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1

Proline control of the feeding reaction of Cordylophora.  

PubMed

The colonial hydroid Cordylophora is a carnivore whose feeding is induced by substances released from captured prey. An active molecule, probably the only one, has been isolated from a fraction of the laboratory food of Cordylophora, brine shrimp larvae, and identified on paper chromatograms as the imino acid proline. Reagent proline induces the feeding reaction at 10(-5)M. The reaction is specific in that only two alpha-imino acids very closely related to proline were found to possess significant activity: azetidine-2-carboxylic acid and pipecolic acid. The response to proline is inhibited by magnesium ions and enhanced by phosphate. Since previous studies have shown that the feeding reactions of Hydra, Physalia, and Campanularia are controlled by reduced glutathione, the phylogenetic implications of the proline control of feeding in Cordylophora are discussed. The feeding reactions of both Cordylophora and Hydra are also induced by proteases, suggesting similar mechanisms of induction in the two hydroids. PMID:13960251

FULTON, C

1963-03-01

2

Microsatellite loci for the invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia  

EPA Science Inventory

Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. Here we describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate ...

3

Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)  

E-print Network

Pachycordyle and Silhouetta. Turritopsis polycirrha and T. dohrnii are both regarded as valid species. The family Oceanidae includes the genera Cordylophora, Corydendrium, Merona, Oceania, Rhizogeton, Turritopsis and distinct from T. nutricula of the western Atlantic. Histological sections confirmed that Turritopsis

Schuchert, Peter

4

Recruitment and Postrecruitment Interactions in a Colonial Hydroid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colonial athecate hydroid Hydractinia echinata encrusts gastropod shells inhabited by hermit crabs of the genus Pagurus. In field samples recruits were found clustered in specific locations on the undersurface of Urosalpinx cinerea shells. Assays of the behavior of larvae indicated that the bacteria that induce metamorphosis coat the entire shell. A series of laboratory experiments demonstrated that site-specific recruitment

Philip O. Yund; Clifford W. Cunningham; Leo W. Buss

1987-01-01

5

Effects of initial surface wettability on biofilm formation and subsequent settlement of Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

Hydroides elegans is a major fouling organism in tropical waters around the world, including Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. To determine the importance of initial surface characteristics on biofilm community composition and subsequent colonization by larvae of H. elegans, the settlement and recruitment of larvae to biofilmed surfaces with six different initial surface wettabilities were tested in Pearl Harbor. Biofilm community composition, as determined by a combined approach of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, was similar across all surfaces, regardless of initial wettability, and all surfaces had distinct temporal shifts in community structure over a 10 day period. Larvae settled and recruited in higher numbers to surfaces with medium to low wettability in both May and August, and also to slides with high wettability in August. Pearl Harbor biofilm communities developed similarly on a range of surface wettabilities, and after 10 days in Pearl Harbor all surfaces were equally attractive to larvae of Hydroides elegans, regardless of initial surface properties. PMID:19306143

Huggett, Megan J; Nedved, Brian T; Hadfield, Michael G

2009-01-01

6

Planktonic hydroids on Georges Bank: ingestion and selection by predatory fishes1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planktonic colonial hydroids ( Clytia gracilis) recently have been found to be abundant, but patchily distributed in time and space, on Georges Bank, northwest Atlantic Ocean. However, the processes regulating the occurrence of these hydroid colonies (i.e., seasonality, growth, advection, diffusion, sinking, and predation) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the potential role of predation by fish upon the unattached hydroids. The two components of this study were (i) analyses of historical fish trawl surveys and stomach contents data collected in the coastal northwest Atlantic Ocean (including Georges Bank), and (ii) laboratory experiments testing for the presence of selective feeding by juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua) on hydroids relative to two co-occurring planktonic copepods ( Calanus finmarchicus and Centropages hamatus). We found that 32 and 11 species of fish ingested hydroids in the coastal northwest Atlantic Ocean and Georges Bank, respectively, during 1973-1990. However, hydroids were rarely an important part of the diet of these fishes. The most important predator of these cnidarians on Georges Bank was winter flounder, with 28.0% of its population having ingested hydroids, with a mean % (by weight) of hydroids in the diet of 4.1%, during 1973-80. Laboratory experiments indicated juvenile cod ingested planktonic hydroids, but overwhelmingly preferred either of the two copepods as prey. While field and laboratory results indicated that a wide variety of fishes feed on hydroids, we concluded that emergences and disappearances of planktonic hydroids on Georges Bank are not greatly impacted by fish predation. Other factors, in particular physical processes (i.e., advection, diffusion, and sinking), seasonal cycles of activity and inactivity, and predation by invertebrates, should be examined.

Avent, Sean R.; Bollens, Stephen M.; Butler, Mari; Horgan, Erich; Rountree, Rodney

7

Evolutionary genetics of the hydroid allodeterminant alr2.  

PubMed

We surveyed genetic variation in alr2, an allodeterminant of the colonial hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. We generated cDNA from a sample of 239 Hydractinia colonies collected at Lighthouse Point, Connecticut, and identified 473 alr2 alleles, 198 of which were unique. Rarefaction analysis suggested that the sample was near saturation. Most alleles were rare, with 86% occurring at frequencies of 1% or less. Alleles were highly variable, diverging on average by 18% of the amino acids in a predicted extracellular domain of the molecule. Analysis of 152 full-length alleles confirmed the existence of two structural types, defined by exons 4-8 of the gene. Several residues of the predicted immunoglobulin superfamily-like domains display signatures of positive selection. We also identified 77 unique alr2 pseudogene sequences from 85 colonies. Twenty-seven of these sequences matched expressed alr2 sequences from other colonies. This observation is consistent with pseudogenes contributing to alr2 diversification through sequence donation. A more limited collection of animals was made from a distant, relict population of H. symbiolongicarpus. Sixty percent of the unique sequences identified in this sample were found to match sequences from the Lighthouse Point population. The large number of alr2 alleles, their degree of divergence, the predominance of rare alleles in the population, their persistence over broad spatial and temporal scales, and the signatures of positive selection in multiple residues of the putative recognition domain paint a consistent picture of negative-frequency-dependent selection operating in this system. The genetic diversity observed at alr2 is comparable to that of the most highly polymorphic genetic systems known to date. PMID:22855537

Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Moreno, Maria A; Yund, Philip O; Lakkis, Fadi G; Dellaporta, Stephen L; Buss, Leo W

2012-12-01

8

The fouling hydroid Ectopleura larynx: a lack of effect of next generation antifouling technologies.  

PubMed

The hydroid Ectopleura larynx is one of the main fouling organisms on salmon aquaculture cages in Norway; this study investigated novel surface materials and microtopographies to deter its settlement. The settlement preferences of hydroid larvae for 12 materials with wettabilities ranging from hydrophobic (54°) to hydrophilic (112°) were tested in a no-choice bioassay. Although settlement differed between materials, with the highest average settlement on polytetrafluoroethylene (95%) and the lowest on untreated polyurethane (53%), no trend regarding the tested wettabilities could be found and none of the tested materials was able to reduce average settlement below 50%. Furthermore, nine high-density polyethylene (HDPE, 100-600 ?m microtopographies) and seven polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS; 40-400??m microtopographies) microtextured surfaces were tested. There was no systematic effect of microtopography on the settlement of E. larynx larvae. However, there was a preference for settlement in channels on PDMS microtopographies between 80 and 300 ?m. Similarly, there were no preferences for any of the examined microtopographies in a 12-day field test using PDMS surfaces at a commercial fish farm. The study indicated that neither surface wettability (hydrophilicity-phobicity) nor microtopographies were effective at deterring the settlement of the hydroid E. larynx. The high plasticity of the aboral pole and the hydrorhiza of the hydroids may explain settlement even under unfavourable conditions, highlighting the successful colonisation traits of this dominant biofouling species. PMID:23438941

Bloecher, Nina; de Nys, Rocky; Poole, Andrew J; Guenther, Jana

2013-01-01

9

The marine bacterium Alteromonas espejiana induces metamorphosis of the hydroid Hydractinia echinata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine hydroid Hydractinia echinata develops into a primary polyp from a planula larva stage. The planula does not undergo metamorphosis in sterile filtered seawater. Metamorphosis is induced by certain bacteria occurring, as a rule, on the shells of molluscs inhabited by hermit crabs of the genus Eupagurus. Bacteria were isolated from shells occupied by H. echinata, and bacterial clones

T. Leitz; T. Wagner

1993-01-01

10

FINE STRUCTURE OF THE SPERMATOZOON OF HYDROIDES HEXAGONUS (ANNELIDA), WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE ACROSOMAL REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes in some detail the structure of the acrosomal region of the spermatozoon of Hydroides as a basis for subsequent papers which will deal with the structural changes which this rcgion undergoes during fertilization. The material was osmium-fixed and mild centrifugation was used to aggregatc the spermatozoa from collection to final embedding. The studies concern also the acrosomal

ARTHUR L. COLWIN; LAURA HUNTER COLWIN

1961-01-01

11

Antisera to the sequence Arg-Phe-amide visualize neuronal centralization in hydroid polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antisera to the sequence Arg-Phe-amide (RF-amide) have a high affinity to the nervous system of fixed hydroid polyps. Whole-mount incubations of several Hydra species with RFamide antisera visualize the three-dimensional structure of an ectodermal nervous system in the hypostome, tentacles, gastric region and peduncle. In the hypostome of Hydra attenuata a ganglion-like structure occurs, consisting of numerous sensory cells located

C. J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen

1985-01-01

12

Reproduction of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata (L., 1758) (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the White Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata in the White Sea reproduce asexually by frustule formation. Young medusae appear in the plankton during July and August.\\u000a The number of medusae rarely exceeds 36 per m3, and the average number varies every year from 0.4 to 10 per m3. The size of medusae is smaller than reported from other regions. The

Sergei A. Slobodov; Nickolai N. Marfenin

13

Role of bacteria in larval settlement and metamorphosis of the polychaete Hydroides elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans Haswell, 1883 is an early colonist of new substrata in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii. When metamorphically competent, larvae\\u000a of H. elegans will settle rapidly upon an acceptably biofilmed surface, but not on a clean surface. In this study we found the ability\\u000a of larvae to respond selectively to inductive surfaces to be retained for at

C. R. C. Unabia; M. G. Hadfield

1999-01-01

14

P. Schuchert 2001a. Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Meddelelser om Grnland 53: 1-184.  

E-print Network

P. Schuchert 2001a. Hydroids of Greenland and Iceland (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa). Meddelelser om Grønland 53: 1-184. Errata During the printing process, the Icelandic letter ð (eth) was occasionally changed be replaced by "C, BIOICE 2516..." page 172: "Material of Icelandic Museum of Natural History BIOICE material

Schuchert, Peter

15

Marine hydroid perisarc: a chitin- and melanin-reinforced composite with DOPA-iron(III) complexes.  

PubMed

Many marine invertebrates utilize biomacromolecules as building blocks to form their load-bearing tissues. These polymeric tissues are appealing for their unusual physical and mechanical properties, including high hardness and stiffness, toughness and low density. Here, a marine hydroid perisarc of Aglaophenia latirostris was investigated to understand how nature designs a stiff, tough and lightweight sheathing structure. Chitin, protein and a melanin-like pigment, were found to represent 10, 17 and 60 wt.% of the perisarc, respectively. Interestingly, similar to the adhesive and coating of marine mussel byssus, a DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) containing protein and iron were detected in the perisarc. Resonance Raman microprobe analysis of perisarc indicates the presence of catechol-iron(III) complexes in situ, but it remains to be determined whether the DOPA-iron(III) interaction plays a cohesive role in holding the protein, chitin and melanin networks together. PMID:23791678

Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Prajatelistia, Ekavianty; Iordachescu, Mihaela; Waite, J Herbert

2013-09-01

16

Microalgal communities epibiontic on the marine hydroid Eudendrium racemosum in the Ligurian Sea during an annual cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microalgal community associated with Eudendrium racemosum, a marine hydroid widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea, was studied during an annual cycle, at monthly frequency,\\u000a in a coastal station of the Ligurian Sea. Microalgae were represented mainly by diatoms, which exhibited higher abundance\\u000a and biomass values between autumn and spring (max 46,752 cells mm?2 and 1.94 ?g C mm?2, respectively), while during summer a

Tiziana Romagnoli; Giorgio Bavestrello; Emellina M. Cucchiari; Mario De Stefano; Cristina G. Di Camillo; Chiara Pennesi; Stefania Puce; Cecilia Totti

2007-01-01

17

A parvicapsulid (Myxozoa) infecting Sprattus sprattus and Clupea harengus (Clupeidae) in the Northeast Atlantic uses Hydroides norvegicus (Serpulidae) as invertebrate host.  

PubMed

A myxosporean producing actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type in Hydroides norvegicus Gunnerus (Serpulidae) in Denmark was identified as a member of the family Parvicapsulidae based on small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. Myxosporean samples from various Danish and Norwegian marine fishes were examined with primers that detect the novel myxosporean. Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus) and Clupea harengus Linnaeus (Teleostei, Clupeidae) were found to be infected. The sequences of this parvicapsulid from these hosts were consistently slightly different (0.8% divergence), but both these genotypes were found in H. norvegicus. Disporic trophozoites and minute spores of a novel myxosporean type were observed in the renal tubules of some of the hosts found infected through PCR. The spores appear most similar to those of species of Gadimyxa Křie, Karlsbakk et Nylund, 2007, but are much smaller. The actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type from H. norvegicus have been described previously. In GenBank, the SSU rDNA sequences of Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. show highest identity (82%) with Parvicapsula minibicornis Kent, Whitaker et Dawe, 1997 infecting salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in fresh water in the western North America. A phylogenetic analysis places P. minibicornis and Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. in a sister clade to the other parvicapsulids (Parvicapsula spp. and Gadimyxa spp.). PMID:23724734

Křie, Marianne; Karlsbakk, Egil; Einen, Ann-Cathrine Bĺrdsgjtere; Nylund, Are

2013-05-01

18

Copper affects biofilm inductiveness to larval settlement of the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell).  

PubMed

Copper (Cu) contamination is a potential threat to the marine environment due to the use of Cu-based antifouling paints. Cu stress on larval settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans was investigated, and this was linked to Cu stress on biofilms and on the biofilm development process. The inductiveness of young biofilms was more easily altered by Cu stress than that of old biofilms, indicating the relative vulnerability of young biofilms. This might result from changes in bacterial survival, the bacterial community composition and the chemical profiles of young biofilms. Cu also affected biofilm development and the chemical high performance liquid chromatograph fingerprint profile. The results indicate that Cu affected larval settlement mainly through its effect on the process of biofilm development in the marine environment, and the chemical profile was crucial to biofilm inductiveness. It is strongly recommended that the effects of environmentally toxic substances on biofilms are evaluated in ecotoxicity bioassays using larval settlement of invertebrates as the end point. PMID:20390562

Bao, Wei-Yang; Lee, On-On; Chung, Hong-Chun; Li, Mu; Qian, Pei-Yuan

2010-01-01

19

Harry Beal Torrey (1873-1970) of California, USA, and his research on hydroids and other coelenterates.  

