These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Climate Change Likely to Facilitate the Invasion of the Non-Native Hydroid, Cordylophora caspia, in the San Francisco Estuary  

PubMed Central

Climate change and invasive species can both have negative impacts on native species diversity. Additionally, climate change has the potential to favor invasive species over natives, dealing a double blow to native biodiversity. It is, therefore, vital to determine how changing climate conditions are directly linked to demographic rates and population growth of non-native species so we can quantitatively evaluate how invasive populations may be affected by changing conditions and, in turn, impact native species. Cordylophora caspia, a hydrozoan from the Ponto-Caspian region, has become established in the brackish water habitats of the San Francisco Estuary (SFE). We conducted laboratory experiments to study how temperature and salinity affect C. caspia population growth rates, in order to predict possible responses to climate change. C. Caspia population growth increased nonlinearly with temperature and leveled off at a maximum growth rate near the annual maximum temperature predicted under a conservative climate change scenario. Increasing salinity, however, did not influence growth rates. Our results indicate that C. caspia populations in the SFE will benefit from predicted regional warming trends and be little affected by changes in salinity. The population of C. caspia in the SFE has the potential to thrive under future climate conditions and may subsequently increase its negative impact on the food web. PMID:23071559

Meek, Mariah H.; Wintzer, Alpa P.; Wetzel, William C.; May, Bernie

2012-01-01

2

Microsatellite loci for the invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia.  

PubMed

Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. We describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate that population substructure may contribute to departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In addition, new loci failed to consistently amplify Cordylophora samples known to be genetically distant from those utilized in this study, indicating the presence of cryptic diversity within the taxon. PMID:21585943

Schable, Nancy A; Kuenzi, Ashley M; Drake, Carrie A; Folino-Rorem, Nadine C; Darling, John A

2008-09-01

3

Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)  

E-print Network

Pachycordyle and Silhouetta. Turritopsis polycirrha and T. dohrnii are both regarded as valid species. The family Oceanidae includes the genera Cordylophora, Corydendrium, Merona, Oceania, Rhizogeton, Turritopsis and distinct from T. nutricula of the western Atlantic. Histological sections confirmed that Turritopsis

Schuchert, Peter

4

Effects of initial surface wettability on biofilm formation and subsequent settlement of Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

Hydroides elegans is a major fouling organism in tropical waters around the world, including Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. To determine the importance of initial surface characteristics on biofilm community composition and subsequent colonization by larvae of H. elegans, the settlement and recruitment of larvae to biofilmed surfaces with six different initial surface wettabilities were tested in Pearl Harbor. Biofilm community composition, as determined by a combined approach of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, was similar across all surfaces, regardless of initial wettability, and all surfaces had distinct temporal shifts in community structure over a 10 day period. Larvae settled and recruited in higher numbers to surfaces with medium to low wettability in both May and August, and also to slides with high wettability in August. Pearl Harbor biofilm communities developed similarly on a range of surface wettabilities, and after 10 days in Pearl Harbor all surfaces were equally attractive to larvae of Hydroides elegans, regardless of initial surface properties. PMID:19306143

Huggett, Megan J; Nedved, Brian T; Hadfield, Michael G

2009-01-01

5

Genetic analysis across different spatial scales reveals multiple dispersal mechanisms for the invasive hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Discerning patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. The globally invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora produces propagules both sexually and vegetatively and is associated with multiple potential dispersal mechanisms, making it a promising system to investigate complex patterns of population structure generated throughout the course of rapid range expansion. Here, we explore genetic patterns associated with the spread of this taxon within the North American Great Lakes basin. We collected intensively from eight harbours in the Chicago area in order to conduct detailed investigation of local population expansion. In addition, we collected from Lakes Michigan, Erie, and Ontario, as well as Lake Cayuga in the Finger Lakes of upstate New York in order to assess genetic structure on a regional scale. Based on data from eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci we examined the spatial extent of clonal genotypes, assessed levels of neutral genetic diversity, and explored patterns of migration and dispersal at multiple spatial scales through assessment of population level genetic differentiation (pairwise F(ST) and factorial correspondence analysis), Bayesian inference of population structure, and assignment tests on individual genotypes. Results of these analyses indicate that Cordylophora populations in this region spread predominantly through sexually produced propagules, and that while limited natural larval dispersal can drive expansion locally, regional expansion likely relies on anthropogenic dispersal vectors. PMID:19889038

Darling, John A; Folino-Rorem, Nadine C

2009-12-01

6

Changes in the patterning of a hydroid colony.  

PubMed

It is a widely held view that colonial hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydroidomedusae) are formed on the basis of a repetition of uniform elements. The dominant opinion is that the equal spatial organisation of the colony exists during all stages of its development except the primary polyp, which develops from the settled larva. However, the complex structure and large dimensions of shoots in certain thecate species (subcl. Leptomedusae) suggest that the organisation of the primary shoot differs strongly from that of established colonies. The present study based on a thorough collection and examination of the collected material allowed to describe the entire sequence of the colony ontogeny in Hydrallmania falcata (Sertulariidae). The established shoots of this species are characterised by relatively large size, spiral arrangement of pinnate branches over the shoot stem, and hydranths arranged in one row along the upper side of branches. We showed that the primary shoot developing from the larva has much smaller dimensions and an alternate arrangement of hydranths. During further colony development the shoot organisation undergoes a gradual transformation ending with the emergence of large shoots with 'characteristic' species-specific features. The discovered sequence of changes in shoot patterning shows certain correlations with alterations of the growing tip dimensions. The dimensions of the growing tip seem to determine the patterning in accordance with the particular spatial location of the tip. This finding implies the necessity of a detailed reinvestigation of the entire colony development in thecate hydroids, which would make a significant contribution to the understanding of the morphogenetic evolution and patterning mechanisms within this group of colonial organisms. PMID:16806866

Kosevich, Igor A

2006-01-01

7

Effluent toxicity test using developmental stages of the marine polychaete Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established a suite of methods that use coastal invertebrate species as bioassay organisms to test industrial and domestic effluent as well as coastal waters for potential toxicity. Although these methods are used globally, the potential of such toxicity tests has not been adequately explored for Asian coastal waters. This study describes bioassay utilizing the gametes of Hydroides elegans to monitor coastal water quality and is based on the sensitivity of H. elegans embryo and larva to different concentrations of effluents and water samples collected from different regions of east coast of India. Among the water samples collected from different regions, seawater from Ennore station showed decrease in percentage of development, and 25% effluent concentration led to development arrest of H. elegans embryos. The different morphological effects produced by effluents clearly reflect the defect in early differentiation of embryonic cells. Since fertilization can be inhibited in the presence of any xenobiotic, both fertilization and early development can be used as a biological indicator for a rapid bioassay to monitor pollution. Toxicity tests utilizing early life stages of H. elegans are suitable for the assessment of effects produced by low levels of pollutants due to their high sensitivity to various contaminants relative to other marine species and also due to the relative simplicity of the bioassay. PMID:18317832

Thilagam, H; Gopalakrishnan, S; Vijayavel, K; Raja, P Vivek

2008-05-01

8

Helpful habitant or pernicious passenger: interactions between an infaunal bivalve, an epifaunal hydroid and three potential predators.  

PubMed

The importance of positive interspecific interactions within physically stressful habitats has received increased attention from community ecologists. The exposed sandy beach is an example of a physically rigorous environment where biological interactions have long been considered insignificant. We examined the interaction between the infaunal clam, Donax variabilis, and the hydroid, Lovenella gracilis, on exposed sandy beaches in North Carolina. Epibiotic occupation of Donax by hydroids has been repeatedly observed on ocean beaches but rarely investigated. By providing a stable substrate for attachment, the clam facilitates the persistence of the hydroid in the intertidal beach; however, benefits or costs experienced by the host as a result of this association are unknown. By exposing clams with and without hydroid colonies to multiple types of clam predators, we tested the effectiveness of the hydroid, which possesses stinging nematocysts, in defending its host. The hydroid defended the clam against one common predator, the Florida pompano ( Trachinotus carolinus). Against speckled crabs ( Arenaeus cribrarius) and ghost crabs ( Ocypode quadrata), however, the hydroid offered no protection for its host and instead facilitated predation. The epibiotic hydroid, which projects above the surface of the sand, allowed the crabs to more readily detect clams below the surface. In the field, we evaluated the effect of the hydroid on the tidally synchronized migrations and burrowing speed of the clam. The hydroid, which can form large colonies on the posterior end of the clam, had no effect on Donax burrowing speed, but did reduce the speed of transport of clams by wave swash. Depending on relative predation pressure, the occupation of D. variabilis by L. gracilis can alternately be characterized as beneficial or detrimental to the host. PMID:12647150

Manning, Lisa M; Lindquist, Niels

2003-02-01

9

The fouling hydroid Ectopleura larynx: a lack of effect of next generation antifouling technologies.  

PubMed

The hydroid Ectopleura larynx is one of the main fouling organisms on salmon aquaculture cages in Norway; this study investigated novel surface materials and microtopographies to deter its settlement. The settlement preferences of hydroid larvae for 12 materials with wettabilities ranging from hydrophobic (54°) to hydrophilic (112°) were tested in a no-choice bioassay. Although settlement differed between materials, with the highest average settlement on polytetrafluoroethylene (95%) and the lowest on untreated polyurethane (53%), no trend regarding the tested wettabilities could be found and none of the tested materials was able to reduce average settlement below 50%. Furthermore, nine high-density polyethylene (HDPE, 100-600 ?m microtopographies) and seven polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS; 40-400??m microtopographies) microtextured surfaces were tested. There was no systematic effect of microtopography on the settlement of E. larynx larvae. However, there was a preference for settlement in channels on PDMS microtopographies between 80 and 300 ?m. Similarly, there were no preferences for any of the examined microtopographies in a 12-day field test using PDMS surfaces at a commercial fish farm. The study indicated that neither surface wettability (hydrophilicity-phobicity) nor microtopographies were effective at deterring the settlement of the hydroid E. larynx. The high plasticity of the aboral pole and the hydrorhiza of the hydroids may explain settlement even under unfavourable conditions, highlighting the successful colonisation traits of this dominant biofouling species. PMID:23438941

Bloecher, Nina; de Nys, Rocky; Poole, Andrew J; Guenther, Jana

2013-01-01

10

Hydroid nematophores: morphological, structural, and behavioural variety from old knowledge and new data  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rich old literature on nematothecae, which have been described from many species of nine families of thecate hydroids, but detailed knowledge of nematophores is from a very few species. Using both old data and new observations, information was gathered on species belonging to the genera Hydrodendron, Zygophylax, Antennella, Plumularia, Monotheca, Macrorhynchia, Gymnangium, and Thecocarpus. Specimens belonging to

Nicole Gravier-Bonnet

2004-01-01

11

Reproduction of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata (L., 1758) (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the White Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata in the White Sea reproduce asexually by frustule formation. Young medusae appear in the plankton during July and August.\\u000a The number of medusae rarely exceeds 36 per m3, and the average number varies every year from 0.4 to 10 per m3. The size of medusae is smaller than reported from other regions. The

Sergei A. Slobodov; Nickolai N. Marfenin

12

Hydroid nematophores: morphological, structural, and behavioural variety from old knowledge and new data  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a rich old literature on nematothecae, which have been described from many species of nine families of thecate hydroids,\\u000a but detailed knowledge of nematophores is from a very few species. Using both old data and new observations, information was\\u000a gathered on species belonging to the genera Hydrodendron, Zygophylax, Antennella, Plumularia, Monotheca, Macrorhynchia, Gymnangium, and Thecocarpus. Specimens belonging to

Nicole Gravier-Bonnet

13

Proteomic profiling during the pre-competent to competent transition of the biofouling polychaete Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

The polychaete, Hydroides elegans, is a tube-building worm that is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical seas. It is a dominant fouling species and thus a major target organism in antifouling research. Here, the first high-throughput proteomic profiling of pre-competent and competent larvae of H. elegans is reported with the identification of 1,519 and 1,322 proteins, respectively. These proteins were associated with a variety of biological processes. However, a large proportion was involved in energy metabolism, redox homeostasis, and microtubule-based processes. A comparative analysis revealed 21 proteins that were differentially regulated in larvae approaching competency. PMID:25237770

Zhang, Yu; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Huoming; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H; Xu, Ying; He, Li-Sheng; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

2014-09-01

14

Bacterial community succession and chemical profiles of subtidal biofilms in relation to larval settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier studies have shown that biofilms can mediate the larval settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans and that changes in the bacterial community structure and density of biofilms often alter the larval settlement response. However, the chemical cues that mediate this response remain unknown. In this study, both successional changes in the bacterial community structure and the chemical profiles of

Hong Chun Chung; On On Lee; Yi-Li Huang; Siu Yan Mok; Roberto Kolter; Pei-Yuan Qian; P-Y Qian

2010-01-01

15

Marine hydroid perisarc: a chitin- and melanin-reinforced composite with DOPA-iron(III) complexes.  

PubMed

Many marine invertebrates utilize biomacromolecules as building blocks to form their load-bearing tissues. These polymeric tissues are appealing for their unusual physical and mechanical properties, including high hardness and stiffness, toughness and low density. Here, a marine hydroid perisarc of Aglaophenia latirostris was investigated to understand how nature designs a stiff, tough and lightweight sheathing structure. Chitin, protein and a melanin-like pigment, were found to represent 10, 17 and 60 wt.% of the perisarc, respectively. Interestingly, similar to the adhesive and coating of marine mussel byssus, a DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) containing protein and iron were detected in the perisarc. Resonance Raman microprobe analysis of perisarc indicates the presence of catechol-iron(III) complexes in situ, but it remains to be determined whether the DOPA-iron(III) interaction plays a cohesive role in holding the protein, chitin and melanin networks together. PMID:23791678

Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Prajatelistia, Ekavianty; Iordachescu, Mihaela; Waite, J Herbert

2013-09-01

16

Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

2014-12-01

17

[Inductive activity of the posterior tip of planula in the marine hydroid Dynamena pumila].  

PubMed

Activity of organizer regions is required for body plan formation in the developing organism. Transplanting a fragment of such a region to a host organism leads to the formation of a secondary body axis that consists of both the donor's and the host's tissues (Gerhart, 2001). The subject of this study, the White Sea hydroid cnidarian Dynamena pumila L. (Thecaphora, Sertulariidae), forms morphologically advanced colonies in the course of complex metamorphosis of the planula larva. To reveal an organizer region, a series of experiments has been performed in which small fragments of donor planula tissues were transplanted to embryos at the early and late gastrula stage, as well as to planulae. Only transplantations of a posterior tip fragment of a donor planula to a host planula of the same age led, in the course of metamorphosis, to the formation of a secondary shoot, which involved up to 50% of the host's tissues. After transplantations of tissue fragments of the anterior tip and the middle of the planula body, the formation of any ectopic structures was never observed. It was concluded that the posterior tip of the planula has organizer properties in Dynamena. PMID:21542340

Kraus, Iu A

2011-01-01

18

Effect of cloning rate on fitness-related traits in two marine hydroids.  

PubMed

Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus and Podocoryna carnea are colonial marine hydroids capable of reproducing both sexually and asexually. Asexual reproduction, by colony fragmentation, produces a genetic clone of the parent colony. This study examines the effect of very different cloning rates on colony growth rate, oxygen uptake rate, and colony morphology. Colonies of one clone of each species were maintained for an extended time in two treatments: in a state of constant vegetative growth by repeated cloning, and in a state restricted from vegetative growth (no cloning). For both species, tissue explants taken from the growing colonies grew more slowly than similar explants taken from the restricted colonies. For one species, tissue explants from the growing colonies used oxygen at a higher rate than similar explants from restricted colonies; for the other species, no difference was detected, although the sample size was small. For both species, tissue explants from restricted colonies formed more circular, "sheet-like" shapes, whereas those from their growing counterparts formed more irregular, "runner-like" shapes. After these experiments, in the third winter of treatment, all colonies experienced a severe tissue regression. Within 6 months after this event, the colonies had regrown to their former sizes. A growth assay at this point revealed no difference in growth rate, possibly suggesting an epigenetic basis for these results. Changes in clonal growth rates and morphology correlated with variation in fragmentation rate might affect the ecology of these and other clonal organisms. PMID:11526066

Ponczek, L M; Blackstone, N W

2001-08-01

19

Hypoxia induces abnormal larval development and affects biofilm-larval interaction in the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

Hydroides elegans, a worldwide fouling polychaete, can spawn throughout the year, but its recruitment drops during summer when hypoxia prevails. Here, the influence of hypoxia on larval development and settlement of H. elegans was investigated. Results showed that larval development was compromised at 1mg O2 l(-1) with a lower proportion of competent larvae and a higher proportion of malformed larvae, probably due to reduction in clearance rate. Regarding larval settlement, although most of the larvae were reluctant to settle at 1mg O2 l(-1), regardless of the biofilm nature, they settled quickly within 24h in response to the resumption of dissolved oxygen. Furthermore, only about 5% of the larvae settled on the biofilms developed under hypoxia, regardless of dissolved oxygen levels of the seawater. The delayed larval development and potential alteration of biofilm nature owing to hypoxia explained why the recruitment of H. elegans declines during summer. PMID:24050126

Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G

2013-11-15

20

Effects of larval starvation and delayed metamorphosis on juvenile survival and growth of the tube-dwelling polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent larvae of the serpulid polychaete, Hydroides elegans (Haswell), were induced to metamorphose by either 10?4 M 3-isobutyl 1-methylxanthine (IBMX), adult homogenate, or 30 mM excess K+. Treatment with excess K+ had adverse effects (P<0.05) on juvenile growth while IBMX and adult homogenate had no detectable effects (P>0.1). Metamorphosis was triggered using IBMX in subsequent studies. Competent larvae were forced

Pei-Yuan Qian; Jan A Pechenik

1998-01-01

21

Molecular identification and ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies of cyanobacteria from association with the white sea hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758).  

PubMed

Three new cyanobacterial strains, that have been previously purified from the hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758), isolated from the White Sea, were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy methods and were characterized by using almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and part of the gene for 23S rRNA. The full nucleotide sequences of the rRNA gene clusters were deposited to GenBank (HM064496.1, GU265558.1, JQ259187.1). Comparison of rRNA gene cluster sequences of Synechococcus cyanobacterium 1Dp66E-1, Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E, and Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that these cyanobacterial strains do not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Furthermore, for the first time heterotrophic bacterium, associated with Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E, was identified as a member of the new phylum Gemmatimonadetes, genus of Gemmatimonas (GenBank accession number is JX437625.1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 1Dp66E-1 forms the unique branch and belongs to a cluster of Synechococcus, including freshwater and sea strains. Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E belongs to a cluster of Leptolyngbya strains. Isolate Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E forms unique branch and belongs to a cluster of the genus Nostoc, with the closest relative of Nostoc commune isolates. PMID:23762857

Koksharova, O A; Kravzova, T R; Lazebnaya, I V; Gorelova, O A; Baulina, O I; Lazebny, O E; Fedorenko, T A; Lobakova, E S

2013-01-01

22

Molecular Identification and Ultrastructural and Phylogenetic Studies of Cyanobacteria from Association with the White Sea Hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758)  

PubMed Central

Three new cyanobacterial strains, that have been previously purified from the hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758), isolated from the White Sea, were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy methods and were characterized by using almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and part of the gene for 23S rRNA. The full nucleotide sequences of the rRNA gene clusters were deposited to GenBank (HM064496.1, GU265558.1, JQ259187.1). Comparison of rRNA gene cluster sequences of Synechococcus cyanobacterium 1Dp66E-1, Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E, and Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that these cyanobacterial strains do not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Furthermore, for the first time heterotrophic bacterium, associated with Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E, was identified as a member of the new phylum Gemmatimonadetes, genus of Gemmatimonas (GenBank accession number is JX437625.1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 1Dp66E-1 forms the unique branch and belongs to a cluster of Synechococcus, including freshwater and sea strains. Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E belongs to a cluster of Leptolyngbya strains. Isolate Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E forms unique branch and belongs to a cluster of the genus Nostoc, with the closest relative of Nostoc commune isolates. PMID:23762857

Koksharova, O. A.; Kravzova, T. R.; Lazebnaya, I. V.; Gorelova, O. A.; Baulina, O. I.; Lazebny, O. E.; Fedorenko, T. A.; Lobakova, E. S.

