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1

Growth and reproduction of an estuarine population of the colonial hydroid Cordylophora caspia (Pallas) in the northern Baltic Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and reproduction of the colonial hydroidCordylophora caspia were monitored during the breeding season in natural conditions. In 1987, a life history study was carried out on the upright\\u000a stems of the main stolon. Mean size of uprights varied cyclically. The first peak coincided with the peak number of sexual\\u000a hydranths, after which the mean upright length decreased, possibly indicating

V. Jormalainen; T. Honkanen; T. Vuorisalo; P. Laihonen

1994-01-01

2

Shallow Water Hydroids of the Delaware Bay Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The species composition of hydroids in the shallow waters of the Delaware Bay area and their distribution with reference to salinity and substrate is reported. Eighteen species were identified. A larger number of species occur in the oyster producing trib...

L. Watling D. Maurer

1972-01-01

3

Shared Skeletal Support in a Coral-Hydroid Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Hydroids form symbiotic relationships with a range of invertebrate hosts. Where they live with colonial invertebrates such as corals or bryozoans the hydroids may benefit from the physical support and protection of their host's hard exoskeleton, but how they interact with them is unknown. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the physical interactions between the colonial hydroid Zanclea margaritae and its reef-building coral host Acropora muricata. The hydroid tissues extend below the coral tissue surface sitting in direct contact with the host's skeleton. Although this arrangement provides the hydroid with protective support, it also presents problems of potential interference with the coral's growth processes and exposes the hydroid to overgrowth and smothering. Desmocytes located within the epidermal layer of the hydroid's perisarc-free hydrorhizae fasten it to the coral skeleton. The large apical surface area of the desmocyte and high bifurcation of the distal end within the mesoglea, as well as the clustering of desmocytes suggests that a very strong attachment between the hydroid and the coral skeleton. This is the first study to provide a detailed description of how symbiotic hydroids attach to their host's skeleton, utilising it for physical support. Results suggest that the loss of perisarc, a characteristic commonly associated with symbiosis, allows the hydroid to utilise desmocytes for attachment. The use of these anchoring structures provides a dynamic method of attachment, facilitating detachment from the coral skeleton during extension, thereby avoiding overgrowth and smothering enabling the hydroid to remain within the host colony for prolonged periods of time.

Pantos, Olga; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

2011-01-01

4

Effects of turbulence on the feeding rate of a pelagic predator: The planktonic hydroid Clytia gracilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about the role of turbulence in a predator–prey system where the predator is a passive, pelagic forager. The Campanulariid hydroid Clytia gracilis (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) is unusual because it occurs as planktonic colonies and is reported to forage passively in the water column on Georges Bank, Massachusetts, USA. In this study, we investigated the role of various

Peter Adamík; Scott M. Gallager; Erich Horgan; Laurence P. Madin; Wade R. McGillis; Annette Govindarajan; Philip Alatalo

2006-01-01

5

Effects of oil pollution on hydroid behavior and neurophysiology. [Tubularic crocea; Myrionema hargitti  

SciTech Connect

The hydroids, Tubularia crocea and Myrionema hargitti are sensitive organisms for assessing the effects of oil pollution. The abilities of these hydroids to capture Artemia nauplii were reduced after 1 hr exposure to a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Monterey Formation crude oil. Algal symbionts within Myrionema contribute photosynthetically-fixed carbon to the host hydroid. No significant effects upon these symbionts were noted after 1 or 3 h but significant reductions in the mitotic index, photosynthesis and carbon translocation rates were observed after a 24-48 h exposure to 100% WSF. Myrionema hargitti was less responsive to mechanical stimuli after a brief 100% WSF exposure. The responsiveness to a feeding stimulant (proline) and concert frequency of 100% WSF-treated Tubularia crocea were lower than controls. Significant increases in epithelial activity were also recorded at 1% WSF and the increased firing frequency did not persist beyond the duration of the exposure. Bioaccumulation of /sup 3/H-toluene (20 ppm) from 100% WSF reached a maximum within 1 min but declined over the next hour. Higher concentrations of /sup 3/H-toluene evoked increased hydranth shedding with 1 h but these hydranths never accumulated as much /sup 3/H-toluene as hydranths exposed to lower concentrations.

Michel, W.C.

1985-01-01

6

Genetic analysis across different spatial scales reveals multiple dispersal mechanisms for the invasive hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes.  

PubMed

Discerning patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. The globally invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora produces propagules both sexually and vegetatively and is associated with multiple potential dispersal mechanisms, making it a promising system to investigate complex patterns of population structure generated throughout the course of rapid range expansion. Here, we explore genetic patterns associated with the spread of this taxon within the North American Great Lakes basin. We collected intensively from eight harbours in the Chicago area in order to conduct detailed investigation of local population expansion. In addition, we collected from Lakes Michigan, Erie, and Ontario, as well as Lake Cayuga in the Finger Lakes of upstate New York in order to assess genetic structure on a regional scale. Based on data from eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci we examined the spatial extent of clonal genotypes, assessed levels of neutral genetic diversity, and explored patterns of migration and dispersal at multiple spatial scales through assessment of population level genetic differentiation (pairwise F(ST) and factorial correspondence analysis), Bayesian inference of population structure, and assignment tests on individual genotypes. Results of these analyses indicate that Cordylophora populations in this region spread predominantly through sexually produced propagules, and that while limited natural larval dispersal can drive expansion locally, regional expansion likely relies on anthropogenic dispersal vectors. PMID:19889038

Darling, John A; Folino-Rorem, Nadine C

2009-12-01

7

Planktonic hydroids on Georges Bank: effects of mixing and food supply on feeding and growth1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huge numbers of hydroids (principally Clytia gracilis) were recently reported suspended in the plankton over the shallow, well-mixed region of Georges Bank, where preliminary feeding experiments suggested that these planktonic predators could have a potentially devastating effect on their zooplankton prey (Madin et al., 1996). Based on these initial findings we undertook a more extensive set of laboratory experiments examining the effects of particulate food concentration and mixing (turbulence) intensity on the feeding and growth of suspended hydroids. Not surprisingly, we found a clear effect of particulate food concentration on the growth of hydroid colonies. After 7 days at 15°C, both colony size (number of hydranths colony -1) and specific growth rate (hydranth hydranth -1 day -1) were significantly greater in well-fed (80-160 Artemia nauplii L -1) versus starved treatments. More interesting was the additional significant effect of turbulent mixing ( ?=9×10 -5 W kg -1) on hydroid growth. Consumption rates (4.5 Artemia nauplii hydranth -1 day -1) were not significantly different between mixing vs. non-mixing treatments, indicating that the enhanced growth rate in the mixing treatments could not have been due to turbulence-enhanced predator-prey contact rates. An alternative hypothesis for the apparent advantage that mixing seemed to confer on hydroid growth is that reduced boundary layer thickness around the hydroids served to replenish the local supply of DOM and oxygen and/or remove waste products. This study indicates that growth rate of planktonic hydroids is dependent on both food concentration and mixing intensity, a finding that helps explain why these organisms are vastly more abundant in the central, shallow, well-mixed region of Georges Bank compared to the stratified flanks of the Bank.

Bollens, Stephen M.; Horgan, Erich; Concelman, Stephanie; Madin, Laurence P.; Gallager, Scott M.; Butler, Mari

8

Spatio-temporal variation of hydroids and polychaetes associated with Cystoseira amentacea (Fucales: Phaeophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal and spatial distribution of hydroids (sessile fauna) and polychaetes (vagile) on the brown alga Cystoseira amentacea (Fucales: Phaeophyceae) have been studied in the mid-littoral zone of the Apulian coast (Italy). Samplings were carried out in February and July 1997, at 1.5 m depth, at three sites (Gargano, Costa Merlata and Otranto), about 200 km apart from each other.

S. Fraschetti; A. Giangrande; A. Terlizzi; M. Miglietta; L. Della Tommasa; F. Boero

2002-01-01

9

Ecology of the bivalve-inhabiting hydroid Eugymnanthea inquilina in the coastal sounds of Taranto (Ionian Sea, SE Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life history of the bivalve-inhabiting hydroid Eugymnanthea inquilina was investigated in two different hosts, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (collected from 1989–1991 from the Ionian Sea, Italy) and the clam Ruditapes decussatus (collected from 1991–1992, Ionian Sea, Italy). Hydroids living in mussels revealed a size selection for hosts longer than 40 mm, being almost completely absent in mussels below this

S. Piraino; C. Todaro; S. Geraci; F. Boero

1994-01-01

10

Distribution, abundance and benthic-pelagic coupling of suspended hydroids on Georges Bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clytia spp. hydroids (Phylum Cnidaria), typically attached to a substrate during their asexual, polyp stage, have been found in significant numbers within the mesozooplankton on Georges Bank, North Atlantic Ocean. We examined unpublished historical records of the 1939–1941 cruises of the R\\/V Atlantis and obtained samples at four-study sites on Georges Bank in June\\/July 1995 in an attempt to (1)

Stephanie Concelman; Stephen M. Bollens; Barbara K. Sullivan; Laurence P. Madin; Erich Horgan; Mari Butler; Donna van Keuren

2001-01-01

11

Molecular Evidence Shows Low Species Diversity of Coral-Associated Hydroids in Acropora Corals  

PubMed Central

A novel symbiosis between scleractinians and hydroids (Zanclea spp.) was recently discovered using taxonomic approaches for hydroid species identification. In this study, we address the question whether this is a species-specific symbiosis or a cosmopolitan association between Zanclea and its coral hosts. Three molecular markers, including mitochondrial 16S and nuclear 28S ribosomal genes, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), were utilized to examine the existence of Zanclea species from 14 Acropora species and 4 other Acroporidae genera including 142 coral samples collected from reefs in Kenting and the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, Togian Island, Indonesia, and Osprey Reef and Orpheus Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and 28S genes showed that Acropora-associated Zanclea was monophyletic, but the genus Zanclea was not. Analysis of the ITS, and 16S and 28S genes showed either identical or extremely low genetic diversity (with mean pairwise distances of 0.009 and 0.006 base substitutions per site for the 16S and 28S genes, respectively) among Zanclea spp. collected from diverse Acropora hosts in different geographic locations, suggesting that a cosmopolitan and probably genus-specific association occurs between Zanclea hydroids and their coral hosts.

Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Denis, Vianney; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Leung, Julia K. L.; Tsai, Wan-Sen; Wallace, Carden C.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

2012-01-01

12

Molecular evidence shows low species diversity of coral-associated hydroids in Acropora corals.  

PubMed

A novel symbiosis between scleractinians and hydroids (Zanclea spp.) was recently discovered using taxonomic approaches for hydroid species identification. In this study, we address the question whether this is a species-specific symbiosis or a cosmopolitan association between Zanclea and its coral hosts. Three molecular markers, including mitochondrial 16S and nuclear 28S ribosomal genes, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), were utilized to examine the existence of Zanclea species from 14 Acropora species and 4 other Acroporidae genera including 142 coral samples collected from reefs in Kenting and the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, Togian Island, Indonesia, and Osprey Reef and Orpheus Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and 28S genes showed that Acropora-associated Zanclea was monophyletic, but the genus Zanclea was not. Analysis of the ITS, and 16S and 28S genes showed either identical or extremely low genetic diversity (with mean pairwise distances of 0.009 and 0.006 base substitutions per site for the 16S and 28S genes, respectively) among Zanclea spp. collected from diverse Acropora hosts in different geographic locations, suggesting that a cosmopolitan and probably genus-specific association occurs between Zanclea hydroids and their coral hosts. PMID:23209655

Fontana, Silvia; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Denis, Vianney; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Leung, Julia K L; Tsai, Wan-Sen; Wallace, Carden C; Chen, Chaolun Allen

2012-01-01

13

Benthic hydroids from the south of Livingston Island (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica) collected by the Spanish Antarctic expedition Bentart 94  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five species of benthic hydroids were collected during the Spanish Antarctic expedition Bentart 94 from the south of Livingston Island (Antarctica). All species are considered regarding autecology and geographical distribution. The systematic position amongst allied species is discussed when considered necessary. Antarctoscyphus asymmetricus and Symplectoscyphus nesioticus are reported for the second and the third time, respectively.

A. L. Peña Cantero

2006-01-01

14

CO2-Driven Ocean Acidification Alters and Weakens Integrity of the Calcareous Tubes Produced by the Serpulid Tubeworm, Hydroides elegans  

PubMed Central

As a consequence of anthropogenic CO2-driven ocean acidification (OA), coastal waters are becoming increasingly challenging for calcifiers due to reductions in saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals. The response of calcification rate is one of the most frequently investigated symptoms of OA. However, OA may also result in poor quality calcareous products through impaired calcification processes despite there being no observed change in calcification rate. The mineralogy and ultrastructure of the calcareous products under OA conditions may be altered, resulting in changes to the mechanical properties of calcified structures. Here, the warm water biofouling tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was reared from larva to early juvenile stage at the aragonite saturation state (?A) for the current pCO2 level (ambient) and those predicted for the years 2050, 2100 and 2300. Composition, ultrastructure and mechanical strength of the calcareous tubes produced by those early juvenile tubeworms were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation. Juvenile tubes were composed primarily of the highly soluble CaCO3 mineral form, aragonite. Tubes produced in seawater with aragonite saturation states near or below one had significantly higher proportions of the crystalline precursor, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and the calcite/aragonite ratio dramatically increased. These alterations in tube mineralogy resulted in a holistic deterioration of the tube hardness and elasticity. Thus, in conditions where ?A is near or below one, the aragonite-producing juvenile tubeworms may no longer be able to maintain the integrity of their calcification products, and may result in reduced survivorship due to the weakened tube protection.

Chan, Vera Bin San; Li, Chaoyi; Lane, Ackley Charles; Wang, Yanchun; Lu, Xingwen; Shih, Kaimin; Zhang, Tong; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

2012-01-01

15

Control of colonial hydroid macrofouling by free-field ultrasonic radiation.  

PubMed

Free-field ultrasonic radiation inhibited the feeding of the macrofouling hydroid Garveia franciscana by causing tentacle contraction at the sonic degasification threshold. Within the frequency range of 250 to 2000 kilohertz, the threshold sound intensity (sonic degasification threshold) that caused tentacle contraction was directly proportional to frequency, with the minimum observed being 0.6 watt per square centimeter at 250 kilohertz. A pulse length of 0.2 second and interpulse period of 102 seconds gave the lowest average power required to produce tentacle contraction at a peak pulse sound intensity of 6.2 watts per square centimeter with a frequency of 250 kilohertz. Twenty-four hour exposures to the sound regime caused destruction of the hydranths and regression of tissue in the stolons. PMID:17746053

Burton, D T; Richardson, L B; Taylor, R J

1984-03-30

16

Marine hydroid perisarc: a chitin- and melanin-reinforced composite with DOPA-iron(III) complexes.  

PubMed

Many marine invertebrates utilize biomacromolecules as building blocks to form their load-bearing tissues. These polymeric tissues are appealing for their unusual physical and mechanical properties, including high hardness and stiffness, toughness and low density. Here, a marine hydroid perisarc of Aglaophenia latirostris was investigated to understand how nature designs a stiff, tough and lightweight sheathing structure. Chitin, protein and a melanin-like pigment, were found to represent 10, 17 and 60 wt.% of the perisarc, respectively. Interestingly, similar to the adhesive and coating of marine mussel byssus, a DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) containing protein and iron were detected in the perisarc. Resonance Raman microprobe analysis of perisarc indicates the presence of catechol-iron(III) complexes in situ, but it remains to be determined whether the DOPA-iron(III) interaction plays a cohesive role in holding the protein, chitin and melanin networks together. PMID:23791678

Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Prajatelistia, Ekavianty; Iordachescu, Mihaela; Waite, J Herbert

2013-09-01

17

The biology of colonial hydroids. II. The morphology and ultrastructure of the medusa of Eirene viridula (Thecata-Leptomedusa: Campanulinidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free-swimming medusae of Eirene viridula are typical marine hydroids, with distinct subdivisions into body regions, which were studied by comparison of light and electron microscopy. Particular attention is given to the epithelio-muscular and digestive muscle cells. The epidermis — apart from a few nerve cells and cnidocytes-consists of epitheliomuscular cells. At their bases these cells form a musculature and

T. Germer; M. Hündgen

1978-01-01

18

A parvicapsulid (Myxozoa) infecting Sprattus sprattus and Clupea harengus (Clupeidae) in the Northeast Atlantic uses Hydroides norvegicus (Serpulidae) as invertebrate host.  

PubMed

A myxosporean producing actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type in Hydroides norvegicus Gunnerus (Serpulidae) in Denmark was identified as a member of the family Parvicapsulidae based on small-subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences. Myxosporean samples from various Danish and Norwegian marine fishes were examined with primers that detect the novel myxosporean. Sprattus sprattus (Linnaeus) and Clupea harengus Linnaeus (Teleostei, Clupeidae) were found to be infected. The sequences of this parvicapsulid from these hosts were consistently slightly different (0.8% divergence), but both these genotypes were found in H. norvegicus. Disporic trophozoites and minute spores of a novel myxosporean type were observed in the renal tubules of some of the hosts found infected through PCR. The spores appear most similar to those of species of Gadimyxa Køie, Karlsbakk et Nylund, 2007, but are much smaller. The actinospores of the tetractinomyxon type from H. norvegicus have been described previously. In GenBank, the SSU rDNA sequences of Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. show highest identity (82%) with Parvicapsula minibicornis Kent, Whitaker et Dawe, 1997 infecting salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) in fresh water in the western North America. A phylogenetic analysis places P. minibicornis and Parvicapsulidae gen. sp. in a sister clade to the other parvicapsulids (Parvicapsula spp. and Gadimyxa spp.). PMID:23724734

Køie, Marianne; Karlsbakk, Egil; Einen, Ann-Cathrine Bårdsgjtere; Nylund, Are

2013-05-01

19

Fitness consequences of allorecognition-mediated agonistic interactions in the colonial hydroid Hydractinia [GM].  

PubMed

In sessile and sedentary organisms, competition for space may have fitness consequences that depend strongly on ecological context. Colonial hydroids in the genus Hydractinia use an inducible defense when encountering conspecifics, and intraspecific competition is common in natural populations, often resulting in complete overgrowth of subordinate competitors. My goal in this study was to quantify the impacts of agonistic interactions in Hydractinia [GM] (an undescribed species from the Gulf of Mexico) in terms of three primary fitness components: colony survival, growth rate, and immature gonozooid production. The results demonstrate that the fitness consequences of intraspecific competition depend on the size at which competitive encounters are initiated and the growth form (an indicator of competitive ability) of the competitors. Moreover, some competing colonies consistently produced more immature gonozooids than the controls without competition, and they exhibited extremely low mortality even after 90 days of growth. These results have several ramifications. First, agonistic interactions do not always proceed to competitive elimination. Second, the increase in production of immature gonozooids--an investment in future reproduction--in response to intraspecific competition supports the hypothesis that indeterminately growing organisms increase sexual reproductive effort when growth becomes limiting. Lastly, in light of known ontogenetic variation in the ability of Hydractinia to differentiate among genetically related colonies, strongly size-dependent fitness consequences are consistent with an adaptive, kin-discriminating allorecognition system. PMID:15198943

Ferrell, David L

2004-06-01

20

[Inductive activity of the posterior tip of planula in the marine hydroid Dynamena pumila].  