PubMed

Harry Beal Torrey was born on 22 May 1873 in Boston, Massachusetts. Two years later his family moved to Oakland, California. Torrey earned B.S. and M.S. degrees in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1895 and 1898 respectively, a Ph.D. in zoology from Columbia University in 1903, and an M.D. from the Medical College of Cornell University in 1927. He began his academic career as a marine biologist, investigating taxonomy, reproduction, morphology, development, regeneration, and behaviour of cnidarians of the west coast of the United States, but his research interests soon shifted to experimental biology and endocrinology. He eventually entered the field of medicine, specializing in public health, and served as a physician and hospital administrator. Torrey held academic positions at the University of California, Berkeley (1895-1912), the Marine Biological Association of San Diego (1903-1912), Reed College (1912-1920), the University of Oregon (1920-1926), and Stanford University (1928-1938). Following retirement from academia, he served as Director of the Children's Hospital of the East Bay, Oakland, California, from 1938 to 1942. In retirement, he continued an association with the University of California at Berkeley, near his home. Of 84 publications by him listed herein, 31 dealt with coelenterates. This paper focuses on his early research on coelenterate biology, and especially his contributions to taxonomy of hydroids. He was author or coauthor of six genera and 48 species-group taxa of Cnidaria, and he also described one new species each of Ctenophora and Phoronida. Although he abandoned systematic work early in his career, his most widely cited publication is a taxonomic monograph on hydroids of the west coast of North America, published in 1902. He died, at age 97, on 9 September 1970. PMID:24614029

Calder, Dale R

2013-01-01

20

2D gel-based multiplexed proteomic analysis during larval development and metamorphosis of the biofouling polychaete tubeworm Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

Larval settlement and metamorphosis of a common biofouling polychaete worm, Hydroides elegans, involve remarkable structural and physiological changes during this pelagic to sessile habitat shift. The endogenous protein molecules and post-translational modifications that drive this larval transition process are not only of interest to ecologists but also to the antifouling paint industry, which aims to control the settlement of this biofouling species on man-made structures (e.g., ship hulls). On the basis of our recent proteomic studies, we hypothesize that rapid larval settlement of H. elegans could be mediated through changes in phosphorylation status of proteins rather than extensive de novo synthesis of proteins. To test this hypothesis, 2D gel-based multiplexed proteomics technology was used to monitor the changes in protein expression and phosphorylation status during larval development and metamorphosis of H. elegans. The protein expression profiles of larvae before and after they reached competency to attach and metamorphose were similar in terms of major proteins, but the percentage of phosphorylated proteins increased from 41% to 49% after competency. Notably, both the protein and phosphoprotein profiles of the metamorphosed individuals (adult) were distinctly different from that of the larvae, with only 40% of the proteins phosphorylated in the adult stage. The intensity ratio of all phosphoprotein spots to all total protein spots was also the highest in the competent larval stage. Overall, our results indicated that the level of protein phosphorylation might play a crucial role in the initiation of larval settlement and metamorphosis. PMID:20666481

Zhang, Yu; Sun, Jin; Xiao, Kang; Arellano, Shawn M; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Qian, Pei-Yuan

2010-09-01

21

Temperature Dependent Effects of Elevated CO2 on Shell Composition and Mechanical Properties of Hydroides elegans: Insights from a Multiple Stressor Experiment  

PubMed Central

The majority of marine benthic invertebrates protect themselves from predators by producing calcareous tubes or shells that have remarkable mechanical strength. An elevation of CO2 or a decrease in pH in the environment can reduce intracellular pH at the site of calcification and thus interfere with animal’s ability to accrete CaCO3. In nature, decreased pH in combination with stressors associated with climate change may result in the animal producing severely damaged and mechanically weak tubes. This study investigated how the interaction of environmental drivers affects production of calcareous tubes by the serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans. In a factorial manipulative experiment, we analyzed the effects of pH (8.1 and 7.8), salinity (34 and 27‰), and temperature (23°C and 29°C) on the biomineral composition, ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the tubes. At an elevated temperature of 29°C, the tube calcite/aragonite ratio and Mg/Ca ratio were both increased, the Sr/Ca ratio was decreased, and the amorphous CaCO3 content was reduced. Notably, at elevated temperature with decreased pH and reduced salinity, the constructed tubes had a more compact ultrastructure with enhanced hardness and elasticity compared to decreased pH at ambient temperature. Thus, elevated temperature rescued the decreased pH-induced tube impairments. This indicates that tubeworms are likely to thrive in early subtropical summer climate. In the context of climate change, tubeworms could be resilient to the projected near-future decreased pH or salinity as long as surface seawater temperature rise at least by 4°C. PMID:24265732

Chan, Vera B. S.; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Lu, Xing Wen; Zhang, Tong; Shih, Kaimin

2013-01-01

22

Water  

E-print Network

Explore Australia’s most comprehensive water information resource. The National Water Account provides the following information for nine nationally significant regions: • total water resource • water available for extraction • rights to abstract water • actual abstraction of water.

Quick Link

23

Water  

MedlinePLUS

... the 1986 and 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act ( http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sdwa/index. ... You cannot see, taste, or smell lead in drinking water. Therefore, you must ask your water provider whether ...

24

Water  

MedlinePLUS

... to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells and springs). Everything that ... body is water. 4. How much of the earth’s surface is water? About 80 percent of the ...

25

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial examines the importance of water to Earth's ecosystems. Topics include the sources and distribution of water, the water cycle, and how snow and rain occur. There is a discussion of the phases in which it can exist (solid, liquid, or vapor), and a description of how animals adapt to cold snowy environments in the winter. Examples include burrowing, hibernation, migration, and thick fur. A quiz and glossary are included.

26

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K shows us from where we get water, how it's stored and how powerful it can be. We learn how important it is to conserve the .3% of usable fresh water available on earth.

Idaho PTV

2011-10-06

27

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The same water that has existed on Earth for millions of years travels through a series of steps in a cycle from mountains to the sea, flows in and out of the cells in your body, and comprises 95% of the mass of a jellyfish. In short, water is the connect

Frederick, J. A.; Blake Jr., Robert W.; Haines, Sarah; Lee, Stephanie C.

2010-02-01

28

Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errinalabrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae).  

PubMed

A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errinalabrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246

Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A

2015-01-01

29

Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errina labrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errina labrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246

Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D.; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A.

2015-01-01

30

Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is an essential nutrient required for life. To be well hydrated, the average sedentary adult man must consume at least 2,900 mL (12 c) fluid per day, and the average sedentary adult woman at least 2,200 mL (9 c) fluid per day, in the form of noncaffeinated, nonalcoholic beverages, soups, and foods. Solid foods contribute approximately 1,000 mL (4

SUSAN M KLEINER

1999-01-01

31

Genetic analysis reveals multiple cryptic invasive species of the hydrozoan gene Cordylophora  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the patterns and dynamics of biological invasions is a crucial prerequisite to predicting and mitigating their potential ecological and economic impacts. Unfortunately, in many cases such understanding is limited not only by ignorance of invasion history, but also b...

32

Fish, fans and hydroids: host species of pygmy seahorses  

PubMed Central

Abstract An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoan host species of pygmy seahorses is provided based on literature records and recently collected field data for Hippocampus bargibanti, Hippocampus denise and Hippocampus pontohi. Seven new associations are recognized and an overview of the so far documented host species is given. A detailed re-examination of octocoral type material and a review of the taxonomic history of the alcyonacean genera Annella (Subergorgiidae) and Muricella (Acanthogorgiidae) are included as baseline for future revisions. The host specificity and colour morphs of pygmy seahorses are discussed, as well as the reliability of (previous) identifications and conservation issues. PMID:21747677

Reijnen, Bastian T.; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

2011-01-01

33

A Possible Role for Agglutinated Foraminifers in the Growth of Deep-Water Coral Bioherms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration of deep-water bioherms dominated by the scleractinian corals Lophelia pertusa and Enallopsammia profunda along the east coast of Florida in ~400-800 m depth reveals an often dense and rich assemblage of small (~1-30 mm) epifauna on dead coral branches, which is often dominated by agglutinated astrorhizacean foraminifers accompanied by thecate and athecate hydroids, sponges, stylasterids, anemones and barnacles. The dominant agglutinated foraminifer is an arborescent form up to 15 mm tall, consisting of a basal tube that gives rise to branchlets of successively decreasing diameter and thickly coated with fine-grained material including coccoliths and diatom frustules. The large numbers of foraminifers generate an enormous adhesive, sediment-trapping surface area and may represent an important accelerated route for sediment deposition and bioherm growth relative to baffling of suspended sediment particles by the coral branches themselves. These foraminifers also occur on still living coral, suggesting that they may either contribute to coral death or invade stressed colonies. They may thus be responsible for or contribute to the small percent of living corals observed in many of these habitats. Other epifauna appear to colonize after the coral has died.

Messing, C. G.; Reed, J. K.; Brooke, S. D.

2008-05-01

34

Genetic analysis across differential spatial scales reveals multiple dispersal mechanisms for the invasive hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. Here we explore genetic ...

35

Water, Water Everywhere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

Keeler, Rusty

2009-01-01

36

Water, Water Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short NASA video on the water cycle. The video shows the importance of the water cycle to nearly every natural process on Earth and illustrates how tightly coupled the water cycle is to climate.

Nasa

37

Water, water everywhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers.

Pennisi

1993-01-01

38

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-print Network

PLANTS WATER TRE WATER QUALITY MONITORING NETWORK I Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) hasEF) promotes basin-wide pollution control strategies. It liaises with State Water Pollution Control BoardsWater Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute

Sohoni, Milind

39

Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

40

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Guest Column 10..............Water News Briefs 11..............Calendar 12..............Free Lectures Continue Summer Water/Natural Resources Tour Examines Republican River Issues by Steve Ress This summer

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

41

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH Assessment on Atrazine 10...................Water News Briefs 12...................April Faculty Forum Summer Water and Natural Resources Tour Examines North Platte River Issues by Steve Ress The University

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

42

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH.....................Meet the Faculty 4.....................GuestColumn 5.....................WaterSupplySecurity 7...................Nebraska Depletions Plan 10 ..................Water News Briefs 11 ..................Calendar 12

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

43

Water, Water, Everywhere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

Fahey, John A.

2000-01-01

44

Water, Water, Everywhere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

Selinger, Ben

1979-01-01

45

Water, water everywhere  

SciTech Connect

The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.

Pennisi, E.

1993-02-20

46

Water Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

Van De Walle, Carol

1988-01-01

47

Water, Water Everywhere!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

Sible, Kathleen P.

2000-01-01

48

Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS Water Science for Schools explaines the uses of ground water in the United States. The main uses of ground water include "irrigation uses, drinking-water and other public uses, and for supplying domestic water to people who do not receive public-supply water." Check out this site to learn more.

49

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAĂ­S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH the Faculty 4................ Guest Column 5................ Clean Water Act 6................ Water News in Empty Hog Barns by Steve Ress, UNL Water Center Jim Rosowski sees potential for a freshwater farming

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

50

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCHGroundwaterRecharge 6-7 ............ NebraskaWaterMarketingPolicyChoices 10 .............Water News Briefs 11 sites visited on July's water and natural resources tour (photo: Kyle Hoagland). (continued on page 9

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

51

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

52

Water Conditioner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

1991-01-01

53

Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the importance of water to living organisms, including humans. The discussion points out that all organisms contain water, and decribes how water is accumulated and stored. There is also an examination of the water supplies of Winnipeg, Ontario, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and a discussion of the importance of purifying driking water supplies to remove harmful bacteria and microbes.

54

Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS site contains very useful descriptions about many aspects of ground water. The major topics include Ground Water, How Ground Water Occurs, Quality of Ground Water, Appraising the Nation's Ground-Water Resources, and a Glossary. This is a non-technical site, designed for use by the general public. Several charts and diagrams are also included in this site.

2002-02-15

55

INTRODUCTION The marine hydroids of Iceland have been the subject of  

E-print Network

. The following 15 species are new records for Iceland: Amphinema biscayana, Hydractinia borealis (polyp, Diphasia margareta, Sertularia similis, Kirchenpaueria bonnevieae, and Stephalia corona. The gonophores

Schuchert, Peter

56

The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3  

E-print Network

belonging to Turritopsis dohrnii (Weismann, 1883). Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - Hydractiniidae of Turritopsis polycirrha (Keferstein, 1862). Hydractinia areolata Alder, 1862 is selected as type species

Schuchert, Peter

57

Parasites: Water  

MedlinePLUS

... every day. Not only do all people need drinking water to survive, but water plays an important role ... been contaminated by certain parasites. For example, individuals drinking water contaminated with fecal matter containing the ameba Entamoeba ...

58

Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

59

Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication, authored by Thodore B. Shelton of Rutgers University, summarizes the information necessary for interpreting drinking water quality analyses performed by water testing laboratories. It focuses on testing results obtained from drinking water supplies from public water systems and non-public water systems (home wells). It is intended primarily for homeowners, but environmental organizations, health departments, and commercial water testing laboratories and others should find this material of interest and value.

Shelton, Thodore B.

60

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's School of Natural Resource Sciences,Conservation and Survey Division and Water Center into the School

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

61

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH Researchers Honing Methods to Sample Field Run-off Water by Steve Ress The effectiveness of riparian buffer is important since many fertilizers and pesticides are designed to adhere to soil molecules. So if water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

62

Water, Water Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on data modules and students' understanding of the relationship between population growth and water shortages. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, an audio-enhanced vocabulary list, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

63

Ground Water and Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agencies Web site, Ground Water and Drinking Water (last mentioned in the March 29, 2002 Scout Report), has many additional high quality features not mentioned in previous reports. The site has continually updated information regarding drinking water regulation, as well as general facts such as where drinking water comes from, what's in it, drinking water standards, how you can protect your drinking water, a link for kids, and an extensive amount of additional material.

64

Stacking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students become familiar with how ocean water forms density-stratified layers in many places. They design and carry out a series of tests to show how water masses of four different densities interact, using clear straws to stack colored water of different salinities. Temperature is varied to increase the differences in density of each water sample.

65

WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality is important not only because of its linkage to the availability of water for various uses and its impact on public health, but also because water quality has an intrinsic value. he quality of life is often judged on the availability of pristine water. ontamination ...

66

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

2005-01-01

67

Water Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water cycle concepts and basics including the distribution of water on the planet in oceans, rivers and lakes, glaciers and atmosphere. Defines basic terms: states of water, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, melting. Good illustrations, maps and photos. Excellent list itemizes human uses and impacts on water and the water cycle. Links to more detailed references are provided, case studies illustrate current concerns and issues in Ontario, Canada.

68

Source Water Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here: Water Water Infrastructure Ground Water & Drinking Water Source Water Source Water Protection Source Water Protection The drinking water we receive from our local drinking water utilities ...

69

Earth's Water:Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS site contains graphs, tables, and charts for the following ground water topics: What is ground water, ground water flow diagrams, importance of groundwater, and trends in ground-water use. Ground water quality, pesticides, aquifers, waterwells, artesian wells, sinkholes, and land subsidence are also covered. There are a variety of links within all of the above topics and a very complete glossary, as well as numerous charts, maps, photographs and illustrations.

70

Water tight.  

PubMed

Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures. Multilateral development agencies have identified some developing country cities as demonstrated sites for urban water conservation. PMID:12286138

Postel, S

1993-01-01

71

Water Purifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

1992-01-01

72

Valuable water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some places, money flows with water. Studying both the water quality and property values around 22 lakes in south-central Maine, Kevin Boyle and Holly James of the University of Maine and Roy Bouchard of the Maine Department of Environmental Protection have found that good water quality makes waterfront property even more valuable. To gauge water quality, the researchers used Secchi disks to measure the clarity of the water at depth. They also reviewed 543 lakefront property sales between 1990 and 1994 to determine how values correlated with changing water conditions. The group also considered such factors as lake frontage, sizes of the houses and lots, and size of the lake.

Carlowicz, Michael

73

Branding water  

PubMed Central

Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

2014-01-01

74

Branding water.  

PubMed

Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

2014-06-15

75

Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

Bowen, H. J. M.

1975-01-01

76

Water Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners take a field trip along a local body of water and conduct a visual survey to discover information about local land use and water quality. Learners document their findings by mapping and profiling the water body. They can upload their measurements via the internet to a GLOBE scientist. Learners also use this initial investigation to raise questions about local land use and/or water quality issues that may require further study.

Isaacs, Beth

2009-01-01

77

Marketing water  

E-print Network

management, water conservation programs Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 17 public information programs and materials that increase awareness about regional water issues. The company recently opened the TecH2O, a water resource learning center... from the landscape property.) Dr. Don Wilkerson, AgriLife Extension horticulturist and one of the urban guide developers, said the guide targets three audiences?homeowners, horticulture profes- sionals, and municipal government and water utility...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

78

Water resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

1973-01-01

79

Falling Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students drop water from different heights to demonstrate the conversion of water's potential energy to kinetic energy. They see how varying the height from which water is dropped affects the splash size. They follow good experiment protocol, take measurements, calculate averages and graph results. In seeing how falling water can be used to do work, they also learn how this energy transformation figures into the engineering design and construction of hydroelectric power plants, dams and reservoirs.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

80

Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Cycle fun From water cycle Web Quest Links Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Resources Teacher Guide Introduction Luke Warm, a weather man, and you will help two baseball players understand why the big game might be rained out. You will explore the Water cycle and ...

Mrs. Terry

2009-04-03

81

Water Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uses of ERTS-1 imagery and data for water resources surveys and management are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use and geology; (2) flood plain and flood inundation mapping; (3) snow cover mapping; (4) glacier observations; (5) data collection systems; (6) surface waters; (7) wetlands mapping; (8) water quality; (9) soil mapping; (10) phreatophyte and riparian vegetation mapping; and (11) evapotranspiration.

Salomonson, V. V.

1973-01-01

82

Water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system and method are described for removal of oil, sand, and other impurities from water. Water containing such impurities is moved at a very low velocity to allow heavy solid particles to drop out and light solid particles to float to the surface where they may be removed, the water then being passed through a filter wall which is

DeYoung

1971-01-01

83

Water Filtration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to design methods to filter water using ordinary materials, while also considering their designs' material and cost efficiencies. They learn about the importance of water and its role in our everyday lives. They come to understand what must occur each day so that they can have clean water.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

84

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

85

Water Conditioner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

1994-01-01

86

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

Kane, Andrew S.

87

Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

88

Water Markets and Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to improving the allocative efficiency of water use, water markets may reduce irrigation-related water quality problems. This potential benefit is examined with a nonlinear programming model developed to simulate agricultural decision-making in a drainage problem area in California's San Joaquin Valley. Results indicate that a 30% drainage goal is achievable through improvements in irrigation practices and changes in

Catherine L. Kling; Marca Weinberg; James E. Wilen

1993-01-01

89

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-print Network

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

90

Water Resources  

E-print Network

Groundwater Group, and Ebasco Services, Inc. In addition, the following plans, studies and reports related to water resources are also available to be read at the Planning Department or at the Permit Center: Water Assessment For San Juan County, prepared by the Citizens Water Advisory Committee with assistance from the County Planning and Health & Community Services departments and the state Departments of Ecology and Health, was adopted by Board of County Commissioners

unknown authors

91

Water Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

John Kyrk

92

Water Purifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

1992-01-01

93

Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners explore the various types of life that live in fresh water systems and how the presence of these organisms is an indication of the overall health of the water. Learners perform a water quality test that simulates tests performed in the field and use the data to determine the pollution level of three different streams. This activity also introduces learners to macroinvertebrates (animals without backbones).