2013-01-01

23

Occurrence and detrimental effects of the bivalve-inhabiting hydroid Eutima japonica on juveniles of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis in Funka Bay, Japan: relationship to juvenile massive mortality in 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 2003, we first observed prevalent occurrence of a hydroid, Eutima japonica, on soft body tissues of age zero Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis) juveniles cultured in large areas of Funka Bay, Hokkaido. The occurrence coincided with massive death of juvenile scallops.\\u000a A major objective was to clarify ecological relationships between the symbionts, and to infer the relationship between symbiosis

Katsuhisa Baba; Akira Miyazono; Keiji Matsuyama; Shoui Kohno; Shin Kubota

2007-01-01

24

Temperature Dependent Effects of Elevated CO2 on Shell Composition and Mechanical Properties of Hydroides elegans: Insights from a Multiple Stressor Experiment  

PubMed Central

The majority of marine benthic invertebrates protect themselves from predators by producing calcareous tubes or shells that have remarkable mechanical strength. An elevation of CO2 or a decrease in pH in the environment can reduce intracellular pH at the site of calcification and thus interfere with animal’s ability to accrete CaCO3. In nature, decreased pH in combination with stressors associated with climate change may result in the animal producing severely damaged and mechanically weak tubes. This study investigated how the interaction of environmental drivers affects production of calcareous tubes by the serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans. In a factorial manipulative experiment, we analyzed the effects of pH (8.1 and 7.8), salinity (34 and 27‰), and temperature (23°C and 29°C) on the biomineral composition, ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the tubes. At an elevated temperature of 29°C, the tube calcite/aragonite ratio and Mg/Ca ratio were both increased, the Sr/Ca ratio was decreased, and the amorphous CaCO3 content was reduced. Notably, at elevated temperature with decreased pH and reduced salinity, the constructed tubes had a more compact ultrastructure with enhanced hardness and elasticity compared to decreased pH at ambient temperature. Thus, elevated temperature rescued the decreased pH-induced tube impairments. This indicates that tubeworms are likely to thrive in early subtropical summer climate. In the context of climate change, tubeworms could be resilient to the projected near-future decreased pH or salinity as long as surface seawater temperature rise at least by 4°C. PMID:24265732

Chan, Vera B. S.; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Lu, Xing Wen; Zhang, Tong; Shih, Kaimin

2013-01-01

25

Hydroide Storage Vessel wall stress measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is

E. A. Clark; M. J. Pechersky

1997-01-01

26

Hydroide Storage Vessel wall stress measurements  

SciTech Connect

Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is likely responsible for the lack of wall stress. This morphology also implies that decay helium that remains in the titanium hydride (that is, helium that is not released as gas to the free volume) should not cause significant wall stresses when the HSV is used for long-term tritium storage. Holographic interferometry proved to be an extremely sensitive technique to measure swelling, having a detection limit of about 3 microns surface displacement.

Clark, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pechersky, M.J.

1997-07-31

27

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Perhaps the single most critical element of the Earth system is water, the carrier and bearer of life that is inextricably woven into the fabric of the Earth system. Only on Earth does water occur in equilibrium ...

28

Genetic analysis reveals multiple cryptic invasive species of the hydrozoan gene Cordylophora  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the patterns and dynamics of biological invasions is a crucial prerequisite to predicting and mitigating their potential ecological and economic impacts. Unfortunately, in many cases such understanding is limited not only by ignorance of invasion history, but also b...

29

WRAPHydro Data Model: Finding Input Parameters for the Water Rights Analysis Package  

E-print Network

.3 Loading Junctions .............................................................................59 6.4 HydroID Assignment ........................................................................60 6.5 WRAP input parameters..................................................................................86 Chapter 8: Adding New Streams and Junctions................................................88 8.1 Adding new Data...............................................................................88 8.2 Adding new Junctions...

Gopalan, Hema

30

Ecological insights into the polyp stage of non-native hydrozoans in the San Francisco Estuary  

E-print Network

and abundance correlated with a combination of water quality and physical parameters. Cordylophora caspia of the oceanic environment, such as global warming, eutrophication, and over-harvesting of fish stocks (Mills phase only), have become established within the low-salinity waters of the upper San Francisco Estuary

May, Bernie

31

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial examines the importance of water to Earth's ecosystems. Topics include the sources and distribution of water, the water cycle, and how snow and rain occur. There is a discussion of the phases in which it can exist (solid, liquid, or vapor), and a description of how animals adapt to cold snowy environments in the winter. Examples include burrowing, hibernation, migration, and thick fur. A quiz and glossary are included.

32

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K shows us from where we get water, how it's stored and how powerful it can be. We learn how important it is to conserve the .3% of usable fresh water available on earth.

Ptv, Idaho

2011-10-06

33

Water  

MedlinePLUS

... older adults to drink plenty of liquids, including water, and how to make healthy choices. Here's a Tip "But I Don’t Feel Thirsty" With age, you might lose some of your sense of thirst. To further complicate matters, some medicines might make it even more important ...

34

Fish, fans and hydroids: host species of pygmy seahorses  

PubMed Central

Abstract An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoan host species of pygmy seahorses is provided based on literature records and recently collected field data for Hippocampus bargibanti, Hippocampus denise and Hippocampus pontohi. Seven new associations are recognized and an overview of the so far documented host species is given. A detailed re-examination of octocoral type material and a review of the taxonomic history of the alcyonacean genera Annella (Subergorgiidae) and Muricella (Acanthogorgiidae) are included as baseline for future revisions. The host specificity and colour morphs of pygmy seahorses are discussed, as well as the reliability of (previous) identifications and conservation issues. PMID:21747677

Reijnen, Bastian T.; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.

2011-01-01

35

A Possible Role for Agglutinated Foraminifers in the Growth of Deep-Water Coral Bioherms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploration of deep-water bioherms dominated by the scleractinian corals Lophelia pertusa and Enallopsammia profunda along the east coast of Florida in ~400-800 m depth reveals an often dense and rich assemblage of small (~1-30 mm) epifauna on dead coral branches, which is often dominated by agglutinated astrorhizacean foraminifers accompanied by thecate and athecate hydroids, sponges, stylasterids, anemones and barnacles. The dominant agglutinated foraminifer is an arborescent form up to 15 mm tall, consisting of a basal tube that gives rise to branchlets of successively decreasing diameter and thickly coated with fine-grained material including coccoliths and diatom frustules. The large numbers of foraminifers generate an enormous adhesive, sediment-trapping surface area and may represent an important accelerated route for sediment deposition and bioherm growth relative to baffling of suspended sediment particles by the coral branches themselves. These foraminifers also occur on still living coral, suggesting that they may either contribute to coral death or invade stressed colonies. They may thus be responsible for or contribute to the small percent of living corals observed in many of these habitats. Other epifauna appear to colonize after the coral has died.

Messing, C. G.; Reed, J. K.; Brooke, S. D.

2008-05-01

36

Proceedings of the 2004 Humboldt Bay Symposium ... 215 Successionina HumboldtBayMarineFouling  

E-print Network

and hydroids, almost all of which were introduced to Humboldt Bay. Rainstorms, which brought fresh water is one of the lead- ing causes of the biodiversity crisis (Wilcove et al. 1998). The release of larvae

Craig, Sean

37

Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment  

E-print Network

Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

Sohoni, Milind

38

Turbid water Clear water  

E-print Network

Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide-submerged mines in turbid coastal waters. To extract high resolution bathymetric information optically from turbid

Jaffe, Jules

39

The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3  

E-print Network

belonging to Turritopsis dohrnii (Weismann, 1883). Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - Hydractiniidae of Turritopsis polycirrha (Keferstein, 1862). Hydractinia areolata Alder, 1862 is selected as type species

Schuchert, Peter

40

The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4  

E-print Network

- taxo- nomy - north-eastern Atlantic - Mediterranean. INTRODUCTION This study is the fifth in a series in the northeastern Atlantic are described: Eudendrium capillaroides new spec. and Eudendrium unispirum new spec descriptions, including also all species of the northeastern Atlantic, was needed. Although the members

Schuchert, Peter

41

The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2  

E-print Network

- Ratkeidae - revision - taxonomy - northeastern Atlantic - Mediterranean. INTRODUCTION This study is recognized as a new synonym of Eirene viridula (PĂ©ron & Lesueur, 1810). The Mediterranean records of Rhizo

Schuchert, Peter

42

The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1  

E-print Network

are evidently closely related. The selection had to be based on the material available for study. The order. Updated diagnoses for the families and genera are provided and existing taxonomic problems solved based on a new record from Greenland. Although Spadix purpurea Gosse, 1853 may be a senior synonym

Schuchert, Peter

43

Water 2: Disappearing Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will observe the amount of water in an open container vs a closed container over time. This lesson is the second in a three-part series that addresses a concept that is central to the understanding of the water cycle: that water is able to take many forms but is still water. In this second lesson, students will focus on the concept that water can go back and forth from one form to another and the amount of water will remain the same.

44

Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle asks students to conduct their own research on the water cycle (hydrologic cycle). Working collaboratively in small groups, students will research and write about the relationships between stages in the water cycle and the three states of matter relating to water. After completing this lesson, students will be prepared to create a model of the water cycle.

Bale, Regina

2012-07-17

45

Water, water everywhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers.

Pennisi

1993-01-01

46

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Guest Column 10..............Water News Briefs 11..............Calendar 12..............Free Lectures Continue Summer Water/Natural Resources Tour Examines Republican River Issues by Steve Ress This summer

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

47

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH Assessment on Atrazine 10...................Water News Briefs 12...................April Faculty Forum Summer Water and Natural Resources Tour Examines North Platte River Issues by Steve Ress The University

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

48

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15..............Calendar 16..............Bottled Water or Tap? (continued on page 13) Fall NSIA/NWRA Convention Focuses

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

49

Water, Water, Everywhere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

Fahey, John A.

2000-01-01

50

Water, Water, Everywhere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

Selinger, Ben

1979-01-01

51

Water, water everywhere  

SciTech Connect

The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.

Pennisi, E.

1993-02-20

52

Water, Water Everywhere!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

Sible, Kathleen P.

2000-01-01

53

Water Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

Van De Walle, Carol

1988-01-01

54

Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS Water Science for Schools explaines the uses of ground water in the United States. The main uses of ground water include "irrigation uses, drinking-water and other public uses, and for supplying domestic water to people who do not receive public-supply water." Check out this site to learn more.

2008-05-28

55

water intake Water sampling site  

E-print Network

x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

56

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAĂ­S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH the Faculty 4................ Guest Column 5................ Clean Water Act 6................ Water News in Empty Hog Barns by Steve Ress, UNL Water Center Jim Rosowski sees potential for a freshwater farming

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

57

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCHGroundwaterRecharge 6-7 ............ NebraskaWaterMarketingPolicyChoices 10 .............Water News Briefs 11 sites visited on July's water and natural resources tour (photo: Kyle Hoagland). (continued on page 9

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

58

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities Photos Q&A Teachers Contact ... explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, saline water, watersheds, runoff, and ...

59

Water, Water Everywhere, But...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

Jacobson, Cliff

60

Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the importance of water to living organisms, including humans. The discussion points out that all organisms contain water, and decribes how water is accumulated and stored. There is also an examination of the water supplies of Winnipeg, Ontario, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and a discussion of the importance of purifying driking water supplies to remove harmful bacteria and microbes.

61

Healthy Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Z With its many uses for drinking, recreation, sanitation, hygiene, and industry, water is our most precious ... Systems, Water Fluoridation, Camping, Hiking, Travel… Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH) Community Systems, Household Treatment & Storage, Sanitation ...

62

Parasites: Water  

MedlinePLUS

... be at greater risk for serious illness. Proper sanitation and hygiene are also essential to preventing waterborne ... CDC’s Healthy Water website CDC Global WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) Programs and Projects page Drinking Water: ...

63

Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

64

Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

65

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's School of Natural Resource Sciences,Conservation and Survey Division and Water Center into the School

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

66

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

to water, such as from fertil- izer, animal waste or natu- rally occurring soils. In a couple opera-tion (CAFO) waste lagoon as part of a two-year UNL Water Sciences Laboratory study to determineINSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

67

UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT  

E-print Network

where the run- off water first leaves the edge of the field. Current drought conditions have somewhatINSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH Researchers Honing Methods to Sample Field Run-off Water by Steve Ress The effectiveness of riparian buffer

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

68

Water, Water Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about floods, discovering that different types of floods occur from different water sources, but primarily from heavy rainfall. While floods occur naturally and have benefits such as creating fertile farmland, students learn that with the increase in human population in flood-prone areas, floods are become increasingly problematic. Both natural and manmade factors contribute to floods. Students learn what makes floods dangerous and what engineers design to predict, control and survive floods.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

69

The Water Cycle: Water Storage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive, animated graphic helps explain the water cycle to younger students. The animation, with sound, explains the various parts of the water cycle and show how water moves from one part to another.

70

WATER USAGE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Understand how the water cycle relates to the water supply in your community. Thirstin Glass DATES: You can begin this activity on September 18. You should complete it by September 22. OBJECTIVE: We have been learning about water and the water cycle in class. It is important for you to understand the impact you have on this cycle. Each person uses ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-02-11

71

Water Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water cycle concepts and basics including the distribution of water on the planet in oceans, rivers and lakes, glaciers and atmosphere. Defines basic terms: states of water, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, melting. Good illustrations, maps and photos. Excellent list itemizes human uses and impacts on water and the water cycle. Links to more detailed references are provided, case studies illustrate current concerns and issues in Ontario, Canada.

72

Earth's Water:Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS site contains graphs, tables, and charts for the following ground water topics: What is ground water, ground water flow diagrams, importance of groundwater, and trends in ground-water use. Ground water quality, pesticides, aquifers, waterwells, artesian wells, sinkholes, and land subsidence are also covered. There are a variety of links within all of the above topics and a very complete glossary, as well as numerous charts, maps, photographs and illustrations.

73

Water Purifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

1992-01-01

74

Branding water.  

PubMed

Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

2014-06-15

75

Wasted waters.  

PubMed

This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water. PMID:12295784

Niemczynowicz, J

1996-11-01

76

Water Matters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of water on Earth and the other rocky planets is uncertain. There are problems with commonly accepted sources such as comets and asteroids. We explore adsorption of water onto grains in the accretion disk as a source.

M. J. Drake; M. Stimpfl

2007-01-01

77

Water Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grade 6-10 geography lesson plan evaluating population growth and water availability in the United States and in other countries. Students will learn how to draw bar graphs and develop plans of action for water scarcity problems.

2008-10-08

78

Water Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

Bowen, H. J. M.

1975-01-01

79

Saline Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource introduces students to the idea of saline water. Topics include how saline water is defined and how dissolved salt concentrations are expressed (parts per million). Parameters for the various ranges of salinity (fresh to highly saline, or seawater) are also presented, and there is a brief discussion of water quality considerations regarding saline water. Links to additional information are embedded in the text.

2011-09-30

80

Saline Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource introduces students to the idea of saline water. Topics include how saline water is defined and how dissolved salt concentrations are expressed (parts per million). Parameters for the various ranges of salinity (fresh to highly saline, or seawater) are also presented, and there is a brief discussion of water quality considerations regarding saline water. Links to additional information are embedded in the text.

81

Falling Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students drop water from different heights to demonstrate the conversion of water's potential energy to kinetic energy. They see how varying the height from which water is dropped affects the splash size. They follow good experiment protocol, take measurements, calculate averages and graph results. In seeing how falling water can be used to do work, they also learn how this energy transformation figures into the engineering design and construction of hydroelectric power plants, dams and reservoirs.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

82

Extraterrestrial Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life as we know it, i.e., carbon-based organisms that rely on RNA and DNA for information storage and transfer, requires liquid water. Thus, the search for life elsewhere in the universe generally begins with a search for liquid water. In our own Solar System, Earth is the only planet (or moon) that has liquid water at its surface. Mars and

J. F. Kasting

2002-01-01

83

Water Resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uses of ERTS-1 imagery and data for water resources surveys and management are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use and geology; (2) flood plain and flood inundation mapping; (3) snow cover mapping; (4) glacier observations; (5) data collection systems; (6) surface waters; (7) wetlands mapping; (8) water quality; (9) soil mapping; (10) phreatophyte and riparian vegetation mapping; and (11) evapotranspiration.

Salomonson, V. V.

1973-01-01

84

Water Filtration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are asked to design methods to filter water using ordinary materials, while also considering their designs' material and cost efficiencies. They learn about the importance of water and its role in our everyday lives. They come to understand what must occur each day so that they can have clean water.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

85

WATER FROM (WASTE)WATER -- THE DEPENDABLE WATER RESOURCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water

Takashi Asano

86

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

87

Water Markets and Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to improving the allocative efficiency of water use, water markets may reduce irrigation-related water quality problems. This potential benefit is examined with a nonlinear programming model developed to simulate agricultural decision-making in a drainage problem area in California's San Joaquin Valley. Results indicate that a 30% drainage goal is achievable through improvements in irrigation practices and changes in

Catherine L. Kling; Marca Weinberg; James E. Wilen

1993-01-01

88

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

Kane, Andrew S.

89

Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water  

E-print Network

Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

Chen, Tsuhan

90

Water Filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

1982-01-01

91

Variation in adhesion strength of Balanus eburneus, crassostrea virginica and hydroides dianthus to fouling-release coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the shear adhesion strength of barnacles, oysters and tubeworms on eight RTV 11?based silicone fouling?release coatings containing different silicone oil additives. It was found that adhesion strength differed among species and coating types. In most cases, oysters and tubeworms had higher adhesion strengths than barnacles. Barnacle adhesion strength was reduced on all coatings containing oil additives; however,

Christopher J Kavanagh; Michael P Schultz; Geoffrey W Swain; Judith Stein; Kathryn Truby; Christina Darkangelo Wood

2001-01-01

92

Computerized Waters  

E-print Network

Microsoft Windows,Dr. Ralph Wurbs has designed a computer mod- eling system that has changed the way Texas manages its rivers, streams and reservoirs. The modeling system called Water Rights Availability Package, or WRAP for short, is a set of computer... water use and assesses the impacts on all the other water uses in the river basin. #2; Dr. Ralph Wurbs, professor of civil engineering, examines the Texas river basin maps with Richard Hoffpauir, graduate student. These maps were developed, using...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01

93

Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners explore the various types of life that live in fresh water systems and how the presence of these organisms is an indication of the overall health of the water. Learners perform a water quality test that simulates tests performed in the field and use the data to determine the pollution level of three different streams. This activity also introduces learners to macroinvertebrates (animals without backbones).

Service, National P.