PubMed

Activity of organizer regions is required for body plan formation in the developing organism. Transplanting a fragment of such a region to a host organism leads to the formation of a secondary body axis that consists of both the donor's and the host's tissues (Gerhart, 2001). The subject of this study, the White Sea hydroid cnidarian Dynamena pumila L. (Thecaphora, Sertulariidae), forms morphologically advanced colonies in the course of complex metamorphosis of the planula larva. To reveal an organizer region, a series of experiments has been performed in which small fragments of donor planula tissues were transplanted to embryos at the early and late gastrula stage, as well as to planulae. Only transplantations of a posterior tip fragment of a donor planula to a host planula of the same age led, in the course of metamorphosis, to the formation of a secondary shoot, which involved up to 50% of the host's tissues. After transplantations of tissue fragments of the anterior tip and the middle of the planula body, the formation of any ectopic structures was never observed. It was concluded that the posterior tip of the planula has organizer properties in Dynamena. PMID:21542340

Kraus, Iu A

2011-01-01

21

Susceptibility to antibiotics of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host Aglaophenia octodonta (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi is the major causal organism of vibriosis, causing potential devastation to diverse ranges of marine invertebrates over a wide geographical area. These microorganisms, however, are phenotypically diverse, and many of the isolates are also resistant to multiple antibiotics. In a previous study, we described a previously unknown association between Vibrio sp. AO1, a luminous bacterium related to the species V. harveyi, and the benthic hydrozoan Aglaophenia octodonta. In this study, we analyzed the susceptibility to antibiotics (ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, or co-trimoxazole = mix of sulfamethoxazole and trimetoprim) of Vibrio sp. AO1 growing in pure culture or in association with its hydroid host by using microcosm experiments. The results of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) experiments demonstrated that Vibrio sp. AO1 was highly resistant to ampicillin and streptomycin in pure culture. Nevertheless, these antibiotics, when used at sub-MIC values, significantly reduced the hydroid fluorescence. Co-trimoxazole showed the highest inhibitory effect on fluorescence of A. octodonta. However, in all treatments, the fluorescence was reduced after 48 h, but never disappeared completely around the folds along the hydrocaulus and at the base of the hydrothecae of A. octodonta when the antibiotic was used at concentration completely inhibiting growth in vitro. The apparent discrepancy between the MIC data and the fluorescence patterns may be due to either heterogeneity of the bacterial population in terms of antibiotic susceptibility or specific chemical-physical conditions of the hydroid microenvironment that may decrease the antibiotic susceptibility of the whole population. The latter hypothesis is supported by scanning electron microscope evidence for development of bacterial biofilm on the hydroid surface. On the basis of the results obtained, we infer that A. octodonta might behave as a reservoir of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria, increasing the risk of their transfer into aquaculture farms. PMID:19888625

Stabili, Loredana; Gravili, Cinzia; Boero, Ferdinando; Tredici, Salvatore M; Alifano, Pietro

2010-04-01

22

Effects of larval starvation and delayed metamorphosis on juvenile survival and growth of the tube-dwelling polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competent larvae of the serpulid polychaete, Hydroides elegans (Haswell), were induced to metamorphose by either 10?4 M 3-isobutyl 1-methylxanthine (IBMX), adult homogenate, or 30 mM excess K+. Treatment with excess K+ had adverse effects (P<0.05) on juvenile growth while IBMX and adult homogenate had no detectable effects (P>0.1). Metamorphosis was triggered using IBMX in subsequent studies. Competent larvae were forced

Pei-Yuan Qian; Jan A Pechenik

1998-01-01

23

INTERCELLULAR CONNECTIONS IN THE OUTGROWING STOLON OF CORD YLOPHORA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outgrowth of thc stolon in thc hydroid Cordylophora has been studied at thc cellular Icvcl. Staining experiments and histological cxamination indicatc that the gcncrativc region of the stolon is at its base whcrc interstitial cells arc promincnt. Cclls in the cctodcrm at the stolon tip appear to bc activcly synthcsizing new pcrisarc as thc tip advanccs ovcr thc substratc, rather

JANE OVERTON

2009-01-01

24

Bacterial community succession and chemical profiles of subtidal biofilms in relation to larval settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans.  

PubMed

Earlier studies have shown that biofilms can mediate the larval settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans and that changes in the bacterial community structure and density of biofilms often alter the larval settlement response. However, the chemical cues that mediate this response remain unknown. In this study, both successional changes in the bacterial community structure and the chemical profiles of subtidal biofilms are described and related to the larval settlement response. Multispecies biofilms were developed on polystyrene Petri dishes and granite rock in the subtidal zone over a period of 20 days. The effects of the substratum and age on the bacterial community structure and chemical profiles of the biofilms were evaluated with two molecular methods (microarray (PhyloChip) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Both age and substratum altered the bacterial community structures and chemical profiles of the biofilms. Age had a greater effect in shaping the bacterial community structure than did the substratum. In contrast, the type of substratum more strongly affected the chemical profile. Extracts of biofilms of different ages, which developed on different substrata, were tested for the settlement of H. elegans larvae. The extracts induced larval settlement in a biofilm-age-dependent manner, and extracts originating from different substrata of the same age showed no differences in larval settlement. Our results suggest that the larval settlement response cannot be predicted by the overall chemical composition of the biofilm alone. PMID:20090788

Chung, Hong Chun; Lee, On On; Huang, Yi-Li; Mok, Siu Yan; Kolter, Roberto; Qian, Pei-Yuan

2010-06-01

25

High genetic diversity in the hydroid Plumularia setacea: A multitude of cryptic species or extensive population subdivision?  

PubMed

The marine hydroid Plumularia setacea has a near-cosmopolitan distribution. As in other sessile invertebrates with limited dispersal abilities, the wide distribution could also be a taxonomic artefact and the species might in fact be a complex of sibling species. To investigate this, a set of worldwide samples of P. setacea and several closely related species was examined using the mitochondrial markers 16S and COI, as well as the nuclear marker ITS. The results suggest an even higher degree of genetic diversity than expected. Almost all sampled regions had only private haplotypes and the resulting trees split into a multitude of geographically delimited lineages, this both for the mitochondrial and nuclear markers. In the framework of a genealogical species concept, these lineages would qualify as cryptic species. Using alternative species concepts, the results could be reconciled with traditional taxonomy by regarding P. setacea as a single species with an extensive population subdivision. A rapid molecular clock, limited dispersal abilities, and localized clonal propagation are likely the factors that explain the high but dispersed genetic diversity within this species. PMID:24602986

Schuchert, Peter

2014-07-01

26

Molecular Identification and Ultrastructural and Phylogenetic Studies of Cyanobacteria from Association with the White Sea Hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758)  

PubMed Central

Three new cyanobacterial strains, that have been previously purified from the hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758), isolated from the White Sea, were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy methods and were characterized by using almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and part of the gene for 23S rRNA. The full nucleotide sequences of the rRNA gene clusters were deposited to GenBank (HM064496.1, GU265558.1, JQ259187.1). Comparison of rRNA gene cluster sequences of Synechococcus cyanobacterium 1Dp66E-1, Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E, and Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that these cyanobacterial strains do not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Furthermore, for the first time heterotrophic bacterium, associated with Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E, was identified as a member of the new phylum Gemmatimonadetes, genus of Gemmatimonas (GenBank accession number is JX437625.1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 1Dp66E-1 forms the unique branch and belongs to a cluster of Synechococcus, including freshwater and sea strains. Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E belongs to a cluster of Leptolyngbya strains. Isolate Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E forms unique branch and belongs to a cluster of the genus Nostoc, with the closest relative of Nostoc commune isolates.

Koksharova, O. A.; Kravzova, T. R.; Lazebnaya, I. V.; Gorelova, O. A.; Baulina, O. I.; Lazebny, O. E.; Fedorenko, T. A.; Lobakova, E. S.

2013-01-01

27

Molecular identification and ultrastructural and phylogenetic studies of cyanobacteria from association with the white sea hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758).  

PubMed

Three new cyanobacterial strains, that have been previously purified from the hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758), isolated from the White Sea, were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy methods and were characterized by using almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and part of the gene for 23S rRNA. The full nucleotide sequences of the rRNA gene clusters were deposited to GenBank (HM064496.1, GU265558.1, JQ259187.1). Comparison of rRNA gene cluster sequences of Synechococcus cyanobacterium 1Dp66E-1, Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E, and Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that these cyanobacterial strains do not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Furthermore, for the first time heterotrophic bacterium, associated with Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E, was identified as a member of the new phylum Gemmatimonadetes, genus of Gemmatimonas (GenBank accession number is JX437625.1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 1Dp66E-1 forms the unique branch and belongs to a cluster of Synechococcus, including freshwater and sea strains. Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E belongs to a cluster of Leptolyngbya strains. Isolate Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E forms unique branch and belongs to a cluster of the genus Nostoc, with the closest relative of Nostoc commune isolates. PMID:23762857

Koksharova, O A; Kravzova, T R; Lazebnaya, I V; Gorelova, O A; Baulina, O I; Lazebny, O E; Fedorenko, T A; Lobakova, E S

2013-01-01

28

Temperature dependent effects of elevated CO2 on shell composition and mechanical properties of hydroides elegans: insights from a multiple stressor experiment.  

PubMed

The majority of marine benthic invertebrates protect themselves from predators by producing calcareous tubes or shells that have remarkable mechanical strength. An elevation of CO2 or a decrease in pH in the environment can reduce intracellular pH at the site of calcification and thus interfere with animal's ability to accrete CaCO3. In nature, decreased pH in combination with stressors associated with climate change may result in the animal producing severely damaged and mechanically weak tubes. This study investigated how the interaction of environmental drivers affects production of calcareous tubes by the serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans. In a factorial manipulative experiment, we analyzed the effects of pH (8.1 and 7.8), salinity (34 and 27‰), and temperature (23°C and 29°C) on the biomineral composition, ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the tubes. At an elevated temperature of 29°C, the tube calcite/aragonite ratio and Mg/Ca ratio were both increased, the Sr/Ca ratio was decreased, and the amorphous CaCO3 content was reduced. Notably, at elevated temperature with decreased pH and reduced salinity, the constructed tubes had a more compact ultrastructure with enhanced hardness and elasticity compared to decreased pH at ambient temperature. Thus, elevated temperature rescued the decreased pH-induced tube impairments. This indicates that tubeworms are likely to thrive in early subtropical summer climate. In the context of climate change, tubeworms could be resilient to the projected near-future decreased pH or salinity as long as surface seawater temperature rise at least by 4°C. PMID:24265732

Chan, Vera B S; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Lu, Xing Wen; Zhang, Tong; Shih, Kaimin

2013-01-01

29

Water  

MedlinePLUS

... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ... you probably need more water. What about bottled water? top Some people like bottled water for its ...

30

Hydroide Storage Vessel wall stress measurements  

SciTech Connect

Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is likely responsible for the lack of wall stress. This morphology also implies that decay helium that remains in the titanium hydride (that is, helium that is not released as gas to the free volume) should not cause significant wall stresses when the HSV is used for long-term tritium storage. Holographic interferometry proved to be an extremely sensitive technique to measure swelling, having a detection limit of about 3 microns surface displacement.

Clark, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pechersky, M.J.

1997-07-31

31

Genetic analysis reveals multiple cryptic invasive species of the hydrozoan gene Cordylophora  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the patterns and dynamics of biological invasions is a crucial prerequisite to predicting and mitigating their potential ecological and economic impacts. Unfortunately, in many cases such understanding is limited not only by ignorance of invasion history, but also b...

32

Water  

MedlinePLUS

... to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells and springs). Everything that ... body is water. 4. How much of the earth’s surface is water? About 80 percent of the ...

33

Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Windows to the Universe website provides information and images about water, including detailed information about lakes, rivers, ocean, the water cycle, and tides. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging website that includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience. Links at the top of each page allow users to navigate between beginner, intermediate and advanced levels.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

34

Water, Water Everywhere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

Keeler, Rusty

2009-01-01

35

Water, Water Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a short NASA video on the water cycle. The video shows the importance of the water cycle to nearly every natural process on Earth and illustrates how tightly coupled the water cycle is to climate.

Nasa

36

Water, Water Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners estimate how much water they think can be found in various locations on the Earth in all its states (solid, liquid, and gas) to discover the different water ratios in the Earth's total water supply. Learners divide 1000 ml of water (representing the total amount of water on Earth) amongst eight beakers as they predict the various ratios. Then learners measure the amounts of water that reflect the actual ratios and compare their predictions to reality. Learners will be surprised to find out that most of Earth's water is found in the ocean. This resource also includes information about flash floods and flood safety.

Service, National W.

2012-06-26

37

Water 2: Disappearing Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will observe the amount of water in an open container vs a closed container over time. This lesson is the second in a three-part series that addresses a concept that is central to the understanding of the water cycle: that water is able to take many forms but is still water. In this second lesson, students will focus on the concept that water can go back and forth from one form to another and the amount of water will remain the same.

38

Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle asks students to conduct their own research on the water cycle (hydrologic cycle). Working collaboratively in small groups, students will research and write about the relationships between stages in the water cycle and the three states of matter relating to water. After completing this lesson, students will be prepared to create a model of the water cycle.

Bale, Regina

2012-07-17

39

Water, water everywhere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers.

Pennisi

1993-01-01

40

Healthy Water  

MedlinePLUS

... and safe drinking water is critical to sustain human life and without it waterborne illness can be a serious problem. Water, which is necessary for recreational water activities like swimming, also helps promote healthy living. Often, water’s vital ...

41

Water, Water, Everywhere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

Fahey, John A.

2000-01-01

42

Water, Water, Everywhere.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

Selinger, Ben

1979-01-01

43

Water law  

SciTech Connect

The author pays particular attention to recent amendments to the Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, and hazardous waste statutes. Concludes with a new chapter on regional land-use controls to safeguard water quality. This book is revised to explain the nature of law and the relationships among water law, science, water uses, water rights, and water resources management.

Goldfarb, W.

1988-01-01

44

Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ground Water: USGS Water Science for Schools explaines the uses of ground water in the United States. The main uses of ground water include "irrigation uses, drinking-water and other public uses, and for supplying domestic water to people who do not receive public-supply water." Check out this site to learn more.

2008-05-28

45

Water, water everywhere  

SciTech Connect

The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.

Pennisi, E.

1993-02-20

46

Water Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

Van De Walle, Carol

1988-01-01

47

Water Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... best measure of protection. Back Continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ... water during bad weather, especially lightning. Back Continue Water Park Safety Water parks can be a lot ...

48

Water, Water Everywhere!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

Sible, Kathleen P.

2000-01-01

49

Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

USGS Water Science for Schools explaines the uses of ground water in the United States. The main uses of ground water include "irrigation uses, drinking-water and other public uses, and for supplying domestic water to people who do not receive public-supply water." Check out this site to learn more.

2008-05-28

50

Egg Size Effects across Multiple Life-History Stages in the Marine Annelid Hydroides diramphus  

PubMed Central

The optimal balance of reproductive effort between offspring size and number depends on the fitness of offspring size in a particular environment. The variable environments offspring experience, both among and within life-history stages, are likely to alter the offspring size/fitness relationship and favor different offspring sizes. Hence, the many environments experienced throughout complex life-histories present mothers with a significant challenge to optimally allocate their reproductive effort. In a marine annelid, we tested the relationship between egg size and performance across multiple life-history stages, including: fertilization, larval development, and post-metamorphosis survival and size in the field. We found evidence of conflicting effects of egg size on performance: larger eggs had higher fertilization under sperm-limited conditions, were slightly faster to develop pre-feeding, and were larger post-metamorphosis; however, smaller eggs had higher fertilization when sperm was abundant, and faster planktonic development; and egg size did not affect post-metamorphic survival. The results indicate that egg size effects are conflicting in H. diramphus depending on the environments within and among life-history stages. We suggest that offspring size in this species may be a compromise between the overall costs and benefits of egg sizes in each stage and that performance in any one stage is not maximized.

Allen, Richard M.; Marshall, Dustin

2014-01-01

51

[Drinking water].  

PubMed

Water is essential for life. Thirst is a pressing need which always has to be satisfied. Infants need 3 times more water than adults if the requirements is calculated according to body weight. A correct balance in the sensory, physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities of water make it drinkable. Two laws have been passed recently concerning drinking water in France: one deals with water for human consumption (January 3 1989 decree), and the other deals with drinkable bottled mineral water (June 3 1989 decree). Tap water and bottled water are under strict vigilance. For babies under 4 months of age, it is better to use bottled water with a low mineral content (nitrates less than 15 mg/l). Hard water is safe; water softeners are useful only for hot water. Fluorination supplies of water is good for dental health at a concentration of 1 mg/l. Plastic bottles are as safe as glass ones. PMID:1662352

Dartois, A M; Casamitjana, F

1991-01-01

52

Water, Water Everywhere, But...  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

Jacobson, Cliff

53

Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS site contains very useful descriptions about many aspects of ground water. The major topics include Ground Water, How Ground Water Occurs, Quality of Ground Water, Appraising the Nation's Ground-Water Resources, and a Glossary. This is a non-technical site, designed for use by the general public. Several charts and diagrams are also included in this site.

2002-02-15

54

Water Artists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how experiences with water provide children with opportunities to be artists. Describes different types of water play for children. Believes that experiences with water introduce children to the principles of painting. (CMK)

Szekely, George

2003-01-01

55

Water Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple description of the chemical and physical properties of water was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. It includes a brief quiz to assess prior knowledge, diagrams of water molecules, and important numerical data about water.

2009-11-04

56

Water ingestion during water recreation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative risk assessments have estimated health risks of water recreation. One input to risk assessment models is the rate of water ingestion. One published study estimated rates of water ingestion during swimming, but estimates of water ingestion are not available for common limited contact water recreation activities such as canoeing, fishing, kayaking, motor boating, and rowing. In the summer of

Samuel Dorevitch; Suraj Panthi; Yue Huang; Hong Li; Angela M. Michalek; Preethi Pratap; Meredith Wroblewski; Li Liu; Peter A. Scheff; An Li

2011-01-01

57

Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)  

MedlinePLUS

... Site map Help Home Water Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities ... saline water, watersheds, runoff, and hydrology. Investigate the water cycle (in many languages!) Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and ...

58

Water Quality  

MedlinePLUS

What is in that water that you just drank? Is it just hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Is it safe for drinking? All water is of a certain "quality" (and you can't tell by just looking), but what does "water quality" really mean? Water full of dirt and ...

59

WATER USAGE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DESK Standard: Understand how the water cycle relates to the water supply in your community. Thirstin Glass DATES: You can begin this activity on September 18. You should complete it by September 22. OBJECTIVE: We have been learning about water and the water cycle in class. It is important for you to understand the impact you have on this cycle. Each person uses ...

Hughes, Mr.

2006-02-11

60

Water Ways  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water

Jahrling, Peter

2007-01-01

61

Water Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every day, we encounter water in its three phases: liquid water, solid ice, and water vapor, an invisible gas. Most other substances can exist in these three phases as well, but water is unique because it is the only substance that can exist in all three phases at Earth's ordinary temperature conditions. This slide show provides examples of water in each of its three phases.

62

Water Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water cycle concepts and basics including the distribution of water on the planet in oceans, rivers and lakes, glaciers and atmosphere. Defines basic terms: states of water, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, melting. Good illustrations, maps and photos. Excellent list itemizes human uses and impacts on water and the water cycle. Links to more detailed references are provided, case studies illustrate current concerns and issues in Ontario, Canada.

63

Earth's Water:Ground Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This USGS site contains graphs, tables, and charts for the following ground water topics: What is ground water, ground water flow diagrams, importance of groundwater, and trends in ground-water use. Ground water quality, pesticides, aquifers, waterwells, artesian wells, sinkholes, and land subsidence are also covered. There are a variety of links within all of the above topics and a very complete glossary, as well as numerous charts, maps, photographs and illustrations.

64

Water Purifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

1992-01-01

65

Valuable water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In some places, money flows with water. Studying both the water quality and property values around 22 lakes in south-central Maine, Kevin Boyle and Holly James of the University of Maine and Roy Bouchard of the Maine Department of Environmental Protection have found that good water quality makes waterfront property even more valuable. To gauge water quality, the researchers used Secchi disks to measure the clarity of the water at depth. They also reviewed 543 lakefront property sales between 1990 and 1994 to determine how values correlated with changing water conditions. The group also considered such factors as lake frontage, sizes of the houses and lots, and size of the lake.

Carlowicz, Michael

66

Branding water.  

PubMed

Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

2014-06-15

67

Branding water  

PubMed Central

Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources.

Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grun, Bettina

2014-01-01

68

Fluoridated Water  

MedlinePLUS

... more other elements. Fluorides are present naturally in water and soil at varying levels. In the 1940s, scientists discovered that people who lived where drinking water supplies had naturally occurring fluoride levels of approximately ...

69

Bending Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, bend water with the help of static electricity. Discover how a comb can cause water flowing out of a faucet to bend in a unique direction. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-02-25

70

Water Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Water - its chemical nature; The three states of matter; Water and the engineer; Equilibrium product constants dissociation constants; Equilibrium constants solubility product constants; pH and hydrogen ion concentration; Acids and bases; Buffer...

G. R. Seidel

1976-01-01

71

Water resources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

1973-01-01

72

Extraterrestrial Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life as we know it, i.e., carbon-based organisms that rely on RNA and DNA for information storage and transfer, requires liquid water. Thus, the search for life elsewhere in the universe generally begins with a search for liquid water. In our own Solar System, Earth is the only planet (or moon) that has liquid water at its surface. Mars and

J. F. Kasting

2002-01-01

73

Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students study the availability of fresh water on Earth and the methods that can be used to purify and conserve it. They also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce water usage.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

74

Water Conditioner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

1994-01-01

75

Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

76

Water Resources Data Utah, Water Year 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-resources data for the year 2001 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water.

