four oocytes mature

  1. Development of a feeding trochophore in the polychaete Hydroides elegans.

    PubMed

    Arenas-Mena, Cesar; Li, Ava

    2014-01-01

    Hydroides elegans is an indirectly developing polychaete with equal spiral cleavage, gastrulation by invagination, and a feeding trochophore. Expression of several transcription factors and differentiation genes has been characterized. Comparative analysis reveals evolutionarily conserved roles. For example, the synexpression of transcription factors FoxA and Brachyury suggests homology of primary and secondary gut openings in protostomes and deuterostomes, and the expression of Sall suggests similar regulatory controls in the posterior growth zone of bilaterians. Differences in gene expression suggest regulatory differences control gastrulation by invagination in polychaetes with a feeding trochophore and gastrulation by epiboly in polychaetes without a feeding trochophore. Association of histone variant H2A.Z with transcriptional potency and its expression suggest a developmental role during both embryogenesis and the larva-to-adult transformation. Methods are being developed for experimental exploration of the gene regulatory networks involved in trochophore development in Hydroides. It is unknown if polychaete feeding trochophores evolved from a larval stage already present in the life cycle of the last common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes. Previous evolutionary scenarios about larval origins overemphasize the discontinuity between larval and adult development and require the early evolution of undifferentiated and transcriptionally potent "set aside" cells. Indirect development may proceed by developmental remodeling of differentiated cells and could have evolved after gradual transformation of juveniles into larvae; undifferentiated and transcriptionally potent cells would have evolved secondarily. Comprehensive characterization of gene regulatory networks for feeding trochophore development may help resolve these major evolutionary questions. PMID:25690971

  2. Deep-sea epibiotic hydroids from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench with description of Garveia belyaevi sp. nov. (Hydrozoa, Bougainvilliidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.; Chernyshev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of material collected by the German-Russian KuramBio Deep-Sea Expedition to the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench revealed about 17 hydroid species, including two species presumably new to science. Before the KuramBio Expedition only fragments of the unidentified hydroids and Cryptolaria sp. were collected in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from depths exceeding 3000 m. Descriptions of three species of epibiotic hydroids (including one new species, Garveia belyaevi sp. nov.) are presented herein. A colony of G. belyaevi sp. nov. (the third deep-sea and deepest species of the wide distributed genus Garveia) was attached to the spines of unidentified irregular sea urchins from depths 5217 to 5229 m. ?alitholus (?) sp. (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) colonized the skin of spoon worms (Echiura) but could not be identified to species level because the mature medusa stage was absent in the material. An unidentified juvenile polyp (Pandeidae) was found on the bryozoan Tricitella minini attached to spines of irregular sea urchins Echinosigra amphora. Colonial sedentary organisms inhabiting abyssal plains with soft bottoms may colonize invertebrates which are seldom used as substrates for epibiota in shallow waters. Epibiosis among abyssal colonial invertebrates, though extremely poorly studied, appears to be rather frequent.

  3. Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Families and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Families Oceanidae and Pachycordylidae. - This paper reviews the European-Kossowska, 1905) comb. n. Key-words: Marine invertebrates - Cnidaria - Hydrozoa - Antoathecata - Oceanidae

  4. FINE STRUCTURE OF THE SPERMATOZOON OF HYDROIDES HEXAGONUS (ANNELIDA), WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ACROSOMAL REGION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARTHUR L. COLWIN; LAURA HUNTER COLWIN

    1961-01-01

    This paper describes in some detail the structure of the acrosomal region of the spermatozoon of Hydroides as a basis for subsequent papers which will deal with the structural changes which this rcgion undergoes during fertilization. The material was osmium-fixed and mild centrifugation was used to aggregatc the spermatozoa from collection to final embedding. The studies concern also the acrosomal

  5. The fouling hydroid Ectopleura larynx: a lack of effect of next generation antifouling technologies.

    PubMed

    Bloecher, Nina; de Nys, Rocky; Poole, Andrew J; Guenther, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The hydroid Ectopleura larynx is one of the main fouling organisms on salmon aquaculture cages in Norway; this study investigated novel surface materials and microtopographies to deter its settlement. The settlement preferences of hydroid larvae for 12 materials with wettabilities ranging from hydrophobic (54°) to hydrophilic (112°) were tested in a no-choice bioassay. Although settlement differed between materials, with the highest average settlement on polytetrafluoroethylene (95%) and the lowest on untreated polyurethane (53%), no trend regarding the tested wettabilities could be found and none of the tested materials was able to reduce average settlement below 50%. Furthermore, nine high-density polyethylene (HDPE, 100-600 ?m microtopographies) and seven polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS; 40-400??m microtopographies) microtextured surfaces were tested. There was no systematic effect of microtopography on the settlement of E. larynx larvae. However, there was a preference for settlement in channels on PDMS microtopographies between 80 and 300 ?m. Similarly, there were no preferences for any of the examined microtopographies in a 12-day field test using PDMS surfaces at a commercial fish farm. The study indicated that neither surface wettability (hydrophilicity-phobicity) nor microtopographies were effective at deterring the settlement of the hydroid E. larynx. The high plasticity of the aboral pole and the hydrorhiza of the hydroids may explain settlement even under unfavourable conditions, highlighting the successful colonisation traits of this dominant biofouling species. PMID:23438941

  6. Distribution, abundance and benthic-pelagic coupling of suspended hydroids on Georges Bank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Concelman; Stephen M. Bollens; Barbara K. Sullivan; Laurence P. Madin; Erich Horgan; Mari Butler; Donna van Keuren

    2001-01-01

    Clytia spp. hydroids (Phylum Cnidaria), typically attached to a substrate during their asexual, polyp stage, have been found in significant numbers within the mesozooplankton on Georges Bank, North Atlantic Ocean. We examined unpublished historical records of the 1939–1941 cruises of the R\\/V Atlantis and obtained samples at four-study sites on Georges Bank in June\\/July 1995 in an attempt to (1)

  7. Patterns of hydroid (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) species richness and distribution in an Arctic glaciated fjord

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Ronowicz; Maria W?odarska-Kowalczuk; Piotr Kukli?ski

    The consequences of global warming are particularly evident in high polar areas. Deglaciation phenomenon—negative mass balance\\u000a of Svalbard glaciers and recession of tidal glaciers—results in landscape and shoreline change. These areas of very dynamic\\u000a conditions are now open for primary colonists, among them hydroids, typical early colonists of the vacant substratum. This\\u000a study aims to explore the patterns of Hydrozoan

  8. Reproduction of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata (L., 1758) (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the White Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei A. Slobodov; Nickolai N. Marfenin

    Populations of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata in the White Sea reproduce asexually by frustule formation. Young medusae appear in the plankton during July and August.\\u000a The number of medusae rarely exceeds 36 per m3, and the average number varies every year from 0.4 to 10 per m3. The size of medusae is smaller than reported from other regions. The

  9. P. Schuchert 2001a. Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Meddelelser om Grnland 53: 1-184.

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    P. Schuchert 2001a. Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Meddelelser om Grønland Kramp (1949) page 42: the existence of the Greenlandic species Zyzzyzus robustus Petersen, 1990 was only noted after the typesetting of the manuscript. page 46: section Distribution: "esatern Greenland" should

  10. Benthic hydroids associated with volcanic structures from Bransfield Strait (Antarctica) collected by the Spanish Antarctic expedition GEBRAP96

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Peña Cantero; F. Ramil

    2006-01-01

    During the Spanish Antarctic expedition GEBRAP96 a survey to study the benthic fauna associated with deep volcanic structures in the Bransfield Strait was carried out. Amongst the benthic samples, a small collection of hydroids was gathered. A total of 10 species, most of them Leptothecata, was recorded; only two species of anthoathecates were present. Kirchenpaueriidae and Sertulariidae were the dominant

  11. Benthic hydroids from the south of Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) collected by the Spanish Antarctic expedition Bentart 94

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Peña Cantero

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-five species of benthic hydroids were collected during the Spanish Antarctic expedition Bentart 94 from the south of Livingston Island (Antarctica). All species are considered regarding autecology and geographical distribution. The systematic position amongst allied species is discussed when considered necessary. Antarctoscyphus asymmetricus and Symplectoscyphus nesioticus are reported for the second and the third time, respectively.

  12. Effects of host feeding and dissolved ammonium on cell division and nitrogen status of zooxanthellae in the hydroid Myrionema amboinense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. McAuley; C. B. Cook

    1994-01-01

    There is a relationship between host feeding, nitrogen status and mitotic activity of zooxanthellae symbiotic with the marine hydroid Myrionema amboinense. Decreases in the mitotic index of zooxanthellae in starved M. amboinense, and in internal pool sizes of glutamine and glutamate, amino acids involved in ammonium assimilation via the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GS\\/GOGAT) pathway, were partially restored by addition of

  13. Assemblages of hydroids (Cnidaria) from three seamounts near Bermuda in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Dale R.

    2000-06-01

    Three seamounts flanking the oceanic island of Bermuda were sampled for hydroids. Collecting was undertaken by submersible (SDL-1) and by dredge at depths between 48 and 107 m on the summits of Argus and Challenger banks. A shallower collection (<20 m) from the pilings of a tower on Argus Bank was made using SCUBA. Major bottom types on both banks were aggregations of rhodoliths, limestone reefs, and areas of calcareous sand. Hydroids were ubiquitous, but quite sparse, on firm substrata. None was collected on sandy bottoms. Of 45 species identified from the two oceanic banks, over half (25) were found on both. On Bowditch Seamount, samples were obtained at depths between 1285 and 1381 m by dredge and grab. Of four species found, only one ( Filellum serratum) occurred in shallower collections from Argus and Challenger banks. Most species (43 of 48) from the three seamounts have been reported elsewhere in the Western Atlantic Tropical region, and many (38 of 48) are known from Bermuda. No endemics were discovered, and no relicts or exotics were recognized. Gonophores in >70% of the species are fixed sporosacs instead of free medusae. This conforms with a hypothesis that invertebrates of oceanic islands and seamounts tend to have short-lived pelagic larval stages, ensuring the greatest retention and conservation of propagules.

  14. Benthic hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Bransfield Strait area (Antarctica) collected by Brazilian expeditions, with the description of a new species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Álvaro L. Peña Cantero; Wim Vervoort

    2009-01-01

    A total of 36 species of benthic hydroids, belonging to nine families and 16 genera, were found in the hydroid collection\\u000a gathered during the Brazilian Antarctic expeditions PROANTAR III and IV. Seven of the species were identified only to generic\\u000a level. There is a clear dominance of the subclass Leptothecatae with 33 species. By far the most diversified family was

  15. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. A parvicapsulid (Myxozoa) infecting Sprattus sprattus and Clupea harengus (Clupeidae) in the Northeast Atlantic uses Hydroides norvegicus (Serpulidae) as invertebrate host.

    PubMed

    Køie, Marianne; Karlsbakk, Egil; Einen, Ann-Cathrine Bårdsgjtere; Nylund, Are

    2013-05-01

    A myxosporean producing actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type in Hydroides norvegicus Gunnerus (Serpulidae) in Denmark was identified as a member of the family Parvicapsulidae based on small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. Myxosporean samples from various Danish and Norwegian marine fishes were examined with primers that detect the novel myxosporean. Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus) and Clupea harengus Linnaeus (Teleostei, Clupeidae) were found to be infected. The sequences of this parvicapsulid from these hosts were consistently slightly different (0.8% divergence), but both these genotypes were found in H. norvegicus. Disporic trophozoites and minute spores of a novel myxosporean type were observed in the renal tubules of some of the hosts found infected through PCR. The spores appear most similar to those of species of Gadimyxa Køie, Karlsbakk et Nylund, 2007, but are much smaller. The actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type from H. norvegicus have been described previously. In GenBank, the SSU rDNA sequences of Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. show highest identity (82%) with Parvicapsula minibicornis Kent, Whitaker et Dawe, 1997 infecting salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in fresh water in the western North America. A phylogenetic analysis places P. minibicornis and Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. in a sister clade to the other parvicapsulids (Parvicapsula spp. and Gadimyxa spp.). PMID:23724734

  17. [Inductive activity of the posterior tip of planula in the marine hydroid Dynamena pumila].

    PubMed

    Kraus, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    Activity of organizer regions is required for body plan formation in the developing organism. Transplanting a fragment of such a region to a host organism leads to the formation of a secondary body axis that consists of both the donor's and the host's tissues (Gerhart, 2001). The subject of this study, the White Sea hydroid cnidarian Dynamena pumila L. (Thecaphora, Sertulariidae), forms morphologically advanced colonies in the course of complex metamorphosis of the planula larva. To reveal an organizer region, a series of experiments has been performed in which small fragments of donor planula tissues were transplanted to embryos at the early and late gastrula stage, as well as to planulae. Only transplantations of a posterior tip fragment of a donor planula to a host planula of the same age led, in the course of metamorphosis, to the formation of a secondary shoot, which involved up to 50% of the host's tissues. After transplantations of tissue fragments of the anterior tip and the middle of the planula body, the formation of any ectopic structures was never observed. It was concluded that the posterior tip of the planula has organizer properties in Dynamena. PMID:21542340

  18. Harry Beal Torrey (1873-1970) of California, USA, and his research on hydroids and other coelenterates.

    PubMed

    Calder, Dale R

    2013-01-01

    Harry Beal Torrey was born on 22 May 1873 in Boston, Massachusetts. Two years later his family moved to Oakland, California. Torrey earned B.S. and M.S. degrees in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1895 and 1898 respectively, a Ph.D. in zoology from Columbia University in 1903, and an M.D. from the Medical College of Cornell University in 1927. He began his academic career as a marine biologist, investigating taxonomy, reproduction, morphology, development, regeneration, and behaviour of cnidarians of the west coast of the United States, but his research interests soon shifted to experimental biology and endocrinology. He eventually entered the field of medicine, specializing in public health, and served as a physician and hospital administrator. Torrey held academic positions at the University of California, Berkeley (1895-1912), the Marine Biological Association of San Diego (1903-1912), Reed College (1912-1920), the University of Oregon (1920-1926), and Stanford University (1928-1938). Following retirement from academia, he served as Director of the Children's Hospital of the East Bay, Oakland, California, from 1938 to 1942. In retirement, he continued an association with the University of California at Berkeley, near his home. Of 84 publications by him listed herein, 31 dealt with coelenterates. This paper focuses on his early research on coelenterate biology, and especially his contributions to taxonomy of hydroids. He was author or coauthor of six genera and 48 species-group taxa of Cnidaria, and he also described one new species each of Ctenophora and Phoronida. Although he abandoned systematic work early in his career, his most widely cited publication is a taxonomic monograph on hydroids of the west coast of North America, published in 1902. He died, at age 97, on 9 September 1970. PMID:24614029

  19. INTERCELLULAR CONNECTIONS IN THE OUTGROWING STOLON OF CORD YLOPHORA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANE OVERTON

    2009-01-01

    Outgrowth of thc stolon in thc hydroid Cordylophora has been studied at thc cellular Icvcl. Staining experiments and histological cxamination indicatc that the gcncrativc region of the stolon is at its base whcrc interstitial cells arc promincnt. Cclls in the cctodcrm at the stolon tip appear to bc activcly synthcsizing new pcrisarc as thc tip advanccs ovcr thc substratc, rather

  20. Molecular identification and ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies of cyanobacteria from association with the white sea hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758).

    PubMed

    Koksharova, O A; Kravzova, T R; Lazebnaya, I V; Gorelova, O A; Baulina, O I; Lazebny, O E; Fedorenko, T A; Lobakova, E S

    2013-01-01

    Three new cyanobacterial strains, that have been previously purified from the hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758), isolated from the White Sea, were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy methods and were characterized by using almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and part of the gene for 23S rRNA. The full nucleotide sequences of the rRNA gene clusters were deposited to GenBank (HM064496.1, GU265558.1, JQ259187.1). Comparison of rRNA gene cluster sequences of Synechococcus cyanobacterium 1Dp66E-1, Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E, and Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that these cyanobacterial strains do not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Furthermore, for the first time heterotrophic bacterium, associated with Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E, was identified as a member of the new phylum Gemmatimonadetes, genus of Gemmatimonas (GenBank accession number is JX437625.1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 1Dp66E-1 forms the unique branch and belongs to a cluster of Synechococcus, including freshwater and sea strains. Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E belongs to a cluster of Leptolyngbya strains. Isolate Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E forms unique branch and belongs to a cluster of the genus Nostoc, with the closest relative of Nostoc commune isolates. PMID:23762857

  1. Molecular Identification and Ultrastructural and Phylogenetic Studies of Cyanobacteria from Association with the White Sea Hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Koksharova, O. A.; Kravzova, T. R.; Lazebnaya, I. V.; Gorelova, O. A.; Baulina, O. I.; Lazebny, O. E.; Fedorenko, T. A.; Lobakova, E. S.

