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Sample records for water hydroid cordylophora

  1. Freshwater hydroid Cordylophora caspia

    E-print Network

    hairy willow herb Epilobium hirsutum P. Utrecht - Wikimedia Water mint Mentha aquatica Wikimedia Lupine Bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara Wikimedia Spearmint Mentha spicata Wikimedia Creeping whorled mint

  2. Effects of vanadium on population growth and Na-K-ATPase activity of the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia

    SciTech Connect

    Ringelband, U.; Karbe, L.

    1996-07-01

    Vanadium, a relatively abundant heavy metal, enters the environment naturally through rock weathering. A large fraction of vanadium input is of human origin. The combustion of petroleum- and coal-products, which contain relatively high concentrations of vanadium, is one of the most important sources of the enrichment of vanadium in the environment. As it is used as an alloy, and vanadium rich iron-ores of various origin are used in steel production, the residual slag-stones of the steel industry can contain considerable vanadium concentrations. Wherever slag-stones serve as a cheap and convenient material in riverbank reinforcement, vanadium can leach into the aquatic environment. Vanadium is regarded as an essential trace element for higher animals. Cantley et al. indicated a regulatory function of vanadate in vivo. Although considerable information is available on the toxic effects of vanadium on humans, very little is known about the toxicity of vanadium towards aquatic organisms, especially invertebrates. Bell and Sargent have shown an inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in gills of the eel Anguilla anguilla. Holleland and Towle have demonstrated the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase activity in the gills of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity of vanadium towards the brackish water hydroid Cordylophora caspia. Hydroids are known to be particularly sensitive to heavy metals and their asexual reproduction can be used in a well-established population growth test. Furthermore, the effects of vanadium on Na-K-ATPase activity in hydroids were studied in in vivo experiments, wherein the animals were exposed to sublethal concentrations of vanadium. In addition, the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase was measured in vitro, by adding vanadium to a microsomal preparation. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Growth and reproduction of an estuarine population of the colonial hydroid Cordylophora caspia (Pallas) in the northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jormalainen, V.; Honkanen, T.; Vuorisalo, T.; Laihonen, P.

    1994-12-01

    Growth and reproduction of the colonial hydroid Cordylophora caspia were monitored during the breeding season in natural conditions. In 1987, a life history study was carried out on the upright stems of the main stolon. Mean size of uprights varied cyclically. The first peak coincided with the peak number of sexual hydranths, after which the mean upright length decreased, possibly indicating somatic costs of sexual reproduction. Extrinsic factors like flooding may also have contributed to cyclical changes in upright size. In 1988 and 1989, colonies were reared on experimental plates in the estuary. In 1988, colonies grew until mid July, after which they regressed to a dormant condition and then started growing again in mid August. Predation and space competition are discussed as possible causes for this dormancy in the middle of the growing season. In 1989, colonies grew continually, with the exception of a decline in colony biomass and number of feeding hydranths at the end of July, just following the peak of sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction started in the early stages of colonial development for all years. During early summer, C. caspia allocated resources simultaneously in colonial growth and sexual reproduction. However, sexual reproduction had a clear peak in mid summer, and thereafter sexual reproduction ceased while colonial growth continued.

  4. Climate Change Likely to Facilitate the Invasion of the Non-Native Hydroid, Cordylophora caspia, in the San Francisco Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Mariah H.; Wintzer, Alpa P.; Wetzel, William C.; May, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and invasive species can both have negative impacts on native species diversity. Additionally, climate change has the potential to favor invasive species over natives, dealing a double blow to native biodiversity. It is, therefore, vital to determine how changing climate conditions are directly linked to demographic rates and population growth of non-native species so we can quantitatively evaluate how invasive populations may be affected by changing conditions and, in turn, impact native species. Cordylophora caspia, a hydrozoan from the Ponto-Caspian region, has become established in the brackish water habitats of the San Francisco Estuary (SFE). We conducted laboratory experiments to study how temperature and salinity affect C. caspia population growth rates, in order to predict possible responses to climate change. C. Caspia population growth increased nonlinearly with temperature and leveled off at a maximum growth rate near the annual maximum temperature predicted under a conservative climate change scenario. Increasing salinity, however, did not influence growth rates. Our results indicate that C. caspia populations in the SFE will benefit from predicted regional warming trends and be little affected by changes in salinity. The population of C. caspia in the SFE has the potential to thrive under future climate conditions and may subsequently increase its negative impact on the food web. PMID:23071559

  5. Biofouling by bryozoans, Cordylophora and sponges in UK water treatment works.

    PubMed

    Mant, R C; Moggridge, G; Aldridge, D C

    2011-01-01

    In recent years biofouling from native (bryozoans, sponges) and non-native (Cordylophora) animals has increased in UK water treatment works (WTW). A survey of six UK water companies and eight WTWs revealed that these taxa were more widespread and abundant than previously recognised. Primary problems related to the occlusion of underfloor nozzles and tailpipes in rapid gravity filter beds (RGFs). These cost the UK water industry pound 1.49 m between 2005 and 2009. Additional impacts came from skin irritation to operatives from sponge spicules and the potential for elevated bacterial pathogen levels. Sponges penetrated the furthest through the water treatment process, reaching the point of final chlorination at one WTW. A monitoring plate study showed pronounced seasonality in fouling, with most taxa peaking in mid to late summer before a winter die-off. Control options, including the use of chlorine, and the importance of resistant stages for each taxon are discussed. PMID:21902018

  6. Microsatellite loci for the invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. Here we describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate ...

  7. Occurrence and biogeography of hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Nizinski, Martha S.; Ross, Steve W.

    2008-06-01

    Deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern USA (SEUS) support diverse fish and invertebrate assemblages, but are poorly explored. This study is the first to report on the hydroids collected from these habitats in this area. Thirty-five species, including two species that are likely new to science, were identified from samples collected primarily by manned submersible during 2001-2005 from deep-water coral habitats off North Carolina to east-central Florida. Eleven of the species had not been reported since the 19th to mid-20th century. Ten species, and one family, the Rosalindidae, are documented for the first time in the SEUS. Latitudinal ranges of 15 species are extended, and the deepest records in the western North Atlantic for 10 species are reported. A species accumulation curve illustrated that we continue to add to our knowledge of hydroid diversity in these habitats. Sexually mature individuals were collected for 19 species during the summer to early autumn months. Most of the observed species (89%) liberate planula larvae as part of their life cycles, suggesting that these species exhibit a reproductive strategy that reduces the risk of dispersal to sub-optimal habitats. Hydroids occurred across various substrata including coral rubble, live corals, rock and other animal hosts including hydroids themselves. All observed species were regionally widespread with typically deep-neritic to bathyal sub-tropical/tropical distributions. Hydroid assemblages from deep-water SEUS coral habitats were most similar to those from adjacent deep-water habitats off the SEUS (17 shared species), and those in the Straits of Florida/Bahamas and Caribbean/West Indian regions (14 and 8 shared species, respectively). The similarity to sub-tropical and tropical assemblages and the richness of plumularioids in the SEUS deep-water coral habitats support the idea of a Pleistocene intrusion of tropical species northwards following an intensification of the Gulf Stream from the Caribbean.

  8. Distribution, abundance and benthic-pelagic coupling of suspended hydroids on Georges Bank1, 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concelman, Stephanie; Bollens, Stephen M.; Sullivan, Barbara K.; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich; Butler, Mari; van Keuren, Donna

    Clytia spp. hydroids (Phylum Cnidaria), typically attached to a substrate during their asexual, polyp stage, have been found in significant numbers within the mesozooplankton on Georges Bank, North Atlantic Ocean. We examined unpublished historical records of the 1939-1941 cruises of the R/V Atlantis and obtained samples at four-study sites on Georges Bank in June/July 1995 in an attempt to (1) quantify the planktonic and benthic distributions of hydroids on Georges Bank, and (2) determine the coupling between benthic and pelagic habitats of this population. We found that planktonic hydroids have a patchy distribution, varying both spatially and temporally (most abundant in summer months, absent in winter). In 1939-1941 the planktonic hydroids were most broadly distributed following a spring (1940) with strong wind events; hydroids were absent from all samples in 1941. In 1995 we found the highest abundance of planktonic Clytia spp. hydroids (6213.5±1343.6 hydranths m -3) in the central crest of the bank, "downstream" in the Georges Bank circulation pattern from sites along the northeast peak of the Bank where large populations of benthic Clytia spp. hydroids were found (up to 6465 hydranths m -2). Our plankton sampling did not show significant numbers of hydroids in the water column at the Northeast peak sites, indicating that large numbers of planktonic hydroids are not being introduced into the Bank's circulation patterns from off-Bank sites to the northeast (e.g. Scotian shelf). The source population for planktonic hydroids found in the central region of the Bank is most likely the benthic habitats on the northeast peak of the Bank. We hypothesize, and our limited data suggest, that hydroids are detached from the benthos by storm action or other disturbance, advected clockwise with the mean residual circulation, and concentrated and retained in the central, low-advective region of the Bank.

  9. Nonlinear oscillations in marine hydroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venslauskas, Mindaugas S.; Asmantas, Sarunas

    2003-06-01

    Irregular oscillations in a colony of marine hydroids Podocoryne carnea were investigated. Quantitative characteristics were obtained as a result of long term (10-12 h) monitoring of oscillations at arbitrary sites. The sliding window spectra as well as the pulse-to-pulse dynamics argue the transient chaotic behavior of hydroid colony. The significant change of amplitudes and frequencies in intact colony oscillations after feeding and long sustained oscillations of stolons separated from colony suggest that the irregular activity could be determined by the network of pacemakers residing in stolon wall cells. These are influenced mechanically by the amount of digesting food and/or by chemical action of nutrients inside the stolon lumen. The possible correlation of these oscillations which can evoke Ca2+ waves in stolon wall cells is discussed.

  10. Control of biofouling by Cordylophora caspia in freshwater using one-off, pulsed and intermittent dosing of chlorine: laboratory evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mant, R C; Moggridge, G D; Aldridge, D C

    2012-01-01

    Cordylophora caspia is a hydrozoan which causes biofouling in power plants and is an increasing problem in UK drinking water treatment works. Thermal control is not usually feasible without a ready source of hot water so laboratory experiments were conducted to assess whether using pulsed doses of chlorine is an alternative solution. C. caspia polyps disintegrated after a single 20 min dose (the length of one backwash cycle in water treatment work filter beds) of 2.5 ppm chlorine. Without further treatment colonies regenerated within 3 days, but repeated dosing with chlorine for 20 min each day inhibited this regeneration. The resistance of surviving colonies to chlorine increased over time, although colony size and polyp regeneration continued to fall. These results suggest pulsed treatment with chlorinated backwashes at 2 ppm could be used to control C. caspia biofouling in rapid gravity filters and this may have relevance to other settings where thermal control is not feasible. PMID:22554274

  11. Drag on hydroid-fouled nets — An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lader, Pål; Fredriksson, David W.; Guenther, Jana; Volent, Zsolt; Blocher, Nina; Kristiansen, David; Gansel, Lars; Decew, Jud

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the drag increase on aquaculture nets due to biofouling of the colonial hydroid Ectopleura larynx. It had two main parts: firstly the growth characteristics of E. larynx were investigated by use of field tests at a Norwegian aquaculture site; secondly the hydrodynamic drag on the fouled twines was studied in a towing tank by using fabricated models of net twines with artificial hydroid fouling. In the field tests, the growth of the hydroids was first measured after three weeks of immersion and then again after six weeks. During this interval, the density of hydroids and the thickness of the hydroid stem were almost constant (1.4 hydroids/mm and 0.29 mm, respectively), while the average length of the hydroids increased from 6.4 to 11.2 mm. The hydroid length followed a Rayleigh distribution, while the thickness was normal (Gaussian) distributed. Replicas of twines with three different levels of hydroid growth were made (1.5 hydroids/mm twine, hydroid length 9 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm), and the drag on these twines was measured at different towing velocities (0.1 to 1.4 m/s) and with different twine configurations. For the twine with the shortest hydroids (9 mm), the drag was from 1.5 times ( Re=4000) to 2.2 times ( Re=1000) the drag on a clean twine. For the longest hydroids (21 mm), the drag was 2 times and 3.8 times, respectively.

  12. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; Hove, Harry A Ten; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-01-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species. PMID:26623840

  13. Effects of oil pollution on hydroid behavior and neurophysiology. [Tubularic crocea; Myrionema hargitti

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The hydroids, Tubularia crocea and Myrionema hargitti are sensitive organisms for assessing the effects of oil pollution. The abilities of these hydroids to capture Artemia nauplii were reduced after 1 hr exposure to a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Monterey Formation crude oil. Algal symbionts within Myrionema contribute photosynthetically-fixed carbon to the host hydroid. No significant effects upon these symbionts were noted after 1 or 3 h but significant reductions in the mitotic index, photosynthesis and carbon translocation rates were observed after a 24-48 h exposure to 100% WSF. Myrionema hargitti was less responsive to mechanical stimuli after a brief 100% WSF exposure. The responsiveness to a feeding stimulant (proline) and concert frequency of 100% WSF-treated Tubularia crocea were lower than controls. Significant increases in epithelial activity were also recorded at 1% WSF and the increased firing frequency did not persist beyond the duration of the exposure. Bioaccumulation of /sup 3/H-toluene (20 ppm) from 100% WSF reached a maximum within 1 min but declined over the next hour. Higher concentrations of /sup 3/H-toluene evoked increased hydranth shedding with 1 h but these hydranths never accumulated as much /sup 3/H-toluene as hydranths exposed to lower concentrations.

  14. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 2

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 2 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 2. - This study concludes

  15. Plumularia mooreana, a new marine hydroid from French Polynesia (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    Plumularia mooreana, a new marine hydroid from French Polynesia (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) Peter s.schuchert@ville-ge.ch Plumularia mooreana, a new marine hydroid from French Polynesia (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) - A new species

  16. MEDDELELSER OM GRNLAND BIOSCIENCE 53 2001 Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    MEDDELELSER OM GRØNLAND · BIOSCIENCE 53 · 2001 Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) PETER SCHUCHERT #12;PETER SCHUCHERT. Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa (Cnidaria, Hydro- zoa). Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 53. Copenhagen, The Danish Po- lar Center, 2001

  17. [Relay-ray way of hydroplasm movement in hydroid colonies].

    PubMed

    Burykin, Iu B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we continued the investigation of the distribution system of colonial hydroids in the course of its development, starting with its emergence during the planula metamorphosis and ending with the formed colony. The hydroplasmic stream system of two species of colonial hydroids--Perigonimus abyssi G.O. Sars, 1874, and Stauridia producta Wright, 1858--was studied. W found that the main principle by which hydroplasma moves in these colonies, which form no shoots, is the relay-race from one hydranth to another through a stolon fragment connecting them or directly from one hydranth to the next one, etc. W show that the efficiency of the conducting (distribution) system does not depend on the level of complexity of the colonial structure. The results of this study confirm the absence of general colonial processes of integration and self-regulation in hydroid polyps. PMID:23785849

  18. Effects of initial surface wettability on biofilm formation and subsequent settlement of Hydroides elegans.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Megan J; Nedved, Brian T; Hadfield, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    Hydroides elegans is a major fouling organism in tropical waters around the world, including Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. To determine the importance of initial surface characteristics on biofilm community composition and subsequent colonization by larvae of H. elegans, the settlement and recruitment of larvae to biofilmed surfaces with six different initial surface wettabilities were tested in Pearl Harbor. Biofilm community composition, as determined by a combined approach of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, was similar across all surfaces, regardless of initial wettability, and all surfaces had distinct temporal shifts in community structure over a 10 day period. Larvae settled and recruited in higher numbers to surfaces with medium to low wettability in both May and August, and also to slides with high wettability in August. Pearl Harbor biofilm communities developed similarly on a range of surface wettabilities, and after 10 days in Pearl Harbor all surfaces were equally attractive to larvae of Hydroides elegans, regardless of initial surface properties. PMID:19306143

  19. Planktonic hydroids on Georges Bank: ingestion and selection by predatory fishes1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avent, Sean R.; Bollens, Stephen M.; Butler, Mari; Horgan, Erich; Rountree, Rodney

    Planktonic colonial hydroids ( Clytia gracilis) recently have been found to be abundant, but patchily distributed in time and space, on Georges Bank, northwest Atlantic Ocean. However, the processes regulating the occurrence of these hydroid colonies (i.e., seasonality, growth, advection, diffusion, sinking, and predation) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the potential role of predation by fish upon the unattached hydroids. The two components of this study were (i) analyses of historical fish trawl surveys and stomach contents data collected in the coastal northwest Atlantic Ocean (including Georges Bank), and (ii) laboratory experiments testing for the presence of selective feeding by juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua) on hydroids relative to two co-occurring planktonic copepods ( Calanus finmarchicus and Centropages hamatus). We found that 32 and 11 species of fish ingested hydroids in the coastal northwest Atlantic Ocean and Georges Bank, respectively, during 1973-1990. However, hydroids were rarely an important part of the diet of these fishes. The most important predator of these cnidarians on Georges Bank was winter flounder, with 28.0% of its population having ingested hydroids, with a mean % (by weight) of hydroids in the diet of 4.1%, during 1973-80. Laboratory experiments indicated juvenile cod ingested planktonic hydroids, but overwhelmingly preferred either of the two copepods as prey. While field and laboratory results indicated that a wide variety of fishes feed on hydroids, we concluded that emergences and disappearances of planktonic hydroids on Georges Bank are not greatly impacted by fish predation. Other factors, in particular physical processes (i.e., advection, diffusion, and sinking), seasonal cycles of activity and inactivity, and predation by invertebrates, should be examined.

  20. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5. - This study reviews. Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - revision - taxonomy - north- eastern Atlantic - Mediterranean

  1. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2. - This study reviews affinis (Hartlaub, 1914). Keywords: Cnidaria - Hydrozoa - Bougainvilliidae - Pandeidae - Cytaeididae

  2. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3. - This study reviews belonging to Turritopsis dohrnii (Weismann, 1883). Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - Hydractiniidae

  3. 137HYDROIDS OF THE DANISH EXPEDITION TO THE KEI ISLANDS Steenstrupia

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    -256. Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the Danish expedition to the Kei Islands PETER SCHUCHERT Schuchert, P. Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the Danish expedition to the Kei Islands. ­ Steenstrupia 27 (2): 137. sibogae, n. status. Keywords: marine Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata, Leptothecata, taxonomy, revision

  4. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4. - This study reviews not replace M. hargitti or M. amboinense. Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa ­ Eudendriidae - revision

  5. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1. - This study reviews used since their original introduction by Haeckel. Keywords: Marine invertebrates - Cnidaria - Hydrozoa

  6. Deep-sea epibiotic hydroids from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench with description of Garveia belyaevi sp. nov. (Hydrozoa, Bougainvilliidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.; Chernyshev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Examination of material collected by the German-Russian KuramBio Deep-Sea Expedition to the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench revealed about 17 hydroid species, including two species presumably new to science. Before the KuramBio Expedition only fragments of the unidentified hydroids and Cryptolaria sp. were collected in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench from depths exceeding 3000 m. Descriptions of three species of epibiotic hydroids (including one new species, Garveia belyaevi sp. nov.) are presented herein. A colony of G. belyaevi sp. nov. (the third deep-sea and deepest species of the wide distributed genus Garveia) was attached to the spines of unidentified irregular sea urchins from depths 5217 to 5229 m. ?alitholus (?) sp. (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) colonized the skin of spoon worms (Echiura) but could not be identified to species level because the mature medusa stage was absent in the material. An unidentified juvenile polyp (Pandeidae) was found on the bryozoan Tricitella minini attached to spines of irregular sea urchins Echinosigra amphora. Colonial sedentary organisms inhabiting abyssal plains with soft bottoms may colonize invertebrates which are seldom used as substrates for epibiota in shallow waters. Epibiosis among abyssal colonial invertebrates, though extremely poorly studied, appears to be rather frequent.

