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Climate change and invasive species can both have negative impacts on native species diversity. Additionally, climate change has the potential to favor invasive species over natives, dealing a double blow to native biodiversity. It is, therefore, vital to determine how changing climate conditions are directly linked to demographic rates and population growth of non-native species so we can quantitatively evaluate how invasive populations may be affected by changing conditions and, in turn, impact native species. Cordylophora caspia, a hydrozoan from the Ponto-Caspian region, has become established in the brackish water habitats of the San Francisco Estuary (SFE). We conducted laboratory experiments to study how temperature and salinity affect C. caspia population growth rates, in order to predict possible responses to climate change. C. Caspia population growth increased nonlinearly with temperature and leveled off at a maximum growth rate near the annual maximum temperature predicted under a conservative climate change scenario. Increasing salinity, however, did not influence growth rates. Our results indicate that C. caspia populations in the SFE will benefit from predicted regional warming trends and be little affected by changes in salinity. The population of C. caspia in the SFE has the potential to thrive under future climate conditions and may subsequently increase its negative impact on the food web.
Meek, Mariah H.; Wintzer, Alpa P.; Wetzel, William C.; May, Bernie
Climate change and invasive species can both have negative impacts on native species diversity. Additionally, climate change has the potential to favor invasive species over natives, dealing a double blow to native biodiversity. It is, therefore, vital to determine how changing climate conditions are directly linked to demographic rates and population growth of non-native species so we can quantitatively evaluate how invasive populations may be affected by changing conditions and, in turn, impact native species. Cordylophora caspia, a hydrozoan from the Ponto-Caspian region, has become established in the brackish water habitats of the San Francisco Estuary (SFE). We conducted laboratory experiments to study how temperature and salinity affect C. caspia population growth rates, in order to predict possible responses to climate change. C. Caspia population growth increased nonlinearly with temperature and leveled off at a maximum growth rate near the annual maximum temperature predicted under a conservative climate change scenario. Increasing salinity, however, did not influence growth rates. Our results indicate that C. caspia populations in the SFE will benefit from predicted regional warming trends and be little affected by changes in salinity. The population of C. caspia in the SFE has the potential to thrive under future climate conditions and may subsequently increase its negative impact on the food web. PMID:23071559
Meek, Mariah H; Wintzer, Alpa P; Wetzel, William C; May, Bernie
A wealth of data are available on the seasonal variation of plankton communities, but few studies take into consideration the circannual cycles of benthic organisms. In fact, the macrobenthos is generally considered as composed by slow-growing organisms showing variations mainly in relation to substrate competition. On the contrary, hydroids are an important group of macrobenthos that, in temperate but also
G. Bavestrello; S. Puce; C. Cerrano; E. Zocchi; N. Boero
Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. Here we describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate ...
Hydroids were examined in 88 qualitative samples from a depth range of 0–4550m in the Bermuda area. Of 89 species represented overall, 54 were present in samples from 0 to 25m. Thirty-one of these 54 taxa were found only within that bathymetric zone. Hydroid species numbers remained relatively high (36) in collections from shallow neritic bottoms (26–100m), although the faunal
Cordylophora caspia is a hydrozoan which causes biofouling in power plants and is an increasing problem in UK drinking water treatment works. Thermal control is not usually feasible without a ready source of hot water so laboratory experiments were conducted to assess whether using pulsed doses of chlorine is an alternative solution. C. caspia polyps disintegrated after a single 20 min dose (the length of one backwash cycle in water treatment work filter beds) of 2.5 ppm chlorine. Without further treatment colonies regenerated within 3 days, but repeated dosing with chlorine for 20 min each day inhibited this regeneration. The resistance of surviving colonies to chlorine increased over time, although colony size and polyp regeneration continued to fall. These results suggest pulsed treatment with chlorinated backwashes at 2 ppm could be used to control C. caspia biofouling in rapid gravity filters and this may have relevance to other settings where thermal control is not feasible. PMID:22554274
DURING my studies the past summer at the Newport Marine Laboratory I captured a single specimen of an osseous fish, Seriola zonata, Cuv., which exhibits a most interesting example of parasitism or possibly commensalism. Upon the outer wall of its body an extraordinary hydroid was found to have attached itself. As this mode of life is unique for a hydroid,
Hydroids form symbiotic relationships with a range of invertebrate hosts. Where they live with colonial invertebrates such as corals or bryozoans the hydroids may benefit from the physical support and protection of their host's hard exoskeleton, but how they interact with them is unknown. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the physical interactions between the colonial hydroid Zanclea margaritae and its reef-building coral host Acropora muricata. The hydroid tissues extend below the coral tissue surface sitting in direct contact with the host's skeleton. Although this arrangement provides the hydroid with protective support, it also presents problems of potential interference with the coral's growth processes and exposes the hydroid to overgrowth and smothering. Desmocytes located within the epidermal layer of the hydroid's perisarc-free hydrorhizae fasten it to the coral skeleton. The large apical surface area of the desmocyte and high bifurcation of the distal end within the mesoglea, as well as the clustering of desmocytes suggests that a very strong attachment between the hydroid and the coral skeleton. This is the first study to provide a detailed description of how symbiotic hydroids attach to their host's skeleton, utilising it for physical support. Results suggest that the loss of perisarc, a characteristic commonly associated with symbiosis, allows the hydroid to utilise desmocytes for attachment. The use of these anchoring structures provides a dynamic method of attachment, facilitating detachment from the coral skeleton during extension, thereby avoiding overgrowth and smothering enabling the hydroid to remain within the host colony for prolonged periods of time. PMID:21695083
The hydroids, Tubularia crocea and Myrionema hargitti are sensitive organisms for assessing the effects of oil pollution. The abilities of these hydroids to capture Artemia nauplii were reduced after 1 hr exposure to a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Monterey Formation crude oil. Algal symbionts within Myrionema contribute photosynthetically-fixed carbon to the host hydroid. No significant effects upon these symbionts were noted after 1 or 3 h but significant reductions in the mitotic index, photosynthesis and carbon translocation rates were observed after a 24-48 h exposure to 100% WSF. Myrionema hargitti was less responsive to mechanical stimuli after a brief 100% WSF exposure. The responsiveness to a feeding stimulant (proline) and concert frequency of 100% WSF-treated Tubularia crocea were lower than controls. Significant increases in epithelial activity were also recorded at 1% WSF and the increased firing frequency did not persist beyond the duration of the exposure. Bioaccumulation of /sup 3/H-toluene (20 ppm) from 100% WSF reached a maximum within 1 min but declined over the next hour. Higher concentrations of /sup 3/H-toluene evoked increased hydranth shedding with 1 h but these hydranths never accumulated as much /sup 3/H-toluene as hydranths exposed to lower concentrations.
Hydroides elegans is a major fouling organism in tropical waters around the world, including Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. To determine the importance of initial surface characteristics on biofilm community composition and subsequent colonization by larvae of H. elegans, the settlement and recruitment of larvae to biofilmed surfaces with six different initial surface wettabilities were tested in Pearl Harbor. Biofilm community composition, as determined by a combined approach of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, was similar across all surfaces, regardless of initial wettability, and all surfaces had distinct temporal shifts in community structure over a 10 day period. Larvae settled and recruited in higher numbers to surfaces with medium to low wettability in both May and August, and also to slides with high wettability in August. Pearl Harbor biofilm communities developed similarly on a range of surface wettabilities, and after 10 days in Pearl Harbor all surfaces were equally attractive to larvae of Hydroides elegans, regardless of initial surface properties. PMID:19306143
Huggett, Megan J; Nedved, Brian T; Hadfield, Michael G
Marine hydroids are commonly thought to be defended by stinging organelles called nematocysts that penetrate predator tissues\\u000a and inject proteinaceous venoms, but not all hydroids possess these nematocysts. Although an increasing number of bioactive\\u000a secondary metabolites have been isolated from marine hydroids, ecological roles of these compounds are poorly known. To test\\u000a the hypothesis that nematocysts and noxious secondary metabolites
Planktonic colonial hydroids (Clytia gracilis) recently have been found to be abundant, but patchily distributed in time and space, on Georges Bank, northwest Atlantic Ocean. However, the processes regulating the occurrence of these hydroid colonies (i.e., seasonality, growth, advection, diffusion, sinking, and predation) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the potential role
Sean R. Avent; Stephen M. Bollens; Mari Butler; Erich Horgan; Rodney Rountree
Hydroids are major biofouling organisms in global aquaculture. Colonies of the hydroid Ectopleura crocea have recently established in Australian commercial mussel leases culturing Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study examined the impacts of E. crocea on mussel culture at two stages of the production cycle: spatfall and grow-out. Hydroids most commonly fouled the body, edge and dorsal regions of the mussel shell and cause a reduction in the length (4%) and weight (23%) of juvenile mussels. They also consumed mussel larvae in the field and in the laboratory. Prey numbers of many taxa, including mussel larvae, were consistent in natural hydroid diets regardless of the temporal variation in prey availability, implying some selectivity in hydroid feeding. In the laboratory, E. crocea consumed settling plantigrade mussel larvae more readily than trochophore or veliger larvae. Fouling by E. crocea is detrimental to mussel condition, and may affect the availability of wild mussel larvae in the commercial culture of M. galloprovincialis. PMID:23327223
Redox chemistry, involving the transfer of electrons and hydrogen atoms, is central to energy conversion in respiration, and the control of gene expression by redox state commonly occurs in bacteria, allowing rapid responses to environmental changes, for instance, in the food supply. Colonial metazoans often encrust surfaces over which the food supply varies in time or space; hence, in these organisms, redox control of the development of feeding structures and gastrovascular connections could be similarly adaptive, allowing colonies to adjust the timing and spacing of structures in response to a variable food supply. To investigate the possibility of redox control of colony development, the redox states of hydractiniid hydroid colonies were manipulated experimentally. As in many colonial animals, hydractiniid hydroids display a range of morphological variation from sheet-like forms (i.e. closely spaced polyps with high rates of stolon branching) to runner-like forms (i. e. widely spaced polyps with low rates of stolon branching). In the runner-like Podocoryna carnea, azide, a blocker of the electron transport chain, and dinitrophenol, an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, diminished the largely polyp-driven gastrovascular flow to a similar extent. Measures of the redox state of the polyp epitheliomuscular cells using the fluorescence of NAD(P)H suggest that azide shifts the redox state in the direction of reduction, while dinitrophenol shifts the redox state in the direction of oxidation. Colony development corresponds to redox state in that azide-treated colonies were more runner-like, while dinitrophenol-treated colonies were more sheet-like. Nevertheless, the functional role of polyps in feeding and generating gastrovascular flow probably contributed to a trade-off between polyp number and size such that azide-treated colonies had few large polyps, while dinitrophenol-treated colonies had many small polyps. Regardless of the treatment, P. carnea colonies developed to maturity and produced swimming medusae in the normal fashion. In the sheet-like Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus, treatment with azide resulted in complete suppression of the development of both the stolonal mat and the blastostyles, the reproductive polyps. Azide-treated H. symbiolongicarpus colonies therefore developed in a juvenilized, runner-like manner and much resembled colonies of P. carnea. Following cessation of azide treatment in H. symbiolongicarpus, normal colony development ensued, and both a stolonal mat and blastostyles formed. In both hydroid species, relative oxidization favors sheet-like growth, while relative reduction favors runner-like growth. Since feeding triggers strong contractions of polyp epitheliomuscular cells and results in relative oxidation, this experimental evidence supports the hypothesis of adaptive redox control of colony development and evolution. PMID:10574731
Huge numbers of hydroids (principally Clytia gracilis) were recently reported suspended in the plankton over the shallow, well-mixed region of Georges Bank, where preliminary feeding experiments suggested that these planktonic predators could have a potentially devastating effect on their zooplankton prey (Madin et al., 1996). Based on these initial findings we undertook a more extensive set of laboratory experiments examining the effects of particulate food concentration and mixing (turbulence) intensity on the feeding and growth of suspended hydroids. Not surprisingly, we found a clear effect of particulate food concentration on the growth of hydroid colonies. After 7 days at 15°C, both colony size (number of hydranths colony -1) and specific growth rate (hydranth hydranth -1 day -1) were significantly greater in well-fed (80-160 Artemia nauplii L -1) versus starved treatments. More interesting was the additional significant effect of turbulent mixing ( ?=9×10 -5 W kg -1) on hydroid growth. Consumption rates (4.5 Artemia nauplii hydranth -1 day -1) were not significantly different between mixing vs. non-mixing treatments, indicating that the enhanced growth rate in the mixing treatments could not have been due to turbulence-enhanced predator-prey contact rates. An alternative hypothesis for the apparent advantage that mixing seemed to confer on hydroid growth is that reduced boundary layer thickness around the hydroids served to replenish the local supply of DOM and oxygen and/or remove waste products. This study indicates that growth rate of planktonic hydroids is dependent on both food concentration and mixing intensity, a finding that helps explain why these organisms are vastly more abundant in the central, shallow, well-mixed region of Georges Bank compared to the stratified flanks of the Bank.
Bollens, Stephen M.; Horgan, Erich; Concelman, Stephanie; Madin, Laurence P.; Gallager, Scott M.; Butler, Mari
INTRODUCTION The present report deals with a collection of Hydroids from the Zoological Museum, Munich, German Federal Republic (Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, München), collected during various expeditions in the Caribbean region. I have thought it advisable to include in this report an annotated checklist of all Hydroids that in the course of time have been recorded from the Caribbean
This paper describes in some detail the structure of the acrosomal region of the spermatozoon of Hydroides as a basis for subsequent papers which will deal with the structural changes which this rcgion undergoes during fertilization. The material was osmium-fixed and mild centrifugation was used to aggregatc the spermatozoa from collection to final embedding. The studies concern also the acrosomal
Hydroid distribution patterns along a horizontal ecocline in the Rio Formoso\\/Rio Ariquindá\\/Rio Porto Alegre system, a small and seasonally poikilohaline estuary on the tropical northeast coast of Brazil, were investigated. Collecting was undertaken during the dry season, in November 1993, by diving (with and without SCUBA). Nine stations were sampled on a transect extending from a reef outside the river
This study examines calcification in planulae and polyps of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. We observed that established colonies produce a crystalline mat on their substratum and that crystals visible by polarized light microscopy occur in the vacuoles of the gastrodermal cells of both polyps and planulae. The crystalline mat was found by infrared spectroscopy to contain calcium carbonate in the
The consequences of global warming are particularly evident in high polar areas. Deglaciation phenomenon—negative mass balance\\u000a of Svalbard glaciers and recession of tidal glaciers—results in landscape and shoreline change. These areas of very dynamic\\u000a conditions are now open for primary colonists, among them hydroids, typical early colonists of the vacant substratum. This\\u000a study aims to explore the patterns of Hydrozoan
Marta Ronowicz; Maria W?odarska-Kowalczuk; Piotr Kukli?ski
Solandelactones A-I(1–9), cyclopropyl and lactone containing novel docosanoids have been isolated from the hydroid Solanderia secunda. The structures of these compounds have been elucidated by combined spectral and chemical studies. Configuration of the cyclopropyl ring has been assigned as the opposite of related oxylipins by NOESY experiments. Absolute stereochemistry has been determined on the basis of chemical transformations and CD
The serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans Haswell, 1883 is an early colonist of new substrata in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii. When metamorphically competent, larvae\\u000a of H. elegans will settle rapidly upon an acceptably biofilmed surface, but not on a clean surface. In this study we found the ability\\u000a of larvae to respond selectively to inductive surfaces to be retained for at
We report on the first record of interstitial cnidarians in sea ice. Ice core samples were collected during eight field periods\\u000a between February 2003 and June 2006 in the coastal fast ice off Barrow, Alaska (71°N, 156°W) at four locations. A total of\\u000a 194 solitary, small (0.2–1.1 mm) elongated specimens of a previously unknown interstitial hydroid taxon were found. By cnidome
A novel symbiosis between scleractinians and hydroids (Zanclea spp.) was recently discovered using taxonomic approaches for hydroid species identification. In this study, we address the question whether this is a species-specific symbiosis or a cosmopolitan association between Zanclea and its coral hosts. Three molecular markers, including mitochondrial 16S and nuclear 28S ribosomal genes, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), were utilized to examine the existence of Zanclea species from 14 Acropora species and 4 other Acroporidae genera including 142 coral samples collected from reefs in Kenting and the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, Togian Island, Indonesia, and Osprey Reef and Orpheus Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and 28S genes showed that Acropora-associated Zanclea was monophyletic, but the genus Zanclea was not. Analysis of the ITS, and 16S and 28S genes showed either identical or extremely low genetic diversity (with mean pairwise distances of 0.009 and 0.006 base substitutions per site for the 16S and 28S genes, respectively) among Zanclea spp. collected from diverse Acropora hosts in different geographic locations, suggesting that a cosmopolitan and probably genus-specific association occurs between Zanclea hydroids and their coral hosts. PMID:23209655
Fontana, Silvia; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Denis, Vianney; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Leung, Julia K L; Tsai, Wan-Sen; Wallace, Carden C; Chen, Chaolun Allen
A novel symbiosis between scleractinians and hydroids (Zanclea spp.) was recently discovered using taxonomic approaches for hydroid species identification. In this study, we address the question whether this is a species-specific symbiosis or a cosmopolitan association between Zanclea and its coral hosts. Three molecular markers, including mitochondrial 16S and nuclear 28S ribosomal genes, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), were utilized to examine the existence of Zanclea species from 14 Acropora species and 4 other Acroporidae genera including 142 coral samples collected from reefs in Kenting and the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, Togian Island, Indonesia, and Osprey Reef and Orpheus Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and 28S genes showed that Acropora-associated Zanclea was monophyletic, but the genus Zanclea was not. Analysis of the ITS, and 16S and 28S genes showed either identical or extremely low genetic diversity (with mean pairwise distances of 0.009 and 0.006 base substitutions per site for the 16S and 28S genes, respectively) among Zanclea spp. collected from diverse Acropora hosts in different geographic locations, suggesting that a cosmopolitan and probably genus-specific association occurs between Zanclea hydroids and their coral hosts.
Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Denis, Vianney; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Leung, Julia K. L.; Tsai, Wan-Sen; Wallace, Carden C.; Chen, Chaolun Allen
The hydroid Ectopleura larynx is a common fouling organism on aquaculture nets. To contribute to the development of novel cleaning methods, laboratory and field studies determined the effects of heat (30, 40, 50 and 60°C for immersion times of 1 and 3 s) and acetic acid (0.2 and 2.0% for immersion times of 1, 3 and 10 s, 1 and 5 min) on the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult E. larynx. Laboratory studies showed that, regardless of immersion time, a temperature of 50°C was effective in preventing the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juveniles, while ?12% of adult hydroids could survive. A temperature of 60°C killed all adult hydroids. For an acetic acid concentration of 0.2%, an immersion time of 1 min substantially reduced the settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult hydroids, and none of the juvenile and adult hydroids survived after 5 min. For an acetic acid concentration of 2.0%, all immersion times were effective and reduced the mean settlement of actinulae and the survival of juvenile and adult hydroids to ?10%. Field studies with fouled net panels exposed to selected heat or acetic acid treatments showed small reductions in mean wet weight and net aperture occlusion of the net panels 2 and 5 days after treatment. Visual inspections of the net panels showed that hydranths of the hydroids were shed, but the dead stolons of the hydroids remained on the treated net panels. Novel cleaning methods and devices may utilise these results to effectively kill E. larynx on aquaculture nets, while further studies are needed to determine the necessity of removing the dead hydroids before further biofouling accumulates on the nets. PMID:22017479
As a consequence of anthropogenic CO2-driven ocean acidification (OA), coastal waters are becoming increasingly challenging for calcifiers due to reductions in saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals. The response of calcification rate is one of the most frequently investigated symptoms of OA. However, OA may also result in poor quality calcareous products through impaired calcification processes despite there being no observed change in calcification rate. The mineralogy and ultrastructure of the calcareous products under OA conditions may be altered, resulting in changes to the mechanical properties of calcified structures. Here, the warm water biofouling tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was reared from larva to early juvenile stage at the aragonite saturation state (?A) for the current pCO2 level (ambient) and those predicted for the years 2050, 2100 and 2300. Composition, ultrastructure and mechanical strength of the calcareous tubes produced by those early juvenile tubeworms were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation. Juvenile tubes were composed primarily of the highly soluble CaCO3 mineral form, aragonite. Tubes produced in seawater with aragonite saturation states near or below one had significantly higher proportions of the crystalline precursor, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and the calcite/aragonite ratio dramatically increased. These alterations in tube mineralogy resulted in a holistic deterioration of the tube hardness and elasticity. Thus, in conditions where ?A is near or below one, the aragonite-producing juvenile tubeworms may no longer be able to maintain the integrity of their calcification products, and may result in reduced survivorship due to the weakened tube protection.
Chan, Vera Bin San; Li, Chaoyi; Lane, Ackley Charles; Wang, Yanchun; Lu, Xingwen; Shih, Kaimin; Zhang, Tong; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen
Hydroides elegans is a common marine fouling organism in most tropical and subtropical waters. The life cycle of H. elegans includes a planktonic larval stage in which swimming larvae normally take 5 days to attain competency to settle. Larval metamorphosis marks the beginning of its benthic life; however, the endogenous molecular mechanisms that regulate metamorphosis remain largely unknown. In this study, a PCR-based suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) library was constructed to screen the genes expressed in competent larvae but not in precompetent larvae. Among the transcripts isolated from the library, 21 significantly matched sequences in the GenBank. Many of these isolated transcripts have putative roles in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal transduction pathway or in response to ROS stress. A putative novel p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which was also isolated with SSH screen, was then cloned and characterized. The MAPK inhibitors assay showed that both p38 MAPK inhibitors SB202190 and SB203580 effectively inhibited the biofilm-induced metamorphosis of H. elegans. A cell stressors assay showed that H(2)O(2) effectively induced larval metamorphosis of H. elegans, but the inductivity of H(2)O(2) was also inhibited by both SB inhibitors. The catalase assay showed that the catalase could effetely inhibit H. elegans larvae from responding to inductive biofilm. These results showed that the p38 MAPK-dependent pathway plays critical role in controlling larval metamorphosis of the marine polychaete H. elegans, and the reactive oxygen radicals produced by biofilm could be the cue inducing larval metamorphosis. PMID:20535771
In order to examine the genetic relationships among life-history traits in a hermaphroditic species we used artificial selection\\u000a for increased egg size and measured correlated responses across the life cycle of the serpulid polychaete Hydroides elegans, a protandrous sequential hermaphrodite. We recorded sex ratios across generations, and measured egg size, egg energy, larval\\u000a volume at two time points, juvenile tube
The microalgal community associated with Eudendrium racemosum, a marine hydroid widely distributed in the Mediterranean Sea, was studied during an annual cycle, at monthly frequency,\\u000a in a coastal station of the Ligurian Sea. Microalgae were represented mainly by diatoms, which exhibited higher abundance\\u000a and biomass values between autumn and spring (max 46,752 cells mm?2 and 1.94 ?g C mm?2, respectively), while during summer a
Tiziana Romagnoli; Giorgio Bavestrello; Emellina M. Cucchiari; Mario De Stefano; Cristina G. Di Camillo; Chiara Pennesi; Stefania Puce; Cecilia Totti
Copper (Cu) contamination is a potential threat to the marine environment due to the use of Cu-based antifouling paints. Cu stress on larval settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans was investigated, and this was linked to Cu stress on biofilms and on the biofilm development process. The inductiveness of young biofilms was more easily altered by Cu stress than that of old biofilms, indicating the relative vulnerability of young biofilms. This might result from changes in bacterial survival, the bacterial community composition and the chemical profiles of young biofilms. Cu also affected biofilm development and the chemical high performance liquid chromatograph fingerprint profile. The results indicate that Cu affected larval settlement mainly through its effect on the process of biofilm development in the marine environment, and the chemical profile was crucial to biofilm inductiveness. It is strongly recommended that the effects of environmentally toxic substances on biofilms are evaluated in ecotoxicity bioassays using larval settlement of invertebrates as the end point. PMID:20390562
The polychaete Hydroides elegans (Serpulidae, Lophotrochozoa) is a problematic marine fouling organism in most tropical and subtropical coastal environment. Competent larvae of H. elegans undergo the transition from the swimming larval stage to the sessile juvenile stage with substantial morphological, physiological, and behavior changes. This transition is often referred to as larval settlement and metamorphosis. In this study, we examined the possible involvement of calmodulin (CaM) - a multifunctional calcium metabolism regulator, in the larval settlement and metamorphosis of H. elegans. A full-length CaM cDNA was successfully cloned from H. elegans (He-CaM) and it contained an open reading frame of 450 bp, encoding 149 amino acid residues. It was highly expressed in 12h post-metamorphic juveniles, and remained high in adults. In situ hybridization conducted in competent larvae and juveniles revealed that He-CaM gene was continuously expressed in the putative growth zones, branchial rudiments, and collar region, suggesting that He-CaM might be involved in tissue differentiation and development. Our subsequent bioassay revealed that the CaM inhibitor W7 could effectively inhibit larval settlement and metamorphosis, and cause some morphological defects of unsettled larvae. In conclusion, our results revealed that CaM has important functions in the larval settlement and metamorphosis of H. elegans. PMID:22507549
Activity of organizer regions is required for body plan formation in the developing organism. Transplanting a fragment of such a region to a host organism leads to the formation of a secondary body axis that consists of both the donor's and the host's tissues (Gerhart, 2001). The subject of this study, the White Sea hydroid cnidarian Dynamena pumila L. (Thecaphora, Sertulariidae), forms morphologically advanced colonies in the course of complex metamorphosis of the planula larva. To reveal an organizer region, a series of experiments has been performed in which small fragments of donor planula tissues were transplanted to embryos at the early and late gastrula stage, as well as to planulae. Only transplantations of a posterior tip fragment of a donor planula to a host planula of the same age led, in the course of metamorphosis, to the formation of a secondary shoot, which involved up to 50% of the host's tissues. After transplantations of tissue fragments of the anterior tip and the middle of the planula body, the formation of any ectopic structures was never observed. It was concluded that the posterior tip of the planula has organizer properties in Dynamena. PMID:21542340
Eleven strains of Streptomyces isolated from deep-sea sediments were screened for anti-larval settlement activity and all were active. Among those strains,\\u000a Streptomyces sp. UST040711-290 was chosen for the isolation of bioactive antifouling compounds through bioassay-guided isolation procedure.\\u000a A branched-chain fatty acid, 12-methyltetradecanoid acid (12-MTA) was purified, and it strongly inhibited the larval settlement\\u000a of the polychaete Hydroides elegans. Streptomyces sp.
Hydroides elegans, a worldwide fouling polychaete, can spawn throughout the year, but its recruitment drops during summer when hypoxia prevails. Here, the influence of hypoxia on larval development and settlement of H. elegans was investigated. Results showed that larval development was compromised at 1mg O2 l(-1) with a lower proportion of competent larvae and a higher proportion of malformed larvae, probably due to reduction in clearance rate. Regarding larval settlement, although most of the larvae were reluctant to settle at 1mg O2 l(-1), regardless of the biofilm nature, they settled quickly within 24h in response to the resumption of dissolved oxygen. Furthermore, only about 5% of the larvae settled on the biofilms developed under hypoxia, regardless of dissolved oxygen levels of the seawater. The delayed larval development and potential alteration of biofilm nature owing to hypoxia explained why the recruitment of H. elegans declines during summer. PMID:24050126
Shin, P K S; Leung, J Y S; Qiu, J W; Ang, P O; Chiu, J M Y; Thiyagarajan, V; Cheung, S G
Expression of the transcription factor genes brachyury, Tbx2/3 and sall is characterized in detail for the first time in an indirectly developing spiralian with a feeding trochophore. In Hydroides elegans, gut formation proceeds by invagination during embryogenesis and is followed by feeding-dependent posterior growth during larval stages. Posterior growth gives rise to the reproductive and segmented portion of the adult and derives primarily from multipotent dorsal blastomeres. Dorsal fate becomes morphologically evident at the 60-cell stage during spiral cleavage, although the timing of dorsal specification remains uncertain. Expression of brachyury anticipates the morphogenetic events associated with both gastrulation by invagination in the endoderm and ventral midline convergent extension in the ectoderm. The absence of brachyury expression in endoderm precursors previously reported in annelids that do not have feeding larvae suggests evolutionarily conserved roles associated with morphogenesis rather than endoderm specification. Synexpression of brachyury and FoxA in the blastopore of eumetazoans as well as in the secondarily formed anus of some protostomes and the mouth of deuterostomes suggests shared regulatory circuits during the formation of both oral and anal openings in protostomes and deuterostomes. Expression of sall during gastrulation, in the protonephridium, and in posterior growth zone precursors, also suggests evolutionarily conserved roles. The dorsal sides of the Hydroides and sea urchin embryos express Tbx2/3 in all three germ layer precursors, suggesting evolutionarily conserved dorsal regionalization functions. The results suggest specific gene usage during tubular gut formation, endoderm specification, dorsoventral specification and anteroposterior body elongation in the context of development by feeding larva. PMID:23585355
Isozoanthus antumbrosus, a new species of zooxanthellate zoanthid, is described. Colonies associate with the arborescent hydroid Dentitheca dendritica in the Caribbean Sea at 1-60 m. The coenenchyme, column, and oral disk are seal brown. The tentacles are golden brown and number 30-38. The coloration of the oral disk and tentacles recalls an annular solar eclipse. Polyps are 4.1-8.9 mm long
Three new cyanobacterial strains, that have been previously purified from the hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758), isolated from the White Sea, were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy methods and were characterized by using almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and part of the gene for 23S rRNA. The full nucleotide sequences of the rRNA gene clusters were deposited to GenBank (HM064496.1, GU265558.1, JQ259187.1). Comparison of rRNA gene cluster sequences of Synechococcus cyanobacterium 1Dp66E-1, Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E, and Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that these cyanobacterial strains do not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Furthermore, for the first time heterotrophic bacterium, associated with Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E, was identified as a member of the new phylum Gemmatimonadetes, genus of Gemmatimonas (GenBank accession number is JX437625.1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 1Dp66E-1 forms the unique branch and belongs to a cluster of Synechococcus, including freshwater and sea strains. Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E belongs to a cluster of Leptolyngbya strains. Isolate Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E forms unique branch and belongs to a cluster of the genus Nostoc, with the closest relative of Nostoc commune isolates.
Koksharova, O. A.; Kravzova, T. R.; Lazebnaya, I. V.; Gorelova, O. A.; Baulina, O. I.; Lazebny, O. E.; Fedorenko, T. A.; Lobakova, E. S.
In November 2003, we first observed prevalent occurrence of a hydroid, Eutima japonica, on soft body tissues of age zero Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis) juveniles cultured in large areas of Funka Bay, Hokkaido. The occurrence coincided with massive death of juvenile scallops.\\u000a A major objective was to clarify ecological relationships between the symbionts, and to infer the relationship between symbiosis
Perhaps the single most critical element of the Earth system is water, the carrier and bearer of life that is inextricably woven into the fabric of the Earth system. Only on Earth does water occur in equilibrium ...
Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HS...
Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is
Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is likely responsible for the lack of wall stress. This morphology also implies that decay helium that remains in the titanium hydride (that is, helium that is not released as gas to the free volume) should not cause significant wall stresses when the HSV is used for long-term tritium storage. Holographic interferometry proved to be an extremely sensitive technique to measure swelling, having a detection limit of about 3 microns surface displacement.
This tutorial examines the importance of water to Earth's ecosystems. Topics include the sources and distribution of water, the water cycle, and how snow and rain occur. There is a discussion of the phases in which it can exist (solid, liquid, or vapor), and a description of how animals adapt to cold snowy environments in the winter. Examples include burrowing, hibernation, migration, and thick fur. A quiz and glossary are included.
... have Web sites that include data on drinking water quality, including results of lead testing. Links to such data can be found at the following EPA Web site: ... Elevated Lead in Tap Water---District of Columbia, 2004 . MMWR. April 2, 2004; ...
Exploration of deep-water bioherms dominated by the scleractinian corals Lophelia pertusa and Enallopsammia profunda along the east coast of Florida in ~400-800 m depth reveals an often dense and rich assemblage of small (~1-30 mm) epifauna on dead coral branches, which is often dominated by agglutinated astrorhizacean foraminifers accompanied by thecate and athecate hydroids, sponges, stylasterids, anemones and barnacles. The dominant agglutinated foraminifer is an arborescent form up to 15 mm tall, consisting of a basal tube that gives rise to branchlets of successively decreasing diameter and thickly coated with fine-grained material including coccoliths and diatom frustules. The large numbers of foraminifers generate an enormous adhesive, sediment-trapping surface area and may represent an important accelerated route for sediment deposition and bioherm growth relative to baffling of suspended sediment particles by the coral branches themselves. These foraminifers also occur on still living coral, suggesting that they may either contribute to coral death or invade stressed colonies. They may thus be responsible for or contribute to the small percent of living corals observed in many of these habitats. Other epifauna appear to colonize after the coral has died.
Homogenate of coelenterate tissue interferes with metamorphosis in Hydractinia and pattern formation in both Hydractinia, and Hydra. From the extracts two fractions comprising low-molecular-weight compounds with strong metamorphosis-inhibiting activity were separated. One of these contains, as the active compound, homarine (N-methyl picolinic acid). Homarine concentrations down to 10-6 mol\\/l stop or retard metamorphosis. High concentrations block the continuation of metamorphosis
Abstract An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoan host species of pygmy seahorses is provided based on literature records and recently collected field data for Hippocampus bargibanti, Hippocampus denise and Hippocampus pontohi. Seven new associations are recognized and an overview of the so far documented host species is given. A detailed re-examination of octocoral type material and a review of the taxonomic history of the alcyonacean genera Annella (Subergorgiidae) and Muricella (Acanthogorgiidae) are included as baseline for future revisions. The host specificity and colour morphs of pygmy seahorses are discussed, as well as the reliability of (previous) identifications and conservation issues.
Reijnen, Bastian T.; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.
Biofouling on six different (silicone rubber, polydimethylsiloxane, polypropylene, high density polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, and polycarbonate) substrata with varying surface energy (18-40 mN/m) and surface roughness (R(a) 45-175 ?m) was studied in the Eastern coastal waters of India over a short period of time (3 days). The results showed that the substrata surface energy (SE) followed by the surface roughness (R(a)) had profound effect on attachment of fouling organisms. After one day of immersion, viable count of bacteria in the biofilm was positively correlated with surface energy (r=0.69, p<0.05) and not with surface roughness (r=-0.02) of the substratum. Whereas, Pseudomonas count was inversely correlated with surface energy (r=-0.66, p<0.05) and surface roughness (r=-0.52, p<0.05). The attachment of macrofouler and the surface characteristics were also well correlated with SE 0.48 and with roughness 0.62, p<0.05. A positive correlation was observed amongst the various biofouling constituents such as bacteria, ATP, carbohydrates and organic matter on almost all the substrata. However after the first day, the surface characteristics of the substratum became less important and the conditioning film that was formed on the substrata appeared to directly influence further fouling on the surfaces, as evidenced by poor correlation between surface energy and macrofouler attachment (r=-0.11). The observation of high numbers of Hydroides elegans on PVC could be solely due to the influence of surface roughness (r=0.62). Though there is no marked difference in the 'primary film', and the composition of the biofilm, the amount of attached macrofouler is minimal on silicone rubber and polydimethylsiloxane on subsequent days of immersion, which reveals the foul release quality of these substrata probably due to their flexible nature. PMID:22143025
Lakshmi, K; Muthukumar, T; Doble, M; Vedaprakash, L; Kruparathnam; Dineshram, R; Jayaraj, K; Venkatesan, R
|Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.|
This is a short NASA video on the water cycle. The video shows the importance of the water cycle to nearly every natural process on Earth and illustrates how tightly coupled the water cycle is to climate.
A mimic scale-worm was found associated with the athecate hydroid Solanderia secunda, commonly found on reefs of the NW coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The species resembled Medioantenna clavata Imajima 1997, which was originally described without any reference to a symbiotic mode of life and later reported to be living\\u000a on a solanderiid hydroid both in Japanese waters. A detailed
Cristina Gioia Di Camillo; Daniel Martin; Temir A. Britayev
In this activity, learners estimate how much water they think can be found in various locations on the Earth in all its states (solid, liquid, and gas) to discover the different water ratios in the Earth's total water supply. Learners divide 1000 ml of water (representing the total amount of water on Earth) amongst eight beakers as they predict the various ratios. Then learners measure the amounts of water that reflect the actual ratios and compare their predictions to reality. Learners will be surprised to find out that most of Earth's water is found in the ocean. This resource also includes information about flash floods and flood safety.
In this lesson, students will observe the amount of water in an open container vs a closed container over time. This lesson is the second in a three-part series that addresses a concept that is central to the understanding of the water cycle: that water is able to take many forms but is still water. In this second lesson, students will focus on the concept that water can go back and forth from one form to another and the amount of water will remain the same.
|The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)|
|Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)|
The idea of obtaining potable water from waste water is a psychologically difficult one for many people to accept. The tendency is to think that waste water is dirty and cannot be converted to clean water. This book describes significant advances in waste water treatment technology which make possible the control and\\/or removal of conventional pollutants, thus making potable water
... Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities Photos Q&A Teachers Contact ... explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, saline water, watersheds, runoff, and ...