    2013-01-01

    Three new cyanobacterial strains, that have been previously purified from the hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758), isolated from the White Sea, were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy methods and were characterized by using almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and part of the gene for 23S rRNA. The full nucleotide sequences of the rRNA gene clusters were deposited to GenBank (HM064496.1, GU265558.1, JQ259187.1). Comparison of rRNA gene cluster sequences of Synechococcus cyanobacterium 1Dp66E-1, Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E, and Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that these cyanobacterial strains do not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Furthermore, for the first time heterotrophic bacterium, associated with Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E, was identified as a member of the new phylum Gemmatimonadetes, genus of Gemmatimonas (GenBank accession number is JX437625.1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 1Dp66E-1 forms the unique branch and belongs to a cluster of Synechococcus, including freshwater and sea strains. Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E belongs to a cluster of Leptolyngbya strains. Isolate Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E forms unique branch and belongs to a cluster of the genus Nostoc, with the closest relative of Nostoc commune isolates. PMID:23762857

  2. Hydroids of the genus Sertularella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) from the Pacific coast of Canada in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Choong, Henry H C

    2015-01-01

    Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America. PMID:25781750

  3. Deep-water Hydrozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) in the Sea of Japan, collected during the 51st Cruise of R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev, with description Opercularella angelikae, sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.

    2013-02-01

    A report is given about Hydrozoa collected at depths between 455 and 3666 m in the Sea of Japan during the Russian-German expedition on R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev. Ten species were found, with four of them being typical bathyal-abyssal and abyssal zones. A new species, Opercularella angelikae, is described, and it was the dominant hydroid in samples from 970 to 3660 m. Four eurybathic species characteristics of the Sea of Japan were sampled between 455 and 582 m. Abyssal (pseudoabyssal after Andriashev, 1979) hydroid fauna in the Sea of Japan is reported. The hypothesis that an exclusively deep-water fauna is lacking in abyssal regions of the Sea of Japan is disputed. The author's personal opinion considered concerning the borders of 1000 m between shallow and deep hydrozoan species in the Sea of Japan.

  4. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ... you probably need more water. What about bottled water? top Some people like bottled water for its ...

  5. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... consuming only bottled water or water from a filtration system that has been certified by an independent ... recommends using bottled water or water from a filtration system that has been certified by an independent ...

  6. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    You might not give much thought to water or how it gets to you. You just turn on the faucet and there it is. Do you ever wonder how it flows ... concern that it might make you sick. Your water can come from a lake, a river, a ...

  7. Hydroide Storage Vessel wall stress measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pechersky, M.J.

    1997-07-31

    Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is likely responsible for the lack of wall stress. This morphology also implies that decay helium that remains in the titanium hydride (that is, helium that is not released as gas to the free volume) should not cause significant wall stresses when the HSV is used for long-term tritium storage. Holographic interferometry proved to be an extremely sensitive technique to measure swelling, having a detection limit of about 3 microns surface displacement.

  8. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errina labrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D.; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errina labrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246

  9. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errinalabrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae).

    PubMed

    Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A

    2015-01-01

    A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errinalabrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246

  10. Genetic analysis reveals multiple cryptic invasive species of the hydrozoan gene Cordylophora

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the patterns and dynamics of biological invasions is a crucial prerequisite to predicting and mitigating their potential ecological and economic impacts. Unfortunately, in many cases such understanding is limited not only by ignorance of invasion history, but also b...

  11. Water quality Water quantity

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water ­ Discharge of untreated waters #12;Impacts of mining on water · Impacts from the mining process

  12. Water quality Water quantity

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    01-1 · Water quality · Water quantity · Remediation strategies MinE 422: Water Resources: Younger, Banwart and Hedin. 2002. Mine Water. Hydrology, Pollution, Remediation. Impacts of mining on water ­ Discharge of untreated waters #12;01-2 Impacts of mining on water · Impacts from the mining process

  13. Genetic analysis across differential spatial scales reveals multiple dispersal mechanisms for the invasive hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. Here we explore genetic ...

  14. Turbid water Clear water

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new underwater laser scanning system, providing microbathymetric information in coastal waters is described the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide

  15. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  16. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  17. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    This is a short NASA video on the water cycle. The video shows the importance of the water cycle to nearly every natural process on Earth and illustrates how tightly coupled the water cycle is to climate.

  18. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners estimate how much water they think can be found in various locations on the Earth in all its states (solid, liquid, and gas) to discover the different water ratios in the Earth's total water supply. Learners divide 1000 ml of water (representing the total amount of water on Earth) amongst eight beakers as they predict the various ratios. Then learners measure the amounts of water that reflect the actual ratios and compare their predictions to reality. Learners will be surprised to find out that most of Earth's water is found in the ocean. This resource also includes information about flash floods and flood safety.

  19. Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Regina Bale

    2012-07-17

    Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle asks students to conduct their own research on the water cycle (hydrologic cycle). Working collaboratively in small groups, students will research and write about the relationships between stages in the water cycle and the three states of matter relating to water. After completing this lesson, students will be prepared to create a model of the water cycle.

  20. Water, water everywhere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pennisi

    1993-01-01

    The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers.

  1. Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  2. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Guest Column 10..............Water News Briefs 11..............Calendar 12..............Free Lectures Continue Summer Water/Natural Resources Tour Examines Republican River Issues by Steve Ress This summer

  3. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH.....................Meet the Faculty 4.....................GuestColumn 5.....................WaterSupplySecurity 7...................Nebraska Depletions Plan 10 ..................Water News Briefs 11 ..................Calendar 12

  4. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15..............Calendar 16..............Bottled Water or Tap? (continued on page 13) Fall NSIA/NWRA Convention Focuses

  5. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH Assessment on Atrazine 10...................Water News Briefs 12...................April Faculty Forum Summer Water and Natural Resources Tour Examines North Platte River Issues by Steve Ress The University

  6. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  7. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  8. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  9. Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Water Science for Schools explaines the uses of ground water in the United States. The main uses of ground water include "irrigation uses, drinking-water and other public uses, and for supplying domestic water to people who do not receive public-supply water." Check out this site to learn more.

  10. Water, Water Everywhere!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sible, Kathleen P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

  11. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAíS WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH the Faculty 4................ Guest Column 5................ Clean Water Act 6................ Water News in Empty Hog Barns by Steve Ress, UNL Water Center Jim Rosowski sees potential for a freshwater farming

  12. water intake Water sampling site

    E-print Network

    x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

  13. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCHGroundwaterRecharge 6-7 ............ NebraskaWaterMarketingPolicyChoices 10 .............Water News Briefs 11 sites visited on July's water and natural resources tour (photo: Kyle Hoagland). (continued on page 9

  14. Earth's Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

  15. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  16. Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial introduces students to the importance of water to living organisms, including humans. The discussion points out that all organisms contain water, and decribes how water is accumulated and stored. There is also an examination of the water supplies of Winnipeg, Ontario, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and a discussion of the importance of purifying driking water supplies to remove harmful bacteria and microbes.

  17. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  18. Healthy Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... most precious global resource. Clean and safe drinking water is critical to sustain human life and without it waterborne illness can be a serious problem. Water, which is necessary for recreational water activities like ...

  19. Water Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-11-04

    This simple description of the chemical and physical properties of water was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. It includes a brief quiz to assess prior knowledge, diagrams of water molecules, and important numerical data about water.

  20. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH Researchers Honing Methods to Sample Field Run-off Water by Steve Ress The effectiveness of riparian buffer is important since many fertilizers and pesticides are designed to adhere to soil molecules. So if water

  1. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's School of Natural Resource Sciences,Conservation and Survey Division and Water Center into the School

  2. Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-12-18

    Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.

  3. The Water Cycle: Water Storage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive, animated graphic helps explain the water cycle to younger students. The animation, with sound, explains the various parts of the water cycle and show how water moves from one part to another.

  4. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about floods, discovering that different types of floods occur from different water sources, but primarily from heavy rainfall. While floods occur naturally and have benefits such as creating fertile farmland, students learn that with the increase in human population in flood-prone areas, floods are become increasingly problematic. Both natural and manmade factors contribute to floods. Students learn what makes floods dangerous and what engineers design to predict, control and survive floods.

  5. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on data modules and students' understanding of the relationship between population growth and water shortages. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

  6. Synergistic toxic effects of zinc pyrithione and copper to three marine species: Implications on setting appropriate water quality criteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivien W. W. Bao; Kenneth M. Y. Leung; Kevin W. H. Kwok; Amy Q. Zhang; Gilbert C. S. Lui

    2008-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is widely applied in conjunction with copper (Cu) in antifouling paints as a substitute for tributyltin. The combined effects of ZnPT and Cu on marine organisms, however, have not been fully investigated. This study examined the toxicities of ZnPT alone and in combination with Cu to the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, polychaete larvae Hydroides elegans and amphipod Elasmopus

  7. Water Quality

    MedlinePLUS

    What is in that water that you just drank? Is it just hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Is it safe for drinking? All water is of a certain "quality" (and you can't tell by just looking), but what does "water quality" really mean? Water full of dirt and ...

  8. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water

  9. Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) general interest publication presents a description of ground water in the U.S. This includes what ground water is, how it occurs, aquifers and wells, ground water quality and what affects it, and the state of U.S. ground water resources.

  10. Disappearing Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2005-01-01

    In this outdoor water activity, learners explore evaporation by painting with water and tracing puddles. Learners will discover that wet things become dry as the water evaporates. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 36 of the PDF.

  11. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality is important not only because of its linkage to the availability of water for various uses and its impact on public health, but also because water quality has an intrinsic value. he quality of life is often judged on the availability of pristine water. ontamination ...

  12. Stacking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students become familiar with how ocean water forms density-stratified layers in many places. They design and carry out a series of tests to show how water masses of four different densities interact, using clear straws to stack colored water of different salinities. Temperature is varied to increase the differences in density of each water sample.

  13. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

  14. Water Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water cycle concepts and basics including the distribution of water on the planet in oceans, rivers and lakes, glaciers and atmosphere. Defines basic terms: states of water, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, melting. Good illustrations, maps and photos. Excellent list itemizes human uses and impacts on water and the water cycle. Links to more detailed references are provided, case studies illustrate current concerns and issues in Ontario, Canada.

  15. Water Phases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Every day, we encounter water in its three phases: liquid water, solid ice, and water vapor, an invisible gas. Most other substances can exist in these three phases as well, but water is unique because it is the only substance that can exist in all three phases at Earth's ordinary temperature conditions. This slide show provides examples of water in each of its three phases.

  16. Earth's Water:Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This USGS site contains graphs, tables, and charts for the following ground water topics: What is ground water, ground water flow diagrams, importance of groundwater, and trends in ground-water use. Ground water quality, pesticides, aquifers, waterwells, artesian wells, sinkholes, and land subsidence are also covered. There are a variety of links within all of the above topics and a very complete glossary, as well as numerous charts, maps, photographs and illustrations.

  17. Water tight.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures. Multilateral development agencies have identified some developing country cities as demonstrated sites for urban water conservation. PMID:12286138

  18. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  19. Branding water

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  20. Water Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... best measure of protection. Back Continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ... the pool is not in use. Back Continue Water Safety Outdoors First, teach kids never to swim ...

  1. Water Filtration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are asked to design methods to filter water using ordinary materials, while also considering their designs' material and cost efficiencies. They learn about the importance of water and its role in our everyday lives. They come to understand what must occur each day so that they can have clean water.

  2. Surface Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the USGS Water Science for School's page and the topic is surface water. Explained are surface water use, importance, rivers and streams. Also answers the questions of what is runoff, how is the flow of a stream measured, how does stream height relate to flow and much, much more.

  3. Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

  4. Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Q&A Teachers Contact Back to previous page Water Basics Earth's Water Where is Earth's water? How much water is ... wet is your state? Glaciers and icecaps Watersheds Water Properties Water properties Adhesion and cohesion Capillary action ...

  5. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

  6. Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · Identify the basin goals and concerns · Assess the water supply and water demands · Develop · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional

  7. Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web site showcases Lenntech's Complete Water treatment and Air filtration solutions. This company designs, manufactures and installs complete air and water treatment system solutions. Lenntech proclaims, "Our wide range of technologies and extended know-how in all water-related sectors will guarantee you a cost-efficient solution meeting your water quality requirements." Whether or not you're looking to purchase one of these fine water treatment systems, the site will still provide beneficial resources about how said systems operate.

  8. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

  9. Water Markets and Water Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine L. Kling; Marca Weinberg; James E. Wilen

    1993-01-01

    In addition to improving the allocative efficiency of water use, water markets may reduce irrigation-related water quality problems. This potential benefit is examined with a nonlinear programming model developed to simulate agricultural decision-making in a drainage problem area in California's San Joaquin Valley. Results indicate that a 30% drainage goal is achievable through improvements in irrigation practices and changes in

  10. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  11. INTRODUCTION The marine hydroids of Iceland have been the subject of

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    project with the objec- Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Iceland collected by the BIOICE programme Peter Schuchert Schuchert P. 2000. Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Iceland collected by the BIOICE programme. Sarsia 85:411- 438. This study summarises the findings of benthic hydrozoans (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, including Hydroidea

  12. Post-embryonic larval development and metamorphosis of the hydroid Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, C.

    1990-09-01

    The morphology and histology of the planula larva of Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) and its metamorphosis into the primary polyp are described from light microscopic observations. The planula hatches as a differentiated gastrula. During the lecithotrophic larval period, large ectodermal mucous cells, embedded between epitheliomuscular cells, secrete a sticky slime. Two granulated cell types occur in the ectoderm that are interpreted as secretory and sensorynervous cells, but might also be representatives of only one cell type with a multiple function. The entoderm consists of yolk-storing gastrodermal cells, digestive gland cells, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes. The larva starts metamorphosis by affixing its blunt aboral pole to a substratum. While the planula flattens down, the mucous cells penetrate the mesolamella and migrate through the entoderm into the gastral cavity where they are lysed. Subsequently, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes migrate in the opposite direction, i.e. from entoderm to ectoderm. Then, the polypoid body organization, comprising head (hydranth), stem and foot, all covered by peridermal secretion, becomes recognisable. An oral constriction divides the hypostomal portion of the gastral cavity from the stomachic portion. Within the hypostomal entoderm, cells containing secretory granules differentiate. Following growth and the multiplication of tentacles, the head periderm disappears. A ring of gland cells differentiates at the hydranth's base. The positioning of cnidae in the tentacle ectoderm, penetration of the mouth opening and the multiplication of digestive gland cells enable the polyp to change from lecithotrophic to planktotrophic nutrition.

  13. Iontophoretic injection of lucifer yellow CH into zygotes and blastomeres of the hydroid Hydractinia echinata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfannenstiel, H.-D.

    1985-03-01

    The dye Lucifer yellow CH was iontophoresed into recently fertilized eggs and early blastomeres of Hydractinia echinata. Iontophoresis was carried out on the stage of an inverted microscope in order to follow filling of the injected cells by short pulses of epifluorescent illumination. Lucifer yellow proved to be nontoxic and development in embryos with injected blastomeres proceeded normally. When zygotes were injected all the cells of the forming embryo contained dye. When one of the first two blastomeres was injected all the progeny of the injected cell also contained dye. Dye-coupling between injected and uninjected blastomeres did not occur in two-cell embryos nor between descendants of either line. Development of Lucifer-yellow-filled blastomeres or zygotes could be stopped by blue light irradiation. In a number of injected cells, the dye tended to accumulate forming brightly shining spots. The dye did not penetrate the nuclear envelope of injected cells.

  14. Water Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Kyrk

    This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

  15. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  16. Source Water Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Drinking Water Source Water Source Water Protection Source Water Protection The drinking water we receive from our ... communities, resource managers and the public. My Source Water Basic Information Frequent Questions Source Water Pocket Guide ( ...

  17. Water Harvesting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Critchley, Will

    This manual has been written with the intention of providing technicians and extension workers with practical guidelines on the implementation of water harvesting schemes. However it will also be of interest to a wider audience, such as rural development specialists and planners. The focus of the manual is on simple, field scale systems for improved production of crops, trees and rangeland species in drought prone areas. Water harvesting systems for water supply such as haffirs, ponds and rooftop tanks are not covered in this manual, nor are large-scale water spreading systems (spate irrigation).