  7. Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Families and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Families Oceanidae and Pachycordylidae. - This paper reviews the European-Kossowska, 1905) comb. n. Key-words: Marine invertebrates - Cnidaria - Hydrozoa - Antoathecata - Oceanidae

  8. Physiological characterization of stolon regression in a colonial hydroid.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kimberly S Cherry; Geddes, Gabrielle C; Bross, Lori S; Blackstone, Neil W

    2008-03-01

    As with many colonial animals, hydractiniid hydroids display a range of morphological variation. Sheet-like forms exhibit feeding polyps close together with short connecting stolons, whereas runner-like forms have more distant polyps and longer connecting stolons. These morphological patterns are thought to derive from rates of stolon growth and polyp formation. Here, stolon regression is identified and characterized as a potential process underlying this variation. Typically, regression can be observed in a few stolons of a normally growing colony. For detailed studies, many stolons of a colony can be induced to regress by pharmacological manipulations of reactive oxygen species (e.g. hydrogen peroxide) or reactive nitrogen species (e.g. nitric oxide). The regression process begins with a cessation of gastrovascular flow to the distal part of the stolon. High levels of endogenous H(2)O(2) and NO then accumulate in the regressing stolon. Remarkably, exogenous treatments with either H(2)O(2) or an NO donor equivalently trigger endogenous formation of both H(2)O(2) and NO. Cell death during regression is suggested by both morphological features, detected by transmission electron microscopy, and DNA fragmentation, detected by TUNEL. Stolon regression may occur when colonies detect environmental signals that favor continued growth in the same location rather than outward growth. PMID:18281335

  9. Structure and signaling at hydroid polyp-stolon junctions, revisited.

    PubMed

    Harmata, Katherine L; Somova, Emily L; Parrin, Austin P; Bross, Lori S; Glockling, Sally L; Blackstone, Neil W

    2015-01-01

    The gastrovascular system of colonial hydroids is central to homeostasis, yet its functional biology remains poorly understood. A probe (2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) identified fluorescent objects at polyp-stolon junctions that emit high levels of ROS. A nuclear probe (Hoechst 33342) does not co-localize with these objects, while a mitochondrial probe (rhodamine 123) does. We interpret these objects as mitochondrion-rich cells. Confocal microscopy showed that this fluorescence is situated in large columnar cells. Treatment with an uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol) diminished the ROS levels of these cells relative to background fluorescence, as did removing the stolons connecting to a polyp-stolon junction. These observations support the hypothesis that the ROS emanate from mitochondrion-rich cells, which function by pulling open a valve at the base of the polyp. The open valve allows gastrovascular fluid from the polyp to enter the stolons and vice versa. The uncoupler shifts the mitochondrial redox state in the direction of oxidation, lowering ROS levels. By removing the stolons, the valve is not pulled open, metabolic demand is lowered, and the mitochondrion-rich cells slowly regress. Transmission electron microscopy identified mitochondrion-rich cells adjacent to a thick layer of mesoglea at polyp-stolon junctions. The myonemes of these myoepithelial cells extend from the thickened mesoglea to the rigid perisarc on the outside of the colony. The perisarc thus anchors the myoepithelial cells and allows them to pull against the mesoglea and open the lumen of the polyp-stolon junction, while relaxation of these cells closes the lumen. PMID:26231625

  10. Structure and signaling at hydroid polyp-stolon junctions, revisited

    PubMed Central

    Harmata, Katherine L.; Somova, Emily L.; Parrin, Austin P.; Bross, Lori S.; Glockling, Sally L.; Blackstone, Neil W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The gastrovascular system of colonial hydroids is central to homeostasis, yet its functional biology remains poorly understood. A probe (2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) identified fluorescent objects at polyp-stolon junctions that emit high levels of ROS. A nuclear probe (Hoechst 33342) does not co-localize with these objects, while a mitochondrial probe (rhodamine 123) does. We interpret these objects as mitochondrion-rich cells. Confocal microscopy showed that this fluorescence is situated in large columnar cells. Treatment with an uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol) diminished the ROS levels of these cells relative to background fluorescence, as did removing the stolons connecting to a polyp-stolon junction. These observations support the hypothesis that the ROS emanate from mitochondrion-rich cells, which function by pulling open a valve at the base of the polyp. The open valve allows gastrovascular fluid from the polyp to enter the stolons and vice versa. The uncoupler shifts the mitochondrial redox state in the direction of oxidation, lowering ROS levels. By removing the stolons, the valve is not pulled open, metabolic demand is lowered, and the mitochondrion-rich cells slowly regress. Transmission electron microscopy identified mitochondrion-rich cells adjacent to a thick layer of mesoglea at polyp-stolon junctions. The myonemes of these myoepithelial cells extend from the thickened mesoglea to the rigid perisarc on the outside of the colony. The perisarc thus anchors the myoepithelial cells and allows them to pull against the mesoglea and open the lumen of the polyp-stolon junction, while relaxation of these cells closes the lumen. PMID:26231625

  11. Potential antifouling strategies for marine finfish aquaculture: the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the settlement and survival of the hydroid Ectopleura larynx.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Jana; Fitridge, Isla; Misimi, Ekrem

    2011-10-01

    The hydroid Ectopleura larynx is a common fouling organism on aquaculture nets. To contribute to the development of novel cleaning methods, laboratory and field studies determined the effects of heat (30, 40, 50 and 60°C for immersion times of 1 and 3 s) and acetic acid (0.2 and 2.0% for immersion times of 1, 3 and 10 s, 1 and 5 min) on the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult E. larynx. Laboratory studies showed that, regardless of immersion time, a temperature of 50°C was effective in preventing the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juveniles, while ?12% of adult hydroids could survive. A temperature of 60°C killed all adult hydroids. For an acetic acid concentration of 0.2%, an immersion time of 1 min substantially reduced the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult hydroids, and none of the juvenile and adult hydroids survived after 5 min. For an acetic acid concentration of 2.0%, all immersion times were effective and reduced the mean settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult hydroids to ?10%. Field studies with fouled net panels exposed to selected heat or acetic acid treatments showed small reductions in mean wet weight and net aperture occlusion of the net panels 2 and 5 days after treatment. Visual inspections of the net panels showed that hydranths of the hydroids were shed, but the dead stolons of the hydroids remained on the treated net panels. Novel cleaning methods and devices may utilise these results to effectively kill E. larynx on aquaculture nets, while further studies are needed to determine the necessity of removing the dead hydroids before further biofouling accumulates on the nets. PMID:22017479

  12. Assemblages of hydroids (Cnidaria) from three seamounts near Bermuda in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Dale R.

    2000-06-01

    Three seamounts flanking the oceanic island of Bermuda were sampled for hydroids. Collecting was undertaken by submersible (SDL-1) and by dredge at depths between 48 and 107 m on the summits of Argus and Challenger banks. A shallower collection (<20 m) from the pilings of a tower on Argus Bank was made using SCUBA. Major bottom types on both banks were aggregations of rhodoliths, limestone reefs, and areas of calcareous sand. Hydroids were ubiquitous, but quite sparse, on firm substrata. None was collected on sandy bottoms. Of 45 species identified from the two oceanic banks, over half (25) were found on both. On Bowditch Seamount, samples were obtained at depths between 1285 and 1381 m by dredge and grab. Of four species found, only one ( Filellum serratum) occurred in shallower collections from Argus and Challenger banks. Most species (43 of 48) from the three seamounts have been reported elsewhere in the Western Atlantic Tropical region, and many (38 of 48) are known from Bermuda. No endemics were discovered, and no relicts or exotics were recognized. Gonophores in >70% of the species are fixed sporosacs instead of free medusae. This conforms with a hypothesis that invertebrates of oceanic islands and seamounts tend to have short-lived pelagic larval stages, ensuring the greatest retention and conservation of propagules.

  13. Marine hydroid perisarc: a chitin- and melanin-reinforced composite with DOPA-iron(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Prajatelistia, Ekavianty; Iordachescu, Mihaela; Waite, J Herbert

    2013-09-01

    Many marine invertebrates utilize biomacromolecules as building blocks to form their load-bearing tissues. These polymeric tissues are appealing for their unusual physical and mechanical properties, including high hardness and stiffness, toughness and low density. Here, a marine hydroid perisarc of Aglaophenia latirostris was investigated to understand how nature designs a stiff, tough and lightweight sheathing structure. Chitin, protein and a melanin-like pigment, were found to represent 10, 17 and 60 wt.% of the perisarc, respectively. Interestingly, similar to the adhesive and coating of marine mussel byssus, a DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) containing protein and iron were detected in the perisarc. Resonance Raman microprobe analysis of perisarc indicates the presence of catechol-iron(III) complexes in situ, but it remains to be determined whether the DOPA-iron(III) interaction plays a cohesive role in holding the protein, chitin and melanin networks together. PMID:23791678

  14. Review of some little-known benthic hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Cantero, Álvaro L Peña

    2015-01-01

    A number of benthic hydroid species inhabiting the Southern Ocean are insufficiently characterized. A revision of eight little-known Antarctic species of the order Anthoathecata was made, based on the study of type material. Some of the species have not been recorded since their original description a century ago. Four species (Bimeria corynopsis, Bougainvillia macloviana, ?Koellikerina belgicae and Rhizorhagium antarcticum) belong to the family Bougainvilliidae, two species (Hydractinia angusta and H. dendritica) to the family Hydractiniidae, Perarella clavata to the family Cytaeididae and, finally, Rhysia halecii to the family Rhysiidae. For each species a list of synonyms, a description, a discussion on its relationship with other species and its systematic position, and an account of its autecological data are given. All records found in the literature have been checked. PMID:26249498

  15. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  16. The Selective Myosin II Inhibitor Blebbistatin Reversibly Eliminates Gastrovascular Flow and Stolon Tip Pulsations in the Colonial Hydroid Podocoryna carnea.

    PubMed

    Connally, Noah; Anderson, Christopher P; Bolton, Jules E; Bolton, Edward W; Buss, Leo W

    2015-01-01

    Blebbistatin reversibly disrupted both stolon tip pulsations and gastrovascular flow in the colonial hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Epithelial longitudinal muscles of polyps were unaffected by blebbistatin, as polyps contracted when challenged with a pulse of KCl. Latrunculin B, which sequesters G actin preventing F actin assembly, caused stolons to retract, exposing focal adhesions where the tip epithelial cells adhere to the substratum. These results are consistent with earlier suggestions that non-muscle myosin II provides the motive force for stolon tip pulsations and further suggest that tip oscillations are functionally coupled to hydrorhizal axial muscle contraction. PMID:26605798

  17. The Selective Myosin II Inhibitor Blebbistatin Reversibly Eliminates Gastrovascular Flow and Stolon Tip Pulsations in the Colonial Hydroid Podocoryna carnea

    PubMed Central

    Connally, Noah; Anderson, Christopher P.; Bolton, Jules E.; Bolton, Edward W.; Buss, Leo W.

    2015-01-01

    Blebbistatin reversibly disrupted both stolon tip pulsations and gastrovascular flow in the colonial hydroid Podocoryna carnea. Epithelial longitudinal muscles of polyps were unaffected by blebbistatin, as polyps contracted when challenged with a pulse of KCl. Latrunculin B, which sequesters G actin preventing F actin assembly, caused stolons to retract, exposing focal adhesions where the tip epithelial cells adhere to the substratum. These results are consistent with earlier suggestions that non-muscle myosin II provides the motive force for stolon tip pulsations and further suggest that tip oscillations are functionally coupled to hydrorhizal axial muscle contraction. PMID:26605798

  18. Harry Beal Torrey (1873-1970) of California, USA, and his research on hydroids and other coelenterates.

    PubMed

    Calder, Dale R

    2013-01-01

    Harry Beal Torrey was born on 22 May 1873 in Boston, Massachusetts. Two years later his family moved to Oakland, California. Torrey earned B.S. and M.S. degrees in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1895 and 1898 respectively, a Ph.D. in zoology from Columbia University in 1903, and an M.D. from the Medical College of Cornell University in 1927. He began his academic career as a marine biologist, investigating taxonomy, reproduction, morphology, development, regeneration, and behaviour of cnidarians of the west coast of the United States, but his research interests soon shifted to experimental biology and endocrinology. He eventually entered the field of medicine, specializing in public health, and served as a physician and hospital administrator. Torrey held academic positions at the University of California, Berkeley (1895-1912), the Marine Biological Association of San Diego (1903-1912), Reed College (1912-1920), the University of Oregon (1920-1926), and Stanford University (1928-1938). Following retirement from academia, he served as Director of the Children's Hospital of the East Bay, Oakland, California, from 1938 to 1942. In retirement, he continued an association with the University of California at Berkeley, near his home. Of 84 publications by him listed herein, 31 dealt with coelenterates. This paper focuses on his early research on coelenterate biology, and especially his contributions to taxonomy of hydroids. He was author or coauthor of six genera and 48 species-group taxa of Cnidaria, and he also described one new species each of Ctenophora and Phoronida. Although he abandoned systematic work early in his career, his most widely cited publication is a taxonomic monograph on hydroids of the west coast of North America, published in 1902. He died, at age 97, on 9 September 1970. PMID:24614029

  19. Evidence of compositional and ultrastructural shifts during the development of calcareous tubes in the biofouling tubeworm, Hydroides elegans.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vera Bin San; Vinn, Olev; Li, Chaoyi; Lu, Xingwen; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Schopf, J William; Shih, Kaimin; Zhang, Tong; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2015-03-01

    The serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, is an ecologically and economically important species whose biology has been fairly well studied, especially in the context of larval development and settlement on man-made objects (biofouling). Nevertheless, ontogenetic changes associated with calcareous tube composition and structures have not yet been studied. Here, the ultrastructure and composition of the calcareous tubes built by H. elegans was examined in the three early calcifying juvenile stages and in the adult using XRD, FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Ontogenetic shifts in carbonate mineralogy were observed, for example, juvenile tubes contained more amorphous calcium carbonate and were predominantly aragonitic whereas adult tubes were bimineralic with considerably more calcite. The mineral composition gradually shifted during the tube development as shown by a decrease in Sr/Ca and an increase of Mg/Ca ratios with the tubeworm's age. The inner tube layer contained calcite, whereas the outer layer contained aragonite. Similarly, the tube complexity in terms of ultrastructure was associated with development. The sequential appearance of unoriented ultrastructures followed by oriented ultrastructures may reflect the evolutionary history of serpulid tube biominerals. As aragonitic structures are more susceptible to dissolution under ocean acidification (OA) conditions but are more difficult to be removed by anti-fouling treatments, the early developmental stages of the tubeworms may be vulnerable to OA but act as the important target for biofouling control. PMID:25600412

  20. Areas of endemism in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean based on the distribution of benthic hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Miranda, Thaís Pires; Genzano, Gabriel Nestor; Marques, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Geographic distributions of 130 species of benthic hydroids were used to infer areas of endemism in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (SWAO, between 22°S and 55°S). Endemicity Analysis (EA) was carried out with the software NDM VNDM, using a 2° x 2° grid with different values of F (F = 0.5 and F = 1.0) for inferred presence. Hypothesized areas of endemism (16 with F = 0.5 and 13 with F = 1.0) formed three generalized patterns: (1) Tropical, (2) Subtropical, and (3) disjunctions along Tropical and Subtropical areas. Areas of endemism estimated here were compared with provinces, ecoregions and areas of endemism previously defined (but not based on algorithmic analysis) in the literature. Ecological and historical aspects that are potentially relevant for the SWAO realm were contrasted, related and discussed to areas of endemism. This is the first study to apply NDM VNDM to the marine realm and one of the few that focuses on the SWAO. PMID:26624420

  1. Hydroids of the genus Sertularella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) from the Pacific coast of Canada in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Choong, Henry H C

    2015-01-01

    Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America. PMID:25781750

  2. Temperature Dependent Effects of Elevated CO2 on Shell Composition and Mechanical Properties of Hydroides elegans: Insights from a Multiple Stressor Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Vera B. S.; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Lu, Xing Wen; Zhang, Tong; Shih, Kaimin

    2013-01-01

    The majority of marine benthic invertebrates protect themselves from predators by producing calcareous tubes or shells that have remarkable mechanical strength. An elevation of CO2 or a decrease in pH in the environment can reduce intracellular pH at the site of calcification and thus interfere with animal’s ability to accrete CaCO3. In nature, decreased pH in combination with stressors associated with climate change may result in the animal producing severely damaged and mechanically weak tubes. This study investigated how the interaction of environmental drivers affects production of calcareous tubes by the serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans. In a factorial manipulative experiment, we analyzed the effects of pH (8.1 and 7.8), salinity (34 and 27‰), and temperature (23°C and 29°C) on the biomineral composition, ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the tubes. At an elevated temperature of 29°C, the tube calcite/aragonite ratio and Mg/Ca ratio were both increased, the Sr/Ca ratio was decreased, and the amorphous CaCO3 content was reduced. Notably, at elevated temperature with decreased pH and reduced salinity, the constructed tubes had a more compact ultrastructure with enhanced hardness and elasticity compared to decreased pH at ambient temperature. Thus, elevated temperature rescued the decreased pH-induced tube impairments. This indicates that tubeworms are likely to thrive in early subtropical summer climate. In the context of climate change, tubeworms could be resilient to the projected near-future decreased pH or salinity as long as surface seawater temperature rise at least by 4°C. PMID:24265732

  3. Deep-water Hydrozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) in the Sea of Japan, collected during the 51st Cruise of R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev, with description Opercularella angelikae, sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.

    2013-02-01

    A report is given about Hydrozoa collected at depths between 455 and 3666 m in the Sea of Japan during the Russian-German expedition on R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev. Ten species were found, with four of them being typical bathyal-abyssal and abyssal zones. A new species, Opercularella angelikae, is described, and it was the dominant hydroid in samples from 970 to 3660 m. Four eurybathic species characteristics of the Sea of Japan were sampled between 455 and 582 m. Abyssal (pseudoabyssal after Andriashev, 1979) hydroid fauna in the Sea of Japan is reported. The hypothesis that an exclusively deep-water fauna is lacking in abyssal regions of the Sea of Japan is disputed. The author's personal opinion considered concerning the borders of 1000 m between shallow and deep hydrozoan species in the Sea of Japan.

  4. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  5. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How does lead get into my tap water? Measures taken during the last two decades have ...

  6. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wherever it comes from, it starts from a watershed. A watershed is the land area that drains into a ... wells and springs). Everything that happens in the watershed, and from the water source to your tap, ...

  7. Hydroide Storage Vessel wall stress measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.; Pechersky, M.J.

    1997-07-31

    Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is likely responsible for the lack of wall stress. This morphology also implies that decay helium that remains in the titanium hydride (that is, helium that is not released as gas to the free volume) should not cause significant wall stresses when the HSV is used for long-term tritium storage. Holographic interferometry proved to be an extremely sensitive technique to measure swelling, having a detection limit of about 3 microns surface displacement.

  8. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errina labrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D.; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errina labrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246

  9. Invaders eating invaders: Exploitation of novel alien prey by the alien shimofuri goby in the San Francisco Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matern, S.A.; Brown, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    The shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus), which is native to Asian estuaries, was recently introduced to the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. We conducted gut content analyses to examine the goby's feeding ecology in this highly invaded estuary. Shimofuri gobies were generalist predators on benthic invertebrates, consuming seasonally abundant prey, especially amphipods (Corophium spp.). In addition, shimofuri goby utilized two novel prey items not exploited by other resident fishes - hydroids (Cordylophora caspia) and barnacle (Balanus improvisus) cirri, both of which are alien. The shimofuri goby's feeding ecology appears well-suited to the fluctuating environment of the San Francisco Estuary and may partially explain observed increases in shimofuri goby abundance compared with declines in populations of some native species. ?? Springer 2005.