Every day, we encounter water in its three different forms: liquid water, solid ice, and water vapor, an invisible gas. Most other substances can exist in these three phases as well, but water is unique because it is the only substance that can exist in all three phases at Earth's temperature. This collection of still images produced for Teachers' Domain depicts water in each of its three phases: liquid water, solid ice, and water vapor.
Water crisis was not considered seriously at the Dublin and Rio conferences. It was put on the world agenda primarily by the Stockholm Water Symposia. Water management is likely to change more during the next twenty years compared to the past 2,000 years. The paper reviews the global water situtation based on the latest data available. In terms of water
This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.
Of the many anomalies reported for water, the study concentrated on those anomalous properties exhibited by three types of material--the bound water in animate nature, the interfacially or structurally ordered water in inanimate nature, and the anomalous ...
... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...
Describes aspects of water resource systems and the human agencies that affect them. Defines the basics of successful resource management, addresses problems that confront water resource managers, and identifies a range of solutions for more efficient and equitable resource control and use. Covers quality of water supply, flood control, hydroelectric power, national and regional water authorities, and international aspects, with
Topics discussed in this literature review with 173 references dealing with the microbiology of aquatic ecosystems include microbial indicators of water pollution, and the microbial ecology of water. Solar radiation and naturally occurring microbial predators are important forces in the natural self-purification of polluted surface waters. The relationship between water quality and microbiology of river systems and natural lakes is
Surface Water: This is the USGS Water Science for School's page and the topic is surface water. Explained are surface water use, importance, rivers and streams. Also answers the questions of what is runoff, how is the flow of a stream measured, how does stream height relate to flow and much, much more.
In this outdoor water activity, learners explore evaporation by painting with water and tracing puddles. Learners will discover that wet things become dry as the water evaporates. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 36 of the PDF.
4th Grade Science - Water Cycle Water Cycle two day interactive lesson plan. DAY 1: Welcome to the Water Cycle! Today we are going to be exploring and finding out more about the wonderful Water Cycle! For starters we are going to start with a movie, click the following link and watch the video and ...
In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.
The idea of obtaining potable water from waste water is a psychologically difficult one for many people to accept. The tendency is to think that waste water is dirty and cannot be converted to clean water. This book describes significant advances in waste water treatment technology which make possible the control and/or removal of conventional pollutants, thus making potable water from waste water technically feasible today. Methods of waste water treatment and purification in varying stages of development are presented, based on information prepared by Dallas Water Utilities; SCS Engineers, Inc.; Gulf South Research Institute; University of Colorado; and AWWA. Ongoing experimental and pilot studies around the world are described. A discussion of contaminants associated with municipal waste water reuse as well as a chapter on health effects of reuse have been included. Possible approaches to educating the public about water reuse are also considered.
Water cycle concepts and basics including the distribution of water on the planet in oceans, rivers and lakes, glaciers and atmosphere. Defines basic terms: states of water, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, melting. Good illustrations, maps and photos. Excellent list itemizes human uses and impacts on water and the water cycle. Links to more detailed references are provided, case studies illustrate current concerns and issues in Ontario, Canada.
In some places, money flows with water. Studying both the water quality and property values around 22 lakes in south-central Maine, Kevin Boyle and Holly James of the University of Maine and Roy Bouchard of the Maine Department of Environmental Protection have found that good water quality makes waterfront property even more valuable. To gauge water quality, the researchers used Secchi disks to measure the clarity of the water at depth. They also reviewed 543 lakefront property sales between 1990 and 1994 to determine how values correlated with changing water conditions. The group also considered such factors as lake frontage, sizes of the houses and lots, and size of the lake.
Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)
In this activity, bend water with the help of static electricity. Discover how a comb can cause water flowing out of a faucet to bend in a unique direction. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.
|Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)|
Grade 6-10 geography lesson plan evaluating population growth and water availability in the United States and in other countries. Students will learn how to draw bar graphs and develop plans of action for water scarcity problems.
Topics discussed in this literature review with 173 references dealing with the microbiology of aquatic ecosystems include microbial indicators of water pollution, and the microbial ecology of water. Solar radiation and naturally occurring microbial predators are important forces in the natural self-purification of polluted surface waters. The relationship between water quality and microbiology of river systems and natural lakes is discussed.(KRM)
The relationship between the suctorian Ephelota gemmipara and the large hydroid Eudendrium racemosum from the North Adriatic Sea has been studied over its full annual cycle. Ephelota gemmipara settles on the perisarc of the hydroid, usually close to the hydranths in order to exploit the hydroid's food discharges. The life cycle of E. gemmipara is influenced by temperature variations and by its relationship with the host. The hydroid shows an active phase in the summer, and it gets through the adverse winter season forming resting stages. In April, when temperature increases, the hydroid starts its active phase and it is colonized by suctorians. From May to September the suctorians produce multiple buds (swarmers) that detach from the parental cells to settle on an Eudendrium colony. The abundance of the suctorian peaks in September, with more than 1.2 million ind. m(-2). Their proliferation coincides with the maximal abundance of their host and the highest water temperatures. On the contrary, sexual reproduction and the encystment occur when the temperature and the abundance of E. racemosum decrease. Lastly, we also report the presence of symbionts such as bacteria and the parasitic protozoans Tachyblaston ephelotensis and Enigmocoma acinetarum. PMID:23711377
The electrolysis of water is evaluated as a potentially efficient, low cost means of hydrogen production. The theoretical energy and voltage, current, and energy efficiencies of water electrolysis are considered. The present status of water electrolysis is reviewed, with attention given to caustic potash of soda electrolytes, electrode materials, diaphragms inserted between the electrodes, and the design of unipolar and
Life as we know it, i.e., carbon-based organisms that rely on RNA and DNA for information storage and transfer, requires liquid water. Thus, the search for life elsewhere in the universe generally begins with a search for liquid water. In our own Solar System, Earth is the only planet (or moon) that has liquid water at its surface. Mars and
|In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce…
TNF-receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) mediate signaling via tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)\\/TLR molecules, playing a role in cellular processes such as growth, differentiation and apoptosis. They have been most studied in the immunological context. Within the animal kingdom, TRAFs have been characterized from vertebrates, flies and worms. We have cloned and characterized the first TRAF homologue from a member of the
This web site showcases Lenntech's Complete Water treatment and Air filtration solutions. This company designs, manufactures and installs complete air and water treatment system solutions. Lenntech proclaims, "Our wide range of technologies and extended know-how in all water-related sectors will guarantee you a cost-efficient solution meeting your water quality requirements." Whether or not you're looking to purchase one of these fine water treatment systems, the site will still provide beneficial resources about how said systems operate.
In addition to improving the allocative efficiency of water use, water markets may reduce irrigation-related water quality problems. This potential benefit is examined with a nonlinear programming model developed to simulate agricultural decision-making in a drainage problem area in California's San Joaquin Valley. Results indicate that a 30% drainage goal is achievable through improvements in irrigation practices and changes in
Catherine L. Kling; Marca Weinberg; James E. Wilen
Students drop water from different heights to demonstrate the conversion of waterâs potential energy to kinetic energy. They see how varying the height from which water is dropped affects the splash size. They follow good experiment protocol, take measurements, calculate averages and graph results. In seeing how falling water can be used to do work, they also learn how this energy transformation figures into the engineering design and construction of hydroelectric power plants, dams and reservoirs.
Water Exploration uses a project-based learning approach, permitting students to conduct research and build an understanding about water science and critical water-related issues. All learning activities and resources are packaged into three modules, or Legacy Cycles, in a way that enhances student learning by making use of the Internet and computer technology to promote inquiry learning. The Earth Science Literacy Principles provide the organizing framework for the lessons and activities in each Water Exploration Legacy Cycle. The curriculum is applicable to high school science courses such as Earth and Space Science, Advanced Placement Environmental Science, Biology, Chemistry, and Aquatic Science.
Ellins, Kathy K.; Mccall, Linda R.; Mote, Alison; Ryan, Catherine; Negrito, Kathleen M.; Paloski, Brenda
Water snails have a shell for protection. They have two tentacles, a foot, and a head and a tail region. Water snails have eyes at the base of their sensory stalks. The stalks are used to smell and feel around the snail's environment.
This resource from the United States Geological Survey contains a list of water-related terms that will help you to understand and use the USGS web site. If you are looking for a more detailed water dictionary or glossary, this page also points you in that direction.
In third world countries contaminated water kills 400 children under the age of five every hour. This radio broadcast reports on a new method to disinfect the water by running it under a UV lamp. The clip is 2 minutes in length.
IN connection with the letters on ``red water'' in NATURE of April 4 and 11, it may be of interest to state that a rusty-red coloration of brine and salt in evaporating pools of sea water is common on this coast.
An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)
This site offers information on many aspects of water, including text, pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center where users can offer opinions and test their water knowledge. Main topics include: water basics, Earth's water, water use, and special topics such as acid rain, saline water and other water-quality issues. Links to other water-related sites are also provided.
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…
In this lesson, students will explore what happens to water as it goes from solid to liquid and back again; in addition, they will use observation, measurement, and communication skills to describe change. This lesson is the first in a three-part series that addresses a concept that is central to the understanding of the water cycle: that water is able to take many forms but is still water. This series of lessons is designed to prepare students to understand that most substances may exist as solids, liquids, or gases depending on the temperature, pressure, and nature of that substance. This knowledge is critical to understanding that water in our world is constantly cycling as a solid, liquid, or gas.
Provided by the Montana University System Water Center at Montana State University-Bozeman, this impressive site offers a wealth of information regarding issues related to water in Montana and nationally. A mix of political (regarding recent legislation), educational, research, and funding/employment "water information" is posted at this Website, under several section headings: Information, Featured Programs, Policy & Legislation, Learning Resources, and Montana Watersheds. In addition, a substantial collection of links to related organizations and resources assists users in finding further online information.
The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an 'erosion' technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by 'catalytic corrosion.' A cartridge c...
During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase. However, when I came back nine months later to give a talk about the apparatus, I realized that it was really an early Bernoulli effect demonstration. In the right-hand picture the spigot is open and water can be seen coming out of the spout. The water level in the narrow tube has fallen appreciably, thus showing that the pressure at this point has decreased, in agreement with the non-zero velocity of the water in the horizontal tube. The device was made ca. 1880 by E. S. Ritchie of Boston, MA. (Photos by Thomas B. Greenslade Jr.)
This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...
In this activity, learners explore how a hydraulic pump works. Learners work in teams to design and build a unique water fountain that employs a hydraulic pump. This lesson also contains a demonstration of a hydraulic pump in action.
Life as we know it, i.e., carbon-based organisms that rely on RNA and DNA for information storage and transfer, requires liquid water. Thus, the search for life elsewhere in the universe generally begins with a search for liquid water. In our own Solar System, Earth is the only planet (or moon) that has liquid water at its surface. Mars and Europa both probably have subsurface water. Researchers from NASA and elsewhere are hoping to eventually probe these subsurface reservoirs and determine whether life exists there. A more promising venue for finding extraterrestrial life is on Earth-like planets around other stars. Such planets can in principle be located and analyzed spectroscopically using large space-based telescopes like NASA's proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Mission (1). The chances of success for this mission depend critically on the abundance of Earth-like planets with liquid water at their surfaces because only there could a biota exist that would be widespread enough to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that would be detectable. Models of planetary accretion suggest that most terrestrial planets should be endowed with substantial amounts of water (2). Climate models suggest that the "habitable zone" around solar-type stars is relatively wide so that water can remain liquid on a planet's surface for long times (3). Thus, the chances of finding water, and maybe life, elsewhere appear to be good. References: (1) Beichman, C. A., Woolf, N. J. and Lindensmith, C. A. The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF): A NASA Origins Program to Search for Habitable Planets (JPL Publication 99-3) (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 1999). (2) Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., Lunine, J. I., Petit, J. M., Robert, F., Valsecchi, G. B. and Cyr, K. E. Meteoritics and Planet. Sci. 35, 1309-1320 (2000). (3) Kasting, J. F., Whitmire, D. P. and Reynolds, R. T. Icarus 101, 108-128 (1993).
Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...
The settlement rates of macrofouling organisms and the structure of marine fouling communities at the seawater intake and cooling water discharge of Madras Atomic Power Station, India were studied for a period of 2 years. The fouling community at the intake was composed of diverse groups of marine organisms. Of the 139 species observed at the intake, barnacles, mussels, hydroids,
The following type of nozzle problem is found in some introductory-level physics textbooks.1-3 The (average) flow speed of water through and out a hose with a cross-sectional area AH is vH. If a nozzle with an exit area AN < AH is attached to the hose, what is the speed vN of the water out of it? The books simply apply the continuity equation AHvH = ANvN to the nozzle to obtain vN = (AH/AN)vH. This solution is not correct because it does not take account of the fact that attaching the nozzle to the hose reduces the flow speed in it. So the books' values of vN must always be too high, sometimes by large amounts. It should not seem surprising that it takes more time to fill a watering can with a garden hose when there is a nozzle at the end of it than when there isn't. This paper will explain how a water nozzle actually works, and for a situation with a simple water source, the correct flow speed from a nozzle will be derived.
This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on summer streamflow. In addition, a summary of streamflow, soil moisture, and water supply conditions through the end of May is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts are given. Forecasts are based on the National Weather Service US Climate Analysis Center's 90-day outlook. Temperature and precipitation probability estimates given in the outlook are based primarily on the average of monthly forecasts since 1974 and seasonal forecasts since 1959 at 100 US weather reporting stations. Regional analyses are based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology and River Forecast Centers, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affect hydro generation in April.
This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture and fall streamflow, particularly in the Western US. The information is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Dept. of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Dept. of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through October 1992. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in July.
\\u000a Mediterranean countries face water supply challenges due to water scarcity. Water regeneration, recycling and reuse address\\u000a these challenges by resolving water resource issues and creating new sources of high-quality water supplies. Among others,\\u000a industrial activities worldwide account for about a quarter of all water consumption and there is hardly any industry that\\u000a does not use large amounts of water. Water
Water and water vapor transport in two-layer systems where one layer acts as water retarder are analyzed. In the experimental work, four external paints supposed to protect the underlying structure against water under common service conditions are applied on glass fiber reinforced concrete substrates. The water absorption coefficient and the effective water vapor diffusion coefficient are chosen as evaluation parameters
The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....
We reproduced a beautiful sea and animals in the ocean by the latest software technology. They show their life in the great water world. Wave, splash, bubble and all fluid movement were created by our original fluid simulator to bling realistic and correct expression. In the beautiful ocean, dolphins, whale sharks, great white sharks, humpback whales and other beautiful animals
On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...
In this issue of Water Watch, a summary of precipitation, drought, and streamflow conditions during the summer is presented. In addition, short-term streamflow forecasts (through October) for each region are given. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in July.
... Developing World: A Handbook for Implementing Household-Based Water Treatment and Safe Storage Projects Email page link Print page Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Listen to audio/Podcast Contact Us: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 ... and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay References and ...
|A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.|
Water reclamation and reuse provides a unique and viable opportunity to augment traditional water supplies. As a multi-disciplined and important element of water resources development and management, water reuse can help to close the loop between water supply and wastewater disposal. Effective water reuse requires integration of water and reclaimed water supply functions. The successful development of this dependable water resource depends upon close examination and synthesis of elements from infrastructure and facilities planning, wastewater treatment plant siting, treatment process reliability, economic and financial analyses, and water utility management. In this paper, fundamental concepts of water reuse are discussed including definitions, historical developments, the role of water recycling in the hydrologic cycle, categories of water reuse, water quality criteria and regulatory requirements, and technological innovations for the safe use of reclaimed water. The paper emphasizes the integration of this alternative water supply into water resources planning, and the emergence of modern water reclamation and reuse practices from wastewater to reclaimed water to repurified water. PMID:12019829
The booklet summarizes water rights concepts in general, and specifically, how those concepts apply to water law in New Mexico. Topics covered include: a historical perspective of water, the nature of water, the riperian doctrine of water use, the doctrin...
4th Grade Science Learn all about the Water Cycle! The Water Cycle: Water Storage Learn about Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, and Collection! The Water Cycle Here are some activites to learn about the water cycle. Hydrologic Cycle ...
This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture and fall streamflow. A map depicts soil moisture conditions in the US through early October. The analysis is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through November 1992. For purposed of reporting, the US is divided into six regions as indicated on a figure and in a table. The data presented in the table, the Hydropower Generation Report, can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in September.
Gruber, N. (C.T. Male Associates, P.C., Syracuse, NY (United States))
This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.
Water Sports Web page is organized by tours, equipment, schools and stores, with links to industry home pages, trade organizations, clubs, preservation projects and other related pages. Still in progress is a hierarchical system of links beginning with your choice of whitewater or touring categories. Find information on The North American Paddlesports Association (NAPSA) and an alphabetical list of companies that are Trade Association of Sea Kayaking (TASK) and/or NAPSA members.
Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 60 surface-water stations (including 42 gaging stations) and 112 wells; and water levels for 304 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.
Baumann, Todd; Goree, B. B.; Lovelace, W. M.; Montogmery, P. A.; Resweber, J. C.; Ross, Garron B.; Ward, Aub N.; Walters, David J.
Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 56 surface-water stations (including 44 gaging stations) and 142 wells; and water levels for 313 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal and State agencies in Louisiana.
Baumann, Todd; Goree, B. B.; Lovelace, W. M.; Montgomery, P. A.; Resweber, J. C.; Ross, Garron B.; Sasser, D. C., Jr.; Walters, D. J.
|This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…
Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
With recent increases in the price of water, saving water has become one of the main focuses for sustainability. The California Institute of Technology used 200,000,000 gallons of water in the year 2008; however the institute has never tracked this water to its destination within the campus. Using data collected from water meters on campus and from the utility company
Calvin Kuo; Melany Hunt; John Onderdonk; Matthew Berbee
This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…
Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.
Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…
We will be learning about what the water cycle is and how it works. Resources! The Hydrologic Cycle: Water's journey through time The Water Cycle Thirstin's Water Cycle Activity Water evaporates from the surface Water Wonders These are a collection of websites that are going to help us in our journey of discovering what the water cycle is. ...
This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture conditions across the country as of the first of April. In addition, the department describes streamflow conditions across the US forecast for April through July. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service. For purposes of providing this information, the US is divided into six regions. The Hydropower Generation Report can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in March.
The Water Resources of Alaska homepage is provided by the US Geological Survey. The goal of this project is to study and understand Alaska's hydrology (surface water, ground water, and water quality) for use and management of the nation's water resources. The site features a list of published reports and information about current projects as well as a vast amount of hydrologic data such as surface water, ground water, water quality, glaciers, water use, and hydrologic data reports.
Geological Survey (U.S.). Water Resources Division. Alaska District.