2011-08-20

94

Water Jetting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

1985-01-01

95

WATER CONSERVATION  

E-print Network

distribution is unlimited. MIL-HDBK-1165 Water conservation, maximizing the efficient use of water resources, is rapidly becoming a critical part of many military operations as more and more demands are placed upon existing water supplies. In order to remain a good neighbor and preserve the environment in which we live, engineers throughout the Department of Defense are frequently called upon to review the beneficial use of their water resources. This military handbook provides numerous methods to increase water efficiency and details the requirements of Executive Order 12902 as it relates to water conservation within the Department of Defense. In addition, this handbook also includes, in its appendices, procedures for submitting water conservation projects for central funding programs. ii MIL-HDBK-1165 FOREWORD This handbook is designed to provide guidance to the installation energy or facilities manager and project designers in the area of water conservation. This handbook is intended to assist installations in reducing their water consumption and thereby assist in complying with the provisions of Executive Order 12902. Recommendations for improvement are encouraged from within the Navy, other government agencies, and the private sector and should be furnished on the DD Form 1426 provided inside the back

Distribution Statement

1997-01-01

96

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

1993-01-01

97

Water pumps  

PubMed Central

The transport of water across epithelia has remained an enigma ever since it was discovered over 100 years ago that water was transported across the isolated small intestine in the absence of osmotic and hydrostatic pressure gradients. While it is accepted that water transport is linked to solute transport, the actual mechanisms are not well understood. Current dogma holds that active ion transport sets up local osmotic gradients in the spaces between epithelial cells, the lateral intercellular spaces, and this in turn drives water transport by local osmosis. In the case of the small intestine, which in humans absorbs about 8 l of water a day, there is no direct evidence for either local osmosis or aquaporin gene expression in enterocytes. Intestinal water absorption is greatly enhanced by glucose, and this is the basis for oral rehydration therapy in patients with secretory diarrhoea. In our studies of the intestinal brush border Na+-glucose cotransporter we have obtained evidence that there is a direct link between the transport of Na+, glucose and water transport, i.e. there is cotransport of water along with Na+ and sugar, that will account for about 50 % of the total water transport across the human intestinal brush border membrane. In this short review we summarize the evidence for water cotransport and propose how this occurs during the enzymatic turnover of the transporter. This is a general property of cotransporters and so we expect that this may have wider implications in the transport of water and other small polar molecules across cell membranes in animals and plants. PMID:12096049

Loo, Donald D F; Wright, Ernest M; Zeuthen, Thomas

2002-01-01

98

Virginia's Waters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the water resources in Virginia. Main sections included are: (1) "Introduction" (providing a general overview of the richness and diversity of Virginia's water resources both economic and recreational); (2) "River Basins" (illustrating the area drained by nine rivers and their tributaries); (3) "Bays" (including the…

Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; And Others

99

Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective. Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

100

Water Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... All kids need to be supervised in the water, no matter what their swimming skill levels. And infants, toddlers, and weak swimmers should have an adult swimmer within arm's reach to provide ... a child is near water. Check the weight and size recommendations on the ...

101

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

1987-01-01

102

Mixing Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about temperature and energy transfer. The probe is designed to find out whether students recognize that a transfer of energy from the warm water to the cool water occurs until they reach the same temperature. Additionally, students' explanations reveal whether they use an addition, subtraction, or averaging strategy to determine the resulting temperature.

Eberle, Francis; Tugel, Joyce; Keeley, Page

2007-01-01

103

Water Pressure. Water in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

Garrett, Carly Sporer

104

Sinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this experiment, learners float colored ice cubes in hot and cold water. They compare the behavior of the melting ice cubes to understand how temperature is related to ocean currents and how temperature changes water density. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get learners thinking about how and why water temperature changes along with depth. Illustrated experiment directions and a worksheet help learners use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of buoyancy and density.

History, American M.

2002-01-01

105

Water Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

1994-01-01

106

Fragile Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on pages 18-29) learners explore the impact of the March 24, 1989 oil spill in Alaska caused by the Exxon Valdez tanker. First they use a map to track the movement of the spill over 56 days. Learners then explore how oil behaves in water by examining the relative weight of water vs. oil, and the properties of oil. They test how oil damages various natural materials such as bird feathers, fur fabric, plants, shells, and rocks, and then try water and detergent to see which cleaning methods work best.

Museum, University O.

2014-01-28

107

Water Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... the boat is experienced and competent. Alcohol and water still don't mix. One third of boating deaths are alcohol related. Alcohol distorts our judgment no matter where we are — but that distortion is even ...

108

Water Fountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how a hydraulic pump works. Learners work in teams to design and build a unique water fountain that employs a hydraulic pump. This lesson also contains a demonstration of a hydraulic pump in action.

Ieee

2014-05-22

109

Water Spout  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase. However, when I came back nine months later to give a talk about the apparatus, I realized that it was really an early Bernoulli effect demonstration. In the right-hand picture the spigot is open and water can be seen coming out of the spout. The water level in the narrow tube has fallen appreciably, thus showing that the pressure at this point has decreased, in agreement with the non-zero velocity of the water in the horizontal tube. The device was made ca. 1880 by E. S. Ritchie of Boston, MA. (Photos by Thomas B. Greenslade Jr.)

Greenslade, Thomas B.

2013-02-01

110

Grabbing Water  

E-print Network

We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

Reis, Pedro Miguel

111

WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

112

WATER ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

113

Water purification  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention provides an efficient method to purify an aqueous solution, typically mine drainage water, especially of anions and cations present in the aqueous solution as dissolved solids, the anions and cations are removed by treatment with a positively charged extractant having at least eight carbon atoms, whereby an unstable emulsion is formed; the unstable emulsion is allowed to break into an extract phase loaded with the anions and cations, and a water phase depleted in anions and cations; a floc inherently forms in the loaded extractant phase and then the loaded extractant phase and floc are separated from the purified water and treated to remove the anions and cations as concentrated useful products; the treated aqueous phase now reduced in anion and/or cation content is also separated from the emulsion as a purified aqueous solution. The extractant phase is preferably recycled. A continuous water purification process is provided.

2013-11-19

114

Sinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment uses colored ice cubes to demonstrate how temperature changes water density. Working together in small groups, students can complete the experiment in a single class period. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about how and why water temperature changes along with depth, illustrated experiment directions, and a worksheet that helps students use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of buoyancy and density.

115

Water separator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus for separating liquids from gases or gaseous fluids is described. Features of the apparatus include: (1) the collection and removal of the moisture in the fluid is not dependent upon, or affected by gravity; (2) all the collected water is cyclically drained from the apparatus irrespective of the attitude of the separator; and (3) a fluid actuator is utilized to remove the collected water from the separator.

Dunn, W. F.; Austin, I. G. (inventors)

1964-01-01

116

Filtering Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to water filtration is from the US Environmental Agency entitled EPA Environmental Education: Water Filtration (1 ). The two-page document explains the need for water filtration and the steps water treatment plants take to purify water. To further understand the process, a demonstration project is provided that illustrates these purification steps, which include coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The second site is an interesting Flash animation called Filtration: How Does it Work (2 ) provided by Canada's Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. Visitors will learn various types of filtration procedures and systems and the materials that are used such as carbon and sand. Next, from the National Science Foundation is a learning activity called Get Out the Gunk (3 ). Using just a few simple items from around the house, kids will be able to answer questions like "Does a filter work better with a lot of water rushing through, or a small trickle?" and "Does it make the water cleaner if you pour it through a filter twice?" The fourth Web site, Rapid Sand Filtration (4 ), is provided by Dottie Schmitt and Christie Shinault of Virginia Tech. The authors describe the process, which involves the flow of water through a bed of granular media, normally following settling basins in conventional water treatment trains to remove any particulate matter left over after flocculation and settling. Along with its thorough description, readers can view illustrations and photographs that further explain the process. The Vegetative Buffer Strips for Improved Surface Water Quality (5) Web site is provided by the Iowa State University Extension office. The document explains what vegetative buffer strips are, how they filter contaminants and sediment from surface water, how effective they are, and more. The sixth offering is a file called Infiltration Basins and Trenches (6) that is offered by the University of Wisconsin Extension. These structures are intended to collect water, have it infiltrate into the ground, and have it purified along the way. This document explains how effective they are at removing pollutants, how to install them, design guidelines, maintenance, and more. Next, from a site called Wilderness Survial.net is the Water Filtration Devices (7) page. Visitors read how to make a filtering system out of cloth, sand, crushed rock, charcoal, or a hollow log, although as is stated, the water still has to be purified. The last site, from the US Geological Survey, is called A Visit to a Wastewater-Treatment Plant: Primary Treatment of Wastewater (8). Although geared towards children, the site does a good job of explaining what happens at each stage of the treatment process and how pollutants are removed to help keep water clean. Everything from screening, pumping, aerating, sludge and scum removal, killing bacteria, and what is done with wastewater residuals is covered.

Brieske, Joel A.

2003-01-01

117

ESW 2009: Water, Water Everywhere  

NASA Video Gallery

Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every natural process on earth cannot be underestimated. It is vital to life, but it is also tightly coupled to climate, helping to carry heat f...

118

Drinking Water FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... or ground water. Surface water collects in streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Ground water is water located ... protect drinking water and its sources, which include rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. Top ...

119

Treatment of Well Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Pore Sizes Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

120

Private Ground Water Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Pore Sizes Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

121

Total Water Management - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

122

Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER  

E-print Network

Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

123

Grabbing water  

E-print Network

We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

2012-07-16

124

Troubling Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the world's richest deltas has been radically replumbed, its ecosystem is collapsing, and Californians are realizing their water supply is tapped out. Despite decades of efforts--and some positive trends--solutions may not be any closer. Downstream, the San Francisco Bay looks good by comparison.

Carolyn J. Strange (freelance writer;)

2008-12-01

125

Water Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

2010-06-04

126

Energetic Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how hot and cold water move. Learners observe that temperature and density affect how liquids rise and fall. Learners also discover that although they can't see molecules with their eyes, they can demonstrate that molecules are always moving.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

127

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

-800 Cooperating Agencies Arkansas Water Resources Center ARKANSAS SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION COMMISSION WASHINGTON COUNTY SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS Federal Assistance Project No. C Cooperating Agencies ARKANSAS WATER RESOURCES CENTER ARKANSAS SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION COMMISSION WASHINGTON

Soerens, Thomas

128

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The total amount of water on Earth, the places in which it is found and the percentages of fresh vs. salt are examined in this lesson. A short demonstration allows students to visualize the percentage differences and a coloring exercise illustrates locations. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model. All background information, student worksheets and images/photographs/data are included in these downloadable sections: Teacher's Guide, Student Capture Sheet and PowerPoint Presentation.

129

Troubled Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the influences of different parameters on the environmental quality of a river system. They will run a computer model of a river system, interpret graphs, and adjust model parameters such as wind speed, sewage load, and other variables to determine their effects on water quality. For teachers, there are additional background materials, teaching tips, evaluation methods, and links to national standards.

Farmer, John

130

Water Sports  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Sports Web page is organized by tours, equipment, schools and stores, with links to industry home pages, trade organizations, clubs, preservation projects and other related pages. Still in progress is a hierarchical system of links beginning with your choice of whitewater or touring categories. Find information on The North American Paddlesports Association (NAPSA) and an alphabetical list of companies that are Trade Association of Sea Kayaking (TASK) and/or NAPSA members.

131

Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 56 surface-water stations (including 44 gaging stations) and 142 wells; and water levels for 313 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal and State agencies in Louisiana.

Baumann, Todd; Goree, B. B.; Lovelace, W. M.; Montgomery, P. A.; Resweber, J. C.; Ross, Garron B.; Sasser, D. C., Jr.; Walters, D. J.

2004-01-01

132

Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 60 surface-water stations (including 42 gaging stations) and 112 wells; and water levels for 304 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Baumann, Todd; Goree, B. B.; Lovelace, W. M.; Montogmery, P. A.; Resweber, J. C.; Ross, Garron B.; Ward, Aub N.; Walters, David J.

2005-01-01

133

Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only for 73 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 66 surface-water stations (including 39 gaging stations) and 92 wells; and water levels for 205 observation wells. Also included are data for 166 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Goree, B. B.; Lovelace, W. M.; Montgomery, P. A.; Resweber, J. C.; Sasser, D. C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

2002-01-01

134

Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 85 gaging stations; stage only for 79 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 52 surface-water stations (including 40 gaging stations) and 104 wells; and water levels for 300 observation wells. Also included are data for 143 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Goree, B. B.; Lovelace, W. M.; Montgomery, P. A.; Resweber, J. C.; Labbe, Charles K.; Walters, David J.

2003-01-01

135

Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 66 gaging stations; stage only for 70 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 25 gaging stations) and 108 wells; and water levels for 221 observation wells. Also included are data for 204 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Goree, B. B.; Lovelace, W. M.; Montgomery, P. A.; Resweber, J. C.; Sasser, D. C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

2001-01-01

136

Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan  

E-print Network

Page 1 Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan Michigan State University · New · February 2011 information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective water resource management. Understanding water use by different sectors can help with planning

137

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING.ROGRAM FOR THE 1972, I~TERDISCIPL1NARY SEMINAR ON WATER RESOURCES1 The Interdisciplinary Water Resources Seminar upper classmen,graduate stUdents, ~rofessiona1 persons, faculty, nd others interested 1n water topics

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

138

Water Sustainability Program Challenges to Sustainable Water  

E-print Network

Water Sustainability Program Forum Challenges to Sustainable Water Management in Arizona Sharon B. Megdal Director, WSP & Water Resources Research Center November 22, 2010 smegdal@cals.arizona.edu #12;· The Water Sustainability Program endeavors to ensure that we have safe and reliable water supplies

Cushing, Jim. M.

139

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING Committee on Natioha1 Water Resources report in 1961 and the formation of the Committee on Water Resources in emphasis"and values regarding water resources' research. Interest has shifted from}J4ter supply

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

140

Campus Water Uses and Potential Water Efficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent increases in the price of water, saving water has become one of the main focuses for sustainability. The California Institute of Technology used 200,000,000 gallons of water in the year 2008; however the institute has never tracked this water to its destination within the campus. Using data collected from water meters on campus and from the utility company

Calvin Kuo; Melany Hunt; John Onderdonk; Matthew Berbee

2008-01-01

141

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-print Network

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

142

Water Wise: A Water Use Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…

Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

143

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, water resources professionals squarely faced the fact that water current pricing policies and legal structures. In analyzing energy-water relationships, wastefulWATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

144

Water, Water Everywhere! [Narrator] Water, Water Everywhere Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every process  

E-print Network

Water, Water Everywhere! [Narrator] Water, Water Everywhere Water is all around us, and its naturally as a liquid, gas, and solid. The process by which water moves around the Earth, from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land, and back to the ocean, is called the water cycle. Water regulates climate, storing

Waliser, Duane E.

145

Water Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silver ionization water purification technology was originally developed for Apollo spacecraft. It was later used to cleanse swimming pools and has now been applied to industrial cooling towers and process coolers. Sensible Technologies, Inc. has added two other technologies to the system, which occupies only six square feet. It is manufactured in three capacities, and larger models are custom built on request. The system eliminates scale, corrosion, algae, bacteria and debris, and because of the NASA technology, viruses and waterborne bacteria are also destroyed. Applications include a General Motors cooling tower, amusement parks, ice manufacture and a closed-loop process cooling system.

1992-01-01

146

Fresh Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will use online resources to learn about freshwater ecosystems, the critters that live in them and the effect we have on them. You may choose to print this page out to assist you in answering questions. In studying fresh water, we will be looking at three different ecosystems: Streams and Rivers; Ponds and Lakes; and Wetlands. The following site contains information about all 3. Answer the questions on loose-leaf or in an MS Word document, to be printed. Freshwater Ecosystems (title provided or enhanced by cataloger) After clicking the link above, click on "Rivers ...

Bionagy

2008-10-25

147

Water, Ohio's Remarkable Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…

Groves, Carrie J.

148

Water Source Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online curriculum guides for K-12 with over 324 activities related to wetlands, coastal waters, and water resources. Each grade section (K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12) is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters.

149

Principles of Water Quality  

SciTech Connect

CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

Waite, T.D.

1984-01-01

150

Water Source Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online curriculum guides for K-12 with over 324 activities related to wetlands, coastal waters, and water resources. Each grade section (K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12) is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters.

2010-08-06

151

Be Water Wise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various topics on water and water conservation are discussed, each general topic followed by a student activity. Topics include: (1) importance of water; (2) water in the environment; (3) getting water to and from homes (making water usable; treating wastewater; on-site systems, including water wells and septic tanks); (4) relationship between…

Birch, Sandra K.; Pettus, Alvin M.

152

Discovering the Water Cycle!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will be learning about what the water cycle is and how it works. Resources! The Hydrologic Cycle: Water's journey through time The Water Cycle Thirstin's Water Cycle Activity Water evaporates from the surface Water Wonders These are a collection of websites that are going to help us in our journey of discovering what the water cycle is. ...

Mortensen, Miss

2009-10-09

153

Water resources data, Tennessee, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Tennessee consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 107 gaging stations; stage only for 1 gaging station, elevation and contents for 32 lakes reservoirs; water quality at 18 gaging stations and 17 wells; and water levels for 8 observation wells; and 1 precipitation station. Also included are data for 84 crest stage partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various stream sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent the part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Tennessee.

Flohr, D. F.; Garrett, J. W.; Hamilton, J. T.; Phillips, T. D.

2005-01-01

154

Water Resources of Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Resources of Alaska homepage is provided by the US Geological Survey. The goal of this project is to study and understand Alaska's hydrology (surface water, ground water, and water quality) for use and management of the nation's water resources. The site features a list of published reports and information about current projects as well as a vast amount of hydrologic data such as surface water, ground water, water quality, glaciers, water use, and hydrologic data reports.

Geological Survey (U.S.). Water Resources Division. Alaska District.

1999-01-01

155

Improved water does not mean safe water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

2012-12-01

156

Water resources data, Nebraska, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2004 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 101 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 6 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 7 gaging stations and 40 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 74 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 200 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies.

compiled by Hitch, D. E.; Soensken, P. J.; Sebree, S. K.; Wilson, K. E.; Walczyk, V. C.; Drudik, R. A.; Miller, J. D.; Hull, S. H.

2005-01-01

157

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-print Network

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20

158

Source Water Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... comes from ground water, streams, rivers, springs or lakes in a watershed. Although most water requires some ... Education & Training Grants & Funding Laws & Regulations Our Waters Pollution Prevention & Control Resources & Performance Science & Technology Water Infrastructure ...

159

Land and water snails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Land snails live on the land and water snails make water their habitat. Land snails have shells to protect them and so do water snails. Land snails have two sets of antennae, while water snails only have one set.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

160

EXPLANATION Water withdrawals,  

E-print Network

withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Groundwater withdrawals West­east division for this report and State, 2005. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs

161

WATER MANAGEMENT & HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE  

E-print Network

WATER MANAGEMENT & HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE External Review Water Management and Hydrological Science Graduate Program Self Study October 2012 #12;#12;WATER MANAGEMENTWATER MANAGEMENT & HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE& HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCE External Review Water Management and Hydrological Science Graduate Program Self Study

162

Water Contamination Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary: Misplaced Matter and Water Pollution The drinking water pollution demonstration provides a very simple but dramatic way to get students to think about water contamination and drinking water standards, ...

163

Autoionization of water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an animation showing the three normal vibrational modes of the water molecule as well as proton transfer in the following three situations: (1) hydronium ion/water, (2) hydroxide ion/water, and (3)two water molecules.

Merlic, Craig; Fam, Barry

164

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-print Network

management strategy, consider treating your water or seeking an alternative drink- ing-water supply such as bottled water. Treatment options for reducing copper concentrations in water include (1) reverse osmosis, (2) distillation or (3) ion exchange. Reverse... management strategy, consider treating your water or seeking an alternative drink- ing-water supply such as bottled water. Treatment options for reducing copper concentrations in water include (1) reverse osmosis, (2) distillation or (3) ion exchange. Reverse...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25

165

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY  

E-print Network

EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality ­ Situation (resources) Florida has extensive and diverse water resources 54,836 miles of rivers and streams 1.8 million acres of lakes, reservoirs

Kane, Andrew S.