  10. Genetic analysis reveals multiple cryptic invasive species of the hydrozoan gene Cordylophora

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the patterns and dynamics of biological invasions is a crucial prerequisite to predicting and mitigating their potential ecological and economic impacts. Unfortunately, in many cases such understanding is limited not only by ignorance of invasion history, but also b...

  11. Fish, fans and hydroids: host species of pygmy seahorses

    PubMed Central

    Reijnen, Bastian T.; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoan host species of pygmy seahorses is provided based on literature records and recently collected field data for Hippocampus bargibanti, Hippocampus denise and Hippocampus pontohi. Seven new associations are recognized and an overview of the so far documented host species is given. A detailed re-examination of octocoral type material and a review of the taxonomic history of the alcyonacean genera Annella (Subergorgiidae) and Muricella (Acanthogorgiidae) are included as baseline for future revisions. The host specificity and colour morphs of pygmy seahorses are discussed, as well as the reliability of (previous) identifications and conservation issues. PMID:21747677

  12. Causes and consequences of stolon regression in a colonial hydroid.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kimberly S Cherry; Harmata, Katherine L; Coulombe, Hilary L; Bross, Lori S; Blackstone, Neil W

    2011-10-01

    A cnidarian colony can be idealized as a group of feeding polyps connected by tube-like stolons. Morphological variation ranges from runner-like forms with sparse polyp and stolon development to sheet-like forms with dense polyp and stolon development. These forms have typically been considered in a foraging context, consistent with a focus on rates of polyp development relative to stolon elongation. At the same time, rates of stolon regression can affect this morphological variation; several aspects of regression were investigated in this context. More sheet-like forms were produced by periodic peroxide treatment, which induced high rates of stolon regression. Caspase inhibitors altered the effects of regression induced by peroxide or vitamin C. These inhibitors generally diminished physical regression and the abundance of associated reactive oxygen species. Caspase inhibitors also altered cellular ultrastructure, resulting in features suggestive of necrosis rather than apoptosis. At the same time, caspase inhibitors had little effect on reactive nitrogen species that are also associated with regression. Although regression is most easily triggered by pharmacological perturbations related to reactive oxygen species (e.g. peroxide or vitamin C), a variety of environmental effects, particularly restricted environments and an interaction between feeding and temperature, can also induce regression. Stolon regression may thus be a factor contributing to natural variation between runners and sheets. PMID:21900467

  13. Turbid water Clear water

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new underwater laser scanning system, providing microbathymetric information in coastal waters is described the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide

  14. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  15. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  16. Water Resources Forests & Water

    E-print Network

    Water Resources Forests & Water More than half of the nation's freshwater supply originates on forestland. Healthy and sustainable forests can help ensure a continuous supply of clean and abundant water. Not only does forestland provide the cleanest water of any land use, it also helps absorb rainfall

  17. Water Clean Water Clean

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Keep Our Water Clean Keep Our Water Clean Home and garden pesticides and fertilizers are polluting residues wash into gutters, storm drains, and streams by rain,garden watering,or cleaning up drinking water. Follow these tips to keep our rivers, creeks, and oceans clean. What can you do to protect

  18. Water, water everywhere,

    E-print Network

    Eberhard, Marc O.

    the image from: http://www.culture24.org.uk/science-and- nature/animals/art28614 of King Cholera dispensing to describe what they see. · Point out that some microbes in water can kill you quickly. · Display water from a variety of sources (the tap, after being filtered, a stream or pond, the toilet, smelly water, colored

  19. Genetic analysis across differential spatial scales reveals multiple dispersal mechanisms for the invasive hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. Here we explore genetic ...

  20. Water law

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, W.

    1988-01-01

    The author pays particular attention to recent amendments to the Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, and hazardous waste statutes. Concludes with a new chapter on regional land-use controls to safeguard water quality. This book is revised to explain the nature of law and the relationships among water law, science, water uses, water rights, and water resources management.

  1. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  2. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  3. The hydrozoan fauna (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the peaks of the Ormonde and Gettysburg seamounts (Gorringe Bank, NE Atlantic).

    PubMed

    Moura, Carlos J

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of hydroids were collected from the peaks (35-42 meters depth) of the Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic) during the oceanographic campaign 'LusoExpedição Olympus 2008'. Twenty-one of these species are new for the Gorringe Bank that now has published records for a total of 37 hydroid species. Lafoeina tenuis, Sertularella ellisii and Clytia hemisphaerica were the most abundant hydroid species collected. Results revealed spatial differences in the composition of species assemblages along the summits of the Gorringe, as only 14 of the species sampled were found both in the Ormonde and Gettysburg seamounts. The large density of algae at the peaks of the seamounts sustain a considerable hydrozoan diversity (23 species), but visibly inhibits the establishment of hydroids to the rocky substrates (only 2 species found). All the known hydrozoan species from the peaks of the Gorringe were exclusively collected during summer, thus sampling in other seasons may reveal further hydrozoan diversity due to seasonal patterns of growth of algae and hydroids. Nevertheless, the reasonably high levels of hydrozoan biodiversity demonstrated only from a small portion the summits of the Gorringe, corroborate its seamounts as 'biodiversity hotspots'. In agreement with previous investigations with shallow-water molluscs and sponges, the shallow-water hydroid fauna of the Gorringe revealed greater biogeographical affinities with the Mediterranean and mainland Portugal. This is the first report of Eudendrium armatum outside of the Mediterranean. PMID:26249487

  4. Water, water everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Pennisi, E.

    1993-02-20

    The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.

  5. Water, Water Everywhere!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sible, Kathleen P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

  6. water intake Water sampling site

    E-print Network

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

  7. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  8. Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

  9. Fluoridated Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Fluoridated Water On This Page What is fluoride, and where is it found? What is water fluoridation? When did water fluoridation begin in the ...

  10. Water Artists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, George

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how experiences with water provide children with opportunities to be artists. Describes different types of water play for children. Believes that experiences with water introduce children to the principles of painting. (CMK)

  11. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... RWI) Water Disinfection for Travelers Water-related Diseases, Contaminants, and Injuries Be Healthy. Think Healthy. Swim Healthy. ... Contact CDC-INFO Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay ...

  12. Healthy Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With its many uses for drinking, recreation, sanitation, hygiene, and industry, water is our most precious global ... Water Fluoridation, Camping, Hiking, Travel… Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Community Systems, Household Treatment & Storage, Sanitation and ...

  13. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water

  14. Water tight.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures. Multilateral development agencies have identified some developing country cities as demonstrated sites for urban water conservation. PMID:12286138

  15. Water Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

  16. Branding water

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  17. Water Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, I. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.

  18. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  19. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  20. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  1. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  2. Computerized Waters 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    stream_source_info Computerized Waters.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7109 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Computerized Waters.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2O | pg.... 9 Computerized Waters Story by Kathy Wythe Computerized Waters Model changes management of Texas surface waters In an office on the second floor of a Texas A&MUniversity building, on a desktop computeroperating with the popular Microsoft Windows...

  3. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies are used for agriculture, natural resources, salt water intrusion protection, drinking water, industry

  4. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  5. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  6. Water Purifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

  7. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  8. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  9. Water underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Graaf, Inge

    2015-04-01

    The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.

  10. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  11. Water Pollution

    MedlinePLUS

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  12. WATER EROSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water erosion is caused by the detachment and transport of soil by runoff, melting snow or ice, and irrigation. Excessive erosion could threaten the production of agricultural and forest products. Erosion may also impact water conveyance and storage structures, and contribute to pollution from land ...

  13. Virginia's Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; And Others

    This booklet describes the water resources in Virginia. Main sections included are: (1) "Introduction" (providing a general overview of the richness and diversity of Virginia's water resources both economic and recreational); (2) "River Basins" (illustrating the area drained by nine rivers and their tributaries); (3) "Bays" (including the…

  14. Ecological and morphological characteristics of Ephelota gemmipara (Ciliophora, Suctoria), epibiontic on Eudendrium racemosum (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Tazioli, Silvia; Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the suctorian Ephelota gemmipara and the large hydroid Eudendrium racemosum from the North Adriatic Sea has been studied over its full annual cycle. Ephelota gemmipara settles on the perisarc of the hydroid, usually close to the hydranths in order to exploit the hydroid's food discharges. The life cycle of E. gemmipara is influenced by temperature variations and by its relationship with the host. The hydroid shows an active phase in the summer, and it gets through the adverse winter season forming resting stages. In April, when temperature increases, the hydroid starts its active phase and it is colonized by suctorians. From May to September the suctorians produce multiple buds (swarmers) that detach from the parental cells to settle on an Eudendrium colony. The abundance of the suctorian peaks in September, with more than 1.2 million ind. m(-2). Their proliferation coincides with the maximal abundance of their host and the highest water temperatures. On the contrary, sexual reproduction and the encystment occur when the temperature and the abundance of E. racemosum decrease. Lastly, we also report the presence of symbionts such as bacteria and the parasitic protozoans Tachyblaston ephelotensis and Enigmocoma acinetarum. PMID:23711377

  15. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  16. Water Wars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore »and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  17. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  18. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  19. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  20. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

  1. WATER ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

  2. Grabbing Water

    E-print Network

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

  3. Water Privatisation 

    E-print Network

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  4. INTRODUCTION The marine hydroids of Iceland have been the subject of

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    project with the objec- Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Iceland collected by the BIOICE programme Peter Schuchert Schuchert P. 2000. Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Iceland collected by the BIOICE programme. Sarsia 85:411- 438. This study summarises the findings of benthic hydrozoans (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, including Hydroidea

  5. Post-embryonic larval development and metamorphosis of the hydroid Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, C.

    1990-09-01

    The morphology and histology of the planula larva of Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) and its metamorphosis into the primary polyp are described from light microscopic observations. The planula hatches as a differentiated gastrula. During the lecithotrophic larval period, large ectodermal mucous cells, embedded between epitheliomuscular cells, secrete a sticky slime. Two granulated cell types occur in the ectoderm that are interpreted as secretory and sensorynervous cells, but might also be representatives of only one cell type with a multiple function. The entoderm consists of yolk-storing gastrodermal cells, digestive gland cells, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes. The larva starts metamorphosis by affixing its blunt aboral pole to a substratum. While the planula flattens down, the mucous cells penetrate the mesolamella and migrate through the entoderm into the gastral cavity where they are lysed. Subsequently, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes migrate in the opposite direction, i.e. from entoderm to ectoderm. Then, the polypoid body organization, comprising head (hydranth), stem and foot, all covered by peridermal secretion, becomes recognisable. An oral constriction divides the hypostomal portion of the gastral cavity from the stomachic portion. Within the hypostomal entoderm, cells containing secretory granules differentiate. Following growth and the multiplication of tentacles, the head periderm disappears. A ring of gland cells differentiates at the hydranth's base. The positioning of cnidae in the tentacle ectoderm, penetration of the mouth opening and the multiplication of digestive gland cells enable the polyp to change from lecithotrophic to planktotrophic nutrition.

  6. Nutrient Distribution and Absorption in the Colonial Hydroid Podocoryna carnea Is Sequentially Diffusive and Directional

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Leo W.; Anderson, Christopher P.; Perry, Elena K.; Buss, Evan D.; Bolton, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and absorption of ingested protein was characterized within a colony of Podocoryna carnea when a single polyp was fed. Observations were conducted at multiple spatial and temporal scales at three different stages of colony ontogeny with an artificial food item containing Texas Red conjugated albumin. Food pellets were digested and all tracer absorbed by digestive cells within the first 2–3 hours post-feeding. The preponderance of the label was located in the fed polyp and in a transport-induced diffusion pattern surrounding the fed polyp. After 6 hours post-feeding particulates re-appeared in the gastrovascular system and their absorption increased the area over which the nutrients were distributed, albeit still in a pattern that was centered on the fed polyp. At later intervals, tracer became concentrated in some stolon tips, but not in others, despite the proximity of these stolons either to the fed polyp or to adjacent stolons receiving nutrients. Distribution and absorption of nutrients is sequentially diffusive and directional. PMID:26359660

  7. Nutrient Distribution and Absorption in the Colonial Hydroid Podocoryna carnea Is Sequentially Diffusive and Directional.

    PubMed

    Buss, Leo W; Anderson, Christopher P; Perry, Elena K; Buss, Evan D; Bolton, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and absorption of ingested protein was characterized within a colony of Podocoryna carnea when a single polyp was fed. Observations were conducted at multiple spatial and temporal scales at three different stages of colony ontogeny with an artificial food item containing Texas Red conjugated albumin. Food pellets were digested and all tracer absorbed by digestive cells within the first 2-3 hours post-feeding. The preponderance of the label was located in the fed polyp and in a transport-induced diffusion pattern surrounding the fed polyp. After 6 hours post-feeding particulates re-appeared in the gastrovascular system and their absorption increased the area over which the nutrients were distributed, albeit still in a pattern that was centered on the fed polyp. At later intervals, tracer became concentrated in some stolon tips, but not in others, despite the proximity of these stolons either to the fed polyp or to adjacent stolons receiving nutrients. Distribution and absorption of nutrients is sequentially diffusive and directional. PMID:26359660

  8. Reactive oxygen species and the regulation of hyperproliferation in a colonial hydroid.

    PubMed

    Harmata, Katherine L; Blackstone, Neil W

    2011-01-01

    Colonies of Podocoryna carnea circulate gastrovascular fluid among polyps via tubelike stolons. At polyp-stolon junctions, mitochondrion-rich cells in part regulate this gastrovascular flow. During competition, colonies hyperproliferate nematocytes and stolons; nematocysts are discharged until one colony is killed. Hyperproliferation then ceases, and normal growth resumes. Here, competing colonies were treated with azide, which inhibits respiration and upregulates reactive oxygen species (ROS). After the cessation of competition, azide-treated colonies continued to hyperproliferate. In azide-treated competing colonies, however, mitochondrion-rich cells were found to produce similar amounts of ROS as those in untreated competing colonies. Subsequent experiments showed that both azide treatment and competition diminished the lumen widths at polyp-stolon junctions, where mitochondrion-rich cells are found. In competing colonies, these diminished widths may also diminish the metabolic demand on these cells, causing mitochondria to enter the resting state and emit more ROS. Indeed, results with two fluorescent probes show that mitochondrion-rich cells in competing colonies produce more ROS than those in noncompeting colonies. In sum, these results suggest that competition perturbs the usual activity of mitochondrion-rich cells, altering their redox state and increasing ROS formation. Via uncharacterized pathways, these ROS may contribute to hyperproliferation. PMID:21897085

  9. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  10. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  11. Water Conservation and Water Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy

  12. Marketing water 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    citizens how to design and care for a garden planted with plants, shrubs, and trees that thrive in the area and need less water. In 2005, SmartScape? expanded to West Texas. In Central Texas, Austin, known for its progressive approach to conserving...://www.takecareoftexas.org/) program in April 2007. In addition to water quality and quantity and air quality, it addresses energy conservation and waste reduction. Stories by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 19 EARTH?KIND promotes environmental stewardship EARTH-KIND, Texas Agri...

  13. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  14. Investigating Water 

    E-print Network

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02

    ........................................................................................... 111 Activity 6.3, Wetland Mobile ............................................................................................................... 113 Activity 6.4, Wetlands: Nature?s Clean Machine... to survive. People require a plentiful supply of clean water to support and maintain our homes, farms and factories, and to provide for the living things that enrich our lives and supply us with our needs. Because it is used so frequently and for so many...

  15. Blue Water

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

  16. Water Spout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  17. Grabbing water

    E-print Network

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  18. Water Hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

  19. Water Sampling

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

  20. Contaminated Sediments in Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contact Us Water: Contaminated Sediments You are here: Water Pollution Prevention & Control Sediments Contaminated Sediments in Water Contaminated ... Water Education & Training Grants & Funding Laws & Regulations Our Waters Pollution Prevention & Control Applications & Databases Low Impact Development Impaired ...

  1. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 66 gaging stations; stage only for 70 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 25 gaging stations) and 108 wells; and water levels for 221 observation wells. Also included are data for 204 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  2. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Labbe, Charles K.; Walters, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 85 gaging stations; stage only for 79 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 52 surface-water stations (including 40 gaging stations) and 104 wells; and water levels for 300 observation wells. Also included are data for 143 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  3. Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montogmery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Ward, Aub N.; Walters, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 60 surface-water stations (including 42 gaging stations) and 112 wells; and water levels for 304 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  4. Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 56 surface-water stations (including 44 gaging stations) and 142 wells; and water levels for 313 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal and State agencies in Louisiana.

  5. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only for 73 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 66 surface-water stations (including 39 gaging stations) and 92 wells; and water levels for 205 observation wells. Also included are data for 166 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  6. Water Wise: A Water Use Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…

  7. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-print Network

    to safe drinking water. National Center for Environmental Health Division of Emergency and EnvironmentalCS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths

  8. Water, Ohio's Remarkable Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Carrie J.

    Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…

  9. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  10. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Silver ionization water purification technology was originally developed for Apollo spacecraft. It was later used to cleanse swimming pools and has now been applied to industrial cooling towers and process coolers. Sensible Technologies, Inc. has added two other technologies to the system, which occupies only six square feet. It is manufactured in three capacities, and larger models are custom built on request. The system eliminates scale, corrosion, algae, bacteria and debris, and because of the NASA technology, viruses and waterborne bacteria are also destroyed. Applications include a General Motors cooling tower, amusement parks, ice manufacture and a closed-loop process cooling system.

  11. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation ... amount of fluoride, which is important for preventing tooth decay and promoting oral health. Some bottled waters contain ...

  12. Improved water does not mean safe water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  13. Water Resources Data, Alaska, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, D.F.; Solin, G.L.; Apgar, M.L.; Hess, D.L.; Swenson, W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Alaska consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This volume contains records for water discharge at 112 gaging stations; stage or contents only at 4 gaging stations; water quality at 37 gaging stations; and water levels for 30 observation wells. Also included are data for 51 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Alaska.

  14. Drinking Water Problems: Lead 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2004-02-20

    Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

  15. Water: Consumer Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EPA's (PDF) page to learn more. Your Drinking Water Quality Water On Tap: What You Need to ... Drinking Water Sources (PDF) (2 pp, 563K) Drinking Water Emergencies Learn what to do in the event ...

  16. Sodium in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) and Regulatory Determination Share ... Drinking Water Standards Regulating Public Water Systems Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) and Regulatory Determination About ...

  17. Water Resources & Environmental Engineering

    E-print Network

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Water Resources & Environmental Engineering Graduate Research Symposium NORTH CAROLINA STATE Management Air Pollution & Risk Analysis Water & Wastewater Engineering Groundwater Remediation Water were outraged to learn that hazardous levels of lead had been present in their drinking water supply

  18. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePLUS

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water and requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports, which include information about lead amounts, are available to consumers. For ...

  19. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  20. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  1. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive and diverse water resources 54,836 miles of rivers and streams 1.8 million acres of lakes, reservoirs

  2. Everyone into the Water!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…

  3. Testing the Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finks, Mason

    1993-01-01

    Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)

  4. Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    E-print Network

    Delene, David J.

    Water Content Probe Coil is heated to given temperature ~185 °C. Coil supplies energy in the form of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv - Boiling Temperature of Water · Ta ­ Ambient Temperature #12 of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv ­ Water Boiling Temperature Solve for Liquid Water Content · P

  5. MODELING WATER QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality models are based on some representation of hydrology and may include movement of surface water, ground water, and mixing of water in lakes and water bodies. Water quality models simulate some combination of sediment, nutrients, heavy metals, xenobiotics, and aquatic biology. Althoug...