D. E. Wilberg J. R. Tibbetts L. R. Herbert

2002-01-01

77

Ground Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains,plains, and deserts. It's not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and descri be. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old ; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old . Water under the Earth's surface is called ground water.

U.S. Geological Survey

1986-01-01

78

Novel conducting tissues in Lower Devonian plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elongate cells presumed to comprise water-conducting tissues are described from the central regions of short lengths of two naked, stomatiferous, coalified, axial fossils from Lochkovian (Lower Devonian) fluvial rocks in the Welsh Borderland. In one, a discrete central strand is predominantly composed of uniformly thickened cells that are compared with central tissues in coeval plants, e.g. Aglaophyton, and the hydroids

D. EDWARDS; L. AXE

2000-01-01

79

Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will use this short interactive activity to check their understanding on what they learned about the water cycle Do you drink the same water as your great grandparents did? Check this website then answer the following questions. COLLECTION 1. How many times does water go through the cycle? 2. Explain each part of the cycle and why it is important. 3. Construct a model or diagram based off the information from this ...

Peterson, Lori

2009-09-28

80

Water Purifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

1992-01-01

81

Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners explore the various types of life that live in fresh water systems and how the presence of these organisms is an indication of the overall health of the water. Learners perform a water quality test that simulates tests performed in the field and use the data to determine the pollution level of three different streams. This activity also introduces learners to macroinvertebrates (animals without backbones).

Service, National P.

2011-08-20

82

Water Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

Kyrk, John

83

Ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some water underlies the Earth's surface almost everywhere, beneath hills, mountains, plains, and deserts. It is not always accessible, or fresh enough for use without treatment, and it's sometimes difficult to locate or to measure and describe. This water may occur close to the land surface, as in a marsh, or it may lie many hundreds of feet below the surface, as in some arid areas of the West. Water at very shallow depths might be just a few hours old; at moderate depth, it may be 100 years old; and at great depth or after having flowed long distances from places of entry, water may be several thousands of years old.

U.S. Geological Survey

1999-01-01

84

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

1993-01-01

85

Source Water Protection  

MedlinePLUS

... Drinking Water Source Water Source Water Protection Source Water Protection The drinking water we receive from our ... communities, resource managers and the public. My Source Water Basic Information Frequent Questions Source Water Pocket Guide ( ...

86

Water Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

87

Virginia's Waters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet describes the water resources in Virginia. Main sections included are: (1) "Introduction" (providing a general overview of the richness and diversity of Virginia's water resources both economic and recreational); (2) "River Basins" (illustrating the area drained by nine rivers and their tributaries); (3) "Bays" (including the…

Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; And Others

88

Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective. Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

89

Water Science for Schools: USGS Water Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information on many aspects of water, including text, pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center where users can offer opinions and test their water knowledge. Main topics include: water basics, Earth's water, water use, and special topics such as acid rain, saline water and other water-quality issues. Links to other water-related sites are also provided.

2001-07-02

90

Ground water. [Water pollution control  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

Costle

1980-01-01

91

Water 1: Water and Ice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will explore what happens to water as it goes from solid to liquid and back again; in addition, they will use observation, measurement, and communication skills to describe change. This lesson is the first in a three-part series that addresses a concept that is central to the understanding of the water cycle: that water is able to take many forms but is still water. This series of lessons is designed to prepare students to understand that most substances may exist as solids, liquids, or gases depending on the temperature, pressure, and nature of that substance. This knowledge is critical to understanding that water in our world is constantly cycling as a solid, liquid, or gas.

92

Cleaning Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students design and build their own water filtering system and collect data to compare water quality before and after filtering. They will conclude by developing a conclusion based upon their results and comparing individual results to class results to look for patterns. The activity is designed to accompany the Kids' Science News Network (KSNN) 21st Century Explorer 30-second news break entitled 'Where would a space explorer find water and oxygen?' The activity includes a teacher's guide and instructions for students, and a Spanish translation is available.

93

Montana Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Montana University System Water Center at Montana State University-Bozeman, this impressive site offers a wealth of information regarding issues related to water in Montana and nationally. A mix of political (regarding recent legislation), educational, research, and funding/employment "water information" is posted at this Website, under several section headings: Information, Featured Programs, Policy & Legislation, Learning Resources, and Montana Watersheds. In addition, a substantial collection of links to related organizations and resources assists users in finding further online information.

2000-01-01

94

Water Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

1994-01-01

95

Water Filters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

1988-01-01

96

WATER ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

97

Water Fountain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how a hydraulic pump works. Learners work in teams to design and build a unique water fountain that employs a hydraulic pump. This lesson also contains a demonstration of a hydraulic pump in action.

Ieee

2013-07-08

98

Healthy Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is an mock investigation into different macroinvertebrates found in the streams in your local city. Students will record and analyze data that will lead them to learn if the water quality is good or bad in their backyard.

Voss, Jason

99

WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...

100

Water Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to become familiar with the hydrology of your locale. Students will study and visit the Hydrology Study Site, conduct a visual survey to discover information about local land cover, water quality, and document their findings. They will use this initial investigation to raise questions about local land cover and/or water chemistry issues that may require further investigation.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

101

Water Resources Georgia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Resources Georgia: From the USGS web site comes the Georgia Water Information Network (GWIN)which offers water information for thousands of surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality measurement sites in Georgia.

2008-05-28

102

Total Water Management - slides  

EPA Science Inventory

Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

103

ESW 2009: Water, Water Everywhere  

NASA Video Gallery

Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every natural process on earth cannot be underestimated. It is vital to life, but it is also tightly coupled to climate, helping to carry heat f...

104

Water law  

SciTech Connect

Water law overlaps a number of legal fields beyond the narrow scope the term implies. These include environmental law, natural resources law, real property law, and tort law. This diversity can pose problems for those water resource administrators, consultants, and other professionals who need access to the latest legal decisions, but who cannot find the needed information in one single, convenient, and easily understood form. This new book is designed to present recent developments in water law on a level that can be easily understood, with a minimum of ''legalese.'' No prior knowledge of the law or legal system is necessary to understand the material, and all legal terms are explained in the text.

Goldfarb, W.

1984-01-01

105

Reuse of Regenerated Waters Under Water Scarcity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mediterranean countries face water supply challenges due to water scarcity. Water regeneration, recycling and reuse address\\u000a these challenges by resolving water resource issues and creating new sources of high-quality water supplies. Among others,\\u000a industrial activities worldwide account for about a quarter of all water consumption and there is hardly any industry that\\u000a does not use large amounts of water. Water

I. Ortiz; R. Ibáñez; A. M. Urtiaga; P. Gómez

106

Ground water contamination  

SciTech Connect

This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

Not Available

1991-01-01

107

Water Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

2010-06-04

108

Water Spout  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

2013-01-01

109

Water Detectives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introductory classroom activity, students exercise their scientific skills of observation and deduction as they use their senses and simple laboratory assays, such as pH indicator paper, to identify mystery pollutants in water samples. Activity includes a student worksheet. This is a learning activity within the Hydrology chapter, GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

110

Water Quality  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning module, students work in teams to examine a broad array of information related to water quality in Lower Wheeling Creek and the Wheeling Creek watersheds in Wheeling, West Virginia. This module is part of Exploring the Environment.

111

Energetic Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how hot and cold water move. Learners observe that temperature and density affect how liquids rise and fall. Learners also discover that although they can't see molecules with their eyes, they can demonstrate that molecules are always moving.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

112

Water world  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reproduced a beautiful sea and animals in the ocean by the latest software technology. They show their life in the great water world. Wave, splash, bubble and all fluid movement were created by our original fluid simulator to bling realistic and correct expression. In the beautiful ocean, dolphins, whale sharks, great white sharks, humpback whales and other beautiful animals

Makoto Chiba

2010-01-01

113

Troubling Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the world's richest deltas has been radically replumbed, its ecosystem is collapsing, and Californians are realizing their water supply is tapped out. Despite decades of efforts--and some positive trends--solutions may not be any closer. Downstream, the San Francisco Bay looks good by comparison.

Carolyn J. Strange (freelance writer;)

2008-12-01

114

Water watch  

SciTech Connect

In this issue of Water Watch, a summary of precipitation, drought, and streamflow conditions during the summer is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts (through October) for each region are given. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in July.

Not Available

1991-10-01

115

Variation in adhesion strength of Balanus eburneus, crassostrea virginica and hydroides dianthus to fouling-release coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the shear adhesion strength of barnacles, oysters and tubeworms on eight RTV 11?based silicone fouling?release coatings containing different silicone oil additives. It was found that adhesion strength differed among species and coating types. In most cases, oysters and tubeworms had higher adhesion strengths than barnacles. Barnacle adhesion strength was reduced on all coatings containing oil additives; however,

Christopher J Kavanagh; Michael P Schultz; Geoffrey W Swain; Judith Stein; Kathryn Truby; Christina Darkangelo Wood

2001-01-01

116

USS Princeton (CG 59): Impact of Marine Macrofouling (Mussels and Hydroids) on Failures/Corrosion Problems in Seawater Piping Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presentation summarized some of the information that will be released as NAVSWC TR 90-176 on macrofouling problems within the seawater piping system of the USS PRINCETON (CG 59) and its contribution to the failures/corrosion problems observed. Some se...

B. J. Little J. M. Jones

1990-01-01

117

Thirstin's Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation of the water cycle. The user can select individual parts, such as: rain, water vapor, water storage and clouds. The user can observe water as it cycles through the various parts of the water cycle.

118

Earth's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The total amount of water on Earth, the places in which it is found and the percentages of fresh vs. salt are examined in this lesson. A short demonstration allows students to visualize the percentage differences and a coloring exercise illustrates locations. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model. All background information, student worksheets and images/photographs/data are included in these downloadable sections: Teacher's Guide, Student Capture Sheet and PowerPoint Presentation.

119

Troubled Waters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the influences of different parameters on the environmental quality of a river system. They will run a computer model of a river system, interpret graphs, and adjust model parameters such as wind speed, sewage load, and other variables to determine their effects on water quality. For teachers, there are additional background materials, teaching tips, evaluation methods, and links to national standards.

Farmer, John

120

Water characteristics  

SciTech Connect

Recent research on water characteristics is cited in this review article. Acid precipitation has been noted as one of the major environmental problems of the current decade. It poses a serious challenge to national and international bodies to protect water quality. Considerable interest was voiced in 1980 over the causes and effects, prevention and control of acid rain. One study estimated that acid rain was causing an estimated annual $5 billion loss in crop, forest, and aquatic yields. Several conferences were held during 1980 on acid rain problems. Groundwater contamination from acid rain was cited as one of the many current and anticipated problems in maintaining a clean and healthful water supply. Acid rain and vegetation interactions were studied in depth, as were the effects of acid precipitation on aquatic organisms. A procedure was developed which may be useful in the quantification of acid rain via isolated precipitation events. Acid precipitation was studied in forest environments. Two efforts assessed the potential for acid rain to leach into the soil. 154 references.

Smith, E.D.

1981-06-01

121

Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 60 surface-water stations (including 42 gaging stations) and 112 wells; and water levels for 304 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

Baumann, Todd; Goree, B. B.; Lovelace, W. M.; Montogmery, P. A.; Resweber, J. C.; Ross, Garron B.; Ward, Aub N.; Walters, David J.

2005-01-01

122

Water Wise: A Water Use Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…

Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

123

Principles of Water Quality  

SciTech Connect

CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

Waite, T.D.

1984-01-01

124

Water Source Books  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Online curriculum guides for K-12 with over 324 activities related to wetlands, coastal waters, and water resources. Each grade section (K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12) is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters.

125

Be Water Wise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various topics on water and water conservation are discussed, each general topic followed by a student activity. Topics include: (1) importance of water; (2) water in the environment; (3) getting water to and from homes (making water usable; treating wastewater; on-site systems, including water wells and septic tanks); (4) relationship between…

Birch, Sandra K.; Pettus, Alvin M.

126

Water Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silver ionization water purification technology was originally developed for Apollo spacecraft. It was later used to cleanse swimming pools and has now been applied to industrial cooling towers and process coolers. Sensible Technologies, Inc. has added two other technologies to the system, which occupies only six square feet. It is manufactured in three capacities, and larger models are custom built on request. The system eliminates scale, corrosion, algae, bacteria and debris, and because of the NASA technology, viruses and waterborne bacteria are also destroyed. Applications include a General Motors cooling tower, amusement parks, ice manufacture and a closed-loop process cooling system.

1992-01-01

127

Fresh Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You will use online resources to learn about freshwater ecosystems, the critters that live in them and the effect we have on them. You may choose to print this page out to assist you in answering questions. In studying fresh water, we will be looking at three different ecosystems: Streams and Rivers; Ponds and Lakes; and Wetlands. The following site contains information about all 3. Answer the questions on loose-leaf or in an MS Word document, to be printed. Freshwater Ecosystems (title provided or enhanced by cataloger) After clicking the link above, click on "Rivers ...

Bionagy

2008-10-25

128

Water Conservation Devices: Residential Water Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A consumer-oriented capsule report highlights findings of research projects funded through the Office of Water Research and Technology which treat the significance, economics, and application of water conservation. Water conservation measures and devices,...

1977-01-01

129

Water resources data, Nebraska, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2004 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 101 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 6 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 7 gaging stations and 40 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 74 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 200 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies.

compiled by Hitch, D. E.; Soensken, P. J.; Sebree, S. K.; Wilson, K. E.; Walczyk, V. C.; Drudik, R. A.; Miller, J. D.; Hull, S. H.

2005-01-01

130

Water Resources Data, Nebraska, Water Year 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2003 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 103 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 5 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 14 gaging stations and 5 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 40 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 132 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies.

Hitch, D. E.; Hull, S. H.; Walczyk, V. C.; Miller, J. D.; Drudik, R. A.

2004-01-01

131

Water resources data, Kansas, water year 2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 155 complete-record gaging stations; elevation and contents at 17 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records at 2 precipitation stations, water-level data at 14 observation wells; and records of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity at 16 gaging stations and 2 lakes with water-quality monitors. Also included are discharge data for 29 high-flow partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies in Kansas.

Putnam, J. E.; Schneider, D. R.

2005-01-01

132

Water Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

1992-01-01

133

Water Safety Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

Water Safety Quiz Trivia quiz loading... Please enable javascript. Stay Safe around Water Download water safety tips in English or Spanish and share them with your friends. Make Water Safety a Priority Contact your local Red Cross ...

134

Lead and tap water  

MedlinePLUS

Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water and requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports, which include information about lead amounts, are available to consumers. For ...

135

Water Science School  

MedlinePLUS

The USGS Water Science School The USGS Water Science School Welcome to the U.S. Geological Survey's ( USGS ) Water Science School. We offer information on many aspects of water, along with pictures, ...

136

Water: Consumer Information  

MedlinePLUS

... EPA's (PDF) page to learn more. Your Drinking Water Quality Water On Tap: What You Need to ... Drinking Water Sources (PDF) (2 pp, 563K) Drinking Water Emergencies Learn what to do in the event ...

137

Build a Kit: Water  

MedlinePLUS

... your family’s needs during an emergency. How Much Water Do I Need? You should store at least ... of water per person. How Should I Store Water? It is recommended you purchase commercially bottled water, ...

138

Learn about Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Search Contact Us Learn the Issues Learn about Water When the water in our rivers, lakes, and ... swim and fish. See all water resources . Our Waters Wetlands Oceans, Coasts, Estuaries and Beaches Watersheds More ...

139

Private Ground Water Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Water Healthy Water Home Share Compartir Private Ground Water Wells Many people in the United States receive ... answers to frequently asked questions about wells . Ground Water and Wells When rain falls, much of it ...

140

Important Water Quality Factors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

141

Water Contamination Demonstration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Summary: Misplaced Matter and Water Pollution The drinking water pollution demonstration provides a very simple but dramatic way to get students to think about water contamination and drinking water standards, ...

142

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Drinking Water Radon in Drinking Water Public Health ... States and community water systems for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, ...

143

Weather and Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The importance of water in the world today is emphasized and the hydrological cycle described. Aspects of hydrology - damming, irrigation, water loss, water supply - are noted, and the role of WMO, particularly in developing countries, in water resources ...

1977-01-01

144

Virtual water trade and world water resources.  

PubMed

Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water. PMID:15195440

Oki, T; Kanae, S

2004-01-01

145

Everyone into the Water!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…

Hennessey, Christina L.

2007-01-01

146

China's water scarcity  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water

Yong Jiang

2009-01-01

147

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand and explain parts of the water cycle. First watch the video to get a background about the water cycle: water cycle video Draw and explain the water cycle in your own words (include the terms: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, at least 3 bodies of water, the sun). Before reading the experiment record your predictions: If you put a small amount of water ...

Amanda, Miss

2011-02-14

148

Testing the Waters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)

Finks, Mason

1993-01-01

149

Physiological Water Model Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since r...

S. Doty

1993-01-01

150

Magnificent Ground Water Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Magnificent Ground Water Connection is a compilation of ground water-related activities for teaching and learning purposes. The teacher's activity guide is applicable to a wide range of subject matter and the ground water theme is integrated into stories, songs, math, social studies, art and writing. The topics include basic concepts of the water cycle, water distribution, treatment and stewardship. Other subjects include the water cycle and water conservation, New England's ground water resources, ground water contamination and protection. Sections are also available for wetlands, ground water, marine debris, waster, air quality, acid rain, and energy. Users can also access an on-line lending library for educational materials and videos.

151

Water Conservation in Urban Botswana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper covers the following topics: why save water; who uses water; how water is used; how to save water (leaks, water saving devices, strategies); cost factors; recommended reading; Gaborone cluster and water resources; suppliers specializing in water...

N. J. Wilkinson

1986-01-01

152

Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

Glasser, L.

2004-01-01

153

Water Remediation Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students measure the effectiveness of water filters in purifying contaminated water. They prepare test water by creating different concentrations of bleach (chlorine-contaminated) water. After passing the contaminated water through commercially available Brita® water filters designed to purify drinking water, students determine the chlorine concentration of the purified water using chlorine test strips and measure the adsorption of chlorine onto activated carbon over time. They graph and analyze their results to determine the effectiveness of the filters. The household active carbon filters used are one example of engineer-designed water purification systems.

GK-12 Program,

154

Primer on Water Quality  

MedlinePLUS

... fs-027-01.pdf--665KB A Primer on Water Quality What is in the water? Is it safe for drinking? Can fish and ... affect water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as ...

155

Water Governance and Legislation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can review Canadian water policy and legislation for both provinces and federal government. Topics include the nature of water, water policy and legislation, water management, water and culture, and links to information and services (a glossary, news articles, and a teachers' corner). A French translation is available.

2003-07-31

156

Rendering Natural Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating and rendering realistic water is one of the most daunting tasks in computer graphics. Realistic rendering of water requires that the sunlight and skylight illumination are correct, the water surface is modeled accurately and that the light transport within water body is properly handled. This paper describes a method for wave generation on a water surface using a physically-based

Simon Premoze; Michael Ashikhmin

2001-01-01

157

Introduction to Water Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with examples of the types of problems that environmental engineers solve, specifically focusing on water quality issues. Topics include the importance of clean water, the scarcity of fresh water, tap water contamination sources, and ways environmental engineers treat contaminated water.

GK-12 Program,

158

Water flow controller device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of a water flow controller device of the type used for connecting a solar collecting device to conventional facility plumbing and a water reservoir, which comprises: (A) a cold water source connector; (B) a hot water feed connector; (C) a collector supply connector; (D) a collector return connector; (E) a cold water inlet connector; (F) a

Fender

1980-01-01

159

Acid in water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

Laszlo Ilyes (None;)

2007-05-16

160

Water Quality: An Introduction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of the various aspects of water quality, including a rationale for multidisciplinary cooperation in water quality management, a list of beneficial water uses, a discussion of the major types of water pollutants, and an explanation of the use of aquatic biota in testing for water quality. (CS)

Merritt, LaVere B.

1977-01-01

161

Human Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the human water cycle, or how humans impact the water cycle by settling down in civilizations. Specifically, they learn how people obtain, use and dispose of water. Students also learn about shortages of treated, clean and safe water and learn about ways that engineers address this issue through water conservation and graywater recycling.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

162

Water Resources Data - Wisconsin, Water Year 2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Wisconsin include records of streamflow at gaging stations, partialrecord stations, and miscellaneous sites, records of precipitation, and records of chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of surface water. In addition, water levels in observation wells are reported. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State and local agencies and other Federal agencies in Wisconsin.

Waschbusch, R. J.; Olson, D. L.; Ellefson, B. R.; Stark, P. A.

2004-01-01

163

Water Resources Data - Wisconsin, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Wisconsin include records of streamflow at gaging stations, partial record stations, and miscellaneous sites, records of precipitation, and records of chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of surface water. In addition, water levels in observation wells are reported. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State and local agencies and other Federal agencies in Wisconsin.