  18. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  19. Water Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathy Kelly Ellins

    2012-01-01

    Water Exploration uses a project-based learning approach, permitting students to conduct research and build an understanding about water science and critical water-related issues. All learning activities and resources are packaged into three modules, or Legacy Cycles, in a way that enhances student learning by making use of the Internet and computer technology to promote inquiry learning. The Earth Science Literacy Principles provide the organizing framework for the lessons and activities in each Water Exploration Legacy Cycle. The curriculum is applicable to high school science courses such as Earth and Space Science, Advanced Placement Environmental Science, Biology, Chemistry, and Aquatic Science.

  20. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  1. Computerized Waters 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    tx H2O | pg. 9 Computerized Waters Story by Kathy Wythe Computerized Waters Model changes management of Texas surface waters In an office on the second floor of a Texas A&MUniversity building, on a desktop computeroperating with the popular... Microsoft Windows,Dr. Ralph Wurbs has designed a computer mod- eling system that has changed the way Texas manages its rivers, streams and reservoirs. The modeling system called Water Rights Availability Package, or WRAP for short, is a set of computer...

  2. Water Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  3. Mixing Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about temperature and energy transfer. The probe is designed to find out whether students recognize that a transfer of energy from the warm water to the cool water occurs until they reach the same temperature. Additionally, students' explanations reveal whether they use an addition, subtraction, or averaging strategy to determine the resulting temperature.

  4. Water Filter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2002-01-01

    In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective.
    Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

  5. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  6. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  7. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Costle

    1980-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

  8. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  9. Sinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-01

    In this experiment, learners float colored ice cubes in hot and cold water. They compare the behavior of the melting ice cubes to understand how temperature is related to ocean currents and how temperature changes water density. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get learners thinking about how and why water temperature changes along with depth. Illustrated experiment directions and a worksheet help learners use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of buoyancy and density.

  10. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  11. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  12. Water Privatisation 

    E-print Network

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  13. Grabbing Water

    E-print Network

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

  14. Sinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This experiment uses colored ice cubes to demonstrate how temperature changes water density. Working together in small groups, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how and why water temperature changes along with depth, illustrated experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of buoyancy and density.

  15. Water resources

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the environmental effects on the water resources of the region. Water quality concerns in the region include: (1) point and non-point sources of pollution, (2) toxic substances found in both sediments and wildlife of some reservoirs, and (3) occurrences of low dissolved oxygen levels downstream of certain dams. Each of these concerns are discussed with respect to the aquatic environments of the region.

  16. Water watch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gruber

    1993-01-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on summer streamflow. In addition, a summary of streamflow, soil moisture, and water supply conditions through the end of May is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts are given. Forecasts are based on the National Weather Service US Climate Analysis Center's 90-day outlook. Temperature and precipitation probability estimates given in the outlook

  17. Water Watch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gruber

    1993-01-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch,[close quotes] focusing on streamflow, is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of hydrology and River Forecast Centers, US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, Soil Conservation Service, California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through August. For purposes of reporting, the

  18. Filtering Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2003-01-01

    The first site related to water filtration is from the US Environmental Agency entitled EPA Environmental Education: Water Filtration (1 ). The two-page document explains the need for water filtration and the steps water treatment plants take to purify water. To further understand the process, a demonstration project is provided that illustrates these purification steps, which include coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The second site is an interesting Flash animation called Filtration: How Does it Work (2 ) provided by Canada's Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. Visitors will learn various types of filtration procedures and systems and the materials that are used such as carbon and sand. Next, from the National Science Foundation is a learning activity called Get Out the Gunk (3 ). Using just a few simple items from around the house, kids will be able to answer questions like "Does a filter work better with a lot of water rushing through, or a small trickle?" and "Does it make the water cleaner if you pour it through a filter twice?" The fourth Web site, Rapid Sand Filtration (4 ), is provided by Dottie Schmitt and Christie Shinault of Virginia Tech. The authors describe the process, which involves the flow of water through a bed of granular media, normally following settling basins in conventional water treatment trains to remove any particulate matter left over after flocculation and settling. Along with its thorough description, readers can view illustrations and photographs that further explain the process. The Vegetative Buffer Strips for Improved Surface Water Quality (5) Web site is provided by the Iowa State University Extension office. The document explains what vegetative buffer strips are, how they filter contaminants and sediment from surface water, how effective they are, and more. The sixth offering is a file called Infiltration Basins and Trenches (6) that is offered by the University of Wisconsin Extension. These structures are intended to collect water, have it infiltrate into the ground, and have it purified along the way. This document explains how effective they are at removing pollutants, how to install them, design guidelines, maintenance, and more. Next, from a site called Wilderness Survial.net is the Water Filtration Devices (7) page. Visitors read how to make a filtering system out of cloth, sand, crushed rock, charcoal, or a hollow log, although as is stated, the water still has to be purified. The last site, from the US Geological Survey, is called A Visit to a Wastewater-Treatment Plant: Primary Treatment of Wastewater (8). Although geared towards children, the site does a good job of explaining what happens at each stage of the treatment process and how pollutants are removed to help keep water clean. Everything from screening, pumping, aerating, sludge and scum removal, killing bacteria, and what is done with wastewater residuals is covered.

  19. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  20. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-print Network

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  1. Reuse of Regenerated Waters Under Water Scarcity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Ortiz; R. Ibáñez; A. M. Urtiaga; P. Gómez

    \\u000a Mediterranean countries face water supply challenges due to water scarcity. Water regeneration, recycling and reuse address\\u000a these challenges by resolving water resource issues and creating new sources of high-quality water supplies. Among others,\\u000a industrial activities worldwide account for about a quarter of all water consumption and there is hardly any industry that\\u000a does not use large amounts of water. Water

  2. Water watch

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, N.

    1993-06-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on summer streamflow. In addition, a summary of streamflow, soil moisture, and water supply conditions through the end of May is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts are given. Forecasts are based on the National Weather Service US Climate Analysis Center's 90-day outlook. Temperature and precipitation probability estimates given in the outlook are based primarily on the average of monthly forecasts since 1974 and seasonal forecasts since 1959 at 100 US weather reporting stations. Regional analyses are based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology and River Forecast Centers, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affect hydro generation in April.

  3. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  4. Water watch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture and fall streamflow, particularly in the Western US. The information is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Dept. of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Dept. of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through October 1992. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in July.

  5. Water Watch

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, N.

    1993-08-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch,[close quotes] focusing on streamflow, is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of hydrology and River Forecast Centers, US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, Soil Conservation Service, California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through August. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in May.

  6. Marketing water 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    citizens how to design and care for a garden planted with plants, shrubs, and trees that thrive in the area and need less water. In 2005, SmartScape? expanded to West Texas. In Central Texas, Austin, known for its progressive approach to conserving...://www.takecareoftexas.org/) program in April 2007. In addition to water quality and quantity and air quality, it addresses energy conservation and waste reduction. Stories by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 19 EARTH#31;KIND promotes environmental stewardship EARTH-KIND, Texas...

  7. Water Spout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  8. Grabbing water

    E-print Network

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  9. Blue Water

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

  10. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  11. Weightless Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this physics activity (page 5 of the PDF), learners will witness the effects of free fall by observing falling water, and will gain a better understanding of the concept of weightlessness. Although this activity was created as a post-visit for a workshop about astronomy, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity!

  12. Water watch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gruber

    1992-01-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture and fall streamflow. A map depicts soil moisture conditions in the US through early October. The analysis is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Department of

  13. Water watch

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, N.

    1993-02-01

    This issue of Water Watch focuses on soil moisture and winter streamflow development, particularly in the western U.S. Ninety-day outlooks are through March 1993. Hydropower generation statistics for the U.S. for December 1991 and '92 and December 10 year average are also provided.

  14. Water watch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    In this issue of Water Watch, a summary of precipitation, drought, and streamflow conditions during the summer is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts (through October) for each region are given. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in July.

  15. Water watch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gruber

    1993-01-01

    This issue of Water Watch focuses on soil moisture and winter streamflow development, particularly in the western U.S. Ninety-day outlooks are through March 1993. Hydropower generation statistics for the U.S. for December 1991 and '92 and December 10 year average are also provided.

  16. Investigating Water 

    E-print Network

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  17. Troubling Waters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carolyn J. Strange (freelance writer; )

    2008-12-01

    One of the world's richest deltas has been radically replumbed, its ecosystem is collapsing, and Californians are realizing their water supply is tapped out. Despite decades of efforts--and some positive trends--solutions may not be any closer. Downstream, the San Francisco Bay looks good by comparison.

  18. Water Hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

  19. Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete

    E-print Network

    Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete Hydroides. Ambient salinities drop dramatically during monsoon season in Hong Kong coastal waters, posing a number- tigated (1) whether adults would retain their gametes when external salinity dropped to levels too low

  20. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Andrus

    2007-10-12

    4th Grade Science Learn all about the Water Cycle! The Water Cycle: Water Storage Learn about Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, and Collection! The Water Cycle Here are some activites to learn about the water cycle. Hydrologic Cycle ...

  1. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    -800 Cooperating Agencies Arkansas Water Resources Center ARKANSAS SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION COMMISSION WASHINGTON COUNTY SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS Federal Assistance Project No. C Cooperating Agencies ARKANSAS WATER RESOURCES CENTER ARKANSAS SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION COMMISSION WASHINGTON

  2. Water watch

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, N. (C.T. Male Associates, P.C., Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1992-12-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture and fall streamflow. A map depicts soil moisture conditions in the US through early October. The analysis is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through November 1992. For purposed of reporting, the US is divided into six regions as indicated on a figure and in a table. The data presented in the table, the Hydropower Generation Report, can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in September.

  3. Water Striders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1981-01-01

    In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners catch and observe water striders to explore their movement and feeding behaviors. To observe strider locomotion, learners look closely at caught water striders' body structure, then mark the striders' bodies with a dot of thick tempera or acrylic paint and release the insects back to different areas of the pond habitat. The paint markings make it easier for learners to watch each insect's movement. To observe strider feeding, learners catch other small insects from the pond habitat and offer them to caught striders. After the activity, all organisms should be released into the pond habitat. If possible, learners can return to the strider habitat a few weeks after the activity, to check how far the marked striders have moved from where they were released.

  4. Water analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MacCarthy, P.; Klusman, R.W.; Rice, J.A.

    1987-06-15

    This is the twenty-second biennial review dealing with the inorganic and organic analytical chemistry of water. The format of this review is essentially the same as that of the previous review in this series which was published in Analytical Chemistry in 1985. The references used in preparing this review were compiled by a computer-search of Chemical Abstracts covering the period from the previous review (September 1984) through October 1986.

  5. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

  6. Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan

    E-print Network

    Page 1 Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan Michigan State University · New · February 2011 information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning

  7. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING Committee on Natioha1 Water Resources report in 1961 and the formation of the Committee on Water Resources in emphasis"and values regarding water resources' research. Interest has shifted from}J4ter supply

  8. Water Sustainability Program Challenges to Sustainable Water

    E-print Network

    Cushing, Jim. M.

    Water Sustainability Program Forum Challenges to Sustainable Water Management in Arizona Sharon B. Megdal Director, WSP & Water Resources Research Center November 22, 2010 smegdal@cals.arizona.edu #12;· The Water Sustainability Program endeavors to ensure that we have safe and reliable water supplies

  9. Water Wise: A Water Use Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…

  10. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-print Network

    and a local university, the WSP process resulted in improvements at the drinking water treatment plantCS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths

  11. Campus Water Uses and Potential Water Efficiencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvin Kuo; Melany Hunt; John Onderdonk; Matthew Berbee

    2008-01-01

    With recent increases in the price of water, saving water has become one of the main focuses for sustainability. The California Institute of Technology used 200,000,000 gallons of water in the year 2008; however the institute has never tracked this water to its destination within the campus. Using data collected from water meters on campus and from the utility company

  12. Water, Water Everywhere! [Narrator] Water, Water Everywhere Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every process

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Water, Water Everywhere! [Narrator] Water, Water Everywhere Water is all around us, and its naturally as a liquid, gas, and solid. The process by which water moves around the Earth, from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land, and back to the ocean, is called the water cycle. Water regulates climate, storing

  13. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  14. Be Water Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Sandra K.; Pettus, Alvin M.

    Various topics on water and water conservation are discussed, each general topic followed by a student activity. Topics include: (1) importance of water; (2) water in the environment; (3) getting water to and from homes (making water usable; treating wastewater; on-site systems, including water wells and septic tanks); (4) relationship between…

  15. Water Source Books

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Online curriculum guides for K-12 with over 324 activities related to wetlands, coastal waters, and water resources. Each grade section (K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12) is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters.

  16. Water Resources of Wisconsin

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)website provides water data, online publications, a list of USGS - Wisconsin publications, and links to water resource projects and studies in Wisconsin. The water data consists of real-time streamflow, quarterly streamflow reports, water levels measured by a ground-water observation network of 140 wells throughout Wisconsin, and NWISWeb (National Water Information System on the Web) data (consisting of real-time streamflow, ground level water, surface water and water quality data).

  17. Water Science for Schools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Howard Perlman

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) water resources site provides comprehensive coverage of water related issues, and includes several interactive quizzes and activities for children. Here you will find information on many aspects of water, along with pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center. Topics include: Earth's water, Water basics, Water use, Water Questions and Answers, Activity center, Picture Gallery, Glossary, and Related Water Links. A special topics section tackles current problems in water science, including acid rain and water quality. The site also focuses on water use issues and attempts to raise student awareness of water conservation.

  18. Water resources data, Arizona, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.; Duet, N.R.; McGuire, E.H.; Angeroth, C.E.; Castillo, N.K.; Smith, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    The USGS Arizona Water Science Center water data report includes records on both surface water and ground water in the State for water year 2004. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 206 streamflow-gaging stations and 21 crest-stage, partial-record streamflow stations; (2) stage and (or) content records for 8 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 20 streamflow-gaging stations; (4) ground-water levels and compaction values for 14 stations; and (5) water levels for 18 wells.

  19. Water Wonders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    Students will be introduced to different species of macroinvertebrates. They will hypothesize why each insect looks the way it does. Then students will make observations of macroinvertebrates in an aquarium in their classroom. For an optional extension, teachers can take students to a local stream or pond to conduct field observations. Materials needed include sand, water, aquatics plants and insects; estimated materials cost does not include aquarium. This is the 3rd of 3 sets of learning activities that are companion activities to the Elementary GLOBE children's book, Discoveries at Willow Creek. Includes a teacher implementation guide.

  20. Water watch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture conditions across the country as of the first of April. In addition, the department describes streamflow conditions across the US forecast for April through July. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service. For purposes of providing this information, the US is divided into six regions. The Hydropower Generation Report can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in March.

  1. Water resources data, Alaska, water year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, M.L.; Castor, M.E.; Goetz, J.M.; Solin, G.L.; Wiles, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2005 water year for Alaska consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This volume contains records for water discharge at 114 gaging stations; stage or contents only at 3 gaging stations; water quality at 37 gaging stations; and water levels for 41 observation wells. Also included are data for 55 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. Some data collected during 2005 will be published in subsequent reports. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Alaska.

  2. Water Safety Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disaster or Emergency › Types of Emergency › Water Safety Water Safety Quiz Trivia quiz loading... Please enable javascript. Stay Safe around Water Download water safety tips in English or Spanish ...

  3. Learn about Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Learn about Water When the water in our rivers, lakes, and ... we swim and fish. See all water resources . Water Bodies Oceans, Coasts, Estuaries and Beaches Rivers and ...

  4. Water Science School

    MedlinePLUS

    The USGS Water Science School The USGS Water Science School Welcome to the U.S. Geological Survey's ( USGS ) Water Science School. We offer information on many aspects of water, along with pictures, ...

  5. Water: Consumer Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EPA's (PDF) page to learn more. Your Drinking Water Quality Water On Tap: What You Need to ... Drinking Water Sources (PDF) (2 pp, 563K) Drinking Water Emergencies Learn what to do in the event ...

  6. Private Ground Water Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water Healthy Water Home Share Compartir Private Ground Water Wells Many people in the United States receive ... answers to frequently asked questions about wells . Ground Water and Wells When rain falls, much of it ...

  7. Build a Kit: Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your family’s needs during an emergency. How Much Water Do I Need? You should store at least ... of water per person. How Should I Store Water? It is recommended you purchase commercially bottled water, ...

  8. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePLUS

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water and requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports, which include information about lead amounts, are available to consumers. For ...

  9. Important Water Quality Factors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

  10. Land and water snails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-03

    Land snails live on the land and water snails make water their habitat. Land snails have shells to protect them and so do water snails. Land snails have two sets of antennae, while water snails only have one set.