This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)website provides water data, online publications, a list of USGS - Wisconsin publications, and links to water resource projects and studies in Wisconsin. The water data consists of real-time streamflow, quarterly streamflow reports, water levels measured by a ground-water observation network of 140 wells throughout Wisconsin, and NWISWeb (National Water Information System on the Web) data (consisting of real-time streamflow, ground level water, surface water and water quality data).
The Arizona District water data report includes records on both surface water and ground water in the State for water year 2002. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 201 streamflow-gaging stations, for 29 crest-stage, partial-record streamflow stations, and 48 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and (or) content only records for 10 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 21 streamflow-gaging stations and 65 wells; and (4) water levels for 18 wells.
McCormack, H. F.; Fisk, G. G.; Duet, N. R.; Evans, D. W.; Roberts, W. P.; Castillo, N. K.
Provides guidance to primacy agencies and public water systems (PWS) for implementation of assessments of hydrogeologic sensitivity and source water fecal contamination under the Ground Water Rule (GWR)....
The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.
The document explains the relationship between the quantity of water and its quality and discusses how developing water-use efficiency programs can help states and local communities achieve cleaner water through conserving water.
Summary: Misplaced Matter and Water Pollution The drinking water pollution demonstration provides a very simple but dramatic way to get students to think about water contamination and drinking water standards, ...
... limitations set in the bottled water quality standards. Mineral water - Ground water that naturally contains 250 or ... the quality of its source, including its natural mineral content. Most bottled water comes from a ground ...
Three approaches were used in this study to document the effect of water pressure on water use. Water usage in different pressure zones was compared for areas in Denver, Colo. In the Los Feliz area of Los Angeles, water-use records were analyzed where wat...
|As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…
The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since r...
In many international river basins disputes over property rights to water lead to inefficient water allocation and a waste of resources. In this paper, we examine how contested water rights impede water trade. To show this, we use a model in which property rights to water are contested because countries have overlapping claims to water. In the model, countries decide
Students will understand and explain parts of the water cycle. First watch the video to get a background about the water cycle: water cycle video Draw and explain the water cycle in your own words (include the terms: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, at least 3 bodies of water, the sun). Before reading the experiment record your predictions: If you put a small amount of water ...
The Water Reclamation and Management Scheme (WRAMS) at Sydney Olympic Park was built as part of the Olympic Games in 2000. The Scheme was designed to treat raw domestic sewage into recycled water which is then sold back to consumers. The main elements of WRAMS are a water reclamation plant, a water treatment plant, storm water collection, clean water storage
Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains discharge records for 163 gaging stations; stage and contents for 10 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 24 hydrologic stations, and 64 wells; water levels for 66 observation wells; and precipitation for 2 stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Utah.
Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains discharge records for 156 gaging stations; stage and contents for 8 lakes and reservoirs; water quality for 16 hydrologic stations, and 29 wells; water levels for 67 observation wells; and precipitation for 3 stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Utah.
account for the impact of population growth. This study found that during mandatory water restrictions, water use savings measured in expected use per capita ranged from 18-56%, about 4-6% greater than using direct comparison of water use between years. Mandatory water restrictions were far more effective than voluntary water restrictions that only saw a reduction of 4-12%. Consistent with previous
The Magnificent Ground Water Connection is a compilation of ground water-related activities for teaching and learning purposes. The teacher's activity guide is applicable to a wide range of subject matter and the ground water theme is integrated into stories, songs, math, social studies, art and writing. The topics include basic concepts of the water cycle, water distribution, treatment and stewardship. Other subjects include the water cycle and water conservation, New England's ground water resources, ground water contamination and protection. Sections are also available for wetlands, ground water, marine debris, waster, air quality, acid rain, and energy. Users can also access an on-line lending library for educational materials and videos.
Students will learn the process of the water cycle. Alabama Course of Study: Science. Second Grade: Standard 9: Describe evaporation, condensation, and precipitation in the water cycle. What is the water cycle? On the worksheet provided, list the 4 parts of the water cycle. Between the parts draw a small picture to represent what is happening during this cycle. The Water Cycle See how we use the water in the water cycle. Thirstins Water Cycle Name 3 ways water changes form. This is an animated diagram of the Water Cycle Here is a ...
Students will learn about the water cycle and how it works. You will explore many resources to find out many new factors about the water cycle. What is the water cycle? National water cycle Name the 4 water parts of the water cycle? Weather wonders Where are 3 places that the water cycle exists- What happens after condensation? animated water cycle Name 4 types of clouds? What is the highest level cloud called? Which cloud is associated with powerful thunderstorms? Cloud Types What do clouds have to do with the water cycle? National water cycle What is ...
This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform â?? Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...
Providing enough quality water is essential for good livestock husbandry. Water makes up 80% of the blood, regulates body temperature and is vital for organ functions such as digestion, waste removal and the absorption of nutrients. Understanding daily livestock watering needs is key when designing a livestock watering system. The daily water requirement of livestock varies significantly among animal species.
|The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…
Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.
Plant water relations are presented in this learning activity to help participants understand the components of water potential, explain how water moves through plants, provide examples of plant adaptations to water stress, and have a general understanding of how water potential can be measured.
|This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…
Students learn about the human water cycle, or how humans impact the water cycle by settling down in civilizations. Specifically, they learn how people obtain, use and dispose of water. Students also learn about shortages of treated, clean and safe water and learn about ways that engineers address this issue through water conservation and graywater recycling.
Students are presented with examples of the types of problems that environmental engineers solve, specifically focusing on water quality issues. Topics include the importance of clean water, the scarcity of fresh water, tap water contamination sources, and ways environmental engineers treat contaminated water.
The US Department of Agriculture's Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library has placed a new database online. The Drought and Water Allocation bibliography includes "71 articles on water allocation as it relates to drought and water shortages dated 1992-1999. Competition for water resources, legal rights and remedies, and economic options are highlighted."
Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Wisconsin include records of streamflow at gaging stations, partialrecord stations, and miscellaneous sites, records of precipitation, and records of chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of surface water. In addition, water levels in observation wells are reported. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State and local agencies and other Federal agencies in Wisconsin.
Waschbusch, R. J.; Olson, D. L.; Ellefson, B. R.; Stark, P. A.
Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Wisconsin include records of streamflow at gaging stations, partial record stations, and miscellaneous sites, records of precipitation, and records of chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of surface water. In addition, water levels in observation wells are reported. These data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State and local agencies and other Federal agencies in Wisconsin.
Waschbusch, R. J.; Olson, D. L.; Ellefson, B. R.; Stark P. A.
Based on the adult medusa, Edwards ( 1972) has recently described a second species of Podocoryne from the New England coast of North America, Podocoryne americana, which had previously been called P. carnea Sars. Podocoryne americana attains an adult size of 3.5 mm in height with 24 to 32 marginal tentacles. Podocoryne carnea, which is also found in New England,
This study compared the shear adhesion strength of barnacles, oysters and tubeworms on eight RTV 11?based silicone fouling?release coatings containing different silicone oil additives. It was found that adhesion strength differed among species and coating types. In most cases, oysters and tubeworms had higher adhesion strengths than barnacles. Barnacle adhesion strength was reduced on all coatings containing oil additives; however,
Christopher J Kavanagh; Michael P Schultz; Geoffrey W Swain; Judith Stein; Kathryn Truby; Christina Darkangelo Wood
Water use and other data of 13 Delaware River Basin industrial plants were examined to determine the impact of increased reuse of water upon consumptive use of water. The plants were of the petroleum, chemical, paper, food, and primary metal industries. T...
A controlled experiment allows an investigator to conduct the experiment by changing only one single factor while keeping all other variables constant. The factor that was changed in this experiment, called the independent variable, was the type of water used: pure water or salt water.
Several projects conducted by the Colorado Water Resources Research Institute are outlined. The report includes descriptive photographs and simplified procedural explanations designed for use by the general public. Sections of the report include: (1) high country irrigation reservoirs; (2) Colorado's economy - the role of water; (3) answering the flood control benefit question; (4) solving high country water and sewer
In this lesson, the students will conduct an investigation to purify water. Students will engineer a method for cleaning water, discover the most effective way to filter water, and practice conducting a scientific experiment.
There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current o perations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Manag...
The report is a manual for a course designed to provide water fluoride analysis training for individuals directly involved in performing fluoride determinations on drinking waters. The contents include health and engineering aspects of water fluoridation,...
The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPAâ??s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...
This site, from the U.S. Geological Survey, provides real-time, surface-water, ground-water and water-quality data; maps and graphs of current water resource conditions in the U.S. such as a daily streamflow conditions map; publications and product information; information on National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) programs of the Tennessee River Basin and Mobile River Basin; and information on water use in Tennessee.
This fact sheet describes the types of water heaters available (storage water heaters, demand water heaters, heat pump water heaters, tankless coil and indirect water heaters, and solar water heaters). The criteria for selection are discussed. These are c...
Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - health care for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification.
Geothermal hot water system including a hot water tank and a warm water tank which are heated independently of each other by a close loop freon system. The closed loop freon system includes a main condenser which heats water for the warm water tank and a super-heated condenser which heats water for the hot water tank, and where the freon passes through a water evaporator which is heated by water such as from a well or other suitable source. The water evaporator in the closed loop freon system passes the water through but no environmental change to the water. An electrical circuit including aquastats in the warm water tank connected therethrough controls operation of the closed loop freon system including respective pumps on the super-heated condenser and main condenser for pumping water. Pumps pump water through the main condenser for the warm tank and through the super-heated condenser for the hot tank. The system provides for energy conservation in that the head pressure of the compressor is kept in the lower operating ranges as determined by the discharge flow of the main condenser which varies by the head pressure and temperature flow control which varies by temperature. The geothermal hot water system uses a least amount of energy in heating the water in the hot tank as well as the warm tank.
World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate(VI) technology to meet the demand of water in this century.
A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.
Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a case in point. The water required for energy production through hydropower is important to account for, as well as the question to what extent this may or may not be considered non-consumptive water use. Further research is needed to correctly estimate the water footprint of energy-intensive products. Keywords: water footprint, virtual water, trade, commodity
Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.
Many development agencies and other actors are advocating that China adopt a system of water markets or of high water prices in order to resolve the inefficiencies of irrigation agriculture and to supply sufficient water for growing urban and industrial uses. We argue that this proposal rests on a series of propositions: that the price of water is too low
Michael Webber; Jon Barnett; Brian Finlayson; Mark Wang
Ground Water is a leading technical publication strictly for ground water hydrogeologists. Each issue of the journal contains peer-reviewed scientific articles on pertinent ground water subjects. Non-members can read abstracts, book reviews and software spotlight columns. Members of the National Ground Water Association can view complete articles online.
Today you will explore the water cycle. Please visit the following websites (in order!) to gather information about the water cycle. Fill out your Information Sheet as you go. 1. Water cycle story 2. Water Cycle--heat 3. animation (Make sure to read the captions at the bottom!) ...
|Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…
|Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)|
... doesn't the EPA have jurisdiction over the quality of bottled water since it regulates drinking water? What FDA regulations ... doesn't the EPA have jurisdiction over the quality of bottled water since it regulates drinking water? The Environmental Protection ...
|Describes experiments designed to investigate the cooling rate of microwave-boiled water as compared to that of stove-boiled water. Concludes that within experimental limits, microwave-boiled water and stove-boiled water cool at the same rate. (JRH)|
Describes experiments designed to investigate the cooling rate of microwave-boiled water as compared to that of stove-boiled water. Concludes that within experimental limits, microwave-boiled water and stove-boiled water cool at the same rate. (JRH)
|Many facilities are considering no-water urinals because they are regarded as an effective way to conserve water. Water must be pumped by electricity, some estimate that as much as $300 per year per urinal can be saved in utility costs. The installation of no-water urinals can help buildings achieve credits toward Leadership in Energy and…
In this activity (located on page 3 of the PDF), learners investigate the way water moves and how we can control and direct water. At the Water Exploration Station, learners experiment with various tools like eye droppers, sponges, turkey basters, etc. to move and play with the water. Included in this lesson guide are challenge questions intended to direct the learning.
An arrangement for combination with the conventional hot water system of a house or building in which the water is conventionally heated and stored in a tank, the arrangement comprising a solar energy panel (at an upper level) with a thermostatic valve and a supplementary cold water tank, connected into the system in such a way that hot water is
BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...
Wind power has been used to pump water for centuries; however, the development of the modern wind turbine has allowed for more applications for water pumping. This book was written to give a complete overview of wind power water pumping and serve as a design guide for water pumping systems. The bo...
ABSTRACT Energy and water security and sustainability have become a national and global priority. The continued security and economic health of any country depends on a sustainable supply of both energy and water because these two critical natural resources are inexorably linked. The production of energy requires large volumes of water while the treatment and distribution of water is equally
Using two baby food jars, food coloring, and an index card, you'll 'marry' the jars to see how hot water and cold water mix. Besides illuminating the cool fact that an index card can act as a lid (with no water gushing out), this activity also teaches about the differing densities of hot and cold water.
A solar hot water heater includes an insulated box having one or more hot water storage tanks contained inside and further having a lid which may be opened to permit solar radiation to heat a supply of water contained within the one or more hot water storage tanks. A heat-actuated control unit is mounted on an external portion of the
The present invention relates to a cylindrical water storage tank for a solar water heater which tank is entirely surrounded by a layer of insulating material, said cylindrical tank being arranged to be horizontally disposed in use and having water outlet means in an upper region thereof and water inlet means in a lower region thereof, wherein the portion of
The water cycle is Earth's natural mechanism for transporting and recycling water between the surface and the atmosphere. Through the processes of condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, transpiration, and evaporation, water continuously travels from the atmosphere to the ground and back again. In this animation from NASA, users can observe the steps of the water cycle. The segment is fifty-two seconds in length.
Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…
|This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…
During lactation, female rodents, dingoes, and kangaroos consume urine and feces excreted by the young. Studies with tritiated water as a tracer for native water showed that roughly one-third of the water secreted as milk was returned to the mother. The results are cogent to studies of water balance of lactation and to current methods used for estimating milk production.
|Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…
This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in other liquids also. Recent evidence of a close relation between thermodynamical properties and dynamical behaviour of water are also discussed. Gallo et al present the results of a computer simulation of water confined in a cylindrical pore of MCM-41 silica material. The mobile portion of the confined water shows a fragile to strong dynamic transition similar to the bulk. In the bound water, an anomalous diffusion connected to the residence time distribution is found. Franzese et al report calculations on lattice models adapted to describe general properties of water in contact with protein surfaces. The results of Monte Carlo and mean field calculations show the presence of two-dynamical crossovers. Corradini et al investigate the supercooled region of ionic aqueous solutions in order to study the effect of ions on the limit of mechanical stability, the lines of maximum density and the liquid-liquid critical point for different ionic concentrations. The paper by Vallauri et al deals with the dynamical behavior of water close to the liquid-liquid transition by considering the velocity correlation functions calculated in three supercooled states. Suffritti et al study water adsorbed in zeolites with a new empirical potential, structural and dynamical properties are studied in the supercooled region. The second group starts with a paper on the problem of solvation by Lynden-Bell. The author shows how the properties of water and, in particular, solvation properties are modified by changes in the site-site interaction potential of water. Henchman et al derive equations for different thermodynamical quantities like partial enthalpy and partial entropy for dilute solutions of noble gases. The third group starts with Buldyrev et al who study the swelling of bead-on-a-string polymers in Jagla water-like particles, finding similarities with respect to cold denaturation of protein in water. Pellenq et al consider water confined in pores of different materials with different size scales. Silicalite and tobermorite, a layered calcio-silicate model of cement and Vycor are anal
This U.S. Geological Survey website provides real-time streamflow, surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality data; information on water resource programs of Utah such as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study; maps and graphs of current U.S. water resource conditions; and USGS - Utah reports. The site also features a drought watch section for Utah containing drought definitions and more streamflow conditions; a section on the Upper Arkansas River Basin Toxic-Substances Hydrology Project; and information on contamination in ground water at Fry Canyon, Utah.
The Colorado Water Knowledge Web site is maintained by the Colorado State University Colorado Water Resources Research Institute. The site allows kids to explore all aspects of water science including general facts, a description of the water cycle, stream processes, Colorado geology and water history, major aquifers of the area, aquatic life in local waters, Colorado water laws and regulations, and much more. Although it isn't graphic intensive, the site does a good job of explaining the wide array of concepts using simple descriptions, lists of facts, and a few choice illustrations. [JAB
Did you know that the water we use today is the same water found on Earth millions of years ago? The Earth constantly uses and recycles water in a process called the water cycle. In this lesson, learners explore the four phases of the water cycle. In the investigation Rain in a Jar, learners use hot water and ice to create condensation and a tiny cloud. In Making a Terrarium, learners create an ecosystem and water cycle by growing plants in a closed environment. Investigation spans several days.
Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.
This is the third of several compilations of briefing papers on water quality by the U.S. Geological Survey. Each briefing paper is prepared in a simple, nontechnical, easy-to-understand manner. This U.S. Geological Survey Circular contains papers on selected organic substances in water. Briefing papers are included on ' Why study organic substances in water. ', ' Taste and odor in water ', and ' Classification and fractionation of organic solutes in natural waters'. (USGS)
Discusses where water hammer occurs, effects of water hammer, and conditions causing water hammer (hydraulic shock, thermal shock, differential shock). Points out that even mild water hammer can weaken and eventually destroy piping, gauges, floats, heat exchange equipment, etc. Suggests that greater understanding of water hammer should help introduce more preventive measures into system designs and installations, which will help provide maximum safety for personnel, lower maintenance cost and reduce system downtime.
In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.
The possibility to mineralize water by metering out concentrated salt solutions in the amounts necessary to bring it to within the potable water standards with intermediate exchange of chlorine ions for bicarbonate-ions has been demonstrated. The proposed technique ensures physiological quality and stability of recovered water mineralized with solutions of inorganic salts. Stability of concentrated salt solutions kept in metering syringes and potable water was evaluated. Organoleptic tests of resultant potable water were conducted. PMID:11840873
Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Berezkin, S V; Kurochkin, M G; Skuratov, V M
The representation is a detailed, labeled diagram of the water cycle. Included in the representation are the major concepts of evaporation, precipitation and ground infiltration, as well as more advanced ideas such as evapotranspiration, and water storage. Above and below the diagram are several paragraphs that provide an introduction to the water cycle, a quick summary of the parts of the water cycle and information about global water distribution.
This web site contains a wealth of information for the groundwater professional and for students of hydrogeology. The site features educational materials, information about conferences, courses and workshops, and a bookstore. There is also a searchable database of abstracts from the journals Ground Water, Ground Water Monitoring Review, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, and the Water Well Journal. Members of the National Ground Water Association may access these articles directly. Publications, fact sheets and industry links are also available.