Waschbusch, R. J.; Olson, D. L.; Ellefson, B. R.; Stark P. A.

2003-01-01

164

Intermittent Water Supply under Water Scarcity Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the recently developed ‘Guidelines for the design and control of intermittent water distribution systems’. These guidelines outline a new approach to the design of urban water distribution systems for developing countries in order to maintain adequate and equitable supplies under the common conditions of water resource shortage. The guidelines are novel in that they recognise the reality

Kala Vairavamoorthy; Sunil D. Gorantiwar; S. Mohan

2007-01-01

165

WATER RECLAMATION AND AUTOMATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Santa Clara Valley Water District owns and operates a water reclamation facility located in the Palo Alto Baylands area in Northern California. The purpose of the facility is to provide reclaimed water suitable for injection into the groundwater, thereby providing a salt wate...

166

Water in the City  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water in the City is part of the Franklin Institute Science Museum's Science in the City Web site. The activity is described as a way to investigate the most precious natural resource in cities. The resources accumulated and presented on the site are held within several areas that include Water Basics, Water Science, Philadelphia Water Ways, Worldwide Water Ways, and References and Activities. The water basics page, for example, contains a glossary of water terminology; water trivia; and information on water myths and realities, dams, water power, conserving water, and keeping water clean. Although most resources are from outside sources, the site does a good job of explaining the concepts and providing kids with a single spot to explore other sites with information on this specific subject.

167

Water safety and drowning  

MedlinePLUS

... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR. Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

168

Contaminated Sediments in Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Sediments Contaminated Sediments in Water Contaminated Sediments in Water Overview Basic Information Technical Resources CS Data Find ... released years ago while other contaminants enter our water every day. Some contaminants flow directly from industrial ...

169

Sinking and Floating Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a classroom lab where students learn that cold water is denser and hot water is less dense than room temperature water. Students perform an experiment and relate to their background knowledge to make conjectures.

Thill, Nancy

170

Individual Water Purifier Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. warfighters may encounter difficulties obtaining suitable drinking water while in a deployed situation. Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) water purification devices are often used to provide microbiologically safe drinking water when an Army-provided w...

A. Lundquist J. Walther L. Wurster S. Kooistra W. Bettin

2007-01-01

171

OFFICE OF WATER DOCKET  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Office of Water (OW) develops regulations and standards for contaminants in the Nation's waters. Section 101(e) of the Clean Water Act requires that "public participation in the development or revision of any regulations, standard, effluent limitation,...

172

Aging Water Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

173

Why Do Eyes Water?  

MedlinePLUS

... out of your nose. Continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides crying. Anything ... can still bug your eyes. Eyes might also water if you're around an onion that's being ...

174

EPANET Water Quality Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPANET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. EPANET performs extended period...

L. A. Rossman

1993-01-01

175

Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms is a helpful collection of resources for water researchers and professionals provided by the Nevada Division of Water Resources and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. This extensive and freely accessed dictionary contains hundreds of words, which are organized alphabetically, making it perfect for searching and printing. Also provided are dozens of appendixes, abbreviations and acronyms, conversion tables and flow equivalents, and more.

1999-01-01

176

Home Water Audit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity offers learners and their families several ways to raise their awareness together about home water. Included are a Home Water Audit Chart to help families record their water; a link to an educational film about water and conservation; ideas for family discussions about water use; information about recycling graywater; and math-themed efforts such as creating a pie chart of use and comparing water bills. The cost of this activity is minimal if a calculator is already on hand.

National 4-H Council

2009-01-01

177

Water Resources Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQâs, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

178

Industrial Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of its Water Science for Schools site, the US Geological Survey defines industrial water use and includes several tables and maps showing where and how industry uses water. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much surface water is used in industry as well as how much of that water is fresh or saline.

2002-10-10

179

Emerging water industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh-water supplies are endangered by overuse, pollution, and the combination of droughts and population migrations. Less than one percent of the earth's water supply is fresh, and this could lessen as the quality of rainwater deteriorates. The private-sector investors in water rights to springs and pure-water sources are bottling water for sale, but this is only a temporary solution. Water-futures

Fitzell

1981-01-01

180

Water Science for Schools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excellent teaching resource from U.S.G.S on water, from basic properties to water quality, inventory of world water sources, how to measure streamflow, components of water use patterns, human impacts, offers a quiz in the interactive Activity Center. Site also available in Spanish, interactive diagram with details of water cycle is available in 50 languages. Provides map and data libraries on who uses water and what for purposes, glossary, question and answer page, pictures and related links.

181

Water Cycle Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and its role in studying the water cycle. This webquest provides links to eight websites, allowing middle school students to explore the water cycle and its impacts on Earth's weather and climate. Through online videos and articles, students follow a water molecule through the cycle, discover the connection between the water cycle and global water/heat distribution, examine the role of solar energy, and assess the importance of fresh water.

182

Trees, Soil and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - health care for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification.

Addison, Keith

2010-01-01

183

Water for Power Plant Cooling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Future demands for cooling water needed for the production of electrical energy; possible sources of cooling water, including agricultural and municipal waste water, brackish and saline interior water, geothermal water, ground water, and fresh surface wat...

1977-01-01

184

Mission Geography: Water, Water Almost Everywhere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mission Geography uses existing NASA data and images where possible to engage students in active, hands-on inquiry, modeling the scientific method and developing students' understanding of environment-society relations and Earth science. In this module, students compare the amount of land and water on Earth; consider craters as evidence of a lack of water on other planets; define and locate water bodies found on Earth; and identify changes that occur in these water bodies. The module contains four investigations in which students compare the amounts of land and water on Earth, learn that the presence of craters indicate a dry planet, study and compare water bodies, and explore how water bodies respond to changes in weather and climate. Each investigation is complete with overview, a list of materials and supplies, content preview, classroom procedures, worksheets, background, and evaluation.

185

Ferroelectric mobile water.  

PubMed

In molecular dynamics simulations single-domain ferroelectric water is produced under ordinary ambient conditions utilizing carbon nanotubes open to a water reservoir. This ferroelectric water diffuses while keeping its proton-ordered network intact. The mobile/immobile water transitions and the step-wise changes in net polarization of water are observed to occur spontaneously. The immobile water becomes mobile by transforming into the single-domain ferroelectric water. Our general notion of relating a more highly ordered structure with a lower temperature has so far restricted researchers' attention to very low temperatures when experimenting on proton-ordered phases of water. The present study improves our general understanding of water, considering that the term 'ferroelectric water' has so far practically stood for 'ferroelectric ice,' and that single-domain ferroelectric water has not been reported even for the ice nanotubes. PMID:21072393

Nakamura, Yoshimichi; Ohno, Takahisa

2011-01-21

186

Water-heating dehumidifier  

DOEpatents

A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

2006-04-18

187

Geothermal hot water system  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal hot water system including a hot water tank and a warm water tank which are heated independently of each other by a close loop freon system. The closed loop freon system includes a main condenser which heats water for the warm water tank and a super-heated condenser which heats water for the hot water tank, and where the freon passes through a water evaporator which is heated by water such as from a well or other suitable source. The water evaporator in the closed loop freon system passes the water through but no environmental change to the water. An electrical circuit including aquastats in the warm water tank connected therethrough controls operation of the closed loop freon system including respective pumps on the super-heated condenser and main condenser for pumping water. Pumps pump water through the main condenser for the warm tank and through the super-heated condenser for the hot tank. The system provides for energy conservation in that the head pressure of the compressor is kept in the lower operating ranges as determined by the discharge flow of the main condenser which varies by the head pressure and temperature flow control which varies by temperature. The geothermal hot water system uses a least amount of energy in heating the water in the hot tank as well as the warm tank.

Dittell, E.W.

1983-05-10

188

Sustainability and Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate(VI) technology to meet the demand of water in this century.

Sharma, Virender A.

2009-07-01

189

Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

L. Glasser

2004-01-01

190

Water footprint of Ghana  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a case in point. The water required for energy production through hydropower is important to account for, as well as the question to what extent this may or may not be considered non-consumptive water use. Further research is needed to correctly estimate the water footprint of energy-intensive products. Keywords: water footprint, virtual water, trade, commodity

Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.

2009-04-01

191

Water laws and concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A publication on water management of the National Academy of Sciences [1966, 38] contains the following statement: In the public allocation process it is unlikely that society will welcome widepread and strict allocation of water. Water is regarded as a birthright of Americans---a common holding in which there are common stakes. Other commodities are not so regarded; water is singled

Harold E. Thomas

1969-01-01

192

Hold the Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many facilities are considering no-water urinals because they are regarded as an effective way to conserve water. Water must be pumped by electricity, some estimate that as much as $300 per year per urinal can be saved in utility costs. The installation of no-water urinals can help buildings achieve credits toward Leadership in Energy and…

Kravitz, Robert; Reichardt, Klaus

2006-01-01

193

Absorbed dose water calorimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An absorbed dose water calorimeter that takes advantage of the low thermal diffusivity of water and the water-imperviousness of polyethylene film. An ultra-small bead thermistor is sandwiched between two thin polyethylene films stretched between insulative supports in a water bath. The polyethylene films insulate the thermistor and its leads, the leads being run out from between the films in insulated

Domen

1982-01-01

194

Water Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The water cycle is Earth's natural mechanism for transporting and recycling water between the surface and the atmosphere. Through the processes of condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, transpiration, and evaporation, water continuously travels from the atmosphere to the ground and back again. In this animation from NASA, users can observe the steps of the water cycle. The segment is fifty-two seconds in length.

195

Global Water Distribution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How much water on Earth is fresh water? How much of that fresh water is found in icecaps? Lakes? Rivers? This interactive resource uses bar graphs to illustrate the relative distribution of fresh and salt water on Earth. Adapted from Oxford University Press.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

196

Exploratorium: Exploring Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

Brand, Judith, Ed.

2001-01-01

197

Domestic Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the USGS Water Science for School's web site, this page describes domestic water uses that include water for all the things you do at home: drinking, preparing food, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, brushing your teeth, watering the yard, and even washing the dog.

2008-04-28

198

Domestic wash water reclamation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

1974-01-01

199

Water Molecule Residence Times  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How long will a molecule of Water stay in a particular reservoir? What is the average time a molecule of Water will stay in an ocean? What is the average time a molecule of water will stay in a river? A lake? As groundwater? A glacier? How long will a water vapor molecule stay suspended in the atmosphere? Why is the residence ...

Science, Sill -.

2010-11-16

200

Water Exploration Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on page 3 of the PDF), learners investigate the way water moves and how we can control and direct water. At the Water Exploration Station, learners experiment with various tools like eye droppers, sponges, turkey basters, etc. to move and play with the water. Included in this lesson guide are challenge questions intended to direct the learning.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

201

Household hot water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An arrangement for combination with the conventional hot water system of a house or building in which the water is conventionally heated and stored in a tank, the arrangement comprising a solar energy panel (at an upper level) with a thermostatic valve and a supplementary cold water tank, connected into the system in such a way that hot water is

Tacchi

1983-01-01

202

Water and Something Else.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…

Hougendobler, Nancy

203

Potable water supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

1975-01-01

204

Waves and Water Beetles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

Tucker, Vance A.

1971-01-01

205

Chemistry Review: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Review focuses on the many different aspects and states of water. Water is analyzed by its molecular make-up and structure, and the reasons substances dissolve in water are give. Videos and animations are provided to clearly show the set-up of its molecular structure. The relationship between sugar and water molecules are explained in detail, with models as examples.

Kessler, James; Galvan, Patti

2010-01-01

206

WATER QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Background Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...

207

Crop Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations focuses on crop water use. The diagrams and explanations provided here show the influence of climate on crop water needs, the influence of crop type on crop water needs and how to calculate crop water needs.

2008-06-30

208

Alabama Water Use, 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

2009-01-01

209

Impact of water withdrawals from groundwater and surface water on continental water storage variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use model WaterGAP. This required estimation of fractions of total water withdrawals from groundwater, considering five water use sectors. According to

P. Döll; H. Hoffmann-Dobrev; F. T. Portmann; S. Siebert; A. Eicker; M. Rodell; G. Strassberg; B. R. Scanlon

210

PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in other liquids also. Recent evidence of a close relation between thermodynamical properties and dynamical behaviour of water are also discussed. Gallo et al present the results of a computer simulation of water confined in a cylindrical pore of MCM-41 silica material. The mobile portion of the confined water shows a fragile to strong dynamic transition similar to the bulk. In the bound water, an anomalous diffusion connected to the residence time distribution is found. Franzese et al report calculations on lattice models adapted to describe general properties of water in contact with protein surfaces. The results of Monte Carlo and mean field calculations show the presence of two-dynamical crossovers. Corradini et al investigate the supercooled region of ionic aqueous solutions in order to study the effect of ions on the limit of mechanical stability, the lines of maximum density and the liquid-liquid critical point for different ionic concentrations. The paper by Vallauri et al deals with the dynamical behavior of water close to the liquid-liquid transition by considering the velocity correlation functions calculated in three supercooled states. Suffritti et al study water adsorbed in zeolites with a new empirical potential, structural and dynamical properties are studied in the supercooled region. The second group starts with a paper on the problem of solvation by Lynden-Bell. The author shows how the properties of water and, in particular, solvation properties are modified by changes in the site-site interaction potential of water. Henchman et al derive equations for different thermodynamical quantities like partial enthalpy and partial entropy for dilute solutions of noble gases. The third group starts with Buldyrev et al who study the swelling of bead-on-a-string polymers in Jagla water-like particles, finding similarities with respect to cold denaturation of protein in water. Pellenq et al consider water confined in pores of different materials with different size scales. Silicalite and tobermorite, a layered calcio-silicate model of cement and Vycor are anal

Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

2010-07-01

211

The Water Filtration Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

212

Irrigation Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the USGS Water Science for Schools site, this resource defines irrigation water use and includes several tables and maps showing water use by various irrigation systems, by state, by crop, and by percentage of fresh water available. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much ground water and surface water is used for irrigation. Various irrigation systems are defined, described, and pictured, along with a discussion of their relative efficiencies. A Spanish translation is available.

2003-05-28

213

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Did you know that the water we use today is the same water found on Earth millions of years ago? The Earth constantly uses and recycles water in a process called the water cycle. In this lesson, learners explore the four phases of the water cycle. In the investigation Rain in a Jar, learners use hot water and ice to create condensation and a tiny cloud. In Making a Terrarium, learners create an ecosystem and water cycle by growing plants in a closed environment. Investigation spans several days.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

214

Water Info For Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The City of Phoenix Web offers the Water Info For Kids page as part of its larger governmental Web site. Six topics are covered including What is water?, What is the Hydrologic (Water) Cycle?, Where does our water come from?, Who uses water?, How can we take care of water?, and Phoenix water and wastewater facts. Each page contains non-technical text and colorful graphics making it especially good for younger students. And, although a "next" link would make the pages flow better from one to the next, the site does a good job of presenting the material in a fun and challenging way.

215

The Water Sourcebooks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Sourcebooks contain 324 activities for grades K-12 divided into four sections: K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12. Each section is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters. This environmental education program explains the water management cycle using a balanced approach, showing how it affects all aspects of the environment. All activities contain hands-on investigations, fact sheets, reference materials, and a glossary of terms. Activities are organized by objectives, materials needed, background information, advance preparation, procedures, and resources.

2007-12-12

216

Water Resources of Utah  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey website provides real-time streamflow, surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality data; information on water resource programs of Utah such as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study; maps and graphs of current U.S. water resource conditions; and USGS - Utah reports. The site also features a drought watch section for Utah containing drought definitions and more streamflow conditions; a section on the Upper Arkansas River Basin Toxic-Substances Hydrology Project; and information on contamination in ground water at Fry Canyon, Utah.

217

The African Water Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Len Abrams, the goal of the African Water Page is to "increase communication on the Continent of Africa between people working in water." Issues for discussion include "water policy, water resource management, water supply and environmental sanitation, water conservation and demand management." Visitors to this page can find information about recent policy initiatives in South Africa, water related documents concerning South Africa, Zimbabwe, the African continent, and some international topics. Also included are links to South and Southern African and International sites.

Abrams, Leonard J.

1995-01-01

218

Wash water recovery system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (editor)

1973-01-01

219

Water Vapor Imagery: Water Vapor Imagery Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-paced, interactive tutorial enables learners to discover practical uses for water vapor imagery from weather satellites. The module introduces the concept and function of the water vapor channel of satellite imagery, and teaches how to interpret and apply data obtained from the water vapor channel. At the end of the tutorial, links are provided to real world data collected by NASA satellites where learners can apply the skills they have acquired. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Water Vapor Imagery. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

220

Water Resources Data, Mississippi, Water Year 2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.

Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D. P.; Storm, J. B.

2003-01-01

221

Water Resource Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

222

Water Treatment Process  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

223

National Ground Water Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains a wealth of information for the groundwater professional and for students of hydrogeology. The site features educational materials, information about conferences, courses and workshops, and a bookstore. There is also a searchable database of abstracts from the journals Ground Water, Ground Water Monitoring Review, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, and the Water Well Journal. Members of the National Ground Water Association may access these articles directly. Publications, fact sheets and industry links are also available.

Association, National G.

224

American Water Works Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Water Works Association (AWWA) describes its endeavors to improve drinking water quality and supply throughout the world. Visitors can find fact sheets on water pollutants, scientific and public articles, and information on conferences. The educational materials include scholarship opportunities, information about the Water and Wastewater Leadership Center, and a seminar schedule. Researchers can find out about the numerous AWWA's development of products and processes to improve public water quality.

2007-10-18

225

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive diagram of the water cycle invites students to click on a part of the cycle to get information about streamflow, surface runoff, freshwater storage, ground-water discharge, ground-water storage, infiltration, precipitation, snowmelt, runoff to streams, springs, condensation, evaporation, transpiration, water in the atmosphere, ice and snow, and oceans. A summary of the water cycle on a single webpage is also available as text with pictures in about fifty languages, text only in thirteen languages, or diagram only.

226

Standards and Guides of Water Treatment and Water Distribution Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following five important documents are compiled for design of municipal water treatment facilities and water distribution systems: (1) Ten States Recommended Standards for Water Works; (2) A Public Water Supply Guide--Designing Community Water Systems...

L. K. Wang M. H. S. Wang

1987-01-01

227

OVERVIEW OF USEPA'S WATER SUPPLY & WATER RESOURCES DIVISION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts a wide range of research on regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water, water distribution systems, homeland security, source water protection, and...

228

Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.  

PubMed

Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

Cabral, João P S

2010-10-01

229

Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water  

PubMed Central

Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

Cabral, Joao P. S.

2010-01-01

230

Price of Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are watercourses on the globe which as yet do not deliver up their energy to the needs of the people. How much energy their waters bear, is it worth to take away this energy? Those and alike questions must be (and they are) answered before start to build hydro power station. Similar problems must be solved to control hydro power plants in most gainful way which is known as hydrothermal coordination. The notion of price of water can be met lately in technical literature as one of numerical indices of these issues. The gross price of water and net price of water are considered in this paper. Gross price of 1 t water is the price of electric energy obtained by conversion of potential energy of 1 t of water, lifted to a height of power station water head. Net price of water is the difference between gross price and total expenses determined by hydro power station building and its exploitation costs in a year related to 1 m3 of water. If net price of water is positive, it is worth building power station. The greater net price is, the more urgent is the building. Net price of water grows with water head but it continues only to some height of the dam because further increase of head sharply increases capital outlay and other exploitation expenses. To maximize net price of water, optimization of net price function can be done. Net price of water diminishes when some amount of water is diverted for other needs. When amount of diverted water is out of discussion, no controversy can emerge. However when by diverted water some goods with some monetary worth can be obtained, the task must be solved how much water can be diverted so that the water of watercourse be used to the maximum benefit. The environmental issues must be taken into account as well.

Survilo, Josifs; Boreiko, Dmitrijs

2009-01-01

231

Automatic hot water recovery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat in the hot water lines of a water system is automatically recovered by providing a bridge conduit between the cold water lines and the hot water lines and by depressurizing the hot water lines relative to the cold water lines thereby to automatically direct higher pressure cold water into the hot water lines through the interconnection, which preferably is

Haws

1982-01-01

232

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOEpatents

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

1994-01-01

233

Reactor water cleanup system  

DOEpatents

A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

1994-12-20

234

World Water Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1997, the World Water Council had its first official forum in Marrakech, and since then they have continued their work on "critical water issues at all levels." Some of these issues include efficient water conservation, water use management, and other relevant matters. With its compelling visual images and design, the homepage contains sections that provide information on upcoming World Water Forums and some very helpful overviews of their work. One such general overview may be found in the "Water at a Glance" area, which provides information on the nature of freshwater resources around the globe. Persons involved in water policy and international affairs may wish to look over their online library, which includes their annual reports, synopses of materials covered in the Water Forum meetings, and papers such as "The Right to Water: From Concept To Implementation." It is also worth noting that many of the materials on the site are available in French and Spanish.