Service, National P.

2011-08-20

94

Water Harvesting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This manual has been written with the intention of providing technicians and extension workers with practical guidelines on the implementation of water harvesting schemes. However it will also be of interest to a wider audience, such as rural development specialists and planners. The focus of the manual is on simple, field scale systems for improved production of crops, trees and rangeland species in drought prone areas. Water harvesting systems for water supply such as haffirs, ponds and rooftop tanks are not covered in this manual, nor are large-scale water spreading systems (spate irrigation).

Critchley, Will; Siegart, Klaus

2008-10-02

95

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

1993-01-01

96

Water Science for Schools: USGS Water Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information on many aspects of water, including text, pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center where users can offer opinions and test their water knowledge. Main topics include: water basics, Earth's water, water use, and special topics such as acid rain, saline water and other water-quality issues. Links to other water-related sites are also provided.

2001-07-02

97

Water snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water snails have a shell for protection. They have two tentacles, a foot, and a head and a tail region. Water snails have eyes at the base of their sensory stalks. The stalks are used to smell and feel around the snail's environment.

Scott Bauer (USDA; ARS)

2005-08-03

98

WATER EROSION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water erosion is caused by the detachment and transport of soil by runoff, melting snow or ice, and irrigation. Excessive erosion could threaten the production of agricultural and forest products. Erosion may also impact water conveyance and storage structures, and contribute to pollution from land ...

99

Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

100

Virginia's Waters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the water resources in Virginia. Main sections included are: (1) "Introduction" (providing a general overview of the richness and diversity of Virginia's water resources both economic and recreational); (2) "River Basins" (illustrating the area drained by nine rivers and their tributaries); (3) "Bays" (including the…

Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; And Others

101

Water characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research on water characteristics is cited in this review article. Acid precipitation has been noted as one of the major environmental problems of the current decade. It poses a serious challenge to national and international bodies to protect water quality. Considerable interest was voiced in 1980 over the causes and effects, prevention and control of acid rain. One study

1981-01-01

102

Water Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

103

Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective. Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

104

Ground water. [Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

Costle

1980-01-01

105

Water 1: Water and Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore what happens to water as it goes from solid to liquid and back again; in addition, they will use observation, measurement, and communication skills to describe change. This lesson is the first in a three-part series that addresses a concept that is central to the understanding of the water cycle: that water is able to take many forms but is still water. This series of lessons is designed to prepare students to understand that most substances may exist as solids, liquids, or gases depending on the temperature, pressure, and nature of that substance. This knowledge is critical to understanding that water in our world is constantly cycling as a solid, liquid, or gas.

106

Water Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

1994-01-01

107

Fragile Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 18-29) learners explore the impact of the March 24, 1989 oil spill in Alaska caused by the Exxon Valdez tanker. First they use a map to track the movement of the spill over 56 days. Learners then explore how oil behaves in water by examining the relative weight of water vs. oil, and the properties of oil. They test how oil damages various natural materials such as bird feathers, fur fabric, plants, shells, and rocks, and then try water and detergent to see which cleaning methods work best.

Museum, University O.

2014-01-28

108

Montana Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Montana University System Water Center at Montana State University-Bozeman, this impressive site offers a wealth of information regarding issues related to water in Montana and nationally. A mix of political (regarding recent legislation), educational, research, and funding/employment "water information" is posted at this Website, under several section headings: Information, Featured Programs, Policy & Legislation, Learning Resources, and Montana Watersheds. In addition, a substantial collection of links to related organizations and resources assists users in finding further online information.

109

Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete  

E-print Network

Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete Hydroides. Ambient salinities drop dramatically during monsoon season in Hong Kong coastal waters, posing a number- tigated (1) whether adults would retain their gametes when external salinity dropped to levels too low

110

Grabbing Water  

E-print Network

We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

Reis, Pedro Miguel

111

Water Privatisation   

E-print Network

This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

Zölls, Elisa

2011-08-17

112

WATER ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

113

Water Fountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how a hydraulic pump works. Learners work in teams to design and build a unique water fountain that employs a hydraulic pump. This lesson also contains a demonstration of a hydraulic pump in action.

2014-05-22

114

Sinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment uses colored ice cubes to demonstrate how temperature changes water density. Working together in small groups, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how and why water temperature changes along with depth, illustrated experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of buoyancy and density.

115

Sinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment uses colored ice cubes to demonstrate how temperature changes water density. Working together in small groups, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how and why water temperature changes along with depth. There are illustrated experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of buoyancy and density.

116

Water quality.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Significant contributions in the broad area of water quality over the quadrennium 1975-78 are highlighted. This summare is concerned primarily with physical and chemical aspects of water quality. The diversity of subject areas within the topic heading and the large volume of published research results necessitated the selection of representative contributions. Over 400 references are cited which are believed to be indicative of general trends in research and of the more important developments during this period.- from Authors

Steele, T.D.; Stefan, H.G.

1979-01-01

117

Water Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to become familiar with the hydrology of your locale. Students will study and visit the Hydrology Study Site, conduct a visual survey to discover information about local land cover, water quality, and document their findings. They will use this initial investigation to raise questions about local land cover and/or water chemistry issues that may require further investigation.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

118

Extraterrestrial Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life as we know it, i.e., carbon-based organisms that rely on RNA and DNA for information storage and transfer, requires liquid water. Thus, the search for life elsewhere in the universe generally begins with a search for liquid water. In our own Solar System, Earth is the only planet (or moon) that has liquid water at its surface. Mars and Europa both probably have subsurface water. Researchers from NASA and elsewhere are hoping to eventually probe these subsurface reservoirs and determine whether life exists there. A more promising venue for finding extraterrestrial life is on Earth-like planets around other stars. Such planets can in principle be located and analyzed spectroscopically using large space-based telescopes like NASA's proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Mission (1). The chances of success for this mission depend critically on the abundance of Earth-like planets with liquid water at their surfaces because only there could a biota exist that would be widespread enough to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that would be detectable. Models of planetary accretion suggest that most terrestrial planets should be endowed with substantial amounts of water (2). Climate models suggest that the "habitable zone" around solar-type stars is relatively wide so that water can remain liquid on a planet's surface for long times (3). Thus, the chances of finding water, and maybe life, elsewhere appear to be good. References: (1) Beichman, C. A., Woolf, N. J. and Lindensmith, C. A. The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF): A NASA Origins Program to Search for Habitable Planets (JPL Publication 99-3) (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 1999). (2) Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., Lunine, J. I., Petit, J. M., Robert, F., Valsecchi, G. B. and Cyr, K. E. Meteoritics and Planet. Sci. 35, 1309-1320 (2000). (3) Kasting, J. F., Whitmire, D. P. and Reynolds, R. T. Icarus 101, 108-128 (1993).

Kasting, J. F.

2002-12-01

119

Total Water Management - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

120

Water Resources Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Resources Georgia: From the USGS web site comes the Georgia Water Information Network (GWIN)which offers water information for thousands of surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality measurement sites in Georgia.

121

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... A Teachers Contact Back to previous page Special Topics in Water Science Our Special Topics section lets you explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, ...

122

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

123

Water Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory classroom activity, students exercise their scientific skills of observation and deduction as they use their senses and simple laboratory assays, such as pH indicator paper, to identify mystery pollutants in water samples. Activity includes a student worksheet. This is a learning activity within the Hydrology chapter, GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

2012-08-03

124

Water Hyacinth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

125

Grabbing water  

E-print Network

We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

2012-07-16

126

Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning module, students work in teams to examine a broad array of information related to water quality in Lower Wheeling Creek and the Wheeling Creek watersheds in Wheeling, West Virginia. This module is part of Exploring the Environment.

127

Weightless Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this physics activity (page 5 of the PDF), learners will witness the effects of free fall by observing falling water, and will gain a better understanding of the concept of weightlessness. Although this activity was created as a post-visit for a workshop about astronomy, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity!

Cosi

2009-01-01

128

Troubling Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the world's richest deltas has been radically replumbed, its ecosystem is collapsing, and Californians are realizing their water supply is tapped out. Despite decades of efforts--and some positive trends--solutions may not be any closer. Downstream, the San Francisco Bay looks good by comparison.

Carolyn J. Strange (freelance writer;)

2008-12-01

129

Water world  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reproduced a beautiful sea and animals in the ocean by the latest software technology. They show their life in the great water world. Wave, splash, bubble and all fluid movement were created by our original fluid simulator to bling realistic and correct expression. In the beautiful ocean, dolphins, whale sharks, great white sharks, humpback whales and other beautiful animals

Makoto Chiba

2010-01-01

130

Contaminated Sediments in Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Contact Us Water: Contaminated Sediments You are here: Water Pollution Prevention & Control Sediments Contaminated Sediments in Water Contaminated ... Water Education & Training Grants & Funding Laws & Regulations Our Waters Pollution Prevention & Control Applications & Databases Low Impact Development Impaired ...

131

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15 Keyes, Commissioner of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Several con- vention topics will focus in the teens or 1920's. Exact date unknown U.S. Bureau of Reclamation projects to "reclaim" the arid western

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

132

Water Striders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners catch and observe water striders to explore their movement and feeding behaviors. To observe strider locomotion, learners look closely at caught water striders' body structure, then mark the striders' bodies with a dot of thick tempera or acrylic paint and release the insects back to different areas of the pond habitat. The paint markings make it easier for learners to watch each insect's movement. To observe strider feeding, learners catch other small insects from the pond habitat and offer them to caught striders. After the activity, all organisms should be released into the pond habitat. If possible, learners can return to the strider habitat a few weeks after the activity, to check how far the marked striders have moved from where they were released.

Science, Lawrence H.

1981-01-01

133

Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.

134

Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 60 surface-water stations (including 42 gaging stations) and 112 wells; and water levels for 304 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montogmery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Ward, Aub N.; Walters, David J.

2005-01-01

135

Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 66 gaging stations; stage only for 70 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 25 gaging stations) and 108 wells; and water levels for 221 observation wells. Also included are data for 204 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

2001-01-01

136

Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only for 73 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 66 surface-water stations (including 39 gaging stations) and 92 wells; and water levels for 205 observation wells. Also included are data for 166 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

2002-01-01

137

Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 56 surface-water stations (including 44 gaging stations) and 142 wells; and water levels for 313 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal and State agencies in Louisiana.

Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, D.J.

2004-01-01

138

Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 85 gaging stations; stage only for 79 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 52 surface-water stations (including 40 gaging stations) and 104 wells; and water levels for 300 observation wells. Also included are data for 143 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Labbe, Charles K.; Walters, David J.

2003-01-01

139

Water Sustainability Program Challenges to Sustainable Water  

E-print Network

Water Sustainability Program Forum Challenges to Sustainable Water Management in Arizona Sharon B. Megdal Director, WSP & Water Resources Research Center November 22, 2010 smegdal@cals.arizona.edu #12;· The Water Sustainability Program endeavors to ensure that we have safe and reliable water supplies

Cushing, Jim. M.

140

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING Committee on Natioha1 Water Resources report in 1961 and the formation of the Committee on Water Resources in emphasis"and values regarding water resources' research. Interest has shifted from}J4ter supply

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

141

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING.ROGRAM FOR THE 1972, I~TERDISCIPL1NARY SEMINAR ON WATER RESOURCES1 The Interdisciplinary Water Resources Seminar upper classmen,graduate stUdents, ~rofessiona1 persons, faculty, nd others interested 1n water topics

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

142

Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan  

E-print Network

Page 1 Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan Michigan State University · New · February 2011 information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning

143

Water Wise: A Water Use Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…

Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

144

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-print Network

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

145

Water, Ohio's Remarkable Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…

Groves, Carrie J.

146

Be Water Wise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various topics on water and water conservation are discussed, each general topic followed by a student activity. Topics include: (1) importance of water; (2) water in the environment; (3) getting water to and from homes (making water usable; treating wastewater; on-site systems, including water wells and septic tanks); (4) relationship between…

Birch, Sandra K.; Pettus, Alvin M.

147

Water Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silver ionization water purification technology was originally developed for Apollo spacecraft. It was later used to cleanse swimming pools and has now been applied to industrial cooling towers and process coolers. Sensible Technologies, Inc. has added two other technologies to the system, which occupies only six square feet. It is manufactured in three capacities, and larger models are custom built on request. The system eliminates scale, corrosion, algae, bacteria and debris, and because of the NASA technology, viruses and waterborne bacteria are also destroyed. Applications include a General Motors cooling tower, amusement parks, ice manufacture and a closed-loop process cooling system.

1992-01-01

148

SOURCE WATER ASSESSMENT GUIDANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Provides guidance to primacy agencies and public water systems (PWS) for implementation of assessments of hydrogeologic sensitivity and source water fecal contamination under the Ground Water Rule (GWR)....

149

Environment Canada: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This comprehensive site contains facts, figures, references, teacher's aides, news, events, and much more on subjects pertaining to water. Some of the subjects touched on include aquatic ecosystems, groundwater, lakes, permafrost, properties of water, rivers, sediment, snow and ice, water and climate, and Wetlands. Water policy and legislation is also discussed and includes information on federal-provincial cooperation, international, legislation and regulation, provincial/territorial, and water policy in Canada. There is also a section on the management of water including bulk water removal and water export, Flood Damage Reduction Program, floods, water efficiency/conservation, water modeling, water pollution, water quality, water resource economics, and water use. The section on water and culture discusses Aboriginal issues, water and art, and water and Canadian identity. The site is available in English and French.

150

Water Resources Outreach Program - Water Education Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains a series of six posters all relating to water education: wetlands, water use, waste water, navigation, ground water, and water quality. Each poster includes information about the topic as well as related classroom activities. The objective of the water-resources education program is to stimulate interest in and provide a basic knowledge of water resources for students in grades K-12. This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website is part of the Water Resources Education Initiative (WREI), a program developed by the USGS in 1991.

151

Water resources data, Alaska, water year 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2005 water year for Alaska consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This volume contains records for water discharge at 114 gaging stations; stage or contents only at 3 gaging stations; water quality at 37 gaging stations; and water levels for 41 observation wells. Also included are data for 55 crest-stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. Some data collected during 2005 will be published in subsequent reports. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Alaska.

Jackson, M.L.; Castor, M.E.; Goetz, J.M.; Solin, G.L.; Wiles, J.M.

2006-01-01

152

Water resources data, Kansas, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 155 complete-record gaging stations; elevation and contents at 17 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records at 2 precipitation stations, water-level data at 14 observation wells; and records of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity at 16 gaging stations and 2 lakes with water-quality monitors. Also included are discharge data for 29 high-flow partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies in Kansas.

Putnam, J.E.; Schneider, D.R.

2005-01-01

153

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Drinking Water Radon in Drinking Water Public Health ... States and community water systems for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, ...

154

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

155

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-print Network

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20

156

Autoionization of water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an animation showing the three normal vibrational modes of the water molecule as well as proton transfer in the following three situations: (1) hydronium ion/water, (2) hydroxide ion/water, and (3)two water molecules.

Merlic, Craig; Fam, Barry

157

Water: Consumer Information  

MedlinePLUS

... See EPA's (PDF) page to learn more. Your Drinking Water Quality Water On Tap: What You Need to ... Protecting Drinking Water Sources (PDF) (2 pp, 563K) Drinking Water Emergencies Learn what to do in the event ...

158

Arsenic in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Water Act Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic iHome Basic Information Arsenic Rule Compliance Help ... table. It is odorless and tasteless. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or ...

159

Important Water Quality Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

160

Treatment of Well Water  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Drinking Water Healthy Water Home Share Compartir On This Page ... a compromised immune system Improve the taste of drinking water Household water treatment systems are composed of two ...

161

Bottled Water and Fluoride  

MedlinePLUS

... Infant Formula and Fluorosis Scientific Reviews Fluoride in Drinking Water Health Effects and Environmental Impact Data & Statistics 2012 ... the quality of bottled water since it regulates drinking water? What FDA regulations apply to bottled water? Is ...

162

Alkali Soils, Irrigation Waters.  

E-print Network

, Ralmorhea, Reeves county. 2166-Water from Toyahvale, Reeves county. 2167'-Water froin Alexander's vell, 6 miles north of Pecos. 25'??-Water from Peco!: river at very low stage, Pecos. 2577---Water froni artesian well, 670 feei deep, for irrigating...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1910-01-01

163

Land and water snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Land snails live on the land and water snails make water their habitat. Land snails have shells to protect them and so do water snails. Land snails have two sets of antennae, while water snails only have one set.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

164

Water Contamination Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary: Misplaced Matter and Water Pollution The drinking water pollution demonstration provides a very simple but dramatic way to get students to think about water contamination and drinking water standards, ...