  11. Sodium in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

  12. Autoionization of water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Craig Merlic

    This site provides an animation showing the three normal vibrational modes of the water molecule as well as proton transfer in the following three situations: (1) hydronium ion/water, (2) hydroxide ion/water, and (3)two water molecules.

  13. Drinking Water Standards 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  14. Reduction of Water Consumption

    E-print Network

    Adler, J.

    REDUCTION OF WATER CONSUMPTION John Adler The Munters Corporation Ft. Myers, Florida Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination...

  15. Everyone into the Water!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…

  16. Testing the Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finks, Mason

    1993-01-01

    Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)

  17. Contested water rights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Ansink; Hans-Peter Weikard

    2009-01-01

    In many international river basins disputes over property rights to water lead to inefficient water allocation and a waste of resources. In this paper, we examine how contested water rights impede water trade. To show this, we use a model in which property rights to water are contested because countries have overlapping claims to water. In the model, countries decide

  18. Waters of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students make a visual display showing the distribution of water on earth. Using separate bottles, students illustrate the amount of water in oceans, fresh water locked up as ice, underground fresh water, surface fresh water, and water in air and soil.

  19. Water Pollution Control Legislation

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    ) administer many of the Clean Water Act's provisions. This law addresses water pollution and water quality, including pollution from irrigated agriculture. FEDERAL LAWS Clean Water Act -- 1972 and 1987 The Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 and 1987, known as the Clean Water Act, are the principal

  20. Valuing Water Supply Reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald C. Griffin; James W. Mjelde

    2000-01-01

    Instead of creating water supply systems that fully insulate mankind from climate-imposed water deficiencies, it is possible that for municipal water systems a nonzero probability of water supply shortfall is efficient. Perfect water supply reliability, meaning no chance of future shortfall, is not optimal when water development costs are high. Designing an efficient strategy requires an assessment of consumer preferences

  1. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    , appearance or staining. Waterrelated problems will be found primarily in homes serviced by a private waterHousehold Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension Many areas have water containing impurities from natural or artificial sources. These impurities may

  2. Water 3: Accounting For Our Water Needs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-19

    How do we account for water use? What is the difference between water consumed and water withdrawn? What is the water footprint tool? This video examines these questions. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

  3. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING,000,000 for the Sec. 101 matching grant program, and $2,000,000 for the Title II program. INTERDISCIPLINARY WATER RESOURCE SEMINAR An Interdisciplinary Water Resource Seminar will be offered during the 1970 Semeste

  4. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING ALLOTMENT PROJECT DEADLINE The Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute is now prepared to receive basicIe. LB-334, enacted by the 1969 Legislature, authorized the Nebraska Soil a~d Water Conservation

  5. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING in water pollution except that land runoff is a more meaningful problem than originally thought. BUREAU STUDIES SALINE WATER A study to generate a dependable \\'tay of evaluating the economic effects of salinity

  6. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING Research application is an educational activity. Its aim is to pro- duce a change in the water resource environment by producing a change in people who manage water resources. #12;-2- 6. Provide Readable Reports

  7. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING OF THE DIRECTOR . . · Once again during the spring 1973 semester the Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute will sponsor an Interdisciplinary Water Resources Seminar. These seminars have been held for the past five

  8. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING LABLE FRm1 ~.~, VI I RI RI I · The Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute has recently issued a new. This publi- cation may be obtained by writing: Dr. Warren Viessman, Jr., Director, Nebraska Water Resources

  9. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING during precipitation-free periods and constitutes the principal source of fresh water for many arid local- ities. About 70-80 percent of the water used in Nebraska is from groundwater sources, while the national

  10. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of water to all major social issues is finally driven home. The energy crisis is a case in point. Water and energy are inextricably bound. Energy is consumed and sometimes produced by every form of water resources for reductions in energy consumption through prudent water development and management. Technological, political

  11. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  12. Water Resources Data, Arizona, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisk, G.G.; Duet, N.R.; Evans, D.W.; Angeroth, C.E.; Castillo, N.K.; Longsworth, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Arizona District water data report includes records on both surface water and ground water in the State for water year 2003. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 203 streamflow-gaging stations, for 29 crest-stage, partial-record streamflow stations, and 50 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and (or) content only records for 9 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 29 streamflow-gaging stations; (4) ground-water levels and compaction values for 14 stations; and (5) water levels for 19 wells.

  13. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1993-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  14. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Benedict, Brian L.; Hammil, Lowell E.

    1994-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Indiana consist of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 175 stream-gaging station, stage for 5 stream station, 1 sediment station, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 3 streams, and water levels for 80 lakes and 94 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  15. THE WATER CYCLE/ CLOUDS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms.Brown

    2009-04-06

    Students will learn about the water cycle and how it works. You will explore many resources to find out many new factors about the water cycle. What is the water cycle? National water cycle Name the 4 water parts of the water cycle? Weather wonders Where are 3 places that the water cycle exists- What happens after condensation? animated water cycle Name 4 types of clouds? What is the highest level cloud called? Which cloud is associated with powerful thunderstorms? Cloud Types What do clouds have to do with the water cycle? National water cycle What is ...

  16. Magnificent Ground Water Connection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Magnificent Ground Water Connection is a compilation of ground water-related activities for teaching and learning purposes. The teacher's activity guide is applicable to a wide range of subject matter and the ground water theme is integrated into stories, songs, math, social studies, art and writing. The topics include basic concepts of the water cycle, water distribution, treatment and stewardship. Other subjects include the water cycle and water conservation, New England's ground water resources, ground water contamination and protection. Sections are also available for wetlands, ground water, marine debris, waster, air quality, acid rain, and energy. Users can also access an on-line lending library for educational materials and videos.

  17. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  18. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  19. Cooling Water System Optimization

    E-print Network

    Aegerter, R.

    2005-01-01

    distribution header on the top deck. Water flows from the distribution header through distribution valves to splash boxes that distribute the water to their respective hot water basins. Water then flows through the distribution nozzles and strikes a... splash plate located below each distribution nozzle. The splash plates act like spray nozzles to break up the water into droplets and to evenly distribute the water across the fill. As water falls through the fill, it contacts the air that is being...

  20. Water Resources Data, Indiana, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morlock, Scott E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 148 stream-gaging stations, stage for 16 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 5 streams, water temperature at 17 sites, sediment analysis for 2 streams, water levels for 8 lakes and 88 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the National Water Information System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  1. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Hammil, Lowell E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 163 stream-gaging stations, stage for 8 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 1 stream, water temperature at 11 sites, sediment analysis for 1 stream, water levels for 78 lakes and 88 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  2. Water flow controller device

    SciTech Connect

    Fender, W.

    1980-07-01

    A description is given of a water flow controller device of the type used for connecting a solar collecting device to conventional facility plumbing and a water reservoir, which comprises: (A) a cold water source connector; (B) a hot water feed connector; (C) a collector supply connector; (D) a collector return connector; (E) a cold water inlet connector; (F) a bifurcated hot water outlet connector having a collector return channel and a hot water feed channel; (G) cold water line means connecting said cold water source connector to said cold water inlet connector; (H) collector supply line means connecting said collector; supply connector to said cold water lines means; (I) hot water line means connecting said hot water feed channel of said bifurcated hot water outlet connector to said hot water feed connector; (J) collector line means connecting said collector return channel of said bifurcated hot water outlet connector to said collector return connector; (K) means for circulating water connected within said collector supply line means; (L) means for controlling said circulating means electrically connected to said circulating means; and (M) whereby said cold water source connector may be connected to a cold water source line of said facility plumbing; said hot water feed connector may be connected to a hot water feed line of said facility plumbing; said collector supply connector may be connected to a supply of said solar collecting devise; said collector return connector may be connected to a return line from said solar collecting device; said cold water inlet connector may be connected to a cold water inlet of said water reservior; and said bifurcated hot water connector may be connected to a hot water outlet of said water reservoir.

  3. Water Remediation Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students measure the effectiveness of water filters in purifying contaminated water. They prepare test water by creating different concentrations of bleach (chlorine-contaminated) water. After passing the contaminated water through commercially available Brita® water filters designed to purify drinking water, students determine the chlorine concentration of the purified water using chlorine test strips and measure the adsorption of chlorine onto activated carbon over time. They graph and analyze their results to determine the effectiveness of the filters. The household active carbon filters used are one example of engineer-designed water purification systems.

  4. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  5. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fs-027-01.pdf--665KB A Primer on Water Quality What is in the water? Is it safe for drinking? Can fish and ... affect water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as ...

  6. Water Governance and Legislation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-07-31

    Visitors to this site can review Canadian water policy and legislation for both provinces and federal government. Topics include the nature of water, water policy and legislation, water management, water and culture, and links to information and services (a glossary, news articles, and a teachers' corner). A French translation is available.

  7. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  8. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 9: Water in Agriculture () January 13, 2010 1 / 14 #12;Water in Agriculture Historically: Biggest consumer of water, in developed kilos of sugar. Though the source of water in all the three cases is usually different. Agriculture

  9. Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments Animal matched over time, or else!!! I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance l Different problems with osmoregulation depending on the habitat the organism lives in A. Freshwater: B. Salt water: C. Terrestrial: Excessive

  10. Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance Animal = open system that exchanges materials & energy w/environment. Different is hyperosmotic B. Salt water: the animal is hypoosmotic C. Terrestrial: evaporation main problem Excessive

  11. Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance Animal = open system that exchanges materials & energy w/environment. Rates depending on the habitat the organism lives in A. Freshwater: the animal is hyperosmotic B. Salt water

  12. Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance l Different problems with osmoregulation depending on the habitat the organism lives in #12;2 Nitrogenous Wastes 1) Ammonia 2) Urea 3) Uric Acid II. Water Gain 1. Drinking (reptiles

  13. Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    E-print Network

    Delene, David J.

    #12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv - Boiling Temperature of Water · Ta ­ Ambient Temperature #12 of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv ­ Water Boiling Temperature Solve for Liquid Water Content · P

  14. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By Marc A. Nelson Arkansas Water Resources Center Ron Redman Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission L. Wade Cash Arkansas Water Resources Center G ROAD 76 BRIDGE ON BALLARD CREEK Submitted to: Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By: Marc

  15. Human Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about the human water cycle, or how humans impact the water cycle by settling down in civilizations. Specifically, they learn how people obtain, use and dispose of water. Students also learn about shortages of treated, clean and safe water and learn about ways that engineers address this issue through water conservation and graywater recycling.

  16. Plant Water Relations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Bidlack

    Plant water relations are presented in this learning activity to help participants understand the components of water potential, explain how water moves through plants, provide examples of plant adaptations to water stress, and have a general understanding of how water potential can be measured.

  17. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water

  18. Water Quality: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, LaVere B.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

  19. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    water contaminants be- cause they can enter the ground water when the limestone is dissolved by carbonic at concentration levels which might lead to contamination of ground water to undesirably high levels. AnalysesArkansas Water Resources Center TRACE METAL AND MAJOR ELEMENTS IN WATER- SOLUBLE ROCKS OF NORTHWEST

  20. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Arkansas Water Resources Center LASER-PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF WATER POLLUTANTS PHASE I Principal. '. 18 #12;cor~PLETIONREPORT LASER-PHOTOACOUSTICDETECTIONOF WATER POLLUTANTS: PHASEI October ls 1977 their waters. Recognizing that water pollution can pose serious health hazards and unknown long term effects

  1. Acid in water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laszlo Ilyes (None; )

    2007-05-16

    Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

  2. Water resources data, Indiana, water year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, James A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Hammil, Lowell E.; Nguyen, Hieu T.; Majors, Deborah K.

    2001-01-01

    Water resource data for the 2000 water year for Indiana consists of records of discharge, stage, and water quality of streams and wells; reservoir stage and contents; and water levels in lakes and wells. This report contains records of discharge for 166 stream-gaging stations, stage for 7 stream stations, stage and contents for 1 reservoir, water quality for 2 streams, sediment analysis for 1 stream, water levels for 79 lakes and 89 observation wells. Also included are records of miscellaneous discharge measurements, miscellaneous levels and miscellaneous water-quality, not part of the systematic data-collection program. Data contained in this report represent that part of the the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in Indiana in cooperation with State and Federal agencies.

  3. Global monthly water stress: 1. Water balance and water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, L. P. H.; Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2011-07-01

    Surface fresh water (i.e., blue water) is a vital and indispensable resource for human water use in the agricultural, industrial, and domestic sectors. In this paper, global water availability is calculated by forcing the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB with daily global meteorological fields for the period 1958-2001. To represent blue water availability, a prognostic reservoir operation scheme was included in order to produce monthly time series of global river discharge modulated by reservoir operations. To specify green water availability for irrigated areas, actual transpiration from the model was used. Thus, the computed water availability reflects the climatic variability over 1958-2001 and is contrasted against the monthly water demand using the year 2000 as a benchmark in the companion paper. As the water that is withdrawn to meet demand directly interferes with blue water availability along the drainage network, this paper evaluates model performance for three regimes reflecting different degrees of human interference: natural discharge, discharge regulated by reservoirs, and modified discharge. In the case of modified discharge, the net blue water demand for the year 2000 is subtracted directly from the regulated discharge, taking water demand equal to consumptive water use. Results show that model simulations of monthly river discharge compare well with observations from most of the large rivers. Exceptions are basins subject to large extractions for irrigation purposes, where simulated discharge exceeds the observations even when water demand is taken into account. Including the prognostic reservoir operation scheme results in mixed performance, with a poorer approximation of peak flows but with a marginally better simulation of low flows and persistence. A comparison of simulated actual evapotranspiration with that from the ERA-40 reanalysis as a proxy for observed rates shows similar patterns over nonirrigated areas but substantial deviations over major irrigated areas. As expected, assimilated actual evapotranspiration over these areas includes water from alternative sources, whereas the simulations with PCR-GLOBWB are limited by soil moisture, i.e., green water availability. On the basis of this evidence we conclude that the simulation provides adequate fields of water availability to assess water stress at the monthly scale, for which a separate validation is provided in the companion paper.

  4. WATER RECLAMATION AND AUTOMATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Clara Valley Water District owns and operates a water reclamation facility located in the Palo Alto Baylands area in Northern California. The purpose of the facility is to provide reclaimed water suitable for injection into the groundwater, thereby providing a salt wate...

  5. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ~ November 1973 Opportunities for cost effective research related to energy-water issues are abundant. Many. It would be impossible to list all fruitful avenues for energy-water research, but some important issues-economic impacts of energy use reductions? (9) How can the environmental impact of water-power develop- ment

  6. WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    The Nebraska Institute is sponsoring a conference entitled liThe Role of Water in the Energy Crisis. 1I in which the water re- sources community can help solve or alleviate national and regional energy problems. Topics to be discussed will include various aspects of energy-water relationships (economic

  7. Water quality models for waste water management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul G. Whitehead

    A methodology is proposed for evaluating the impact of effluent on the aquatic environment and for the development of management strategies for the planning and control of waste water systems. The particular approach considers the dynamic behaviour of the river system and relates time varying upstream influents to downstream water quality using simple, low order but robust models of water

  8. 1999 WATER RESOURCES SEMINARS "Spotlighting Water Research"

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    , Associate Professor/Research Hydrogeologist April 21: "Water Quality at Confined Animal Waste Lagoons1999 WATER RESOURCES SEMINARS "Spotlighting Water Research" Wednesdays/3:00 to 3:50 p.m./116 L. W. Chase Hall/UNL East Campus January 13: KREMER LECTURE: "Locally Directed Resources Management Needs

  9. National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    MedlinePLUS

    Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest Issue The National Drinking Water Clearinghouse (NDWC) is a public service organization dedicated ... developing, and providing timely information relevant to drinking water issues. We provide free and low-cost publications, ...

  10. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  11. Water safety and drowning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR. Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

  12. Lawn Water Management

    E-print Network

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  13. water transport land runoff

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Monitoring station Land to water transport Urban runoff Cultivated land runoff Wastewater discharges Pasture land runoff Instream transport and removal Land to water transport Monitoring station Benefits of Integrated Monitoring and Modeling Successful management of our Nation's water resources

  14. OFFICE OF WATER DOCKET

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose: The Office of Water (OW) develops regulations and standards for contaminants in the Nation's waters. Section 101(e) of the Clean Water Act requires that "public participation in the development or revision of any regulations, standard, effluent limitation,...

  15. Sinking and Floating Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    nancy thill

    This activity is a classroom lab where students learn that cold water is denser and hot water is less dense than room temperature water. Students perform an experiment and relate to their background knowledge to make conjectures.

  16. Lawn Water Management 

    E-print Network

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  17. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  18. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  19. Local Drinking Water Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a short report (consumer confidence report, or drinking water quality report) from your water supplier that tells where ... what's in it: see if your annual drinking water quality report is posted on-line , read some frequent ...