  6. Water Resources Data, Missouri, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauck, H.S.; Nagel, C.D.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies and organizations, obtains a large quantity of data pertaining to the water resources of Missouri each water year (October 1 to September 30). These data, accumulated during the water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of Missouri. Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Missouri consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs. This volume contains discharge records for 172 gaging stations; elevation at 12 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 113 sampling stations (including 2 lakes); and data for 39 crest-stage stations.

  7. Lawn WateringLawn Watering Paying attention to your watering

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    and dying areas in lawns and a common source of urban runoff. Runoff can move fertilizer, pesticides areas and different soil types will have different water requirements. Deeper, less frequent watering

  8. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  9. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  10. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  11. Urban water recycling.

    PubMed

    Asano, T

    2005-01-01

    Increasing urbanization has resulted in an uneven distribution of population, industries, and water in urban areas; thus, imposing unprecedented pressures on water supplies and water pollution control. These pressures are exacerbated during the periods of drought and climatic uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to summarize emergence of water reclamation, recycling and reuse as a vital component of sustainable water resources in the context of integrated water resources management in urban and rural areas. Water quality requirements and health and public acceptance issues related to water reuse are also discussed. Reclaimed water is a locally controllable water resource that exists right at the doorstep of the urban environment, where water is needed the most and priced the highest. Closing the water cycle loop not only is technically feasible in agriculture, industries, and municipalities but also makes economic sense. Society no longer has the luxury of using water only once. PMID:16007932

  12. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water

  13. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  14. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 9: Water in Agriculture () January 13, 2010 1 / 14 #12;Water in Agriculture Historically: Biggest consumer of water, in developed kilos of sugar. Though the source of water in all the three cases is usually different. Agriculture

  15. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fs-027-01.pdf--665KB A Primer on Water Quality What is in the water? Is it safe for drinking? Can fish and ... affect water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as ...

  16. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  17. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  18. Enabling better water management

    E-print Network

    Greenslade, Diana

    . Critical water decisions In spring 2010, ACTEW Water was considering whether water storage levels had climate data, a small number of scenarios showed that water in the storages would remain below the level not indicate that water storages would decline below the level needed to keep restrictions in place. In fact

  19. Water Quality: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, LaVere B.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

  20. WATER RECLAMATION AND AUTOMATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Clara Valley Water District owns and operates a water reclamation facility located in the Palo Alto Baylands area in Northern California. The purpose of the facility is to provide reclaimed water suitable for injection into the groundwater, thereby providing a salt wate...

  1. Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Prevent runoff and shrubs, either through directly killing plants or making them more prone to disease. Fertilizer runoff into storm drains pollutes waterways. Maintain plant health and protect water quality by fertilizing

  2. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  3. Drinking Water Problems: Copper 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2006-01-25

    an alternative drink- ing-water supply such as bottled water. Treatment options for reducing copper concentrations in water include (1) reverse osmosis, (2) distillation or (3) ion exchange. Reverse osmosis and distillation treatment options typically are point...

  4. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  5. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

  6. Lawn Water Management 

    E-print Network

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  7. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  8. Water safety and drowning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR. Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

  9. Revealing water’s secrets: deuterium depleted water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The anomalous properties of water have been of great interest for generations of scientists. However the impact of small amount of deuterium content which is always present in water has never been explored before. For the first time the fundamental properties of deuterium depleted (light) water at 4°C and 20°C are here presented. Results The obtained results show the important role of the deuterium in the properties of bulk water. At 4°C the lowest value of the kinematic viscosity (1.46 mm2/s) has been found for 96.5 ppm D/H ratio. The significant deviation in surface tension values has been observed in deuterium depleted water samples at the both temperature regimes. The experimental data provides direct evidence that density, surface tension and viscosity anomalies of water are caused by the presence of variable concentration of deuterium which leads to the formation of water clusters of different size and quantity. Conclusions The investigated properties of light water reveal the origin of the water anomalies. The new theoretical model of cluster formation with account of isotope effect is proposed. PMID:23773696

  10. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  11. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  12. Sustainability and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate(VI) technology to meet the demand of water in this century.

  13. Water treatment technology for produced water.

    PubMed

    Szép, Angéla; Kohlheb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Large amounts of produced water are generated during oil and gas production. Produced water, as it is known in the oil industry, is briny fluid trapped in the rock of oil reservoirs. The objective of this study was to test produced waters from a Montana USA oilfield using a mobile station to design a plant to cost efficiently treat the produced water for agricultural irrigation. We used combined physical and chemical treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits. This mobile station consists of three stages: pretreatments, membrane filtration and post treatment. Two spiral-wound membrane units were employed and the rejections of various constituents were examined. The performance of two membranes, 20 kDa weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafiltration and a polyamide-composite reverse osmosis membrane was investigated. The mobile station effectively decreased conductivity by 98%, COD by 100% and the SAR by 2.15 mgeqv(0.5) in the produced water tested in this study. Cost analysis showed that the treatment cost of produced water is less expensive than to dispose of it by injection and this treated water may be of great value in water-poor regions. We can conclude that the mobile station provided a viable and cost-effective result to beneficial use of produced water. PMID:21076224

  14. Muddy Waters . . . page 4

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Research Institute · Morse Hall, Durham, NH Water, Water Everywhere asdfghjk -- continued on page 2 HereMuddy Waters . . . page 4 Braving the Storm . . . page 5 Winter 2009 Vol. 8 Issue 1 A River Runs's water sys- tem would be fast disappearing from the face of the earth as the program drew to a close

  15. Water and Something Else.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hougendobler, Nancy

    Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…

  16. WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background

    Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

  17. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  18. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  19. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  20. Old Water Pump

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....

  1. Challenges of Water Recycling

    E-print Network

    Challenges of Water Recycling State of the Estuary September 18, 2015 Ashwini Kantak Environmental max 54 MGD #12;South Bay Water Recycling Program #12;Strategic Plan Guiding Principles Near Term (2015 Planning Framework #12;Water Supply Focus for Future of Recycled Water Regional Wastewater Facility Near

  2. Water Quality is Happening

    E-print Network

    Futuristic Water Quality Management is Happening Thomas Mumley SF Bay Water Board September 18, 2015 #12;We are fixing · Sanitary sewer overflows · Private laterals Water Quality Management = mostly very good #12;We are fixing controllable legacy contamination · Mercury · PCBs Water Quality Management

  3. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 2: Water cycle, stocks and flows () July 28, 2013 1 / 30 #12;The basic movement of water source: USGS. () July 28, 2013 2 / 30 #12, humidity and air flow. Formation of liquid-water in the Atmosphere-Cloud-Formation Coming Down Rain

  4. Water Waves Roger Grimshaw

    E-print Network

    Water Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves nonlinear waves. Throughout the theory is based on the traditional assumptions that water is inviscid

  5. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 7: Regional Groundwater than the unit situations that we saw. Surface water/Groundwater interactions. lakes and streams springs (seepage) Ambient water-table movements Seasonal changes Inteference with other water end-users. Inherent

  6. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 8: Wells () August 28, 2012 project, utilizing enhanced ground-water. Water lifted from storage, to accumulate overnight from aquifer. Water from shallow aquifer, of about 7-8m thickness. accounts for about 30% of irrigation Unique

  7. Potable water taste enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.

  8. New Folklore about Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMaire, Peter; Waiveris, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Describes experiments designed to investigate the cooling rate of microwave-boiled water as compared to that of stove-boiled water. Concludes that within experimental limits, microwave-boiled water and stove-boiled water cool at the same rate. (JRH)

  9. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

  10. Water use in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    For California, population data used to estimate public water-supply use comes from Urban Water Management Plans, California Department of Water Resources, California Department of Public Health, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data. Population data used to estimate domestic, self-supplied water use came from the difference between the Census population and the public-supply population.

  11. Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion

    E-print Network

    Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion Mark L. McFarland, Tony L. Provin, and Diane E. Boellstorff. This type of corrosion is not necessarily caused by water chemistry, but by exposure to soil or other drinking water standards for copper and lead (http://water.epa.gov/drink/ contaminants

  12. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  13. Alabama Water Use, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

  14. Can Water Mean Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of UNICEF News explores the theme of connections between water and health in developing countries. The introductory article discusses prospects for improving health through water projects during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90). Subsequent articles focus on (1) effects of a piped water supply on…

  15. Hold the Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert; Reichardt, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Many facilities are considering no-water urinals because they are regarded as an effective way to conserve water. Water must be pumped by electricity, some estimate that as much as $300 per year per urinal can be saved in utility costs. The installation of no-water urinals can help buildings achieve credits toward Leadership in Energy and…

  16. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  17. Leptospirosis from water sources

    PubMed Central

    Wynwood, Sarah Jane; Graham, Glenn Charles; Weier, Steven Lance; Collet, Trudi Anne; McKay, David Brian; Craig, Scott Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis outbreaks have been associated with many common water events including water consumption, water sports, environmental disasters, and occupational exposure. The ability of leptospires to survive in moist environments makes them a high-risk agent for infection following contact with any contaminated water source. Water treatment processes reduce the likelihood of leptospirosis or other microbial agents causing infection provided that they do not malfunction and the distribution networks are maintained. Notably, there are many differences in water treatment systems around the world, particularly between developing and developed countries. Detection of leptospirosis in water samples is uncommonly performed by molecular methods. PMID:25348115

  18. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in other liquids also. Recent evidence of a close relation between thermodynamical properties and dynamical behaviour of water are also discussed. Gallo et al present the results of a computer simulation of water confined in a cylindrical pore of MCM-41 silica material. The mobile portion of the confined water shows a fragile to strong dynamic transition similar to the bulk. In the bound water, an anomalous diffusion connected to the residence time distribution is found. Franzese et al report calculations on lattice models adapted to describe general properties of water in contact with protein surfaces. The results of Monte Carlo and mean field calculations show the presence of two-dynamical crossovers. Corradini et al investigate the supercooled region of ionic aqueous solutions in order to study the effect of ions on the limit of mechanical stability, the lines of maximum density and the liquid-liquid critical point for different ionic concentrations. The paper by Vallauri et al deals with the dynamical behavior of water close to the liquid-liquid transition by considering the velocity correlation functions calculated in three supercooled states. Suffritti et al study water adsorbed in zeolites with a new empirical potential, structural and dynamical properties are studied in the supercooled region. The second group starts with a paper on the problem of solvation by Lynden-Bell. The author shows how the properties of water and, in particular, solvation properties are modified by changes in the site-site interaction potential of water. Henchman et al derive equations for different thermodynamical quantities like partial enthalpy and partial entropy for dilute solutions of noble gases. The third group starts with Buldyrev et al who study the swelling of bead-on-a-string polymers in Jagla water-like particles, finding similarities with respect to cold denaturation of protein in water. Pellenq et al consider water confined in pores of different materials with different size scales. Silicalite and tobermorite, a layered calcio-silicate model of cement and Vycor are anal

  19. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  20. Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of

    E-print Network

    Scott, Christopher

    Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of Recycled Water Arizona Hydrological.Eng. Global Water 22 September 2008 #12;Overview · The Finite Nature of Water · Water Availability and Population Growth · Types of Reuse · Water Efficiency of Reuse · Power Efficiency of Reuse #12;Water Scarcity

  1. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  2. Innovative Water Reuse 

    E-print Network

    Jaber, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    Water District Landscape Water Conservation ? Texas SmartScape ? Earth Kind ? Xeriscape ? Waterwise ? Yard Smart ? Water Smart Basic Principles ? Planning and Design ? Soil Analysis and Preparation ? Plant Selection ? Practical.... C. Fisher Lake 2011 0.7% of capacity DFW Metroplex Lakes North Central Texas Future ? Currently: 1.7 million Acre-feet of water is now available to North Texas ? Future Projection: 3.3 million acre-feet of water North Texas required in 2060...

  3. Water Resources Data, Mississippi, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D.P.; Storm, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.

  4. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    PubMed

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

  5. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, João P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

  6. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  7. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  8. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  9. Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Facts Index of Healthy Water-related Topics Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming/ ... minimizing the risk of illness and injury. Recreational Water Illness (noun): Illness caused by germs and chemicals ...

  10. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  11. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  12. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  13. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  14. Water-transporting proteins.

    PubMed

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    Transport through lipids and aquaporins is osmotic and entirely driven by the difference in osmotic pressure. Water transport in cotransporters and uniporters is different: Water can be cotransported, energized by coupling to the substrate flux by a mechanism closely associated with protein. In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water is not clear. It is associated with the substrate movements in aqueous pathways within the protein; a conventional unstirred layer mechanism can be ruled out, due to high rates of diffusion in the cytoplasm. The physiological roles of the various modes of water transport are reviewed in relation to epithelial transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity of the transportate to approach isotonicity. PMID:20091162

  15. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  16. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  17. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  18. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  19. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  20. Water produced at the University of Iowa Water treatment plant

    E-print Network

    Neiman, Maurine

    Water produced at the University of Iowa Water treatment plant meets or surpasses all federal and state drinking-water standards at this time. For information about the University of Iowa water supply, call us at 319-335-5168 Water Source The University of Iowa Water Plants' primary source of water

  1. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  2. Water Tower - 3 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2005-06-30

    Salinity is a major determinant of where and how water resources are used worldwide. Natural salt pollution severely constrains the beneficial use of large amounts of water in Texas and neighboring states. High salinity ...

  3. Society and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qutub, Musa Y.

    1972-01-01

    At a national symposium on Societal Problems of Water Resources at Western Illinois University, scientists discussed dams, canals, water pollution control and management programs, federal-state relations in resource planning, and their effects on how we live. (BL)

  4. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  5. Rural ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    D'Itri, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Remedial Actions; Analysis and Control of Rural Ground Wate; Ground Water Contamination Sources; Research Theory, and Practice; and Regulations Pertaining to Rural Ground Water.

  6. A gathering of water

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, Naomi Leah, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    The act of immersion is a powerful catalyst for the affirmation or transformation of identity. How we place ourselves in water expresses cultural valuations of our bodies, water, and social relations, as well as categories ...

  7. Water: Human Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Human Health Water Quality Criteria Certain chemicals can harm human health ... Quality Criteria 2000 EPA Methodology for Deriving Ambient Water Quality Criteria for the Protection of Human Health ...

  8. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Building Numerical Models () August of surface flow of water and infiltration which may include time to flow, movement of solids etc. () August

  9. Water Tower - 14 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    Previous studies using tertiary amines to extract water from reagent-grade carboxylate salts (calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate) have shown selectivity for water and not for the carboxylate salts. These results ...

  10. Electrophoretic Clarification of Water 

    E-print Network

    Hiler, E. A.; Lyle, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    There is an ever growing need for new and superior water treatment methods which will remove the alarming growth and variety of pollutants present in our waters. Suspended particulate matter such as clay, algae, and bacteria are troublesome...

  11. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  12. Analyzing water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report on water resources discusses problems in water measurement demand, use, and availability. Also discussed are sensing accuracies, parameter monitoring, and status of forecasting, modeling, and future measurement techniques.

  13. Water Safety (Recreational)

    MedlinePLUS

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  14. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

  15. Walking on water

    E-print Network

    Bush, John W. M.

    The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

  16. About Body Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have more fat, so the percentage of body weight that is water in the average woman is lower (52 to ... the average man (60%). The percentage of body weight that is water is also lower in older people and in ...

  17. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2005-12-02

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  18. What's In My Water

    E-print Network

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-04-21

    You can learn about the quality of your water by sending a sample to a laboratory for analysis. This publication will help you understand the lab report by explaining the properties, components and contaminants often found in water. It describes...

  19. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and
    remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  20. Water penetration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Nine film-filter combinations have been tested for effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail when exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. An experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and an infrared film with selected filters were tested. Results have been tabulated to show the relative capability of each film-filter combination for: (1) image contrast in shallow water (0 to 5 feet); (2) image contrast at medium depth (5 to 10 feet); (3) image contrast in deep water (10 feet plus); (4) water penetration; maximum depth where detail was discriminated; (5) image color (the spectral range of the image); (6) vegetation visible above a water background; (7) specular reflections visible from the water surface; and (8) visual compatibility; ease of discriminating image detail. Recommendations for future recording over water bodies are included.

  1. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  2. Water Saving for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a permanent cooperation among Public Bodies and Institutions, with the creation of a transferable model of best practices. WaS4D will carry out initiatives and advisory services aimed to encourage a behavior change, influencing citizens' demand and support consumers who wish to take action to reduce drinking water use: for the civil use, from literature, it's possible to reduce drinkable water consumption up to 50% using simple and economic tools, with a large environmental positive impact. WaS4D mainly focuses on the needs to define a participatory approach to enhance water-saving culture at urban level, encouraging a shift from supply-driven policies to management policies and from a sectorial to an integrated approach. The innovative character of the project is referred to the integrated approach as well as to the creation of new web services & tools.

  3. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  4. Technology in water conservation 

    E-print Network

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01

    Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a behavioral exercise and urge... on technological factors. ?e technology does not have to be complex to be important ? consider high e?ciency toilets and showerheads. ?ese everyday appliances largely rely on simple technologies to increase the impact of rinsing and reduce water use. A...

  5. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  6. The Mystery of Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Anders

    2005-11-21

    Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the nature of H-bonding, presenting exciting new avenues of research and challenging existing models of water’s structure.

  7. Save water, save money

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  8. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  9. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  10. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  11. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  12. PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...

  13. Robotic Water Blast Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.

    1983-01-01

    Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.

  14. Water treatment method

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1990-02-02

    A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

  15. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  16. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  17. Water Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindin, Ervin

    1975-01-01

    Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)

  18. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  19. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

  20. Total Water Management - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  1. Total Water Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...

  2. Up Goes the Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Water is very important to plants. Plants need water to produce food and grow. Plants make their own food through a complex, sunlight-powered process called photosynthesis. Simply put, in photosynthesis, water absorbed by a plant's roots and carbon dioxide taken from the air by a plant's leaves combine to make the plant's food. This article…

  3. Water Science and Management

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    1 ESM 121 Water Science and Management Spring 2015 Exercise 8: Risk Analysis and Expected Monetary yields for rice. The crop yield varies with respect to the water applied per hectare. The capital cost) Estimate the benefits for each type of irrigation water allocation 2) Estimate the net benefits per hectare

  4. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 10: Minor Structures for Ground and Surface Water () March 23, 2010 1 / 31 #12;Classification by Purpose We may classify the velocity of water-flow (ii) increasing the infiltration coefficient (iii) explicit groundwater recharge

  5. Water Resources Research Center

    E-print Network

    District of Columbia, University of the

    Water Resources Research Center WASHINGTON, DISTRICT Of COLUMBIA #12;ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF THE ART AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS IN RECREATION BENEFIT, VALUATION FOR WATER RESOURCES PLANNING conducted by Robert C. Waters Vassilios Moustakis Department of Engineering Administration School

  6. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 4: Groundwater () December in dried sample. Saturation: When these voids are fully filled with water. Specific Yield Sy : the ration of the colume of water that drains from a rock owing to gravity, to the total rock volumne. 00000000

  7. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Analysis Framework for the 2009 / 16 #12;Vol II and Vol III Vol. II 1 Annexure I, Chap. 1: Bulk-water and tariffs-Principles. 2 Annexure I, Chap. 2: International Case Studies. 3 Annexure II: Report on water conservation technologies

  8. Water Pollution Control Legislation

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Reference: Water Pollution Control Legislation ALISON JONES is Watershed Management Initiative to protect water quality. Pollution from "point sources" such as industry and wastewater treatment plants has, including pollution from irrigated agriculture. FEDERAL LAWS Clean Water Act -- 1972 and 1987 The Federal

  9. WATER ADVISORY PARTNERSHIP

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    COCONINO PLATEAU WATER ADVISORY COUNCIL& WATERSHED PARTNERSHIP 3624 E. Mesquite St. Gilbe~t, Arizona 85296" 1832 Participants: Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Arizona Department of Water City ofFlagstaff City of Page City of Sedona City of Williams Coconino County Doney Park Water Company

  10. Water Science and Management

    E-print Network

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    1 ESM 121 Water Science and Management Spring 2015 Exercise 6: Flow Regime Analysis Samuel Sandoval, and irrigation and municipal water supply. We will be using the IHA software to analyze flow data below: Define water year Step 5: Set up an analysis ·name, periods, statistics, graph titles Step 6: Run

  11. Water Reuse Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

  12. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  13. Growing Water Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

  14. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 6: Mathematics, z). velocity vx (x, y, z, t) : in the x-direction. vx = Kx h/x saturated/water- table. Continuity Equation What is vx x + vy y + vz z ? It is the rate of accumulation of water at the point (x, y

  15. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 1: A Perspective () July 20, 2012 1 / 17 #12;Outline Two parts: The technical side to water. -M. Sohoni The basic hydrological cycle. The societal side to water. -N. C. Narayanan () July 20, 2012 2 / 17 #12;Texts Applied Hydrogeology, by C. W

  16. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  17. Water Security Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  18. EPANET WATER QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...