165

Water Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

1992-01-01

166

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING OF THE DIRECTOR . . · Once again during the spring 1973 semester the Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute will sponsor an Interdisciplinary Water Resources Seminar. These seminars have been held for the past five

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

167

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING in water pollution except that land runoff is a more meaningful problem than originally thought. BUREAU STUDIES SALINE WATER A study to generate a dependable \\'tay of evaluating the economic effects of salinity

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

168

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING Research application is an educational activity. Its aim is to pro- duce a change in the water resource environment by producing a change in people who manage water resources. #12;-2- 6. Provide Readable Reports

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

169

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING during precipitation-free periods and constitutes the principal source of fresh water for many arid local- ities. About 70-80 percent of the water used in Nebraska is from groundwater sources, while the national

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

170

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING~ November 1973 Opportunities for cost effective research related to energy-water issues are abundant. Many. It would be impossible to list all fruitful avenues for energy-water research, but some important issues

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

171

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING LABLE FRm1 ~.~, VI I RI RI I · The Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute has recently issued a new. This publi- cation may be obtained by writing: Dr. Warren Viessman, Jr., Director, Nebraska Water Resources

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

172

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING ALLOTMENT PROJECT DEADLINE The Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute is now prepared to receive basicIe. LB-334, enacted by the 1969 Legislature, authorized the Nebraska Soil a~d Water Conservation

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

173

WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING, 1973 Research in support of the state water resources planni n q proces s c a n 01" a highly productive actually be understood. It must also be understood that planning for the use and development of water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

174

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING,000,000 for the Sec. 101 matching grant program, and $2,000,000 for the Title II program. INTERDISCIPLINARY WATER RESOURCE SEMINAR An Interdisciplinary Water Resource Seminar will be offered during the 1970 Semeste

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

175

1999 WATER RESOURCES SEMINARS "Spotlighting Water Research"  

E-print Network

Institute, Fountain Valley, CA March 31: "Unsaturated Hydraulic Properties for Movement of Water1999 WATER RESOURCES SEMINARS "Spotlighting Water Research" Wednesdays/3:00 to 3:50 p.m./116 L. W a Boost"--J. Michael Jess, Civil Engineer January 20: "Hydrologic Impact of Water Conservation Practices

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

176

Water 3: Accounting For Our Water Needs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we account for water use? What is the difference between water consumed and water withdrawn? What is the water footprint tool? This video examines these questions. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

177

Virtual water trade and world water resources.  

PubMed

Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water. PMID:15195440

Oki, T; Kanae, S

2004-01-01

178

Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

179

Waters of the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students make a visual display showing the distribution of water on earth. Using separate bottles, students illustrate the amount of water in oceans, fresh water locked up as ice, underground fresh water, surface fresh water, and water in air and soil.

180

Water Reactive Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water reactive chemicals are generally aggressive materials that are used widely in the process industries. Common water reactive substances are sulphur trioxide, oleum, titanium tetrachloride, silicon tetrachloride, chlorosulphonic acid, chloroacetyl chloride and phosphorus trichloride. When released to the atmosphere, water reactive materials generally react readily with any free ground water, substrate water and atmospheric water. The exact nature, kinetics and

L. Fernie; P. Wright; T. Kapias

2007-01-01

181

Water Resources Policy & Economics  

E-print Network

Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

Buehrer, R. Michael

182

Testing the Waters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)

Finks, Mason

1993-01-01

183

MODELING WATER QUALITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water quality models are based on some representation of hydrology and may include movement of surface water, ground water, and mixing of water in lakes and water bodies. Water quality models simulate some combination of sediment, nutrients, heavy metals, xenobiotics, and aquatic biology. Althoug...

184

Magnificent Ground Water Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnificent Ground Water Connection is a compilation of ground water-related activities for teaching and learning purposes. The teacher's activity guide is applicable to a wide range of subject matter and the ground water theme is integrated into stories, songs, math, social studies, art and writing. The topics include basic concepts of the water cycle, water distribution, treatment and stewardship. Other subjects include the water cycle and water conservation, New England's ground water resources, ground water contamination and protection. Sections are also available for wetlands, ground water, marine debris, waster, air quality, acid rain, and energy. Users can also access an on-line lending library for educational materials and videos.

185

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn the process of the water cycle. Alabama Course of Study: Science. Second Grade: Standard 9: Describe evaporation, condensation, and precipitation in the water cycle. What is the water cycle? On the worksheet provided, list the 4 parts of the water cycle. Between the parts draw a small picture to represent what is happening during this cycle. The Water Cycle See how we use the water in the water cycle. Thirstins Water Cycle Name 3 ways water changes form. This is an animated diagram of the Water Cycle Here is a ...

Lopez, Mrs.

2009-07-09

186

Molecular Structure of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water descends from the sky as rain and irrigates the land. Water can be used as a solvent for dissolving many forms of solids. It can also be used as both a coolant and a reactant. Everything from blood to tears are variations of the water compound. Water quality is an important issue in the environment. Safe water, water free of harmful toxins, is important for agriculture and community consumption. Criteria for safe water is based on levels deemed suitable for drinking, swimming, farming etc. The EPA uses specific water safety standards used by many states for water safety management. States may also adopt their own water safety standards for government approval.

2002-08-14

187

Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform ? Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

188

Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

Glasser, L.

2004-01-01

189

Global water use inequality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of renewable freshwater resources between countries is highly unequal and 80% of humanity lives in regions where water security is threatened. Freshwater is a finite resource and a more equal distribution of water may be necessary in order to ensure that all populations are adequately provisioned. We evaluated inequality in blue, green, and gray water use between nations and assessed the ability of virtual water transfers to reduce inequality in global water use. Overall, the actual use of renewable water resources is relatively equal even though the physical distribution of renewable water resources is highly unequal. Most inequality in water use is due to agricultural production and can be attributed to climate and arable land availability. Virtual water transfer is unlikely to increase water-use equality primarily because agricultural water use dominates national water needs and this cannot be completely compensated by virtual water transfers.

Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.; Pace, M. L.

2011-12-01

190

Cloud Liquid Water Measurements  

E-print Network

#12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv - Boiling Temperature of Water · Ta ­ Ambient Temperature #12 of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv ­ Water Boiling Temperature Solve for Liquid Water Content · P

Delene, David J.

191

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By Marc A. Nelson Arkansas Water Resources Center Ron Redman Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission L. Wade Cash Arkansas Water Resources Center G ROAD 76 BRIDGE ON BALLARD CREEK Submitted to: Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By: Marc

Soerens, Thomas

192

Save Our Water Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water

Bromley, Albert W.

193

Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation  

E-print Network

1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments Animal matched over time, or else!!! I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance l Different problems with osmoregulation depending on the habitat the organism lives in A. Freshwater: B. Salt water: C. Terrestrial: Excessive

Dever, Jennifer A.

194

Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation  

E-print Network

1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance Animal = open system that exchanges materials & energy w/environment. Rates depending on the habitat the organism lives in A. Freshwater: the animal is hyperosmotic B. Salt water

Dever, Jennifer A.

195

Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation  

E-print Network

1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance Animal = open system that exchanges materials & energy w/environment. Different is hyperosmotic B. Salt water: the animal is hypoosmotic C. Terrestrial: evaporation main problem Excessive

Dever, Jennifer A.

196

Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation  

E-print Network

1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance l Different problems with osmoregulation depending on the habitat the organism lives in #12;2 Nitrogenous Wastes 1) Ammonia 2) Urea 3) Uric Acid II. Water Gain 1. Drinking (reptiles

Dever, Jennifer A.

197

Rendering Natural Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating and rendering realistic water is one of the most daunting tasks in computer graphics. Realistic rendering of water requires that the sunlight and skylight illumination are correct, the water surface is modeled accurately and that the light transport within water body is properly handled. This paper describes a method for wave generation on a water surface using a physically-based

Simon Premoze; Michael Ashikhmin

2001-01-01

198

Plant Water Relations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plant water relations are presented in this learning activity to help participants understand the components of water potential, explain how water moves through plants, provide examples of plant adaptations to water stress, and have a general understanding of how water potential can be measured.

Bidlack, Jim

199

Water Basins Civil Engineering  

E-print Network

Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

Provancher, William

200

Grains, Water Introduction  

E-print Network

Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

201

Water Resources of Idaho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website highlights water resources in the state of Idaho. Details about hydrology programs in the state include ground water data, water quality information, water use in the state of Idaho, surface water, Idaho programs, reports, flood and drought information, and state projects on ice core research and various rivers. There are links to more sites for additional information.

202

Human Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the human water cycle, or how humans impact the water cycle by settling down in civilizations. Specifically, they learn how people obtain, use and dispose of water. Students also learn about shortages of treated, clean and safe water and learn about ways that engineers address this issue through water conservation and graywater recycling.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

203

Acid in water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

Laszlo Ilyes (None;)

2007-05-16

204

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Arkansas Water Resources Center LASER-PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF WATER POLLUTANTS PHASE I Principal. '. 18 #12;cor~PLETIONREPORT LASER-PHOTOACOUSTICDETECTIONOF WATER POLLUTANTS: PHASEI October ls 1977 their waters. Recognizing that water pollution can pose serious health hazards and unknown long term effects

Soerens, Thomas

205

Water Governance and Legislation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can review Canadian water policy and legislation for both provinces and federal government. Topics include the nature of water, water policy and legislation, water management, water and culture, and links to information and services (a glossary, news articles, and a teachers' corner). A French translation is available.

2003-07-31

206

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

207

Introduction to Water Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with examples of the types of problems that environmental engineers solve, specifically focusing on water quality issues. Topics include the importance of clean water, the scarcity of fresh water, tap water contamination sources, and ways environmental engineers treat contaminated water.

GK-12 Program,

208

Water resources data, Nevada, water year 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Nevada consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; precipitation; and water levels in wells. This report contains discharge records for 182 streamflow-gaging stations on streams, canals and drains; Discharge data for 52 partial record stations and miscellaneous sites, and 23 springs; stage and contents records for 21 ponds, lakes and reservoirs; Water levels for 178 primary observation wells, and 715 secondary observation wells; Water-quality data for 70 streams, canal, spring and drain sites and 276 wells; precipitation totals for 40 stations; and water withdrawals for 11 wells.

Stockton, Emil L.; Jones, Clifford Z.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Medina, Rose L.

2003-01-01

209

Industrial Water Demand With Water Reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work establishes an industrial water demand (IWD) model for a short term estimate, which considers water reuse technologies and discharge regulations, for the integrated circuit (IC) industry in northern Taiwan. Based on the optimization of an industrial water cost system, a computerized system dynamics model (SD model) is developed to generate individual firm IWD using data from year 2000.

Chao-Hsien Liaw; Liang-Ching Chen; Li-Mei Chan

2006-01-01

210

WATER RECLAMATION AND AUTOMATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Santa Clara Valley Water District owns and operates a water reclamation facility located in the Palo Alto Baylands area in Northern California. The purpose of the facility is to provide reclaimed water suitable for injection into the groundwater, thereby providing a salt wate...

211

Water: Human Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Quality Standards Water Quality Criteria Human Health Criteria Human Health Criteria Human health ambient water quality criteria ... Updated National Recommended Water Quality Criteria - Human Health Human Health Research Program Human Health Research provides the ...

212

water transport land runoff  

E-print Network

Monitoring station Land to water transport Urban runoff Cultivated land runoff Wastewater discharges Pasture land runoff Instream transport and removal Land to water transport Monitoring station Benefits of Integrated Monitoring and Modeling Successful management of our Nation's water resources

Torgersen, Christian

213

Aging Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

214

Lawn Water Management  

E-print Network

Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

McAfee, James

2006-06-26

215

Reduction of Water Consumption  

E-print Network

Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

Adler, J.

216

Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms is a helpful collection of resources for water researchers and professionals provided by the Nevada Division of Water Resources and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. This extensive and freely accessed dictionary contains hundreds of words, which are organized alphabetically, making it perfect for searching and printing. Also provided are dozens of appendixes, abbreviations and acronyms, conversion tables and flow equivalents, and more.

217

Water Resources of Tennessee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the U.S. Geological Survey, provides real-time, surface-water, ground-water and water-quality data; maps and graphs of current water resource conditions in the U.S. such as a daily streamflow conditions map; publications and product information; information on National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) programs of the Tennessee River Basin and Mobile River Basin; and information on water use in Tennessee.

218

Water Cycle Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and its role in studying the water cycle. This webquest provides links to eight websites, allowing middle school students to explore the water cycle and its impacts on Earth's weather and climate. Through online videos and articles, students follow a water molecule through the cycle, discover the connection between the water cycle and global water/heat distribution, examine the role of solar energy, and assess the importance of fresh water.

219

Industrial Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of its Water Science for Schools site, the US Geological Survey defines industrial water use and includes several tables and maps showing where and how industry uses water. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much surface water is used in industry as well as how much of that water is fresh or saline.

2002-10-10

220

Water Resources Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQâs, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

221

Industrial Water Demand With Water Reuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work establishes an industrial water demand (IWD) model for a short term estimate, which considers water reuse technologies and discharge regulations, for the integrated circuit (IC) industry in northern Taiwan. Based on the optimization of an industrial water cost system, a computerized system dynamics model (SD model) is developed to generate individual firm IWD using data from year 2000. A market IWD is further constructed for 25 IC firms in the study area and is approximated by an inverse logistic curve. Analytical results demonstrate that price elasticity varies with water price in cases involving water reuse.

Liaw, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Ching; Chan, Li-Mei

2006-06-01

222

Trees, Soil and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - health care for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification.

Keith Addison

2010-01-01

223

Walk On Water Bugs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 29-35), learners examine water pollution and filtration. First, learners build models of water bugs from paper clips, and test the effect of dirt and detergent on their "bugs" floating on the water. Next, learners build a water filter using filter paper, a paper towel, and gravel or sand. The "What We Know" section introduces concepts of how much drinking water is found on Earth, water pollution, the impact of pollution on water quality and surface tensionâand how that affects specially adapted species such as water striders.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

224

Revealing water’s secrets: deuterium depleted water  

PubMed Central

Background The anomalous properties of water have been of great interest for generations of scientists. However the impact of small amount of deuterium content which is always present in water has never been explored before. For the first time the fundamental properties of deuterium depleted (light) water at 4°C and 20°C are here presented. Results The obtained results show the important role of the deuterium in the properties of bulk water. At 4°C the lowest value of the kinematic viscosity (1.46 mm2/s) has been found for 96.5 ppm D/H ratio. The significant deviation in surface tension values has been observed in deuterium depleted water samples at the both temperature regimes. The experimental data provides direct evidence that density, surface tension and viscosity anomalies of water are caused by the presence of variable concentration of deuterium which leads to the formation of water clusters of different size and quantity. Conclusions The investigated properties of light water reveal the origin of the water anomalies. The new theoretical model of cluster formation with account of isotope effect is proposed. PMID:23773696

2013-01-01

225

2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

Dor Ben-Amotz

2010-08-13

226

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOEpatents

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18

227

Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages  

MedlinePLUS

... Women Kids & Teens FDA Regulates the Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water ... carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled Water" Under FDA labeling rules, bottled water includes products ...

228

Sustainability and Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate(VI) technology to meet the demand of water in this century.

Sharma, Virender A.

2009-07-01

229

Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

L. Glasser

2004-01-01

230

Potable water taste enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.

1974-01-01

231

Exploratorium: Exploring Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

2001-01-01

232

WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

233

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By M.A. Nelson L.W. Cash G.K. Trost to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission M. A. Nelson, L. W. Cash, and G. K. Trost Arkansas Water Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

Soerens, Thomas

234

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Submitted to the Washington County Conservation District and Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission & WATER CONSERVATION COMMISSION INTRODUCTION In Northwest Arkansas, nutrients transported by surface water storage structures. In 1991, the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC) and the U. S

Soerens, Thomas

235

Water Waves Roger Grimshaw  

E-print Network

Water Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves nonlinear waves. Throughout the theory is based on the traditional assumptions that water is inviscid

236

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 2: Water cycle, stocks and flows () July 28, 2013 1 / 30 #12;The basic movement of water source: USGS. () July 28, 2013 2 / 30 #12, humidity and air flow. Formation of liquid-water in the Atmosphere-Cloud-Formation Coming Down Rain

Sohoni, Milind

237

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 8: Wells () August 28, 2012 project, utilizing enhanced ground-water. Water lifted from storage, to accumulate overnight from aquifer. Water from shallow aquifer, of about 7-8m thickness. accounts for about 30% of irrigation Unique

Sohoni, Milind

238

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 7: Regional Groundwater than the unit situations that we saw. Surface water/Groundwater interactions. lakes and streams springs (seepage) Ambient water-table movements Seasonal changes Inteference with other water end-users. Inherent

Sohoni, Milind

239

Muddy Waters . . . page 4  

E-print Network

Research Institute · Morse Hall, Durham, NH Water, Water Everywhere asdfghjk -- continued on page 2 HereMuddy Waters . . . page 4 Braving the Storm . . . page 5 Winter 2009 Vol. 8 Issue 1 A River Runs's water sys- tem would be fast disappearing from the face of the earth as the program drew to a close

Pringle, James "Jamie"

240

Global Water Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much water on Earth is fresh water? How much of that fresh water is found in icecaps? Lakes? Rivers? This interactive resource uses bar graphs to illustrate the relative distribution of fresh and salt water on Earth. Adapted from Oxford University Press.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2005-12-17

241

Reflections on Water (and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In theories of word meaning and concepts, "water" has been taken as a key case ofa natural kind term, and water of a natural kind. I address several questions including:What should a theory of the meaning of the word "water" look like, given observationsabout use of the word? Is there a category of liquids that is water, independent of thenames

Barbara C. Malt

242

New Folklore about Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments designed to investigate the cooling rate of microwave-boiled water as compared to that of stove-boiled water. Concludes that within experimental limits, microwave-boiled water and stove-boiled water cool at the same rate. (JRH)

LeMaire, Peter; Waiveris, Charles

1995-01-01

243

Water Molecule Residence Times  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How long will a molecule of Water stay in a particular reservoir? What is the average time a molecule of Water will stay in an ocean? What is the average time a molecule of water will stay in a river? A lake? As groundwater? A glacier? How long will a water vapor molecule stay suspended in the atmosphere? Why is the residence ...