  20. The Science of Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

    2010-01-01

    A series of inquiry lessons and resources that help students understand the physical properties of water, that living organisms are dependent on water, and how water affects their health and that of the planet.

  1. Treatment of Well Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... water softener is a device that reduces the hardness of the water. A water softener typically uses sodium or potassium ions to replace calcium and magnesium ions, the ions that create "hardness." Distillation Systems Distillation is a process in which ...

  2. Industrial Water Use

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-10

    As part of its Water Science for Schools site, the US Geological Survey defines industrial water use and includes several tables and maps showing where and how industry uses water. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much surface water is used in industry as well as how much of that water is fresh or saline.

  3. Technology in water conservation

    E-print Network

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01

    2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... through water conservation, introduction of new technology does not automati- cally result in water savings. #27;e new evapotrans- piration-based irrigation controllers illustrate the point. A lawn?s need for water is dependent on the weather...

  4. Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms is a helpful collection of resources for water researchers and professionals provided by the Nevada Division of Water Resources and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. This extensive and freely accessed dictionary contains hundreds of words, which are organized alphabetically, making it perfect for searching and printing. Also provided are dozens of appendixes, abbreviations and acronyms, conversion tables and flow equivalents, and more.

  5. Walk On Water Bugs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    In this activity (on pages 29-35), learners examine water pollution and filtration. First, learners build models of water bugs from paper clips, and test the effect of dirt and detergent on their "bugs" floating on the water. Next, learners build a water filter using filter paper, a paper towel, and gravel or sand. The "What We Know" section introduces concepts of how much drinking water is found on Earth, water pollution, the impact of pollution on water quality and surface tension—and how that affects specially adapted species such as water striders.

  6. Mission Geography: Water, Water Almost Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Geography uses existing NASA data and images where possible to engage students in active, hands-on inquiry, modeling the scientific method and developing students' understanding of environment-society relations and Earth science. In this module, students compare the amount of land and water on Earth; consider craters as evidence of a lack of water on other planets; define and locate water bodies found on Earth; and identify changes that occur in these water bodies. The module contains four investigations in which students compare the amounts of land and water on Earth, learn that the presence of craters indicate a dry planet, study and compare water bodies, and explore how water bodies respond to changes in weather and climate. Each investigation is complete with overview, a list of materials and supplies, content preview, classroom procedures, worksheets, background, and evaluation.

  7. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  8. Ferroelectric mobile water.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yoshimichi; Ohno, Takahisa

    2011-01-21

    In molecular dynamics simulations single-domain ferroelectric water is produced under ordinary ambient conditions utilizing carbon nanotubes open to a water reservoir. This ferroelectric water diffuses while keeping its proton-ordered network intact. The mobile/immobile water transitions and the step-wise changes in net polarization of water are observed to occur spontaneously. The immobile water becomes mobile by transforming into the single-domain ferroelectric water. Our general notion of relating a more highly ordered structure with a lower temperature has so far restricted researchers' attention to very low temperatures when experimenting on proton-ordered phases of water. The present study improves our general understanding of water, considering that the term 'ferroelectric water' has so far practically stood for 'ferroelectric ice,' and that single-domain ferroelectric water has not been reported even for the ice nanotubes. PMID:21072393

  9. Sustainability and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate(VI) technology to meet the demand of water in this century.

  10. Redescription of Oswaldella antarctica (Jäderholm, 1904) (Cnidaria Hydrozoa) with notes on related species (Notes on Antarctic hydroids, I)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Peña Cantero; W. Vervoort

    1995-01-01

    Jäderholm's type of Schizotricha antarctica, collected by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901-1903, is redescribed from a syntype in the collections of the Swedish National Museum, Stockholm. The type lot of that species proved to be composite, the material best resembling Jäderholm's (1904, 1905) descriptions and figures has been designated as the syntype. There are two more species in the type

  11. Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Glasser

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

  12. Muddy Waters . . . page 4

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Research Institute · Morse Hall, Durham, NH Water, Water Everywhere asdfghjk -- continued on page 2 HereMuddy Waters . . . page 4 Braving the Storm . . . page 5 Winter 2009 Vol. 8 Issue 1 A River Runs's water sys- tem would be fast disappearing from the face of the earth as the program drew to a close

  13. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 5: Aquifer () August 16 above and below the ground, which affect the water balance. surface features affect infiltration parameters related to water: Porosity, specific yield n, Sy : the maximum volume fraction of water

  14. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 7: Regional Groundwater than the unit situations that we saw. Surface water/Groundwater interactions. lakes and streams springs (seepage) Ambient water-table movements Seasonal changes Inteference with other water end-users. Inherent

  15. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 8: Wells () August 28, 2012 project, utilizing enhanced ground-water. Water lifted from storage, to accumulate overnight from aquifer. Water from shallow aquifer, of about 7-8m thickness. accounts for about 30% of irrigation Unique

  16. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 2: Water cycle, stocks and flows () July 28, 2013 1 / 30 #12;The basic movement of water source: USGS. () July 28, 2013 2 / 30 #12, humidity and air flow. Formation of liquid-water in the Atmosphere-Cloud-Formation Coming Down Rain

  17. Water Waves Roger Grimshaw

    E-print Network

    Water Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves nonlinear waves. Throughout the theory is based on the traditional assumptions that water is inviscid

  18. The Amazing Water Trick

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Using two baby food jars, food coloring, and an index card, you'll 'marry' the jars to see how hot water and cold water mix. Besides illuminating the cool fact that an index card can act as a lid (with no water gushing out), this activity also teaches about the differing densities of hot and cold water.

  19. Old Water Pump

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....

  20. Irrigation Water Quality 

    E-print Network

    McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Stichler, Charles

    2002-04-11

    Irrigation water quality is determined by the total amounts of salts and the types of salts the water contains. In this publication you'll learn why well water can be salty, what problems salty water can cause, what tests should be done...

  1. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

  2. Improve plant water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    Producing high quality water for various inplant usages reliably and cost efficiently is of prime concern. DuPont's Beaumont Works is no exception. The production of ammonia, aniline, acrylonitrile, methanol, tetraethyl lead, and various proprietary products requires high quality water for boiler water makeup, cooling tower makeup, and various process systems. In addition, potable water is produced. For the past nine

  3. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    evolution of arsenic in ground water: tracking sources and sinks in the alluvial aquifer of southeastern Arkansas, USA Basic Information Title: Flow and hydrochemical evolution of arsenic in ground water: ground water, geochemical evolution, arsenic, sediment/water interaction, alluvial aquifer, geochemical

  4. Global Water Distribution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-17

    How much water on Earth is fresh water? How much of that fresh water is found in icecaps? Lakes? Rivers? This interactive resource uses bar graphs to illustrate the relative distribution of fresh and salt water on Earth. Adapted from Oxford University Press.

  5. Cooling water system design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Kuk Kim; Robin Smith

    2001-01-01

    Research on cooling systems to date has focussed on the individual components of cooling systems, not the system as a whole. Cooling water systems should be designed and operated with consideration of all the cooling system components because of the interactions between cooling water networks and the cooling tower performance. In re-circulating cooling water systems, cooling water from the cooling

  6. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By M.A. Nelson L.W. Cash G.K. Trost to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission M. A. Nelson, L. W. Cash, and G. K. Trost Arkansas Water Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  7. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Submitted to the Washington County Conservation District and Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission & WATER CONSERVATION COMMISSION INTRODUCTION In Northwest Arkansas, nutrients transported by surface water storage structures. In 1991, the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC) and the U. S

  8. Can Water Mean Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of UNICEF News explores the theme of connections between water and health in developing countries. The introductory article discusses prospects for improving health through water projects during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90). Subsequent articles focus on (1) effects of a piped water supply on…

  9. Ultraviolet water purifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Lambert; R. H. Bennett

    2009-01-01

    An ultraviolet water purifier has a number of ultraviolet lamps mounted in a cover which extends over the purifier and above the water. A parabolic reflector directs the rays of the lamps toward the body of water. The purifier is provided with a water inlet and a baffle adjacent to it having an opening at its base to compel the

  10. Reflections on Water (and \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara C. Malt

    In theories of word meaning and concepts, "water" has been taken as a key case ofa natural kind term, and water of a natural kind. I address several questions including:What should a theory of the meaning of the word "water" look like, given observationsabout use of the word? Is there a category of liquids that is water, independent of thenames

  11. Potable water supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  12. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  13. Energy---Water Interdependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. Moran; J. A. Tindall; A. A. Campbell

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Energy and water security and sustainability have become a national and global priority. The continued security and economic health of any country depends on a sustainable supply of both energy and water because these two critical natural resources are inexorably linked. The production of energy requires large volumes of water while the treatment and distribution of water is equally

  14. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    that ground water contamination by pesticides is a widespread problem in the U. S. In response the EPAArkansas Water Resources Center Publication No. MSC-224 PESTICIDE GROUND WATER MONITORING PROJECT~~PLETION REPORT ARKANSAS STATE PLANT BOARD PESTICIDE GROUND WATER MONITORING PROJECT FOR MOST VULNERABLE AREAS

  15. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    with Modified DRASTIC Parameters to Predict Ground Water Contamination Introduction 16 Objectives 17 MethodologyArkansas Water Resources Center VULNERABILITY AND USE OF GROUND AND SURFACE WATERS IN THE SOUTHERN displacementexperimentalcondition ,.. 10 Project A2: Use of Fuzzy Logic with Modified DRASTIC Parameters to Predict Ground Water

  16. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    potential sources of contaminants, especially nitrate. A suJrvey of ground water nitrate conc4entrationsArkansas Water Resources Center NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS OF GROUND WATER BENTON COUNTY, ARKANSAS, Arkansas 72701 #12;ABSTRACT Because 'ground water in fractured c;3.rbonate aquifers is particularly

  17. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    ground water contamination, 3) use of vegetative filter strips of varying widths to reduce herbicides loads (TMDLs) 3. declining ground water levels, especially in eastern Arkansas and associated salt waterArkansas Water Resources Center Publication No. MSC-102.1998 ANNUAL PROGRAM REPORT for the Period

  18. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    caused concern regarding nitrate contamination of the ground water. In the study area of Pike and Howard application. If the lagoons are improperly constructed and leak, they can contaminate ground waterArkansas Water Resources Center RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY OF NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS IN GROUND WATER

  19. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  20. Purge water management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Cardoso-Neto; D. W. Williams

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at

  1. Purge water management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Cardoso-Neto; D. W. Williams

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at

  2. Purge water management system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joao E. Cardoso-Neto; Daniel W. Williams

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well

  3. Pricing China's irrigation water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Webber; Jon Barnett; Brian Finlayson; Mark Wang

    2008-01-01

    Many development agencies and other actors are advocating that China adopt a system of water markets or of high water prices in order to resolve the inefficiencies of irrigation agriculture and to supply sufficient water for growing urban and industrial uses. We argue that this proposal rests on a series of propositions: that the price of water is too low

  4. Potable water taste enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.

  5. Water Resources News

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Water Resources division of the US Geological Service provides this water news resource, tracking current water-related events and recent publications from across the US. Recent news items include: flooding in Texas, the impacts of Hurricane Bonnie, the release of a USGS report on water use in the US, and stream-flow data from Puerto Rico, to name a few.

  6. Water Cycle Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The water cycle is Earth's natural mechanism for transporting and recycling water between the surface and the atmosphere. Through the processes of condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, transpiration, and evaporation, water continuously travels from the atmosphere to the ground and back again. In this animation from NASA, users can observe the steps of the water cycle. The segment is fifty-two seconds in length.

  7. Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of

    E-print Network

    Scott, Christopher

    Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of Recycled Water Arizona Hydrological.Eng. Global Water 22 September 2008 #12;Overview · The Finite Nature of Water · Water Availability and Population Growth · Types of Reuse · Water Efficiency of Reuse · Power Efficiency of Reuse #12;Water Scarcity

  8. The African Water Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abrams, Leonard John.

    1995-01-01

    Created by Len Abrams, the goal of the African Water Page is to "increase communication on the Continent of Africa between people working in water." Issues for discussion include "water policy, water resource management, water supply and environmental sanitation, water conservation and demand management." Visitors to this page can find information about recent policy initiatives in South Africa, water related documents concerning South Africa, Zimbabwe, the African continent, and some international topics. Also included are links to South and Southern African and International sites.

  9. Irrigation Water Use

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-28

    Part of the USGS Water Science for Schools site, this resource defines irrigation water use and includes several tables and maps showing water use by various irrigation systems, by state, by crop, and by percentage of fresh water available. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much ground water and surface water is used for irrigation. Various irrigation systems are defined, described, and pictured, along with a discussion of their relative efficiencies. A Spanish translation is available.

  10. The Water Filtration Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

  11. Water Resources of Utah

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This U.S. Geological Survey website provides real-time streamflow, surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality data; information on water resource programs of Utah such as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study; maps and graphs of current U.S. water resource conditions; and USGS - Utah reports. The site also features a drought watch section for Utah containing drought definitions and more streamflow conditions; a section on the Upper Arkansas River Basin Toxic-Substances Hydrology Project; and information on contamination in ground water at Fry Canyon, Utah.

  12. The Water Sourcebooks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    The Water Sourcebooks contain 324 activities for grades K-12 divided into four sections: K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12. Each section is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters. This environmental education program explains the water management cycle using a balanced approach, showing how it affects all aspects of the environment. All activities contain hands-on investigations, fact sheets, reference materials, and a glossary of terms. Activities are organized by objectives, materials needed, background information, advance preparation, procedures, and resources.

  13. Water Info For Kids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The City of Phoenix Web offers the Water Info For Kids page as part of its larger governmental Web site. Six topics are covered including What is water?, What is the Hydrologic (Water) Cycle?, Where does our water come from?, Who uses water?, How can we take care of water?, and Phoenix water and wastewater facts. Each page contains non-technical text and colorful graphics making it especially good for younger students. And, although a "next" link would make the pages flow better from one to the next, the site does a good job of presenting the material in a fun and challenging way.

  14. Colorado Water Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Colorado Water Knowledge Web site is maintained by the Colorado State University Colorado Water Resources Research Institute. The site allows kids to explore all aspects of water science including general facts, a description of the water cycle, stream processes, Colorado geology and water history, major aquifers of the area, aquatic life in local waters, Colorado water laws and regulations, and much more. Although it isn't graphic intensive, the site does a good job of explaining the wide array of concepts using simple descriptions, lists of facts, and a few choice illustrations. [JAB

  15. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  16. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in other liquids also. Recent evidence of a close relation between thermodynamical properties and dynamical behaviour of water are also discussed. Gallo et al present the results of a computer simulation of water confined in a cylindrical pore of MCM-41 silica material. The mobile portion of the confined water shows a fragile to strong dynamic transition similar to the bulk. In the bound water, an anomalous diffusion connected to the residence time distribution is found. Franzese et al report calculations on lattice models adapted to describe general properties of water in contact with protein surfaces. The results of Monte Carlo and mean field calculations show the presence of two-dynamical crossovers. Corradini et al investigate the supercooled region of ionic aqueous solutions in order to study the effect of ions on the limit of mechanical stability, the lines of maximum density and the liquid-liquid critical point for different ionic concentrations. The paper by Vallauri et al deals with the dynamical behavior of water close to the liquid-liquid transition by considering the velocity correlation functions calculated in three supercooled states. Suffritti et al study water adsorbed in zeolites with a new empirical potential, structural and dynamical properties are studied in the supercooled region. The second group starts with a paper on the problem of solvation by Lynden-Bell. The author shows how the properties of water and, in particular, solvation properties are modified by changes in the site-site interaction potential of water. Henchman et al derive equations for different thermodynamical quantities like partial enthalpy and partial entropy for dilute solutions of noble gases. The third group starts with Buldyrev et al who study the swelling of bead-on-a-string polymers in Jagla water-like particles, finding similarities with respect to cold denaturation of protein in water. Pellenq et al consider water confined in pores of different materials with different size scales. Silicalite and tobermorite, a layered calcio-silicate model of cement and Vycor are anal

  17. Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

  18. OVERVIEW OF USEPA'S WATER SUPPLY & WATER RESOURCES DIVISION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts a wide range of research on regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water, water distribution systems, homeland security, source water protection, and...

  19. Water Treatment Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

  20. Water Resource Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

  1. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This interactive diagram of the water cycle invites students to click on a part of the cycle to get information about streamflow, surface runoff, freshwater storage, ground-water discharge, ground-water storage, infiltration, precipitation, snowmelt, runoff to streams, springs, condensation, evaporation, transpiration, water in the atmosphere, ice and snow, and oceans. A summary of the water cycle on a single webpage is also available as text with pictures in about fifty languages, text only in thirteen languages, or diagram only.