166

Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems  

E-print Network

Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension Many areas have water containing impurities from natural or artificial sources. These impurities may cause health problems, damage equipment or plumbing, or make the water undesirable due to taste, odor

Liskiewicz, Maciej

167

WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES ,'JEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING, 1973 Research in support of the state water resources planni n q proces s c a n 01" a highly productive actually be understood. It must also be understood that planning for the use and development of water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

168

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING ALLOTMENT PROJECT DEADLINE The Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute is now prepared to receive basicIe. LB-334, enacted by the 1969 Legislature, authorized the Nebraska Soil a~d Water Conservation

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

169

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING Research application is an educational activity. Its aim is to pro- duce a change in the water resource environment by producing a change in people who manage water resources. #12;-2- 6. Provide Readable Reports

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

170

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING LABLE FRm1 ~.~, VI I RI RI I · The Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute has recently issued a new. This publi- cation may be obtained by writing: Dr. Warren Viessman, Jr., Director, Nebraska Water Resources

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

171

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING~ November 1973 Opportunities for cost effective research related to energy-water issues are abundant. Many. It would be impossible to list all fruitful avenues for energy-water research, but some important issues

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

172

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING OF THE DIRECTOR . . · Once again during the spring 1973 semester the Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute will sponsor an Interdisciplinary Water Resources Seminar. These seminars have been held for the past five

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

173

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING,000,000 for the Sec. 101 matching grant program, and $2,000,000 for the Title II program. INTERDISCIPLINARY WATER RESOURCE SEMINAR An Interdisciplinary Water Resource Seminar will be offered during the 1970 Semeste

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

174

Virtual water trade and world water resources.  

PubMed

Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water. PMID:15195440

Oki, T; Kanae, S

2004-01-01

175

EPANET water quality model  

Microsoft Academic Search

EPANET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. EPANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also

Rossman

1993-01-01

176

DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

177

Magnificent Ground Water Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnificent Ground Water Connection is a compilation of ground water-related activities for teaching and learning purposes. The teacher's activity guide is applicable to a wide range of subject matter and the ground water theme is integrated into stories, songs, math, social studies, art and writing. The topics include basic concepts of the water cycle, water distribution, treatment and stewardship. Other subjects include the water cycle and water conservation, New England's ground water resources, ground water contamination and protection. Sections are also available for wetlands, ground water, marine debris, waster, air quality, acid rain, and energy. Users can also access an on-line lending library for educational materials and videos.

178

Molecular Structure of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water descends from the sky as rain and irrigates the land. Water can be used as a solvent for dissolving many forms of solids. It can also be used as both a coolant and a reactant. Everything from blood to tears are variations of the water compound. Water quality is an important issue in the environment. Safe water, water free of harmful toxins, is important for agriculture and community consumption. Criteria for safe water is based on levels deemed suitable for drinking, swimming, farming etc. The EPA uses specific water safety standards used by many states for water safety management. States may also adopt their own water safety standards for government approval.

2002-08-14

179

Water Resources Data, Alabama, Water Year 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2005 water year for Alabama consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations and 23 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations; (2) stage and content records for 14 lakes and reservoirs and stage at 44 stations; (3) water-quality records for 125 streamflow-gaging stations and 67 ungaged streamsites; (4) water temperature at 179 surface-water stations; (5) specific conductance at 180 stations; (6) dissolved oxygen at 17 stations; (7) turbidity at 52 stations; (8) sediment data at 2 stations; (9) water-level records for 2 recording observation wells; and (10) water-quality records for 6 ground-water stations. Also included are lists of active and discontinued continuous-record surface-water-quality stations, and partial-record and miscellaneous surface- water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Alabama.

Psinakis, W. L.; Lambeth, D. S.; Stricklin, V. E.; Treece, M. W.

2006-01-01

180

Water Resources Data, Alabama, Water Year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Alabama consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, for 19 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations; (2) stage and content records for 16 lakes and reservoirs and stage at 44 stations; (3) water-quality records for 21 streamflow-gaging stations, for 11 ungaged streamsites, and for 1 precipitation stations; (4) water temperature at 20 surface-water stations; (5) specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at 20 stations; (6) turbidity at 5 stations; (7) sediment data at 6 stations; (8) water-level records for 2 recording observa-tion wells; and (9) water-quality records for 6 ground-water stations. Also included are lists of active and discontinued continuous-record surface-water-quality stations, and partial-record and miscellaneous sur-face-water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Alabama.

Psinakis, W. L.; Lambeth, D. S.; Stricklin, V. E.; Treece, M. W.

2005-01-01

181

Water Resources Data, Alabama, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Alabama consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, for 41 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations; (2) stage and content records for 14 lakes and reservoirs and stage at 47 stations; (3) water-quality records for 12 streamflow-gaging stations, for 17 ungaged streamsites, and for 2 precipitation stations; (4) water temperature at 14 surfacewater stations; (5) specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at 12 stations; (6) turbidity at 3 stations; (7) sediment data at 6 stations; (8) water-level records for 2 recording observation wells; and (9) water-quality records for 21 ground-water stations. Also included are lists of active and discontinued continuous-record surface-water-quality stations, and partial-record and miscellaneous surface-water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Alabama.

Pearman, J. L.; Stricklin, V. E.; Psinakis, W. L.

2003-01-01

182

Water Resources Data, Alabama, Water Year 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Alabama consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels in wells. This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 130 streamflow-gaging stations, for 29 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations; (2) stage and content records for 14 lakes and reservoirs and stage at 46 stations; (3) water-quality records for 12 streamflow-gaging stations, for 29 ungaged streamsites, and for 1 precipitation stations; (4) water temperature at 12 surfacewater stations; (5) specific conductance and dissolved oxygen at 12 stations; (6) turbidity at 3 stations; (7) sediment data at 6 stations; (8) water-level records for 2 recording observation wells; and (9) water-quality records for 9 ground-water stations. Also included are lists of active and discontinued continuous-record surface-water-quality stations, and partial-record and miscellaneous surface-water-quality stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Alabama.

Psinakis, W. L.; Lambeth, D. S.; Stricklin, V. E.; Treece, M. W.

2004-01-01

183

Water Remediation Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students measure the effectiveness of water filters in purifying contaminated water. They prepare test water by creating different concentrations of bleach (chlorine-contaminated) water. After passing the contaminated water through commercially available Brita® water filters designed to purify drinking water, students determine the chlorine concentration of the purified water using chlorine test strips and measure the adsorption of chlorine onto activated carbon over time. They graph and analyze their results to determine the effectiveness of the filters. The household active carbon filters used are one example of engineer-designed water purification systems.

GK-12 Program,

184

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Arkansas Water Resources Center LASER-PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF WATER POLLUTANTS PHASE I Principal. '. 18 #12;cor~PLETIONREPORT LASER-PHOTOACOUSTICDETECTIONOF WATER POLLUTANTS: PHASEI October ls 1977 their waters. Recognizing that water pollution can pose serious health hazards and unknown long term effects

Soerens, Thomas

185

Drought and Water Allocation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture's Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library has placed a new database online. The Drought and Water Allocation bibliography includes "71 articles on water allocation as it relates to drought and water shortages dated 1992-1999. Competition for water resources, legal rights and remedies, and economic options are highlighted."

186

Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation  

E-print Network

1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance l Different problems with osmoregulation depending on the habitat the organism lives in #12;2 Nitrogenous Wastes 1) Ammonia 2) Urea 3) Uric Acid II. Water Gain 1. Drinking (reptiles

Dever, Jennifer A.

187

Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation  

E-print Network

1 Water Regulation I. Osmoregulation II. Water Gain III. Water loss IV. Extreme Environments Animal matched over time, or else!!! I. Osmoregulation ­ water balance l Different problems with osmoregulation depending on the habitat the organism lives in A. Freshwater: B. Salt water: C. Terrestrial: Excessive

Dever, Jennifer A.

188

Water Basins Civil Engineering  

E-print Network

Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

Provancher, William

189

Grains, Water Introduction  

E-print Network

Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

190

Update: Nebraska's Integrated Water  

E-print Network

potential effects of climate variability on water supply #12;Statewide Water Use and Supply · UtilizeUpdate: Nebraska's Integrated Water Management Planning Greater Platte River Basins Symposium of hydrologically connected water supplies #12;Republican River Republican River Basin Water Supply 0 200 400 600

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

191

Plant Water Relations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plant water relations are presented in this learning activity to help participants understand the components of water potential, explain how water moves through plants, provide examples of plant adaptations to water stress, and have a general understanding of how water potential can be measured.

Bidlack, Jim

192

Water in confined geometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of a hydrophilic interface is modified as compared to that of bulk water. Recent experiments performed in porous silica show that water dynamics is well described by a stretched-exponential intermediate-scattering function. The behaviour of confined water is similar to that of supercooled water at lower (≈ 30 K) temperature. This temperature shift

J. Teixeira; J.-M. Zanotti; M.-C. Bellissent-Funel; S.-H. Chen

1997-01-01

193

Water in confined geometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of a hydrophilic interface is modified as compared to that of bulk water. Recent experiments performed in porous silica show that water dynamics is well described by a stretched-exponential intermediate-scattering function. The behaviour of confined water is similar to that of supercooled water at lower (? 30 K) temperature. This temperature shift

J. Teixeira; J.-M. Zanotti; M.-C. Bellissent-Funel; S.-H. Chen

1997-01-01

194

Water Governance and Legislation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can review Canadian water policy and legislation for both provinces and federal government. Topics include the nature of water, water policy and legislation, water management, water and culture, and links to information and services (a glossary, news articles, and a teachers' corner). A French translation is available.

2003-07-31

195

Water Resources Policy & Economics  

E-print Network

Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy policies and laws that govern water use as well as economic and policy analysis tools that can be used

Buehrer, R. Michael

196

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Arkansas Water Resources Center RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY OF NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS IN GROUND WATER caused concern regarding nitrate contamination of the ground water. In the study area of Pike and Howard water nitrate. In response to these concerns, a study of n1trate concentrations in rural water wells

Soerens, Thomas

197

Save Our Water Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water

Bromley, Albert W.

198

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

199

Introduction to Water Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with examples of the types of problems that environmental engineers solve, specifically focusing on water quality issues. Topics include the importance of clean water, the scarcity of fresh water, tap water contamination sources, and ways environmental engineers treat contaminated water.

GK-12 Program,

200

Water treatment method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for treating water removed from the ground to reduce the content of noxious sulfur-containing impurities therein before the water is supplied to an associated water system. It comprises: the steps of spraying the water to be treated in the upper portion of a closed standpipe which has an inlet for the water to be treated

Siebert

1991-01-01

201

Water security for Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water security depends on the availability of enough water to meet the demand of all consumption sectors at all times. These conditions are hardly met in water rich countries, as the hydrological cycle is not fully reliable. In arid countries, such as Kuwait, where there is no enough natural fresh water, water security is generally based on enough storage capacity

Abdulhadi Al-Otaibi; Mahmoud Abdel-Jawad

2007-01-01

202

Metazoan parasite species in cultured mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Thermaikos Gulf (North Aegean Sea, Greece).  

PubMed

This is the first study on parasites of cultured Mytilus galloprovincialis L. in Greek waters, and is based on samples collected every 2 to 3 mo between September 2000 and November 2001 at 3 stations in the Thermaikos Gulf. Each sample comprised 40 mussels. We found 4 metazoan parasite species: hydroid Eugymnanthea inquilina, gill turbellarian Urastoma cyprinae, trematode Proctoces maculatus and gut copepod Mytilicola intestinalis. Of 840 mussels examined, 406 (48.3%) mussels were harbouring hydroids of E. inquilina, 278 (33.1%) were infested with U. cyprinae, 94 (11.2%) were infested with M. intestinalis, and only 7 (0.8%) were infested with P. maculatus. The prevalence and intensity of these parasites were related to temperature and pollution. Mussels infested with these parasites had significantly lower condition indices than non-infested mussels; larger mussels were more often infested than smaller ones. PMID:15038452

Rayyan, Abdalnasser; Photis, George; Chintiroglou, Chariton C

2004-01-28

203

Clear salt water versus clear pure water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A controlled experiment allows an investigator to conduct the experiment by changing only one single factor while keeping all other variables constant. The factor that was changed in this experiment, called the independent variable, was the type of water used: pure water or salt water.

Nancy Pelaez (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2007-08-17

204

Investigating Water Problems. A Water Analysis Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet has been prepared expressly for teachers and students who are interested in investigating the quality of water supplies. The intent is to provide technical support and background information concerning water quality factors and to give basic information on field and laboratory water testing techniques. It is assumed that the reader is…

Renn, Charles E.

205

Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans  

E-print Network

(NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths occur globally every year due to a lack of clean water, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene (1, Sanitation, and Hygiene team provides WSP technical assistance throughout Latin America and the Caribbean

206

WATER RECLAMATION AND AUTOMATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Santa Clara Valley Water District owns and operates a water reclamation facility located in the Palo Alto Baylands area in Northern California. The purpose of the facility is to provide reclaimed water suitable for injection into the groundwater, thereby providing a salt wate...

207

The Science of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of inquiry lessons and resources that help students understand the physical properties of water, that living organisms are dependent on water, and how water affects their health and that of the planet.

Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)

2010-01-01

208

Water in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water in the City is part of the Franklin Institute Science Museum's Science in the City Web site. The activity is described as a way to investigate the most precious natural resource in cities. The resources accumulated and presented on the site are held within several areas that include Water Basics, Water Science, Philadelphia Water Ways, Worldwide Water Ways, and References and Activities. The water basics page, for example, contains a glossary of water terminology; water trivia; and information on water myths and realities, dams, water power, conserving water, and keeping water clean. Although most resources are from outside sources, the site does a good job of explaining the concepts and providing kids with a single spot to explore other sites with information on this specific subject.

209

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM  

E-print Network

LAND & WATER CONSERVATION PROGRAM ________________________________________________________________________ Preparing a Conservation Plan INTRODUCTION Conservation of land, water and other natural features. Examples of goals might include protecting the water resources of a town, maintaining or improving local

New Hampshire, University of

210

water transport land runoff  

E-print Network

Monitoring station Land to water transport Urban runoff Cultivated land runoff Wastewater discharges Pasture land runoff Instream transport and removal Land to water transport Monitoring station Benefits of Integrated Monitoring and Modeling Successful management of our Nation's water resources

Torgersen, Christian

211

Bottled Water and Fluoride  

MedlinePLUS

... 110. The FDA standards of quality state that domestic bottled water with no added fluoride may contain ... the location where the bottled water is sold. Domestic bottled water with added fluoride can contain between ...

212

Reduction of Water Consumption  

E-print Network

Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

Adler, J.

213

EXPLANATION Water withdrawals,  

E-print Network

-water livestock withdrawals Groundwater livestock withdrawals TOTALWITHDRAWALS,IN MILLIONGALLONSPERDAY WEST EAST 0 in the United States in 2005 - Livestock USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs

214

Lawn Water Management  

E-print Network

Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

McAfee, James

2006-06-26

215

Aging Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

216

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... drinking water program. Many are available via the Internet. Call the Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) ... been meeting drinking water safety standards, on the Internet at: www.epa.gov/safewater/dwinfo.htm DETERMINING ...

217

Where's the Water?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, the students will conduct an investigation to purify water. Students will engineer a method for cleaning water, discover the most effective way to filter water, and practice conducting a scientific experiment.

Adventure Engineering

218

About Body Water  

MedlinePLUS

... kidneys are functioning normally, the body can handle wide variations in fluid intake. The body obtains water ... such as sodium and potassium, are dissolved in the water in the body. Water balance and electrolyte balance ( ...

219

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04

220

OFFICE OF WATER DOCKET  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Office of Water (OW) develops regulations and standards for contaminants in the Nation's waters. Section 101(e) of the Clean Water Act requires that "public participation in the development or revision of any regulations, standard, effluent limitation,...

221

Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms is a helpful collection of resources for water researchers and professionals provided by the Nevada Division of Water Resources and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. This extensive and freely accessed dictionary contains hundreds of words, which are organized alphabetically, making it perfect for searching and printing. Also provided are dozens of appendixes, abbreviations and acronyms, conversion tables and flow equivalents, and more.

1999-01-01

222

Surface Water Quality Standards  

E-print Network

of the water quali- ty standards, the overall process is expected to contin- ue into 2009.? For some, Texas? standards for contact recreation are not appropriate for many water bodies on the impaired list. Aaron Wendt, Texas State Soil and Water... of the water quali- ty standards, the overall process is expected to contin- ue into 2009.? For some, Texas? standards for contact recreation are not appropriate for many water bodies on the impaired list. Aaron Wendt, Texas State Soil and Water...

Wythe, Kathy

2007-01-01

223

Technology in water conservation  

E-print Network

2 tx H2O Summer 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director WAT E R CONSERVATION & TECHNOLOGY CENTER Securing Our Water Future It is not unusual for individuals to describe water conservation as a... through water conservation, introduction of new technology does not automati- cally result in water savings. #27;e new evapotrans- piration-based irrigation controllers illustrate the point. A lawn?s need for water is dependent on the weather...

Finch, Dr. Calvin

2013-01-01

224

Industrial Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of its Water Science for Schools site, the US Geological Survey defines industrial water use and includes several tables and maps showing where and how industry uses water. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much surface water is used in industry as well as how much of that water is fresh or saline.

2002-10-10

225

Water Resources Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQâs, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

226

Ground water resource assessment  

SciTech Connect

Table of Contents: Introduction to Ground Water Resource Assessment; Components of a Ground Water Resource Assessment; Approaches to Assessing Aquifer Sensitivity and Ground Water Vulnerability; Comprehensive State Ground Water Protection Program Priority-Setting Characteristics to be Addressed in Ground Water Resource Assessments; Case Studies on the Development and Use of Ground Water Resource Assessments at the State, Local, and Federal Level; Sources of Hydrogeological Information; and Glossary.

Not Available

1993-10-01

227

Water Resources of Tennessee  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the U.S. Geological Survey, provides real-time, surface-water, ground-water and water-quality data; maps and graphs of current water resource conditions in the U.S. such as a daily streamflow conditions map; publications and product information; information on National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) programs of the Tennessee River Basin and Mobile River Basin; and information on water use in Tennessee.

228

Water Cycle Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and its role in studying the water cycle. This webquest provides links to eight websites, allowing middle school students to explore the water cycle and its impacts on Earth's weather and climate. Through online videos and articles, students follow a water molecule through the cycle, discover the connection between the water cycle and global water/heat distribution, examine the role of solar energy, and assess the importance of fresh water.

229

Trees, Soil and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - health care for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification.

Addison, Keith

2010-01-01

230

Mission Geography: Water, Water Almost Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mission Geography uses existing NASA data and images where possible to engage students in active, hands-on inquiry, modeling the scientific method and developing students' understanding of environment-society relations and Earth science. In this module, students compare the amount of land and water on Earth; consider craters as evidence of a lack of water on other planets; define and locate water bodies found on Earth; and identify changes that occur in these water bodies. The module contains four investigations in which students compare the amounts of land and water on Earth, learn that the presence of craters indicate a dry planet, study and compare water bodies, and explore how water bodies respond to changes in weather and climate. Each investigation is complete with overview, a list of materials and supplies, content preview, classroom procedures, worksheets, background, and evaluation.

231

Surface Water Development in Texas.  

E-print Network

.................................. 14 Counties and Cities ............................... 14 Water Districts .................................... 14 State Water Agencies ................................. 15 Board of Water Engineers ......................... 15 Water Rights... Commission ......................... 15 Water Development Board ......................... 15 Federal Water Agencies ............................... 18 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ...................... 18 Bureau of Reclamation...

McNeely, John G.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

1977-01-01

232

Kunming experiences water shortage  

SciTech Connect

This article examines a Chinese city's measures to plan the water supply and conserve water, and to ensure a regular supply of water to drink and use in production. The Kunming city government called an emergency mobilization meeting on water conservation. Kunming has suffered from a severe lack of rainfall over the past 2 years. In order to overcome the present water shortage, it was decided to publicize the importance of planning the water supply and water conservation; to set limits on the amount of water used and to crack down on large consumers of water; and to make further rational and scientific uses of water. The Kunming government has proposed saving 20% of the water now being consumed.

Sun Chaozhen

1983-07-17

233

2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

Dor Ben-Amotz

2010-08-13

234

Sustainability and Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate(VI) technology to meet the demand of water in this century.