Science, Sill -.

2010-11-16

244

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is a detailed, labeled diagram of the water cycle. Included in the representation are the major concepts of evaporation, precipitation and ground infiltration, as well as more advanced ideas. Above and below the diagram are several paragraphs that provide an introduction to the water cycle, a quick summary of the parts of the water cycle and information about global water distribution.

245

Waves and Water Beetles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

Tucker, Vance A.

1971-01-01

246

Domestic wash water reclamation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

247

Water and Something Else.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…

Hougendobler, Nancy

248

Water Exploration Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on page 3 of the PDF), learners investigate the way water moves and how we can control and direct water. At the Water Exploration Station, learners experiment with various tools like eye droppers, sponges, turkey basters, etc. to move and play with the water. Included in this lesson guide are challenge questions intended to direct the learning.

2012-05-09

249

Hold the Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many facilities are considering no-water urinals because they are regarded as an effective way to conserve water. Water must be pumped by electricity, some estimate that as much as $300 per year per urinal can be saved in utility costs. The installation of no-water urinals can help buildings achieve credits toward Leadership in Energy and…

Kravitz, Robert; Reichardt, Klaus

2006-01-01

250

Salt, Water, and Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

Smith, Nathan J.

251

Chemistry Review: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Review focuses on the many different aspects and states of water. Water is analyzed by its molecular make-up and structure, and the reasons substances dissolve in water are give. Videos and animations are provided to clearly show the set-up of its molecular structure. The relationship between sugar and water molecules are explained in detail, with models as examples.

Kessler, James; Galvan, Patti

2010-01-01

252

Old Water Pump  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....

253

Journal of Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ground Water is a leading technical publication strictly for ground water hydrogeologists. Each issue of the journal contains peer-reviewed scientific articles on pertinent ground water subjects. Non-members can read abstracts, book reviews and software spotlight columns. Members of the National Ground Water Association can view complete articles online.

National Ground Water Association

254

Potable water supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

1975-01-01

255

Group 8 - Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

Mecham, Mrs.

2006-11-30

256

The Water Filtration Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

257

Wash water recovery system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (editor)

1973-01-01

258

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Did you know that the water we use today is the same water found on Earth millions of years ago? The Earth constantly uses and recycles water in a process called the water cycle. In this lesson, learners explore the four phases of the water cycle. In the investigation Rain in a Jar, learners use hot water and ice to create condensation and a tiny cloud. In Making a Terrarium, learners create an ecosystem and water cycle by growing plants in a closed environment. Investigation spans several days.

2013-12-18

259

Water Resources of Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey website provides real-time streamflow, surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality data; information on water resource programs of Utah such as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study; maps and graphs of current U.S. water resource conditions; and USGS - Utah reports. The site also features a drought watch section for Utah containing drought definitions and more streamflow conditions; a section on the Upper Arkansas River Basin Toxic-Substances Hydrology Project; and information on contamination in ground water at Fry Canyon, Utah.

260

The African Water Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Len Abrams, the goal of the African Water Page is to "increase communication on the Continent of Africa between people working in water." Issues for discussion include "water policy, water resource management, water supply and environmental sanitation, water conservation and demand management." Visitors to this page can find information about recent policy initiatives in South Africa, water related documents concerning South Africa, Zimbabwe, the African continent, and some international topics. Also included are links to South and Southern African and International sites.

Abrams, Leonard J.

1995-01-01

261

Irrigation Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the USGS Water Science for Schools site, this resource defines irrigation water use and includes several tables and maps showing water use by various irrigation systems, by state, by crop, and by percentage of fresh water available. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much ground water and surface water is used for irrigation. Various irrigation systems are defined, described, and pictured, along with a discussion of their relative efficiencies. A Spanish translation is available.

2003-05-28

262

PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in other liquids also. Recent evidence of a close relation between thermodynamical properties and dynamical behaviour of water are also discussed. Gallo et al present the results of a computer simulation of water confined in a cylindrical pore of MCM-41 silica material. The mobile portion of the confined water shows a fragile to strong dynamic transition similar to the bulk. In the bound water, an anomalous diffusion connected to the residence time distribution is found. Franzese et al report calculations on lattice models adapted to describe general properties of water in contact with protein surfaces. The results of Monte Carlo and mean field calculations show the presence of two-dynamical crossovers. Corradini et al investigate the supercooled region of ionic aqueous solutions in order to study the effect of ions on the limit of mechanical stability, the lines of maximum density and the liquid-liquid critical point for different ionic concentrations. The paper by Vallauri et al deals with the dynamical behavior of water close to the liquid-liquid transition by considering the velocity correlation functions calculated in three supercooled states. Suffritti et al study water adsorbed in zeolites with a new empirical potential, structural and dynamical properties are studied in the supercooled region. The second group starts with a paper on the problem of solvation by Lynden-Bell. The author shows how the properties of water and, in particular, solvation properties are modified by changes in the site-site interaction potential of water. Henchman et al derive equations for different thermodynamical quantities like partial enthalpy and partial entropy for dilute solutions of noble gases. The third group starts with Buldyrev et al who study the swelling of bead-on-a-string polymers in Jagla water-like particles, finding similarities with respect to cold denaturation of protein in water. Pellenq et al consider water confined in pores of different materials with different size scales. Silicalite and tobermorite, a layered calcio-silicate model of cement and Vycor are anal

Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

2010-07-01

263

Water use and sustainability  

SciTech Connect

Denver Water is not in a water crisis. They have a conservation program because it is one part of wise water management in this semi-arid region. Denver gets less than 15 inches of precipitation each year, and most of that falls as snow in the winter and spring. In the past, Denver had to depend upon storing the water in reservoirs to ensure a supply during the hot, dry summer. Now, Denver Water also works to reduce water use as a method to extend supplies. There are other benefits as well. When water is used efficiently, more water can remain for recreation, wetlands, dilution, natural aesthetics, and habitat for fish and other wildlife. By extending supplies, protecting the environment and saving money, they all help to ensure a sustainable future. The water conservation team has started a three-year Integrated Resource Planning process based upon a book entitled, `Integrated Resource Planning for Water Utilities`.

Gardener, E.V.; Hernandez, E.L. [Denver Water, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

264

Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of  

E-print Network

Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of Recycled Water Arizona Hydrological.Eng. Global Water 22 September 2008 #12;Overview · The Finite Nature of Water · Water Availability and Population Growth · Types of Reuse · Water Efficiency of Reuse · Power Efficiency of Reuse #12;Water Scarcity

Scott, Christopher

265

WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

of Water Use; (2) Nonpoint Source Pollution; (3) Meeting Water Requirements; (4) Energy-Water Relationships development. (2) Water Pollution and Water Quality Control - Nonpoint Source Pollution Definition: Degradation of water quality from nonpoint source pollution. (3) Water Use Efficiency Definition: Minimize water use

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

266

National Ground Water Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains a wealth of information for the groundwater professional and for students of hydrogeology. The site features educational materials, information about conferences, courses and workshops, and a bookstore. There is also a searchable database of abstracts from the journals Ground Water, Ground Water Monitoring Review, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, and the Water Well Journal. Members of the National Ground Water Association may access these articles directly. Publications, fact sheets and industry links are also available.

National Ground Water Association

267

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram of the water cycle invites students to click on a part of the cycle to get information about streamflow, surface runoff, freshwater storage, ground-water discharge, ground-water storage, infiltration, precipitation, snowmelt, runoff to streams, springs, condensation, evaporation, transpiration, water in the atmosphere, ice and snow, and oceans. A summary of the water cycle on a single webpage is also available as text with pictures in about fifty languages, text only in thirteen languages, or diagram only.

2007-12-12

268

Ground water and energy  

SciTech Connect

This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

Not Available

1980-11-01

269

Water Treatment Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.

270

Water conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

271

Water Resource Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

272

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

273

Water Resources Data, Mississippi, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.

Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D.P.; Storm, J.B.

2003-01-01

274

Water Filtration and Purity of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces the concept of water purity. In this activity, students will test a sample of water collected from a local water supply and test its purity and evaluate its safety for consumption by looking for pollutants. Before starting, students should have a grasp on how to convert nanoscale measurements. This lab will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. Teacher Preparation Guides, Student Guides, Water Filtration Presentation, and Next Generation Manufacturing Standards for this lesson are included. 

2014-08-12

275

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

276

OVERVIEW OF USEPA'S WATER SUPPLY & WATER RESOURCES DIVISION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts a wide range of research on regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water, water distribution systems, homeland security, source water protection, and...

277

Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water  

PubMed Central

Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

Cabral, Joăo P. S.

2010-01-01

278

Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.  

PubMed

Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

Cabral, Joăo P S

2010-10-01

279

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOEpatents

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

1994-12-20

280

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOEpatents

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01

281

Water: Too Precious to Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

National Geographic World, 1983

1983-01-01

282

Water quality in sustainable water management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water pollution is a serious problem as almost 70% of India's surface water resources and a growing number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. Pollu - tion of surface and groundwater resources occurs through point and diffuse sources. Examples of point source pollution are effluents from industries and from sewage-treatment plants. Typical examples

Sudhakar M. Rao; P. Mamatha

283

Water, water everywhere, and its remarkable chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosystem II (PSII), the multisubunit pigment–protein complex localised in the thylakoid membranes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, uses light energy to drive a series of remarkable reactions leading to the oxidation of water. The products of this oxidation are dioxygen, which is released to the atmosphere, and reducing equivalents destined to reduce carbon dioxide to organic molecules. The water oxidation occurs

Jim Barber

2004-01-01

284

Drainage water management for water quality protection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

285

Ground Water in Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

2000-01-01

286

The Management of Water: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

287

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation features a detailed six minute animated lesson about the major processes that move water between land, the ocean and the atmosphere, and convert water between states. Evaporation, condensation, transpiration and water reservoirs are major topics covered by the animation. The portion of the video (05:40 to 06:05 beginning with a drawn scene of mountains, oceans and sky to narration Âdissolved minerals in ground water carried to the ocean for billions of yearsÂ) describes pollutants being filtered out of water while minerals, such as sodium and arsenic, are Âpicked up by the water.

288

Water gas furnace  

SciTech Connect

A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

Gallaro, C.

1985-12-03

289

Water Resources of Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.

290

Water Resources Penn.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Resources Penn.: The Office of Water Management plans, directs and coordinates departmental programs associated with the management and protection of the CommonwealthÂ?s water resources; administers and oversees departmental programs involving surface and groundwater quantity and quality planning, and soil and water conservation; coordinates policies, procedures and regulations which influence public water supply withdrawals and quality, sewage facilities planning, point source municipal and industrial discharges, encroachments upon waterways and wetlands, dam safety, earth disturbance activities and control of storm water and nonpoint source pollution; and coordinates the planning, design and construction of flood protection and stream improvement projects.

291

Water Illusions: Refraction & Magnification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners demonstrate how water can distort, refract and magnify light. In an investigation called Underwater Differences, learners do activities including the Broken Pencil, examining how a pencil half-in and half-out of water has its appearance affected by the water, and Stick it to the Bottom, examining how a sticker on a table appears different when seen through a jar of water. In an investigation called Bigger Through Water, learners make a water magnifying loop and use it as a lens to read the newspaper or a magazine. The student journal offers an additional Science @ Home activity about scattering the light from a flashlight.

New Jersey

2006-01-01

292

Predicting Ground Water Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students learn how to draw ground water contours and understand how ground water flow may be predicted. As they complete this activity students will be able to draw a ground water contour map, have a basic understanding of how to predict the direction of ground water flow and understand the interrelated nature of ground water and surface water flow. They will also learn the difference between a gaining stream and a losing stream and why it is important to know the difference.

293

Properties of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environment Canada (mentioned in the January 21, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) provides the Properties of Water Webpage. Sections included at the page are the hydrologic cycle; rivers; lakes; snowfall; and measuring, storing, and controlling water, among others. The Quick Facts section contains interesting facts, like the following: raindrops resemble the shape of a hamburger bun, 70% of the human body is water, 75% of earth is covered in water, and most of our food is water (tomatoes 95%, spinach 91%, and beef 61%). This site provides detailed information about water and its properties.

2010-05-20

294

Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caprellid fauna of India is investigated. A total of 538 samples (including algae, seagrasses, sponges, hydroids, ascidians,\\u000a bryozoans, encrusted dead corals, coral rubble, fine and coarse sediments) were collected from 39 stations along the coast\\u000a of India, covering a wide diversity of habitats from intertidal to 12 m water depth. A new species (Jigurru longimanus n.sp.) is described, and figures

J. M. Guerra-García; T. Ganesh; M. Jaikumar; A. V. Raman

2010-01-01

295

Urban water interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental understanding of aquatic interface processes in urban environments, advance understanding of current and future system behaviour, and promote an integrated urban water management.

Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

2014-06-01

296

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... safewater/dwinfo.htm and click on your state. Database: EPA collects information on every public drinking water ... in the nation and stores it in a database called the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS). ...

297

Electrostatic Water Attraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct a simple experiment to see how electrically charged things like plastic attract electrically neutral things like water. The plastic will attract the surface of the water into a visible bump.

2011-08-20

298

Earth Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from ZOOM, cast members try to make the most effective water filter. They experiment with filtering dirty, salty water through different combinations of sand, gravel, and a cotton bandana.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2005-12-17

299

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Building Numerical Models () August of surface flow of water and infiltration which may include time to flow, movement of solids etc. () August

Sohoni, Milind

300

Society and Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a national symposium on Societal Problems of Water Resources at Western Illinois University, scientists discussed dams, canals, water pollution control and management programs, federal-state relations in resource planning, and their effects on how we live. (BL)

Qutub, Musa Y.

1972-01-01

301

Walking on water  

E-print Network

The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

Bush, John W. M.

302

About Body Water  

MedlinePLUS

... In This Topic Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Water Balance About Body Water Back to Top Helpful Resources First Aid Pronunciations Common Medical Tests Drug Names Table Weights and Measures Resources for ...

303

GROUND WATER RESEARCH PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

This document sets out the objectives of the Environmental Protection Agency's ground-water research; specifies the Agency's legislative mandates in ground water; and describes the research activities which support those mandates with explicit time frames; and identifies the clie...

304

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

CONJUNCTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT BY TARGET APPROACHES PREPARED FOR: WINTHROP ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION CONJUNCTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT BY TARGET APPROACHES PREPARED FOR:, WINTHROP ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION AND;" c by the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation. Little Rock. and the International Agricultural Programs Office (through

Soerens, Thomas

305

Plugging Abandoned Water Wells  

E-print Network

Plugging Abandoned Water Wells Bruce Lesikar Associate Professor and Agricultural Engineering Specialist Te x as Cooperative Extension The Texas A&M University System Te x as groundwater resources are critical to meeting our future needs Water...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2002-02-28

306

Private Drinking Water Wells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency, contains information from the on testing and protecting private water sources. The site can be helpful for persons having a private well or simply those interested in water science.

2008-10-06

307

MINE DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER  

E-print Network

Mine Engineering Plan Surface Water Components Site Drainage Mine Site Dewatering (If covered Dewatering Open Pit Lake Drain site / Water Disposal Mine Site Runoff Dikes Seepage Underground Mine Rivers

Boisvert, Jeff

308

Water Safety (Recreational)  

MedlinePLUS

Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

309

Water surface depth instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement gage provides instant visual indication of water depth based on capillary action and light diffraction in a group of solid, highly polished polymethyl methacrylate rods. Rod lengths are adjustable to measure various water depths in any desired increments.