  2. Water conservation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

  3. National Ground Water Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Ground Water Association

    This web site contains a wealth of information for the groundwater professional and for students of hydrogeology. The site features educational materials, information about conferences, courses and workshops, and a bookstore. There is also a searchable database of abstracts from the journals Ground Water, Ground Water Monitoring Review, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, and the Water Well Journal. Members of the National Ground Water Association may access these articles directly. Publications, fact sheets and industry links are also available.

  4. Be Water Smart 

    E-print Network

    Swyden, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    . The WaterSmart program brings information about runoff pollution and water conservation to the atten- tion of homeowners, garden clubs, environmental groups and city planners, and addresses coastal issues. Texas Cooperative Extension and Texas Sea Grant...W aterSmart, a water conservation program, uses a unique approach to protect and conserve water quality and quantity in upper Texas Gulf Coast urban landscapes. Part of the Texas Coastal Watershed Program (TCWP), WaterSmart is creating rain...

  5. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  6. American Water Works Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Water Works Association (AWWA) describes its endeavors to improve drinking water quality and supply throughout the world. Visitors can find fact sheets on water pollutants, scientific and public articles, and information on conferences. The educational materials include scholarship opportunities, information about the Water and Wastewater Leadership Center, and a seminar schedule. Researchers can find out about the numerous AWWA's development of products and processes to improve public water quality.

  7. Water Treatment Plant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.

  8. CLEAN WATER: water detoxification using innovative photocatalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vlassis Likodimos; Dionysios D. Dionysiou; Polycarpos Falaras

    2010-01-01

    Environmental pollution abatement and especially the growing demand for clean water pose one of the most severe challenges\\u000a worldwide. Besides the scarcity of water resources, the presence of hazardous chemicals with serious adverse health effects,\\u000a even at extremely low concentrations, impose serious considerations for the quality of drinking water. The rapid evolution\\u000a of nanoscale science and technology has dramatically expanded

  9. Water Filtration and Purity of Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces the concept of water purity. In this activity, students will test a sample of water collected from a local water supply and test its purity and evaluate its safety for consumption by looking for pollutants. Before starting, students should have a grasp on how to convert nanoscale measurements. This lab will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. Teacher Preparation Guides, Student Guides, Water Filtration Presentation, and Next Generation Manufacturing Standards for this lesson are included. 

  10. Water Resources Data, Mississippi, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D.P.; Storm, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.

  11. Paying for water.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J; Saunders, P

    1997-03-01

    Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water. PMID:9138226

  12. More water: better health.

    PubMed

    Cairncross, S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the role of clean water in preventing fecal-oral transmission of infections, skin and eye diseases, water-based diseases, and insect vector diseases. Improvements to water quality are not sufficient to reduce infection. There is a need to educate people about appropriate hygiene and hand washing with soap and cleanliness of storage and eating utensils. Access to clean water is also important. Access to water reduces the household burden for women and children in time and effort. Households farthest from a supply of clean water would benefit the most from access to a clean water supply in time, effort, and money saved. The World Bank found that just the time saved in water collection was sufficient to justify house connections to a public supply of water. Most people would gladly pay for a water supply to be connected to their house. Free water at standpipes does not interfere with the demand for house connections. It was found that when water sources were shifted to locations closer than 1 km, the shift resulted in an increase in the amount of water used. When round-trip water collection takes about 30 minutes, level of use remains constant. When a water supply is moved to within a few yards of the house or piped indoors, use doubles or triples. Fecal contamination of water causes high rates of diarrheal disease, which kills over 3 million children per year. Diseases, such as cholera and typhoid fever, are transmitted through water-fecal links as well as contaminated food, fingers, utensils, and even clothes. More water available in the home would prevent women from using a corner of their sari to wipe dishes, wipe faces, and wipe a child's bottom. Large storage tanks do not prevent the presence of parasitic worms or insect vectors in the water supply. PMID:12321042

  13. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Facts Index of Healthy Water-related Topics Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming/ ... minimizing the risk of illness and injury. Recreational Water Illness (noun): Illness caused by germs and chemicals ...

  14. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  15. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    PubMed

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

  16. Water recovery in space.

    PubMed

    Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C

    1999-03-01

    In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802

  17. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy. PMID:14757021

  18. World Water Council

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1997, the World Water Council had its first official forum in Marrakech, and since then they have continued their work on "critical water issues at all levels." Some of these issues include efficient water conservation, water use management, and other relevant matters. With its compelling visual images and design, the homepage contains sections that provide information on upcoming World Water Forums and some very helpful overviews of their work. One such general overview may be found in the "Water at a Glance" area, which provides information on the nature of freshwater resources around the globe. Persons involved in water policy and international affairs may wish to look over their online library, which includes their annual reports, synopses of materials covered in the Water Forum meetings, and papers such as "The Right to Water: From Concept To Implementation." It is also worth noting that many of the materials on the site are available in French and Spanish.

  19. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  20. Water, water everywhere, and its remarkable chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Barber

    2004-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), the multisubunit pigment–protein complex localised in the thylakoid membranes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, uses light energy to drive a series of remarkable reactions leading to the oxidation of water. The products of this oxidation are dioxygen, which is released to the atmosphere, and reducing equivalents destined to reduce carbon dioxide to organic molecules. The water oxidation occurs

  1. Evaluating Water Institutions and Water Sector Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maria Saleth; Ariel Dinar

    1999-01-01

    The water sector has undergone remarkable changes in recent years. While past achievements were associated mainly with investment in new physical structures, recent developments in the water sector are associated to a greater extent with improved management and institutional changes. Although both the nature and direction of these institutional changes vary by country-specific economic, political, cultural and resource realities, there

  2. Water quality in sustainable water management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhakar M. Rao; P. Mamatha

    Water pollution is a serious problem as almost 70% of India's surface water resources and a growing number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. Pollu - tion of surface and groundwater resources occurs through point and diffuse sources. Examples of point source pollution are effluents from industries and from sewage-treatment plants. Typical examples

  3. Properties of Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environment Canada (mentioned in the January 21, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) provides the Properties of Water Webpage. Sections included at the page are the hydrologic cycle; rivers; lakes; snowfall; and measuring, storing, and controlling water, among others. The Quick Facts section contains interesting facts, like the following: raindrops resemble the shape of a hamburger bun, 70% of the human body is water, 75% of earth is covered in water, and most of our food is water (tomatoes 95%, spinach 91%, and beef 61%). This site provides detailed information about water and its properties.

  4. Water Resources Research Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQ’s, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

  5. Water Resources of Wyoming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.

  6. Predicting Ground Water Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students learn how to draw ground water contours and understand how ground water flow may be predicted. As they complete this activity students will be able to draw a ground water contour map, have a basic understanding of how to predict the direction of ground water flow and understand the interrelated nature of ground water and surface water flow. They will also learn the difference between a gaining stream and a losing stream and why it is important to know the difference.

  7. Water Conflict Chronology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water is the limiting factor for terrestrial life on earth, and as human populations have grown and expanded through the centuries, access to clean water has become increasingly political. To chronicle this process, Dr. Peter Gleick of the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security has compiled this chronology of water conflicts. The resource describes water conflicts starting in 1503, including the date (year), parties involved, basis of conflict, violent conflict, description, and source(s). Water Conflicts are categorized in six ways: Control of Water Resources, Political Tool, Terrorism, Military Target, and Development Disputes. The Chronology is available in HTML or .pdf formats.

  8. Water Resources Penn.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water Resources Penn.: The Office of Water Management plans, directs and coordinates departmental programs associated with the management and protection of the CommonwealthÂ?s water resources; administers and oversees departmental programs involving surface and groundwater quantity and quality planning, and soil and water conservation; coordinates policies, procedures and regulations which influence public water supply withdrawals and quality, sewage facilities planning, point source municipal and industrial discharges, encroachments upon waterways and wetlands, dam safety, earth disturbance activities and control of storm water and nonpoint source pollution; and coordinates the planning, design and construction of flood protection and stream improvement projects.

  9. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  10. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  11. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  12. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  13. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  14. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  15. Cooperative water resource allocation based on equitable water rights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lizhong Wang; Liping Fang; Keith W. Hipel

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive methodology is developed to achieve equitable, efficient and sustainable water allocation in a river basin. Water allocation is carried out in two steps: (1) allocation of initial water rights to water stakeholders and users based on existing water rights systems or agreements; and (2) reallocation of water and net benefits through water transfers to promote equitable cooperation of

  16. Establishing tradable water rights: implementation of the Mexican water law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Rosegrant; Renato Gazmuri Schleyer

    1996-01-01

    Mexico passed a new water law in 1992 that shifted from state-managed water policy to a regulated market-oriented policy with tradable water rights. Water trading will initially be closely supervised by government agencies, but the law includes a number of provisions that will allow liberalization of water markets as water users become more involved in operation and management of water

  17. Urban water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental understanding of aquatic interface processes in urban environments, advance understanding of current and future system behaviour, and promote an integrated urban water management.

  18. Walking on water

    E-print Network

    Bush, John W. M.

    The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

  19. Bottled Water Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar)..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ... and methods of treatment ....pg.6 Common bottled water treatments (Sidebar) .................... pg.6 Certification ........................................................ pg.7 Contact ...

  20. Water Safety (Recreational)

    MedlinePLUS

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  1. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  2. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Figures Boxes Updates About Mobile Apps RSS Feeds Water Disinfection Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Travelers ... remote areas may need to disinfect their drinking water. Several methods can be used. Heat Most germs ...

  3. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Building Numerical Models () August of surface flow of water and infiltration which may include time to flow, movement of solids etc. () August

  4. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    CONJUNCTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT BY TARGET APPROACHES PREPARED FOR: WINTHROP ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION CONJUNCTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT BY TARGET APPROACHES PREPARED FOR:, WINTHROP ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION AND;" c by the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation. Little Rock. and the International Agricultural Programs Office (through

  5. NPS Water Quality Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Park Service, part of the Department of Interior website, looks at issues concerning water quality, policies and objectives, water quality standards, monitoring and the NPS's cooperation with other agencies.

  6. Water-based Screenprinting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreneck, Lynwood

    1989-01-01

    Outlines the techniques for silkscreening using water-based inks, concentrating on the qualities of water-based printing that differ from oil-based printing. Includes a step-by-step description of the process illustrated with photographs. (LS)

  7. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  8. MINE DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    Mine Engineering Plan Surface Water Components Site Drainage Mine Site Dewatering (If covered Dewatering Open Pit Lake Drain site / Water Disposal Mine Site Runoff Dikes Seepage Underground Mine Rivers

  9. Conserving Water at Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-17

    This video segment adapted from Last Oasis highlights the impact of a variety of water conservation efforts including installing low-flow toilets and planting grass that does not require a lot of water.

  10. Earth Water Filter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-17

    In this video segment adapted from ZOOM, cast members try to make the most effective water filter. They experiment with filtering dirty, salty water through different combinations of sand, gravel, and a cotton bandana.

  11. Water penetration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine film-filter combinations have been tested for effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail when exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. An experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and an infrared film with selected filters were tested. Results have been tabulated to show the relative capability of each film-filter combination for: (1) image contrast in shallow water (0 to 5 feet); (2) image contrast at medium depth (5 to 10 feet); (3) image contrast in deep water (10 feet plus); (4) water penetration; maximum depth where detail was discriminated; (5) image color (the spectral range of the image); (6) vegetation visible above a water background; (7) specular reflections visible from the water surface; and (8) visual compatibility; ease of discriminating image detail. Recommendations for future recording over water bodies are included.

  12. Water surface depth instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Q. C., IV

    1970-01-01

    Measurement gage provides instant visual indication of water depth based on capillary action and light diffraction in a group of solid, highly polished polymethyl methacrylate rods. Rod lengths are adjustable to measure various water depths in any desired increments.

  13. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  14. Electrophoretic Clarification of Water 

    E-print Network

    Hiler, E. A.; Lyle, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    There is an ever growing need for new and superior water treatment methods which will remove the alarming growth and variety of pollutants present in our waters. Suspended particulate matter such as clay, algae, and bacteria are troublesome...

  15. Global Water Availability

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Boyer

    Short description This activity is an interactive lecture, where students will learn that fresh water is a limited resource. They will also see that drinkable water is not distributed evenly over the earth.

  16. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  17. A gathering of water

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, Naomi Leah, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    The act of immersion is a powerful catalyst for the affirmation or transformation of identity. How we place ourselves in water expresses cultural valuations of our bodies, water, and social relations, as well as categories ...

  18. HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is provides information on ground-water contamination control and prevention technology to decision makers, field managers, and the scientific community. his 212-page resource document brings together available technical information on ground water in a convenient f...

  19. Private Drinking Water Wells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency, contains information from the on testing and protecting private water sources. The site can be helpful for persons having a private well or simply those interested in water science.

  20. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2005-12-02

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  1. Society and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa Y.

    1972-01-01

    At a national symposium on Societal Problems of Water Resources at Western Illinois University, scientists discussed dams, canals, water pollution control and management programs, federal-state relations in resource planning, and their effects on how we live. (BL)

  2. Electrostatic Water Attraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Doherty

    2000-01-01

    In this activity, learners conduct a simple experiment to see how electrically charged things like plastic attract electrically neutral things like water. The plastic will attract the surface of the water into a visible bump.

  3. THE WATER CYCLE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-02-18

    DESK Standard: Understand the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Water Cycle Diagram DATES: You can begin this activity on October 16. You should complete it by October 20. OBJECTIVE: You have been learning about the water cycle in class. This activity gives you the chance to review some important vocabulary: evaporation condensation precipitation collection You will watch a short video and complete a water ...

  4. The World's Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-08-13

    Supplemental to The World's Water book by Peter Gleick, this site offers data on the world's freshwater resources and uses. Tables and maps provide information on quantity and quality issues including data on access to safe drinking water; waterborne disease outbreaks; desalination capacity; as well as hydroelectric capacity and production. There is also a unique chronology documenting the historical connections between human conflict and water. Additionally there is an expansive list of links to water-relevant agencies and organizations.

  5. Drinking Water Problems: Benzene

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2009-04-16

    -household uses Water meter Activated carbon Figure 3. Four types of activated carbon filtration units are, from left: A) pour-through; B) faucet-mounted; C) high-volume and D) point-of-entry. (adapted from Dvorak, 2003). To household plumbing A. B. C. D... their water. Activated charcoal or granular activated carbon Cellulose fibers Unfiltered water inlet Filtered water outlet Carbon granules Cellulose fibers Cellulose fibers Figure 2: Granular activated carbon (GAC) filter (adapted from Parrott et al...

  6. Water Wells Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water Wells Tutorial is a training manual for constructing water wells and handpumps compiled by Lifewater Canada, a group of concerned individuals working in the water resources field. The manual provides an overview of each of the ten areas of consideration when designing and installing a water well. Graphics are used to show concepts and detailed images of technical descriptions. A file index has been provided for ease of printing.

  7. Save water, save money

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  8. Problem: Ballast Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Identifies invasive species as a top threat to world oceans; provides explanation of shipping and ballast water's roles in the spread of marine exotics. Defines ballast water and its use in shipping, includes diagram of ballast tanks and cycle of loading and discharging water. Outlines threats from marine life transported in ballast water and cites examples of species that have invaded new environments in this way.

  9. Surface Water Development in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    1977-01-01

    Engineers, orderly development of water rights became possible. This was the first State agency concerned with water development and water rights. Following severe floods in 1913 and 1914, there was agitation for an adopted in 1917. It stated... .................................. 14 Counties and Cities ............................... 14 Water Districts .................................... 14 State Water Agencies ................................. 15 Board of Water Engineers ......................... 15 Water Rights...

  10. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  11. Water treatment method

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1990-02-02

    A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

  12. Up Goes the Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Water is very important to plants. Plants need water to produce food and grow. Plants make their own food through a complex, sunlight-powered process called photosynthesis. Simply put, in photosynthesis, water absorbed by a plant's roots and carbon dioxide taken from the air by a plant's leaves combine to make the plant's food. This article…

  13. Discover the Water Cycle!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive tour of the water cycle allows students to follow a water molecule from a home's plumbing system as it follows different routes through the hydrologic cycle. Students learn about how water is used, treated, and returned to the natural environment where it can cycle through liquid, solid, and gas phases.

  14. Water and Conflict

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1996-01-01

    This expansive site provides information about water and its relation to conflict throughout the world. There are numerous articles about and links to information on water laws, disputes, and issues.The site also lists various water-related meetings and conferences being held around the world.