235

Water, water everywhere, and its remarkable chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosystem II (PSII), the multisubunit pigment–protein complex localised in the thylakoid membranes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, uses light energy to drive a series of remarkable reactions leading to the oxidation of water. The products of this oxidation are dioxygen, which is released to the atmosphere, and reducing equivalents destined to reduce carbon dioxide to organic molecules. The water oxidation occurs

Jim Barber

2004-01-01

236

Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (po...

C. Bostater

1998-01-01

237

Water resources in Nigeria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the limited data available, the components of the hydrologic cycle of which Nigeria's water resources form a part cannot be adequately quantified. However, some assessment of the water “reserves” of the surface and underground water sources indicate that there are large supplies that can be developed in Nigeria. The exploitation of Nigeria's water resources is in an early stage. Despite the progress that has been made in water supply development since the first waterworks in Nigeria was commissioned in Lagos in 1915, many Nigerians still have no access to a modern water supply. Water shortages exist periodically in almost every major town and are present in many rural areas of the country much of each year. New water laws are needed, as is the definition of the powers of the different water authorities, viz., the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, the River Basin Authorities, and the States' Water Boards. The goals of the water policy must be to make available enough good quality water for domestic uses and to exploit enough water for the use of rapidly growing industries and the year-round needs of agriculture, thereby lessening the adverse effect of the dry season.

Oteze, G. E.

1981-07-01

238

Healthy Swimming/Recreational Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Facts Index of Healthy Water-related Topics Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Home Drinking Water Healthy Swimming/ ... minimizing the risk of illness and injury. Recreational Water Illness (noun): Illness caused by germs and chemicals ...

239

Water: Too Precious to Waste.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

National Geographic World, 1983

1983-01-01

240

Deuterium in Iceland waters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the deuterium analysis of 159 samples of water collected in Iceland from hot-water boreholes, cold and hot springs, rivers and rain, the geographical distribution of deuterium in surface waters is plotted. On the basis of the deuterium analysis, the water from boreholes near Reykjavik does not originate from local precipitation. The variation of deuterium content of these water wells with time suggests that these data can be used to determine the time of travel of recharge water to the various boreholes, as well as the surface recharge area. ?? 1963.

Friedman, I.; Sigurgeirsson, T.; Gardarsson, O.

1963-01-01

241

Water Resources of Wyoming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.

242

Predicting Ground Water Flow  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students learn how to draw ground water contours and understand how ground water flow may be predicted. As they complete this activity students will be able to draw a ground water contour map, have a basic understanding of how to predict the direction of ground water flow and understand the interrelated nature of ground water and surface water flow. They will also learn the difference between a gaining stream and a losing stream and why it is important to know the difference.

243

Water gas furnace  

SciTech Connect

A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

Gallaro, C.

1985-12-03

244

Properties of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Environment Canada (mentioned in the January 21, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) provides the Properties of Water Webpage. Sections included at the page are the hydrologic cycle; rivers; lakes; snowfall; and measuring, storing, and controlling water, among others. The Quick Facts section contains interesting facts, like the following: raindrops resemble the shape of a hamburger bun, 70% of the human body is water, 75% of earth is covered in water, and most of our food is water (tomatoes 95%, spinach 91%, and beef 61%). This site provides detailed information about water and its properties.

2010-05-20

245

International Water Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A worldwide organization of water professionals, the International Water Association's (IWA) Web site illustrates its commitment "to help water professionals create innovative, pragmatic, and sustainable solutions to challenging global water needs." Visitors can discover IWA's many activities from conferences and forums to task forces. Researchers can discover the various IWS groups that specialize in topics including Source Management, Education, Health, Management Training, and Water Quality Management. Although many of the publications are restricted to members, educators and students can read reports from the Sustainability in Water Sector and abstracts from IWA journals.

2003-01-01

246

Water Resources Penn.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Resources Penn.: The Office of Water Management plans, directs and coordinates departmental programs associated with the management and protection of the CommonwealthÃÂs water resources; administers and oversees departmental programs involving surface and groundwater quantity and quality planning, and soil and water conservation; coordinates policies, procedures and regulations which influence public water supply withdrawals and quality, sewage facilities planning, point source municipal and industrial discharges, encroachments upon waterways and wetlands, dam safety, earth disturbance activities and control of storm water and nonpoint source pollution; and coordinates the planning, design and construction of flood protection and stream improvement projects.

2008-09-22

247

Urban water interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental understanding of aquatic interface processes in urban environments, advance understanding of current and future system behaviour, and promote an integrated urban water management.

Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

2014-06-01

248

33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

2013-07-01

249

33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

2011-07-01

250

33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

2010-07-01

251

33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

2012-07-01

252

Water Resources Data for Alaska, Water Year 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Alaska consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The volume contains records for water discharge at 82 ...

R. D. Lamke R. T. Kemnitz M. R. Carr D. S. Thomas K. M. Novcaski

1992-01-01

253

Water Resources Data for Alaska, Water Year 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1990 water year for Alaska consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The volume contains records for water discharge at 85 g...

R. D. Lamke B. B. Bigelow J. L. VanMaanen R. T. Kemnitz K. M. Novcaski

1991-01-01

254

Water Resources Data for Alaska, Water Year 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Alaska consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The volume contains records for water discharge at 10...

R. T. Kemnitz K. M. Novcaski R. L. Rickman W. C. Swanner K. R. Linn

1993-01-01

255

Water Resources Data for Alaska, Water Year 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1993 water year for Alaska consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground water wells. This volume contains records for water discharge at 9...

K. R. Linn R. T. Kemnitz B. J. Bailey R. L. Rickman W. C. Swanner

1994-01-01

256

Water Resources Data for Kansas, Water Year 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-resources data for the 1993 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation, contents, and water quality of lakes or reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This rep...

C. O. Geiger D. L. Lacock D. R. Schneider M. D. Carlson B. J. Dague

1994-01-01

257

Establishing tradable water rights: implementation of the Mexican water law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mexico passed a new water law in 1992 that shifted from state-managed water policy to a regulated market-oriented policy with tradable water rights. Water trading will initially be closely supervised by government agencies, but the law includes a number of provisions that will allow liberalization of water markets as water users become more involved in operation and management of water

Mark W. Rosegrant; Renato Gazmuri Schleyer

1996-01-01

258

Water Resources Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources have been one of the most important areas of World Bank lending during the past three decades. Through its support for sector work and investments in irrigation, water supply, sanitation, flood control, and hydropower, the Bank has contrib...

K. W. Easter G. Feder G. Le Moigne A. M. Duda E. Forsyth

1993-01-01

259

Water in the Mantle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This schematic shows a cross-section of the planet and how water can migrate through the deep interior of the Earth. Blue arrows indicate a movement of water downward, yellow arrows indicated movement towards the surface.

Ohtani, E.; First published in Elements[2005], reproduced by COMPRES Image Library

260

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Last Oasis shows how Israel has attempted to meet the challenge of providing enough water for agricultural needs. Featured are two methods: recycled water and drip irrigation.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

261

NPS Water Quality Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Park Service, part of the Department of Interior website, looks at issues concerning water quality, policies and objectives, water quality standards, monitoring and the NPS's cooperation with other agencies.

2008-09-23

262

Acidification of inland waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In June 1991 the third Finnish-Karelian Symposium on water problems was held in Joensuu, Finland. The title of the symposium was 'Acidification of inland waters'. Acidification research programmes including results were presented in a total of 11 papers, ...

P. Mononen P. Lozovik

1994-01-01

263

Water-based Screenprinting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the techniques for silkscreening using water-based inks, concentrating on the qualities of water-based printing that differ from oil-based printing. Includes a step-by-step description of the process illustrated with photographs. (LS)

Kreneck, Lynwood

1989-01-01

264

Tunisia: CARE Water Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates a series of projects conducted by Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, with partial funding by AID and assistance from the Peace Corps, in which 600 existing Tunisian water sources were renovated. To control water contaminatio...

R. E. Bigelow L. Chiles C. S. Ayad B. Cavanagh K. Manzer

1980-01-01

265

Bottled Water Basics  

MedlinePLUS

... buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar)..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ... and methods of treatment ....pg.6 Common bottled water treatments (Sidebar) .................... pg.6 Certification ........................................................ pg.7 Contact ...

266

Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection  

MedlinePLUS

... Travelers' Health: Travel Safe, Travel Smart Share Compartir Water Disinfection Travelers who are camping, hiking, or staying ... remote areas may need to disinfect their drinking water. Several methods can be used. Heat Most germs ...

267

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Requires that information be made available to the public so that you can learn how to help protect your drinking water and make personal health decisions about it. SDWA ...

268

Drinking Water FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

269

Water Safety (Recreational)  

MedlinePLUS

Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

270

Earth Water Filter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video segment adapted from ZOOM, cast members try to make the most effective water filter. They experiment with filtering dirty, salty water through different combinations of sand, gravel, and a cotton bandana.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

271

HANDBOOK: GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is provides information on ground-water contamination control and prevention technology to decision makers, field managers, and the scientific community. his 212-page resource document brings together available technical information on ground water in a convenient f...

272

Residential Water Conservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using various water conservation measures to reduce residential water demand was examined. Ten conservation techniques were found to be relevant. These included meters, recycle systems, devices, pressure and flow reducers, public educat...

W. P. Weakley

1977-01-01

273

Home Water Use  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of water use in the industrialized world, including a discussion of the increasing need for conservation as populations grow and water supplies stay roughly constant. Users can listen to a National Public Radio (NPR) show that discusses water-use restrictions that have been enacted in Las Vegas in response to persistent drought conditions, and review online resources on overall and domestic water use in the United States. The lesson includes a two-part activity in which students use an online calculator and other resources to examine water use in their homes and read some ideas for reducing their water use. In the second part, they will use an online 'drip calculator' from the American Water Works Association to investigate how much water can be lost by slow drips and leakage.

Laposata, Matt

274

Water Quality Program Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although the title of my presentation is 'Water-Quality Program Management,' it would perhaps be more appropriately entitled, 'How Does District Program Management Affect the Attainment of Water-Quality Objectives.' Obviously such a topic could take days ...

G. P. Kincaid

1982-01-01

275

Attracting Water Drops  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronauts Cady Coleman and Ron Garan perform the Attracting Water Drops experiment from Chabad Hebrew Academy in San Diego, Calif. This research determines if a free-floating water drop can be att...

276

Drinking Water Contaminants  

MedlinePLUS

... risk of cancer Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Chlorite 0.8 1.0 Anemia; infants and young ... that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used to treat water, the combination (or product) of dose and ...

277

Electrostatic Water Attraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct a simple experiment to see how electrically charged things like plastic attract electrically neutral things like water. The plastic will attract the surface of the water into a visible bump.

Doherty, Paul

2000-01-01

278

Society and Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a national symposium on Societal Problems of Water Resources at Western Illinois University, scientists discussed dams, canals, water pollution control and management programs, federal-state relations in resource planning, and their effects on how we live. (BL)

Qutub, Musa Y.

1972-01-01

279

Water in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... the water is made during the process of metabolism . But drinking water is your main, and best ... body fluids will be out of balance, causing dehydration . When dehydration is severe, it can be life- ...

280

Water Saving for Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a permanent cooperation among Public Bodies and Institutions, with the creation of a transferable model of best practices. WaS4D will carry out initiatives and advisory services aimed to encourage a behavior change, influencing citizens' demand and support consumers who wish to take action to reduce drinking water use: for the civil use, from literature, it's possible to reduce drinkable water consumption up to 50% using simple and economic tools, with a large environmental positive impact. WaS4D mainly focuses on the needs to define a participatory approach to enhance water-saving culture at urban level, encouraging a shift from supply-driven policies to management policies and from a sectorial to an integrated approach. The innovative character of the project is referred to the integrated approach as well as to the creation of new web services & tools.

Zacharias, Ierotheos

2013-04-01

281

Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

Griffin, Ronald C.

2012-09-01

282

Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

1992-01-01

283

Intermediate water recovery system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (editor)

1973-01-01

284

Problem: Ballast Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identifies invasive species as a top threat to world oceans; provides explanation of shipping and ballast water's roles in the spread of marine exotics. Defines ballast water and its use in shipping, includes diagram of ballast tanks and cycle of loading and discharging water. Outlines threats from marine life transported in ballast water and cites examples of species that have invaded new environments in this way.

2011-02-14

285

Drinking Water Bloopers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These six reminders to younger students are about bad practices that waste or pollute water. These include waiting to fix a leak, using water from the hot water tap when cooking, carelessly discarding motor oil, tossing toxic materials in the trash, watering the lawn in the middle of the day, and using the garbage disposal too much. There is also a link that leads to information about composting.

286

The World's Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplemental to The World's Water book by Peter Gleick, this site offers data on the world's freshwater resources and uses. Tables and maps provide information on quantity and quality issues including data on access to safe drinking water; waterborne disease outbreaks; desalination capacity; as well as hydroelectric capacity and production. There is also a unique chronology documenting the historical connections between human conflict and water. Additionally there is an expansive list of links to water-relevant agencies and organizations.

2001-08-13

287

Demystifying water treatment  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.

Hairston, D.

1994-09-01

288

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students from around the globe will team up to test fresh water. With this collaborative project, students will compare the water quality of their local river, stream, lake or pond with other fresh water sources around the world. The focus of the project is to assess the quality of water based on physical characteristics and chemical substances, and to look for relationships and trends among the data collected by all project participants.

2009-01-01

289

Water Bottle Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

awl000422

2011-10-27

290

PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...

291

Follow the Water.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short film includes interviews with water researchers and presents basic concepts of hydrologic cycle. Water has many roles in the landscape; sculptor, solvent for minerals, a vector of transport, creates habitats. By following water through the landscape we can see connections between life and the physical environment.

Kirschtel, David

2009-12-07

292

Water recovery from dew  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of clean water from dew has remained a longstanding challenge in many places all around the world. It is currently believed that the ancient Greeks succeeded in recovering atmospheric water vapour on a scale large enough to supply water to the city of Theodosia (presently Feodosia, Crimea, Ukraine). Several attempts were made in the early 20th century to

V. S. Nikolayev; D. Beysens; A. Gioda; I. Milimouka; E. Katiushin; J.-P. Morel

1996-01-01

293

SURFACE WATER INTAKES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) GIS layer represents the locations of public water system (PWS) facilities in NY and NJ; every PWS has one or more facilities. Data for this layer came from the Safe Drinking Water Information System/Federal version (SDWIS/FED)...

294

The cost of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  For all too many developing countries, it is a case of “Water, water everywhere and not a drop to drink”. In many of the Least\\u000a Developed Countries, safe drinking water and excreta disposal facilities are sadly inadequate.

Uma Ram Nath

1983-01-01

295

EPANET WATER QUALITY MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...

296

Enceladus' Water Vapour Plumes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.

Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.

2006-01-01

297

Water and Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This expansive site provides information about water and its relation to conflict throughout the world. There are numerous articles about and links to information on water laws, disputes, and issues.The site also lists various water-related meetings and conferences being held around the world.

1996-01-01

298

Discover the Water Cycle!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive tour of the water cycle allows students to follow a water molecule from a home's plumbing system as it follows different routes through the hydrologic cycle. Students learn about how water is used, treated, and returned to the natural environment where it can cycle through liquid, solid, and gas phases.

299

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

300

Growing Water Pearls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

Milner-Bolotin, Marina

2012-01-01

301

Wind power freshens water  

SciTech Connect

A wind-powered lighthouse water-freshening installation was installed at lighthouse locations along the Caspian Sea's coast and at one of the collective farms in the Moldavian SSR. From sea water containing up to 36 grams of salts per liter, fresh water with up to 1 gram per liter was produced. Output was 60 liters per hour.

Pavlor, V.; Sidorov, V.

1981-01-01

302

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... sodium in my drinking water? How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy ... health effects. Top of page How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? A Food and Drug Administration publication, " Scouting for ...

303

Water and Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paul Anderson begins with a brief description of NASA discoveries related to Mars, Mercury and water. He then explains why water is required for life. He finally uses a simulation to show you why water acts as a wonderful solvent and provides a medium for metabolism.

Anderson, Paul

2013-03-12

304

Saving Water Saves Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32

James E. McMahon; Camilla Dunham Whitehead; Peter Biermayer

2006-01-01

305

All About Water!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the differences between types of water (surface and ground), as well as the differences between streams, rivers and lakes. Then, they learn about dissolved organic matter (DOM), and the role it plays in identifying drinking water sources. Finally, students are introduced to conventional drinking water treatment processes.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

306

Water jet symposium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A symposium is presented dealing with the theoretical and experimental aspects of high pressure water jet cutting technology and its application to mining and civil engineering, as well as for industrial use. The application of water jets is diversified. The mining industry is already using water jets for development and production drilling in uranium, and is working on applying borehole

F. D. Wang; L. Ozdemir; R. Miller

1982-01-01

307

Water Quality Information Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water Quality Information Center's database of "Online Documents Covering Water and Agriculture" has an improved interface and more titles. You can now access more than 1,700 documents. The topics include things such as, irrigation, social and legal issues, regional information, water availability and quality.

2008-10-08

308

Energy-Water Nexus  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

Horak, W.

2010-07-26

309

Water Chemistry Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)

Hindin, Ervin

1975-01-01

310

Water Quality Statistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

2004-01-01

311

Membrane Water Deaerator Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the membrane water deaerator program was to develop data on a breadboard hollow fiber membrane unit that removes both dissolved and evolved gas from a water transfer system in order to: (1) assure a hard fill of the EVLSS expendable water t...

J. Elam J. Ruder H. Strumpf

1974-01-01

312

Water Reuse Reconsidered  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

1975-01-01

313

Arsenic removal from water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with

Robert C. Moore; D. Richard Anderson

2007-01-01

314

International Water Facility  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article proposes a global initiative to address water shortages because: about 1/3 of world's population does not have enough drinking water, almost half of world's land is without water, converting arid land to fertile land can reduce global warming, and better technology, such as desalination, would give us greater access to freshwater.

Mohamed Kassas (University of Cairo;)

2001-02-01

315

Water and Economic Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several hydrological studies forecast a global problem of water scarcity. This raises the question as to whether increasing water scarcity may impose constraints on the growth of countries. The influence of water utilisation on economic growth is depicted through a growth model that includes this congestible nonexcludable good as a productive input for private producers. Growth is negatively affected by

Edward B. Barbier

2004-01-01

316

Water Resource Adaptation Program  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

317

Total Water Management - Report  

EPA Science Inventory

There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

318

Hot water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar hot water heating system has a primary tank heated by solar energy utilizing a heat transfer medium circulated between a solar collector and a heat exchanger located in the primary tank. Usually a back-up tank is provided to supplement the solar system. The primary tank receives cold water from a pressurized source. Its hot water outlet is connected

1984-01-01

319

Water purification in Borexino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water Purification is often an important methodological tool in low radioactivity experiments. A variety of techniques have been exploited in the frame of the Borexino experiment to the goal of using water as a high purity shielding and as a reagent for cleaning and purification processes. This paper describes the water purification strategies and the purification results obtained in Borexino.

Giammarchi, Marco

2014-06-01

320

Indian Reserved Water Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)

Bond, Frank M.

1986-01-01

321

Developing Our Water Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)

Volker, Adriaan

1977-01-01

322

"Boyle-ing" Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore Boyle's Law and discover that water will boil at room temperature if its pressure is lowered. Learners conduct an experiment using a plastic syringe and water and then have the option to repeat the experiment with carbonated water and compare the results.

Doherty, Paul

1999-01-01

323

Water turbine generator system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water turbine generator system for use in a stream or river, said system having a catch basin formed by an end wall, a plurality of water chutes downstream of the catch basin and in communication with the catch basin by gates and closures and a plurality of turbines and associated generators journalled in the chutes for rotation by water

Brankovics

1982-01-01

324

Water Conservation Resource List.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

NJEA Review, 1981

1981-01-01

325

Water Conservation in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

1993-01-01

326

NASA Water Resources Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes. I) Streamflow and Flood Forecasting 2) Water Supply and Irrigation (includes evapotranspiration) 3) Drought 4) Water Quality 5) Climate and Water Resources. To maximize this activity NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies (e.g., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USAID, the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)), universities, non-profit national and international organizations, and the private sector. The NASA Water Resources program currently is funding 21 active projects under the functional themes (http://wmp.gsfc.nasa.gov & http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/applied-sciences/).