Sharma, Virender A.

2009-07-01

235

Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

L. Glasser

2004-01-01

236

Water treatment method  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method for treating water removed from the ground to reduce the content of noxious sulfur-containing impurities therein before the water is supplied to an associated water system. It comprises: the steps of spraying the water to be treated in the upper portion of a closed standpipe which has an inlet for the water to be treated and an outlet through which water can flow to the associated water system, the inlet and the outlet of the standpipe being so positioned that air which becomes disassociated from water can collect in the upper portion of the standpipe, controlling the spraying of water in the upper portion of the closed standpipe to maintain a superatmospheric therein to pressurize the associated water system, entraining air with the water before it is sprayed in the standpipe. The last named step being carried out in a vessel in which the ground water is sprayed upwardly, maintaining the water level in the standpipe that is required to enable the flow of water therefrom to the associated water system, containing the ground water, before it is delivered to the associated water system, with a catalyst for the oxidation of sulfur and sulfur-containing moieties to sulfate anions, and controlling the time of contact between the ground water and the catalyst, the amount of air entrained with the water sprayed in the vessel and the amount of air entrained with the water sprayed in the standpipe so that entrained air separates from the water and forms an air pocket inside the standpipe and there is a substantially complete oxidation of sulfur and sulfur-containing moieties to sulfate anions.

Siebert, G.H.

1991-02-12

237

Salt, Water, and Athletes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

Smith, Nathan J.

238

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

soil conditions and on all crops. () January 13, 2010 8 / 14 #12;FIM vs. DIM source: A. NarayanamoorthyTD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 9: Water in Agriculture () January 13, 2010 1 / 14 #12;Water in Agriculture Historically: Biggest consumer of water, in developed

Sohoni, Milind

239

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 5: Aquifer () August 16 above and below the ground, which affect the water balance. surface features affect infiltration parameters related to water: Porosity, specific yield n, Sy : the maximum volume fraction of water

Sohoni, Milind

240

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 2: Water cycle, stocks and flows () July 28, 2013 1 / 30 #12;The basic movement of water source: USGS. () July 28, 2013 2 / 30 #12, humidity and air flow. Formation of liquid-water in the Atmosphere-Cloud-Formation Coming Down Rain

Sohoni, Milind

241

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 8: Wells () August 28, 2012 project, utilizing enhanced ground-water. Water lifted from storage, to accumulate overnight from aquifer. Water from shallow aquifer, of about 7-8m thickness. accounts for about 30% of irrigation Unique

Sohoni, Milind

242

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 7: Regional Groundwater than the unit situations that we saw. Surface water/Groundwater interactions. lakes and streams springs (seepage) Ambient water-table movements Seasonal changes Inteference with other water end-users. Inherent

Sohoni, Milind

243

Water Waves Roger Grimshaw  

E-print Network

Water Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves nonlinear waves. Throughout the theory is based on the traditional assumptions that water is inviscid

244

Lifting China's Water Spell.  

PubMed

China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tonnes of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

2014-10-01

245

Water treatment residuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solutions to an environmental problem often create other environmental problems. That surely is the case in the water supply field. By providing new or expanded water treatment systems to comply with the maximum contaminant levels and treatment mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act, water purveyors are generating large volumes of residuals that must be managed, ultimately disposed of, or

Billings

1994-01-01

246

Can Water Mean Health?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of UNICEF News explores the theme of connections between water and health in developing countries. The introductory article discusses prospects for improving health through water projects during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90). Subsequent articles focus on (1) effects of a piped water supply on…

Black, Maggie, Ed.

1983-01-01

247

Global Water Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much water on Earth is fresh water? How much of that fresh water is found in icecaps? Lakes? Rivers? This interactive resource uses bar graphs to illustrate the relative distribution of fresh and salt water on Earth. Adapted from Oxford University Press.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

248

EXPLANATION Water withdrawals,  

E-print Network

withdrawals Surface-water withdrawals Groundwater withdrawals 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 Haw aiiAlaskaOregon W,IN MILLIONGALLONSPERDAY WEST EAST Total, surface-water, and groundwater withdrawals, 2005. EstimatedUseofWaterintheUnitedStatesin2005 USGS Water-Science School -- http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/ Source: Kenny, J.F., Barber, N

249

Water and Something Else.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…

Hougendobler, Nancy

250

Water Exploration Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on page 3 of the PDF), learners investigate the way water moves and how we can control and direct water. At the Water Exploration Station, learners experiment with various tools like eye droppers, sponges, turkey basters, etc. to move and play with the water. Included in this lesson guide are challenge questions intended to direct the learning.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

251

Alabama Water Use, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

2009-01-01

252

The Amazing Water Trick  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using two baby food jars, food coloring, and an index card, you'll 'marry' the jars to see how hot water and cold water mix. Besides illuminating the cool fact that an index card can act as a lid (with no water gushing out), this activity also teaches about the differing densities of hot and cold water.

Murphy, Pat; Klages, Ellen; Shore, Linda

1998-01-01

253

Kunming experiences water shortage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines a Chinese city's measures to plan the water supply and conserve water, and to ensure a regular supply of water to drink and use in production. The Kunming city government called an emergency mobilization meeting on water conservation. Kunming has suffered from a severe lack of rainfall over the past 2 years. In order to overcome the

Sun Chaozhen

1983-01-01

254

Potable water supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

1975-01-01

255

Waves and Water Beetles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

Tucker, Vance A.

1971-01-01

256

Water Resources News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Resources division of the US Geological Service provides this water news resource, tracking current water-related events and recent publications from across the US. Recent news items include: flooding in Texas, the impacts of Hurricane Bonnie, the release of a USGS report on water use in the US, and stream-flow data from Puerto Rico, to name a few.

257

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is a detailed, labeled diagram of the water cycle. Included in the representation are the major concepts of evaporation, precipitation and ground infiltration, as well as more advanced ideas. Above and below the diagram are several paragraphs that provide an introduction to the water cycle, a quick summary of the parts of the water cycle and information about global water distribution.

258

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Arkansas Water Resources Center ATRAZINE DEGRADATION, SORPTION AND BIOCONCENTRATION IN WATER degradation, sorption, and bioconcentration in water- The results indicated that sediments with lower p SYSTEMS PREPARED BY: Duane C. Wolf And Ramon L. Jackson MSC-83B August 1982 ARKANSAS WATER RESOURCES

Soerens, Thomas

259

Domestic wash water reclamation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

260

Potable water taste enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.

1974-01-01

261

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By M.A. Nelson L.W. Cash G.K. Trost to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission M. A. Nelson, L. W. Cash, and G. K. Trost Arkansas Water Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

Soerens, Thomas

262

Irrigation Water Quality  

E-print Network

Irrigation water quality is determined by the total amounts of salts and the types of salts the water contains. In this publication you'll learn why well water can be salty, what problems salty water can cause, what tests should be done...

McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Stichler, Charles

2002-04-11

263

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Arkansas Water Resources Center NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS OF GROUND WATER BENTON COUNTY, ARKANSAS potential sources of contaminants, especially nitrate. A suJrvey of ground water nitrate conc4entrations of Arkansas Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 And Kenneth F. Steele, Principal Investigator Arkansas Water

Soerens, Thomas

264

Group 8 - Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

Mecham, Mrs.

2006-11-30

265

WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

266

New Folklore about Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes experiments designed to investigate the cooling rate of microwave-boiled water as compared to that of stove-boiled water. Concludes that within experimental limits, microwave-boiled water and stove-boiled water cool at the same rate. (JRH)

LeMaire, Peter; Waiveris, Charles

1995-01-01

267

Reflections on Water (and \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

In theories of word meaning and concepts, "water" has been taken as a key case ofa natural kind term, and water of a natural kind. I address several questions including:What should a theory of the meaning of the word "water" look like, given observationsabout use of the word? Is there a category of liquids that is water, independent of thenames

Barbara C. Malt

268

PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in other liquids also. Recent evidence of a close relation between thermodynamical properties and dynamical behaviour of water are also discussed. Gallo et al present the results of a computer simulation of water confined in a cylindrical pore of MCM-41 silica material. The mobile portion of the confined water shows a fragile to strong dynamic transition similar to the bulk. In the bound water, an anomalous diffusion connected to the residence time distribution is found. Franzese et al report calculations on lattice models adapted to describe general properties of water in contact with protein surfaces. The results of Monte Carlo and mean field calculations show the presence of two-dynamical crossovers. Corradini et al investigate the supercooled region of ionic aqueous solutions in order to study the effect of ions on the limit of mechanical stability, the lines of maximum density and the liquid-liquid critical point for different ionic concentrations. The paper by Vallauri et al deals with the dynamical behavior of water close to the liquid-liquid transition by considering the velocity correlation functions calculated in three supercooled states. Suffritti et al study water adsorbed in zeolites with a new empirical potential, structural and dynamical properties are studied in the supercooled region. The second group starts with a paper on the problem of solvation by Lynden-Bell. The author shows how the properties of water and, in particular, solvation properties are modified by changes in the site-site interaction potential of water. Henchman et al derive equations for different thermodynamical quantities like partial enthalpy and partial entropy for dilute solutions of noble gases. The third group starts with Buldyrev et al who study the swelling of bead-on-a-string polymers in Jagla water-like particles, finding similarities with respect to cold denaturation of protein in water. Pellenq et al consider water confined in pores of different materials with different size scales. Silicalite and tobermorite, a layered calcio-silicate model of cement and Vycor are anal

Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

2010-07-01

269

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Did you know that the water we use today is the same water found on Earth millions of years ago? The Earth constantly uses and recycles water in a process called the water cycle. In this lesson, learners explore the four phases of the water cycle. In the investigation Rain in a Jar, learners use hot water and ice to create condensation and a tiny cloud. In Making a Terrarium, learners create an ecosystem and water cycle by growing plants in a closed environment. Investigation spans several days.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

270

The Water Sourcebooks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Sourcebooks contain 324 activities for grades K-12 divided into four sections: K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12. Each section is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters. This environmental education program explains the water management cycle using a balanced approach, showing how it affects all aspects of the environment. All activities contain hands-on investigations, fact sheets, reference materials, and a glossary of terms. Activities are organized by objectives, materials needed, background information, advance preparation, procedures, and resources.

2007-12-12

271

Water Info For Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The City of Phoenix Web offers the Water Info For Kids page as part of its larger governmental Web site. Six topics are covered including What is water?, What is the Hydrologic (Water) Cycle?, Where does our water come from?, Who uses water?, How can we take care of water?, and Phoenix water and wastewater facts. Each page contains non-technical text and colorful graphics making it especially good for younger students. And, although a "next" link would make the pages flow better from one to the next, the site does a good job of presenting the material in a fun and challenging way.

272

Water policy sinkhole  

SciTech Connect

The pollution of both surface and ground waters and the withdrawal of ground water will present the US with a major water-quality and -supply problem unless changes are made in how we use water. If water is priced at market value instead of relying on federal subsidies, price signals could alter consumption patterns. Other changes that could help are removing restrictions on water transfers and allowing private ownership of waterways and appropriable rights to ground water. These steps, it is felt, would encourage responsible consumption and allocations. (DCK)

Anderson, T.L.

1983-10-01

273

Irrigation Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the USGS Water Science for Schools site, this resource defines irrigation water use and includes several tables and maps showing water use by various irrigation systems, by state, by crop, and by percentage of fresh water available. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much ground water and surface water is used for irrigation. Various irrigation systems are defined, described, and pictured, along with a discussion of their relative efficiencies. A Spanish translation is available.

2003-05-28

274

The African Water Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Len Abrams, the goal of the African Water Page is to "increase communication on the Continent of Africa between people working in water." Issues for discussion include "water policy, water resource management, water supply and environmental sanitation, water conservation and demand management." Visitors to this page can find information about recent policy initiatives in South Africa, water related documents concerning South Africa, Zimbabwe, the African continent, and some international topics. Also included are links to South and Southern African and International sites.

Abrams, Leonard J.

1995-01-01

275

The Water Filtration Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

276

Water Filtration and Purity of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces the concept of water purity. In this activity, students will test a sample of water collected from a local water supply and test its purity and evaluate its safety for consumption by looking for pollutants. Before starting, students should have a grasp on how to convert nanoscale measurements. This lab will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. Teacher Preparation Guides, Student Guides, Water Filtration Presentation, and Next Generation Manufacturing Standards for this lesson are included. 

2014-08-12

277

Water Vapor Imagery: Water Vapor Imagery Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced, interactive tutorial enables learners to discover practical uses for water vapor imagery from weather satellites. The module introduces the concept and function of the water vapor channel of satellite imagery, and teaches how to interpret and apply data obtained from the water vapor channel. At the end of the tutorial, links are provided to real world data collected by NASA satellites where learners can apply the skills they have acquired. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Water Vapor Imagery. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

278

Water conservation programs  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

1995-12-31

279

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation features a detailed six minute animated lesson about the major processes that move water between land, the ocean and the atmosphere, and convert water between states. This brief clip, (6:05-6:20 beginning with diagram of water cycle and ending with narration Âover and over againÂ), reinforces the idea that water continually moves between Earth's atmosphere and its land and water.

280

American Water Works Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Water Works Association (AWWA) describes its endeavors to improve drinking water quality and supply throughout the world. Visitors can find fact sheets on water pollutants, scientific and public articles, and information on conferences. The educational materials include scholarship opportunities, information about the Water and Wastewater Leadership Center, and a seminar schedule. Researchers can find out about the numerous AWWA's development of products and processes to improve public water quality.

2007-10-18

281

National Ground Water Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains a wealth of information for the groundwater professional and for students of hydrogeology. The site features educational materials, information about conferences, courses and workshops, and a bookstore. There is also a searchable database of abstracts from the journals Ground Water, Ground Water Monitoring Review, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, and the Water Well Journal. Members of the National Ground Water Association may access these articles directly. Publications, fact sheets and industry links are also available.

Association, National G.

282

Water Resource Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

283

Ground water and energy  

SciTech Connect

This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

Not Available

1980-11-01

284

Water Treatment Plant  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.

285

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

286

Organic substances in water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)

Edited by Greeson, Phillip E.

1981-01-01

287

Avoid water hammer  

SciTech Connect

Discusses where water hammer occurs, effects of water hammer, and conditions causing water hammer (hydraulic shock, thermal shock, differential shock). Points out that even mild water hammer can weaken and eventually destroy piping, gauges, floats, heat exchange equipment, etc. Suggests that greater understanding of water hammer should help introduce more preventive measures into system designs and installations, which will help provide maximum safety for personnel, lower maintenance cost and reduce system downtime.

Kremers, J.

1983-03-01

288

Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of  

E-print Network

Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of Recycled Water Arizona Hydrological.Eng. Global Water 22 September 2008 #12;Overview · The Finite Nature of Water · Water Availability and Population Growth · Types of Reuse · Water Efficiency of Reuse · Power Efficiency of Reuse #12;Water Scarcity

Scott, Christopher

289

WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

of Water Use; (2) Nonpoint Source Pollution; (3) Meeting Water Requirements; (4) Energy-Water Relationships development. (2) Water Pollution and Water Quality Control - Nonpoint Source Pollution Definition: Degradation of water quality from nonpoint source pollution. (3) Water Use Efficiency Definition: Minimize water use

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

290

Solvation in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is to determine the solvation structure in supercritical water composed with that in ambient water and in simple supercritical solvents. Molecular dynamics studies have been undertaken of systems that model ionic sodium and chloride, atomic argon, and molecular methanol in supercritical aqueous solutions using the simple point charge model of Berendsen for water. Because of the strong interactions between water and ions, ionic solutes are strongly attractive in supercritical water, forming large clusters of water molecules around each ion. Methanol is found to be a weakly-attractive solute in supercritical water. The cluster of excess water molecules surrounding a dissolved ion or polar molecule in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to the solvent clusters surrounding attractive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. Likewise, the deficit of water molecules surrounding a dissolved argon atom in supercritical aqueous solutions is comparable to that surrounding repulsive solutes in simple supercritical fluids. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule in supercritical water was found to be about one third the number in ambient water. The number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule surrounding a central particle in supercritical water was only mildly affected by the identify of the central particle--atom, molecule, or ion. These results should be helpful in developing a qualitative understanding of important processes that occur in supercritical water. 29 refs., 6 figs.

Cochran, H.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Cummings, P.T.; Karaborni, S. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1991-01-01

291

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will work with interactive internet resources to learn all about the water cycle. Fourth Grade Science Standard 1 Objective 2: Describe the water cycle. Locate examples of evaporation and condensation in the water cycle (e.g., water evaporates when heated and clouds or dew forms when vapor is cooled). Describe the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Identify locations that hold water as it passes through the water cycle (e.g., oceans, atmosphere, fresh surface water, snow, ice, and ground water). Construct a model or diagram to show how water continuously moves through the water cycle over time. Describe how the water cycle relates to the water supply in your community. Web Quest Links Introduction Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide Introduction Have you ever wondered how water gets from oceans, lakes, streams, or clouds into your glass? Check out the following links to learn more about it! TASK Start out by learning the concepts in this song from Bill Nye! Bill Nye the Science Guy- Water Cycle Jump Look ...

Lish, Ms.

2009-04-06

292

Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.  

PubMed

Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

Cabral, Joăo P S

2010-10-01

293

Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water  

PubMed Central

Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

Cabral, Joao P. S.

2010-01-01

294

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

295

Water, water everywhere, and its remarkable chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosystem II (PSII), the multisubunit pigment–protein complex localised in the thylakoid membranes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, uses light energy to drive a series of remarkable reactions leading to the oxidation of water. The products of this oxidation are dioxygen, which is released to the atmosphere, and reducing equivalents destined to reduce carbon dioxide to organic molecules. The water oxidation occurs

Jim Barber

2004-01-01

296

Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

Garrett, Carly Sporer

297

Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991  

SciTech Connect

Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

1991-12-31

298

World Water Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1997, the World Water Council had its first official forum in Marrakech, and since then they have continued their work on "critical water issues at all levels." Some of these issues include efficient water conservation, water use management, and other relevant matters. With its compelling visual images and design, the homepage contains sections that provide information on upcoming World Water Forums and some very helpful overviews of their work. One such general overview may be found in the "Water at a Glance" area, which provides information on the nature of freshwater resources around the globe. Persons involved in water policy and international affairs may wish to look over their online library, which includes their annual reports, synopses of materials covered in the Water Forum meetings, and papers such as "The Right to Water: From Concept To Implementation." It is also worth noting that many of the materials on the site are available in French and Spanish.

299

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOEpatents

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

1994-12-20

300

Water recovery in space.  

PubMed

In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802

Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C

1999-03-01

301

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOEpatents

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01

302

Automatic hot water recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat in the hot water lines of a water system is automatically recovered by providing a bridge conduit between the cold water lines and the hot water lines and by depressurizing the hot water lines relative to the cold water lines thereby to automatically direct higher pressure cold water into the hot water lines through the interconnection, which preferably is

Haws

1982-01-01

303

Water resources in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the limited data available, the components of the hydrologic cycle of which Nigeria's water resources form a part cannot be adequately quantified. However, some assessment of the water “reserves” of the surface and underground water sources indicate that there are large supplies that can be developed in Nigeria. The exploitation of Nigeria's water resources is in an early stage. Despite the progress that has been made in water supply development since the first waterworks in Nigeria was commissioned in Lagos in 1915, many Nigerians still have no access to a modern water supply. Water shortages exist periodically in almost every major town and are present in many rural areas of the country much of each year. New water laws are needed, as is the definition of the powers of the different water authorities, viz., the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, the River Basin Authorities, and the States' Water Boards. The goals of the water policy must be to make available enough good quality water for domestic uses and to exploit enough water for the use of rapidly growing industries and the year-round needs of agriculture, thereby lessening the adverse effect of the dry season.

Oteze, G. E.