  19. Enceladus' Water Vapour Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.

  20. Developing Our Water Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volker, Adriaan

    1977-01-01

    Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

  1. Tracking Subsurface Water

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Jeff Wynn, Herb Pierce and Chris Lockett (R to L) observe the incoming data used to measure water conductivity in the deep (900+ m) subsurface at Mount St. Helens. Water, from rain, melting snow and ice, seeps into the rubble of the crater floor. The water fills the pore spaces and interacts with st...

  2. NASA Water Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David L.

    2011-01-01

    With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes. I) Streamflow and Flood Forecasting 2) Water Supply and Irrigation (includes evapotranspiration) 3) Drought 4) Water Quality 5) Climate and Water Resources. To maximize this activity NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies (e.g., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USAID, the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)), universities, non-profit national and international organizations, and the private sector. The NASA Water Resources program currently is funding 21 active projects under the functional themes (http://wmp.gsfc.nasa.gov & http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/applied-sciences/).

  3. Water: The Strangest Liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Anders

    2009-02-24

    Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.

  4. Stratospheric water vapor feedback.

    PubMed

    Dessler, A E; Schoeberl, M R; Wang, T; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K H

    2013-11-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry-climate model to be +0.3 W/(m(2)?K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  5. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

  6. Stratospheric water vapor feedback

    PubMed Central

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry–climate model to be +0.3 W/(m2?K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  7. Future water Cherenkov detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bergevin, Marc

    2015-05-15

    In these proceedings a review of the current proposed large-scale Warer Cherenkov experiments is given. An argument is made that future water Cherenkov detectors would benefit in the investment in neutron detection technology. A brief overview will be given of proposed water Cherenkov experiments such as HYPER-K and MEMPHYS and other R and D experiments to demonstrate neutron capture in water Cherenkov detectors. Finally, innovation developed in the context of the now defunct LBNE Water R and D option to improve Water Cherenkov technology will be described.

  8. Champions of Texas Water 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    concerted statewide effort on water conservation is needed. ?It is very important that this state realizes the current and ever-increasing scarcity and, therefore, the greater value of our water supply and develops ways to use water more efficiently... stream_source_info Champions of Texas water.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 12250 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Champions of Texas water.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx...

  9. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  10. Drinking water and cancer.

    PubMed

    Morris, R D

    1995-11-01

    Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

  11. The Mars water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent ice cap in the Arctic and not in the Antarctic. No permanent ice reservoirs are predicted in the temperate or equatorial zones. Wintertime ice deposits in the Arctic are shown to be the source of the large water vapor abundances observed in the Arctic summertime, and the moderate water vapor abundances in the northern temperate region. Model calculations suggest that a year without dust storms results in very little change in the water vapor distribution. The current water distribution appears to be the equilibrium distribution for present atmospheric conditions.

  12. Water heating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, K.

    1984-11-20

    A water heating apparatus comprising a refrigerant loop for natural circulation which includes a hot water storage tank for holding water to be heated, a heat collecting plate for collecting solar heat, and refrigerant tubes having a refrigerant sealed therein and extending to unite the hot water storage tank with the heat collecting plate and another refrigerant loop for refrigeration cycle which includes a compressor and an expansion valve which are connected in the refrigerant tube uniting the hot water storage tank with the heat collecting plate. The water in the hot water storage tank is elevated in temperature selectively by the natural circulation action where there is a sufficient amount of sunshine or by the refrigeration cycle where the amount of sunshine is insufficient.

  13. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  14. Water, Hydration and Health

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

    2010-01-01

    This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

  15. Water Homeostasis: Evolutionary Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zeidel, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    As a major component of homeostasis, all organisms regulate the water composition of various compartments. Through the selective use of barrier membranes and surface glycoproteins, as well as aquaporin water channels, organisms ranging from Archaebacteria to humans can vary water permeabilities across their cell membranes by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. In barrier epithelia the outer, or exofacial, leaflet acts as the main resistor to water flow; this leaflet restricts water flow by minimizing the surface area of lipid molecules which is not covered by phosphate headgroups and by packing hydrocarbon chains at maximal density. Cells may enhance the barrier by expressing glycoproteins that augment the “thickness” of unstirred layers at their surfaces, reducing osmotic gradients at the lipid bilayer surface. Aquaporins markedly and highly selectively accelerate water flux and are “switched on” either by deployment into membranes or gating. This review summarizes these mechanisms in many species, and indicates potential roles for manipulating water permeabilities in treating disease. PMID:23303973

  16. The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Aaron

    The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water Information Network Collaboration................................................................................................. 27 3.3 Stakeholder Analysis

  17. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  18. Water Management at UBC Okanagan Part 2: Water Features

    E-print Network

    Water Management at UBC Okanagan Part 2: Water Features UBC Okanagan 2007 Angele Clarke A SEEDS and Objectives 2 Methods 3 The Symbolic and Cultural Values of Water 3 Landscape Aesthetics Relationship to Water 5 UBC-Okanagan Campus Landscape and Water Features 8 Water Features and the Built Environment Campus

  19. WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    103 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;105 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT [As Amended Through P.L. 106­580, Dec. 29, 2000 planning of water and related land resources, through the establishment of a water resources council

  20. II. Properties of Water 1. Ice and Liquid water structure

    E-print Network

    Frey, Terry

    .6: Five Critical Properties of Water 1. Ice and liquid water structure Temperature 0°C Temperature > 0°C water ·Water is liquid at a relatively high temperature > 0°C required to raise temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C (1 calorie, 1 cal) Large bodies of water stabilize

  1. Water balance approach to determine upward water movement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shallow water tables can contribute water moving up into the root zone. The purpose of this study was to quantify upward moving water. Automated sensors were used to monitor soil water content and water table depth on sites in Central Iowa, which had varying shallow water tables. Tipping bucket rain...

  2. Perceptions of water use.

    PubMed

    Attari, Shahzeen Z

    2014-04-01

    In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608

  3. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  4. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  5. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or frozen. One exception would be a water distillation system. These systems heat water to the boiling ... then collect water vapor as it evaporates. Water distillation systems are typically used in laboratories. For home ...

  6. The Chilled Water and Hot Water Building Differential Pressure Setpoint Calculation - Chilled Water and Hot Water Pump Speed Control 

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H., Jr.; Claridge, D.; Liu, C.; Deng, S.

    2002-01-01

    Water and Hot Water Building Deferential Pressure Setpoint Calculation ? Chilled Water and Hot Water Pump Speed Control Chenggang Liu Research Associate Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, TX Homer L. Bruner...&M University College Station, TX ABSTRACT More and more variable frequency devices (VFD) are being installed on the chilled water and hot water pumps on the TAMU campus. Those pump speeds are varied to maintain chilled water or hot water...

  7. Dechlorination of waste water and cooling water

    SciTech Connect

    Helz, G.R.; Kosak-Channing, L.

    1984-02-01

    The movement toward dechlorination is propelled by a desire to escape the environmental problems associated with both the residual oxidants and halocarbons produced by chlorination. The chemistry of dechlorination is reviewed with the purpose of showing that questions remain about the environmental effects of the general use of dechlorination. Comparisons of the toxicity of chlorinated vs. chlor-dechlorinated water show that dechlorination reduces acute toxicity to aquatic organisms, but sublethal biological effects were noted in chlor-dechlorinated waters and in waters treated only with dechlorinating agents. Types of dechlorinating agents are discussed with special emphasis on the sulfur containing compounds. It is of considerable importance that dechlorinating with S(IV) compounds in the effluent. The formation of sulfonates during dechlorination is discussed, as well as the prevention of halocarbons. The effect of dechlorination on downstream trace-metal chemistry is related.

  8. The Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly called the Clean Water Act (CWA), was adopted on 18 October 1972. Since then it has been amended 18 times, the last amendments were adopted on 4 February 1987. As established, its objective is: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation`s waters. And has, as an interim goal: water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the water. It should be noted that Congress established as the Act`s ultimate goal: the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated. The Act set out to meet this lofty objective and goal through the development and implementation of controls on the point source discharges and the nonpoint source release of pollutants. The regulation of point and nonpoint sources as well as future requirements are discussed.

  9. Water, trachoma and conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Prost, A.; Négrel, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of eye infections in a community is generally accepted as an indicator of the adequacy of water supply for their needs. However, discrepancies in the published results from various studies seem to challenge this view. We have reanalysed the published data on trachoma in relation to the most relevant indicators of water accessibility, using prevalence ratios as the single parameter for risk assessment. A definite trend emerges from this review: the incidence of infectious conjunctivitis is not sensitive to differences in water accessibility; on the other hand, a reduction in the risk of trachoma is consistently associated with better access to water. This conclusion may support the efforts of WHO and other multilateral and bilateral agencies to sustain the commitment towards the water supply sector beyond the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. PMID:2650903

  10. Water and wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  11. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  12. TRIBAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality standards are the foundation for water management actions. They provide the basis for regulating discharges of pollutants to surface waters, and provide a target for restoration of degraded waters. Water quality standards identify and protect uses of the water bod...

  13. WATER QUALITY MODELING OF THE

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    WATER QUALITY MODELING OF THE STATE OF OHIO COMPONENT OF THE OHIO RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY TRADING PROGRAM #12;Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Trading Program #12;2 Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water

  14. RESPONDING TO WATER CONTAMINATION THREATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water safety has traditionally been linked to water quality. The possibility of terrorism directed against the drinking water supply has emphasized the link between water safety and water security. The traditional paradigm in solving water quality problems is to develop ...

  15. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.

  16. Borehole cementing over water

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, T.K.

    1984-05-01

    A borehole cementing process is disclosed in which a quantity of water-like fluid is pumped into a borehole above drilling mud and the cement slurry is pumped into the borehole above at least a portion of the water-like fluid. Turbulent mixing of cement slurry and water at the interface creates an isolation zone preventing degradation of the bulk of the cement slug.

  17. Radon in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Cothern, R.; Rebers, P.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers most aspects of radionuclides in drinking water. The authors present occurrence, mechanisms resulting in human exposure, health effects, quantitative risk assessment, analytical chemistry methodology, treatment technology, and enforcement aspects. With new regulations for radionuclides in drinking water, this volume will be valuable for understanding where radionuclides come from, how their presence is determined, where humans come in contact with them, health effects consequences (both for individuals and communities), removal from water, disposal problems and cost implications.

  18. Purified water quality study

    SciTech Connect

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  19. Drinking Water Standards 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26

    and fill a glass with water, you expect it to be safe and pure. However, drinking water can contain gases, minerals, bacteria, metals or chemicals that can affect your health and the quali- ty of your water. Some of these contaminants occur naturally...: ? pathogens, which are disease-causing organ- isms such as bacteria, fungi or viruses. ? radioactive elements, which are substances that emit radiation, such as radium, uranium and plutonium. Radiation can cause cancer in people and other living things...

  20. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 3: Watershed and Maps () July 23, 2013 1 / 18 #12;Domain Decomposition p1 p2 p3 p5 p4 surface water A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 salinity ingress water table q W(q) W(p2) The watershed W (x) of a point x is W (x) = {all points y from where

  1. The Mystery of Water

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, Anders

    2005-11-21

    Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the nature of H-bonding, presenting exciting new avenues of research and challenging existing models of water's structure.

  2. The clean water handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuckle, J.G.; Randle, R.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors offer an explanation of how the clean water laws and regulations affect business operations. This book includes chapters on: Introduction and overview of the Clean Water Act; Enforcement: the power behind the word; toxics water quality standards for industrial and municipal discharges: development and application; Effluent limitations for toxic pollutant discharges from industrial sources: development and application; National pollutant elimination system; Control of stormwater and nonpoint source discharges of water pollution; Reporting and cleanup requirements for releases, spills, or discharges of oil and hazardous substances; Oil spill liability legislation; and Special issues facing publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and their effect on industrial pretreatment obligations and expenses.

  3. Water purification in Borexino

    SciTech Connect

    Giammarchi, M.; Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.; Miramonti, L.

    2013-08-08

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

  4. Global Water Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidment, D. R.; Salas, F.; Teng, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    A global water map is a coverage of the earth that describes the state of water circulation in a phase of the hydrologic cycle. This information can be published as a map showing the state of the water variable at a particular point in time, or charted as a time series showing the temporal variation of that variable at a point in space. Such maps can be created through the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) for precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture, and other parameters describing the vertical exchange of water between the land and atmosphere, through a combination of observations and simulation modeling. Point observations of water variables such as precipitation and streamflow are carried out by local hydrologic measurement agencies associated with a particular area. These point observations are now being published as web services in the WaterML language and federated using the Global Earth Observing System of Systems to enable the publication of water observations maps for these variables. By combining water maps derived from LDAS with those from federated point observations, a deeper understanding of global water conditions and movement can be created. This information should be described in a Hydrologic Data Book that specifies the information content of each of these map layers so that they can be appropriately used and combined.

  5. Air/Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

  6. Water Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits ofmore »a project.« less

  7. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

  8. Energy—Water Interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, E. H.; Tindall, J. A.; Campbell, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    ABSTRACT Energy and water security and sustainability have become a national and global priority. The continued security and economic health of any country depends on a sustainable supply of both energy and water because these two critical natural resources are inexorably linked. The production of energy requires large volumes of water while the treatment and distribution of water is equally dependent upon readily available, low-cost energy. In the U.S. and other countries, irrigated agriculture and thermoelectric generation withdrawals of fresh water are approximately equal however; they are growing due to increasing population. Within the U.S. electricity production requires about 190,000 million gallons of freshwater per day, accounting for over 40 percent of all daily freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. The indirect use of water (home lighting and electric appliances) is approximately equal to its direct use (watering lawns and taking showers). Current trends of water use and availability suggest that meeting future water and energy demands to support continued economic global development will require improved utilization and management of both energy and water resources. Primary concerns include: (1) Increasing populations require more food and energy; this may cause direct competition between the two largest water users for limited water resources (energy and agriculture); (2) Population growth and economic expansion projections indicate the U.S. alone will require an additional 393,000 MW of new generating capacity (equivalent to about 1,000 new 400 MW plants) by the year 2020 - other countries particularly India and China have similar trends; and (3) Potential environmental and ecological restrictions on the use of water for power generation such as the restrictions on cooling water withdrawals and cooling water use for nuclear power plants to protect aquatic species and habitat and the environment may reduce usable supplies. The U.S. and other Nation's abilities to meet the increasing demand for affordable water and energy are being seriously challenged by these emerging issues. This research presents potential solutions for security and sustainability of these systems, which are a pressing global priority.

  9. Surface Water Quality Standards 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    stream_source_info Surface water quality standards.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2662 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Surface water quality standards.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 SURFACE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AAs part of the ongoing program to manage Texaswater quality, the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) is currently review- ing the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards, including the standards for contact...

  10. Michigan Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blumer, S.P.; Whited, C.R.; Ellis, J.M.; Minnerick, R.J.; LeuVoy, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    This volume of the annual hydrologic data report of Michigan is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each state, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the hydrologic information needed by State, local, and Federal agencies, and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources.

  11. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  12. Drinking Water Problems: Perchlorate 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2005-11-18

    on this topic, see http://www.epa.gov/safewater/ccl How can you remove perchlorate from well water? Well owners can treat their water to remove per- chlorate using reverse osmosis or ion exchange processes. Reverse Osmosis (RO) A reverse osmosis (RO) unit...: http://www.tnrcc.state.tx.us/ permitting/waterperm/ pdw/chemlabs.pdf Once you have established the constituents present in your water supply, research different products and find one suitable for treating these constituents. If you need multiple water...

  13. Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-03-28

    is contaminated by fertilizers, it may also contain other agricultural chemicals besides nitrates, such as pesti- cides. What happens to nitrates/nitrites in the environment? In natural waters, most nitrogenous materials tend to be converted to nitrate. So you... for discharging the waste- water produced by the treatment process The RO unit operates by passing water under pres- sure though a semi-permeable membrane (Fig. 4). The membrane allows water to pass through but blocks the nitrate. You can improve the nitrate...

  14. Be Water Smart 

    E-print Network

    Swyden, Courtney

    2006-01-01

    conservation program, uses a unique approach to protect and conserve water quality and quantity in upper Texas Gulf Coast urban landscapes. Part of the Texas Coastal Watershed Program (TCWP), WaterSmart is creating rain gardens as just one method... to contin- ue to water and fertilize lawns. ?We will need to help them minimize the impacts,? he said. For more information, visit TCWP?s WaterSmart Landscapes Web site at: http://www.watersmart.cc/ . Awards Dr. Ed Smith, director, Texas Cooperative...

  15. Water purification in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammarchi, M.; Balata, M.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.; Ioannucci, L.; Miramonti, L.; Nisi, S.

    2013-08-01

    Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

  16. Water Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple water fixture inventory information and calculates the water/energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes water conservation measures for: Low-flow Toilets, Low-flow Urinals, Low-flow Faucets, and Low-flow Showheads. This tool calculates water savings, energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  17. Cooling water distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  18. Water - an inexhaustible resource?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

    2012-04-01

    We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy resource Water is used to produce energy under different processes like ancient tamed energy such as water mills, locks or more recently tidal energy, marine current power, generators based on swell or osmotic gradients. The pupils will work in groups to present different techniques to the class. We could try to determine if all these energy resources could replace the actual major energy source in France: nuclear. Conclusion: Liquid water is probably the cradle of life. Since the birth of human kind, its history is closely linked to the presence of water: drinking, fishing, hygiene, and also transport or business is strictly depending on this resource. Described as a fragile and limited resource when it is used for human consumption, we realize that water is also an uneven resource of energy for the next generations. The challenge will then be to reconcile these different aspects: respecting this nourishing resource and preserving it from pollution, overexploitation or wasting, and at the same time, using water as energy for a world that has a growing population.

  19. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 980 observation wells and water-quality data for 239 observation monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  20. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Johnson, J.A.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in weils. Volume 5 contains water levels for 1,037 observation wells and water-quality data for 254 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperatine State and Federal agencies in California.

  1. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 5. Ground-water Data for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 786 observation wells and water-quality data for 168 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. SOURCE WATER ASSESSMENT USING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 Amendments to Section 1453 of the Safe Drinking Water Act require the states to establish and implement a Source Water Assessment Program. Source water is the water taken from rivers, reservoirs, or wells for use as public drinking water. Source water assessment is inten...