Davis, Q. C., IV

1970-01-01

310

Water Saving for Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a permanent cooperation among Public Bodies and Institutions, with the creation of a transferable model of best practices. WaS4D will carry out initiatives and advisory services aimed to encourage a behavior change, influencing citizens' demand and support consumers who wish to take action to reduce drinking water use: for the civil use, from literature, it's possible to reduce drinkable water consumption up to 50% using simple and economic tools, with a large environmental positive impact. WaS4D mainly focuses on the needs to define a participatory approach to enhance water-saving culture at urban level, encouraging a shift from supply-driven policies to management policies and from a sectorial to an integrated approach. The innovative character of the project is referred to the integrated approach as well as to the creation of new web services & tools.

Zacharias, Ierotheos

2013-04-01

311

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was developed to give participants an understanding of Earth's water cycle. In this one-hour long activity, students participate in a webquest to learn about the water cycle, and then build a mini-model of the water cycle to observe how water moves through Earth's four systems. The activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

312

THE WATER CYCLE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Understand the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Water Cycle Diagram DATES: You can begin this activity on October 16. You should complete it by October 20. OBJECTIVE: You have been learning about the water cycle in class. This activity gives you the chance to review some important vocabulary: evaporation condensation precipitation collection You will watch a short video and complete a water ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-02-18

313

Problem: Ballast Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identifies invasive species as a top threat to world oceans; provides explanation of shipping and ballast water's roles in the spread of marine exotics. Defines ballast water and its use in shipping, includes diagram of ballast tanks and cycle of loading and discharging water. Outlines threats from marine life transported in ballast water and cites examples of species that have invaded new environments in this way.

314

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students from around the globe will team up to test fresh water. With this collaborative project, students will compare the water quality of their local river, stream, lake or pond with other fresh water sources around the world. The focus of the project is to assess the quality of water based on physical characteristics and chemical substances, and to look for relationships and trends among the data collected by all project participants.

2009-01-01

315

Demystifying water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

Hairston, D.

1994-09-01

316

The World's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplemental to The World's Water book by Peter Gleick, this site offers data on the world's freshwater resources and uses. Tables and maps provide information on quantity and quality issues including data on access to safe drinking water; waterborne disease outbreaks; desalination capacity; as well as hydroelectric capacity and production. There is also a unique chronology documenting the historical connections between human conflict and water. Additionally there is an expansive list of links to water-relevant agencies and organizations.

2001-08-13

317

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

318

Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

1992-01-01

319

Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

320

International Water Facility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article proposes a global initiative to address water shortages because: about 1/3 of world's population does not have enough drinking water, almost half of world's land is without water, converting arid land to fertile land can reduce global warming, and better technology, such as desalination, would give us greater access to freshwater.

Mohamed Kassas (University of Cairo;)

2001-02-01

321

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

. Melting point 0 C, boiling point 100 C. Specific heat (water): 1 calorie/gm/degree C. Second highest! veryTD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 1: A Perspective () July 20, 2012 1 / 17 #12;Outline Two parts: The technical side to water. -M. Sohoni The basic hydrological cycle

Sohoni, Milind

322

"Boyle-ing" Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore Boyle's Law and discover that water will boil at room temperature if its pressure is lowered. Learners conduct an experiment using a plastic syringe and water and then have the option to repeat the experiment with carbonated water and compare the results.

Paul Doherty

1999-01-01

323

Tracking Subsurface Water  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Jeff Wynn, Herb Pierce and Chris Lockett (R to L) observe the incoming data used to measure water conductivity in the deep (900+ m) subsurface at Mount St. Helens. Water, from rain, melting snow and ice, seeps into the rubble of the crater floor. The water fills the pore spaces and interacts with st...

324

Water Resource Adaptation Program  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

325

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By Marc A. Nelson, Ph.D., P.E. L. Wade Cash of Moores Creek above Lincoln Lake 2003 Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission M composting, and waste storage structures. In 1991, the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC

Soerens, Thomas

326

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 10: Minor Structures for Ground and Surface Water () March 23, 2010 1 / 31 #12;Classification by Purpose We may classify the velocity of water-flow (ii) increasing the infiltration coefficient (iii) explicit groundwater recharge

Sohoni, Milind

327

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 4: Groundwater () December in dried sample. Saturation: When these voids are fully filled with water. Specific Yield Sy : the ration of the colume of water that drains from a rock owing to gravity, to the total rock volumne. 00000000

Sohoni, Milind

328

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Analysis Framework for the 2009 / 16 #12;Vol II and Vol III Vol. II 1 Annexure I, Chap. 1: Bulk-water and tariffs-Principles. 2 Annexure I, Chap. 2: International Case Studies. 3 Annexure II: Report on water conservation technologies

Sohoni, Milind

329

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 6: Mathematics, z). velocity vx (x, y, z, t) : in the x-direction. vx = Kx h/x saturated/water- table. Continuity Equation What is vx x + vy y + vz z ? It is the rate of accumulation of water at the point (x, y

Sohoni, Milind

330

The cost of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  For all too many developing countries, it is a case of “Water, water everywhere and not a drop to drink”. In many of the Least\\u000a Developed Countries, safe drinking water and excreta disposal facilities are sadly inadequate.

Uma Ram Nath

1983-01-01

331

Water wave energy transducer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water wave energy transducer for converting the motion of a water wave into a controlled mechanical movement such as rotational motion suitable for actuating an electrical generator is disclosed. The transducer comprises a float member floatingly moored in a water body having waves and\\/or tidal movement, such as a seashore. A power gear is rotatably mounted in a swing

Lamberti

1980-01-01

332

Water structure and reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many studies of water in the past, one important aspect of its structure has been largely neglected, namely the presence of free groups in an otherwise fully hydrogen-bonded network. Several aspects of the varied role that water plays in chemistry are illuminated by these groups. Water is envisaged as a three-dimensional network involving tetragonal bonds fortuitously linked together, with

Martyn C. R. Symons; M. C. R

1981-01-01

333

Water & Energy Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Water & Energy Conservation Plan View of PGI construction and retention pond, Sitapura Industrial of Colleges (PGC) in Rajasthan, India suggests measures to mitigate the impending water and energy crisis that India and the college both face. Within, plans are made for the conservation of water and energy

Illinois at Chicago, University of

334

Enceladus' Water Vapour Plumes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.

Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.

2006-01-01

335

Water Quality Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Quality Information Center's database of "Online Documents Covering Water and Agriculture" has an improved interface and more titles. You can now access more than 1,700 documents. The topics include things such as, irrigation, social and legal issues, regional information, water availability and quality.

2008-10-08

336

Coordinating Texas Water Research  

E-print Network

centers. #12;"Texas Panel on Water" Potential Activities 1. Regularly convene a panel of experts 2. ReviewCoordinating Texas Water Research Jay Banner and Eric Hersh Environmental Science Institute and Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin CIESS Water Forum III October 14, 2013

Yang, Zong-Liang

337

Water: Clearly Unique!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 4 of the PDF, learners conduct some quick and easy tests to determine the differences between water and other liquids that look very similar to water. Learners compare how water, rubbing alcohol, and mineral oil repel, absorb, and evaporate.

American Chemical Society

2011-01-01

338

Energy-Water Nexus  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

Horak, W.

2010-07-26

339

STORM WATER Residential  

E-print Network

STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE UCSC Residential Car Washing http THAT MAY CAUSE ENVIRONMENTAL HARM TO THE STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE: (831) 459-2553. LIKE US ON FACEBOOK AT UCSC STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM! DID YOU KNOW? PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS > USE A COMMERCIAL CAR WASH

California at Santa Cruz, University of

340

Water related otitis externa.  

PubMed

Water influences skin inflammation of the external auditory canal. The common term for this illness is "swimmer's ear". Contributory factors are length of exposure to water, type of water and water pollution. The aim of the study was to compare risks for contracting the disease between patients with different exposure to swimming pool water. A retrospective case-control analysis of patients at the ENT-clinic was performed. Swimmers and water polo players swam in a swimming pool chlorinated by an automatic swimming pool cleaning system. Water sport players had a higher risk for ear skin inflammation than football players. Senior football players compared with players younger than 13 were not at increased risk. Swimmers and water polo players older than 13 were at higher risk. Swimmers were at higher risk than football players as well as water polo players. There was no difference for the risk of otitis externa between swimmers and water polo players. Swimmers and water polo players compared with other patients of the ENT-clinic were at higher risk than football players. Frequent and longer exposure to water has been proved to increase the risk of external auditory canal inflammation. PMID:23213950

Kujundzi?, Milodar; Braut, Tamara; Manestar, Dubravko; Cattunar, Albert; Malvi?, Goran; Vukeli?, Jelena; Puselja, Zeljko; Linsak, Dijana Tomi?

2012-09-01

341

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens in each stage of the water cycle? First, watch this video to learn about each stage of the water cycle. video Next, click on this link to read more facts about each stages of the water cycle.

Baker, Ms.

2011-04-18

342

Water treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30

343

EPA Student Center: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are links to EPA and non-EPA resources to help students learn more about water treatment, pollution, and protection. Topics covered include watersheds, wetlands, aquatic ecosystems, marine sanctuaries, water science, and more. This site includes a downloadable program demonstrating how pollutants collect in fish, and a water-efficient landscaping program.

344

Total Water Management - Report  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

345

Growing Water Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

Milner-Bolotin, Marina

2012-01-01

346

All About Water!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the differences between types of water (surface and ground), as well as the differences between streams, rivers and lakes. Then, they learn about dissolved organic matter (DOM), and the role it plays in identifying drinking water sources. Finally, students are introduced to conventional drinking water treatment processes.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

347

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

348

NOAA Water Cycle Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The resource is a role-playing game in which students take on the role of a water molecule and travel through nine compartments of the water cycle to gain a better understanding for the true complexity of the movement of water.

349

Developing Our Water Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

Volker, Adriaan

1977-01-01

350

AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

351

California's Water Energy Relationship  

E-print Network

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION California's Water ­ Energy Relationship Prepared in Support The California's Water-Energy Relationship report is the product of contributions by many California Energy, Lorraine White and Zhiqin Zhang. Staff would also like to thank the members of the Water-Energy Working

352

Water treatment method  

SciTech Connect

A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1990-02-02

353

Water treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

1991-04-30

354

Water Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)

Hindin, Ervin

1975-01-01

355

Up Goes the Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is very important to plants. Plants need water to produce food and grow. Plants make their own food through a complex, sunlight-powered process called photosynthesis. Simply put, in photosynthesis, water absorbed by a plant's roots and carbon dioxide taken from the air by a plant's leaves combine to make the plant's food. This article…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

356

Water chlorination Vol. 5  

SciTech Connect

This book describes the significant original contributions in the field of water chlorination of the last three years. It includes chlorination research, developments and alternatives. Issues covered include: water chlorination; risk; epidemiology; carcinogenic and mutagenic effects; toxicology of disinfectants; aquatic models and tumor induction; environmental effects; disinfection; reaction dynamics; chemical methods; drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment.

Jolley, R.L. (Ed.); Bull, R.J. (Ed.); Davis, W.P. (Ed.); Katz, S.; Roberts, M.H.

1985-01-01

357

Water Conservation Resource List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

NJEA Review, 1981

1981-01-01

358

Water Conservation in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

1993-01-01

359

The Amsterdam Water Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drinking water supply and treatment system in Amsterdam, dating from the mid-1850s, takes advantage of the new and the old. Supplies are drawn from natural catchment areas in sand dunes, from the Rhine River, and from surface lakes as well as from groundwater. The dune-water source is recharged with pretreated surface water before it is treated to potable quality

Cornelis van der Veen

1985-01-01

360

Water Reuse Reconsidered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

361

Wind power freshens water  

SciTech Connect

A wind-powered lighthouse water-freshening installation was installed at lighthouse locations along the Caspian Sea's coast and at one of the collective farms in the Moldavian SSR. From sea water containing up to 36 grams of salts per liter, fresh water with up to 1 gram per liter was produced. Output was 60 liters per hour.

Pavlor, V.; Sidorov, V.

1981-01-01

362

Water and Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This expansive site provides information about water and its relation to conflict throughout the world. There are numerous articles about and links to information on water laws, disputes, and issues.The site also lists various water-related meetings and conferences being held around the world.

1996-01-01

363

Discover the Water Cycle!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tour of the water cycle allows students to follow a water molecule from a home's plumbing system as it follows different routes through the hydrologic cycle. Students learn about how water is used, treated, and returned to the natural environment where it can cycle through liquid, solid, and gas phases.

364

Private Ground Water Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... water is consumed, it could cause illness. Ground water pollution can be caused by seepage through landfills, failed septic tanks, underground fuel tanks, fertilizers and pesticides, and runoff from ... that private ground water wells are checked regularly to ensure that the ...

365

Properties of water Polar molecule  

E-print Network

1 Water · Properties of water ­ Polar molecule · Hydrogen bonds with other water molecules · This is the foundation for all the properties of water Water · Water is the solvent, the medium and the participant bonds. · These strong bonds determine almost every physical property of water and many of its chemical

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

366

Saving water through global trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The report analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on

A. K. Chapagain; A. Y. Hoekstra; H. H. G. Savenije

2005-01-01

367

Water Quality Monitoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to study the water quality of a stream in your area, by measuring the temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity and total dissolved solids. It lends itself to integrating biology with earth science when using the microscope to study the living organisms in the water. The main objective is to determine the water quality of a local fresh water stream, as surface waters may be adversely impacted by human activity. This site has detailed instructions for conducting the listed tests.

Charlotte Naples

368

Water Vapor Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this activity is to measure the total precipitable water vapor (column water vapor) in the atmosphere above an observer's site. Students point a GLOBE/GIFTS water vapor instrument at the sun and record the voltage readings from a digital voltmeter. They observe sky conditions near the Sun and perform the Cloud Protocols. Intended outcomes are that students understand the concept that the atmosphere prevents some of the sun's light from reaching Earth's surface, how water vapor measurements relate to the hydrologic cycle, and how greenhouse gases, such as water vapor, play an important role in weather and climate. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

369

Water in a crowd.  

PubMed

In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk liquid but rather in nanoscopic environments, in contact with interfaces, interacting with ionic species, and interacting with large organic molecules. In such situations, water does not behave in the same manner as it does in the pure bulk liquid. Water dynamics are fundamental to many processes such as protein folding and proton transport. Such processes depend on the dynamics of water's hydrogen bonding network. Here, the results of ultrafast infrared experiments are described that shed light on the influences of nanoconfinement, interfaces, ions, and organic molecules on water hydrogen bond dynamics. PMID:22170957

Fayer, Michael D

2011-12-01

370

Stratospheric water vapor feedback.  

PubMed

We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry-climate model to be +0.3 W/(m(2)?K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

Dessler, A E; Schoeberl, M R; Wang, T; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K H

2013-11-01

371

Stratospheric water vapor feedback  

PubMed Central

We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry–climate model to be +0.3 W/(m2?K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.

2013-01-01

372

Water in a Crowd  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk liquid but rather in nanoscopic environments, in contact with interfaces, interacting with ionic species, and interacting with large organic molecules. In such situations, water does not behave in the same manner as it does in the pure bulk liquid. Water dynamics are fundamental to many processes such as protein folding and proton transport. Such processes depend on the dynamics of water's hydrogen bonding network. Here, the results of ultrafast infrared experiments are described that shed light on the influences of nanoconfinement, interfaces, ions, and organic molecules on water hydrogen bond dynamics.

Mr. Michael D. Fayer (Stanford University Department of Chemistry)

2011-12-01

373

The Dirty Water Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how the water cycle works (geology, meteorology) and the principles behind water filtering (physics, chemistry). This method has been successfully used during units on the water cycle and pollution to teach elementary and lower middle-school classes in an inquiry-based way.

Kremer, Angelika; Schluter, Kirsten; Walker, Mark

2007-07-01

374

Water Conservation: Mexico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ground water is the primary source for both municipal and industrial water supplies throughout the world. Some of the world's largest and fastest-growing cities depend heavily on natural aquifers that collect and store ground water. When ground water supplies are withdrawn faster than they naturally replenish, problems arise. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', shows how Mexico City's growing population is depleting local ground water and how this depletion is largely responsible for causing historic buildings to lean as the ground beneath them sinks.

375

Water Words Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled in 1997 by the Nevada Division of Water Planning, this online dictionary of "Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms" is still relevant. Words are organized in alphabetical order and may be browsed by first letter. In addition, the resource offers multiple Appendices (some are Nevada-specific), a list of Abbreviations and Acronyms, a Metric Conversion Table and Flow Equivalents, Conversion Factors for Hydraulic Units of Measure, and Dictionary References. From A-horizon to Zooplankton, this will be a useful resource for the educator, student, or novice water researcher.

376

Ocean Water: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In regions throughout the world oceans, water moves vertically to or down away from the surface and is set in motion by atmospheric winds, salinity and temperature differences. Cold water is much denser than warm and seawater has a higher density that fresh water and will sink below the less dense layer of water. Furthermore, vertical mixing powered by atmospheric winds can affect stratification and the rate of growth of the surface boundary layer. This lab activity is a simulation of the processes that create density stratification in ocean environments. It exposes students to concepts of temperature, salinity and wind and the role each plays in the development of water stratification.