1981-07-01

304

The Management of Water: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

305

Water Conflict Chronology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water is the limiting factor for terrestrial life on earth, and as human populations have grown and expanded through the centuries, access to clean water has become increasingly political. To chronicle this process, Dr. Peter Gleick of the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security has compiled this chronology of water conflicts. The resource describes water conflicts starting in 1503, including the date (year), parties involved, basis of conflict, violent conflict, description, and source(s). Water Conflicts are categorized in six ways: Control of Water Resources, Political Tool, Terrorism, Military Target, and Development Disputes. The Chronology is available in HTML or .pdf formats.

306

Properties of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environment Canada (mentioned in the January 21, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) provides the Properties of Water Webpage. Sections included at the page are the hydrologic cycle; rivers; lakes; snowfall; and measuring, storing, and controlling water, among others. The Quick Facts section contains interesting facts, like the following: raindrops resemble the shape of a hamburger bun, 70% of the human body is water, 75% of earth is covered in water, and most of our food is water (tomatoes 95%, spinach 91%, and beef 61%). This site provides detailed information about water and its properties.

2010-05-20

307

International Water Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A worldwide organization of water professionals, the International Water Association's (IWA) Web site illustrates its commitment "to help water professionals create innovative, pragmatic, and sustainable solutions to challenging global water needs." Visitors can discover IWA's many activities from conferences and forums to task forces. Researchers can discover the various IWS groups that specialize in topics including Source Management, Education, Health, Management Training, and Water Quality Management. Although many of the publications are restricted to members, educators and students can read reports from the Sustainability in Water Sector and abstracts from IWA journals.

2003-01-01

308

Water Resources Penn.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Resources Penn.: The Office of Water Management plans, directs and coordinates departmental programs associated with the management and protection of the CommonwealthĂÂs water resources; administers and oversees departmental programs involving surface and groundwater quantity and quality planning, and soil and water conservation; coordinates policies, procedures and regulations which influence public water supply withdrawals and quality, sewage facilities planning, point source municipal and industrial discharges, encroachments upon waterways and wetlands, dam safety, earth disturbance activities and control of storm water and nonpoint source pollution; and coordinates the planning, design and construction of flood protection and stream improvement projects.

2008-09-22

309

Water Resources of Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.

310

Water Illusions: Refraction & Magnification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners demonstrate how water can distort, refract and magnify light. In an investigation called Underwater Differences, learners do activities including the Broken Pencil, examining how a pencil half-in and half-out of water has its appearance affected by the water, and Stick it to the Bottom, examining how a sticker on a table appears different when seen through a jar of water. In an investigation called Bigger Through Water, learners make a water magnifying loop and use it as a lens to read the newspaper or a magazine. The student journal offers an additional Science @ Home activity about scattering the light from a flashlight.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

311

Water Science Reviews 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The third volume of Water Science Reviews addresses the dynamics and transport of water at the molecular and macroscopic level. The study of the hydrated proton, by C.I. Ratcliffe and D.E. Irish, is a masterly survey of a complex subject, in which the authors concentrate on the vast literature dealing with the theory of solution chemistry. H. Levine and L. Slade develop the concept of water as a platicizer of natural and synthetic polymers. A. Deri Tomos considers the cellular water relations, including water fluxes at the level of the single cell. Finally, W. Pusch examines differential flows of water and selected solutes across synthetic membranes.

Franks, Felix

1988-10-01

312

What's your water footprint?  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 21 What?s your water footprint? When it comes to your water use, do you tread lightly or are you an H2O Sasquatch? How much water do you think you consume every day? You might initially consider the length of your daily shower..., the time of day you run your sprinkler system, and how long the water runs while you brush your teeth. Conservation in such everyday tasks is important, but water experts have begun to use a more all-encompassing survey of water use by calculating...

Jordan, Leslie

2009-01-01

313

Urban water interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental understanding of aquatic interface processes in urban environments, advance understanding of current and future system behaviour, and promote an integrated urban water management.

Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

2014-06-01

314

Active thermochemical tables: water and water dimer.  

PubMed

A new partition function for water dimer in the temperature range 200-500 K was developed by exploiting the equations of state for real water vapor, liquid water, and ice, and demonstrated to be significantly more accurate than any proposed so far in the literature. The new partition function allows the Active Thermochemical Tables (ATcT) approach to be applied on the available experimental and theoretical data relating to water dimer thermochemistry, leading to accurate water dimer enthalpies of formation of -499.115 ± 0.052 kJ mol(-1) at 298.15 K and -491.075 ± 0.080 kJ mol(-1) at 0 K. With the current ATcT enthalpy of formation of the water monomer, -241.831 ± 0.026 kJ mol(-1) at 298.15 K (-238.928 kJ mol(-1) at 0 K), this leads to the dimer bond dissociation enthalpy at 298.15 K of 15.454 ± 0.074 kJ mol(-1) and a 0 K bond dissociation energy of 13.220 ± 0.096 kJ mol(-1) (1105 ± 8 cm(-1)), the latter being in perfect agreement with recent experimental and theoretical determinations. The new partition function of water dimer allows the extraction and tabulation of heat capacity, entropy, enthalpy increment, reduced Gibbs energy, enthalpy of formation, and Gibbs energy of formation. Newly developed tabulations of analogous thermochemical properties for gas-phase water monomer and for water in condensed phases are also given, allowing the computations of accurate equilibria between the dimer and monomer in the 200-500 K range of temperatures. PMID:23834334

Ruscic, Branko

2013-11-21

315

33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

2011-07-01

316

33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

2013-07-01

317

33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

2012-07-01

318

33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

2014-07-01

319

Drinking Water Problems: Perchlorate  

E-print Network

Perchlorate is a potential contaminate of well water that can have harmful effects on human health. Methods of removing perchlorate from water are described and illustrated. There is information to help well owners select and maintain treatment...

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2005-11-18

320

Water and Energy Interactions  

E-print Network

capacitive deionization (50% of brackish water treatment energy) and (b) advanced RO or membranecapacitive deionization with high- surface-area electrodes to treat brackish water; and (c) employing membrane

McMahon, James E.

2013-01-01

321

Water penetration study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nine film-filter combinations have been tested for effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail when exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. An experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and an infrared film with selected filters were tested. Results have been tabulated to show the relative capability of each film-filter combination for: (1) image contrast in shallow water (0 to 5 feet); (2) image contrast at medium depth (5 to 10 feet); (3) image contrast in deep water (10 feet plus); (4) water penetration; maximum depth where detail was discriminated; (5) image color (the spectral range of the image); (6) vegetation visible above a water background; (7) specular reflections visible from the water surface; and (8) visual compatibility; ease of discriminating image detail. Recommendations for future recording over water bodies are included.

Lockwood, H. E.

1973-01-01

322

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

, knowledge, attitudes, and opinions about water quality. A water quality survey was developed and conducted treatment management staff as well as a State Representative and the County Judge, and interested local

Soerens, Thomas

323

development water demand  

E-print Network

management goals growth + development estimated water demand climate irrigation schedule UAE soil water content measuring in soil balanced? changed? measuring at plant correction factor yes no yes no 0

Lieth, J. Heinrich

324

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Building Numerical Models () August of surface flow of water and infiltration which may include time to flow, movement of solids etc. () August

Sohoni, Milind

325

A Simple Water Channel  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

White, A. S.

1976-01-01

326

Biofiltration of Water,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The limited feasibility study evaluated a compact slow sand filter concept and its ability to treat water having typical small water system characteristics. Turbidity, total coliform, standard plate count, dissolved oxygen and Giardia cyst spike concentra...

G. R. Pyper

1985-01-01

327

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

Specialist G. Keith Trost, Research Associate Jennifer Purtle, Research Assistant Arkansas Water Resource G. Keith Trost, Research Associate Jennifer Purtle, Research Assistant Arkansas Water Resources and analyzed every two weeks. This report details the results f

Soerens, Thomas

328

Washington's waters from  

E-print Network

into our lakes, rivers and marine waters. Our waters and salmon as well as other fish and wildlife species and how fast it gets there, but also what it meets along the way--parking lots, roads, roofs, farms

Collins, Gary S.

329

MINE DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER  

E-print Network

Mine Engineering Plan Surface Water Components Site Drainage Mine Site Dewatering (If covered Dewatering Open Pit Lake Drain site / Water Disposal Mine Site Runoff Dikes Seepage Underground Mine Rivers

Boisvert, Jeff

330

Walking on water  

E-print Network

The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

Bush, John W. M.

331

Army Water Supply Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper has two goals: (1) describe current Army efforts to improve the capability and sustainability of its reverse osmosis (RO) based water purification equipment and (2) discuss the ongoing efforts being made under the Water Purification Technology ...

B. Shalewitz, J. S. Dusenbury

2003-01-01

332

National Water Trails System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some might wonder: What exactly is the National Water Trails System (NWTS)? That's a good question; NWTS describes the system as "a distinctive national network of exemplary water trails that are cooperatively supported and sustained." This website provides information about the NWTS for policy makers, water enthusiasts, and other interested parties. Casual visitors will want to start with the Explore a National Water Trail area. Here they can use an interactive map to locate water trails, and go deeper into each riverine passage with the Stories and Images section. Moving on, policy makers and park administrators will want to peruse the Develop and Manage a National Water Trail area. This section contains some basic answers to queries such s "What Are The Benefits of National Water Trail Designation?" and "How Do I Apply For National Water Trail Designation?"

333

Water in the Mantle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This schematic shows a cross-section of the planet and how water can migrate through the deep interior of the Earth. Blue arrows indicate a movement of water downward, yellow arrows indicated movement towards the surface.

Ohtani, E.; First published in Elements[2005], reproduced by COMPRES Image Library

334

Healthy Water, Healthy People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

Etgen, John

2002-01-01

335

Water Science School  

MedlinePLUS

... USGS Water Resources of the United States provides water information that benefits the Nation's citizens. Publications, data, maps, and State information are available. Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. ...

336

Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection  

MedlinePLUS

... their drinking water. Several methods can be used. Heat Most germs die quickly at high temperatures. Water ... Survival Guide Learn About Destination See a Doctor Pre-Travel Appointment Your Health Status How Diseases Spread ...

337

A gathering of water  

E-print Network

The act of immersion is a powerful catalyst for the affirmation or transformation of identity. How we place ourselves in water expresses cultural valuations of our bodies, water, and social relations, as well as categories ...

Horowitz, Naomi Leah, 1970-

2005-01-01

338

Electrophoretic Clarification of Water  

E-print Network

There is an ever growing need for new and superior water treatment methods which will remove the alarming growth and variety of pollutants present in our waters. Suspended particulate matter such as clay, algae, and bacteria are troublesome...

Hiler, E. A.; Lyle, W. M.

339

Attracting Water Drops  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

340

Martian Surface Water Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a comprehensive study of the water-related 3µm absorption using OMEGA data. We quantify the surface water reservoir using laboratory studies and reveal the distribution of the amorphous hydrated component measured by Curiosity.

Audouard, J.; Poulet, F.; Vincendon, M.; Milliken, R. E.; Jouglet, D.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.; Langevin, Y.

2014-07-01

341

Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

342

Water Saving for Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a permanent cooperation among Public Bodies and Institutions, with the creation of a transferable model of best practices. WaS4D will carry out initiatives and advisory services aimed to encourage a behavior change, influencing citizens' demand and support consumers who wish to take action to reduce drinking water use: for the civil use, from literature, it's possible to reduce drinkable water consumption up to 50% using simple and economic tools, with a large environmental positive impact. WaS4D mainly focuses on the needs to define a participatory approach to enhance water-saving culture at urban level, encouraging a shift from supply-driven policies to management policies and from a sectorial to an integrated approach. The innovative character of the project is referred to the integrated approach as well as to the creation of new web services & tools.

Zacharias, Ierotheos

2013-04-01

343

A Comparison of Water Quality Indices for Coastal Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article discusses and compares five different water quality indices, viz arithmetic water quality index, multiplicative water quality index, unweighted arithmetic water quality index, unweighted multiplicative water quality index, and Harkin's water quality index, which were considered for characterizing the coastal water quality at the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Bombay, India. Dissolved oxygen, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), temperature,

A. K. Gupta; S. K. Gupta; Rashmi S. Patil

2003-01-01

344

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson was developed to give participants an understanding of Earth's water cycle. In this one-hour long activity, students participate in a webquest to learn about the water cycle, and then build a mini-model of the water cycle to observe how water moves through Earth's four systems. The activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

345

Intermediate water recovery system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (editor)

1973-01-01

346

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students from around the globe will team up to test fresh water. With this collaborative project, students will compare the water quality of their local river, stream, lake or pond with other fresh water sources around the world. The focus of the project is to assess the quality of water based on physical characteristics and chemical substances, and to look for relationships and trends among the data collected by all project participants.

2009-01-01

347

THE WATER CYCLE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Understand the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Water Cycle Diagram DATES: You can begin this activity on October 16. You should complete it by October 20. OBJECTIVE: You have been learning about the water cycle in class. This activity gives you the chance to review some important vocabulary: evaporation condensation precipitation collection You will watch a short video and complete a water ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-02-18

348

The World's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplemental to The World's Water book by Peter Gleick, this site offers data on the world's freshwater resources and uses. Tables and maps provide information on quantity and quality issues including data on access to safe drinking water; waterborne disease outbreaks; desalination capacity; as well as hydroelectric capacity and production. There is also a unique chronology documenting the historical connections between human conflict and water. Additionally there is an expansive list of links to water-relevant agencies and organizations.

2001-08-13

349

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

350

Ground water: a review.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

Bredehoeft, J.D.

1983-01-01

351

Drinking Water Bloopers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These six reminders to younger students are about bad practices that waste or pollute water. These include waiting to fix a leak, using water from the hot water tap when cooking, carelessly discarding motor oil, tossing toxic materials in the trash, watering the lawn in the middle of the day, and using the garbage disposal too much. There is also a link that leads to information about composting.

352

Automatic hot water recovery system  

SciTech Connect

Heat in the hot water lines of a water system is automatically recovered by providing a bridge conduit between the cold water lines and the hot water lines and by depressurizing the hot water lines relative to the cold water lines thereby to automatically direct higher pressure cold water into the hot water lines through the interconnection, which preferably is located near the hot water outlet. The higher pressure cold water forces the hot water back into the storage tank and out of the hot water lines until pressure is equalized. Loss of unused heat trapped in the hot water lines is minimized thereby saving energy.

Haws, S.K.

1982-03-30

353

Up Goes the Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is very important to plants. Plants need water to produce food and grow. Plants make their own food through a complex, sunlight-powered process called photosynthesis. Simply put, in photosynthesis, water absorbed by a plant's roots and carbon dioxide taken from the air by a plant's leaves combine to make the plant's food. This article…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

354

All About Water!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the differences between types of water (surface and ground), as well as the differences between streams, rivers and lakes. Then, they learn about dissolved organic matter (DOM), and the role it plays in identifying drinking water sources. Finally, students are introduced to conventional drinking water treatment processes.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

355

International Water Management  

E-print Network

International Water Management I n s t i t u t e GUIDANCE MANUAL MANAGEMENT OF IMPACTS Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka The WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia 2007 #12;ii; Sophie Nguyen Khoa is jointly appointed by the WorldFish Center and the International Water Management

Lorenzen, Kai

356

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 10: Minor Structures for Ground and Surface Water () March 23, 2010 1 / 31 #12;Classification by Purpose We may classify the velocity of water-flow (ii) increasing the infiltration coefficient (iii) explicit groundwater recharge

Sohoni, Milind

357

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 6: Mathematics, z). velocity vx (x, y, z, t) : in the x-direction. vx = Kx h/x saturated/water- table. Continuity Equation What is vx x + vy y + vz z ? It is the rate of accumulation of water at the point (x, y

Sohoni, Milind

358

BIG SCIENCE CLEAN WATER  

E-print Network

BIG SCIENCE BUGS THAT CLEAN WATER NEW-LOOK ARCHAEOLOGY READING FILMS AND TELEVISON HOW TO BUILD THE UNIVERSITY OF AUCKLAND NEW ZEALAND #12;#12;1AUTUMN 2004 CONTENTS 4 BUGS CLEAN UP WATER Microbiologist Sue Turner is unlocking the power of bacteria to treat waste water. 6 EYES FRONT The new Professor

Auckland, University of

359

Addressing Water Contamination  

E-print Network

Addressing Water Contamination without Using Chemicals For more information contact WIPO at: World challenge Farmers and gardeners apply pesticides to their crops. Contaminated waters are released when-off contaminates local water supplies and pollutes the environment. As a consequence a range of pesticides may

Loewith, Robbie

360

The cost of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  For all too many developing countries, it is a case of “Water, water everywhere and not a drop to drink”. In many of the Least\\u000a Developed Countries, safe drinking water and excreta disposal facilities are sadly inadequate.

Uma Ram Nath

1983-01-01

361

Water & Energy Conservation Plan  

E-print Network

Water & Energy Conservation Plan View of PGI construction and retention pond, Sitapura Industrial that India and the college both face. Within, plans are made for the conservation of water and energy of water and energy consumption on PGC's campuses and makes recommendations for increased conservation

Illinois at Chicago, University of

362

Outdoor Water Conservation  

E-print Network

L-438 Outdoor Water Conservation The City of OKLAHOMA CITY UTILITIES DEPARTMENT Oklahoma.JustinQ.Moss 1 #12;2 SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING A WATER CONSERVING LANDSCAPE 1. GOOD LANDSCAPE PLANNING University Water Saving Design Ideas for Oklahoma Landscapes #12;About this guide: The

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

363

WATER SAFETY RESOURCE GUIDE  

E-print Network

never consume alcoholic beverages or do drugs when partaking in water-based recreational activitiesii WATER SAFETY RESOURCE GUIDE #12;1 "Captain Alcohol" TOPIC/SUBJECT: Alcohol and water safety simulated effects of drinking too much alcohol. You could also select a second volunteer who will remain

US Army Corps of Engineers

364

Seminar 4 Water shader  

E-print Network

Seminar 4 Water shader EDA221 Introduc8on to Computer, M. "Effec%ve Water Simula%on from Physical Models" Excerpt from GPU Gems book · Note: uses nota8on (B, T, N) (t, b, n) #12;Today · Water shader

365

Water Reuse Reconsidered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

366

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

, Research Specialist Keith Trost, Research Associate And Jennifer Purtle, Research Assistant Arkansas Water, Research Associate and Jennifer Purtle, Research Assistant Arkansas Water Resources Center Water Quality the trigger level. Grab samples were taken every two weeks. The data collected at this site was used

Soerens, Thomas

367

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

, Research Specialist G. Keith Trost, Research Associate Jennifer Purtle, Research Assistant Arkansas Water Nelson, Wade Cash, Keith Trost and Jennifer Purtle Arkansas Water Resources Center Water Quality Lab. There will be grab samples collected every two weeks at the Portland as well as one per storm event, which

Soerens, Thomas

368

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration introduces the concept of water phases and cycling to younger students through observation, drawing, and writing. They will be able to explain how the Earth's water supply is recycled, form a hypothesis as to how/why the water cycle works, and use writing and drawing to explain how the cycle works.

1998-01-01

369

STORM WATER Residential  

E-print Network

STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE UCSC Residential Car Washing http THAT MAY CAUSE ENVIRONMENTAL HARM TO THE STORM WATER QUALITY HOTLINE: (831) 459-2553. LIKE US ON FACEBOOK AT UCSC STORM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM! DID YOU KNOW? PRACTICAL SOLUTIONS > USE A COMMERCIAL CAR WASH

California at Santa Cruz, University of

370

Energy-Water Nexus  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

Horak, W.

2010-07-26

371

Follow the Water.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short film includes interviews with water researchers and presents basic concepts of hydrologic cycle. Water has many roles in the landscape; sculptor, solvent for minerals, a vector of transport, creates habitats. By following water through the landscape we can see connections between life and the physical environment.