Toll, David L.

2011-01-01

327

Water and poverty: Implications for water planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it recognizes the tangible economic benefits to health and income that may derive from greater safety of supply and improved time savings in procurement, planning for improvements of urban water systems in developing countries has overlooked other ways in which water may influence health and income among the poor. In these populations the price of water may further affect health and labor productivity, both directly through its impact on nutrition and indirectly through its impact on housing size and quality and on residential density. What at first might seem a straightforward equity issue in planning may thus be an issue of economic efficiency as well. Failure to account for the fuller range of tangible benefits associated with improvements in water supply may lead to underestimation of returns to investment and therefore to economically inefficient investment.

Fass, S. M.

1993-07-01

328

Water Quality Monitoring  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is designed to study the water quality of a stream in your area, by measuring the temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity and total dissolved solids. It lends itself to integrating biology with earth science when using the microscope to study the living organisms in the water. The main objective is to determine the water quality of a local fresh water stream, as surface waters may be adversely impacted by human activity. This site has detailed instructions for conducting the listed tests.

Naples, Charlotte

329

Water Quality Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.

1979-01-01

330

Water Words Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled in 1997 by the Nevada Division of Water Planning, this online dictionary of "Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms" is still relevant. Words are organized in alphabetical order and may be browsed by first letter. In addition, the resource offers multiple Appendices (some are Nevada-specific), a list of Abbreviations and Acronyms, a Metric Conversion Table and Flow Equivalents, Conversion Factors for Hydraulic Units of Measure, and Dictionary References. From A-horizon to Zooplankton, this will be a useful resource for the educator, student, or novice water researcher.

331

Universities Water Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Universities Water Information Network (UWIN), located at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, Illinois, "disseminates information of interest to the water resources community and all concerned with our water resources." Although much of the site is accessed by paid subscription only, several resources are offered free to anyone. A database of water related consulting firms contains contact information, including name, acronym, postal address, phone, fax, email, and contact person. Another helpful resource, the organizations database, lists water resource agencies, organizations, and institutions in the US, Caribbean, and Central America. Other items of interest include job listings, press releases, and more.

2001-01-01

332

The Dirty Water Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how the water cycle works (geology, meteorology) and the principles behind water filtering (physics, chemistry). This method has been successfully used during units on the water cycle and pollution to teach elementary and lower middle-school classes in an inquiry-based way.

Kremer, Angelika; Schluter, Kirsten; Walker, Mark

2007-07-01

333

Stratospheric water vapor feedback  

PubMed Central

We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry–climate model to be +0.3 W/(m2?K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause.

Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.

2013-01-01

334

Ocean Water: Density  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In regions throughout the world oceans, water moves vertically to or down away from the surface and is set in motion by atmospheric winds, salinity and temperature differences. Cold water is much denser than warm and seawater has a higher density that fresh water and will sink below the less dense layer of water. Furthermore, vertical mixing powered by atmospheric winds can affect stratification and the rate of growth of the surface boundary layer. This lab activity is a simulation of the processes that create density stratification in ocean environments. It exposes students to concepts of temperature, salinity and wind and the role each plays in the development of water stratification.

Robinson, Judy

335

Water Conservation: Mexico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ground water is the primary source for both municipal and industrial water supplies throughout the world. Some of the world's largest and fastest-growing cities depend heavily on natural aquifers that collect and store ground water. When ground water supplies are withdrawn faster than they naturally replenish, problems arise. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', shows how Mexico City's growing population is depleting local ground water and how this depletion is largely responsible for causing historic buildings to lean as the ground beneath them sinks.

2012-10-09

336

Water Conservation: Mexico  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ground water is the primary source for both municipal and industrial water supplies throughout the world. Some of the world's largest and fastest-growing cities depend heavily on natural aquifers that collect and store ground water. When ground water supplies are withdrawn faster than they naturally replenish, problems arise. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', shows how Mexico City's growing population is depleting local ground water and how this depletion is largely responsible for causing historic buildings to lean as the ground beneath them sinks.

337

Par Pond water balance  

SciTech Connect

A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.

Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.

1996-06-01

338

Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework  

DOE Data Explorer

This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

Jenna N. Schroeder

339

Water harvest via dewing.  

PubMed

Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia. PMID:22731870

Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young

2012-07-10

340

Viruses in water  

PubMed Central

Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed.

Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig

1978-01-01

341

The Water Sourcebooks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Water Sourcebooks from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency contain 324 activities for grades K-12 divided into four sections: K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12. Each section is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters. This environmental education program explains the water management cycle using a balanced approach showing how it affects all aspects of the environment. All activities contain hands-on investigations, fact sheets, reference materials, and a glossary of terms. Activities are organized by objectives, materials needed, background information, advance preparation, procedures, and resources. All parts of the program may be printed and copied.

342

The Mars water cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent ice cap in the Arctic and not in the Antarctic. No permanent ice reservoirs are predicted in the temperate or equatorial zones. Wintertime ice deposits in the Arctic are shown to be the source of the large water vapor abundances observed in the Arctic summertime, and the moderate water vapor abundances in the northern temperate region. Model calculations suggest that a year without dust storms results in very little change in the water vapor distribution. The current water distribution appears to be the equilibrium distribution for present atmospheric conditions.

Davies, D. W.

1981-01-01

343

Water structure at hematite-water interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atomic-level structure of water at mineral surfaces is an important controlling factor in interfacial reactions such as foreign ion incorporation, crystal growth and dissolution, and redox reactions. Molecular dynamics simulations with four different models based on interatomic potentials have been carried out to determine the atomic-level structure of three hematite-water interfaces. In addition, for each of the three surfaces, different terminations or protonation schemes were considered. The availability of surface X-ray scattering data for the surfaces considered here allowed for an extensive comparison with experimental data. Qualitatively, with the exception of one termination with one model, all models predict the correct arrangement of water molecules at the interface. Quantitatively, the agreement with experimental positions, distances, and layer occupancies is good to excellent, especially given the range of values reported in published experimental studies. Therefore, this study provides further evidence that interatomic potential models can be used to reliably predict the structure of mineral-water interfaces. In addition, molecular simulations are a valuable source of information to complement surface X-ray scattering experiments owing to their ability to directly determine the position of hydrogen atoms and to yield three-dimensional predicted structures at no added cost, as demonstrated in this work. Indeed, the molecular dynamics trajectories were analyzed to determine the surface structural controls on the interfacial water structure. Each of the three surface functional groups present at the surfaces considered in this work, namely, triply-coordinated oxo, doubly-coordinated hydroxo, and singly-coordinated aquo groups, was found to form similar hydrogen bond configurations with adsorbed water molecules at all surfaces. Oxo groups accept long-lasting and linear hydrogen bonds from adsorbed water molecules; hydroxo groups can form hydrogen bonds with other surface functional groups as well as with adsorbed water molecules; and aquo groups normally only donate hydrogen bonds to other surface groups or adsorbed water molecules. Additionally, the majority of adsorbed water molecules were found to adopt multiple configurations and orientations. This information was used to evaluate three-dimensional structural models of the interfaces, which were previously derived experimentally from one-dimensional electron density profiles and steric considerations.

Kerisit, Sebastien

2011-04-01

344

Water in lunar materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two lines of evidence, suggest independently that materials which formed the Moon were not anhydrous: 1. Meteorites, our only sample of extraterrestrial material, contain water in varying amounts. Chondrites average about 0.25% water by weight. Carbonaceous chondrites, however, contain up to 20% water; and, although much of this water may be adsorbed atmospheric and surface water, the abundance of silicate hydrates in these objects indicates that considerable water existed in these meteorites before Earth impact. 2. The gas emission from Alphonsus observed by Kosyrev indicates that volatiles are diffusing out of the Moon. The observed emission was a C, band. Analyses of presumably juvenile gases reaching the Earth's surface show that water generally composes 95% or more of the gas. By analogy, it is suggested that water must be reaching the lunar surface. Consequently, it is reasonable to conclude that water existed in the materials which formed the Moon as well as those which formed the Earth or meteorites (or their source object). An estimate of the water content of the primordial Earth is 0.03%.

Speed, R. C.

1963-01-01

345

Perceptions of water use.  

PubMed

In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608

Attari, Shahzeen Z

2014-04-01

346

The politics of water.  

PubMed

Water scarcity in some regions is a leading source of economic and political instability. Upstream countries have a clear advantage over downstream countries. Almost 40% of the world's population relies on river systems used by at least 2 countries. Water conflicts are most evident in the Middle East where population growth rates are among the world's highest and agricultural productivity depends almost exclusively on irrigation. Water scarcity is most critical in the Jordan River basin which Israel, Jordan, the occupied West Bank, and part of Syria share. Israel exceeds its renewable water supply by 15%. Even though Jordanians use less than 50% of the water/capita Israel uses, its population grows 3.4%/year of Israel's water supply is the Yarqon-Taninim aquifer whose recharge area is on the West Bank. Israel draws water from this aquifer for its own use, but does not let West Bank Arabs draw from it. Another water supply lies in the Golan Heights with Israel seized from Syria. Its other source is an overpumped coastal aquifer. 9 nations claim the Nile with Egypt being the last country to receive its waters. Egypt has very few of its own water sources plus is has rapid population growth. Turkey plans on constructing 22 dams, 19 hydropower stations, and 25 irrigation systems on the Euphrates river, resulting in a 35% reduction in water flow to Syria in normal years and even more in dry years. This project would also pollute the river with irrigation runoff. International cooperation is needed to address wait crisis. Israel could share its drip irrigation technology with others, such as it has done with the Islamic Central Asian republics. Ethiopia could store Nile water in its highlands which have a lower evaporation rate than that at Egypt's Aswan Dam, resulting in more available water. Perhaps the mutual gains possible from cooperation will unite long standing enemies toward peace. PMID:12286578

Postel, S

1993-01-01

347

Water Resources Data for New Mexico, Water Year 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1978 water year for New Mexico consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. This report conta...

1979-01-01

348

Water Resources Data for Wyoming, Water Year 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1984 water year for Wyoming consists of records of stage, discharge and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains discharge r...

S. A. Druse S. J. Rucker

1985-01-01

349

What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

350

Private Well Water and Fluoride  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Community Water Fluoridation Share Compartir Private Well Water and Fluoride Frequently Asked Questions on fluoride levels ... private wells. How do I know if my water is from a public water system or a ...

351

Water under floor of laboratory  

NSF Publications Database

... soap (e.g., ALCONOX); - hot water; - purified water; - bake at 100?C for 1 hour (except plastic part ... OF THE WATER IS UNKNOWN BUT APPEARS TO BE MELTED WIND-DRIVEN SNOW INFILTRATION AND WATER RUNOFF. IT ...

352

Central Valley Water Resource Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is growing concern over water quality in the Central Valley of California, particularly in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Federal actions on both water quality standards and water project development are of major significance in future water mana...

1970-01-01

353

Coal Mining and Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coal mining activities frequently impinge on water resources. This report considers the impact of coal extraction on water resources and potential causes of water pollution. The disruption of surface water and groundwater systems by surface and undergroun...

L. B. Clarke

1995-01-01

354

Magnesium in Water - A Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography, concerning Magnesium in water, was retrieved from SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS published through June 15, 1971 (Volume 4, Number 12) by Water Resources Scientific Information Center of the Office of Water Resources Research, U.S. D...

1971-01-01

355

Cycling Water Through the Environment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students recognize the different forms that water takes and learn about where it exists in the environment. Using class discussion, multimedia resources, and experiments, students model the water cycle and explore how it can be used to create fresh water. They will identify the ways that water moves through the environment, recognize that most of Earth's surface is covered by water (but only a small amount is fresh water), and produce fresh water from salty water by distilling it.

2005-01-01

356

Water and wars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

Gleick, Peter H.

357

Arsenic removal from water  

DOEpatents

Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM); Anderson, D. Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-07-24

358

Water Research Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Self-described as a "multidisciplinary database of research, researchers, and institutions dealing with fresh water issues all over the world," the Water Research Network (WRN) is a product of collaboration between the University of Bergen, Norway, the Norwegian Research Council, and the Government of the Netherlands. Active since October 2001, WRN invites researchers from various disciplines to submit information about their water research projects (free registration is required). While the site's material is mostly metadata and relevant mainly to researchers, casual users should find links to other more substantive Web sites that may interest them. Unique browsing categories, like Water in Time and Water and Ethics, should prove helpful in finding something worthwhile. An interesting side note, WRN's creators intend the database to contribute to the multi-volume book History of Water and Civilization, a project initiated by UNESCO.

2001-01-01

359

Water, trachoma and conjunctivitis.  

PubMed Central

The incidence of eye infections in a community is generally accepted as an indicator of the adequacy of water supply for their needs. However, discrepancies in the published results from various studies seem to challenge this view. We have reanalysed the published data on trachoma in relation to the most relevant indicators of water accessibility, using prevalence ratios as the single parameter for risk assessment. A definite trend emerges from this review: the incidence of infectious conjunctivitis is not sensitive to differences in water accessibility; on the other hand, a reduction in the risk of trachoma is consistently associated with better access to water. This conclusion may support the efforts of WHO and other multilateral and bilateral agencies to sustain the commitment towards the water supply sector beyond the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.

Prost, A.; Negrel, A. D.

1989-01-01

360

Water Librarians' Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Robert Teeter, librarian at a California water agency, has put together this metasite containing a variety of useful links in the field of water resources along with other library-related links. Agencies, databases, publishers, organizations, libraries, mailing lists, and more are featured. Teeter has organized the links by page type and indicates which sites are newly added or personal favorites. Just a few examples of links at the Water Librarians' Homepage include Waterfront (an information source on water conservation initiatives taking place in Winnipeg, Canada), The American Water Resources Association, and The Environmental Professionals' Homepage (providing links to primary sources of environmentally-related information). This is an excellent tool for academics, professionals, and librarians in the field of water resources and also environmental engineering.

1996-01-01

361

Water expandable polystyrene (WEPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part 1 of this series (Polymer 1999;40:3685), the concept for the preparation of expandable polystyrene (PS) applying water as a blowing agent was presented. In order to achieve this goal, water was emulsified by means of a commercially available surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate) in a prepolymerised styrene\\/PS mixture. This mixture was subsequently suspended in water and polymerisation was continued to

J. J. Crevecoeur; L. Nelissen; P. J. Lemstra

1999-01-01

362

The Incredible Water Bear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image-rich Micscape Magazine article explores how water bears can be found almost everywhere yet are still unknown to almost everybody, why there are relatively few light microscope photographs of water bears in the literature and on the Web, and how light microscopy can outperform scanning electron microscopy when viewing these animals. It includes a list of historical references, early sketches, and colorful images of water bears, also known as tardigrades.

Mach, Martin; Magazine, Micscape

363

Mars Express - Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Until very recently, planetary scientists had thought that Mars is a cold, dry planet. Then in the summer of 2000, NASA released images from the Mars Global Surveyor showing evidence of very recent seepage of ground water from crater and valley slopes in the planet's southern hemisphere. It seems that substantial reservoirs of the water that once may have run so copiously on the surface may still exist. Evidence of other water-created landforms is presented and accompanied by remote imagery.

Schmidt, Rudolph

2004-06-08

364

Two oilfield water systems  

SciTech Connect

Two subjects are covered in this book: oilfield water treatment for steam flooding and treatment for oil removal. This information has not before been available in a single volume. The steam-flood section describes water treating requirements and softener designs, in addition to scale and corrosion problems in steam floods. The section on oil removal describes four basic oil-water separation mechanisms with fifteen variations in equipment designs.

Bradley, B.W.

1987-01-01

365

Amazon Water Cycle Roleplay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this creative roleplay activity, learners will explore the various processes of the water cycle using movement, sound, and props to aid in comprehension. Learners will understand that water changes forms throughout the water cycle, and that this cycle runs continuously throughout all the cycles at the same time. This standards-based lesson, which is great for the classroom, camps, or afterschool programs, includes roleplay cards and ideas for props.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

366

Conductivity: Salty Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water, whether fresh or salty, serves as one of the best electrical conductors on the planet. Does salt effect its conductivity? In this activity, learners will explore the effects of salts in the water, as well as the effects of other parameters on the conductivity of water. Learners will use real-time data from buoys around the coastal U.S. in this exploration.

Petrone, Christopher J.

2012-07-12

367

Why Follow the Water?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the correlation between annual precipitation and plant productivity in different Earth biomes. Learners consider water evaporation, solubility and abundance relative to life on Earth and relative to finding evidence for life on Mars. An extension activity investigates the connection between liquid water, biomes and plant productivity on Earth. This is the 1st of 5 activities in Buried Water Ice on Mars.

368

Ocean Water Desalination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the techniques engineers have developed for changing ocean water into drinking water, including thermal and membrane desalination. They begin by reviewing the components of the natural water cycle. They see how filters, evaporation and/or condensation can be components of engineering desalination processes. They learn how processes can be viewed as systems, with unique objects, inputs, components and outputs, and sketch their own system diagrams to describe their own desalination plant designs.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

369

CCMR: Water in Glass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water uptake for various compositions of the model glass (CaO·Al2O3)x (2 SiO2)1-x under fixed annealing conditions was studied via FTIR. The water saturation concentration increased with time for certain sample sets, suggesting slow equilibration of the surface with the annealing atmosphere, while the water diffusion coefficient exhibited no appreciable time dependence. The saturation concentration and diffusion coefficient were not found to vary significantly with composition.

Uspal, William

2005-08-17

370

Water's the Matter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water quality is more than meets the eye. Some of its properties are invisible. Teachers using this module will focus on measurable properties of water: mass, volume, and concentration; temperature; dissolved oxygen; pH; and nitrates; and their effects on water quality. Each of these properties is the subject of a lesson plan. The lesson plans include an introduction, lesson objectives, a pre-test, lesson presentation, activity, and a post-test.

Johnson, Larry

2000-01-01

371

Campus Ecology: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents creative ways that college campuses are meeting the challenge of preserving or protecting water resources. Aging dormitory showerheads, inefficient decorative fountains, leaks in water mains, and improper disposal of lab chemicals all waste water or threaten the health of the local watershed. Methods used by universities can include cleaning up local wetlands, treating wastewater organically, or installing waterless toilets. The site has links to project summaries and information for doing your own campus project.

Federation, National W.

372

Water Purification Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.

1992-01-01

373

TRIBAL WATER QUALITY STANDARDS WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality standards are the foundation for water management actions. They provide the basis for regulating discharges of pollutants to surface waters, and provide a target for restoration of degraded waters. Water quality standards identify and protect uses of the water bod...

374

Des Moines Water Works  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.

2001-01-01

375

Water purification in Borexino  

SciTech Connect

Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

Giammarchi, M. [Infn Milano (Italy)] [Infn Milano (Italy); Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy)] [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (Italy); Goretti, A.; Ianni, A. [Princeton University (United States)] [Princeton University (United States); Miramonti, L. [Dip. di Fisica dell'Università di Milano e Infn (Italy)] [Dip. di Fisica dell'Università di Milano e Infn (Italy)

2013-08-08

376

Comparing the Planets: Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of images summarizes what scientists currently know about the occurrence of water ice and water vapor on the terrestrial planets and satellites in our Solar System. Accompanied by a brief description, the Jpeg images show the ice cap at Mars' south pole, ice rafting on Europa, liquid water covering the surface of Earth (the famous 'Blue Marble' photo), and an impact crater on the Moon that may contain water ice. There is also a diagram showing the possible distribution of ice on Mars, as it varies with latitude.

377

Air/Water Purification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.

1992-01-01

378

Michigan Water Year 2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This volume of the annual hydrologic data report of Michigan is one of a series of annual reports that document hydrologic data gathered from the U.S. Geological Survey's surface- and ground-water data-collection networks in each state, Puerto Rico, and the Trust Territories. These records of streamflow, ground-water levels, and quality of water provide the hydrologic information needed by State, local, and Federal agencies, and the private sector for developing and managing our Nation's land and water resources.

Blumer, S.P.; Whited, C.R.; Ellis, J.M.; Minnerick, R.J.; LeuVoy, R.L.

2006-01-01

379

Karst Waters Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Karst Waters Institute (KWI) is a non-profit institution whose mission is to improve the fundamental understanding of karst water systems through sound scientific research and the education of professionals and the public. Karst is explained in detail and in relation to water resources, water quality, geology, and ecology. Karst regions in the U.S. are shown, and a compilation of the top ten endangered karst ecosystems is available. Electronic documents on different aspects of karst, such as troglobites, stygobites, and groundwater monitoring and dye tracing techniques, are available to download from this site. Links to other karst resources are also provided.