Students will work with interactive internet resources to learn all about the water cycle. Fourth Grade Science Standard 1 Objective 2: Describe the water cycle. Locate examples of evaporation and condensation in the water cycle (e.g., water evaporates when heated and clouds or dew forms when vapor is cooled). Describe the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Identify locations that hold water as it passes through the water cycle (e.g., oceans, atmosphere, fresh surface water, snow, ice, and ground water). Construct a model or diagram to show how water continuously moves through the water cycle over time. Describe how the water cycle relates to the water supply in your community. Web Quest Links Introduction Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide Introduction Have you ever wondered how water gets from oceans, lakes, streams, or clouds into your glass? Check out the following links to learn more about it! TASK Start out by learning the concepts in this song from Bill Nye! Bill Nye the Science Guy- Water Cycle Jump Look ...
This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.
There are watercourses on the globe which as yet do not deliver up their energy to the needs of the people. How much energy their waters bear, is it worth to take away this energy? Those and alike questions must be (and they are) answered before start to build hydro power station. Similar problems must be solved to control hydro power plants in most gainful way which is known as hydrothermal coordination. The notion of price of water can be met lately in technical literature as one of numerical indices of these issues. The gross price of water and net price of water are considered in this paper. Gross price of 1 t water is the price of electric energy obtained by conversion of potential energy of 1 t of water, lifted to a height of power station water head. Net price of water is the difference between gross price and total expenses determined by hydro power station building and its exploitation costs in a year related to 1 m3 of water. If net price of water is positive, it is worth building power station. The greater net price is, the more urgent is the building. Net price of water grows with water head but it continues only to some height of the dam because further increase of head sharply increases capital outlay and other exploitation expenses. To maximize net price of water, optimization of net price function can be done. Net price of water diminishes when some amount of water is diverted for other needs. When amount of diverted water is out of discussion, no controversy can emerge. However when by diverted water some goods with some monetary worth can be obtained, the task must be solved how much water can be diverted so that the water of watercourse be used to the maximum benefit. The environmental issues must be taken into account as well.
In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802
Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C
In 1997, the World Water Council had its first official forum in Marrakech, and since then they have continued their work on "critical water issues at all levels." Some of these issues include efficient water conservation, water use management, and other relevant matters. With its compelling visual images and design, the homepage contains sections that provide information on upcoming World Water Forums and some very helpful overviews of their work. One such general overview may be found in the "Water at a Glance" area, which provides information on the nature of freshwater resources around the globe. Persons involved in water policy and international affairs may wish to look over their online library, which includes their annual reports, synopses of materials covered in the Water Forum meetings, and papers such as "The Right to Water: From Concept To Implementation." It is also worth noting that many of the materials on the site are available in French and Spanish.
Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water \\
Bottled water is the fastest growing drink choice in the United States, and Americans spend billions of dollars each year to buy it. Some people drink bottled water as an alternative to other beverages; others drink it because they prefer its taste or thi...
|The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…
Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...
The 1972 Amendments to FWPCA specifically require that non-point sources of water pollution be considered in the development of water quality management plans for both local and areawide planning. Urban runoff often accounts for a major portion of the non...
Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).
|Introduces an activity on water that encourages students to learn about water use and conservation. Focuses on the ways in which water is used in homes, the water cycle, and water conservation. (YDS)|
|Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)|
Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)
This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.
A worldwide organization of water professionals, the International Water Association's (IWA) Web site illustrates its commitment "to help water professionals create innovative, pragmatic, and sustainable solutions to challenging global water needs." Visitors can discover IWA's many activities from conferences and forums to task forces. Researchers can discover the various IWS groups that specialize in topics including Source Management, Education, Health, Management Training, and Water Quality Management. Although many of the publications are restricted to members, educators and students can read reports from the Sustainability in Water Sector and abstracts from IWA journals.
A livestock waterer is described which is automatically heated through use of geothermal energy within the earth. Working fluid is housed within a reservoir below the surface of the earth, is heated to evaporation by geothermal heat, is transferred to a condensation chamber adjacent a water container, whereupon condensation of said working fluid occurs transferring heat to the water within the water container. Condensed working fluid is returned to the reservoir. An insulating lid is shown which allows demand use of the waterer by livestock and aids in the retention of heat within the water supply.
In this activity students learn how to draw ground water contours and understand how ground water flow may be predicted. As they complete this activity students will be able to draw a ground water contour map, have a basic understanding of how to predict the direction of ground water flow and understand the interrelated nature of ground water and surface water flow. They will also learn the difference between a gaining stream and a losing stream and why it is important to know the difference.
33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...
The present article discusses and compares five different water quality indices, viz arithmetic water quality index, multiplicative water quality index, unweighted arithmetic water quality index, unweighted multiplicative water quality index, and Harkin's water quality index, which were considered for characterizing the coastal water quality at the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust, Bombay, India. Dissolved oxygen, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), temperature,
Water Resources Data for the 1983 water year for Connecticut consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This v...
C. E. Thomas L. A. Weiss I. S. Gasperini J. W. Bingham
A comprehensive methodology is developed to achieve equitable, efficient and sustainable water allocation in a river basin. Water allocation is carried out in two steps: (1) allocation of initial water rights to water stakeholders and users based on existing water rights systems or agreements; and (2) reallocation of water and net benefits through water transfers to promote equitable cooperation of
Clearwater Pool Technologies employs NASA-developed silver/copper ionization to purify turtle and dolphin tanks, cooling towers, spas, water recycling systems, etc. The pool purifier consists of a microcomputer to monitor water conditions, a pair of metal...
This schematic shows a cross-section of the planet and how water can migrate through the deep interior of the Earth. Blue arrows indicate a movement of water downward, yellow arrows indicated movement towards the surface.
Ohtani, E.; First published in Elements, reproduced by COMPRES Image Library
Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)
... sources: Consumer Confidence Report: Starting in 1999, these water quality reports will be prepared annually by each community ... first consumer confidence report (also called a drinking water quality report) available to the public. Beginning in 2000, ...
... for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, a unique multimedia framework authorized in the 1996 Amendments to the Safewater Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Information about the proposed rule and ...
In this activity, learners conduct a simple experiment to see how electrically charged things like plastic attract electrically neutral things like water. The plastic will attract the surface of the water into a visible bump.
Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)
The Water Bank Program provides incentive payments to landowners and operators for conserving waters, preserving or improving migratory waterfowl habitat and other wildlife resources. The program will help in reducing the loss of wetlands in the Nation. T...
|Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)|
Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)
... being able to drink enough fluids. Mineral salts (electrolytes), such as sodium and potassium, are dissolved in the water in the body. Water balance and electrolyte balance (see Electrolyte Balance ) are closely linked. The ...
Water management expert Arjen Hoekstra, together with environmental science and energy specialists, has analysed the impact of increasing the use of biofuels in the transport sector on global water demand.
Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...
In this video segment adapted from ZOOM, cast members try to make the most effective water filter. They experiment with filtering dirty, salty water through different combinations of sand, gravel, and a cotton bandana.
Through role-playing and teacher presentation, students learn how to be safe around water. Students learn the three most important safety rules, ways to rescue someone from the water, boat safety, and ocean safety considerations.
The current review of canteen water disinfection proceeded along three general lines. A summary has been prepared of the information available from the literature on canteen water disinfection. The current opinions of two outstanding investigators in the ...
The present invention relates to water entry of unmanned underwater vehicles and more specifically to suppression of cavity formation upon entry of such vehicles into the water. Underwater vehicles, such as torpedoes, are generally designed for speed, rel...
|Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)|
This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency, contains information from the on testing and protecting private water sources. The site can be helpful for persons having a private well or simply those interested in water science.
This document is provides information on ground-water contamination control and prevention technology to decision makers, field managers, and the scientific community. his 212-page resource document brings together available technical information on ground water in a convenient f...
Outlines the techniques for silkscreening using water-based inks, concentrating on the qualities of water-based printing that differ from oil-based printing. Includes a step-by-step description of the process illustrated with photographs. (LS)
|At a national symposium on Societal Problems of Water Resources at Western Illinois University, scientists discussed dams, canals, water pollution control and management programs, federal-state relations in resource planning, and their effects on how we live. (BL)|
This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.
AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.
Palestine is experiencing a severe water crisis caused mainly by the lack of control over the Palestinian water resources. At present the average per capita water consumption by the Palestinian population is approximately 55 l\\/c\\/d, or 55% of the WHO minimum standard of 100 l\\/c\\/d. The above statements show that the communal water supply for the Palestinian population is substantially
Supplemental to The World's Water book by Peter Gleick, this site offers data on the world's freshwater resources and uses. Tables and maps provide information on quantity and quality issues including data on access to safe drinking water; waterborne disease outbreaks; desalination capacity; as well as hydroelectric capacity and production. There is also a unique chronology documenting the historical connections between human conflict and water. Additionally there is an expansive list of links to water-relevant agencies and organizations.
Water management in Spain is submitted to a non?uniform geographical and seasonal distribution of water resources. The non?uniform distribution of resources is worsened by the non?uniform allocation of demand (mainly irrigation and urban). Because that, water supply, aquifers, and wetlands are driven to a high risk. Even though, there are examples of good water management, as is shown for the
DESK Standard: Understand the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Water Cycle Diagram DATES: You can begin this activity on October 16. You should complete it by October 20. OBJECTIVE: You have been learning about the water cycle in class. This activity gives you the chance to review some important vocabulary: evaporation condensation precipitation collection You will watch a short video and complete a water ...
In this activity on page 4 of the PDF, learners conduct some quick and easy tests to determine the differences between water and other liquids that look very similar to water. Learners compare how water, rubbing alcohol, and mineral oil repel, absorb, and evaporate.
This book describes the significant original contributions in the field of water chlorination of the last three years. It includes chlorination research, developments and alternatives. Issues covered include: water chlorination; risk; epidemiology; carcinogenic and mutagenic effects; toxicology of disinfectants; aquatic models and tumor induction; environmental effects; disinfection; reaction dynamics; chemical methods; drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment.
R. L. Jolley; R. J. Bull; W. P. Davis; S. Katz; M. H. Roberts
The water allocations made to the lower Colorado River Basin under the 1922 Colorado River Compact. as well as the later contractual allocations made by the Secretary of the Interior under the Boulder Canyon Project Act to the States of Arizona, California, and Nevada, and water agencies in those states, were based on significant overestimates offuture water supply. Based on
The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...
Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)
Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in
A monitoring system for indicating the heavy water content of air is ; designed which is fast and simple. In the system, water vapor is condensed from ; the air and its heavy water is estimated from its infrared absorption in the ; neighborhood of lambda = 4 mu . A compressor is provided for increasing the ; vapor pressure
|The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)|
Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)
On rangelands, the water balance is driven and defined to a great extent by the fact that potential evapotranspiration is much greater than precipitation, which in turn contributes to a large soil water deficit. As a rule, therefore, evapotranspiration is the largest component of the water balance e...
This section summarizes and evaluates the surfce water column chemistry assessment methods for USEPA/EMAP-SW, USGS-NAQA, USEPA-RBP, Oho EPA, and MDNR-MBSS. The basic objective of surface water column chemistry assessment is to characterize surface water quality by measuring a sui...
The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article proposes a global initiative to address water shortages because: about 1/3 of world's population does not have enough drinking water, almost half of world's land is without water, converting arid land to fertile land can reduce global warming, and better technology, such as desalination, would give us greater access to freshwater.
Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…
The purpose of this study was to determine the constraints and mis-understandings associated with residential water conservation and to analyze the actual savings in dollars, water and energy that are achieved by the selection and installation of water co...
The resource is a role-playing game in which students take on the role of a water molecule and travel through nine compartments of the water cycle to gain a better understanding for the true complexity of the movement of water.
Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32
James E. McMahon; Camilla Dunham Whitehead; Peter Biermayer
|The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…
The Water Safety page, available from the LaCoast web site, is part of a coloring book to teach children about water safety. The page features water safety such as, buddies, staying in the swimming area, and swimming with adult supervision.
There are 1.1 billion people in the world who do not have access to clean water. Fresh drinking water has been a major concern among African countries for a very long time. Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda are among those that face a great shortage of clean water. The problem is especially severe in rural areas. The major reasons of for
Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD
L. Abu Ghunmi; G. Zeeman; M. Fayyad; J. B. Van Lier
|Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…
|Water is very important to plants. Plants need water to produce food and grow. Plants make their own food through a complex, sunlight-powered process called photosynthesis. Simply put, in photosynthesis, water absorbed by a plant's roots and carbon dioxide taken from the air by a plant's leaves combine to make the plant's food. This article…
Several hydrological studies forecast a global problem of water scarcity. This raises the question as to whether increasing water scarcity may impose constraints on the growth of countries. The influence of water utilisation on economic growth is depicted through a growth model that includes this congestible nonexcludable good as a productive input for private producers. Growth is negatively affected by
A wind-powered lighthouse water-freshening installation was installed at lighthouse locations along the Caspian Sea's coast and at one of the collective farms in the Moldavian SSR. From sea water containing up to 36 grams of salts per liter, fresh water with up to 1 gram per liter was produced. Output was 60 liters per hour.
I AM reminded by Lord Rayleigh's lecture on this subject of the splendid light-blue colour presented by the tanks of water in which some of the water companies allow the sedimentation to take place of ``hard water'' which has been treated by Clark's process. I am thinking of those near Caterham and of those at Plumstead. The tanks-to the best
A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent
In a book about water on Earth, it is perhaps unusual to describe the search for water in outer space. When we think of water, we think of the blood of all life on Earth. Space, on the other hand, is a vast, unimaginably empty vacuum, dotted with stars and inher- ently inimical to life on Earth. Why would we
Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.
McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter
Here are links to EPA and non-EPA resources to help students learn more about water treatment, pollution, and protection. Topics covered include watersheds, wetlands, aquatic ecosystems, marine sanctuaries, water science, and more. This site includes a downloadable program demonstrating how pollutants collect in fish, and a water-efficient landscaping program.
The recovery of clean water from dew has remained a longstanding challenge in many places all around the world. It is currently believed that the ancient Greeks succeeded in recovering atmospheric water vapour on a scale large enough to supply water to the city of Theodosia (presently Feodosia, Crimea, Ukraine). Several attempts were made in the early 20th century to
V. S. Nikolayev; D. Beysens; A. Gioda; I. Milimouka; E. Katiushin; J.-P. Morel
Nowadays, information and communication with the public are self-evident for water authorities. Its aim is often formulated as 'creating or strengthening public support' for water management or for the water authorities. A lot of time and money is being spent on this, while the necessity of having public support is not always made clear. The problem this thesis adresses is:
This list of questions and answers about water covers a variety of categories, including water use in the United States, water use in the home, data and measurements, chemistry, and others. Links to additional information is embedded in the text of some questions.
Sulfate occurs naturally in groundwater. Concerns regarding the health effects from sulfate in drinking water have been raised because of reports that diarrhea may be associated with water that contains high levels of sulfate. In the live- stock production industry, there is a concern that high levels of sulfate in water can adversely affect productivity. Different methods can be used
ASHREF DARBI; THIRUVENKATACHARI VIRARAGHAVAN; YEE-CHUNG JIN; LARRY BRAUL; DARRELL CORKAL
Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...
A Water Celebration is a free one- to three-day event to entertain and educate communities about the importance of water. Celebrations organized for school children include classroom activities, exhibit areas, contests, games, and teacher networking opportunities. Celebrations for adults range from water conservation conventions to forums on wise…
A controlled experiment allows an investigator to conduct the experiment by changing only one single factor while keeping all other variables constant. The factor that was changed in this experiment, called the independent variable, was the water color.
Although it recognizes the tangible economic benefits to health and income that may derive from greater safety of supply and improved time savings in procurement, planning for improvements of urban water systems in developing countries has overlooked other ways in which water may influence health and income among the poor. In these populations the price of water may further affect health and labor productivity, both directly through its impact on nutrition and indirectly through its impact on housing size and quality and on residential density. What at first might seem a straightforward equity issue in planning may thus be an issue of economic efficiency as well. Failure to account for the fuller range of tangible benefits associated with improvements in water supply may lead to underestimation of returns to investment and therefore to economically inefficient investment.
This is the home page of the monthly publication US Water News. Most online content is news coverage of water supply and quality, legislation, water rights, conservation, and the global waterfront. The collection of links is quite impressive, with state, federal, international, nonprofit, and many other resources listed. Assorted buyer's guides for a wide variety of water products are given with links to online catalogs. For people that want to stay current on new developments and technologies, there is also information about upcoming water related conferences from around the world.
In this activity on page 7 of the PDF, learners make their own water treatment systems for cleaning water. Learners construct two filters to test: one with sand and one with sand and charcoal. Learners compare how well the sand and sand + charcoal filters clean water that is "dirtied" with food coloring, dirt, and grass. This activity also features a list of ten ways you can conserve water. Safety notes: Adult supervision is needed for this activity. Do not drink any of the water samples in this activity. Make sure to follow the safety tips listed on page 3 of the PDF, as well as those listed in the procedure for the activity.
This activity is designed to study the water quality of a stream in your area, by measuring the temperature, pH, alkalinity, conductivity and total dissolved solids. It lends itself to integrating biology with earth science when using the microscope to study the living organisms in the water. The main objective is to determine the water quality of a local fresh water stream, as surface waters may be adversely impacted by human activity. This site has detailed instructions for conducting the listed tests.
In regions throughout the world oceans, water moves vertically to or down away from the surface and is set in motion by atmospheric winds, salinity and temperature differences. Cold water is much denser than warm and seawater has a higher density that fresh water and will sink below the less dense layer of water. Furthermore, vertical mixing powered by atmospheric winds can affect stratification and the rate of growth of the surface boundary layer. This lab activity is a simulation of the processes that create density stratification in ocean environments. It exposes students to concepts of temperature, salinity and wind and the role each plays in the development of water stratification.
Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.
Enzymes are complex structures that have been produced by evolution to function in water. The interrelation between water and proteins is not completely understood. However, data of the last decades have shown that water is indeed an essential component of enzymes. It is central in their formation, often it forms an essential part of their three-dimensional structure, and it is fundamental for supporting enzyme action, at least at rates compatible with life. It is precisely because of the intimate relation that exists between water and enzymes that water may be used to gain deeper insight into how enzymes are formed and function.
Fernández-Velasco, D. Alejandro; de Gómez-Puyou, Marietta Tuena; Gómez-Puyou, Armando
"The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how the water cycle works (geology, meteorology) and the principles behind water filtering (physics, chemistry). This method has been successfully used during units on the water cycle and pollution to teach elementary and lower middle-school classes in an inquiry-based way.
A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.
Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water.