Kirschtel, David

2009-12-07

372

AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

373

"Boyle-ing" Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore Boyle's Law and discover that water will boil at room temperature if its pressure is lowered. Learners conduct an experiment using a plastic syringe and water and then have the option to repeat the experiment with carbonated water and compare the results.

Doherty, Paul

1999-01-01

374

USGS Water Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS Water Management: The USGS provides maps, reports, and information to help others meet their needs to manage, develop, and protect America's water, energy, mineral, and land resources. Some of the seventeen topics included here are flood forecasting, reservoir management, water allocation and bioremediation.

2008-09-23

375

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

, SOYBEANS,AND COTTON FOR ARKANSAS BY AWRPA 20 IV-B. IRRIGATED CROPWATERREQUIREMENTSFOR ARKANSAS BY AWRPA 22Arkansas Water Resources Center PROJECTED WATER REQUIREMENTS AND SURFACE WATER AVAILABILITY FOR ARKANSAS Robert N. Shulstad, Assistant Agricultural Economist, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station

Soerens, Thomas

376

Enceladus' Water Vapour Plumes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.

Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.

2006-01-01

377

Water Conservation in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

1993-01-01

378

EPANET WATER QUALITY MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...

379

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

380

FINDING WATER THROUGH RAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation introduces several conservation alternatives in rainwater and stormwater management. These concepts include greenway acquisition, wetlands, cisterns, pervious concrete, earthworks, native plants and green roofs. By implementing these practices Atlanta could use rainwater more efficiently. This paper examines water use in the Metro North GA Water Planning District, which encompasses 14 counties. This paper 1) compares daily water use

Steve Williams

2009-01-01

381

Water Quality Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Quality Information Center's database of "Online Documents Covering Water and Agriculture" has an improved interface and more titles. You can now access more than 1,700 documents. The topics include things such as, irrigation, social and legal issues, regional information, water availability and quality.

2008-10-08

382

Water Quality Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

2004-01-01

383

Indian Reservation Water Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indian tribes have uncertain claims to sizable water rights in the western states. State and federal officials are seeking to convert these rights to fixed entitlements in order to make clear to other users the amount of water legally available in various water systems. Two important questions are whether the tribes can find ways to put their rights to use

Richard B. Collins

1986-01-01

384

Water and Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This expansive site provides information about water and its relation to conflict throughout the world. There are numerous articles about and links to information on water laws, disputes, and issues.The site also lists various water-related meetings and conferences being held around the world.

1996-01-01

385

Waters’ or ‘Water’? — master narratives in water history and their implications for contemporary water policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is sometimes suggested that ‘water’ was regarded as an element prior to the discovery of its compound nature in the 18th century, most premodern understandings of water emphasized the diverse characteristics of many waters. Such views were developed and sustained within several distinct contexts: Aristotelian natural philosophy, classical natural history, folklore and religion, and the promotion of mineral

Christopher Hamlin

2000-01-01

386

Discover the Water Cycle!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tour of the water cycle allows students to follow a water molecule from a home's plumbing system as it follows different routes through the hydrologic cycle. Students learn about how water is used, treated, and returned to the natural environment where it can cycle through liquid, solid, and gas phases.

387

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

cancer, of arsenic (As) in drinking water, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPAArkansas Water Resources Center Submitted to the U.S. Geological Survey ANNUAL TECHNICAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2005 For the Period 03/01/05-02/28/06 Publication No. MSC-102.2005 Arkansas Water Resources

Soerens, Thomas

388

Arkansas Water Resources Center  

E-print Network

as a primary drinking water source and the Alluvial Aquifer is used for irrigation purposes. ChlorideArkansas Water Resources Center Submitted to the U.S. Geologcial Survey ANNUAL TECHNICAL REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2000 For The Period 03/01/00 ­ 02/28/01 Publication No. MSC-280.2000 Arkansas Water Resources

Soerens, Thomas

389

Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion  

E-print Network

. This type of corrosion is not necessarily caused by water chemistry, but by exposure to soil or otherLife Extension Service Soil, Water and Forage Testing Laboratory, test irrigation and/or livestock water measure pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, alkalinity, and total hardness. The LSI

390

Water treatment method  

DOEpatents

A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

1991-04-30

391

Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less

Martin Chaplin

2007-01-01

392

Water purification in Borexino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water Purification is often an important methodological tool in low radioactivity experiments. A variety of techniques have been exploited in the frame of the Borexino experiment to the goal of using water as a high purity shielding and as a reagent for cleaning and purification processes. This paper describes the water purification strategies and the purification results obtained in Borexino.

Giammarchi, Marco

2014-06-01

393

Clean Water Reference Book.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: What's At Stake in Clean Water Act Reauthorization; Side-by-Side Legislative Analysis; President Clinton's Clean Water Initiative (PB94-154846); President Clinton's Clean Water Initiative: Analysis of Benefits and Costs (PB94-154119); T...

1994-01-01

394

Water Resource Adaptation Program  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

395

International Water Facility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article proposes a global initiative to address water shortages because: about 1/3 of world's population does not have enough drinking water, almost half of world's land is without water, converting arid land to fertile land can reduce global warming, and better technology, such as desalination, would give us greater access to freshwater.

Mohamed Kassas (University of Cairo;)

2001-02-01

396

Saving Water Saves Energy  

SciTech Connect

Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.

McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

2006-06-15

397

PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...

398

Water: Clearly Unique!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 4 of the PDF, learners conduct some quick and easy tests to determine the differences between water and other liquids that look very similar to water. Learners compare how water, rubbing alcohol, and mineral oil repel, absorb, and evaporate.

Society, American C.

2011-01-01

399

California's Water Energy Relationship  

E-print Network

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION California's Water ­ Energy Relationship Prepared in Support The California's Water-Energy Relationship report is the product of contributions by many California Energy, Lorraine White and Zhiqin Zhang. Staff would also like to thank the members of the Water-Energy Working

400

Developing Our Water Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

Volker, Adriaan

1977-01-01

401

Water Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)

Hindin, Ervin

1975-01-01

402

Water access, water scarcity, and climate change.  

PubMed

This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver. PMID:20361328

Mukheibir, Pierre

2010-05-01

403

3. Water Resources and Water Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of all of the elements of the Texas economy, society, and environment considered in this book, water is most closely coupled with climate. It is also the quintessential limiting factor for human development of the state. Simply put, \\

George H. Ward

404

Properties of water Polar molecule  

E-print Network

bonds. · These strong bonds determine almost every physical property of water and many of its chemical1 Water · Properties of water ­ Polar molecule · Hydrogen bonds with other water molecules · This is the foundation for all the properties of water Water · Water is the solvent, the medium and the participant

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

405

Water Words Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled in 1997 by the Nevada Division of Water Planning, this online dictionary of "Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms" is still relevant. Words are organized in alphabetical order and may be browsed by first letter. In addition, the resource offers multiple Appendices (some are Nevada-specific), a list of Abbreviations and Acronyms, a Metric Conversion Table and Flow Equivalents, Conversion Factors for Hydraulic Units of Measure, and Dictionary References. From A-horizon to Zooplankton, this will be a useful resource for the educator, student, or novice water researcher.

406

Universities Water Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Universities Water Information Network (UWIN), located at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois, "disseminates information of interest to the water resources community and all concerned with our water resources." Although much of the site is accessed by paid subscription only, several resources are offered free to anyone. A database of water related consulting firms contains contact information, including name, acronym, postal address, phone, fax, email, and contact person. Another helpful resource, the organizations database, lists water resource agencies, organizations, and institutions in the US, Caribbean, and Central America. Other items of interest include job listings, press releases, and more.

2001-01-01

407

Water Quality Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

1979-01-01

408

Shallow Water Waves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the fourth module in our series on open water waves. As deep-water waves approach the coastline, they encounter shallower water and begin to interact with the sea floor while evolving into shallow water waves. This module uses an interactive wave calculator to look at a variety of shallow-water wave behaviors, including shoaling, refraction, reflection, breaking, attenuation, and coastal run-up and set-up. All are important considerations when forecasting for small craft and other recreational interests in the near-shore environment.

Spangler, Tim

2006-08-01

409

Water: The Strangest Liquid  

SciTech Connect

Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.

Nilsson, Anders

2009-02-24

410

Ocean Water: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In regions throughout the world oceans, water moves vertically to or down away from the surface and is set in motion by atmospheric winds, salinity and temperature differences. Cold water is much denser than warm and seawater has a higher density that fresh water and will sink below the less dense layer of water. Furthermore, vertical mixing powered by atmospheric winds can affect stratification and the rate of growth of the surface boundary layer. This lab activity is a simulation of the processes that create density stratification in ocean environments. It exposes students to concepts of temperature, salinity and wind and the role each plays in the development of water stratification.

Robinson, Judy

411

Drinking water and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

Morris, R D

1995-01-01

412

Water, Hydration and Health  

PubMed Central

This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222

Popkin, Barry M.; D'Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.

2010-01-01

413

Water Homeostasis: Evolutionary Medicine  

PubMed Central

As a major component of homeostasis, all organisms regulate the water composition of various compartments. Through the selective use of barrier membranes and surface glycoproteins, as well as aquaporin water channels, organisms ranging from Archaebacteria to humans can vary water permeabilities across their cell membranes by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. In barrier epithelia the outer, or exofacial, leaflet acts as the main resistor to water flow; this leaflet restricts water flow by minimizing the surface area of lipid molecules which is not covered by phosphate headgroups and by packing hydrocarbon chains at maximal density. Cells may enhance the barrier by expressing glycoproteins that augment the “thickness” of unstirred layers at their surfaces, reducing osmotic gradients at the lipid bilayer surface. Aquaporins markedly and highly selectively accelerate water flux and are “switched on” either by deployment into membranes or gating. This review summarizes these mechanisms in many species, and indicates potential roles for manipulating water permeabilities in treating disease. PMID:23303973

Zeidel, Mark L.

2012-01-01

414

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

DOE Data Explorer

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Jenna N. Schroeder

415

Microscopy using water droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water droplets are an attractive medium to realize visible-frequency optical elements. The smoothness of a droplet surface mitigates losses due to light scattering, the shape of a water droplet is reconfigurable by either applying pressure or a potential, water is nearly transparent over the visible frequency range, and water is highly abundant. Here, we explore a simple methodology to dispense and shape water droplets for application as the magnifying element in a microscope using either reflection-mode or transmission-mode illumination. A water droplet is created at the end of a syringe and then coated with a thin layer of silicone oil to mitigate evaporation. By applying mechanical pressure to the water droplet using a metal tip, the shape of the droplet is tuned to yield focusing properties amenable for microscopy. Images captured using the microscope demonstrate micron-scale resolution, variable magnification, and imaging quality comparable to that obtained by a conventional, laboratory-grade microscope.

Chowdhury, Faqrul A.; Chau, Kenneth J.

2012-03-01

416

Dying for water.  

PubMed

In Danchira village in Ghana for the last 5 years, women and children rise before dawn every day to fetch water from a tributary or the River Densu, which is 5 miles from the village. Diminished rainfall has dried the village's 3 ponds and bore-hole where the women and children used to fetch water. To exacerbate the water problem, the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation no longer comes to fill the huge water tank it brought to Danchira when water scarcity first occurred. The villagers could not afford to pay for the water. A 55-year-old mother of 5, Dede Aryehteye, takes her morning bath at the river. When she has dirty laundry, she cleans it in the river. She returns to the village around 8 am. She uses the next hour to filter the dark water 2 times with a device provided free of charge by the national Guinea Worm Eradication Programme to keep the larvae out of the water. Next she sort the water for 3 uses: drinking, household use, and evening bath. Dede then does other domestic chores. She would rather go to her cassava farm in the early morning when it is cool but has to fetch water instead. When she is not too tired and after finishing domestic chores, she goes to the farm. Water-fetching also exhausts the children and gets them to school rather late. Children make up the majority of the 500 people living in Danchira. Water scarcity forced most of the young villagers to flee to the cities. For example, Dede's 4 older children now live in Accra. The water scarcity keeps the farmers from growing maize, cassava, and vegetables. PMID:12287019

Yeboah-afari, A

1993-01-01

417

Nebraska Water Conference Council's Annual Water and Natural Resources Tour  

E-print Network

Districts Nebraska Water Conference Council Nebraska Public Power District School of Natural Resources Buettner Central Nebraska Public Power & Irrigation District Michael Jess Water Center, UniversityNebraska Water Conference Council's Annual Water and Natural Resources Tour of The Middle Missouri

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

418

Continuous Commissioning of a Central Chilled Water & Hot Water System  

E-print Network

A central chilled water / hot water system provides cooling / heating energy from central utility plants to multiple customers (buildings) through campus distribution loops. To effectively transport the chilled water and hot water to the buildings...

Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Batten, T.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01

419

Virtual water: Virtuous impact? The unsteady state of virtual water  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual\\u000a water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes\\u000a discussions on water scarcity, ecological sustainability, food security and consumption. Presently the concept is creating\\u000a much noise in the water and food

Dik Roth; Jeroen Warner

2008-01-01

420

Perceptions of water use  

PubMed Central

In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608

Attari, Shahzeen Z.

2014-01-01

421

Perceptions of water use.  

PubMed

In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608

Attari, Shahzeen Z

2014-04-01

422

Solar water disinfection  

SciTech Connect

Non-potable drinking water is a major problem for much of the world`s population. It has been estimated that from 15 to 20 million children under the age of 5 die from diarrheal conditions brought on by infected drinking water every year. This is equivalent to a fully-loaded DC-10 crashing every ten minutes of every day, 365 days a year. Heat is one of the most effective methods of disinfecting drinking water. Using conventional means of heating water (heating on an open-flamed stove) results in an extremely energy-intensive process. The main obstacle is that for areas of the world where potable water is a problem, fuel supplies are either too expensive, not available, or the source of devastating environmental problems (deforestation). The apparatus described is a solar-powered water disinfection device that can overcome most if not all of the barriers that presently limit technological solutions to drinking water problems. It uses a parabolic trough solar concentrator with a receiver tube that is also a counterflow heat exchanger. The system is totally self-contained utilizing a photovoltaic-powered water pump, and a standard automotive thermostat for water flow control. The system is designed for simplicity, reliability and the incorporation of technology readily accessible in most areas of the world. Experiments at the Florida Solar Energy Center have demonstrated up to 2,500 liters of safe drinking water per day with 28 square meters of solar concentrator.

Anderson, R. [Universal Recycled Water Systems, Orlando, FL (United States); Collier, R. [Enerscope, Inc., Merritt Island, FL (United States)

1996-11-01

423

The politics of water.  

PubMed

Water scarcity in some regions is a leading source of economic and political instability. Upstream countries have a clear advantage over downstream countries. Almost 40% of the world's population relies on river systems used by at least 2 countries. Water conflicts are most evident in the Middle East where population growth rates are among the world's highest and agricultural productivity depends almost exclusively on irrigation. Water scarcity is most critical in the Jordan River basin which Israel, Jordan, the occupied West Bank, and part of Syria share. Israel exceeds its renewable water supply by 15%. Even though Jordanians use less than 50% of the water/capita Israel uses, its population grows 3.4%/year of Israel's water supply is the Yarqon-Taninim aquifer whose recharge area is on the West Bank. Israel draws water from this aquifer for its own use, but does not let West Bank Arabs draw from it. Another water supply lies in the Golan Heights with Israel seized from Syria. Its other source is an overpumped coastal aquifer. 9 nations claim the Nile with Egypt being the last country to receive its waters. Egypt has very few of its own water sources plus is has rapid population growth. Turkey plans on constructing 22 dams, 19 hydropower stations, and 25 irrigation systems on the Euphrates river, resulting in a 35% reduction in water flow to Syria in normal years and even more in dry years. This project would also pollute the river with irrigation runoff. International cooperation is needed to address wait crisis. Israel could share its drip irrigation technology with others, such as it has done with the Islamic Central Asian republics. Ethiopia could store Nile water in its highlands which have a lower evaporation rate than that at Egypt's Aswan Dam, resulting in more available water. Perhaps the mutual gains possible from cooperation will unite long standing enemies toward peace. PMID:12286578

Postel, S

1993-01-01

424

Water Management at UBC Okanagan Part 2: Water Features  

E-print Network

Water Management at UBC Okanagan Part 2: Water Features UBC Okanagan 2007 Angele Clarke A SEEDS and Objectives 2 Methods 3 The Symbolic and Cultural Values of Water 3 Landscape Aesthetics Relationship to Water 5 UBC-Okanagan Campus Landscape and Water Features 8 Water Features and the Built Environment Campus

425

Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water

S. P. Albuquerque; T. C. Piechota

2003-01-01

426

Simulating the Effects of Water Reuse on Alleviating Water Shortage  

Microsoft Academic Search

How to evaluate the impacts of water reuse on alleviating water shortage is increasingly identified as one of the main challenging problems. WEAP can examine and quantify the benefits of water reuse and other water management. The effects of water reuse were simulated by defining scenario for changes in water reuse rate and maximum daily processing capacity of treatment plant

Hao Lu; Gao Jingmin; Wang Jing-ai

2010-01-01

427

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;' Our Mission The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse aims to advance the science and technology of sustainable water management through fundamental and applied research. Our Vision To be Australia's leading research centre for water reuse

Li, Jiuyong "John"

428

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse  

E-print Network

SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse #12;2 The SA Water Centre for Water Management and Reuse was established in 2004 as a joint venture between the South Australian Water Corporation and the University of South Australia (UniSA), adding significant expertise to the water research capability in South

Li, Jiuyong "John"

429

Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues  

E-print Network

water pipes!! #12; It is demonstrated that hydraulic transients in water mains have high potential#12; Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues Life Cycle Assessment for Different Piping Materials Water Demand Analysis due to Water Meter Installation

Su, Xiao

430

What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

431

Water quality beneath urban runoff water management basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical impact of urban runoff water on water quality beneath five retention\\/recharge basins was investigated as part of the US EPA's Nationwide Urban Runoff Program in Fresno, California. Soil water percolating through alluvium soils and the ground water at the top of the water table were sampled with ceramic\\/Teflon vacuum water extractors at depths up to 26 m during

Harry I. Nightingale

1987-01-01

432

INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

433

INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

434

Sustaining Waters: From Hydrology to Drinking Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach is about our human and environmental qualities with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. Watershed management can be an effective means for crisis intervention and pollution control. This project is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through university curriculam, for professional development in technical and field assistance, and for community awareness in the trade-offs and consequences of resource decisions that affect hydrologic systems. This community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is developed that specifically assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interations between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. Disastrous conditions worldwide have triggered reactions in crisis relief rather than crisis prevention. Through a unified management approach to the preservation of water quality, the flows of water that connect all water users can serve as a basis for the maintenance and protection of our valuable watersheds.

Toch, S.

2003-04-01

435

Water Resources Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides access to a large selection of real-time and archived data on stream flow and water quality for surface and groundwater. Links are provided to the National Water Information System Web Interface (NWISWeb), which accesses data collected at approximately 1.5 million sites in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Data categories include current conditions information transmitted from selected surface and groundwater sites; descriptive site information; water flow and levels in streams, lakes, and springs; groundwater levels in wells; and chemical and physical data for all water sources. There is also a link to the 'Waterwatch' site, an interactive map that displays real-time stream-flow compared to historical conditions for the day of the year, as well as a link to the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) data warehouse. Other links access materials on water use, acid rain, suspended sediment, and the Hydro-Climatic Data Network (HCDN).

436

Water Research Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Self-described as a "multidisciplinary database of research, researchers, and institutions dealing with fresh water issues all over the world," the Water Research Network (WRN) is a product of collaboration between the University of Bergen, Norway, the Norwegian Research Council, and the Government of the Netherlands. Active since October 2001, WRN invites researchers from various disciplines to submit information about their water research projects (free registration is required). While the site's material is mostly metadata and relevant mainly to researchers, casual users should find links to other more substantive Web sites that may interest them. Unique browsing categories, like Water in Time and Water and Ethics, should prove helpful in finding something worthwhile. An interesting side note, WRN's creators intend the database to contribute to the multi-volume book History of Water and Civilization, a project initiated by UNESCO.