  15. Growing Water Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

  16. STORM WATER Residential

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE UCSC Residential Car Washing http THAT MAY CAUSE ENVIRONMENTAL HARM TO THE STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE: (831) 459-2553. LIKE US ON FACEBOOK AT UCSC STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM! DID YOU KNOW? PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS > USE A COMMERCIAL CAR WASH

  17. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  18. The cost of water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma Ram Nath

    1983-01-01

    Summary  For all too many developing countries, it is a case of “Water, water everywhere and not a drop to drink”. In many of the Least\\u000a Developed Countries, safe drinking water and excreta disposal facilities are sadly inadequate.

  19. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 1: A Perspective () July 20, 2012 1 / 17 #12;Outline Two parts: The technical side to water. -M. Sohoni The basic hydrological cycle. The societal side to water. -N. C. Narayanan () July 20, 2012 2 / 17 #12;Texts Applied Hydrogeology, by C. W

  20. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Analysis Framework for the 2009 / 16 #12;Vol II and Vol III Vol. II 1 Annexure I, Chap. 1: Bulk-water and tariffs-Principles. 2 Annexure I, Chap. 2: International Case Studies. 3 Annexure II: Report on water conservation technologies

  1. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 6: Mathematics, z). velocity vx (x, y, z, t) : in the x-direction. vx = Kx h/x saturated/water- table. Continuity Equation What is vx x + vy y + vz z ? It is the rate of accumulation of water at the point (x, y

  2. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 4: Groundwater () December in dried sample. Saturation: When these voids are fully filled with water. Specific Yield Sy : the ration of the colume of water that drains from a rock owing to gravity, to the total rock volumne. 00000000

  3. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 10: Minor Structures for Ground and Surface Water () March 23, 2010 1 / 31 #12;Classification by Purpose We may classify the velocity of water-flow (ii) increasing the infiltration coefficient (iii) explicit groundwater recharge

  4. "Boyle-ing" Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners explore Boyle's Law and discover that water will boil at room temperature if its pressure is lowered. Learners conduct an experiment using a plastic syringe and water and then have the option to repeat the experiment with carbonated water and compare the results.

  5. California's Water Energy Relationship

    E-print Network

    1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION California's Water ­ Energy Relationship Prepared in Support The California's Water-Energy Relationship report is the product of contributions by many California Energy, Lorraine White and Zhiqin Zhang. Staff would also like to thank the members of the Water-Energy Working

  6. Water Quality Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water Quality Information Center's database of "Online Documents Covering Water and Agriculture" has an improved interface and more titles. You can now access more than 1,700 documents. The topics include things such as, irrigation, social and legal issues, regional information, water availability and quality.

  7. EPANET WATER QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...

  8. Water Celebration! A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Watercourse.

    A Water Celebration is a free one- to three-day event to entertain and educate communities about the importance of water. Celebrations organized for school children include classroom activities, exhibit areas, contests, games, and teacher networking opportunities. Celebrations for adults range from water conservation conventions to forums on wise…

  9. Indian Reserved Water Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Frank M.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

  10. DRINKING WATER FOR ALL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anumakonda Jagadeesh

    2006-01-01

    Impure water is the root cause for many diseases es pecially in developing countries. Millions of people become sick each year from drink ing contaminated water. In many regions of the world, sunshine is abundantly availa ble which can be effectively utilized to provide safe drinking water to the millions of p eople. A portable, low-cost, and low- maintenance solar

  11. All About Water!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about the differences between types of water (surface and ground), as well as the differences between streams, rivers and lakes. Then, they learn about dissolved organic matter (DOM), and the role it plays in identifying drinking water sources. Finally, students are introduced to conventional drinking water treatment processes.

  12. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  13. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  14. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  15. Water power generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Borgren

    1982-01-01

    A water power generator for generating electrical energy from a moving body of water comprising structural means interposed in the path of water flow. The structural means includes at least one side wall which is longitudinally curved from a diverting point at the outer end thereof to a gradually flattened curve at the inner end thereof. The wall is transversely

  16. Water and Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Anderson

    2013-03-12

    Paul Anderson begins with a brief description of NASA discoveries related to Mars, Mercury and water. He then explains why water is required for life. He finally uses a simulation to show you why water acts as a wonderful solvent and provides a medium for metabolism.

  17. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Keywords -- Agriculture / Pesticides / Water Quality / Poultry Waste / Surface Runoff / Solute TransportArkansas Water Resources Center EFFECT OF LAND APPLICATION OF POULTRY WASTE ON PESTICIDE LOSS June and carbaryl are also used in poultry waste, but these pesticides have a relatively low solubility in water

  18. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  19. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By Marc A. Nelson, Ph.D., P.E. L. Wade Cash of Moores Creek above Lincoln Lake 2003 Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission M composting, and waste storage structures. In 1991, the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC

  20. Water Conservation in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

    1993-01-01

    Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

  1. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  2. Water Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindin, Ervin

    1975-01-01

    Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)

  3. Wind power freshens water

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlor, V.; Sidorov, V.

    1981-01-01

    A wind-powered lighthouse water-freshening installation was installed at lighthouse locations along the Caspian Sea's coast and at one of the collective farms in the Moldavian SSR. From sea water containing up to 36 grams of salts per liter, fresh water with up to 1 gram per liter was produced. Output was 60 liters per hour.

  4. WATER CHEMISTRY ASSESSMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...

  5. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  6. Water utilization in datacenters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ratnesh K Sharma; Tom Christian; Rocky Shih; Alan Mcreynolds; Cullen E. Bash

    2010-01-01

    Fresh water is one of the few resources which is scarce and has no replacement; it is also closely coupled to energy consumption. Fresh water usage for power generation and other cooling applications is well known and accounts for 40% of total freshwater withdrawal in the U.S[1]. A significant amount of energy is embedded in the consumption of water for

  7. USGS Water Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Water Management: The USGS provides maps, reports, and information to help others meet their needs to manage, develop, and protect America's water, energy, mineral, and land resources. Some of the seventeen topics included here are flood forecasting, reservoir management, water allocation and bioremediation.

  8. Water balance on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On rangelands, the water balance is driven and defined to a great extent by the fact that potential evapotranspiration is much greater than precipitation, which in turn contributes to a large soil water deficit. As a rule, therefore, evapotranspiration is the largest component of the water balance e...

  9. Addressing Water Contamination

    E-print Network

    Loewith, Robbie

    Addressing Water Contamination without Using Chemicals For more information contact WIPO at: World challenge Farmers and gardeners apply pesticides to their crops. Contaminated waters are released when-off contaminates local water supplies and pollutes the environment. As a consequence a range of pesticides may

  10. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    included several pesticide contamination studies on ground water, impact of silviculture practicesArkansas Water Resources Center 1995 Institute Program Report Prepared for: U.S. Geological Survey Reston, VA By: Kenneth F. Steele, Director June 1996 MSC-102.1995 Arkansas Water Resources Center 112

  11. Water Reuse Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

  12. Washington's waters from

    E-print Network

    Collins, Gary S.

    Page 1 Protecting Washington's waters from stormwater pollution Ecology publication #07-10-058 R printed on recycled paper Did you know Washington has a stormwater runoff problem? Stormwater runoff into our lakes, rivers and marine waters. Our waters and salmon as well as other fish and wildlife species

  13. NOAA Water Cycle Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The resource is a role-playing game in which students take on the role of a water molecule and travel through nine compartments of the water cycle to gain a better understanding for the true complexity of the movement of water.

  14. Surface Water Quality Standards 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    of the water quali- ty standards, the overall process is expected to contin- ue into 2009.? For some, Texas? standards for contact recreation are not appropriate for many water bodies on the impaired list. Aaron Wendt, Texas State Soil and Water...

  15. International Water Facility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mohamed Kassas (University of Cairo; )

    2001-02-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article proposes a global initiative to address water shortages because: about 1/3 of world's population does not have enough drinking water, almost half of world's land is without water, converting arid land to fertile land can reduce global warming, and better technology, such as desalination, would give us greater access to freshwater.

  16. NASA Water Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes. I) Streamflow and Flood Forecasting 2) Water Supply and Irrigation (includes evapotranspiration) 3) Drought 4) Water Quality 5) Climate and Water Resources. To maximize this activity NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies (e.g., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USAID, the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)), universities, non-profit national and international organizations, and the private sector. The NASA Water Resources program currently is funding 21 active projects under the functional themes (http://wmp.gsfc.nasa.gov & http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/applied-sciences/).

  17. 3. Water Resources and Water Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George H. Ward

    Of all of the elements of the Texas economy, society, and environment considered in this book, water is most closely coupled with climate. It is also the quintessential limiting factor for human development of the state. Simply put, \\

  18. Technology in water conservation 

    E-print Network

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01

    2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... to increase the impact of rinsing and reduce water use. A homeowner who converts the plumbing in a typical pre-#29;#19;#19;#31;-built home to this technology can expect to save #31;#31;,#30;#30;#30; gallons per year in water use without a drop...

  19. Water in a Crowd

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Michael D. Fayer (Stanford University Department of Chemistry)

    2011-12-01

    In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk liquid but rather in nanoscopic environments, in contact with interfaces, interacting with ionic species, and interacting with large organic molecules. In such situations, water does not behave in the same manner as it does in the pure bulk liquid. Water dynamics are fundamental to many processes such as protein folding and proton transport. Such processes depend on the dynamics of water's hydrogen bonding network. Here, the results of ultrafast infrared experiments are described that shed light on the influences of nanoconfinement, interfaces, ions, and organic molecules on water hydrogen bond dynamics.

  20. Cleaning Water with Dirt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2011-01-01

    In this activity on page 7 of the PDF, learners make their own water treatment systems for cleaning water. Learners construct two filters to test: one with sand and one with sand and charcoal. Learners compare how well the sand and sand + charcoal filters clean water that is "dirtied" with food coloring, dirt, and grass. This activity also features a list of ten ways you can conserve water. Safety notes: Adult supervision is needed for this activity. Do not drink any of the water samples in this activity. Make sure to follow the safety tips listed on page 3 of the PDF, as well as those listed in the procedure for the activity.

  1. Water Conservation: Mexico

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ground water is the primary source for both municipal and industrial water supplies throughout the world. Some of the world's largest and fastest-growing cities depend heavily on natural aquifers that collect and store ground water. When ground water supplies are withdrawn faster than they naturally replenish, problems arise. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', shows how Mexico City's growing population is depleting local ground water and how this depletion is largely responsible for causing historic buildings to lean as the ground beneath them sinks.

  2. Universities Water Information Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Universities Water Information Network (UWIN), located at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois, "disseminates information of interest to the water resources community and all concerned with our water resources." Although much of the site is accessed by paid subscription only, several resources are offered free to anyone. A database of water related consulting firms contains contact information, including name, acronym, postal address, phone, fax, email, and contact person. Another helpful resource, the organizations database, lists water resource agencies, organizations, and institutions in the US, Caribbean, and Central America. Other items of interest include job listings, press releases, and more.

  3. The Dirty Water Challenge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Angelika Kremer

    2007-07-01

    "The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how the water cycle works (geology, meteorology) and the principles behind water filtering (physics, chemistry). This method has been successfully used during units on the water cycle and pollution to teach elementary and lower middle-school classes in an inquiry-based way.

  4. Future water Cherenkov detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergevin, Marc

    2015-05-01

    In these proceedings a review of the current proposed large-scale Warer Cherenkov experiments is given. An argument is made that future water Cherenkov detectors would benefit in the investment in neutron detection technology. A brief overview will be given of proposed water Cherenkov experiments such as HYPER-K and MEMPHYS and other R&D experiments to demonstrate neutron capture in water Cherenkov detectors. Finally, innovation developed in the context of the now defunct LBNE Water R&D option to improve Water Cherenkov technology will be described.

  5. Ocean Water: Density

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Judy Robinson

    In regions throughout the world oceans, water moves vertically to or down away from the surface and is set in motion by atmospheric winds, salinity and temperature differences. Cold water is much denser than warm and seawater has a higher density that fresh water and will sink below the less dense layer of water. Furthermore, vertical mixing powered by atmospheric winds can affect stratification and the rate of growth of the surface boundary layer. This lab activity is a simulation of the processes that create density stratification in ocean environments. It exposes students to concepts of temperature, salinity and wind and the role each plays in the development of water stratification.

  6. What's your water footprint? 

    E-print Network

    Jordan, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    to 30 gallons of water per day. To learn more, see the water conservation checklist provided by Texas AgriLife Extension Service Family and Consumer Services at fcs.tamu.edu/housing/. ? To find Community Supported Agriculture programs, visit the U...tx H2O | pg. 21 What?s your water footprint? When it comes to your water use, do you tread lightly or are you an H2O Sasquatch? How much water do you think you consume every day? You might initially consider the length of your daily shower...

  7. Water Words Dictionary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Compiled in 1997 by the Nevada Division of Water Planning, this online dictionary of "Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms" is still relevant. Words are organized in alphabetical order and may be browsed by first letter. In addition, the resource offers multiple Appendices (some are Nevada-specific), a list of Abbreviations and Acronyms, a Metric Conversion Table and Flow Equivalents, Conversion Factors for Hydraulic Units of Measure, and Dictionary References. From A-horizon to Zooplankton, this will be a useful resource for the educator, student, or novice water researcher.

  8. Water Quality Monitoring

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Charlotte Naples

    This activity is designed to study the water quality of a stream in your area, by measuring the temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity and total dissolved solids. It lends itself to integrating biology with earth science when using the microscope to study the living organisms in the water. The main objective is to determine the water quality of a local fresh water stream, as surface waters may be adversely impacted by human activity. This site has detailed instructions for conducting the listed tests.

  9. Shallow Water Waves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-14

    This is the fourth module in our series on open water waves. As deep-water waves approach the coastline, they encounter shallower water and begin to interact with the sea floor while evolving into shallow water waves. This module uses an interactive wave calculator to look at a variety of shallow-water wave behaviors, including shoaling, refraction, reflection, breaking, attenuation, and coastal run-up and set-up. All are important considerations when forecasting for small craft and other recreational interests in the near-shore environment.

  10. Continuous Commissioning of a Central Chilled Water & Hot Water System 

    E-print Network

    Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Batten, T.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01

    A central chilled water / hot water system provides cooling / heating energy from central utility plants to multiple customers (buildings) through campus distribution loops. To effectively transport the chilled water and hot water to the buildings...

  11. Revisions to Water Well Construction, Pump Installation and Water Well

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Revisions to Water Well Construction, Pump Installation and Water Well Decommissioning Standards By Sharon Skipton UNL Extension Educator Revisions to Nebraska's Water Well Construction, Pump Installation Groundwater Technician," "Pump Installation Contractor," "Pump Installation Supervisor," Water Well Contractor

  12. The Relationship between Water and Energy: Optimizing Water and Energy

    E-print Network

    Finley, T.; Fennessey, K.; Light, R.

    2007-01-01

    understanding that the highest value opportunities for water conservation usually exist where there is the strongest interaction of water and energy. Steam management systems, process cooling, high quality water production and waste water treatment represent...

  13. 63 FR 14109 - Clean Water Act; Clean Water Action Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-03-24

    ...FRL-5985-6] Clean Water Act; Clean Water Action Plan AGENCY...Agency and Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of availability of clean water action plan...lakes, and coastal waters. This new...

  14. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  15. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  16. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  17. Water, Hydration and Health

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2010-01-01

    This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

  18. Water Structure at Hematite-Water Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.

    2011-08-18

    The atomic-level structure of water at mineral surfaces is an important controlling factor in interfacial reactions such as foreign ion incorporation, crystal growth and dissolution, and redox reactions. Molecular dynamics simulations with four different models based on interatomic potentials have been carried out to determine the atomic-level structure of three hematite-water interfaces. In addition, for each of the three surfaces, different terminations or protonation schemes were considered. The availability of surface X-ray scattering data for the surfaces considered here allowed for an extensive comparison with experimental data. Qualitatively, with the exception of one termination with one model, all models predict the correct arrangement of water molecules at the interface. Quantitatively, the agreement with experimental positions, distances, and layer occupancies is good to excellent, especially given the range of values reported in published experimental studies. Therefore, this study provides further evidence that interatomic potential models can be used to reliably predict the structure of mineral-water interfaces. In addition, molecular simulations are a valuable source of information to complement surface X-ray scattering experiments owing to their ability to directly determine the position of hydrogen atoms and to yield three-dimensional predicted structures at no added cost, as demonstrated in this work. Indeed, the molecular dynamics trajectories were analyzed to determine the surface structural controls on the interfacial water structure. Each of the three surface functional groups present at the surfaces considered in this work, namely, triply-coordinated oxo, doubly-coordinated hydroxo, and singly-coordinated aquo groups, was found to form similar hydrogen bond configurations with adsorbed water molecules at all surfaces. Oxo groups accept long-lasting and linear hydrogen bonds from adsorbed water molecules; hydroxo groups can form hydrogen bonds with other surface functional groups as well as with adsorbed water molecules; and aquo groups normally only donate hydrogen bonds to other surface groups or adsorbed water molecules. Additionally, the majority of adsorbed water molecules were found to adopt multiple configurations and orientations. This information was used to evaluate three-dimensional structural models of the interfaces, which were previously derived experimentally from one-dimensional electron density profiles and steric considerations.