Harvesting water from humid air via dewing can provide a viable solution to a water shortage problem where liquid-phase water is not available. Here we experimentally quantify the effects of wettability and geometry of the condensation substrate on the water harvest efficiency. Uniformly hydrophilic surfaces are found to exhibit higher rates of water condensation and collection than surfaces with lower wettability. This is in contrast to a fog basking method where the most efficient surface consists of hydrophilic islands surrounded by hydrophobic background. A thin drainage path in the lower portion of the condensation substrate is revealed to greatly enhance the water collection efficiency. The optimal surface conditions found in this work can be used to design a practical device that harvests water as its biological counterpart, a green tree frog, Litoria caerulea , does during the dry season in tropical northern Australia. PMID:22731870
Lee, Anna; Moon, Myoung-Woon; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Kim, Ho-Young
Through role-play as a molecule of water, students gain a better understanding for the complexity of the movement of water. Nine stations are set-up for each of the water cycle compartments (animal, cloud, glacier, ground water, lake, ocean, plant, river, soil). At each station, a roll of the dice tells each student where to move next. Colored trackers record each studentâs unique journey through the water cycle to compare to others' journeys later on. Students will identify the states of water, and when water changes states as it moves through its cycle. This game is meant to be played with a group of people, so that the path each player takes can be compared with everyone elseâs.
The atomic-level structure of water at mineral surfaces is an important controlling factor in interfacial reactions such as foreign ion incorporation, crystal growth and dissolution, and redox reactions. Molecular dynamics simulations with four different models based on interatomic potentials have been carried out to determine the atomic-level structure of three hematite-water interfaces. In addition, for each of the three surfaces, different terminations or protonation schemes were considered. The availability of surface X-ray scattering data for the surfaces considered here allowed for an extensive comparison with experimental data. Qualitatively, with the exception of one termination with one model, all models predict the correct arrangement of water molecules at the interface. Quantitatively, the agreement with experimental positions, distances, and layer occupancies is good to excellent, especially given the range of values reported in published experimental studies. Therefore, this study provides further evidence that interatomic potential models can be used to reliably predict the structure of mineral-water interfaces. In addition, molecular simulations are a valuable source of information to complement surface X-ray scattering experiments owing to their ability to directly determine the position of hydrogen atoms and to yield three-dimensional predicted structures at no added cost, as demonstrated in this work. Indeed, the molecular dynamics trajectories were analyzed to determine the surface structural controls on the interfacial water structure. Each of the three surface functional groups present at the surfaces considered in this work, namely, triply-coordinated oxo, doubly-coordinated hydroxo, and singly-coordinated aquo groups, was found to form similar hydrogen bond configurations with adsorbed water molecules at all surfaces. Oxo groups accept long-lasting and linear hydrogen bonds from adsorbed water molecules; hydroxo groups can form hydrogen bonds with other surface functional groups as well as with adsorbed water molecules; and aquo groups normally only donate hydrogen bonds to other surface groups or adsorbed water molecules. Additionally, the majority of adsorbed water molecules were found to adopt multiple configurations and orientations. This information was used to evaluate three-dimensional structural models of the interfaces, which were previously derived experimentally from one-dimensional electron density profiles and steric considerations.
In the American southwest, over-allocated water supplies, groundwater depletion, and potential climate change impacts are major water management concerns. It may therefore seem counterintuitive that the resolution of outstanding senior tribal water claims, essentially reallocating finite water supplies to tribes, could support improved water supply reliability for many water users as is the case with the 2004 Arizona Water Settlements
Students analyze local water chemistry by identifying and collecting local water samples, deciding upon questions they want to answer about their local water sources, and then performing simple water quality tests on their samples.
Water resources data for the 1992 water year for Michigan consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and ground water levels. The report contains discharge records for 145 streamflow-...
S. P. Blumer T. E. Behrendt W. W. Larson R. J. Minnerick R. L. LeuVoy
“Virtual water,” water needed for crop production, is now being mainstreamed in the water policy world. Relying on virtual\\u000a water in the form of food imports is increasingly recommended as good policy for water-scarce areas. Virtual water globalizes\\u000a discussions on water scarcity, ecological sustainability, food security and consumption. Presently the concept is creating\\u000a much noise in the water and food
Water will follow oil as the next critical resource leading to unrest and uprisings globally. To better manage this threat, an improved understanding of the distribution of water stress is required today. This study builds upon previous efforts to characterize water stress by improving both the quantification of human water use and the definition of water availability. Current statistics on human water use are often outdated or inaccurately reported nationally, especially for groundwater. This study improves these estimates by defining human water use in two ways. First, we use NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to isolate the anthropogenic signal in water storage anomalies, which we equate to water use. Second, we quantify an ideal water demand by using average water requirements for the domestic, industrial, and agricultural water use sectors. Water availability has traditionally been limited to "renewable" water, which ignores large, stored water sources that humans use. We compare water stress estimates derived using either renewable water or the total volume of water globally. We use the best-available data to quantify total aquifer and surface water volumes, as compared to groundwater recharge and surface water runoff from land-surface models. The work presented here should provide a more realistic image of water stress by explicitly quantifying groundwater, defining water availability as total water supply, and using GRACE to more accurately quantify water use.
Richey, A. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Druffel-Rodriguez, R.
An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more
Water discharge data for the 1990 water year for Arizona consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs; water levels of observation wells; and quality of ground water. The repo...
Water discharge data for the 1991 water year for Arizona consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs; water levels of observation wells; and quality of ground water. The repo...
Water discharge data for the 1988 water year for Arizona consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs; water levels of observation wells; and quality of ground water. The repo...
Water discharge data for the 1992 water year for Arizona consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs; water levels of observation wells; and quality of ground water. The repo...
C. F. Smith F. C. Boner N. R. Duet P. D. Rigas R. G. Davis
Water discharge data for the 1989 water year for Arizona consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs; water levels of observation wells; and quality of ground water. The rep...
F. C. Boner C. F. Smith W. B. Garrett A. Konieczki
|This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)|
Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for New Mexico consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. This report cont...
Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for New Mexico consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; stage, contents and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells and springs. The report contai...
D. Ortiz J. P. Borland R. K. DeWees R. L. Lepp R. L. McCracken
The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water
Water resources data for the 1989 water year for Michigan consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water temperature of ground water. The report contains discha...
S. P. Blumer J. C. Failing W. W. Larson C. R. Whited R. L. LeuVoy
Water resources data for the 1990 water year for Michigan consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water temperature of ground water. The report contains discha...
S. P. Blumer W. W. Larson R. J. Minnerick C. R. Whited R. L. LeuVoy
Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Michigan consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report contains dis...
J. M. Ellis R. J. Minnerick R. L. LeuVoy S. P. Blumer T. E. Behrendt
The bibliography, concerning Magnesium in water, was retrieved from SELECTED WATER RESOURCES ABSTRACTS published through June 15, 1971 (Volume 4, Number 12) by Water Resources Scientific Information Center of the Office of Water Resources Research, U.S. D...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...
Coal mining activities frequently impinge on water resources. This report considers the impact of coal extraction on water resources and potential causes of water pollution. The disruption of surface water and groundwater systems by surface and undergroun...
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of Oregon contains water data and maps of hydrologic conditions and current streamflow conditions; publications about water resources of Oregon; historical water data about surface-water, ground-water and water quality; geographic data; and forecasts and flood potential outlooks. There is information on a surface-water data collection program, hydrologic studies, and USGS programs and activities in Oregon.
In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”
Robert Teeter, librarian at a California water agency, has put together this metasite containing a variety of useful links in the field of water resources along with other library-related links. Agencies, databases, publishers, organizations, libraries, mailing lists, and more are featured. Teeter has organized the links by page type and indicates which sites are newly added or personal favorites. Just a few examples of links at the Water Librarians' Homepage include Waterfront (an information source on water conservation initiatives taking place in Winnipeg, Canada), The American Water Resources Association, and The Environmental Professionals' Homepage (providing links to primary sources of environmentally-related information). This is an excellent tool for academics, professionals, and librarians in the field of water resources and also environmental engineering.
The Water Resources Center at the University of Minnesota was authorized by Congress as one of the nation's 54 water resources research institutes. The Center "provides leadership in freshwater management through cutting-edge research, educational opportunities for students and professionals, and community outreach." The center's homepage guides visitors through sections that include "Water Resources Science Graduate Program," "Publications," "News & Events," and "Research & Public Engagement." Members of the general public will want to look over the short publication "A Pocket Guide to Reducing Your Water Footprint." The guide helps individuals make smart water choices on a daily basis. Moving on, the "Publications" area contains the current issue of their quarterly newsletter, the "Minnegram," along with links to their biennial reports and research bulletins. Finally, visitors can wander through the "Water Links" area to look for information from other institutions, such as the Minnesota Geological Survey and the Environmental Protection Agency.
The incidence of eye infections in a community is generally accepted as an indicator of the adequacy of water supply for their needs. However, discrepancies in the published results from various studies seem to challenge this view. We have reanalysed the published data on trachoma in relation to the most relevant indicators of water accessibility, using prevalence ratios as the single parameter for risk assessment. A definite trend emerges from this review: the incidence of infectious conjunctivitis is not sensitive to differences in water accessibility; on the other hand, a reduction in the risk of trachoma is consistently associated with better access to water. This conclusion may support the efforts of WHO and other multilateral and bilateral agencies to sustain the commitment towards the water supply sector beyond the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade.
Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach is about our human and environmental qualities with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. Watershed management can be an effective means for crisis intervention and pollution control. This project is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through university curriculam, for professional development in technical and field assistance, and for community awareness in the trade-offs and consequences of resource decisions that affect hydrologic systems. This community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is developed that specifically assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interations between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. Disastrous conditions worldwide have triggered reactions in crisis relief rather than crisis prevention. Through a unified management approach to the preservation of water quality, the flows of water that connect all water users can serve as a basis for the maintenance and protection of our valuable watersheds.
This image-rich Micscape Magazine article explores how water bears can be found almost everywhere yet are still unknown to almost everybody, why there are relatively few light microscope photographs of water bears in the literature and on the Web, and how light microscopy can outperform scanning electron microscopy when viewing these animals. It includes a list of historical references, early sketches, and colorful images of water bears, also known as tardigrades.
This web page hosts information related to groundwater quality in Oregon. Fact sheets about important groundwater problems are available, addressing topics such as septic systems, nonpoint source pollution, total daily maximum loading, drinking water, and storm water management. The site also includes data and maps portraying groundwater quality, describes issues affecting groundwater management, provides results of groundwater assessment programs, and has links to groundwater and water quality regulations and programs. Most of the data and files are in pdf format.
Volatile halocarbons in drinking water have attracted increasing attention during recent years. These substances are also found in body fluids. All disinfectant chemicals used in water treatment seem to produce by-products. Of particular concern are the following substances from the use of various disinfectants according to US EPA: chlorine, bromine and iodine, and chlorine dioxide. The aim of the present study was to follow the formation and occurrence of volatile halocarbons in different types of water.
Students learn about the techniques engineers have developed for changing ocean water into drinking water, including thermal and membrane desalination. They begin by reviewing the components of the natural water cycle. They see how filters, evaporation and/or condensation can be components of engineering desalination processes. They learn how processes can be viewed as systems, with unique objects, inputs, components and outputs, and sketch their own system diagrams to describe their own desalination plant designs.
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) page contains information about the water resources in the state of Indiana. The district staff measure streamflow and ground-water levels as well as collect water-quality data (pH and mercury levels) throughout the state. Information on this site includes daily streamflow conditions, Biological Resources Division research in the state, drought information, and studies of the Upper Illinois River basin and White River basin. There are links to other sites for additional information.
Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the nature of H-bonding, presenting exciting new avenues of research and challenging existing models of water's structure.
Abstract Increasing concern with “sustainability”issues has raised natural questions regarding western water use. Efficient water allocation requires policy tools based on the value of water in alternative uses: agricultural, environmental, residential and others. Agricultural values are fairly well established. Environmental,values are recognized as “non-market” and estimated with various alternative techniques. Residential uses are normally thought to be market determined, but
David Brookshire; H. Stu Burness; Janie M. Chermak; Kate Krause
Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of\\u000a a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water\\u000a and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic\\u000a biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD
Lina Abu Ghunmi; Grietje Zeeman; Manar Fayyad; Jules B. van Lier
Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.
Patton, C.C. (C.C. Patton and Associates, Inc. (US))
\\u000a When surface water pathway exposure and health effects are of concern, the transformation and transport analysis may include\\u000a several aquatic environments such as impoundments, rivers, streams, reservoirs, wetlands, lakes, estuaries and open oceans.\\u000a Among these, fresh water aquatic environments are of significant importance since they are the primary drinking water source\\u000a for many communities. Estuaries and oceans may be of
In an investigation called "Shape It!" learners craft tiny boats out of clay, set them afloat on water and then add weight loads to them, in order to explore: how objects stay afloat in water; what the relationship is among surface tension, buoyancy, density and displacement; and how shape, size, and type of material affect an object's ability to remain buoyant. The introductory text discusses how heavy steel ships can float on bodies of water like rivers, bays and oceans.
Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.
Sampling of aquatic microorganisms reveals a surprising feature of many open water systems - stratification. Planktonic and benthic microbes occupy distinct zones in stratified water columns. Explore how the benthic consumer populations respond to environmental cues such as changes in sunlight, wind effects, or increases in organics due to pollution with the model HypoxiaZone. * model the effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters on microbial populations and oxygen levels within the Mississippi River basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone
Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology); Howard T. Odum (Beloit College;Biology); Elisabeth C. Odum (Santa Fe Community College;Biology)
In this creative roleplay activity, learners will explore the various processes of the water cycle using movement, sound, and props to aid in comprehension. Learners will understand that water changes forms throughout the water cycle, and that this cycle runs continuously throughout all the cycles at the same time. This standards-based lesson, which is great for the classroom, camps, or afterschool programs, includes roleplay cards and ideas for props.
Acidified and filtered sea water samples which were extracted with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate have been shown to contain\\u000a a variety of lipid compounds in trace amounts. Concentrations of these solvent-soluble substances ranged from 0.5 to 6.0 mg\\/liter,\\u000a the lower concentrations being found in offshore waters. The solvent extracts of the sea water were separated into eight lipid\\u000a classes
In Part 1 of this series (Polymer 1999;40:3685), the concept for the preparation of expandable polystyrene (PS) applying water as a blowing agent was presented. In order to achieve this goal, water was emulsified by means of a commercially available surfactant (sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate) in a prepolymerised styrene\\/PS mixture. This mixture was subsequently suspended in water and polymerisation was continued to
This page features opinion surveys, challenge questions, questionnaires and true/false quizzes. Students can participate in an online survey to provide their opinions on water quality and supply, how water concerns rank with other environmental issues; and to vote for their favorite body of water. All answers go into a database and the results are displayed in a table so they can see how other participants answered.
AGU Chapman Conference on Remote Sensing of the Terrestrial Water Cycle; Kona, Hawaii, 19-22 February 2012 A Chapman Conference was convened to review the current state of satellite missions and their related research, as well as to identify future needs and directions. The water cycle components considered included soil moisture, precipitation, evapotranspiration, snow/ice, groundwater, and surface water. Remotely sensed data were certainly the focus of the meeting, but ancillary data and in situ resources were also discussed.
Discusses the management of the earth's water resources. Describes the global water cycle and the status of water pollution. Recommends that a water-management project should lean toward increasing the efficiency of water consumption rather than toward increasing the supply of water. (YP)
This site describes the distribution and movement of water around, through, and above the Earth as water vapor, liquid water, and ice, with emphasis on the water cycle (hydrologic cycle). It is part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Science for Schools website. Tables and graphs are provided. The water cycle graphic is available in several languages.
Currently, studies of microsecond and sub-microsecond electrical breakdown in liquid water and water solutions are experiencing their renaissance period due to the development of advanced pulsed power systems and emerging technologies for environmental applications and plasma medicine. The present paper is focused on an investigation of polarity effects in sub-microsecond discharges in water. Distilled water, tap water and water based
I. V. Timoshkin; M. J. Given; M. P. Wilson; R. A. Fouracre; S. J. MacGregor
A heat recovery system recovers hot water to an insulated tank through reciprocally variable volume chambers which are biased to draw water from hot water lines when the pressure throughout the system is equalized. One-way valving means permits continuous water flow when desired through the hot water tank to the hot water outlet. In a specific embodiment, bias is effected
|Discusses the management of the earth's water resources. Describes the global water cycle and the status of water pollution. Recommends that a water-management project should lean toward increasing the efficiency of water consumption rather than toward increasing the supply of water. (YP)|
Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.
Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.
In this activity (located on pages 38-39 of PDF), learners discover how screws (simple machines) help us do work and complete tasks, like preserving water. Learners pretend they are in a remote area with no running water in their home. They must haul water from a well to their homes. Learners compare and contrast various types of containers to determine which vessel is the safest and most efficient way to transport and store water. The containers include one with a screw top lid, one with no lid, and one with just plastic wrap for a lid.
The Western Water Assessment (WWA) seeks to work within an evolving social context to increase relevance and value of scientific information to improve decision making strategies. Their research focuses on the decision-making processes of the individuals, groups, and organizations in the Interior West that have responsibility for managing water resources, as well as those who use the water, and those responsible for its treatment and the protection of the aquatic environment. Research topics include impacts on climate variability and regional water resources, model assessments, stream pollution and metabolism, and use of model results in policy planning. WWA is a project of the environmental studies department at CU-Boulder.
A recent report stated that in the next decade or so, nearly half of the world's population will live in countries whose water supplies are over-stressed. In parts of Africa, northern China, southern Asia, and the Middle East, water is already being pumped from aquifers faster than it is being replenished. In India, the water table is falling 1-3 m (3-10 ft) per year. This video segment, adapted from the television program 'Last Oasis', discusses how Israel has approached its water scarcity problem by developing innovative ways to conserve and reuse its supply.
Human experience in the macrobiological world leads scientists to visualize water compartments in cells analogous to the bladder in the human pelvis or ventricles in the brain. While such water-filled cellular compartments likely exist, the volume contributions are insignificant relative to those of biomolecular hydration compartments. The purpose of this chapter is to identify and categorize the molecular water compartments caused by proteins, the primary macromolecular components of cells. The categorical changes in free energy of water molecules on proteins cause these compartments to play dominant roles in osmoregulation and provide important adjuncts to fundamental understanding of osmosensing and osmosignaling mechanisms. Water compartments possess differences in molecular motion, enthalpy, entropy, freezing point depression, and other properties because of electrostatic interaction of polar water molecules with electric fields generated by covalently bound pairs of opposite charge caused by electronegative oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the protein. Macromolecules, including polypeptides, polynucleotides, and polysaccharides, are stiff molecular chains with restricted folding capacities due to inclusion of rigid ring structures or double amide bonds in the backbone sequence. This creates "irreducible spatial charge separation" between positive and negative partial charges, causing elevated electrostatic energy. In the fully hydrated in vivo state of living cells the high dielectric coefficient of water reduces protein electrostatic free energy by providing polar "water bridge networks" between charges, thereby creating four measurably different compartments of bound water with distinct free energy differences. PMID:17875409
Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.