  3. Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1975-01-01

    Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

  4. Water Availability and Management of Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

  5. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  6. Integrated Planning for Water and Energy Systems

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Residential Commercial Industrial Water Distribution Wastewater Treatment Wastewater Collection Wastewater of water in a specific location. #12;Water Extraction & Conveyance Water Treatment End-Use Agricultural Discharge Recycled Water Treatment Recycled Water Distribution Source Source Energy Inputs to Water Systems

  7. Where the water is: Mapping global drivers of water scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Water scarcity, and its implications for human and ecosystem wellbeing, is well documented. To mitigate activities that exacerbate water scarcity, and to adapt to scarcity when it is unavoidable, we must understand the drivers of water scarcity. Based on data from the new WaterGAP3 model, we analyze patterns of water stress and water use in watersheds globally. Our data include information on multi-sectoral water withdrawal and consumption as well as irrigation data for individual crops. We assess monthly water use and availability as well as annual trends. Of 11,050 basins, about 2.5% are over-extended, with higher levels of water consumption than available water. In most of these basins, irrigated agriculture dominates water withdrawals. In the majority of basins (92%), less than 20% of available water is consumed by human activity. This leaves just 5.5% of basins potentially stressed; they may not be experiencing water limitation at present, but they are highly susceptible. We consider both water availability (supply) and water withdrawals and consumption (demand) as drivers of water stress, finding that over-extended basins are both dry, with about one fifth of the water availability of the lowest stress basins, and heavy water consumers, with more than double the water consumption of moderate-stress basins. Identifying basins likely to experience water stress, and strategies and characteristics of those that are not, will help put all basins on a path toward water sustainability.

  8. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  9. Water Conservation for Agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water conservation for agriculture has been important for centuries and is becoming increasingly important due to competition among agricultural and other users. Our objectives were to review progress made in our understanding of factors affecting water conservation during the past 100 years and to ...

  10. Dating desert ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, L.; Rubin, M.; Brown, G.F.

    1961-01-01

    Tritium in Arabian rainfall has followed the trend observed in North America with peaks in 1958 and the spring of 1959. These measurements will be useful for future hydrologie studies. Water from wadi gravels averages 10 yr old. Carbon-14 measurements of deep waters indicate ages of several thousand years.

  11. Summer Water Safety Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... local emergency number. • Enroll in Red Cross water safety, first aid and CPR courses to learn how to respond. • ... equipment, a cell phone, life jackets and a first aid kit. WHAT YOU SHOULD ... more swimming and water safety tips. • Contact your local Red Cross chapter to ...

  12. Treading on Thin Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Richard D.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a simple introduction to animals whose habitat is the thin surface film of water. Describes adaptive mechanisms of water striders, whirlygigs and riffle bugs and suggests ways to observe them in the wild or as aquarium animals. Includes basic demonstrations of the nature of surface tension. (JHZ)

  13. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  14. Drinking Water Problems: MTBE 

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-08-28

    Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

  15. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  17. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  18. The Dirty Water Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Mark; Kremer, Angelika; Schluter, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    "The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how…

  19. Energy and Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, John; El-Gasseir, Mohamed

    1978-01-01

    The water consumption requirements for a variety of energy options are presented, and comparative judgments drawn. Attention is focused on problems resulting from synthetic, gaseous, and liquid fuel production. Scenarios describing possible future levels of coal and electricity use are analyzed. They point to the importance of water supply…

  20. Water Quality Instrument Cleaning

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Kerry Caslow cleaning a water quality sonde that is outfitted with probes for continuous monitoring of water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity. It is imperative that the sondes be regularly maintained so that the data, which is published online in realtime, is always accurate....

  1. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  2. Water-Quality Sampling

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Noses Creek at Powder Springs Road, Georgia. Part of the USGS safety protocol is to wear a PFD (personal flotation device) around any surface water. This scientist may not look like he has one on, but he does--it is under his rain coat. This DH-81 sampler is used to sample flood water for suspended-...

  3. WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM

    E-print Network

    ? WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY 1939-1948 Marine Biological i STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;a WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM arid to avoid delay in publication. Washington D. CWATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  5. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  6. Splash! Water Resource Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville.

    This set of activities is designed to bring water resource education into the middle school classroom using an interdisciplinary approach. The packet contains timely, localized information about the water resources of west central Florida. Each activity is aligned to middle-school Sunshine State Standards. These hands-on, minds-on activities can…

  7. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  8. Waking up to Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is having a major effect on water cycles. There is an increased intensity and frequency of severe storms resulting in flooding. Floods in other parts of the world cause death on a major scale. Meanwhile across the planet, one billion people (a sixth of the world's population) do not have access to safe drinking water, and two…

  9. Water Waves and Integrability

    E-print Network

    Rossen I. Ivanov

    2007-07-12

    The Euler's equations describe the motion of inviscid fluid. In the case of shallow water, when a perturbative asymtotic expansion of the Euler's equations is taken (to a certain order of smallness of the scale parameters), relations to certain integrable equations emerge. Some recent results concerning the use of integrable equation in modeling the motion of shallow water waves are reviewed in this contribution.

  10. Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

  11. Landscape Design & Water Quality

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    landscape edges to reduce runoff and soil erosion. University of California Statewide Integrated Pest mulches, or other materials that allow water to soak into the ground in unplanted areas. Avoid using concrete, asphalt, compacted bare soil, or other impervious surfaces wherever possible. Improve water

  12. your household water quality

    E-print Network

    Radcliffe, David

    supply is the most likely route of exposure. Skin contact is not considered harmful to health. What drinking water may be harmful to your health.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined potential health concerns are associated With UraniUm ingestion? Studies suggest that drinking water

  13. Soil Erosion by Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil erosion by water, the wearing away of the earth's surface by the forces of water and gravity, consists of rock or soil particle dislodgement, entrainment, transport, and deposition. This sequence of events occurs over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from raindrop splash moving par...

  14. Collecting Water Nutrient Data

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources scientist collects water quality data to better understand nutrients' role in the overabundance of duckweed and algae.  Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead to an overgrowth of free-floating plants such as duckweed and filamentous alg...

  15. Water resources, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing products to the development and understanding of water resources problems is considered. Geology and hydrogeology, analysis of watersheds, snow and ice, prediction of runoff from snowmelt, hydrologic land use classifications, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, flood hazards, and water quality surveys are among the topics discussed. Suggestions for further use of remotely sensed data are given along with increased user requirements.

  16. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

    1996-01-01

    A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  17. Water Rocket Workout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esler, William K.; Sanford, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    Water rockets are used to present Newton's three laws of motion to high school physics students. Described is an outdoor activity which uses four students per group. Provides a launch data sheet to record height, angle of elevation, amount of water used, and launch number. (MVL)

  18. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  19. Dehumidifying water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, W.

    1991-05-31

    The indoor swimming pool at the Glen Cove YMCA in Glen Cove, New York, has been selected for the dehumidification/water heating system demonstration project. This report provides the specifications for this system which includes a dehumidifier/air handler, condenser/water heater, and outdoor condenser. Current progress underway includes construction, vendor selection, and control system selection. (SM)

  20. Purge water management system

    DOEpatents

    Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

  1. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  3. Whose Water Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    1996-01-01

    Western states have long had their eye on the Great Lakes as a water source for irrigation and municipal supplies. Great Lakes states protect this water source and oppose any diversion that is not agreed upon by all Great Lakes states and provinces. This article presents a role-play activity simulation of a Great Lakes governors' conference. (MKR)

  4. SOIL WATER HYSTERESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since at least the early work of Haines, it has been recognized that volumetric soil water content, W, and hydraulic conductivity, K, are not singular functions of soil water pressure head, h, but rather exhibit considerable variation depending on the wetting and drying history of the soil. The non-...

  5. Skylab water balance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1977-01-01

    The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

  6. Microbiological safety of water.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D J; Sartory, D P

    2000-01-01

    Significant advances in water treatment over the last century have resulted in massive improvements in the microbiological safety of public drinking water supplies in the UK and the developed countries. Incidences of illness due to poor treatment or post-treatment contamination are rare, but when they occur tend to attract considerable media attention. A well managed water treatment works and supply system can provide high quality drinking water wherever in the world it is located. As a rule, throughout the world, private supplies tend to be of a poorer quality than public supplies, but poorly managed public supplies have the potential to make a large number of people ill and continued effort is needed to maintain and improve drinking water quality world-wide. PMID:10885106

  7. Virtual scarce water in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified. PMID:24922282

  8. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

  9. The floating water bridge The floating water bridge

    E-print Network

    Podgornik, Rudolf

    experiments were performed under normal laboratory atmosphere using triply distilled water. High speed-05) was used. #12;The floating water bridge To record the surface temperature along the water bridgeThe floating water bridge The floating water bridge Elmar C. Fuchs1 , Jakob Woisetschläger2 , Karl

  10. Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Water Management in A PEMFC: Water Transport Mechanism and Material Degradation in Gas Diffusion reaction in the cathode CL producing water and waste heat. Despite considerable progress in the overall on the water management of the PEMFC, namely the transport of product water (both liquid and vapor

  11. 1. Introduction Chilled water, a unique resource comprising water and

    E-print Network

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    1. Introduction Chilled water, a unique resource comprising water and energy elements, is commonly the targeted buildings. In typical chilled water systems, chilled water is distributed throughout the building to provide air conditioning and equipment cooling. The chilled water system has been one of the most

  12. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along monocot leaf blades, except at the leaf tip and giving the uncertainties on measurements and model parameters. Our results suggest that the observed differences between C3 and C4 plants reflect more mesophyll tortuosity rather than leaf length or interveinal distance. Using measurements of non-steady-state, spatially varying leaf water enrichment we show that spatial patterns are in steady state around midday only, just as observed for bulk leaf water, but can be easily up-scaled to the whole leaf level, independent of the degree of heterogeneity. This together suggests that regardless of the heterogeneity of leaf water enrichment, it is appropriate to take simple models of leaf water enrichment weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux for applications involving leaf water isotope enrichment. References Cuntz M, Ogée J, Farquhar GD, Peylin P & Cernusak LA (2007) Modelling advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 892-909 Farquhar GD & Cernusak LA (2005) On the isotopic composition of leaf water in the non-steady state, Functional Plant Biology 32, 293-303 Ogée J, Cuntz M, Peylin P & Bariac T (2007) Non-steady-state, non-uniform transpiration rate and leaf anatomy effects on the progressive stable isotope enrichment of leaf water along monocot leaves, Plant, Cell & Environment 30, 367-387

  13. Water quality monitor. [spacecraft potable water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, S.; Crisos, J.; Baxter, W.

    1979-01-01

    The preprototype water quality monitor (WQM) subsystem was designed based on a breadboard monitor for pH, specific conductance, and total organic carbon (TOC). The breadboard equipment demonstrated the feasibility of continuous on-line analysis of potable water for a spacecraft. The WQM subsystem incorporated these breadboard features and, in addition, measures ammonia and includes a failure detection system. The sample, reagent, and standard solutions are delivered to the WQM sensing manifold where chemical operations and measurements are performed using flow through sensors for conductance, pH, TOC, and NH3. Fault monitoring flow detection is also accomplished in this manifold assembly. The WQM is designed to operate automatically using a hardwired electronic controller. In addition, automatic shutdown is incorporated which is keyed to four flow sensors strategically located within the fluid system.

  14. Persisting Water Droplets on Water Surfaces†

    PubMed Central

    Klyuzhin, Ivan S.; Ienna, Federico; Roeder, Brandon; Wexler, Adam; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2011-01-01

    Droplets of various liquids may float on the respective surfaces for extended periods of time prior to coalescence. We explored the features of delayed coalescence in highly purified water. Droplets several millimeters in diameter were released from a nozzle onto a water surface. Results showed that droplets had float times up to hundreds of milliseconds. When the droplets did coalesce, they did so in stepwise fashion, with periods of quiescence interspersed between periods of coalescence. Up to six steps were noted before the droplet finally vanished. Droplets were released in a series, which allowed the detection of unexpected abrupt float-time changes throughout the duration of the series. Factors such as electrostatic charge, droplet size, and sideways motion had considerable effect on droplet lifetime, as did reduction of pressure, which also diminished the number of steps needed for coalescence. On the basis of present observations and recent reports, a possible mechanism for noncoalescence is considered. PMID:20961076

  15. Earth: The Water Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, R. J.; Azbej, T.; Becker, S.; Cannatelli, C.; Fall, A.; Severs, M.

    2006-05-01

    "We all live on this water planet which we have mistakenly chosen to call Earth" (Anon.) When viewed from outer space, the dominant feature of the earth's surface is the abundance of liquid water. Liquid water has been present at and near the earth's surface for most of its history, and has made it possible for life to develop, evolve and survive on the third rock from the Sun. In recent years it has also become clear that the earth's interior represents an important storehouse for water and that water in the deep earth exerts a major influence on the geochemical and geodynamic evolution of the planet. The largest near-surface water reservoir is the oceans, containing 13,400 x 1017 kg of H2O, or about 97.3% of all water at and near the earth's surface. The major geological reservoirs for water can be divided into the oceanic and continental crust, the upper and lower mantle, the transition zone and the core. The core has been estimated to contain up to 100 times the amount of water in the earth's oceans, in the form of hydrogen in high-pressure iron alloy (Williams and Hemley, 2001, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., v. 29: 365-418). In the upper and lower mantle and the transition zone water is present mainly as trace and minor amounts (101 -" 104 ppm) in nominally anhydrous phases. Even though the concentrations are low, the absolute amount of water in these mantle reservoirs may be very large given their relative contributions to the total mass of the earth. Thus, the upper mantle is estimated to contain between 1,230 and 3,693 x 1017 kg of H2O, the transition zone between 4,481 -" 89,613 x 1017 kg of H2O, and the lower mantle between 34,200 and 68,500 x 1017 kg of H2O. Assuming even the most conservative estimates for the amount of water in these geologic reservoirs, the amount of water in the oceans and other near-surface reservoirs is dwarfed by that contained in the geologic reservoirs. The conventional hydrologic cycle describes the movement of water between the various near-surface reservoirs. Similarly, water moves between the geologic reservoirs to define a geohydrologic cycle, although the fluxes between reservoirs are poorly constrained. Perhaps the most important environment in which water moves from one geo-reservoir to another is in subduction zones, where water from the subducting oceanic slab (composed of oceanic crust and upper mantle material) is transferred to several reservoirs, including the oceans, continental crust, oceanic crust, upper and (possibly) lower mantle, and the transition zone. Approximately 1.01 x 1012 kg of H2O is subducted per year. Of this amount, 9 x 111 kg is returned to the oceans by updip flow. The remainder is transported to greater depths and incorporated into the various mantle reservoirs. The major environments in which water from geo-reservoirs is returned to near-surface reservoirs are arc volcanoes and the mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Approximately 0.35 to 1.05 x 1011 kg of H2O is transferred from the deep crust and upper mantle and returned to the atmosphere per annum from arc volcanoes, while 1.2 x 1011 kg of magmatic (mantle) H2O is returned to the oceans as a result of submarine volcanism. Fluxes between the other deep-earth reservoirs are model dependent and at present are poorly constrained.

  16. Water Purification Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

  17. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    E-print Network

    Martin Chaplin

    2007-06-10

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperatures. The overall conclusion of this investigation is that water's hydrogen bond strength is poised centrally within a narrow window of its suitability for life.

  18. The politics of water

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1993-08-01

    Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

  19. WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS

    SciTech Connect

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-09-01

    Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

  20. MACPEX Water Measurement Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Thornhill, A.; Alston, E. J.; Chen, G.; Fahey, D. W.; Jensen, E. J.; Mace, G. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) airborne field campaign was conducted in March and April 2011 to investigate cirrus cloud properties and the processes that affect their impact on radiation. In pursuit of this goal the NASA WB-57 was outfitted with dozens of in-situ instruments from government and university science teams including a wide range of water instruments. This provided an unprecedented situation to compare eight water instruments on one platform measuring water vapor (CIMS, DLH, HWV, JLH, and ULH), total water (ALIAS and FISH) and ice water content (CLH/IWC) for 14 flight days. Objective and data-driven approaches were applied to analyze the comparison data and to assess the consistency levels between the instruments and instrument uncertainties. The analysis is primarily focused on the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions, paying particular attention to water levels below 20 ppmv and between 20 - 120 ppmv depending on specific instrument data coverage. To be presented are comparison results suggesting the level of the agreement among the instrument as a function of atmospheric conditions, e.g., temperature and water vapor. Also discussed are some exploratory analyses of instrument precisions.

  1. Water-driven micromotors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Pei, Allen; Wang, Joseph

    2012-09-25

    We demonstrate the first example of a water-driven bubble-propelled micromotor that eliminates the requirement for the common hydrogen peroxide fuel. The new water-driven Janus micromotor is composed of a partially coated Al-Ga binary alloy microsphere prepared via microcontact mixing of aluminum microparticles and liquid gallium. The ejection of hydrogen bubbles from the exposed Al-Ga alloy hemisphere side, upon its contact with water, provides a powerful directional propulsion thrust. Such spontaneous generation of hydrogen bubbles reflects the rapid reaction between the aluminum alloy and water. The resulting water-driven spherical motors can move at remarkable speeds of 3 mm s(-1) (i.e., 150 body length s(-1)), while exerting large forces exceeding 500 pN. Factors influencing the efficiency of the aluminum-water reaction and the resulting propulsion behavior and motor lifetime, including the ionic strength and environmental pH, are investigated. The resulting water-propelled Al-Ga/Ti motors move efficiently in different biological media (e.g., human serum) and hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical or industrial applications. PMID:22891973

  2. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  3. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  4. WATER SUPPLY A Handbook on

    E-print Network

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    WATER SUPPLY HANDBOOK A Handbook on Water Supply Planning and Resource Management Institute for Water Resources Water Resources Support Center U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 7701 Telegraph Road Studies Division December 1998 Revised IWR Report 96-PS-4 #12;U.S. Army Institute for Water Resources

  5. Waters 3100 Detector Operator's Guide

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    , and Waters are registered trademarks of Waters Corporation. Empower, IntelliStart, IonSABRE, MassWaters 3100 Detector Operator's Guide 71500135102/Revision B Copyright © Waters Corporation 2007. All rights reserved. #12;ii Copyright notice © 2007 WATERS CORPORATION. PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES

  6. WESTERN WATER ASSESSMENT WHITE PAPER

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    Paper: Water Rights and Climate Change Project 2007 #12;THE EFFECT OF CHANGING HYDROGRAPHS ON COMPACT. Western Water Assessment Working Paper: Water Rights and Climate Change Project 2007 Research supported with these changes are shifts in the timing and magnitude of water demands. The "water rights and climate change

  7. Gary Arnold Water Quality Division

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    -041-0028 Temperature WATER POLLUTION #12;DIVISION 41 WATER QUALITY STANDARDS: BENEFICIAL USES, POLICIES Implementation of Water Quality Criteria WATER POLLUTION #12;DIVISION 41 340-041-0220 Beneficial Uses to Be Protected in the Mid Coast Basin 340-041-0224 Approved TMDLs in the Basin 340-041-0225 Water Quality

  8. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  9. Water Sustainability Initiative Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Stanier, Charlie

    Water Sustainability Initiative Spring 2015 The Water Sustainability Initiative (WSI) is the first to a subject that affects us all -- water sustainability. #12;#12;Water Sustainability Initiative 1 WSI Mission Statement The University of Iowa established the Water Sustainability Initiative (WSI) to advance research

  10. Water Resources Data-Missouri, Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hauck, H.S.; Nagel, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies and organizations, obtains a large quantity of data pertaining to the water resources of Missouri each water year (October 1 to September 30). These data, accumulated during the water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of Missouri. Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Missouri consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs. This volume contains discharge records for 171 gaging stations; elevation at 12 lakes and reservoirs; water quality at 106 sampling stations (including 2 lakes); and data for 39 crest-stage stations; and water-level records for 8 ground-water monitoring wells.

  11. WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION - HOME PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts research to help prepare the primary and secondary regulations for drinking water and to develop technologies and strategies for controlling waterborne contaminants. The program integrates chemistry, engineering, micr...