Robinson, Judy

377

Water Quality Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

1979-01-01

378

Automatic water heater systems  

SciTech Connect

A heat trap is described which can be connected to the flue exhaust outlet of an automatic gas water heating system in which heat can be entrapped that would otherwise be lost via hot flue gases passing up through the flue exhaust and out of a chimney. The heat trap comprises a tank containing therein vertically extending serpentine heat tubes. The lower ends of the heat tubes are connected to a common exhaust inlet which is directly fastened to the exhaust outlet of the automatic gas water heating system. The upper end of the heat tubes are connected to an exhaust outlet of the heat trap which is connected to the chimney. The heat trap also comprises a cold water inlet and a heated water outlet which connects to the cold water inlet of the automatic gas water heating system. The heat trap maintains a separate water supply in the heat trap tank to be delivered through the cold water inlet of the automatic gas water heating system as water is required to replenish water supply of the system.

Wilhelm, R.O. Jr.

1987-03-31

379

Drinking water and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

Morris, R D

1995-01-01

380

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

DOE Data Explorer

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

381

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

SciTech Connect

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Schroeder, Jenna N.

2014-06-10

382

Viruses in water  

PubMed Central

Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed. PMID:310357

Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig

1978-01-01

383

Water, Hydration and Health  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

2010-01-01

384

The Relationship between Water and Energy: Optimizing Water and Energy  

E-print Network

understanding that the highest value opportunities for water conservation usually exist where there is the strongest interaction of water and energy. Steam management systems, process cooling, high quality water production and waste water treatment represent...

Finley, T.; Fennessey, K.; Light, R.

2007-01-01

385

The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water  

E-print Network

The Western Water Institutional Solutions-Western Water Information Network Collaboration in Conflict and Cooperation in the Bureau of Reclamation's Upper Colorado Region 1970-2005 Western Water............................................................................................................... 7 2.1 Creation of a Water Events Database

Wolf, Aaron

386

Virtual water: Virtuous impact? The unsteady state of virtual water  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual\\u000a water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes\\u000a discussions on water scarcity, ecological sustainability, food security and consumption. Presently the concept is creating\\u000a much noise in the water and food

Dik Roth; Jeroen Warner

2008-01-01

387

Quantifying Water Stress Using Total Water Volumes and GRACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water will follow oil as the next critical resource leading to unrest and uprisings globally. To better manage this threat, an improved understanding of the distribution of water stress is required today. This study builds upon previous efforts to characterize water stress by improving both the quantification of human water use and the definition of water availability. Current statistics on human water use are often outdated or inaccurately reported nationally, especially for groundwater. This study improves these estimates by defining human water use in two ways. First, we use NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to isolate the anthropogenic signal in water storage anomalies, which we equate to water use. Second, we quantify an ideal water demand by using average water requirements for the domestic, industrial, and agricultural water use sectors. Water availability has traditionally been limited to "renewable" water, which ignores large, stored water sources that humans use. We compare water stress estimates derived using either renewable water or the total volume of water globally. We use the best-available data to quantify total aquifer and surface water volumes, as compared to groundwater recharge and surface water runoff from land-surface models. The work presented here should provide a more realistic image of water stress by explicitly quantifying groundwater, defining water availability as total water supply, and using GRACE to more accurately quantify water use.

Richey, A. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Druffel-Rodriguez, R.

2011-12-01

388

Water Current University of Nebraska Water Center/Environmental Programs  

E-print Network

Water Current University of Nebraska Water Center/Environmental Programs wASTEmanagement problem focus of '95 seminars Vol. 26 No.6 December 1994 Inside Water Glossary Page 3 ·1995 Water Conference challenge Page 7 "Water Quality and the Waste Management Hierarchy" is the topic for the 1995 Water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

389

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;' Our Mission The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse aims to advance the science and technology of sustainable water management through fundamental and applied research. Our Vision To be Australia's leading research centre for water reuse

Li, Jiuyong "John"

390

WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA  

E-print Network

103 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;105 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT [As Amended Through P.L. 106­580, Dec. 29, 2000 planning of water and related land resources, through the establishment of a water resources council

US Army Corps of Engineers

391

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;2 The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse was established in 2004 as a joint venture between the South Australian Water Corporation and the University of South Australia (UniSA), adding significant expertise to the water research capability in South

Li, Jiuyong "John"

392

Arizona Water Supply Sustainability: In-state Water Transfers  

E-print Network

Arizona Water Supply Sustainability: In-state Water Transfers Wednesday, March 5, 2014 12:00-1:30 p transferred has existing water uses and economies built on that water supply. In the Arizona Department of Water Resources report, "Arizona's Next Century: A Strategic Vision for Water Supply Sustainability

Zhang, Junshan

393

Water balance approach to determine upward water movement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shallow water tables can contribute water moving up into the root zone. The purpose of this study was to quantify upward moving water. Automated sensors were used to monitor soil water content and water table depth on sites in Central Iowa, which had varying shallow water tables. Tipping bucket rain...

394

Water quality beneath urban runoff water management basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical impact of urban runoff water on water quality beneath five retention\\/recharge basins was investigated as part of the US EPA's Nationwide Urban Runoff Program in Fresno, California. Soil water percolating through alluvium soils and the ground water at the top of the water table were sampled with ceramic\\/Teflon vacuum water extractors at depths up to 26 m during

Harry I. Nightingale

1987-01-01

395

What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

396

Perceptions of water use  

PubMed Central

In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608

Attari, Shahzeen Z.

2014-01-01

397

Water in lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two lines of evidence, suggest independently that materials which formed the Moon were not anhydrous: 1. Meteorites, our only sample of extraterrestrial material, contain water in varying amounts. Chondrites average about 0.25% water by weight. Carbonaceous chondrites, however, contain up to 20% water; and, although much of this water may be adsorbed atmospheric and surface water, the abundance of silicate hydrates in these objects indicates that considerable water existed in these meteorites before Earth impact. 2. The gas emission from Alphonsus observed by Kosyrev indicates that volatiles are diffusing out of the Moon. The observed emission was a C, band. Analyses of presumably juvenile gases reaching the Earth's surface show that water generally composes 95% or more of the gas. By analogy, it is suggested that water must be reaching the lunar surface. Consequently, it is reasonable to conclude that water existed in the materials which formed the Moon as well as those which formed the Earth or meteorites (or their source object). An estimate of the water content of the primordial Earth is 0.03%.

Speed, R. C.

1963-01-01

398

Perceptions of water use.  

PubMed

In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608

Attari, Shahzeen Z

2014-04-01

399

Choices and Preferences "Water Index."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a Project WET water education activity. Students rank and compare different uses of water in order of their importance. The class develops a "Water Index," an indication of the group's feelings and values about water and its uses. (LZ)

Science Activities, 1995

1995-01-01

400

INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

401

INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

402

Cycling Water Through the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students recognize the different forms that water takes and learn about where it exists in the environment. Using class discussion, multimedia resources, and experiments, students model the water cycle and explore how it can be used to create fresh water. They will identify the ways that water moves through the environment, recognize that most of Earth's surface is covered by water (but only a small amount is fresh water), and produce fresh water from salty water by distilling it.

2005-01-01

403

Water, trachoma and conjunctivitis.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of eye infections in a community is generally accepted as an indicator of the adequacy of water supply for their needs. However, discrepancies in the published results from various studies seem to challenge this view. We have reanalysed the published data on trachoma in relation to the most relevant indicators of water accessibility, using prevalence ratios as the single parameter for risk assessment. A definite trend emerges from this review: the incidence of infectious conjunctivitis is not sensitive to differences in water accessibility; on the other hand, a reduction in the risk of trachoma is consistently associated with better access to water. This conclusion may support the efforts of WHO and other multilateral and bilateral agencies to sustain the commitment towards the water supply sector beyond the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade. PMID:2650903

Prost, A.; Négrel, A. D.

1989-01-01

404

Managing our water resources  

SciTech Connect

Water is a plentiful, renewable resource if it is properly managed. The US allocates 82% of its water to agriculture, 10% to industries and utilities. American farmers are beginning to adopt water-conserving techniques long used in the world's arid regions because past profligate use and recent droughts lowered both water tables and farm productivity. Runoff and pollution are responsible for much of the waste of usable water. Because of local water shortages, there is interest in drip irrigation, setting aside more land for reservoirs, and other conservation techniques to ensure adequate supplies for industrial development and economic growth. American faith in technology has led to schemes for desalination, cloud seeding, iceberg towing, and aquifer recharging, as well as the existing system of dams. Proper management of river basins is an important step in the process. 1 figure. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-05-01

405

Water Resources Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a large selection of real-time and archived data on stream flow and water quality for surface and groundwater. Links are provided to the National Water Information System Web Interface (NWISWeb), which accesses data collected at approximately 1.5 million sites in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Data categories include current conditions information transmitted from selected surface and groundwater sites; descriptive site information; water flow and levels in streams, lakes, and springs; groundwater levels in wells; and chemical and physical data for all water sources. There is also a link to the 'Waterwatch' site, an interactive map that displays real-time stream-flow compared to historical conditions for the day of the year, as well as a link to the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) data warehouse. Other links access materials on water use, acid rain, suspended sediment, and the Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN).

2011-11-15

406

Arsenic removal from water  

DOEpatents

Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-07-24

407

Threats to the World's Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the management of the earth's water resources. Describes the global water cycle and the status of water pollution. Recommends that a water-management project should lean toward increasing the efficiency of water consumption rather than toward increasing the supply of water. (YP)

la Riviere, J. W. Maurits

1989-01-01

408

WATER QUALITY MODELING OF THE  

E-print Network

WATER QUALITY MODELING OF THE STATE OF OHIO COMPONENT OF THE OHIO RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY TRADING PROGRAM #12;Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Trading Program #12;2 Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water

Keller, Arturo A.

409

Impulse breakdown of liquid water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, studies of microsecond and sub-microsecond electrical breakdown in liquid water and water solutions are experiencing their renaissance period due to the development of advanced pulsed power systems and emerging technologies for environmental applications and plasma medicine. The present paper is focused on an investigation of polarity effects in sub-microsecond discharges in water. Distilled water, tap water and water based

I. V. Timoshkin; M. J. Given; M. P. Wilson; R. A. Fouracre; S. J. MacGregor

2010-01-01

410

Water Resources of Indiana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) page contains information about the water resources in the state of Indiana. The district staff measure streamflow and ground-water levels as well as collect water-quality data (pH and mercury levels) throughout the state. Information on this site includes daily streamflow conditions, Biological Resources Division research in the state, drought information, and studies of the Upper Illinois River basin and White River basin. There are links to other sites for additional information.

411

Water and Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this page contains activities that cover water and fish. Topics include the importance of water supply and the environment as well as problems with fragile levee, delta smelt decrease, and water pollution. Pictures, diagrams, and maps illustrate each activity. Lastly, a draft worksheet and classroom guide are also included.

412

Water Purification Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.

1992-01-01

413

Oregon DEQ: Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page hosts information related to groundwater quality in Oregon. Fact sheets about important groundwater problems are available, addressing topics such as septic systems, nonpoint source pollution, total daily maximum loading, drinking water, and storm water management. The site also includes data and maps portraying groundwater quality, describes issues affecting groundwater management, provides results of groundwater assessment programs, and has links to groundwater and water quality regulations and programs. Most of the data and files are in pdf format.

Oregon Department of Environmental Quality

414

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 3: Watershed and Maps () July 23, 2013 1 / 18 #12;Domain Decomposition p1 p2 p3 p5 p4 surface water A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 salinity ingress water table q W(q) W(p2) The watershed W (x) of a point x is W (x) = {all points y from where

Sohoni, Milind

415

Water Resources in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Water resources in Jordan are very limited, among the lowest in the world on a per capita basis. The annual per capita share\\u000a of water is currently estimated at 135 m3 and this Figure is expected to drop to 90 m3 in the year 2020 as a result of the\\u000a disproportional increase in population relative to water resources development. Moreover,

Anwar Jiries

416

Amazon Water Cycle Roleplay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this creative roleplay activity, learners will explore the various processes of the water cycle using movement, sound, and props to aid in comprehension. Learners will understand that water changes forms throughout the water cycle, and that this cycle runs continuously throughout all the cycles at the same time. This standards-based lesson, which is great for the classroom, camps, or afterschool programs, includes roleplay cards and ideas for props.

California Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01

417

Above Water: Buoyancy & Displacement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an investigation called "Shape It!" learners craft tiny boats out of clay, set them afloat on water and then add weight loads to them, in order to explore: how objects stay afloat in water; what the relationship is among surface tension, buoyancy, density and displacement; and how shape, size, and type of material affect an object's ability to remain buoyant. The introductory text discusses how heavy steel ships can float on bodies of water like rivers, bays and oceans.

2013-12-18

418

Ocean Water Desalination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the techniques engineers have developed for changing ocean water into drinking water, including thermal and membrane desalination. They begin by reviewing the components of the natural water cycle. They see how filters, evaporation and/or condensation can be components of engineering desalination processes. They learn how processes can be viewed as systems, with unique objects, inputs, components and outputs, and sketch their own system diagrams to describe their own desalination plant designs.

2014-09-18

419

The Incredible Water Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich Micscape Magazine article explores how water bears can be found almost everywhere yet are still unknown to almost everybody, why there are relatively few light microscope photographs of water bears in the literature and on the Web, and how light microscopy can outperform scanning electron microscopy when viewing these animals. It includes a list of historical references, early sketches, and colorful images of water bears, also known as tardigrades.

Mach, Martin; Magazine, Micscape

420

Microbiology of Stratified Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sampling of aquatic microorganisms reveals a surprising feature of many open water systems - stratification. Planktonic and benthic microbes occupy distinct zones in stratified water columns. Explore how the benthic consumer populations respond to environmental cues such as changes in sunlight, wind effects, or increases in organics due to pollution with the model HypoxiaZone. * model the effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters on microbial populations and oxygen levels within the Mississippi River basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Howard T. Odum (Beloit College;Biology); Elisabeth C. Odum (Santa Fe Community College;Biology)

2006-05-20

421

CCMR: Water in Glass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water uptake for various compositions of the model glass (CaO·Al2O3)x (2 SiO2)1-x under fixed annealing conditions was studied via FTIR. The water saturation concentration increased with time for certain sample sets, suggesting slow equilibration of the surface with the annealing atmosphere, while the water diffusion coefficient exhibited no appreciable time dependence. The saturation concentration and diffusion coefficient were not found to vary significantly with composition.

Uspal, William

2005-08-17

422

Why Follow the Water?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the correlation between annual precipitation and plant productivity in different Earth biomes. Learners consider water evaporation, solubility and abundance relative to life on Earth and relative to finding evidence for life on Mars. An extension activity investigates the connection between liquid water, biomes and plant productivity on Earth. This is the 1st of 5 activities in Buried Water Ice on Mars.

423

Volatile halocarbons in water  

SciTech Connect

Volatile halocarbons in drinking water have attracted increasing attention during recent years. These substances are also found in body fluids. All disinfectant chemicals used in water treatment seem to produce by-products. Of particular concern are the following substances from the use of various disinfectants according to US EPA: chlorine, bromine and iodine, and chlorine dioxide. The aim of the present study was to follow the formation and occurrence of volatile halocarbons in different types of water.

Kroneld, R.

1986-11-01

424

Mars Express - Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Until very recently, planetary scientists had thought that Mars is a cold, dry planet. Then in the summer of 2000, NASA released images from the Mars Global Surveyor showing evidence of very recent seepage of ground water from crater and valley slopes in the planet's southern hemisphere. It seems that substantial reservoirs of the water that once may have run so copiously on the surface may still exist. Evidence of other water-created landforms is presented and accompanied by remote imagery.

Schmidt, Rudolph

2004-06-08

425

Water's the Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water quality is more than meets the eye. Some of its properties are invisible. Teachers using this module will focus on measurable properties of water: mass, volume, and concentration; temperature; dissolved oxygen; pH; and nitrates; and their effects on water quality. Each of these properties is the subject of a lesson plan. The lesson plans include an introduction, lesson objectives, a pre-test, lesson presentation, activity, and a post-test.

Johnson, Larry

2000-01-01

426

California's water futures: How water conservation and varying Delta exports affect water supply in the face of climate change  

E-print Network

and agricultural water conservation, water markets, conjunctive use of ground and surface water, seawateri California's water futures: How water conservation and varying Delta exports affect water supply: ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Committee in Charge 2012 #12;i Abstract Changes in climate, population, water conservation

Lund, Jay R.

427

Solar Water Heater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. In doing this, students gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, students perform efficiency calculations and compare designs.

2014-09-18

428

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

2012-10-24

429

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

430

Water Resources Center Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1957, the Water Resources Center Archives (WRCA) of the University of California at Berkeley (UCB) maintains a collection of current and historic water-related materials. The searchable WRCA site provides information on the Center's collections, including Print, Archival, Photograph (sample photos are online -- and are spectacular!), Map, CD-ROM and Video collections. In addition, the site offers information about the WRCA's publications and services, links to relevant Internet resources, and other information. While access to Water Resources Abstracts is restricted to UCB faculty/staff/students, the site's broad coverage of historical and current water information has plenty to offer to other viewers.