2001-01-01

437

Water Librarians' Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robert Teeter, librarian at a California water agency, has put together this metasite containing a variety of useful links in the field of water resources along with other library-related links. Agencies, databases, publishers, organizations, libraries, mailing lists, and more are featured. Teeter has organized the links by page type and indicates which sites are newly added or personal favorites. Just a few examples of links at the Water Librarians' Homepage include Waterfront (an information source on water conservation initiatives taking place in Winnipeg, Canada), The American Water Resources Association, and The Environmental Professionals' Homepage (providing links to primary sources of environmentally-related information). This is an excellent tool for academics, professionals, and librarians in the field of water resources and also environmental engineering.

1996-01-01

438

Managing our water resources  

SciTech Connect

Water is a plentiful, renewable resource if it is properly managed. The US allocates 82% of its water to agriculture, 10% to industries and utilities. American farmers are beginning to adopt water-conserving techniques long used in the world's arid regions because past profligate use and recent droughts lowered both water tables and farm productivity. Runoff and pollution are responsible for much of the waste of usable water. Because of local water shortages, there is interest in drip irrigation, setting aside more land for reservoirs, and other conservation techniques to ensure adequate supplies for industrial development and economic growth. American faith in technology has led to schemes for desalination, cloud seeding, iceberg towing, and aquifer recharging, as well as the existing system of dams. Proper management of river basins is an important step in the process. 1 figure. (DCK)

Not Available

1982-05-01

439

Arsenic removal from water  

DOEpatents

Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-07-24

440

USGS Water Resources of Oregon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of Oregon contains water data and maps of hydrologic conditions and current streamflow conditions; publications about water resources of Oregon; historical water data about surface-water, ground-water and water quality; geographic data; and forecasts and flood potential outlooks. There is information on a surface-water data collection program, hydrologic studies, and USGS programs and activities in Oregon.

441

Water Management Best Practices  

E-print Network

The Very Boring Topic of Water Conservation H. W. (Bill) Hoffman, P.E. H. W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associations, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net ?Water is the oil of the 21st century.? Andrew Liveris, Chief... 15 Watt Light The Very Boring Topic of Water Conservation H. W. (Bill) Hoffman, P.E. H. W. (Bill) Hoffman & Associations, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net ...

Hoffman, W.

2011-01-01

442

The Mystery of Water  

SciTech Connect

Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the nature of H-bonding, presenting exciting new avenues of research and challenging existing models of water's structure.

Nilsson, Anders

2005-11-21

443

Freeing up Water  

E-print Network

State Soil and Water Conservation Board and designed to increase water yield by removing or controlling water-con- suming plants such as mesquite, cedar and saltcedar. In 2004, just as he finished excavating cedar, aerially spraying mesquite... and hand spraying the remaining mesquite and cedar on his land on the Twin Buttes watershed, it started raining. ?The Middle Concho River and Rocky Creek started flowing again,? Wardlaw recalled. ?It was almost instantaneous recharge. It overcame 10...

Wythe, Kathy

2006-01-01

444

Water Resources Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 3: Watershed and Maps () July 23, 2013 1 / 18 #12;Domain Decomposition p1 p2 p3 p5 p4 surface water A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 salinity ingress water table q W(q) W(p2) The watershed W (x) of a point x is W (x) = {all points y from where

Sohoni, Milind

445

The Incredible Water Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich Micscape Magazine article explores how water bears can be found almost everywhere yet are still unknown to almost everybody, why there are relatively few light microscope photographs of water bears in the literature and on the Web, and how light microscopy can outperform scanning electron microscopy when viewing these animals. It includes a list of historical references, early sketches, and colorful images of water bears, also known as tardigrades.

Mach, Martin; Magazine, Micscape

446

Above Water: Buoyancy & Displacement  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an investigation called "Shape It!" learners craft tiny boats out of clay, set them afloat on water and then add weight loads to them, in order to explore: how objects stay afloat in water; what the relationship is among surface tension, buoyancy, density and displacement; and how shape, size, and type of material affect an object's ability to remain buoyant. The introductory text discusses how heavy steel ships can float on bodies of water like rivers, bays and oceans.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

447

Injection-water quality  

SciTech Connect

Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

Patton, C.C. (C.C. Patton and Associates, Inc. (US))

1990-10-01

448

Water's the Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water quality is more than meets the eye. Some of its properties are invisible. Teachers using this module will focus on measurable properties of water: mass, volume, and concentration; temperature; dissolved oxygen; pH; and nitrates; and their effects on water quality. Each of these properties is the subject of a lesson plan. The lesson plans include an introduction, lesson objectives, a pre-test, lesson presentation, activity, and a post-test.

Johnson, Larry

2000-01-01

449

Volatile halocarbons in water  

SciTech Connect

Volatile halocarbons in drinking water have attracted increasing attention during recent years. These substances are also found in body fluids. All disinfectant chemicals used in water treatment seem to produce by-products. Of particular concern are the following substances from the use of various disinfectants according to US EPA: chlorine, bromine and iodine, and chlorine dioxide. The aim of the present study was to follow the formation and occurrence of volatile halocarbons in different types of water.

Kroneld, R.

1986-11-01

450

Campus Ecology: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents creative ways that college campuses are meeting the challenge of preserving or protecting water resources. Aging dormitory showerheads, inefficient decorative fountains, leaks in water mains, and improper disposal of lab chemicals all waste water or threaten the health of the local watershed. Methods used by universities can include cleaning up local wetlands, treating wastewater organically, or installing waterless toilets. The site has links to project summaries and information for doing your own campus project.

Federation, National W.

451

Mars Express - Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Until very recently, planetary scientists had thought that Mars is a cold, dry planet. Then in the summer of 2000, NASA released images from the Mars Global Surveyor showing evidence of very recent seepage of ground water from crater and valley slopes in the planet's southern hemisphere. It seems that substantial reservoirs of the water that once may have run so copiously on the surface may still exist. Evidence of other water-created landforms is presented and accompanied by remote imagery.

Schmidt, Rudolph

2004-06-08

452

Microbiology of Stratified Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sampling of aquatic microorganisms reveals a surprising feature of many open water systems - stratification. Planktonic and benthic microbes occupy distinct zones in stratified water columns. Explore how the benthic consumer populations respond to environmental cues such as changes in sunlight, wind effects, or increases in organics due to pollution with the model HypoxiaZone. * model the effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters on microbial populations and oxygen levels within the Mississippi River basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone

Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Howard T. Odum (Beloit College;Biology); Elisabeth C. Odum (Santa Fe Community College;Biology)

2006-05-20

453

Catalytic detritiation of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale system has been used at Mound Laboratory to investigate the catalytic detritiation of water. A hydrophobic, precious metal catalyst is used to promote the exchange of tritium between liquid water and gaseous hydrogen at 60°C. Two columns are used, each 7.5 m long by 2.5 cm ID and packed with catalyst. Water flow is 5-10 cm³\\/min and countercurrent

M. L. Rogers; P. H. Lamberger; R. E. Ellis; T. K. Mills

1977-01-01

454

Water Science Activity Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page features opinion surveys, challenge questions, questionnaires and true/false quizzes. Students can participate in an online survey to provide their opinions on water quality and supply, how water concerns rank with other environmental issues; and to vote for their favorite body of water. All answers go into a database and the results are displayed in a table so they can see how other participants answered.

2011-11-11

455

Water and Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this page contains activities that cover water and fish. Topics include the importance of water supply and the environment as well as problems with fragile levee, delta smelt decrease, and water pollution. Pictures, diagrams, and maps illustrate each activity. Lastly, a draft worksheet and classroom guide are also included.

2012-05-02

456

Reclaiming water with wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how officials in Riverside County, Calif. are using constructed wetlands as part of their water-resources-management program, while creating a wildlife-habitat and public-recreation area in the process. As part of its strategy, Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), along with the US Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec), is investigating the use of multipurpose constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment, reclaimed-water reuse,

Crother

1994-01-01

457

Why Follow the Water?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the correlation between annual precipitation and plant productivity in different Earth biomes. Learners consider water evaporation, solubility and abundance relative to life on Earth and relative to finding evidence for life on Mars. An extension activity investigates the connection between liquid water, biomes and plant productivity on Earth. This is the 1st of 5 activities in Buried Water Ice on Mars.

458

CCMR: Water in Glass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water uptake for various compositions of the model glass (CaO·Al2O3)x (2 SiO2)1-x under fixed annealing conditions was studied via FTIR. The water saturation concentration increased with time for certain sample sets, suggesting slow equilibration of the surface with the annealing atmosphere, while the water diffusion coefficient exhibited no appreciable time dependence. The saturation concentration and diffusion coefficient were not found to vary significantly with composition.

Uspal, William

2005-08-17

459

Agricultural Water Demands  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to present and discuss the major lines of research related to water use at the farm-level.\\u000a In contrast to the case of industrial water use, there has been an enormous amount of attention paid to the economic characteristics\\u000a of agricultural water use and effluent flows from agricultural operations. In addition to the primary literature

Steven Renzetti

460

Amazon Water Cycle Roleplay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this creative roleplay activity, learners will explore the various processes of the water cycle using movement, sound, and props to aid in comprehension. Learners will understand that water changes forms throughout the water cycle, and that this cycle runs continuously throughout all the cycles at the same time. This standards-based lesson, which is great for the classroom, camps, or afterschool programs, includes roleplay cards and ideas for props.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

461

Water Purification Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.

1992-01-01

462

Water Resources of Indiana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) page contains information about the water resources in the state of Indiana. The district staff measure streamflow and ground-water levels as well as collect water-quality data (pH and mercury levels) throughout the state. Information on this site includes daily streamflow conditions, Biological Resources Division research in the state, drought information, and studies of the Upper Illinois River basin and White River basin. There are links to other sites for additional information.

463

Innovative Water Reuse  

E-print Network

Air Conditioning & Refrigeration ? Energy Meets Water H.W. (Bill)Hoffman, P.E. H.W. (Bill)Hoffman & Associates, LLC 512-294-7193 billhoffmantx@earthlink.net Cooling Towers The purpose of a cooling tower is to get rid of unwanted... of the Time, Saving Water Saves Energy. But Sometimes they Conflict! A Quandary! How do we balance energy vs. water When they conflict? The End Air Conditioning & Refrigeration ? Energy Meets Water H.W. (Bill)Hoffman, P.E. H...

Hoffman, W.

2011-01-01

464

Energy—Water Interdependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT Energy and water security and sustainability have become a national and global priority. The continued security and economic health of any country depends on a sustainable supply of both energy and water because these two critical natural resources are inexorably linked. The production of energy requires large volumes of water while the treatment and distribution of water is equally dependent upon readily available, low-cost energy. In the U.S. and other countries, irrigated agriculture and thermoelectric generation withdrawals of fresh water are approximately equal however; they are growing due to increasing population. Within the U.S. electricity production requires about 190,000 million gallons of freshwater per day, accounting for over 40 percent of all daily freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. The indirect use of water (home lighting and electric appliances) is approximately equal to its direct use (watering lawns and taking showers). Current trends of water use and availability suggest that meeting future water and energy demands to support continued economic global development will require improved utilization and management of both energy and water resources. Primary concerns include: (1) Increasing populations require more food and energy; this may cause direct competition between the two largest water users for limited water resources (energy and agriculture); (2) Population growth and economic expansion projections indicate the U.S. alone will require an additional 393,000 MW of new generating capacity (equivalent to about 1,000 new 400 MW plants) by the year 2020 - other countries particularly India and China have similar trends; and (3) Potential environmental and ecological restrictions on the use of water for power generation such as the restrictions on cooling water withdrawals and cooling water use for nuclear power plants to protect aquatic species and habitat and the environment may reduce usable supplies. The U.S. and other Nation's abilities to meet the increasing demand for affordable water and energy are being seriously challenged by these emerging issues. This research presents potential solutions for security and sustainability of these systems, which are a pressing global priority.

Moran, E. H.; Tindall, J. A.; Campbell, A. A.

2010-12-01

465

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

2012-10-29

466

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

467

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

2012-10-24

468

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

469

Air/Water Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

1992-01-01

470

Solar Water Heater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. In doing this, students gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, students perform efficiency calculations and compare designs.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

471

Comparing the Planets: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of images summarizes what scientists currently know about the occurrence of water ice and water vapor on the terrestrial planets and satellites in our Solar System. Accompanied by a brief description, the Jpeg images show the ice cap at Mars' south pole, ice rafting on Europa, liquid water covering the surface of Earth (the famous 'Blue Marble' photo), and an impact crater on the Moon that may contain water ice. There is also a diagram showing the possible distribution of ice on Mars, as it varies with latitude.

472

Des Moines Water Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

2001-01-01

473

Learn about Water  

MedlinePLUS

... and Cleanup Pesticides Substances and Toxics Sustainable Practices Water Laws & Regulations By Business Sector Enforcement Policy and Guidance Regulations About EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy ...

474

Western Water Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Water Assessment (WWA) seeks to work within an evolving social context to increase relevance and value of scientific information to improve decision making strategies. Their research focuses on the decision-making processes of the individuals, groups, and organizations in the Interior West that have responsibility for managing water resources, as well as those who use the water, and those responsible for its treatment and the protection of the aquatic environment. Research topics include impacts on climate variability and regional water resources, model assessments, stream pollution and metabolism, and use of model results in policy planning. WWA is a project of the environmental studies department at CU-Boulder.

475

Water purification in Borexino  

SciTech Connect

Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy)] [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States)] [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell'Universitŕ di Milano e Infn (Italy)] [Dip. di Fisica dell'Universitŕ di Milano e Infn (Italy)

2013-08-08

476

Water - an inexhaustible resource?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy resource Water is used to produce energy under different processes like ancient tamed energy such as water mills, locks or more recently tidal energy, marine current power, generators based on swell or osmotic gradients. The pupils will work in groups to present different techniques to the class. We could try to determine if all these energy resources could replace the actual major energy source in France: nuclear. Conclusion: Liquid water is probably the cradle of life. Since the birth of human kind, its history is closely linked to the presence of water: drinking, fishing, hygiene, and also transport or business is strictly depending on this resource. Described as a fragile and limited resource when it is used for human consumption, we realize that water is also an uneven resource of energy for the next generations. The challenge will then be to reconcile these different aspects: respecting this nourishing resource and preserving it from pollution, overexploitation or wasting, and at the same time, using water as energy for a world that has a growing population.

Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.

2012-04-01

477

Automatic hot water recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heat recovery system recovers hot water to an insulated tank through reciprocally variable volume chambers which are biased to draw water from hot water lines when the pressure throughout the system is equalized. One-way valving means permits continuous water flow when desired through the hot water tank to the hot water outlet. In a specific embodiment, bias is effected

Haws

1985-01-01

478

TRIBAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality standards are the foundation for water management actions. They provide the basis for regulating discharges of pollutants to surface waters, and provide a target for restoration of degraded waters. Water quality standards identify and protect uses of the water bod...

479

WATER QUALITY MODELING OF THE  

E-print Network

WATER QUALITY MODELING OF THE STATE OF OHIO COMPONENT OF THE OHIO RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY TRADING PROGRAM #12;Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Trading Program #12;2 Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water

Keller, Arturo A.

480

Selecting a new water heater  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are capacity, efficiency rating, and cost. A resource list is provided for further information.

NONE

1995-03-01

481

Fresh Water in Asian Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview is presented of renewable fresh water resources, urban water supplies and waste management systems in four Asian countries. The water resource, water supply and waste management development plans for certain urban areas in each country are looked at. Conclusions are drawn on the approaches which would improve water resource protection and help ensure sustainable urban water supply and

Prescott Allen Stevens

2000-01-01

482

Regional water planning Milind Sohoni  

E-print Network

for irrigation Percolation Fresh water supply Domestic and industrial use Waste water treatment Waste water demand for resources water, energy, firewood etc. · Need to meet demand with supply ­ Logistics school, offices #12;Water Supply · Surface Water ­ lake, rivers, reservoirs, canals dams, farm ponds

Sohoni, Milind

483

Water Availability and Management of Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

484

A Sense of Water. Water in Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

485

Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 765 observation wells and water-quality data for 174 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

Lamb, C. E.; Keeter, G. L.; Grillo, D. A.

1988-01-01

486

Water Resources Data, Texas Water Year 1998, Volume 4. Ground Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 759 observation wells and 146 water-quality data for monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

Gandara, S.C.; Barbie, D.L.

1999-01-01

487

Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 2000, Volume 6. Ground Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 898 observation wells and 145 water-quality data for monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

Barbie, D.L.

2001-01-01

488

Water Resources Data - Texas, Water Year 2002, Volume 6. Ground Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 960 observation wells and water-quality data for 173 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

Barbie, D.L.

2003-01-01

489

Water resources data - Texas water year 2001 : Volume 6. Ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 908 observation wells and water-quality data for 155 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

Barbie, D.L.

2002-01-01

490

Water Resources Data - Texas Water Year 1999, Volume 6. Ground Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 759 observation wells and 146 water-quality data for monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.

Gandara, S.C.; Barbie, D.L.

2000-01-01

491

Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 5. Ground-water Data for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 786 observation wells and water-quality data for 168 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

Lamb, C. E.; Fogelman, R. P.; Grillo, D. A.

1989-01-01

492

Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in weils. Volume 5 contains water levels for 1,037 observation wells and water-quality data for 254 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperatine State and Federal agencies in California.

Lamb, C. E.; Johnson, J. A.; Fogelman, R. P.; Grillo, D. A.

1990-01-01

493

Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 980 observation wells and water-quality data for 239 observation monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

Lamb, C. E.; Fogelman, R. P.; Grillo, D. A.

1989-01-01

494

Water hammer simulator  

SciTech Connect

The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) has constructed a first-of-a-kind water hammer events simulator for use at its training center. The Learning Center, Con Edison`s central training facility, intends to use the simulator as an educational tool to demonstrate the various mechanisms of the water hammer phenomenon to power plant designers, engineers and operators. The water hammer phenomenon has been studied extensively for the past 15 years for the nuclear industry. However, the acknowledge of the various water hammer mechanisms and the measures to prevent or mitigate water hammer have not been widely disseminated among the operators of fossil-fueled power plants. Con Edison personnel who operate the various generation stations and the New York City steam distribution systems are expected to benefit from the new simulator. Knowledge gained from interacting with the simulator will be very important in helping the Con Edison prevent, mitigate, or accommodate water hammer at its facilities. The water hammer simulator was fabricated in Con Edison`s central machine shop. Details of the design and construction of the simulator were finalized in consultation with Creare, Inc., an engineering research firm, located in Hanover, New Hampshire. The simulator seeks to recreate the essential features of water hammer in steam mines following the buildup of cold (subcooled) water by condensation and steam-water interaction. This paper describes the fabrication, design, testing, and operation of the Con Edison water hammer simulator. A discussion of how Con Edison plans to use the facility at The Learning Center is included.

Sinha, S.K.; Madia, J.; Dixon, S. [Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

1995-11-01

495

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

496

Microbiology of Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of microbiology of water, covering publications of 1967-77. This review covers: (1) microbial indicators of pollution; and (2) microbiology of rivers, potable waters, natural lakes, and impoundments. A list of 192 references is also presented. (HM)

Geldreich, Edwin E.

1978-01-01

497

How Much Water?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This formative assessment item uncovers students' ideas about the conservation of water and the water cycle. The probe is aligned with the National Science Education Standards and can be used before, during, or after instruction. Resources are provided as well as instructional strategies.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

498

Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

499

WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM  

E-print Network

? WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY 1939-1948 Marine Biological i STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;a WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM arid to avoid delay in publication. Washington D. CWATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM

500

Drinking Water Problems: MTBE  

E-print Network

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-28