  12. Water Scarcity, Climate Change, and Water Quality: Three Economic Essays 

    E-print Network

    Cai, Yongxia

    2010-07-14

    essay examines water scarcity under climate change scenarios in Texas. The third essay discusses arsenic-related water quality issues in the drinking water. An integrated economic, hydrological, and environmental model is developed for the first two...

  13. Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

  14. Water Powered Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Space Spin-Offs, Inc. under a contract with Lewis Research Center and Marshall Space Flight Center produced a new water-powered saw that cuts through concrete and steel plate reducing danger of explosion or electric shock in rescue and other operations. In prototype unit efficient water-powered turbine drives an 8 inch diameter grinding disk at 6,600 rpm. Exhaust water cools disk and workpiece quenching any sparks produced by cutting head. At maximum power, tool easily cuts through quarter inch steel plate. Adapter heads for chain saws, impact wrenches, heavy duty drills, and power hack saws can be fitted.

  15. Solar Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  16. Wind/Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.

  17. How Does Water Boil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Dirk

    2004-11-01

    Insight into the boiling of water is obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The process is initiated by the spontaneous formation of small vacuum cavities in liquid water. By themselves, these defects are very short lived. If, however, several cavities occur at close distances, they are likely to merge into larger vacuum holes. At the liquid-vapor interfaces, single or small groups of water molecules tend to leave the liquid surface. Once the system is propagated beyond the transition state, these evaporation events outnumber the competing reintegration into the hydrogen-bonded network.

  18. Water in Asbestos

    E-print Network

    Fomin, Yu D; Tsiok, E N

    2015-01-01

    We present the molecular simulation study of the behavior of water and sodium chloride solution confined in lizardite asbestos nanotube which is a typical example of hydrophilic confinement. The local structure, orientational and dynamic properties are studied. It is shown that the diffusion coefficient drops about two orders of magnitude comparing to the bulk case, and water in lizardite asbestos tubes experiences vitrification rather then crystallization upon cooling in accordance with the results for some other hydrophilic confinements. The behavior of sodium chloride solutions also considered and the formation of double layer is observed. It is shower that both sodium and chlorine have larger diffusion coefficients then water.

  19. Physiological water model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since red blood cells are surrounded by plasma, and all other cells are surrounded by interstitial fluid, the intracellular compartment has been subdivided to represent these two cell types. The extracellular water, which includes all of the fluid outside of the cells, can be further subdivided into compartments which represent the interstitial fluid, circulating blood plasma, lymph, and transcellular water. The interstitial fluid surrounds cells outside of the vascular system whereas plasma is contained within the blood vessels. Avascular tissues such as dense connective tissue and cartilage contain interstitial water which slowly equilibrates with tracers used to determine extracellular fluid volume. For this reason, additional compartments are sometimes used to represent these avascular tissues. The average size of each compartment, in terms of percent body weight, has been determined for adult males and females. These compartments and the forces which cause flow between them are presented. The kidneys, a main compartment, receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output and filters out a fluid similar to plasma. The composition of this filtered fluid changes as it flows through the kidney tubules since compounds are continually being secreted and reabsorbed. Through this mechanism, the kidneys eliminate wastes while conserving body water, electrolytes, and metabolites. Since sodium accounts for over 90 percent of the cations in the extracellular fluid, and the number of cations is balanced by the number of anions, considering the renal handling sodium and water only should sufficiently describe the relationship between the plasma compartment and kidneys. A kidney function model is presented which has been adapted from a previous model of normal renal function in man. To test the validity of the proposed kidney model, results predicted by the model will be compared to actual data involving injected or ingested fluids and subsequent urine flow rates. Comparison of the model simulation to actual data following the ingestion of 1 liter of water is shown. The model simulation is also shown with actual data following the intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline.

  20. Global water cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Christy, John R.; Goodman, Steven J.; Miller, Tim L.; Fitzjarrald, Dan; Lapenta, Bill; Wang, Shouping

    1991-01-01

    The primary objective is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates changes on both global and regional scales. The following subject areas are covered: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) diabatic heating; (4) MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) temperature analysis; (5) Optimal precipitation and streamflow analysis; (6) CCM (Community Climate Model) hydrological cycle; (7) CCM1 climate sensitivity to lower boundary forcing; and (8) mesoscale modeling of atmosphere/surface interaction.

  1. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bostater, Charles

    1998-01-01

    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by KB Science and Engineering and is currently patented by KB Science. The buoy's purpose was to collected hyperspectral optical signatures for analysis and resulting estimation of water quality parameters such as chlorophyll-a, seston and dissolved organic matter (DOC). The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a buoy that would integrate a probe to measure upwelling light from a source and thus relate this backscattered light to water quality parameters.

  2. Nonaqueous Catalytic Water Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J.; Luo, Hanlin; Hull, Jonathan F.; Paul, Amit; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-11-23

    The complex [Ru(Mebimpy)(bpy)(OH2)]2+ [Mebimpy = 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine] and its 4,4'-(PO3H2CH2)2bpy derivative on oxide electrodes are water oxidation catalysts in propylene carbonate and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) to which water has been added as a limiting reagent. The rate of water oxidation is greatly enhanced relative to that with water as the solvent and occurs by a pathway that is first-order in H2O; an additional pathway that is first-order in acetate appears when TFE is used as the solvent.

  3. Water world 2000.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbetts, J

    2000-01-01

    Today, at least one-fifth of all people worldwide lack access to safe drinking water, a problem that will almost certainly worsen as the earth's population grows. Although the vast majority of industrial discharges into waterways are regulated and treated, and most cities and towns effectively monitor and treat their sewage for chemical contaminants, problems such as arsenic contamination and dangerous microorganisms still trouble public water supplies in wealthy nations. In developing countries, most cities discharge 80-90% of their untreated sewage directly into rivers and streams, which are used for drinking, bathing, and washing. This lack of sewage treatment has allowed dangerous microorganisms to spread, posing one of the greatest threats to human health in the developing world: waterborne diseases caused by deadly microbes in water. Contamination isn't the only problem: in many areas of the world, drinkable water is a scarce resource available to many only at high cost, when it is available at all. PMID:10656865

  4. WORLD WATER ASSESSMENT PROGRAMME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment.The specific objectives within the assessment pr...

  5. [Disinfection for cistern water].

    PubMed

    Ling, B; Han, G G; Shi, N; Shang, Q

    2001-03-01

    Rainwater is often collected into cisterns (pits or tanks) for household using as drinking water source in the rural areas of the northwest and the southeast coast in China, where no enough fresh water resource is available. However, the total number of bacteria and coliforms in the cisterns water was higher than the standard of that in drinking water. In order to ensure the safety for drinking, the effectiveness, conditions of treatment and cost for such disinfection methods compared with solar radiation, ultraviolet (UV), chloridation, micro-filteration and KDF were studied in 10 households in Cixi of Zhejiang Province and Weiyuan of Gansu Provinces, respectively. The micro-filteration is more compatible for bacteria removal in the tanks, while chloridation more for disinfection in the underground pits. PMID:11321954

  6. Cooling Water System Optimization 

    E-print Network

    Aegerter, R.

    2005-01-01

    During summer months, many manufacturing plants have to cut back in rates because the cooling water system is not providing sufficient cooling to support higher production rates. There are many low/no-cost techniques available to improve tower...

  7. Water Sample Concentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2009-07-21

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  8. Optimization of Cooling Water 

    E-print Network

    Matson, J.

    1985-01-01

    A cooling water system can be optimized by operation at the highest possible cycles of concentration without risking sealing and fouling on heat exchanger surfaces. The way to optimize will be shown, with a number of examples of new systems....

  9. MUTAGENS IN CHLORINATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past twelve years, numerous reports have appeared in the literature documenting the presence of genotoxic activity in organic concentrates of drinking water. enotoxic activity has been observed using in vitro test systems, including microbial, mammalian and lower eukaryo...

  10. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, A.; Garud, V.

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system and an air-suspended bare UV lamp are disclosed. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir. 7 figs.

  11. Water Power Program News

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-19

    News stories about conventional hydropower and marine and hydrokinetic technologies from the U.S. Department of Energy, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Wind and Water Power Program, and other federal agencies.

  12. Protecting Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewett, Jon

    1996-01-01

    Describes the watershed management approach for preserving water resources. Considers pollution sources ranging from industrial discharge to agricultural leachate and runoff and evaluates its impact on the total watershed environment. (JRH)

  13. BACTEROLOGICAL EXAMINATION OF WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on basic elements of water bacteriology. The presentation will be part of a seminar entitled, "Microbiology 101." This seminar is designed to provide general information regarding various microorganisms, e.g., bacteria, virus, protozoa. Basic principl...

  14. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  15. Arsenic in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  16. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  17. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOEpatents

    Micheels, Ronald H. (Concord, MA)

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  18. Environmental Water Research & Technology

    E-print Network

    biological wastewater treat- ment systems such as activated sludge.1 In an MFC, organics and nutrients in the wastewater stream are consumed by bac- teria and effectively removed from the water, resulting in wastewater

  19. UV water disinfector

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok (El Cerrito, CA); Garud, Vikas (Bombay, IN)

    1998-07-14

    A UV disinfector with a gravity driven feed water delivery system, and an air-suspended bare UV lamp. The disinfector is hydrodynamically optimized with a laminerizing, perforated baffle wall, beveled treatment chamber, and outlet weir.

  20. Water: A Sticky Subject?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Robbie V.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity for fifth grade elementary students on water, cohesion, and adhesion. Provides a list of necessary materials and includes a checklist for performance based assessment. Recommends follow up experiments for testing cohesive property with different liquids. (YDS)

  1. Plugging Abandoned Water Wells 

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2002-02-28

    This brochure explains the threat of abandoned water wells to groundwater resources and the responsibility and liability of Texas property owners. It offers information to landowners on ways to plug such wells....

  2. Dehumidifying water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-18

    Drawings and specifications are included for the system to heat water for the swimming pool and dehumidify the building of the Glen Cove YMCA. An overview is presented of the Nautica product used in this system. (MHR)

  3. Incorporating water table dynamics in climate modeling: 1. Water table observations and equilibrium water table simulations

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    10125, doi:10.1029/2006JD008111. 1. Introduction [2] The water cycles in the land and the atmosphere not only helps close the water cycle, but also redistributes soil water in space. Therefore the groundIncorporating water table dynamics in climate modeling: 1. Water table observations and equilibrium

  4. Cooperating for Cleaner Water 

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    -1 T he Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ), working with a local stake- holder group and others in the Leon River Watershed, is developing a Total Maximum Daily Load, or TMDL, for bacteria, one of the first TMDLs for bacteria... in the state. In 2002, the TCEQ determined that the water quality for 44 miles of the Leon River between Proctor Lake and Lake Belton contained elevated bacteria concen- trations that impair the water for contact recreation such as wading and swimming...

  5. Purifying contaminated water

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, Christian G. (San Pablo, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Process for removing biorefractory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  6. The world's water woes.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1996-01-01

    The Syr Darya River used to broaden into a rich delta at Kazalinsk, a town in central Asia's Kazakhstan, then dump into the Aral Sea, formerly the world's fourth largest lake. The Syr Darya River was once home to many species of fish and fowl, and a region of productive tugai forests. The river and lake, however, began shrinking in the 1960s as Soviet engineers and hydrologists siphoned off large amounts of water to irrigate cotton fields in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, in a drive to meet the Communist government's 5-year planning objectives regardless of environmental costs. By 1990, the Aral Sea had lost 66% of its original volume and the Syr Darya River now usually disappears into the desert west of town. Almost 1 million hectares of tugai wetlands were converted into desert between 1960 and 1990. Even though little remains alive in the Syr Darya as it passes through Kazalinsk, and what water remains is highly polluted by farms and cities to the east, the people of Kazalinsk still depend upon the Syr Darya for drinking water and other daily water needs, despite the health risks. Considerable morbidity in the region is attributed to this contaminated water supply. Water resources are being wasted everywhere in the interest of development. Like Syr Darya, and even in the US, many of the world's rivers no longer reach their former deltas. China especially has problems to resolve given its huge population and rapidly developing economic base. Approximately 300 major cities across northern and central China, including Beijing, already have critical water shortages. Wars may develop over access to freshwater sources. Water concerns in Egypt and the Jordan River Basin are noted. PMID:12294358

  7. Enceladus' water vapor plume.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Candice J; Esposito, L; Stewart, A I F; Colwell, J; Hendrix, A; Pryor, W; Shemansky, D; West, R

    2006-03-10

    The Cassini spacecraft flew close to Saturn's small moon Enceladus three times in 2005. Cassini's UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph observed stellar occultations on two flybys and confirmed the existence, composition, and regionally confined nature of a water vapor plume in the south polar region of Enceladus. This plume provides an adequate amount of water to resupply losses from Saturn's E ring and to be the dominant source of the neutral OH and atomic oxygen that fill the Saturnian system. PMID:16527971

  8. Cherenkov water detector NEVOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrukhin, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    A unique multipurpose Cherenkov water detector, the NEVOD facility, uses quasispherical measuring modules to explore all the basic components of cosmic rays on Earth's surface, including neutrinos. Currently, the experimental complex includes the Cherenkov water detector, a calibration telescope system, and a coordinate detector. This paper traces the basic development stages of NEVOD, examines research directions, presents the results obtained, including the search for the solution to the 'muon puzzle', and discusses possible future development prospects.

  9. SUSTAINABLE URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT

    E-print Network

    Das, Suman

    Gal/kWh (Evaporative loss) Hydro 18.27 Nuclear 0.62 Coal 0.49 Oil 0.43 PV Solar 0.030 Wind 0.001 Water for Primary Energy in US Water for Fuel Extraction and Processing 3 4 9 9.5 73 76 30 43 50 1010 90 1 10 100 + enrichment Oil (primary - seconday) Oil (enhanced oil recovery) Oil sands Natural gas + gas to liquid Coal

  10. Water, law, science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  11. Water Filtration Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    American Water Corporation manufactures water filtration products which incorporate technology originally developed for manned space operations. The formula involves granular activated charcoal and other ingredients, and removes substances by catalytic reactions, mechanical filtration, and absorption. Details are proprietary. A NASA literature search contributed to development of the compound. The technology is being extended to a deodorizing compound called Biofresh which traps gas and moisture inside the unit. Further applications are anticipated.

  12. Guide to Home Water Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: A water-efficient home helps you minimize your water use, harness water for reuse, conserve energy, and save money.

  13. Labeling lake water with tritium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, B.J.

    1963-01-01

    A method of packaging tritiated water in a manner that facilitates safe handling in environmental labeling operations, and procedures followed in labeling a large body of water with a small volume of tritiated water are described. ?? 1963.

  14. The Dynamics of Flowing Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattingly, Rosanna L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a series of activities designed to help students understand the dynamics of flowing water. Includes investigations into determining water discharge, calculating variable velocities, utilizing flood formulas, graphing stream profiles, and learning about the water cycle. (TW)

  15. Water Interfaces, Solvation, and Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Geissler, Phillip

    Water Interfaces, Solvation, and Spectroscopy Phillip L. Geissler Department of Chemistry-physchem-040412-110153 Copyright c 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved Keywords liquid water, interfaces, ion solvation, isosbestic behavior, vibrational spectroscopy Abstract Liquid water consistently

  16. Water Resources and Environmental Engineering

    E-print Network

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Water Resources and Environmental Engineering August 19, 2013 Department of Civil, Construction dimensions · Sustainable ­ Appropriate use of natural resources (air, water, land, coast, energy, materials ­ Water quality management ­ Emergency response (e.g., floods) · Resource use and allocation ­ Fuel

  17. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Fluoride and Water KidsHealth > Parents > Growth & Development > Feeding & Eating > Fluoride and ... to 19-year-olds Continue Fluoride and the Water Supply For more than 60 years, water fluoridation ...

  18. Water: A Recycling Success Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This activity involves elementary students in simulating water purification techniques by finding ways to clear up soapy water. An introduction discusses water use and conservation. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

  19. Assess water scarcity integrating water quantity and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity has become widespread all over the world. Current methods for water scarcity assessment are mainly based on water quantity and seldom consider water quality. Here, we develop an approach for assessing water scarcity considering both water quantity and quality. In this approach, a new water scarcity index is used to describe the severity of water scarcity in the form of a water scarcity meter, which may help to communicate water scarcity to a wider audience. To illustrate the approach, we analyzed the historical trend of water scarcity for Beijing city in China during 1995-2009, as well as the assessment for different river basins in China. The results show that Beijing made a huge progress in mitigating water scarcity, and that from 1999 to 2009 the blue and grey water scarcity index decreased by 59% and 62%, respectively. Despite this progress, we demonstrate that Beijing is still characterized by serious water scarcity due to both water quantity and quality. The water scarcity index remained at a high value of 3.5 with a blue and grey water scarcity index of 1.2 and 2.3 in 2009 (exceeding the thresholds of 0.4 and 1, respectively). As a result of unsustainable water use and pollution, groundwater levels continue to decline, and water quality shows a continuously deteriorating trend. To curb this trend, future water policies should further decrease water withdrawal from local sources (in particular groundwater) within Beijing, and should limit the grey water footprint below the total amount of water resources.

  20. Technology for Water Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    There are approximately 500,000 water cooling towers in the United States, all of which must be kept clear of "scale" and corrosion and free of pollutants and bacteria. Electron Pure, Ltd. manufactures a hydro cooling tower conditioner as well as an automatic pool sanitizer. The pool sanitizer consists of two copper/silver electrodes placed in a chamber mounted in the pool's recirculation system. The tower conditioner combines the ionization system with a water conditioner, pump, centrifugal solids separator and timer. The system saves water, eliminates algae and operates maintenance and chemical free. The company has over 100 distributors in the U.S. as well as others in 20 foreign countries. The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  1. Nonpowered instant water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyer, Eric C.

    1994-08-01

    The technical feasibility of a nonpowered instantaneous water heater based on the use of a condensing steam ejector pump has been established by test of a commercially available ejector. Using steam at approximately 25 PSIG pressure, it has been demonstrated that water can be simultaneously heated and pumped to pressures up to two times the steam pressure. The overall system concept is that of a lightweight, portable heater package that is fired with a constant-run, manually-controlled burner. The concept can accommodate the operation of a constant-run burner with only intermittent water delivery, as in a kitchen use, by recirculation of heated water back to the supply tank/barrel. With outlet water pressure greater than the inlet steam pressure, the unit can incorporate automatic feed of makeup water to the steam generator. The system concept can be implemented in a range of outputs. At 100,000 Btu/hr burner output and 50% efficiency, system capability would be at about 0.8 GPM continuously with a 100 deg F temperature rise, 1.5 GPM continuously with about a 50 deg rise, or 1.5 GPM intermittently at 100 F rise and 50%/50% on-off delivery duty cycle.

  2. Solar Hot Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  3. Water ball collision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    What happens if a stainless steel ball hits a water ball in the weightless space ot the Universe? In other words, it was the objective of our experiments in the Space to observe the surface tension of liquid by means of making a solid collide with a liquid. Place a small volume of water between 2 glass sheets to make a thin water membrane: the 2 glass sheets cannot be separated unless an enormous force is applied. It is obvious from this phenomenom that the surface tension of water is far greater than presumed. On Earth, however, it is impossible in most cases to observe only the surface tension of liquid, because gravity always acts on the surface tension. Water and stainless steel balls were chosen the liquid and solids for the experiments. Because water is the liquid most familiar to us, its properties are well known. And it is also of great interest to compare its properties on the Earth with those in the weightless space.

  4. Water Quality Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  5. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  6. Threats to the world's water

    SciTech Connect

    la Riviere, J.W.M.

    1989-09-01

    Water is in short supply in many regions; almost everywhere increasing amounts of organic waste and industrial pollutants threaten its quality. Only international cooperation in the integrated management of water resources can ameliorate the situation. Agriculture is usually the main drain on the water supply. Problems associated with overirrigation, increased population, and organic and industrial wastes are described. The paper explains the global water cycle; illustrates the uneven distribution of water among the oceans, ground water, ice caps, glaciers, lakes, and soil moisture; and gives data on the global water consumption from 1950 to 1980. Recommendations for water management are given.