431

Irrigation Water Quality  

E-print Network

land, saline seeps, oil fields, and city and industrial wastewaters gen- erally has higher salt levels. What problems can salty water cause? S alty irrigation water can cause two major problems in crop pro- duction?salinity hazard, Mark Mc... (meq/L) 17-21 23 31 31 *Different units of measurement for total soluble salts represent the same critical value and sodium hazard. When irrigation water is used by plants or evaporates from the soil surface, salts con- tained in the water are left...

McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Stichler, Charles

2002-04-11

432

Water purification in Borexino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

Giammarchi, M.; Balata, M.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.; Ioannucci, L.; Miramonti, L.; Nisi, S.

2013-08-01

433

Water purification in Borexino  

SciTech Connect

Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy)] [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States)] [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell'Universitŕ di Milano e Infn (Italy)] [Dip. di Fisica dell'Universitŕ di Milano e Infn (Italy)

2013-08-08

434

Water Relay Race  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 38-39 of PDF), learners discover how screws (simple machines) help us do work and complete tasks, like preserving water. Learners pretend they are in a remote area with no running water in their home. They must haul water from a well to their homes. Learners compare and contrast various types of containers to determine which vessel is the safest and most efficient way to transport and store water. The containers include one with a screw top lid, one with no lid, and one with just plastic wrap for a lid.

Museum, Chicago C.

2012-05-09

435

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

2012-10-29

436

Water Injected Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

437

Global Water Maps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A global water map is a coverage of the earth that describes the state of water circulation in a phase of the hydrologic cycle. This information can be published as a map showing the state of the water variable at a particular point in time, or charted as a time series showing the temporal variation of that variable at a point in space. Such maps can be created through the NASA Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) for precipitation, evaporation, soil moisture, and other parameters describing the vertical exchange of water between the land and atmosphere, through a combination of observations and simulation modeling. Point observations of water variables such as precipitation and streamflow are carried out by local hydrologic measurement agencies associated with a particular area. These point observations are now being published as web services in the WaterML language and federated using the Global Earth Observing System of Systems to enable the publication of water observations maps for these variables. By combining water maps derived from LDAS with those from federated point observations, a deeper understanding of global water conditions and movement can be created. This information should be described in a Hydrologic Data Book that specifies the information content of each of these map layers so that they can be appropriately used and combined.

Maidment, D. R.; Salas, F.; Teng, W. L.

2013-12-01

438

Comparing the Planets: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of images summarizes what scientists currently know about the occurrence of water ice and water vapor on the terrestrial planets and satellites in our Solar System. Accompanied by a brief description, the Jpeg images show the ice cap at Mars' south pole, ice rafting on Europa, liquid water covering the surface of Earth (the famous 'Blue Marble' photo), and an impact crater on the Moon that may contain water ice. There is also a diagram showing the possible distribution of ice on Mars, as it varies with latitude.

439

Air/Water Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

1992-01-01

440

Des Moines Water Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

2001-01-01

441

Water - an inexhaustible resource?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy resource Water is used to produce energy under different processes like ancient tamed energy such as water mills, locks or more recently tidal energy, marine current power, generators based on swell or osmotic gradients. The pupils will work in groups to present different techniques to the class. We could try to determine if all these energy resources could replace the actual major energy source in France: nuclear. Conclusion: Liquid water is probably the cradle of life. Since the birth of human kind, its history is closely linked to the presence of water: drinking, fishing, hygiene, and also transport or business is strictly depending on this resource. Described as a fragile and limited resource when it is used for human consumption, we realize that water is also an uneven resource of energy for the next generations. The challenge will then be to reconcile these different aspects: respecting this nourishing resource and preserving it from pollution, overexploitation or wasting, and at the same time, using water as energy for a world that has a growing population.

Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

2012-04-01

442

Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 980 observation wells and water-quality data for 239 observation monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

1989-01-01

443

Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in weils. Volume 5 contains water levels for 1,037 observation wells and water-quality data for 254 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperatine State and Federal agencies in California.

Lamb, C.E.; Johnson, J.A.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

1990-01-01

444

Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 5. Ground-water Data for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 786 observation wells and water-quality data for 168 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

1989-01-01

445

Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water  

E-print Network

Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water Techniques.S. Geological Survey, retired. #12;Field Techniques for Estimating Water Fluxes Between Surface Water and Ground Water Edited by Donald O. Rosenberry and James W. LaBaugh Techniques and Methods 4­D2 U.S. Department

446

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

447

Incorporating Virtual Water into Water Management: A British Columbia Example  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual water is the water required to produce food or a commodity, and includes rainwater in addition to irrigation and the\\u000a water required to grow feed in livestock systems. Measuring virtual water is a useful concept in assessing water management\\u000a as it permits the comparison of crops and livestock from the perspective of embedded water. To evaluate trade-offs in water

S. Brown; H. Schreier; L. M. Lavkulich

2009-01-01

448

Integrated Planning for Water and Energy Systems  

E-print Network

of water in a specific location. #12;Water Extraction & Conveyance Water Treatment End-Use Agricultural Residential Commercial Industrial Water Distribution Wastewater Treatment Wastewater Collection Wastewater Discharge Recycled Water Treatment Recycled Water Distribution Source Source Energy Inputs to Water Systems

Keller, Arturo A.

449

Water hammer simulator  

SciTech Connect

The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) has constructed a first-of-a-kind water hammer events simulator for use at its training center. The Learning Center, Con Edison`s central training facility, intends to use the simulator as an educational tool to demonstrate the various mechanisms of the water hammer phenomenon to power plant designers, engineers and operators. The water hammer phenomenon has been studied extensively for the past 15 years for the nuclear industry. However, the acknowledge of the various water hammer mechanisms and the measures to prevent or mitigate water hammer have not been widely disseminated among the operators of fossil-fueled power plants. Con Edison personnel who operate the various generation stations and the New York City steam distribution systems are expected to benefit from the new simulator. Knowledge gained from interacting with the simulator will be very important in helping the Con Edison prevent, mitigate, or accommodate water hammer at its facilities. The water hammer simulator was fabricated in Con Edison`s central machine shop. Details of the design and construction of the simulator were finalized in consultation with Creare, Inc., an engineering research firm, located in Hanover, New Hampshire. The simulator seeks to recreate the essential features of water hammer in steam mines following the buildup of cold (subcooled) water by condensation and steam-water interaction. This paper describes the fabrication, design, testing, and operation of the Con Edison water hammer simulator. A discussion of how Con Edison plans to use the facility at The Learning Center is included.

Sinha, S.K.; Madia, J.; Dixon, S. [Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

1995-11-01

450

Water Availability and Management of Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

451

Water 4: The Water-Energy Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video looks at how water use and energy use are connected when industrial era technologies are used as the primary means of supplying process energy. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

2012-12-19

452

Potable water dispenser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dispenser particularly suited for use in dispensing potable water into food and beverage reconstitution bags is described. The dispenser is characterized by an expansible chamber, selectively adjustable stop means for varying the maximum dimensions, a rotary valve, and a linear valve coupled in a cooperating relation for delivering potable water to and from the chamber.

Cunningham, H. R. (inventor)

1973-01-01

453

Water Management: towards 2030  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Agriculture21 cites the management practices and policies that will be necessary to avoid water crises in the coming three decades. There are links to information on raising water productivity, improving irrigation technology, and modernizing irrigation management. The text is available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese.

454

Secondary condenser Cooling water  

E-print Network

Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water

Skogestad, Sigurd

455

Water Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the temperature of a water sample. Students use an alcohol-filled thermometer or meter to measure the temperature of water. The meter requires calibration before use; the accuracy of the thermometer needs to be checked before use.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

456

Solar water boiling device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar water boiling device having an insulated enclosure with an opening in its front provided with a light-transmissive cover. Within the enclosure is a water container preferably formed as a discrete unit separable from the enclosure. The enclosure provides insulation such that heat losses through its side and rear walls are small compared with heat loss through the cover.

Burkhardt

1985-01-01

457

Water Resources of Illinois  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website is dedicated to water resources and studies in the state of Illinois. It contains real-time and daily streamflow data for the state, historical data, precipitation data, flooding information, groundwater quality, radium and arsenic water pollution, and studies on the Illinois River basin and Illinois lakes. Links are provided for additional information.

458

Cave Water Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a comparative study project where seventh grade students tested water samples from 10 cave sites that had been tested 24 years ago in a study that had attempted to determine if pollution in the environment had reached cave water. Discusses lab skills and some results of the study. (JRH)

O'Keefe, Elizabeth S.

1996-01-01

459

Water Chemistry Laboratory Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…

Jenkins, David; And Others

460

WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM  

E-print Network

? WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY 1939-1948 Marine Biological i STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;a WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM arid to avoid delay in publication. Washington D. CWATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM

461

Drinking Water and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

462

Water Science Data Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of summary data tables shows information about water use in the United States, by state. Categories include total water use, public use, domestic use, irrigation, industrial, mining, and livestock uses. There is also a table showing thermoelectric power withdrawals. All information is for the year 2000.

2010-11-02

463

Whose Water Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western states have long had their eye on the Great Lakes as a water source for irrigation and municipal supplies. Great Lakes states protect this water source and oppose any diversion that is not agreed upon by all Great Lakes states and provinces. This article presents a role-play activity simulation of a Great Lakes governors' conference. (MKR)

Trisler, Carmen E.

1996-01-01

464

Watering the Sun Corridor  

E-print Network

Watering the Sun Corridor Managing Choices in Arizona's Megapolitan Area #12;#12;Managing ChoicesSored by Printing generously provided by SRP. Watering the Sun Corridor Tom Buschatzke, City of Phoenix Peter Culp i C y | 5 Introduction............................................7 I. The Sun Corridor

Hall, Sharon J.

465

WATER SUPPLY IN Micronesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public health is severely affected by inadequate water supplies in Micronesia, a vast island-dotted area of the Western Pacific that had been held in trust by the United States from the end of World War II until recently. Many residents of the islands rely on catchment of rainwater for supplies; others are served by deteriorating systems carrying untreated water. The

Jeffrey Fontaine

1987-01-01

466

Sustainability and Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social

Virender A. Sharma

2009-01-01

467

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01

468

Exploring the Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn about the water cycle and how energy from the sun and the force of gravity drive this cycle. The emphasis in this lesson will be on having students understand the processes that take place in moving water through Earthâs system.

469

Water Treatment Technology - Filtration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

470

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

An aquifer is an underground soil-strata which allows the storage and movement of water. K > 0.1cm/s and Sy in conductivity or storage are called aquitards. Example: Base Rock, Clays. Unconfined aquifer: accessible fromTD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 5: Aquifer () August 16

Sohoni, Milind

471

Microbiology of Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of microbiology of water, covering publications of 1967-77. This review covers: (1) microbial indicators of pollution; and (2) microbiology of rivers, potable waters, natural lakes, and impoundments. A list of 192 references is also presented. (HM)

Geldreich, Edwin E.

1978-01-01

472

Take Action: Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this regular column of the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, the author looks at the importance of conserving water and practicing good conservation habits daily. The column is designed for teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms and presents concepts of climate literacy that are appropriate for young children. Identified online resources provide data collection activities, lessons, and games.

Jessica Fries-Gaither

473

Removal of water scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an efficient and effective method is proposed using dark channel prior to restore the original clarity of the images underwater. Images taken in the underwater environment are subject to water attenuation and particles in water's scattering, a phenomenon similar to the effect of heavy fog in the air. Using dark channel prior, the depth of the turbid

Liu Chao; Meng Wang

2010-01-01

474

Soil Erosion by Water  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil erosion by water, the wearing away of the earth's surface by the forces of water and gravity, consists of rock or soil particle dislodgement, entrainment, transport, and deposition. This sequence of events occurs over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from raindrop splash moving par...

475

Water-Quality Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Noses Creek at Powder Springs Road, Georgia. Part of the USGS safety protocol is to wear a PFD (personal flotation device) around any surface water. This scientist may not look like he has one on, but he does--it is under his rain coat. This DH-81 sampler is used to sample flood water for suspended-...

476

Water impact loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program to generate time history of load factor and pressure on conical body of revolution during impact with water is discussed. Program calculates depth of penetration, velocity, force, load factor, maximum pressure at water line, and average pressure. Program is written in FORTRAN 4 Level H for IBM 360/85/195 Release 20.1 computer.

Sanders, D. H.; Safronski, S. G.

1972-01-01

477

Waking up to Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change is having a major effect on water cycles. There is an increased intensity and frequency of severe storms resulting in flooding. Floods in other parts of the world cause death on a major scale. Meanwhile across the planet, one billion people (a sixth of the world's population) do not have access to safe drinking water, and two…

Hines, Chris

2007-01-01

478

Water Reclamation and Reuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

Smith, Daniel W.

1978-01-01

479

Water and Civilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the distant past, nomadic man needed water for drinking, feared floods, and used water environments for fishing and hunting. Only when he became a sedentary agriculturist along the flat plains of large rivers, did he dig wells, irrigate land, and build levees for protection from floods. These tasks required a well-organized society, thus helping to create states, and with

Vujica Yevjevich

1992-01-01

480

Enhanced Stream Water Quality  

EPA Science Inventory

***QUAL2E is not included in the current version of BASINS*** QUAL2E is a steady state and quasi-dynamic water quality model for the simulation of point source impact on water quality including nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen and BOD, algae, fecal c...

481

Fecal Pollution of Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

482

Water Quality Monitoring Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

483

SURFACE WATER & OCEAN TOPOGRAPHY  

E-print Network

neighboring image pixels, which requires an increase in the intrinsic range resolution of the instrument-downlink requirements (for both ocean and inland waters) can be met with eight 300-Mbps X-band stations globally. Ref levels for ocean and inland water dynamics · Key Instruments ­ Ka- or Ku-band radar ­ Ku-band altimeter

Christian, Eric

484

Water in diet  

MedlinePLUS

Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. It is the basis for the fluids of the body. ... Although there is no research to identify the exact amount of water you should drink, experts usually recommend drinking six to eight 8-ounce glasses ...

485

Collecting Water Nutrient Data  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources scientist collects water quality data to better understand nutrients' role in the overabundance of duckweed and algae.  Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead to an overgrowth of free-floating plants such as duckweed and filamentous alg...

486

Stage a Water Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra

2008-01-01

487

Developing Water Sampling Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

1974-01-01

488

Water Quality Instrument Cleaning  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Kerry Caslow cleaning a water quality sonde that is outfitted with probes for continuous monitoring of water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity. It is imperative that the sondes be regularly maintained so that the data, which is published online in realtime, is always accurate....

489

Water in Tektite Glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tektites contain about 20 ppm of water, whereas plausible terrestrial source ma- terials contain about 10,000 ppm. The removal of the water cannot have taken place by the formation of bubbles and their rise to the surface, because the movement of the bubbles de- pends on the body forces (gravity plus acceleration). If these forces are kept low enough so

John A. O'Keefe

1964-01-01

490

EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of ; individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic ; enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking ; hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in ; water until filled, its drinking holes sealed

1964-01-01

491

Trisha Brown's Water Motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trisha Brown's signature solo Water Motor (1978) was the first of her choreographies to make the physical intelligence and virtuosity of Brown's unique dancing body the basis for movement and choreography. Preserved in Babette Mangolte's 1978 film, Water Motor returned to the stage in 2011 in its first performance by a dancer other than Brown—an occasion for reexamining the dance's

Susan Rosenberg

2012-01-01

492

The Chemistry of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water may be one of the most familiar substances on the planet, but it certainly isnât ordinary. In fact, waterâs unique chemical properties make it so complicated that even after decades of research, scientists still have much to learn about this remarkable and versatile substance. This web site contains information on research on the structure and behavior of water molecules.

493

Water Treatment Technology - Wells.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

494

Ground-water Aquifers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This description of a ground-water aquifer has a graphic representation to accompany it. It is part of the U.S. Geologic Survey's Water Science for Schools website. Links to other parts of the site, such as definitions and types of wells, are included.

495

Pumped water storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history, current state of development and future developments of electrical energy storage through the pumping of water to a higher elevation are reviewed. Developments in the turbine and pump units of pumped water energy storage plants since their introduction in the 1890s are surveyed, and it is pointed out that the advantages of reversible pump-generator machines have led to

V. G. Newman

1979-01-01

496

Water Treatment Technology - Flouridation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

497

Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

498

How Much Water?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This formative assessment item uncovers students' ideas about the conservation of water and the water cycle. The probe is aligned with the National Science Education Standards and can be used before, during, or after instruction. Resources are provided as well as instructional strategies.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

499

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Arkansas Water Resources Center ATRAZINE DEGRADATION, SORPTION AND BIOCONCENTRATION IN WATER UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS 112 OZARK HALL FAYETTEVILLE, ARKANSAS 72701 #12;B-2 #12;ATRAZINE DEGRADATION-34-0001-0206 STARTINGDATE: October 1,1979 ENDINGDATE: March 31, 1981 Atrazine Degradation, Sorption, and Bioconcentration

Soerens, Thomas

500

Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David