Giammarchi, M.; Balata, M.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.; Ioannucci, L.; Miramonti, L.; Nisi, S.
The representation features a detailed six minute animated lesson about the major processes that move water between land, the ocean and the atmosphere, and convert water between states. Evaporation, condensation, transpiration and water reservoirs are major topics covered by the animation. From approximately 1:20 to 1:35 (narration of ÂreservoirÂ to "lies in the oceanÂ), the representation employs a diagram, narration and a pie chart to emphasize the key idea that water collects in rivers and lakes and most of it flows back into the oceans.
Student teams design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. In doing this, students gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, students perform efficiency calculations and compare designs.
\\u000a To implement effective water management, institutional and organizational arrangements must be developed to deal with market\\u000a and government failures. The major types of market failure are: the positive and negative externalities, which lead to non-optimal\\u000a resource provision; nonexcludability and nonsubtractability, which contribute to the under-provision of goods or services;\\u000a and natural monopolies, which result in non-competitive pricing. Nonexcludability refers to
Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 759 observation wells and 146 water-quality data for monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.
Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 759 observation wells and 146 water-quality data for monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.
Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 908 observation wells and water-quality data for 155 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.
Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 898 observation wells and 145 water-quality data for monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.
Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 960 observation wells and water-quality data for 173 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.
Users can choose to download or order six posters that depict water-resources topics and are drawn in a cartoon format. Written narrative on the back elaborates on the topic of each poster. They are available in color, or in black-and-white for coloring.
Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)
|Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)|
Provided by WebExhibits.org, the Why is Water Blue? (1) Web site starts off this Topic in Depth. Visitors will learn the factors that affect the colors we see, what color water actually is, and the basic physics and chemistry behind the phenomenon. This site is hard to beat for its clear explanations as well as its interesting photographs and illustrations. The second site, entitled the Common Water Quality Complaints Color Guide (2), gives possible sources of nineteen color variations in water. For example, if water is reddish-orange, it most likely contains high iron concentrations. This unique and useful site is brought to the Web by the University of Colorado Boulder department of Geography. Next, from the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, comes the What is Hydrologic Optics? (3) Web site. Explanations of water optics including scatter, attenuation, and absorption are given along with waters inherent and apparent optical properties. The fourth site, Water Color (4), is provided by Annis Water Resources Institute of Grand Valley State University. The page describes the Forel-Ule color scale, which provides a standard method for determining water color and tells why a waters color is significant. Next, from NASA's Visible Earth Web site, the Ocean Color (5) page gives a unique look at the color of oceans from around the world. The seven impressive satellite images, which include the Mississippi Delta and the Black Sea, include explanations of what is most likely causing the color differences. Anyone who has ever visited Yellowstone National Park knows that the brilliant colors of the many mineral springs are breathtaking. The sixth site, from the National Park Service, highlights one of these called Emerald Spring (6). The page describes how sulfur combines with reflected blue light, which makes the hot spring appear a magnificent emerald green. Next, the Laboratory Services (7) page of the Michigan Water Research Center Web site explores several physical measurements of water including color. The page contains a description, along with various links, regarding what substances cause the color of water to change and what is meant by true and apparent color. The last Web site, Secondary Drinking Water Regulations: Guidance for Nuisance Chemicals (8), is provided by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The site describes what secondary regulations are, why color is one, and what the standards are for color.
Umgeni Water abstracts raw water from rivers and dams for potable water treatment, and therefore quality of the water resource is vital for the sustainability of its business. Areas of concern regarding the quality of water resource in the Umgeni Water operational area include eutrophication (nutrient enrichment and associated threats including algal blooms and weed infestations); faecal contamination and pathogen
Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Texas consists of records of state, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 820 o...
Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 4 contains water levels for 790 o...
Coal slurries using oil, methanol, or water could reduce the transportation costs that are one of the barriers to industrial and power-plant coal conversion. New coal-water slurry (CWS) technology eliminates the need for oil and the need to dewater before burning. Studies show that a CWS pipeline would be increasingly competitive with rail transport in the Southeast because pipelines are
The water consumption requirements for a variety of energy options are presented, and comparative judgments drawn. Attention is focused on problems resulting from synthetic, gaseous, and liquid fuel production. Scenarios describing possible future levels of coal and electricity use are analyzed. They point to the importance of water supply…
In this paper, an efficient and effective method is proposed using dark channel prior to restore the original clarity of the images underwater. Images taken in the underwater environment are subject to water attenuation and particles in water's scattering, a phenomenon similar to the effect of heavy fog in the air. Using dark channel prior, the depth of the turbid
This unit explores the effects of contamination of natural resources on personal and community health. It especially focuses on the importance of clean water and how students can contribute to water quality in their communities. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.k8science.org.
Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center); PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)
Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…
***QUAL2E is not included in the current version of BASINS*** QUAL2E is a steady state and quasi-dynamic water quality model for the simulation of point source impact on water quality including nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen and BOD, algae, fecal c...
Tritium in Arabian rainfall has followed the trend observed in North America with peaks in 1958 and the spring of 1959. These measurements will be useful for future hydrologie studies. Water from wadi gravels averages 10 yr old. Carbon-14 measurements of deep waters indicate ages of several thousand years.
Scholars, water specialists, and public administrators discuss the needed rebuilding of the country's water infrastructure. This collection of papers presents the issues of funding options; privatization; roles of federal, state, and local government; public education and politics; and policy, management, and maintenance. Authors from ten states provide case studies to describe possible solutions through the public domain.
Despite our living embedded in the Earth environment, the origin of water on Earth is one of the most puzzling enigmas in the planetary sciences. Our planet that spawned our watery origins presently carries enough surface water in vapor or liquid form to cover the entire planet to a depth of about 3 km. Earth has substantially more water than scientists would expect to find at 1 A.U. Other compounds and elements also readily vaporize at Earth's distance. Previous proposed solutions to the puzzle considered comets as a viable source of the water, until spectral analysis of the comets Halley, Hyakutake, and Hale-Bopp, during their near-Earth passes in 1986, 1996 and 1997 showed that the abundance of the deuterium isotope of water is twice that found in Earth's water. Recent dynamical models  and the current best geochemical and water abundance data indicate that parent bodies from an overlooked region in the solar system, the inner asteroid belt, are promising as the primary source for Earth's water. References  O'Brien, David P.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Levison, Harold F. (2006), Terrestrial Planet Formation with Strong Dynamical Friction, Icarus in press.
Graps, Amara L.; Lunine, J. I.; Coradini, A.; O'Brien, D. P.; Morbidelli, A.
|This set of activities is designed to bring water resource education into the middle school classroom using an interdisciplinary approach. The packet contains timely, localized information about the water resources of west central Florida. Each activity is aligned to middle-school Sunshine State Standards. These hands-on, minds-on activities can…
Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville.
Noses Creek at Powder Springs Road, Georgia. Part of the USGS safety protocol is to wear a PFD (personal flotation device) around any surface water. This scientist may not look like he has one on, but he does--it is under his rain coat. This DH-81 sampler is used to sample flood water for suspended-...
This formative assessment item uncovers students' ideas about the conservation of water and the water cycle. The probe is aligned with the National Science Education Standards and can be used before, during, or after instruction. Resources are provided as well as instructional strategies.
Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...
Water is essential for our existence on this planet - critical to countless physical, biological, geological and chemical processes - it has defied scientific understanding. Exhibiting peculiar properties such as increased density upon melting and high surface tension, water is one of the most intriguing problems in condensed matter and chemical physics. Current research at SSRL, however, is illuminating the
Luna B. Leopold's intent in Water, Rivers and Creeks was to provide a nontechnical primer on hydrology and water resources, and he succeeded admirably. The terse style is reminiscent of the mystery writer Mickey Spillane, though the content is complex science expounded in simple terms. ``Part I, Hydrology and Morphology,'' makes up the first two thirds of the book, and
Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators,
Ocean bottom water has historically represented a constant physical entity to most geophysicists. The ocean floor has long been modeled as a classic isothermal, semi-infinite surface in geophysical calculations. Peter Rhines of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution recently said about the subject of bottom water, `We've all been trained to imagine that the deep ocean is steady.... It's not so much
|The water consumption requirements for a variety of energy options are presented, and comparative judgments drawn. Attention is focused on problems resulting from synthetic, gaseous, and liquid fuel production. Scenarios describing possible future levels of coal and electricity use are analyzed. They point to the importance of water supply…
Water conservation for agriculture has been important for centuries and is becoming increasingly important due to competition among agricultural and other users. Our objectives were to review progress made in our understanding of factors affecting water conservation during the past 100 years and to ...
In the distant past, nomadic man needed water for drinking, feared floods, and used water environments for fishing and hunting. Only when he became a sedentary agriculturist along the flat plains of large rivers, did he dig wells, irrigate land, and build levees for protection from floods. These tasks required a well-organized society, thus helping to create states, and with
|Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of…
|"The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how…
|One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…
The indoor swimming pool at the Glen Cove YMCA in Glen Cove, New York, has been selected for the dehumidification/water heating system demonstration project. This report provides the specifications for this system which includes a dehumidifier/air handler, condenser/water heater, and outdoor condenser. Current progress underway includes construction, vendor selection, and control system selection. (SM)
Water table control systems for agricultural cropland are installed primarily to reduce or eliminate the effects of water related factors that limit crop production, and to control losses of applied agrochemicials in subsurface drainage discharge and surface runoff. System design objectives are to i...
Dowsing is a folklore process used to locate an unknown, such as the best location for a water well, by the use of a hand-held device. The process is commonly know as water witching, divining, dowsing or radiesthesia. The practice continues despite the la...
|This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…
|One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…
Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was
This animation, available in the Flash or GIF format, shows monthly water surpluses. An interesting point for students to ponder is why Antarctica, one of the few areas with constant water surpluses, is classified as a polar desert. In the Flash format, the animation can easily be rewound or paused to stress important points.
Researchers in Ohio have developed a drainage water recycling approach that is called Wetland, Reservoir, SubIrrigation System, or WRSIS. This system directs surface runoff and subsurface drainage water to a constructed wetland where there is opportunity for some sediment and nutrient removal from t...
This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…
The anomalous properties of cold and supercooled water, such as the fact that at sufficiently low temperatures it becomes more compressible and less dense when cooled, and more fluid when compressed, have attracted the attention of physical scientists for a long time. The discovery in the 1970s that several thermodynamic and transport properties of supercooled water exhibit a pronounced temperature
World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social
|Provides a simple introduction to animals whose habitat is the thin surface film of water. Describes adaptive mechanisms of water striders, whirlygigs and riffle bugs and suggests ways to observe them in the wild or as aquarium animals. Includes basic demonstrations of the nature of surface tension. (JHZ)|
A solar hot water generating system is disclosed which comprises a vertically pivotable heat exchanger automatically pivotable by means of a timer-actuated electric motor. The heat exchanger is fluidly connected to an insulated storage tank which retains the thermal values of the heated fluid. The system is adapted to provide hot water for domestic and industrial uses, such as heating,
This paper discussed the revising of the primary and secondary drinking-water regulations by EPA in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Since consideration of risk is playing an increasing role in setting environmental standards, questions were raised regarding the adequacy of human health protection afforded by some of the existing and proposed standards. 1 table.
Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...
The formation and flow of deep water around Antarctica contributes to the global ocean circulation. New measurements report the strongest flow speeds recorded so far in a current below 3,000 m depth, and help to document a pathway for Antarctic Bottom Water.
|One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…
In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…
In this activity, conduct an experiment to make freshwater out of saltwater. First, make saltwater and then seal it and place it in the Sun for a couple of hours or even a whole day. This solar still will distill, or purify, the water. Use this activity to explore water purification and evaporation. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.
In Part 1 (Polymer 1999;40:3685) of this series, the concept for the preparation of expandable polystyrene (PS) applying water as a blowing agent was presented. This paper focuses on the expansion characteristics of water expandable polystyrene (WEPS) beads. The influence of temperature, amount of blowing agent, molar mass of the PS matrix and slight crosslinking of the matrix were investigated
J. J. Crevecoeur; J. F. Coolegem; L. Nelissen; P. J. Lemstra
Sudden closure of a control valve or stopping of a pump, either planned or accidental, produces excess pressure in a fluid-filled pipeline known as water hammer. Water hammer, or hydraulic transient, refers to pressure fluctuations caused by a sudden increase or decrease in flow velocity. Pressure waves in the fluid interact with axial, bending, shear a torsional stress waves in
In this activity students will investigate what happens to salt water when it freezes. Observations of densities and salt concentration (by measuring conductivity) will be made. These results will be compared with the densities and conductivity conditions found in sea ice cores (columns of frozen sea water taken from the ocean around Antarctica).
|Climate change is having a major effect on water cycles. There is an increased intensity and frequency of severe storms resulting in flooding. Floods in other parts of the world cause death on a major scale. Meanwhile across the planet, one billion people (a sixth of the world's population) do not have access to safe drinking water, and two…
The continued increase in American farm productivity depends to a large extent upon the availability and cost of water resources. The report in this book is one of three prepared by Resources for the Future on irrigation. It examines the role of western irrigation and the impacts of the changing water supply situation on the development of western irrigation. Past
This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.
Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. (Northeast Regional Environmental Public Health Center, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (US))
Tritium in Arabian rainfall has followed the trend observed in North America with peaks in 1958 and the spring of 1959. These measurements will be useful for future hydrologic studies. Water from wadi gravels averages 10 yr old. Carbon-14 measurements of deep waters indicate ages of several thousand years. PMID:17807395
This detailed discussion explains that most ground water contamination is the result of human activity, and that several laws have been passed with an aim to minimize effects. The Clean Water Act and the Safe Drinking Water Act are explained along with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, or Superfund), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Other terms explained include zone of contribution, interaquifer leakage, and plume of contamination. Special tables included at this site are Typical Sources of Potential Ground Water Contamination by Land Use Category and Potential Harmful Components of Common Household Products. There is also a full page diagram showing some potential sources of ground water contamination.
A Texas-based task force produced this website as a public outreach and education tool about urban storm water runoff. A kids section provides games, fun facts, illustrations, and frequently asked questions. A public section offers downloadable education brochures on pesticides, fertilizers, storm water quality, and reporting illicit activity. The professional section provides handbooks and guidelines for storm water management in construction areas and design criteria and best management practices for storm water runoff treatment. The site can be accessed in English or Spanish. The joint task force was comprised of the city of Houston, TX, Harris County, TX, the Harris County (TX) Flood Control District, and the Texas Department of Transportation and was created to address the EPA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Storm water permit requirements. The task force was in effect from October 1, 1998 until September 30, 2003.
When constructing the micro-neurosurgical water ball probe, the authors have simply combined the properties of a ball probe with an irrigational function and the supportive role of water current to form a new irrigating ball dissector. The micro-instrument has an outlet mechanism with which the surgeon can regulate the flow of physiological solution into the operational field. Its point has the properties of a ball probe, and the overall bayonet shape facilitates surgical interventions in deep tissues under microscopic control. The water probe therefore enables the surgeon to perform precise mechanical preparation supported by a regulated current of water and a targeted irrigation in the operational field. The physiological solution in the pressure infusion cuff is under minimal pressure and directly connected to the probe. Due to the fact that one device can be used for various purposes the water ball probe represents an advantageous alternative to conventional micro-neurosurgical preparation. PMID:15906209
Water injection profiling of a well by nuclear logging is disclosed. A dual detector sonde with a high energy neutron source and a spinner flowmeter is oriented and positioned above and below perforations in the casing of an injection well to monitor upward and downward flow, respectively, of injection water. The water is irradiated by the neutron source and resulting gamma ray production is sensed as the activated water flows by the spaced detectors. Count rate data is reduced and analyzed in terms of two energy windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow behind the casing. Fluid flow within the casing is measured by means of the spinner flowmeter. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formations is calculated.
The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will protect the INEEL’s public water systems yet not too conservative to inhibit the INEEL from carrying out its missions.
Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Maryland and Delaware consist of records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report (Volume 2. Ground-Water Data) contains water levels at 379 observation wells, discharge records for 5 springs, and water quality at 238 wells and 10 springs. Locations of ground-water level wells are shown on figures 5 and 6. Locations of groundwater- quality sites are shown on figure 7. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State, local, and Federal agencies in Maryland and Delaware.
Smigaj, Michael J.; Saffer, Richard W.; Pentz, Robert H.; Marchand, Elizabeth H.
The assessment system for the water conservation is of vital significance to construct a water conservation society that is one of the most important strategies in the harmous development of social economy and ecological environment. According to the idea of ecological water footprint available, the evaluation system is established for the assessment of water conservation society based on water quality
The 1991 and 1992 California Drought Emergency Water Banks were the first large water transfer programs in the nation in which the State served as the predominant broker for water trades. Although the State-sponsored Water Banks have drawn widespread attention, there have been a great number of water transfers and exchanges taking place in California independently of the State. These
Faced with limited water supply and increasing water demands, how to deal with the serious conflict between the agricultural and ecological sector has become one big challenge in the Zhangye Irrigation District in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China. Managing agricultural water demand and increasing agricultural water use efficiency are considered the main policy options to ease the water use conflict. In this paper we explore some practical water demand management measures and their impact on increasing water use efficiency. For this purpose, we conducted a field survey in the Zhangye Irrigation Districts in July 2009, covering 40 villages, 160 households and 95 surface and groundwater managers. Survey results show that from 2001 to 2008, collectively managed villages have been substituted by Water User Associations (WUAs). By 2008, 98 percent of villages were managed WUAs. In addition to this institutional change, Zhangye irrigation District also adopted several other measures, including water pricing policy, water tickets and water rights. Quantitative analysis show that among all these demand management measures, changing management institution, implementing water pricing and water rights policies have played significant role in increasing agricultural water use efficiency. How to extend the experiences and lessons on water demand management from Heihe River Basin to other regions is another challenge policy makers are facing. Key words Water demand management measures; agricultural water use efficiency; institutional change, water pricing, water rights, water tickets
Wang, Jinxia; van den Boom, Bart; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Yumin
Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Alaska consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stages of lakes; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. The volume contains records for water discharge at 82 gaging stations; water quality at 24 gaging stations; water levels for 75 observation wells; and water quality analyses
R. D. Lamke; R. T. Kemnitz; M. R. Carr; D. S. Thomas; K. M. Novcaski
Droplets of various liquids may float on the respective surfaces for extended periods of time prior to coalescence. We explored the features of delayed coalescence in highly purified water. Droplets several millimeters in diameter were released from a nozzle onto a water surface. Results showed that droplets had float times up to hundreds of milliseconds. When the droplets did coalesce, they did so in stepwise fashion, with periods of quiescence interspersed between periods of coalescence. Up to six steps were noted before the droplet finally vanished. Droplets were released in a series, which allowed the detection of unexpected abrupt float-time changes throughout the duration of the series. Factors such as electrostatic charge, droplet size, and sideways motion had considerable effect on droplet lifetime, as did reduction of pressure, which also diminished the number of steps needed for coalescence. On the basis of present observations and recent reports, a possible mechanism for noncoalescence is considered.