380

Land and Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the past few weeks we have studied the movement of water through the land. We have talked about the water cycle and erosion. Today, you will see more models about water's movement on the earth. Each activity today will open in a new link. Make sure you close the link when you finish the activity or video so that you don't have so many pages open at once. This first video, from the Environmental Protection Agency, will give you a review of the water cycle. Click ...

Petersen, Mrs.

2013-02-18

381

Water purification in Borexino  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.

Giammarchi, M.; Balata, M.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.; Ioannucci, L.; Miramonti, L.; Nisi, S.

2013-08-01

382

Water Injected Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

383

Solar Water Heater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. In doing this, students gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, students perform efficiency calculations and compare designs.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

384

Cooling water distribution system  

DOEpatents

A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

1994-01-01

385

The clean water handbook  

SciTech Connect

The authors offer an explanation of how the clean water laws and regulations affect business operations. This book includes chapters on: Introduction and overview of the Clean Water Act; Enforcement: the power behind the word; toxics water quality standards for industrial and municipal discharges: development and application; Effluent limitations for toxic pollutant discharges from industrial sources: development and application; National pollutant elimination system; Control of stormwater and nonpoint source discharges of water pollution; Reporting and cleanup requirements for releases, spills, or discharges of oil and hazardous substances; Oil spill liability legislation; and Special issues facing publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and their effect on industrial pretreatment obligations and expenses.

Arbuckle, J.G.; Randle, R.V. (Patton, Boggs and Blow (US))

1990-01-01

386

Global water cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.

Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge

1993-01-01

387

Water Conservation: Israel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.

2012-10-29

388

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

389

Water Relay Race  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (located on pages 38-39 of PDF), learners discover how screws (simple machines) help us do work and complete tasks, like preserving water. Learners pretend they are in a remote area with no running water in their home. They must haul water from a well to their homes. Learners compare and contrast various types of containers to determine which vessel is the safest and most efficient way to transport and store water. The containers include one with a screw top lid, one with no lid, and one with just plastic wrap for a lid.

Museum, Chicago C.

2012-05-09

390

Water Conservation: Denver, CO  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.

2012-10-24

391

Western Water Assessment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Western Water Assessment (WWA) seeks to work within an evolving social context to increase relevance and value of scientific information to improve decision making strategies. Their research focuses on the decision-making processes of the individuals, groups, and organizations in the Interior West that have responsibility for managing water resources, as well as those who use the water, and those responsible for its treatment and the protection of the aquatic environment. Research topics include impacts on climate variability and regional water resources, model assessments, stream pollution and metabolism, and use of model results in policy planning. WWA is a project of the environmental studies department at CU-Boulder.

392

Water, water everywhere, and its remarkable chemistry.  

PubMed

Photosystem II (PSII), the multisubunit pigment-protein complex localised in the thylakoid membranes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, uses light energy to drive a series of remarkable reactions leading to the oxidation of water. The products of this oxidation are dioxygen, which is released to the atmosphere, and reducing equivalents destined to reduce carbon dioxide to organic molecules. The water oxidation occurs at catalytic sites composed of four manganese atoms (Mn(4)-cluster) and powered by the redox potential of an oxidised chlorophyll a molecule (P680(*+)). Gerald T (Jerry) Babcock and colleagues showed that electron/proton transfer processes from substrate water to P680(*+) involved a tyrosine residue (Y(Z)) and proposed an attractive reaction mechanism for the direct involvement of Y(Z) in the chemistry of water oxidation. The 'hydrogen-atom abstract/metalloradical' mechanism he formulated is an expression of his genius and a highlight of his many other outstanding contributions to photosynthesis research. A structural basis for Jerry's model is now being revealed by X-ray crystallography. PMID:15100024

Barber, Jim

2004-04-12

393

Water 4: The Water-Energy Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video looks at how water use and energy use are connected when industrial era technologies are used as the primary means of supplying process energy. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

394

Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

Soltow, Willow

1984-01-01

395

Water Availability and Management of Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...

396

Water hyacinths for removal of phenols from polluted waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.

Wolverton, B. C.

1975-01-01

397

Impact of Water Withdrawals from Groundwater and Surface Water on Continental Water Storage Variations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Humans have strongly impacted the global water cycle, not only water flows but also water storage. We have performed a first global-scale analysis of the impact of water withdrawals on water storage variations, using the global water resources and use mod...

A. Eicker F. T. Portmann G. Strassberg H. Hoffmann-Dobrev M. Rodell P. Doell S. Siebert

2011-01-01

398

Where the water is: Mapping global drivers of water scarcity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity, and its implications for human and ecosystem wellbeing, is well documented. To mitigate activities that exacerbate water scarcity, and to adapt to scarcity when it is unavoidable, we must understand the drivers of water scarcity. Based on data from the new WaterGAP3 model, we analyze patterns of water stress and water use in watersheds globally. Our data include information on multi-sectoral water withdrawal and consumption as well as irrigation data for individual crops. We assess monthly water use and availability as well as annual trends. Of 11,050 basins, about 2.5% are over-extended, with higher levels of water consumption than available water. In most of these basins, irrigated agriculture dominates water withdrawals. In the majority of basins (92%), less than 20% of available water is consumed by human activity. This leaves just 5.5% of basins potentially stressed; they may not be experiencing water limitation at present, but they are highly susceptible. We consider both water availability (supply) and water withdrawals and consumption (demand) as drivers of water stress, finding that over-extended basins are both dry, with about one fifth of the water availability of the lowest stress basins, and heavy water consumers, with more than double the water consumption of moderate-stress basins. Identifying basins likely to experience water stress, and strategies and characteristics of those that are not, will help put all basins on a path toward water sustainability.

Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B.; Foley, J. A.

2012-12-01

399

Water Science Data Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of summary data tables shows information about water use in the United States, by state. Categories include total water use, public use, domestic use, irrigation, industrial, mining, and livestock uses. There is also a table showing thermoelectric power withdrawals. All information is for the year 2000.

2010-11-02

400

The Water Hyacinth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a student study of the growing conditions of the Water Hyacinth and its effect on the food chain. Describes the different phases of the project including fieldwork, a public awareness survey, public involvement, control programs, and conclusions. A vignette describes beneficial uses of the Water Hyacinth. (MCO)

Bay, Richards

1992-01-01

401

Water Quality Monitoring Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

402

Deaeration of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater which is to be used as injection water in underground oil reservoirs to obtain a higher degree of hydrocarbon recovery deoxygenated by a new and improved process that eliminates the consumption of stripping gas and at the same time attains the highest possible degree of oxygen removal without polluting the water. Seawater is circulated through an inert gas, thus

1985-01-01

403

Western ground water law  

SciTech Connect

The bulk of western ground-water law is currently imposed at the state and local levels, and is highly variable in its technical provisions. Most ground water law is of recent origin (largely since the end of World War II) and continues to evolve through legislative enactments and judicial decisions. The principal purposes of ground water law are: (1) to regulate the rate of depletion to aquifers whose natural and artificial recharge is insufficient; (2) to regulate the rate of depletion to aquifers which supply or support the flow of surface water to prior vested ownership rights which take from streams, lakes, and springs; (3) to protect aquifers from pollution; and (4) to regulate the extraction or injection of ground water in areas prone to geologic instability. The law which attempts to achieve these objectives is a patchwork of federal constitutional principles and judicial doctrine; federal statutes and subsidiary regulations; state constitutional and statutory provisions developed from judicial interpretation; state common law; local ordinances and regulations. Because of the extent and complexity of this body of law, clear-cut answers to all but the most routine and narrow questions are difficult to ascertain. This is due partly to the fact that such questions arose infrequently prior to the time ground water assumed a major role in supplying the water needs of the west, and partly from earlier incomplete and faulty understandings of ground-water hydrology by the courts.

Not Available

1982-03-01

404

Water expandable polystyrene (WEPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Part 1 (Polymer 1999;40:3685) of this series, the concept for the preparation of expandable polystyrene (PS) applying water as a blowing agent was presented. This paper focuses on the expansion characteristics of water expandable polystyrene (WEPS) beads. The influence of temperature, amount of blowing agent, molar mass of the PS matrix and slight crosslinking of the matrix were investigated

J. J. Crevecoeur; J. F. Coolegem; L. Nelissen; P. J. Lemstra

1999-01-01

405

Fecal Pollution of Water.  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

406

Water impact loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program to generate time history of load factor and pressure on conical body of revolution during impact with water is discussed. Program calculates depth of penetration, velocity, force, load factor, maximum pressure at water line, and average pressure. Program is written in FORTRAN 4 Level H for IBM 360/85/195 Release 20.1 computer.

Sanders, D. H.; Safronski, S. G.

1972-01-01

407

Whose Water Is It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Western states have long had their eye on the Great Lakes as a water source for irrigation and municipal supplies. Great Lakes states protect this water source and oppose any diversion that is not agreed upon by all Great Lakes states and provinces. This article presents a role-play activity simulation of a Great Lakes governors' conference. (MKR)

Trisler, Carmen E.

1996-01-01

408

States of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can read and view pictures that explain the three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in which water exists. An activity that illustrates water vapor in one's breath and a brief explanation of what phase changes are and what triggers them is also included.

Estacio, Sheila

409

The Dirty Water Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how…

Walker, Mark; Kremer, Angelika; Schluter, Kirsten

2007-01-01

410

Dehumidifying water heater  

SciTech Connect

The indoor swimming pool at the Glen Cove YMCA in Glen Cove, New York, has been selected for the dehumidification/water heating system demonstration project. This report provides the specifications for this system which includes a dehumidifier/air handler, condenser/water heater, and outdoor condenser. Current progress underway includes construction, vendor selection, and control system selection. (SM)

Stark, W.

1991-05-31

411

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.

1995-01-01

412

Surface water hydrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface Water Hydrology is published by the Geological Society of America as Volume O-1 of its The Geology of North America series. The hardbound treatise is edited by M. G. Wolman and H. C. Riggs and is written as a companion to Hydrogeology (Volume O-2 of the same series). The thirteen chapters describe the occurrence and movement of water on

M. G. Wolman; H. C. Riggs

1990-01-01

413

Ground-water Aquifers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This description of a ground-water aquifer has a graphic representation to accompany it. It is part of the U.S. Geologic Survey's Water Science for Schools website. Links to other parts of the site, such as definitions and types of wells, are included.

414

ALGAE AND WATER POLLUTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Algae are involved in water pollution in a number of important ways. It requires a continuous monitoring and study of algae existing in waters of various quality in order to determine what controls or what changes or what uses can be instituted for the benefit of man and for cons...

415

Microbiology of Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of microbiology of water, covering publications of 1967-77. This review covers: (1) microbial indicators of pollution; and (2) microbiology of rivers, potable waters, natural lakes, and impoundments. A list of 192 references is also presented. (HM)

Geldreich, Edwin E.

1978-01-01

416

Distill Salt Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, conduct an experiment to make freshwater out of saltwater. First, make saltwater and then seal it and place it in the Sun for a couple of hours or even a whole day. This solar still will distill, or purify, the water. Use this activity to explore water purification and evaporation. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

417

Water Reclamation and Reuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

Smith, Daniel W.

1978-01-01

418

Miracle of Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presents a story of water resources development in the nation's West by the Bureau of Reclamation. A controlled and stable water supply was essential to ensure the settlement of the arid west. Shows the great dams, reservoirs, and benefits derived from th...

1994-01-01

419

Safe water for Africa.  

PubMed

Most morbidity in Africa is linked to unsafe water supplies and a lack of adequate sanitation facilities. According to official government statistics, only 57% of Africans had access to safe water in 1990. The treatment of contaminated water sources or the development of alternative, cleaner water sources is insufficient. The provision of community water points must be integrated with latrine construction and intensive hygiene education based on traditional cultural activities. In rural areas, where people generally collect water from surface sources or shallow wells, intensive education is required to convince community members of the health benefits of improved sources (e.g., protected wells or bore holes with hand pumps), especially when these sources are more distant. In high-density urban areas, even water from the taps and public standpipes is often contaminated and household treatment of drinking water must be promoted. Greater emphasis is being placed on selecting equipment that can be maintained with local technical and organizational capacities and strengthening local maintenance and repair capacities through training village-based mechanics and establishing networks of spare parts suppliers. PMID:12321818

Kirkwood, A

1998-09-01

420

Water Temperature Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the temperature of a water sample. Students use an alcohol-filled thermometer or meter to measure the temperature of water. The meter requires calibration before use; the accuracy of the thermometer needs to be checked before use.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

421

Supercooled Water Drops  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners touch supercooled water drops with an ice crystal and trigger the water drops to freeze instantly. Learners discover that this process is used during candy making, when a single sugar crystal is used to crystallize an entire batch of sugar.

Exploratorium

2012-10-03

422

Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

423

Treading on Thin Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a simple introduction to animals whose habitat is the thin surface film of water. Describes adaptive mechanisms of water striders, whirlygigs and riffle bugs and suggests ways to observe them in the wild or as aquarium animals. Includes basic demonstrations of the nature of surface tension. (JHZ)

Haley, Richard D.

1985-01-01

424

Dating desert ground water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tritium in Arabian rainfall has followed the trend observed in North America with peaks in 1958 and the spring of 1959. These measurements will be useful for future hydrologie studies. Water from wadi gravels averages 10 yr old. Carbon-14 measurements of deep waters indicate ages of several thousand years.

Thatcher, L.; Rubin, M.; Brown, G. F.

1961-01-01

425

Solar water heating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar water heating system is described in which piping arrangements and solenoid operated valves are combined with a water storage heater and solar heater or collectors in a manner to protect the system against over temperature and against freezing without the use of antifreeze or auxiliary heat exchanger systems.

Cook

1978-01-01

426

Fecal Pollution of Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

427

Supercooled and glassy water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anomalous properties of cold and supercooled water, such as the fact that at sufficiently low temperatures it becomes more compressible and less dense when cooled, and more fluid when compressed, have attracted the attention of physical scientists for a long time. The discovery in the 1970s that several thermodynamic and transport properties of supercooled water exhibit a pronounced temperature

Pablo G Debenedetti

2003-01-01

428

HEAVY WATER MODERATED REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of heavy water as moderator offers a number of important ; advantages that was possible to fully realize in the construction of research ; reactors. Even though up to the present time there were not many opportunities ; for ac quiring practical experience with heavy water moderated power reactors, ; our knowledge in the sphere of lattice physics

Ferrarini

1960-01-01

429

Water Science Data Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of summary data tables shows information about water use in the United States, by state. Categories include total water use, public use, domestic use, irrigation, industrial, mining, and livestock uses. There is also a table showing thermoelectric power withdrawals. All information is for the year 2000.

430

Properties of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab activity from the Biotechnology Alliance for Suncoast Biology Educators demonstrates the biologically important properties of water, including surface tension, cohesion, adhesion, capillary action, solubility, and heat capacity. The lesson includes background information on water and how its properties affect biological processes. It provides a list of the materials needed for the activity and the demonstration procedures.

Keirle, Matt

2012-07-10

431

Safe Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of types of drinking water contaminants, where they come from, and their effects on human health. Special topics include chemical and microbial contamination, health effects of microbes, pesticides, metals and various other contaminants, and causes of source water contamination. The site also features links to current news and other related resources and organizations.

Responsibility, Physicians F.; Envirohealthaction

432

Water Evaporation Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct an experiment to measure the temperature of a dry cotton ball versus a wet one. Explore water evaporation and investigate why swimming and drinking water keeps your body cool. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

433

Water-Quality Sampling  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Noses Creek at Powder Springs Road, Georgia. Part of the USGS safety protocol is to wear a PFD (personal flotation device) around any surface water. This scientist may not look like he has one on, but he does--it is under his rain coat. This DH-81 sampler is used to sample flood water for suspended-...

2008-12-04

434

Cooling Water Systems Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Advancement of Process Technology presents this free sample module on cooling water systems in the process industry. The material includes 21 slides and will help learners understand related terms, the purpose of the basic equipment involved in cooling water systems and the safety, health and environmental concerns involved with these systems.

2013-01-04

435

Water resources, summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of remote sensing products to the development and understanding of water resources problems is considered. Geology and hydrogeology, analysis of watersheds, snow and ice, prediction of runoff from snowmelt, hydrologic land use classifications, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, flood hazards, and water quality surveys are among the topics discussed. Suggestions for further use of remotely sensed data are given along with increased user requirements.

Simons, D. B.

1975-01-01

436

Lunar Water Resource Demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

Muscatello, Anthony C.

2008-01-01

437

Rural Potable Water Chlorination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper addresses two questions: (1) What is the most desirable form of sanitizing chemical for use in rural water supplies; and (2) What is the best overall means of getting this sanitizing agent into rural water supplies. Several chemicals and hypochl...

W. E. Hanford A. Long

1970-01-01

438

PVC Water Squirter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build a water squirter using a PVC pipe, dowel, and foam. This activity is great for the summer time and introduces learners to forces and water pressure. Note: an electric drill is recommended for this activity, but not included in the cost of materials.

Workshop, Watsonville E.

2011-01-01

439

DRINKING WATER COST EQUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents capital, and operating and maintenance cost equations for 99 water treatment unit processes. The equations, derived from a cost data base developed for the Drinking Water Research Division can be used to provide preliminary cost estimates for individual unit ...

440

Purge water management system  

DOEpatents

A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.

Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)

1996-01-01

441

The Chemistry of Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water may be one of the most familiar substances on the planet, but it certainly isnât ordinary. In fact, waterâs unique chemical properties make it so complicated that even after decades of research, scientists still have much to learn about this remarkable and versatile substance. This web site contains information on research on the structure and behavior of water molecules.

442

Storm Water Runoff Pollution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (located on page 8 of the PDF) introduces learners to the concept of Non-point Source Pollution--what happens when rain washes garbage and other pollutants into rivers and lakes. Through this demonstration, learners observe how water systems are connected and how pollution in their own backyard can affect larger water supplies.

Museum, Chicago C.

2008-01-01

443

Take Action: Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this regular column of the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, the author looks at the importance of conserving water and practicing good conservation habits daily. The column is designed for teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms and presents concepts of climate literacy that are appropriate for young children. Identified online resources provide data collection activities, lessons, and games.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2012-02-01

444

Pore-water profiler  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A pore-water profiler and method for sampling pore water. The pore-water profiler includes a sample intake probe that receives the fluid to be sampled. A clog-resistant first filter filters the fluid as it enters the sample intake probe. A second filter, which has a pore size less than the pore size of the first filter, filters the fluid a second time before the fluid enters a sample container. A sample triggering system connected to the sample container initiates sampling by causing the fluid to be drawn into the sample intake probe. The profiler provides high-resolution (centimeter-scale) vertical pore-water profiles. The sequential filtration of the pore water avoids the problem of sample-circuit clogging, even in sediments dominated by fine or organic-rich particles. The profiler has all non-metallic, acid-washable components that contact the fluid sample, making the profiler suitable for trace-inorganic studies.

2011-11-08

445

Skylab water balance analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The water balance of the Skylab crew was analyzed. Evaporative water loss using a whole body input/output balance equation, water, body tissue, and energy balance was analyzed. The approach utilizes the results of several major Skylab medical experiments. Subsystems were designed for the use of the software necessary for the analysis. A partitional water balance that graphically depicts the changes due to water intake is presented. The energy balance analysis determines the net available energy to the individual crewman during any period. The balances produce a visual description of the total change of a particular body component during the course of the mission. The information is salvaged from metabolic balance data if certain techniques are used to reduce errors inherent in the balance method.

Leonard, J. I.

1977-01-01

446

Water near intracellular surfaces  

PubMed Central

In this paper we make the following points: Water is perturbed within several angstroms of the surfaces of soluble molecules. Removal of this water can require significant amounts of work, seen as an exponentially varying "hydration force" with respect to molecular separation. The favorable and specific attractions that occur in molecular assembly or in ligand binding imply that the specific association between the molecular surfaces is stronger than the association of those surfaces with water. The specificity of biochemical association is not simply a matter of protein-protein interaction but also of competing protein-water interactions. Small structural changes in molecular surfaces can evoke large changes in the contact energy of hydrated surfaces; surface hydration and the energetics of water displacement are a likely mechanism for the contact specificity of intracellular associations integrating the cell matrix.

Parsegian, V. A.; Rau, D. C.

1984-01-01

447

WATER DRAINAGE MODEL  

SciTech Connect

The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

J.B. Case

2000-05-30

448

CCMR: Water in Glass  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Water uptake for various compositions of the model glass (Fe2O3)0.01(B2O3)0.048(Na2O)0.142(SiO2)0.8x(Al2O3)0.8(1âx) under fixed annealing conditions was studied via FTIR. Glasses of this formulation were found to take up water at both 300 and 380 °C. The time dependence of their water uptake entails that the governing kinetics are determined by the diffusion of water molecules in the glass network. The experimental approach used was validated by confirming previous water concentration results regarding glasses of the composition (Na2O)0.2[(BO1.5)x(SiO2)1âx]0.8.