  19. Water Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands,

    E-print Network

    systems, private water well screening, and soil nutrient management. Water conservation programs of AgriWater Quality and Quantity Concerns Population growth, increasing water demands, contamination issues and drought have placed the state's water supply under tremendous stress. Water demand in Texas

  20. SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse

    E-print Network

    Li, Jiuyong "John"

    SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;2 The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse was established in 2004 as a joint venture between the South Australian Water Corporation and the University of South Australia (UniSA), adding significant expertise to the water research capability in South

  1. SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse

    E-print Network

    Li, Jiuyong "John"

    SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;' Our Mission The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse aims to advance the science and technology of sustainable water management through fundamental and applied research. Our Vision To be Australia's leading research centre for water reuse

  2. WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    103 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;105 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT [As Amended Through P.L. 106­580, Dec. 29, 2000 planning of water and related land resources, through the establishment of a water resources council

  3. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  4. Sources of Water Surface water and groundwater are present throughout

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    miles. Surface water occurs as rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, and wetlands. Ground- water occurs public supply systems provide water for 80 percent of the population. Water Contamination SurfaceSources of Water Surface water and groundwater are present throughout Kentucky's 39,486 square

  5. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  6. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  7. Texas Surface Water Quality Standards

    E-print Network

    Biological evaluation Institutional evaluation · Permitted discharges · Water rights Conclusions References1 Texas Surface Water Quality Standards 30 TAC Chapter 307 Lori Hamilton Water Quality Standards) -Assessment of the physical, chemical, biological, and economic factors affecting attainment of a water body

  8. Choices and Preferences "Water Index."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents a Project WET water education activity. Students rank and compare different uses of water in order of their importance. The class develops a "Water Index," an indication of the group's feelings and values about water and its uses. (LZ)

  9. Water laws and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1970-01-01

    Throughout human history various laws and customs have developed concerning the individual rights and rights in common to the waters of the earth. Many existing laws and concepts are clearly influenced by the environment in which they originated and reflect the relative abundance or scarcity of water. Many concepts reflect the people's original interests in the water and once established have been passed from generation to generation with little modification. Some laws and concepts have been carried by people in their migrations and colonial expansions to vastly different environments, with rather curious consequences. In many places water laws that had been well adapted to the natural environment have become less tenable because of man's activities in modifying that environment, or because of increasing use of water: Increasing consumptive use shifts the water economy toward lesser abundance or increasing deficiency; increasing nonconsumptive use results in pollution of the water resources, so that they become less suitable for other users. The water-rights systems in the United States vary from State to State: some are reasonably fitted to their environment, some have outlived their place in history, some are wasteful of water, some show favoritism to certain special interests or segments of the population. Water-use rights are universally recognized as real property, with constitutional protection against deprivation without due process of law.

  10. Perceptions of water use.

    PubMed

    Attari, Shahzeen Z

    2014-04-01

    In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608

  11. Solar water disinfection

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R. [Universal Recycled Water Systems, Orlando, FL (United States); Collier, R. [Enerscope, Inc., Merritt Island, FL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Non-potable drinking water is a major problem for much of the world`s population. It has been estimated that from 15 to 20 million children under the age of 5 die from diarrheal conditions brought on by infected drinking water every year. This is equivalent to a fully-loaded DC-10 crashing every ten minutes of every day, 365 days a year. Heat is one of the most effective methods of disinfecting drinking water. Using conventional means of heating water (heating on an open-flamed stove) results in an extremely energy-intensive process. The main obstacle is that for areas of the world where potable water is a problem, fuel supplies are either too expensive, not available, or the source of devastating environmental problems (deforestation). The apparatus described is a solar-powered water disinfection device that can overcome most if not all of the barriers that presently limit technological solutions to drinking water problems. It uses a parabolic trough solar concentrator with a receiver tube that is also a counterflow heat exchanger. The system is totally self-contained utilizing a photovoltaic-powered water pump, and a standard automotive thermostat for water flow control. The system is designed for simplicity, reliability and the incorporation of technology readily accessible in most areas of the world. Experiments at the Florida Solar Energy Center have demonstrated up to 2,500 liters of safe drinking water per day with 28 square meters of solar concentrator.

  12. The politics of water.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Water scarcity in some regions is a leading source of economic and political instability. Upstream countries have a clear advantage over downstream countries. Almost 40% of the world's population relies on river systems used by at least 2 countries. Water conflicts are most evident in the Middle East where population growth rates are among the world's highest and agricultural productivity depends almost exclusively on irrigation. Water scarcity is most critical in the Jordan River basin which Israel, Jordan, the occupied West Bank, and part of Syria share. Israel exceeds its renewable water supply by 15%. Even though Jordanians use less than 50% of the water/capita Israel uses, its population grows 3.4%/year of Israel's water supply is the Yarqon-Taninim aquifer whose recharge area is on the West Bank. Israel draws water from this aquifer for its own use, but does not let West Bank Arabs draw from it. Another water supply lies in the Golan Heights with Israel seized from Syria. Its other source is an overpumped coastal aquifer. 9 nations claim the Nile with Egypt being the last country to receive its waters. Egypt has very few of its own water sources plus is has rapid population growth. Turkey plans on constructing 22 dams, 19 hydropower stations, and 25 irrigation systems on the Euphrates river, resulting in a 35% reduction in water flow to Syria in normal years and even more in dry years. This project would also pollute the river with irrigation runoff. International cooperation is needed to address wait crisis. Israel could share its drip irrigation technology with others, such as it has done with the Islamic Central Asian republics. Ethiopia could store Nile water in its highlands which have a lower evaporation rate than that at Egypt's Aswan Dam, resulting in more available water. Perhaps the mutual gains possible from cooperation will unite long standing enemies toward peace. PMID:12286578

  13. Cycling Water Through the Environment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students recognize the different forms that water takes and learn about where it exists in the environment. Using class discussion, multimedia resources, and experiments, students model the water cycle and explore how it can be used to create fresh water. They will identify the ways that water moves through the environment, recognize that most of Earth's surface is covered by water (but only a small amount is fresh water), and produce fresh water from salty water by distilling it.

  14. WATER QUALITY MODELING OF THE

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    WATER QUALITY MODELING OF THE STATE OF OHIO COMPONENT OF THE OHIO RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY TRADING PROGRAM #12;Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Trading Program #12;2 Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water

  15. TRIBAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality standards are the foundation for water management actions. They provide the basis for regulating discharges of pollutants to surface waters, and provide a target for restoration of degraded waters. Water quality standards identify and protect uses of the water bod...

  16. RESPONDING TO WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water safety has traditionally been linked to water quality. The possibility of terrorism directed against the drinking water supply has emphasized the link between water safety and water security. The traditional paradigm in solving water quality problems is to develop ...

  17. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  18. Water Resources Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Water Resources Center at the University of Minnesota was authorized by Congress as one of the nation's 54 water resources research institutes. The Center "provides leadership in freshwater management through cutting-edge research, educational opportunities for students and professionals, and community outreach." The center's homepage guides visitors through sections that include "Water Resources Science Graduate Program," "Publications," "News & Events," and "Research & Public Engagement." Members of the general public will want to look over the short publication "A Pocket Guide to Reducing Your Water Footprint." The guide helps individuals make smart water choices on a daily basis. Moving on, the "Publications" area contains the current issue of their quarterly newsletter, the "Minnegram," along with links to their biennial reports and research bulletins. Finally, visitors can wander through the "Water Links" area to look for information from other institutions, such as the Minnesota Geological Survey and the Environmental Protection Agency.

  19. Water Librarians' Homepage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Teeter, librarian at a California water agency, has put together this metasite containing a variety of useful links in the field of water resources along with other library-related links. Agencies, databases, publishers, organizations, libraries, mailing lists, and more are featured. Teeter has organized the links by page type and indicates which sites are newly added or personal favorites. Just a few examples of links at the Water Librarians' Homepage include Waterfront (an information source on water conservation initiatives taking place in Winnipeg, Canada), The American Water Resources Association, and The Environmental Professionals' Homepage (providing links to primary sources of environmentally-related information). This is an excellent tool for academics, professionals, and librarians in the field of water resources and also environmental engineering.

  20. Water Resources Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides access to a large selection of real-time and archived data on stream flow and water quality for surface and groundwater. Links are provided to the National Water Information System Web Interface (NWISWeb), which accesses data collected at approximately 1.5 million sites in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Data categories include current conditions information transmitted from selected surface and groundwater sites; descriptive site information; water flow and levels in streams, lakes, and springs; groundwater levels in wells; and chemical and physical data for all water sources. There is also a link to the 'Waterwatch' site, an interactive map that displays real-time stream-flow compared to historical conditions for the day of the year, as well as a link to the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) data warehouse. Other links access materials on water use, acid rain, suspended sediment, and the Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN).

  1. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.

  2. What's In My Water

    E-print Network

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-04-21

    concentrations 300 ppm (CAST). in rivers, streams and lakes encourage the growth of algae and other organisms that may produce undesirable tastes and odors in water. Nitrite Runoff from fertilizer use; Shortness of breath and Reverse osmosis. Household water... and lower page 10. Levels above 0.1 ppm in still water landscape runoff or dissolved oxygen content, may encourage growth of algae. discharges from sewage thereby reducing desired Irrigation: Current limit not established, see treatment facilities. aquatic...

  3. Mars Express - Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rudolph Schmidt

    2004-06-08

    Until very recently, planetary scientists had thought that Mars is a cold, dry planet. Then in the summer of 2000, NASA released images from the Mars Global Surveyor showing evidence of very recent seepage of ground water from crater and valley slopes in the planet's southern hemisphere. It seems that substantial reservoirs of the water that once may have run so copiously on the surface may still exist. Evidence of other water-created landforms is presented and accompanied by remote imagery.

  4. Water's the Matter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Larry Johnson

    2000-01-01

    Water quality is more than meets the eye. Some of its properties are invisible. Teachers using this module will focus on measurable properties of water: mass, volume, and concentration; temperature; dissolved oxygen; pH; and nitrates; and their effects on water quality. Each of these properties is the subject of a lesson plan. The lesson plans include an introduction, lesson objectives, a pre-test, lesson presentation, activity, and a post-test.

  5. The Incredible Water Bear

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Martin Mach

    This image-rich Micscape Magazine article explores how water bears can be found almost everywhere yet are still unknown to almost everybody, why there are relatively few light microscope photographs of water bears in the literature and on the Web, and how light microscopy can outperform scanning electron microscopy when viewing these animals. It includes a list of historical references, early sketches, and colorful images of water bears, also known as tardigrades.

  6. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 3: Watershed and Maps () July 23, 2013 1 / 18 #12;Domain Decomposition p1 p2 p3 p5 p4 surface water A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 salinity ingress water table q W(q) W(p2) The watershed W (x) of a point x is W (x) = {all points y from where

  7. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28

    and nervous system. Evi- dence of human cancer or nervous system effects from consuming or bathing in MTBE-contaminated water remains inconclusive. The EPA has not yet established a national drink- ing water standard for MTBE. In 2005, the additive... Director-Agriculture and Natural Resources; Professor, Associate Department Head and Exten- sion Program Leader for Biological and Agricultural Engineering; The Texas A&M System MTBE in water about five times more often, and at higher concentrations...

  8. Ocean Water Desalination

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about the techniques engineers have developed for changing ocean water into drinking water, including thermal and membrane desalination. They begin by reviewing the components of the natural water cycle. They see how filters, evaporation and/or condensation can be components of engineering desalination processes. They learn how processes can be viewed as systems, with unique objects, inputs, components and outputs, and sketch their own system diagrams to describe their own desalination plant designs.

  9. Conductivity: Salty Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher J. Petrone

    2012-07-12

    Water, whether fresh or salty, serves as one of the best electrical conductors on the planet. Does salt effect its conductivity? In this activity, learners will explore the effects of salts in the water, as well as the effects of other parameters on the conductivity of water. Learners will use real-time data from buoys around the coastal U.S. in this exploration.

  10. Campus Ecology: Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Wildlife Federation

    This website presents creative ways that college campuses are meeting the challenge of preserving or protecting water resources. Aging dormitory showerheads, inefficient decorative fountains, leaks in water mains, and improper disposal of lab chemicals all waste water or threaten the health of the local watershed. Methods used by universities can include cleaning up local wetlands, treating wastewater organically, or installing waterless toilets. The site has links to project summaries and information for doing your own campus project.

  11. Purified water quality study

    SciTech Connect

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  12. Preventing tap water burns.

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste, M S; Feck, G

    1980-01-01

    Based on a 1974-1975 survey of hospital records in upstate New York, we estimate that 347 tap water burns will require inpatient treatment annually, with children and the elderly at increased risk. The number and severity of burns from tap water makes them an important prevention priority. Reducing the temperature of household hot water supplies could be a practical and effective prevention measure. PMID:7386711

  13. Innovative Water Reuse 

    E-print Network

    Hoffman, W.

    2011-01-01

    energy! By evaporating Water! Cooling Towers 43% Boilers 4%Toilets 20% Other Plumbing 8% Food Service 8% Sterilizers 6% Dialysis 3% Leaks 3% Cleaning 3% Other 2% A Large Hospital in Florida Cooling 50% Indoor 40% Irrigation 10... ? Air-side Economizers ? Water-side Economizers ? Waste Heat Recovery ? Pre-cooling ? Variable Frequency Drives ? Thermal Storage Water-Side Economizer Design Considerations Savings With Cooling Tower Energy savings 0.3 to 0.6 k...

  14. The Mystery of Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Anders

    2005-11-21

    Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the nature of H-bonding, presenting exciting new avenues of research and challenging existing models of water's structure.

  15. Water Science Activity Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page features opinion surveys, challenge questions, questionnaires and true/false quizzes. Students can participate in an online survey to provide their opinions on water quality and supply, how water concerns rank with other environmental issues; and to vote for their favorite body of water. All answers go into a database and the results are displayed in a table so they can see how other participants answered.

  16. Water Resources of Indiana

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) page contains information about the water resources in the state of Indiana. The district staff measure streamflow and ground-water levels as well as collect water-quality data (pH and mercury levels) throughout the state. Information on this site includes daily streamflow conditions, Biological Resources Division research in the state, drought information, and studies of the Upper Illinois River basin and White River basin. There are links to other sites for additional information.

  17. Water and Fish

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this page contains activities that cover water and fish. Topics include the importance of water supply and the environment as well as problems with fragile levee, delta smelt decrease, and water pollution. Pictures, diagrams, and maps illustrate each activity. Lastly, a draft worksheet and classroom guide are also included.

  18. Microbiology of Stratified Waters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)

    2006-05-20

    Sampling of aquatic microorganisms reveals a surprising feature of many open water systems - stratification. Planktonic and benthic microbes occupy distinct zones in stratified water columns. Explore how the benthic consumer populations respond to environmental cues such as changes in sunlight, wind effects, or increases in organics due to pollution with the model HypoxiaZone. * model the effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters on microbial populations and oxygen levels within the Mississippi River basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone

  19. Oregon DEQ: Water Quality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oregon Department of Environmental Quality

    This web page hosts information related to groundwater quality in Oregon. Fact sheets about important groundwater problems are available, addressing topics such as septic systems, nonpoint source pollution, total daily maximum loading, drinking water, and storm water management. The site also includes data and maps portraying groundwater quality, describes issues affecting groundwater management, provides results of groundwater assessment programs, and has links to groundwater and water quality regulations and programs. Most of the data and files are in pdf format.

  20. Above Water: Buoyancy & Displacement

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Jersey

    2006-01-01

    In an investigation called "Shape It!" learners craft tiny boats out of clay, set them afloat on water and then add weight loads to them, in order to explore: how objects stay afloat in water; what the relationship is among surface tension, buoyancy, density and displacement; and how shape, size, and type of material affect an object's ability to remain buoyant. The introductory text discusses how heavy steel ships can float on bodies of water like rivers, bays and oceans.