  7. Water Resource Summary December 2013

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    and through the landscape into intermittent streams, kills, creeks, rivers, aquifers, wetlands and floodplains about land use that minimize impacts to water resources, including drinking water supplies, floodplains

  8. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Protect water sources from bacteria, chemicals and other contaminants; Use quality control processes to ensure the bacteriological ... both source water and the final product for contaminants. FDA monitors and inspects bottled water products and ...

  9. Water intensity of transportation.

    PubMed

    King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E

    2008-11-01

    As the need for alternative transportation fuels increases, it is important to understand the many effects of introducing fuels based upon feedstocks other than petroleum. Water intensity in "gallons of water per mile traveled" is one method to measure these effects on the consumer level. In this paper we investigate the water intensity for light duty vehicle (LDV) travel using selected fuels based upon petroleum, natural gas, unconventional fossil fuels, hydrogen, electricity, and two biofuels (ethanol from corn and biodiesel from soy). Fuels more directly derived from fossil fuels are less water intensive than those derived either indirectly from fossil fuels (e.g., through electricity generation) or directly from biomass. The lowest water consumptive (<0.15 gal H20/mile) and withdrawal (<1 gal H2O/mile) rates are for LDVs using conventional petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, nonirrigated biofuels, hydrogen derived from methane or electrolysis via nonthermal renewable electricity, and electricity derived from nonthermal renewable sources. LDVs running on electricity and hydrogen derived from the aggregate U.S. grid (heavily based upon fossil fuel and nuclear steam-electric power generation) withdraw 5-20 times and consume nearly 2-5 times more water than by using petroleum gasoline. The water intensities (gal H20/mile) of LDVs operating on biofuels derived from crops irrigated in the United States at average rates is 28 and 36 for corn ethanol (E85) for consumption and withdrawal, respectively. For soy-derived biodiesel the average consumption and withdrawal rates are 8 and 10 gal H2O/mile. PMID:19031873

  10. Water Research Institute Annual Technical Report

    E-print Network

    metrics, uses for mine water discharge, industrial processes and urban sprawl, and evaluation of water and urban sprawl (water budgets, contaminants, flooding, groundwater rescharge, storm water applications

  11. Total Water Management, the New Paradigm for Urban Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current resource management practices put different stresses on local water resources and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...

  12. Resilience and Water Governance Addressing Fragmentation and Uncertainty in Water

    E-print Network

    Review Advisory Commission 1998). The water quality impairment is caused both by chemical pollution's waters" (CWA § 125l(a)). Diffuse sources of pollution resulting from land use activities, including agriFIVE Resilience and Water Governance Addressing Fragmentation and Uncertainty in Water Allocation

  13. Possible relation of water structural relaxation to water anomalies

    E-print Network

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    , water displays a maximum at 4 °C, and becomes less dense rather than more dense when it freezes. OtherPossible relation of water structural relaxation to water anomalies Francesco Mallamacea,b,c,1 of thermodynamic response functions is an unsolved problem in the physics of water. The mechanism that gives rise

  14. Process water usage and water quality in poultry processing equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The operation of poultry processing equipment was analyzed to determine the impact of water reduction strategies on process water quality. Mandates to reduce the consumption of process water in poultry processing facilities have created the need to critically examine water usage patterns and develop...

  15. Domestic Water Use and Piped Water Supply (PWS)

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Domestic Water Use and Piped Water Supply (PWS) Om Damani (Adapting from the slides of Milind;11 #12;Agenda · Introduction to Piped water schemes (PWS) · Design of PWS ­ Define demand ­ Service level and Pipe diameter ­ Pump design ­ Cost optimization 12 #12;Water sources for different uses 13 #12

  16. Water conservation in irrigation can increase water use

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Frank A.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Climate change, water supply limits, and continued population growth have intensified the search for measures to conserve water in irrigated agriculture, the world's largest water user. Policy measures that encourage adoption of water-conserving irrigation technologies are widely believed to make more water available for cities and the environment. However, little integrated analysis has been conducted to test this hypothesis. This article presents results of an integrated basin-scale analysis linking biophysical, hydrologic, agronomic, economic, policy, and institutional dimensions of the Upper Rio Grande Basin of North America. It analyzes a series of water conservation policies for their effect on water used in irrigation and on water conserved. In contrast to widely-held beliefs, our results show that water conservation subsidies are unlikely to reduce water use under conditions that occur in many river basins. Adoption of more efficient irrigation technologies reduces valuable return flows and limits aquifer recharge. Policies aimed at reducing water applications can actually increase water depletions. Achieving real water savings requires designing institutional, technical, and accounting measures that accurately track and economically reward reduced water depletions. Conservation programs that target reduced water diversions or applications provide no guarantee of saving water. PMID:19015510

  17. Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water

    E-print Network

    Houston, Paul L.

    Fresh Water Increased temperature means higher proportion of water falling on surface higher evaporation higher rainfall greater intensity of floods and droughts. Water use has grown four on How much storage compared to average flow Demand as percentage of supply How much ground water is used

  18. Reclaimed Water as an Alternative Water Source for Crop Irrigation

    E-print Network

    Etxeberria, Edgardo

    Reclaimed Water as an Alternative Water Source for Crop Irrigation Lawrence R. Parsons1 University Francisco, CA 94114 Robert Holden Monterey Regional Water Pollution Control Agency, 5 Harris Court, Building D, Monterey, CA 93940 David W. York York Water Circle, 3158 S. Fulmer Circle, Tallahassee, FL 32303

  19. Cultural Waters: Values of Water Resources in Hidalgo, Mexico 

    E-print Network

    Hurst, Kristin

    2013-04-08

    The availability of clean water is fundamental to the survival of all living things. Humans have altered fresh water cycles in a number of ways that affect both water quality and quantity. This has led to a global water crisis where an estimated...

  20. Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araya, Yoseph Negusse; Moyer, Edward H.

    2006-01-01

    Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United…

  1. WESTERN WATER ASSESSMENT Climate Change and the Functioning of Water

    E-print Network

    Neff, Jason

    WESTERN WATER ASSESSMENT REPORT Climate Change and the Functioning of Water Rights: A Search;CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE FUNCTIONING OF WATER RIGHTS: A SEARCH OF THE LITERATURE by Julie Shapiro, Douglas. Thesearchalsoincludedajournal-by-journalreviewofallonlinejournalsaccessiblethrough theUniversityofColoradolibrarysystemthatcontainthewords"water"or"climate

  2. Water Membrane Evaporator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Almlie, Jay C.

    2010-01-01

    A water membrane evaporator (WME) has been conceived and tested as an alternative to the contamination-sensitive and corrosion-prone evaporators currently used for dissipating heat from space vehicles. The WME consists mainly of the following components: An outer stainless-steel screen that provides structural support for the components mentioned next; Inside and in contact with the stainless-steel screen, a hydrophobic membrane that is permeable to water vapor; Inside and in contact with the hydrophobic membrane, a hydrophilic membrane that transports the liquid feedwater to the inner surface of the hydrophobic membrane; Inside and in contact with the hydrophilic membrane, an annular array of tubes through which flows the spacecraft coolant carrying the heat to be dissipated; and An inner exclusion tube that limits the volume of feedwater in the WME. In operation, a pressurized feedwater reservoir is connected to the volume between the exclusion tube and the coolant tubes. Feedwater fills the volume, saturates the hydrophilic membrane, and is retained by the hydrophobic membrane. The outside of the WME is exposed to space vacuum. Heat from the spacecraft coolant is conducted through the tube walls and the water-saturated hydrophilic membrane to the liquid/vapor interface at the hydrophobic membrane, causing water to evaporate to space. Makeup water flows into the hydrophilic membrane through gaps between the coolant tubes.

  3. Moss hair water transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Wu, Nan; Hurd, Randy; Thomson, Scott; Pitt, William; Truscott, Tadd

    2013-11-01

    We present an investigation of water transportation on a moss (Syntrichia caninervis) indigenous to temperate deserts. The moss typically appears to be in a dry, brown state, but is rehydrated by water during the wet season, making the desert green. Small hairs (500-2000 ?m in length, and 40 ?m in diameter, d) growing out from the tip of the moss leaves transport water back to the leaves. Through high speed observations and mathematical modeling it appears that this transportation is driven by two different mechanisms. 1) Droplet transport is achieved in three ways: i) A large (10d) droplet attached between two intersecting fibers will move toward the bases of the leaves by the changing angle between the two hairs. ii) The shape of the moss hair is conical, thicker at the base, producing a gradient that moves fluid (5d) toward the leaf similar to cactus spines. iii) We also observe that in some cases a Plateau-Rayleigh instability trigger a series of droplets moving toward the base. 2) Micro-grooves on the moss hair transport a film of water along the moss hair when larger droplets are not available. These various water transportation strategies combine to help the moss to survive in the desert and provide valuable insight.

  4. Water Quality Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An automated water quality monitoring system was developed by Langley Research Center to meet a need of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Designed for unattended operation in water depths up to 100 feet, the system consists of a subsurface buoy anchored in the water, a surface control unit (SCU) and a hydrophone link for acoustic communication between buoy and SCU. Primary functional unit is the subsurface buoy. It incorporates 16 cells for water sampling, plus sensors for eight water quality measurements. Buoy contains all the electronic equipment needed for collecting and storing sensor data, including a microcomputer and a memory unit. Power for the electronics is supplied by a rechargeable nickel cadmium battery that is designed to operate for about two weeks. Through hydrophone link the subsurface buoy reports its data to the SCU, which relays it to land stations. Link allows two-way communications. If system encounters a problem, it automatically shuts down and sends alert signal. Sequence of commands sent via hydrophone link causes buoy to release from anchor and float to the surface for recovery.

  5. Water in exoplanets.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Tennyson, Jonathan; Griffith, Caitlin A; Waldmann, Ingo

    2012-06-13

    Exoplanets--planets orbiting around stars other than our own Sun--appear to be common. Significant research effort is now focused on the observation and characterization of exoplanet atmospheres. Species such as water vapour, methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide have been observed in a handful of hot, giant, gaseous planets, but cooler, smaller planets such as Gliese 1214b are now analysable with current telescopes. Water is the key chemical dictating habitability. The current observations of water in exoplanets from both space and the ground are reviewed. Controversies surrounding the interpretation of these observations are discussed. Detailed consideration of available radiative transfer models and linelists are used to analyse these differences in interpretation. Models suggest that there is a clear need for data on the pressure broadening of water transitions by H(2) at high temperatures. The reported detections of water appear to be robust, although final confirmation will have to await the better quality observational data provided by currently planned dedicated space missions. PMID:22547242

  6. Hemodialysis and Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

  7. The Power of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Zhaneta; Miteva, Kamelia

    2013-04-01

    The Power of Water Zh. Petrova, K. Miteva Bio Games, Sofia, Bulgaria (petrova.jani@gmail.com; miteva.kamelia@gmail.com) Lessons "The Power of Water" Due to our belief in the initial creativity of the children and their capacity for discover and perceive logically the world, we consider that the primary and even the pre-school learning have a significant influence in the process of suggesting the idea of respect to the natural forces. These classroom activities include a variety of hand- and self-made simulation models with natural materials and toys which lead the children to easy understanding of what could 'friendly' water do and how powerful, dangerous and not-friendly it could be. During the lessons the children draw their own conclusions of the causes and possible solutions of natural hazards caused by water in each of its forms - avalanches, inundations, floods, the water influence in activation of landslides. The children make on their own some of the models and test them via simulations. In the end they discuss what they have learned in groups.

  8. Water on early Mars.

    PubMed

    Carr, M H

    1996-01-01

    Large flood channels, valley networks and a variety of features attributed to the action of ground ice indicate that Mars emerged from heavy bombardment 3.8 Ga ago, with an inventory of water at the surface equivalent to at least a few hundred metres spread over the whole planet, as compared with 3 km for the Earth. The mantle of Mars is much drier than that of the Earth, possibly as a result of global melting at the end of accretion and the lack of plate tectonics to subsequently reintroduce water into the interior. The surface water resided primarily in a porous, kilometres-thick megaregolith created by the high impact rates. Under today's climatic conditions groundwater is trapped below a thick permafrost zone. At the end of heavy bombardment any permafrost zone would have been much thinner because of the high heat flows, but climatic conditions may have been very different then, as suggested by erosion rates 1000 times higher than subsequent rates. Water trapped below the permafrost periodically erupted onto the surface to form large flood channels and lakes. Given abundant water at the surface and sustained volcanism, hydrothermal activity must have frequently occurred but we have yet to make the appropriate observations to detect the results of such activity. PMID:9243020

  9. Ageing and water homeostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens; Jacob, Giris; Ketch, Terry; Shannon, John R.; Biaggioni, Italo

    2002-01-01

    This review outlines current knowledge concerning fluid intake and volume homeostasis in ageing. The physiology of vasopressin is summarized. Studies have been carried out to determine orthostatic changes in plasma volume and to assess the effect of water ingestion in normal subjects, elderly subjects, and patients with dysautonomias. About 14% of plasma volume shifts out of the vasculature within 30 minutes of upright posture. Oral ingestion of water raises blood pressure in individuals with impaired autonomic reflexes and is an important source of noise in blood pressure trials in the elderly. On the average, oral ingestion of 16 ounces (473ml) of water raises blood pressure 11 mmHg in elderly normal subjects. In patients with autonomic impairment, such as multiple system atrophy, strikingly exaggerated pressor effects of water have been seen with blood pressure elevations greater than 75 mmHg not at all uncommon. Ingestion of water is a major determinant of blood pressure in the elderly population. Volume homeostasis is importantly affected by posture and large changes in plasma volume may occur within 30 minutes when upright posture is assumed.

  10. Cooling-water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Puckorius, P.R.; Strauss, S.D.

    1995-05-01

    This article examines how new chemicals, application technology, and control systems enhance treatment of water for cooling and powerplant reuse, while minimizing discharges to protect the environment. Effective operation of cooling-water treatment systems continues to hinge on the control of scaling, fouling, and corrosion. Though these maladies have not changed in nature over recent years, the operating problems encountered have intensified considerably. Depletion and degradation of water sources and environmental concerns have been the driving forces for change. In some states, regulations--such as California`s Title 22--now mandate the use of reclaimed water (treated sewage) and are harbingers of future trends. While these and other influences combine to reduce freshwater consumption and wastewater discharge, they force reliance on poorer-quality, more aggressive water in powerplant cooling systems. Responses to the challenge include a continuing move from once-through to recirculating systems featuring cooling towers, higher-cycle operation of existing cooling-tower systems, and improvements in treatment chemicals, technology, and controls.

  11. Measurement Of Multiphase Flow Water Fraction And Water-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Cheng-gang

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes a microwave transmission multiphase flow water-cut meter that measures the amplitude attenuation and phase shift across a pipe diameter at multiple frequencies using cavity-backed antennas. The multiphase flow mixture permittivity and conductivity are derived from a unified microwave transmission model for both water- and oil-continuous flows over a wide water-conductivity range; this is far beyond the capability of microwave-resonance-based sensors currently on the market. The water fraction and water cut are derived from a three-component gas-oil-water mixing model using the mixture permittivity or the mixture conductivity and an independently measured mixture density. Water salinity variations caused, for example, by changing formation water or formation/injection water breakthrough can be detected and corrected using an online water-conductivity tracking technique based on the interpretation of the mixture permittivity and conductivity, simultaneously measured by a single-modality microwave sensor.

  12. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  13. Fuel cell water transport

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Hedstrom, James C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  14. Thermodynamics of supercooled water

    E-print Network

    Holten, V; Anisimov, M A; Sengers, J V

    2011-01-01

    We review the available experimental information on the thermodynamic properties of supercooled ordinary and heavy water and demonstrate the possibility of modeling these thermodynamic properties on a theoretical basis. We show that by assuming the existence of a liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water, the theory of critical phenomena can give an accurate account of the experimental thermodynamic-property data up to a pressure of 150 MPa. In addition, we show that a phenomenological extension of the theoretical model can account for all currently available experimental data in the supercooled region, up to 400 MPa. The stability limit of the liquid state and coupling between crystallization and liquid-liquid separation are discussed. It is concluded that critical-point thermodynamics describes the available thermodynamic data for supercooled water within experimental accuracy, thus establishing a benchmark for further developments in this area.

  15. Can Water Store Charge?

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikova, Kate; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work from this and other laboratories has demonstrated large pH gradients in water. Established by passing current between immersed electrodes, pH gradients between electrodes were found to disappear slowly, persisting for tens of minutes after the current had been turned off. We find here that these pH gradients reflect a genuine separation of charge: at times well after disconnection of the power supply, current could be drawn through a resistor placed between the charging electrodes or between pairs of electrodes positioned on either side of the midline between original electrodes. In some experiments, it was possible to recover the majority of charge that had been imparted to the water. It appears, then, that water has the capacity to store and release substantial amounts of charge. PMID:19053655

  16. Water reclamation and reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Hrudey, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review of wastewater treatment for recycle is presented. Wastewater and activated sludge from the processing of petroleum, shale oil, and from coal conversion and lignite liquefaction have been successfully treated for use as boiler feedwater, cooling water makeup, and steam generation. Acid mine drainage has been treated with lime for use in revegetation of spoil areas. Use of tailings decant water for use in a mill concentrator was reported. Ionizing radiation was effective in disinfecting wastewater makeup to power plant cooling systems. The zero discharge concept was demonstrated in several power plants. Reverse osmosis is reported to be the most economical technology for treatment of cooling tower blowdown. It has the capability of 44% recovery of boric acid and 55% recovery of water from nuclear power plant radioactive wastewater. Included are 402 references.

  17. International Water Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  18. Contaminated water treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for processing of a liquid ("contaminant liquid") containing water and containing urine and/or other contaminants in a two step process. Urine, or a contaminated liquid similar to and/or containing urine and thus having a relatively high salt and urea content is passed through an activated carbon filter to provide a resulting liquid, to remove most of the organic molecules. The resulting liquid is passed through a semipermeable membrane from a membrane first side to a membrane second side, where a fortified drink having a lower water concentration (higher osmotic potential) than the resulting liquid is positioned. Osmotic pressure differential causes the water, but not most of the remaining inorganic (salts) contaminant(s) to pass through the membrane to the fortified drink. Optionally, the resulting liquid is allowed to precipitate additional organic molecules before passage through the membrane.

  19. Water resources data, Maryland and Delaware, water year 1999, volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saffer, Richard W.; Starsoneck, Roger J.; Marchand, Elizabeth H.; Smigaj, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1999 water year for Maryland and Delaware consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report (Volume 2. Ground-Water Data) contains water levels at 395 observation wells, discharge records for 6 springs and water quality at 1 spring, 186 wells, and 27 streambed piezometers. Locations of ground-water level wells are shown on figures 5 and 6. Locations of ground-water-quality sites are shown on figure 7. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State, local, and Federal agencies in Maryland and Delaware.

  20. Water resources data-Maine water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, G.J.; Caldwell, J.M.; Cloutier, A.R.; Flight, L.E.

    2005-01-01

    The Water Resources Dicipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State, Federal,and other local governmental agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Maine each year. These data, accumulated during the many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Maine consists of records of stage, discharge, ground water levels, water quality of streams and ground-water wells, precipitation quantity, and snow quantity. This report contains discharge records for: 6 gage-height stations, 62 discharge gaging stations, stream water-quality data for 6 stations, water level for 23 ground-water wells, water-quality data for 24 ground-water wells, precipitation quantity data for 15 stations, and snow quantity data for 80 stations, Additional water data were collected at other sites, not part of the systematic data-collection program, and are published as special study and miscellaneous record sections.