Harrell, Stuart

2010-08-15

449

Ground Water Contamination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This detailed discussion explains that most ground water contamination is the result of human activity, and that several laws have been passed with an aim to minimize effects. The Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are explained along with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, or Superfund), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Other terms explained include zone of contribution, interaquifer leakage, and plume of contamination. Special tables included at this site are Typical Sources of Potential Ground Water Contamination by Land Use Category and Potential Harmful Components of Common Household Products. There is also a full page diagram showing some potential sources of ground water contamination.

450

Water policy bill debated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

“Federal water-related policy is extremely fragmented and haphazard and prevents us from dealing with our water problems in an expeditious and coordinated fashion,” said Mark O. Hatfield (R-Oreg.), member of the Senate committee on Energy and Natural Resources and sponsor of the Western Water Policy Review Act.At a September 19 hearing on the proposed legislation, Hatfield pointed out that there are currently at least 13 congressional committees, 8 Cabinet-level departments, 6 independent agencies, and 2 White House offices with some form of responsibility relating to national water management policy. As a result of this fragmentation, coordinating solutions to water problems remains difficult. Jurisdiction disputes between federal and state governments and between states must be resolved, Hatfield believes.

Bush, Susan

451

Metastable Water Under Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have summarized some of the recent results, including studies for bulk, confined and interfacial water. By analyzing a cell model within a mean field approximation and with Monte Carlo simulations, we have showed that all the scenarios proposed for water's P-T phase diagram may be viewed as special cases of a more general scheme. In particular, our study shows that it is the relationship between H bond strength and H bond cooperativity that governs which scenario is valid. The investigation of the properties of metastable liquid water under pressure could provide essential information that could allow us to understand the mechanisms ruling the anomalous behavior of water. This understanding could, ultimately, lead us to the explanation of the reasons why water is such an essential liquid for life.

Stokely, Kevin; Mazza, Marco G.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Franzese, Giancarlo

452

Water quality management worldwide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article analyzes water quality on a global scale. An overview of the global water supply and demand situation is presented first, including regional and country information, as well as data on selected water use patterns. The focus then shifts to a discussion of water pollution, its various causes, impact, and remedies, with emphasis on legal and administrative solutions. Water pollution control expenditures and the resultant achievements are dealt with in the final third of the article, with projections to 1995. A wide variety of published sources was dovetailed to obtain a composite picture and most likely scenario; this was supplemented with primary interviews by the author conducted in North America, Western and Eastern Europe, and Oceania at the start of the 1980s.

Gross, Andrew Charles

1986-01-01

453

INEEL Source Water Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.

Sehlke, Gerald

2003-03-01

454

Natural radioactivity in water supplies  

SciTech Connect

This book outlines the scientific aspects of the control of natural radioactivity in water supplies, as well as the labyrinthine uncertainties in water quality regulation concerning natural radiocontamination of water. The author provides an introduction to the theory of natural radioactivity; addresses risk assessment, sources of natural radiocontamination of water, radiobiology of natural radioactivity in water, and federal water law concerning natural radiocontamination; and presents an account of how one city dealt with the perplexities that mark this area of water quality regulation.

Horner, J.K.

1985-01-01

455

Municipal waste-water reuse: Selected readings on water reuse  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) received a grant from the Water Pollution Control Federation's (WPCF) Water Reuse Committee to publish information on Water Reuse. The publication is a series of papers presented at 1989 San Francisco WPCF meeting on Water Reuse. The papers describe successful projects and provides guidance to those who are considering or are involved in managing Water Reuse and Reclamation Projects.

Not Available

1991-09-01

456

Water Resources Data for Kentucky, Water Year 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1976 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report contains discharge records fo...

1977-01-01

457

Water Resources Data for Kentucky, Water Year 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water resources data for the 1979 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes; and water levels and water quality of wells and springs. This report contains discharge records fr...

1980-01-01

458

Integrated concepts in water reuse: managing global water needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities across the world face water supply challenges due to increasing demand, drought, depletion and contamination of groundwater, and dependence on single sources of supply. Water reclamation, recycling, and reuse address these challenges by resolving water resource issues and creating new sources of high-quality water supplies. The future potential for reclaimed treated effluent is enormous. Although water reclamation and reuse

G. Wade Miller

2006-01-01

459

Water quality diagnosis system for evaluation of reactor water impurities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the methods of water chemistry control in boiling water reactor (BWR) plants have become more and more complicated because of the increasingly higher purity of water quality as a result of the sophistication of water chemistry control techniques. A water quality diagnosis system has been developed to improve the reliability of and achieve a high level of

Toshihiko Fukumoto; Yoichi Hayashi; Nobuyuki Oota; Hiroo Igarashi

1991-01-01

460

Water Resources Data for Maine, Water Year 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-resources data for the 1994 water year for Maine consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; water levels of ground-water wells; and precipitation amounts at selected sites. This...

J. P. Nielsen W. B. Higgins R. G. Lippert

1995-01-01

461

Global Public Water Education: The World Water Monitoring Day Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public awareness of the impending world water crisis is an important prerequisite to create a responsible citizenship capable of participating to improve world water management. In this context, the case of a unique global water education outreach exercise, World Water Monitoring Day of October 18, is presented. Started in 2002 in the United States, currently World Water Monitoring Day is

Yoseph Negusse Araya; Edward H. Moyer

2006-01-01

462

Water forum '86: World water in evolution, Volume 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book consists of over 70 sessions, each containing several papers. Some of the session titles are: Water Policy Today, Hydropower Planning (I), Alternative Water Storage Management Strategies; Ground Water Management and Modelling, Hydrology, Operations Model for Hydrosystems, Rainfall Runoff and Flood Routing, Sediment Control in Canals, Urban Flood Control, Water Quality, Reservoir Operations, Sedimentation, and Canadian-U.S. Water Issues.

M. Karamouz; G. R. Baumli; W. J. Brick

1987-01-01

463

Power generation and potable water recovery from salinous water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process for simultaneously generating power and recovering potable water from a source of salinous water - e.g. sea water, is described. Salinous water which is proximate to the surface and at a relatively high temperature - about 85°F - is increased in temperature via indirect contact with a vaporous phase, derived from the surface water at an elevated temperature

1978-01-01

464

Water quality monitor. [spacecraft potable water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preprototype water quality monitor (WQM) subsystem was designed based on a breadboard monitor for pH, specific conductance, and total organic carbon (TOC). The breadboard equipment demonstrated the feasibility of continuous on-line analysis of potable water for a spacecraft. The WQM subsystem incorporated these breadboard features and, in addition, measures ammonia and includes a failure detection system. The sample, reagent, and standard solutions are delivered to the WQM sensing manifold where chemical operations and measurements are performed using flow through sensors for conductance, pH, TOC, and NH3. Fault monitoring flow detection is also accomplished in this manifold assembly. The WQM is designed to operate automatically using a hardwired electronic controller. In addition, automatic shutdown is incorporated which is keyed to four flow sensors strategically located within the fluid system.

West, S.; Crisos, J.; Baxter, W.

1979-01-01

465

Water, Water Everywhere... and Oxidants too!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current predominant scientific strategy to find evidence for the existence of extraterrestrial life has been to "follow the water". Life on Earth requires the availability of water, so it makes sense that this is a good place to start when trying to evidence of extant or extinct signatures of life beyond our planet. However, life on Earth also requires redox gradients. Respiration and photosynthesis are two such examples of redox chemistry that is essential for life. Planetary surfaces and atmospheres are naturally oxidized by photolytic and radiolytic processes. Even on early Earth and Titan, the natural oxidation of primordial ammonia presumably created the present nitrogen atmospheres, respectively as real and potential abodes for life. In the cases of Mars, Europa and Enceladus, three bodies of intense astrobiological interest, the natural oxidation processes driven by space environment interactions can produce significant quantities of oxidants, which could potentially be utilized to sustain life. We propose, that in addition to the "follow the water" strategy, the scientific community should start to "follow the oxidants", as a potentially important avenue of research and exploration. We address models for oxidant formation in planetary surface irradiation environments, as simulated by laboratory investigations, and apply results to past, recent and ongoing planetary observations of Mars and icy bodies of potential astrobiological interest in the outer solar system.

Cooper, P. D.; Cooper, J. F.

2007-12-01

466

WATER-TRAPPED WORLDS  

SciTech Connect

Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO{sub 2} as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2013-09-01

467

Water Purification Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metallic electrodes, and a rheostat controller. Ions are generated by passing a low voltage current through the electrodes; the silver ions kill the bacteria, and the copper ions kill algae. This technology has found broad application because it offers an alternative to chemical disinfectants. It was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft. Caribbean Clear has been using NASA's silver ionization technology for water purification for more than a decade. Two new products incorporate advancements of the basic technology. One is the AquaKing, a system designed for areas with no source of acceptable drinking water. Another is the Caribbean Clear Controller, designed for commercial pool and water park applications where sanitizing is combined with feedback control of pH and an oxidizer, chlorine or bromine. The technology was originally developed to purify water on Apollo spacecraft.

1994-01-01

468

The politics of water  

SciTech Connect

Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.

Postel, S.

1993-08-01

469

Adsorbed Water Illustration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander detected small and variable amounts of water in the Martian soil.

In this schematic illustration, water molecules are represented in red and white; soil minerals are represented in green and blue. The water, neither liquid, vapor, nor solid, adheres in very thin films of molecules to the surfaces of soil minerals. The left half illustrates an interpretation of less water being adsorbed onto the soil-particle surface during a period when the tilt, or obliquity, of Mars' rotation axis is small, as it is in the present. The right half illustrates a thicker film of water during a time when the obliquity is greater, as it is during cycles on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years. As the humidity of the atmosphere increases, more water accumulates on mineral surfaces. Thicker films behave increasingly like liquid water.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

470

Water-trapped Worlds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although tidally locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO2 as dayside ocean basins dry up. Water-trapped worlds with dry daysides may offer similar advantages as land planets for habitability, by contrast with worlds where more abundant water freely flows around the globe.

Menou, Kristen

2013-09-01

471

Water conservation plan guidelines  

SciTech Connect

These Water Conservation Plan Guidelines are addressed to water system planners but use of the Guidelines is not required by federal law or regulation. The first part of the document introduces the Guidelines and provides information to the States about their nature and possible use. The second part of the document, written for water systems, is an overview to the organization, content, and the use of the Guidelines. The next three parts contain the water conservation plan Guidelines: Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced. The Basic Guidelines are designed for use by water systems serving populations of 10,000 or fewer; The Intermediate Guidelines are designed for water systems serving between 10,000 and 100,000 people; The Advanced Guidelines are designed for water systems serving more than 100,000 people. Six appendixes to the Guidelines provide supporting information: detailed descriptions of conservation measures (Appendix A), conservation benchmarks (Appendix B), acronyms and a glossary (Appendix C), information resources (Appendix D), funding sources (Appendix E), and state contacts (Appendix F).

NONE

1998-08-06

472

International Water Law Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As clean water has increasingly become a resource subject to scarcity, international politics and law have become involved with the issues of access to and maintenance of water sources. This site provides comprehensive information on the subject, featuring full texts of the major diplomatic documents, including rules on international groundwaters and rivers agreed upon at UN conferences in Helsinki and Seoul, treaty drafts, regional agreements as well as international case law, an extensive bibliography, and links to related sites. The site was conceived and developed by Gabriel Eckstein in conjunction with The World's Water project of the Pacific Institute.

Eckstein, Gabriel.

473

Estuarine Science: Water Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Estuaries have physical traits, and scientists use a variety of measurements such as water depth, salinity, and current speed to describe an estuary. This site describes the various measurements that make up the physical properties of an estuary, using Narragansett Bay as an example. Specific sections of this site focus on water chemistry (temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll a, and pH), circulation (tides, currents, density fresh water input and flushing rates), and seasonal and daily cycles (yearly cycles, daily cycles, and tidal cycles).

474

Water Treatment Technician  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, created by ATETV and presented by WGBH, looks at a community college graduate working at a water treatment plant and how the skills he learned helped to prepare them for this career. The video also gives a basic tour of the plant and the processes involved to provide fresh drinking water. This video is helpful for students interested in water treatment technology, or anyone just looking to learn how community colleges can prepare graduates for a career in industry. Educators will also find a background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment for the material. Running time for the video is 4:16.

2010-10-11

475

The Water Cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Classroom Connectors lesson plan discusses the continuous movement of water from Earth to air and back to Earth. Students list areas of the Earth where water circulates, explain evaporation and condensation, list the steps of the water cycle and explain what happens in each step. The site provides goals, objectives, an outline, time required, materials, activities, and closure ideas for the lesson. The Classroom Connectors address content with an activity approach while incorporating themes necessary to raise the activity to a higher cognition level. The major motivation is to employ instructional strategies that bring the students physically and mentally into touch with the science they are studying.

476

Water Body Salinities I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the different salinity levels of oceans, rivers and estuaries. Learners then use experimentation to determine which sample is the best model of each type of natural water source. The first test, for conductivity, shows learners that a water sample with the right salinity can even be used to light a bulb or ring an electric buzzer. The second test, for evaporation, shows how rate of evaporation is affected by salinity level. This activity can be followed by Water Body Salinities II from the same resource. Includes background material.

Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.

2006-01-01

477

Water jet symposium  

SciTech Connect

A symposium is presented dealing with the theoretical and experimental aspects of high pressure water jet cutting technology and its application to mining and civil engineering, as well as for industrial use. The application of water jets is diversified. The mining industry is already using water jets for development and production drilling in uranium, and is working on applying borehole mining to production of uranium and coal. Seven papers from this symposium have been abstracted and indexed individually for the US Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. (JMT)

Wang, F.D.; Ozdemir, L.; Miller, R. (eds.)

1982-01-01

478

Water in the Geosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, participants learn about the geosphere by making observations and taking measurements. They will go outside and use scientific equipment to investigate water in the soil by measuring soil moisture, temperature, color and consistency. Students will use this qualitative and quantitative data to understand how water is found in many places in the natural environment and how these places are connected in the water cycle. The data collection is based on protocols from the GLOBE program. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

479

Water: A Basic Ingredient  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the liquids they drink. The importance of water and milk as essential nutrients for a healthy body is the focus of the experience. Learners discover the importance of drinking six 8 oz. glasses of water a day by taking turns measuring and pouring glasses of water. Learners also collect and read drink labels. The "Extending Activities" section features optional additional activities including a demonstration in which learners identify the different amounts of sugar in drinks. This activity is featured on pp. 14-15 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2014-04-30

480

Water: A Basic Ingredient  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the liquids they drink. The importance of water and milk as essential nutrients for a healthy body is the focus of the experience. Learners discover the importance of drinking six 8 oz. glasses of water a day by taking turns measuring and pouring glasses of water. Learners also collect and read drink labels. The "Extending Activities" section features optional additional activities including a demonstration in which learners identify the different amounts of sugar in drinks. This activity is featured on pp. 14-15 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.

Reitsma, Beverly A.; Indianapolis, The C.

2012-06-26

481

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

482

Global water cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The primary objective is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates changes on both global and regional scales. The following subject areas are covered: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) diabatic heating; (4) MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) temperature analysis; (5) Optimal precipitation and streamflow analysis; (6) CCM (Community Climate Model) hydrological cycle; (7) CCM1 climate sensitivity to lower boundary forcing; and (8) mesoscale modeling of atmosphere/surface interaction.

Robertson, Franklin R.; Christy, John R.; Goodman, Steven J.; Miller, Tim L.; Fitzjarrald, Dan; Lapenta, Bill; Wang, Shouping

1991-01-01

483

Conserving Water at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans depend on freshwater for drinking as well as for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. Careless and wasteful use of this renewable but high-demand natural resource contributes to water depletion. This video segment provides a look at a house in Tuscon, Arizona that is equipped with water conservation devices that cut its household water consumption in half. There is also discussion of xeriscape landscaping techniques and a program to install low-flow toilets in Los Angeles, California. The segment is two minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-03-15

484

Conserving Water at Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans depend on freshwater for drinking as well as for domestic, agricultural, and industrial uses. Careless and wasteful use of this renewable but high-demand natural resource contributes to water depletion. This video segment provides a look at a house in Tuscon, Arizona that is equipped with water conservation devices that cut its household water consumption in half. There is also discussion of xeriscape landscaping techniques and a program to install low-flow toilets in Los Angeles, California. The segment is two minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

485

Water Clean-up  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) about the use of reduction agents to decontaminate ground water. Learners will conduct a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction in which vitamin C acts as a reduction agent after passing through a model of top soil, sand, and gravel to "pollutants" (starch-iodine mixture). This simulates how nanoparticles of iron are being used to detoxify water under former factory sites. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Water Clean-up.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

486

Water recovery from the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water precisely fresh water is essential for live. The artificial fresh water production by desalting processes implies the utilization of energy. The ambient atmosphere contains a large quantity of water in the form of vapor and this endless source of water can be recovered for general use. In this paper, a method is proposed to use liquid desiccant to extract

P. Gandhidasan; H. I. Abualhamayel

1996-01-01

487

REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

488

Irrigation management under water scarcity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of water for agricultural production in water scarcity regions requires innovative and sustainable research, and an appropriate transfer of technologies. This paper discusses some of these aspects, mainly relative to on-farm irrigation management including the use of treated wastewater and saline waters. First, the paper proposes some concepts relative to water scarcity, concerning aridity, drought, desertification and water

Luis Santos Pereira; Theib Oweis; Abdelaziz Zairi

2002-01-01

489

PLANNED UTILIZATION OF WATER RESOURCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY California's semi-arid San Bernardino Valley, which relies heavily on ground water, is experiencing a rapid growth in the face of diminishing water resources. To avert critical water shortages in the future, the State of California is engaged in a massive effort (the California Water Project) which includes the redistribution of the state's water resources. However, mass redistribution (diverting Northern

M. L. FRANKEL

490

Hot water saver. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hot Water Saver consists of a cylinder mounted at the water heater in the cold water inlet pipe and a crossover pipe connecting the hot and cold water pipes at the most distant point of use from the water heater. The cylinder contains a piston with a rod connected to the upper side which extends through the top of

Haws

1984-01-01

491

Solar Water Heater Installation Package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

1982-01-01

492

Hot Water Saver. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hot Water Saver consists of a cylinder mounted at the water heater in the cold water inlet pipe and a crossover pipe connecting the hot and cold water pipes at the most distant point of use from the water heater. The cylinder contains a piston with a ...

S. K. Haws

1984-01-01

493

Waste water heat recovery apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste water heat transfer apparatus is disclosed in which the waste water from residential or commercial uses such as washing, etc., is passed into a separate drain and then into a heat exchanger which includes a waste water conduit therein, and then to the sewer drain. A supply water conduit extends through the heat exchanger generally paralleling the waste water

Arbabian

1985-01-01

494

Solar water heating in Pennsylvania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common application of solar energy in Pennsylvania is to heat water. Thousands of solar water heaters have been installed across the state. Solar water heating systems are an excellent application of solar energy because hot water is needed year-round. Water heating is usually the second highest energy need, after space heating, in homes. For a family of four,

M. B. Sheffer; Lau A. S

2009-01-01

495

Idaho Source Water Assessment Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Idaho Source Water Assessment Plan was developed in response to requirements set forth by the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments passed by Congress in 1996. The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments require states to assess the water (called source water...

1999-01-01

496

Central Arizona Project, (Irrigation Water and Water Supplies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement concerns a project to furnish irrigation water and municipal water supplies to the water-deficient areas of Arizona (particularly Yuma, Maricopa, Pinal, Pima, and Cochise Counties) and western New Mexico (particularly Grant County) through d...

1971-01-01

497

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

498

WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION - HOME PAGE  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts research to help prepare the primary and secondary regulations for drinking water and to develop technologies and strategies for controlling waterborne contaminants. The program integrates chemistry, engineering, micr...

499

Getting up to Speed: The Water Cycle and Water Conservation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an introduction to a module on water conservation. It presents the concepts of limited supply, the water cycle, and the impact by and on populations. It gives an overview of water conservation and what would happen without it.

500

GPS Water Vapour Meteorology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report we describe experiments to derive accurate integrated water vapor (IWV) measurements from the atmospheric delay of radio signals transmitted by the Global Positioning System (GPS). A network of permanent ground based GPS receivers has been ...

H. K. Baltink H. J. Derks A. C. van Lammeren B. A. Ambrosius H. van der Marel

1999-01-01