Klyuzhin, Ivan S.; Ienna, Federico; Roeder, Brandon; Wexler, Adam; Pollack, Gerald H.
Today we face the challenges ofproviding goodfood, good air, and good water for a humanpopulation that is doubling every 40-50 years. The challenges are real and were evident enough during 1988 for Time magazine to dedicate its first 1989 issue to „Planet of the Year….Endangered Earth”.Great technological progress has been made over the past few years, enabling many industries and
"We all live on this water planet which we have mistakenly chosen to call Earth" (Anon.) When viewed from outer space, the dominant feature of the earth's surface is the abundance of liquid water. Liquid water has been present at and near the earth's surface for most of its history, and has made it possible for life to develop, evolve and survive on the third rock from the Sun. In recent years it has also become clear that the earth's interior represents an important storehouse for water and that water in the deep earth exerts a major influence on the geochemical and geodynamic evolution of the planet. The largest near-surface water reservoir is the oceans, containing 13,400 x 1017 kg of H2O, or about 97.3% of all water at and near the earth's surface. The major geological reservoirs for water can be divided into the oceanic and continental crust, the upper and lower mantle, the transition zone and the core. The core has been estimated to contain up to 100 times the amount of water in the earth's oceans, in the form of hydrogen in high-pressure iron alloy (Williams and Hemley, 2001, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., v. 29: 365-418). In the upper and lower mantle and the transition zone water is present mainly as trace and minor amounts (101 -" 104 ppm) in nominally anhydrous phases. Even though the concentrations are low, the absolute amount of water in these mantle reservoirs may be very large given their relative contributions to the total mass of the earth. Thus, the upper mantle is estimated to contain between 1,230 and 3,693 x 1017 kg of H2O, the transition zone between 4,481 -" 89,613 x 1017 kg of H2O, and the lower mantle between 34,200 and 68,500 x 1017 kg of H2O. Assuming even the most conservative estimates for the amount of water in these geologic reservoirs, the amount of water in the oceans and other near-surface reservoirs is dwarfed by that contained in the geologic reservoirs. The conventional hydrologic cycle describes the movement of water between the various near-surface reservoirs. Similarly, water moves between the geologic reservoirs to define a geohydrologic cycle, although the fluxes between reservoirs are poorly constrained. Perhaps the most important environment in which water moves from one geo-reservoir to another is in subduction zones, where water from the subducting oceanic slab (composed of oceanic crust and upper mantle material) is transferred to several reservoirs, including the oceans, continental crust, oceanic crust, upper and (possibly) lower mantle, and the transition zone. Approximately 1.01 x 1012 kg of H2O is subducted per year. Of this amount, 9 x 111 kg is returned to the oceans by updip flow. The remainder is transported to greater depths and incorporated into the various mantle reservoirs. The major environments in which water from geo-reservoirs is returned to near-surface reservoirs are arc volcanoes and the mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Approximately 0.35 to 1.05 x 1011 kg of H2O is transferred from the deep crust and upper mantle and returned to the atmosphere per annum from arc volcanoes, while 1.2 x 1011 kg of magmatic (mantle) H2O is returned to the oceans as a result of submarine volcanism. Fluxes between the other deep-earth reservoirs are model dependent and at present are poorly constrained.
Bodnar, R. J.; Azbej, T.; Becker, S.; Cannatelli, C.; Fall, A.; Severs, M.
Wars have been waged over oil and gold, but it is water that now poses the greatest potential for provoking conflict among nations-and the greatest need for new guarantees of cooperation. Athough water is a renewable resource, it is also a finite one. Nearly 40 percent of the world's population depends on river systems shared by two or more countries, leading to political hot spots, most critically in the middle east. This article describes in detail the water problems in the middle east, starting with the Jordan River basin, the Golan Heights, and the coastal aquifer, partly polluted. On the Sinai Peninsula the Nile River is the water source for nine countries, and the Tigris-Euphrates, although still providing water in relative abundance, is prey to the failure of Iraq, Syria, and Turkey to reach water-sharing agreements. Discussion includes the possibilities of turning the win-lose situations into win-win situations by appropriate water management and the problem of lack of a clear legal framework for settling disputes.
In this activity, learners receive a labeled plastic film canister containing a material representing a pollutant (i.e. pencil shavings = a beaver's wood chips). The instructor (or a learner) stands at the front of the room next to a large beaker of clear water and begins to read a story about the history of an imaginary site. As the story comes to the name indicated on a canister, the appropriate learner comes forward, opens the canister, and tells the "audience" what is inside. The contents are then dumped into the beaker of water and the water is stirred. As more and more materials are added, the story periodically asks whether the audience would boat in, swim in, or drink the water. After all materials are added, learners discuss who is responsible for dirtying the water and who is responsible for cleaning it up. This activity is the first of a set of activities on the page and can be used independently or in conjunction with the second activity called "Clean Water: Is It Drinkable?" in which learners design a water filtration system.
We demonstrate the first example of a water-driven bubble-propelled micromotor that eliminates the requirement for the common hydrogen peroxide fuel. The new water-driven Janus micromotor is composed of a partially coated Al-Ga binary alloy microsphere prepared via microcontact mixing of aluminum microparticles and liquid gallium. The ejection of hydrogen bubbles from the exposed Al-Ga alloy hemisphere side, upon its contact with water, provides a powerful directional propulsion thrust. Such spontaneous generation of hydrogen bubbles reflects the rapid reaction between the aluminum alloy and water. The resulting water-driven spherical motors can move at remarkable speeds of 3 mm s(-1) (i.e., 150 body length s(-1)), while exerting large forces exceeding 500 pN. Factors influencing the efficiency of the aluminum-water reaction and the resulting propulsion behavior and motor lifetime, including the ionic strength and environmental pH, are investigated. The resulting water-propelled Al-Ga/Ti motors move efficiently in different biological media (e.g., human serum) and hold considerable promise for diverse biomedical or industrial applications. PMID:22891973
Nobel laureate Richard Smalley cited energy and water as among humanity's top problems for the next 50 years as the world's population increases from 6.3 billion to 9 billion. The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind and Hydropower Program has initiated an effort to explore wind energy's role as a technical solution to this critically important issue in the United States and the world. This four-page fact sheet outlines five areas in which wind energy can contribute: thermoelectric power plant/water processes, irrigation, municipal water supply, desalination, and wind/hydropower integration.
In the last decade, water resources have been a much discussed issue. Declining groundwater levels in the southern end of Ogallala formation have resulted in irrigated land being converted back to dry land farming. In the same area there is much emphasis on minimum economical irrigation requirements Water quality has become a buzz word in many parts of the country. Continued groundwater supplies from pesticides, fertilizers, animal wastes, petroleum products, heavy metals, etc. is attracting national attention. Pollution of surface water from eroding soil, animal feed lots, pesticides, improperly treated municipal and industrial wastewater, etc., is being addressed at all levels of government. These proceedings contain 25 articles.
A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)
A water powered sump pump having an ejector with an inlet end and a discharge end and enclosed within a housing providing support for the ejector. A control chamber about the inlet end of the ejector has a diaphragm valve which operates to control communication with a water pressure source responsive to operation of a float controlled pilot valve. Multi-stage turbulence and progressively increasing energy and velocity is effected in sump water directed to a propulsion zone defined about the ejector nozzle and communicating with the mouth end of a venturi leading to a discharge outlet from the ejector.
A heat transfer liquid collects heat in a solar collector and transfers the heat to water in a preheater heat exchanger. Use of a negative-pressure collector by means of an ejector and pressure relief valve allows inexpensive and readily available materials to be used in the collector. Preferably, the preheat heat exchanger is a converted gas hot water heater in which the heat transfer liquid is sprayed onto a portion of the storage tank and is collected in a reservoir. The negative-pressure solar collector can also be used to heat swimming pool water.
This is an activity (located on page 3 of the PDF) about the use of reduction agents to decontaminate ground water. Learners will conduct a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction in which vitamin C acts as a reduction agent after passing through a model of top soil, sand, and gravel to "pollutants" (starch-iodine mixture). This simulates how nanoparticles of iron are being used to detoxify water under former factory sites. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Water Clean-up.
This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.
In this activity, learners explore healthy choices related to the liquids they drink. The importance of water and milk as essential nutrients for a healthy body is the focus of the experience. Learners discover the importance of drinking six 8 oz. glasses of water a day by taking turns measuring and pouring glasses of water. Learners also collect and read drink labels. The "Extending Activities" section features optional additional activities including a demonstration in which learners identify the different amounts of sugar in drinks. This activity is featured on pp. 14-15 of the "Health House: Food, Fitness, & Fun 24/7!" unit of study for K-2 learners.
A variety of water supply sources are used in the rural Guatemalan Highlands. Formal municipal systems are rare, but villagers frequently form local water committees that construct spring-based supply systems. Recent work has indicated that groundwater may be a viable water supply source. The water quality from these two sources was characterized as well as water from other common sources
A solar water heating system comprises a solar collector having coils consisting of several stages, some of the coils having transparent covers having different heat insulation effects increasing with the temperature in the coil stages. Water is introduced to the collector either from a cold water source or from the hot water storage tank. The hot water discharge from teh
The statement concerns a project to furnish irrigation water and municipal water supplies to the water-deficient areas of Arizona (particularly Yuma, Maricopa, Pinal, Pima, and Cochise Counties) and western New Mexico (particularly Grant County) through d...
This is an introduction to a module on water conservation. It presents the concepts of limited supply, the water cycle, and the impact by and on populations. It gives an overview of water conservation and what would happen without it.
The Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts research to help prepare the primary and secondary regulations for drinking water and to develop technologies and strategies for controlling waterborne contaminants. The program integrates chemistry, engineering, micr...
Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)
|Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)|
Contents: Surface water quality assessment (Status, Causes of nonsupport of critical designated use, Stream water quality assessment, Basin assessments); Ground water quality assessment; Special state concerns (Toxicological investigation, Clean lakes pro...
Water purification with membrane technology was investigated as one of the alternatives for the future drinking water production (6,000 m3\\/d) in Nynäshamn community. The selected raw water source was surface water from Lake Muskan rather than brackish water from the Baltic Sea. The lake water, without need for desalination, has a high color number (up to 100 mg\\/l Pt) due
Over the past twelve years, numerous reports have appeared in the literature documenting the presence of genotoxic activity in organic concentrates of drinking water. enotoxic activity has been observed using in vitro test systems, including microbial, mammalian and lower eukaryo...
The available data regarding the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of hexachloroethane, which is used in military screening smokes, were reviewed. the USEPA guidelines were used to generate water quality criteria for the protect...
Particulates were collected from 11 retort waters and their chemical composition and morphology studied using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. This work indicates that the particulate fraction of retort ...
Today, at least one-fifth of all people worldwide lack access to safe drinking water, a problem that will almost certainly worsen as the earth's population grows. Although the vast majority of industrial discharges into waterways are regulated and treated, and most cities and towns effectively monitor and treat their sewage for chemical contaminants, problems such as arsenic contamination and dangerous microorganisms still trouble public water supplies in wealthy nations. In developing countries, most cities discharge 80-90% of their untreated sewage directly into rivers and streams, which are used for drinking, bathing, and washing. This lack of sewage treatment has allowed dangerous microorganisms to spread, posing one of the greatest threats to human health in the developing world: waterborne diseases caused by deadly microbes in water. Contamination isn't the only problem: in many areas of the world, drinkable water is a scarce resource available to many only at high cost, when it is available at all.
Papers dealing with the following subjects are reviewed by the authors: microbial indicators of pollution; methodology; rapid methods; microbial ecology of water; microbiology of river systems to coastal areas; and microbiology of natural lakes and impoundments. (DAD)
This site from the University of Delaware presents a computer model of water waves using a Java interface. The applets can be programmed by height, period, wave number (up to four) and by motion direction.
A survey of Florida State University students showed that their current laundry practices generate energy and water over-consumption. The survey also resulted in some concrete suggestions to the students that would improve their conservation practices. (Author/BP)
|Describes the watershed management approach for preserving water resources. Considers pollution sources ranging from industrial discharge to agricultural leachate and runoff and evaluates its impact on the total watershed environment. (JRH)|
For students that have already been introduced to the water cycle this lesson is intended as a logical follow-up. Students will learn about human impacts on the water cycle that create a pathway for pollutants beginning with urban development and joining the natural water cycle as surface runoff. The extent of surface runoff in an area depends on the permeability of the materials in the ground. Permeability is the degree to which water or other liquids are able to flow through a material. Different substances such as soil, gravel, sand, and asphalt have varying levels of permeability. In this lesson, along with the associated activities, students will learn about permeability and compare the permeability of several different materials for the purpose of engineering landscape drainage systems.
The report provides an assessment of the present water quality of the Great Lakes and their connecting channels and critically examines the data collection and analysis programs available for this evaluation. The status of remedial programs being implemen...
The report is the first Annual Report of the International Joint Commission pursuant to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada signed April 15, 1972. The Commission's report takes cognizance of significant development...
|An activity utilizing a bucket of pond water for study of microorganisms as presented to elementary school preservice and inservice teachers, and subsequently to their pupils, is described. Procedures for collecting, studying, tabulating data and extended activities are presented. (EB)|
In this activity, explore the unique glowing property of quinine, found in tonic water, to make a spooky Halloween decoration. Investigate ultra-violet light and fluorescence. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.
From the earliest European explorers to the time of modern engineers and hydrologists, the vast reserves of water within the Western United States have been the cause of both great excitement and concern. This compelling digital library brings together a wide range of documents (including legal transcripts, water project records, and personal papers) that document the Columbia, Colorado, Platte, and Rio Grande river basins. The project was completed with support from the Institute of Museum and Library Services and twelve university libraries in eight western states. On the homepage, visitors can perform advanced searches, or just elect to browse through the available materials. Browsing is a good option actually, as all of the materials are contained with one of four sections: subject, people, places, and signature collections. The signature collections are a real find, and visitors can look over troves that include "Native American Water Rights in Arizona", "The Platte River Basin in Nebraska", and "Las Vegas: Water in the West".
Drawings and specifications are included for the system to heat water for the swimming pool and dehumidify the building of the Glen Cove YMCA. An overview is presented of the Nautica product used in this system. (MHR)
The purpose of this investigation, has been to obtain information about the quantity and nature of waste water from dwelling houses. The results provide a basis for estimating the loading capacity of recipients and the necessary sewage treatment procedure...
The overall objective of the World Water Assessment Programme is to support the building of global security - food, environment, economic, social and political security -- through an integrated comprehensive freshwater assessment. The specific objectives within the assessment pr...
Current practice in New Jersey for mitigating stormwater impacts caused by transportation infrastructure projects is established by NJDEP Stormwater Regulations (N.J.A.C. 7:8). These rules outline specific processes to offset impacts to water quality, gro...
A. Fekete A. K. Agrawal B. VanderGheynst F. Scherrer
... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Green Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...
GIS plays an important role as a management tool for the multi-dimensional Status Monitoring Network (SMN) program to monitor Florida's freshwater resources. By pulling together basin assessments, statistical analysis, surface water and groundwater analytical data, background is...
This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the ...
F. Robertson S. J. Goodman J. R. Christy D. E. Fitzjarrald S. Chou
Learners work in teams to design and build solar water heating devices that mimic those used in residences to capture energy in the form of solar radiation and convert it to thermal energy. This thermal energy is next transferred to water (to be used as domestic hot water) in the form of heat. In doing this, learners gain a better understanding of the three different types of heat transfer, each of which plays a role in the solar water heater design. Once the model devices are constructed, learners perform efficiency calculations and compare designs. Note: part of this activity must be conducted outdoors on a sunny day (it is okay if it's cold, but it must be sunny).
|A survey of Florida State University students showed that their current laundry practices generate energy and water over-consumption. The survey also resulted in some concrete suggestions to the students that would improve their conservation practices. (Author/BP)|
Sodium is included on the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). The CCL is a list of ... are priorities for consideration for rulemaking. Why was sodium included on the Contaminant Candidate List? Will EPA ...
In a small rural school in southwest Missouri, coordination of a schoolwide water theme provided students with science learning experiences with a Science-Technology-Society orientation reflecting many of the Standards . Together, teachers incorpo
Smith, David; Wood, Gina; Brake, Mary; Hamilton, Pat; Aram, Roberta J.
This single cell, sea water activated battery has a plurality of alternately sequenced plates each positioned to extend radially outwardly of a central core. The plates are made of magnesium and of silver chloride.
The petroleum discoveries in the northern North Sea and their implications for the ecology of Scotland's waters was the theme of the third annual meeting of the Scottish Marine Biological Association in Stirling. The document briefly summarizes the discus...
The anthology presents a series of articles and comments designed to acquaint the reader with the great range of issues surrounding the topic of water conservation. It is intended to be introductory rather than exhaustive; readers with particular interest...
We have determined the microscopic structure of water within a water/oil emulsion, by combining neutron diffraction data, exploiting the isotopic H/D substitution, and a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of a portion of a water droplet, containing the water/oil interface. The dependence of the data on the simulation box size and the reliability of the water-water radial distribution functions are discussed. Although water in the emulsion forms shorter and stronger hydrogen bonds compared to pure bulk water, its overall microscopic structure looks more disordered.
Mancinelli, R.; Bruni, F.; Ricci, M. A.; Imberti, S.
Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Texas consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 6 contains water levels for 880 ground-water observation wells and water-quality data for 158 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Texas.
This United States Geological Survey site focuses on water and its properties. The site contains activities for teachers and students, along with pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center where users can give opinions and test their water knowledge. Unique aspects of this site include the sections that contain student work and a picture gallery. There are links to other resources for students, teachers and the general public. A Spanish translation is available.
The Urban Water Resources Management Web site is maintained by the Global Development Research Center. The center "carries out initiatives in education, research and practice, in the spheres of environment, urban, community, economy and information, and at scales that are effective." The site contains information and links to topics such as understanding the importance of water; organizations and institutions; documents and information repositories; initiatives, programs, and projects; and more.
Before replacing existing water heaters with new equipment aided by improved heat-recovery techniques and solar energy, commercial and residential owners should consider adjusting and retrofitting their in-place units to minimize energy losses. Specifically, five factors contribute to the net efficiency of a gas-fired water heater: (1) combustion equipment and its adjustment, (2) tank insulation, (3) heat-exchanger effectiveness, (4) firing rate,
We report recent efforts in the design and construction of water-walking machines inspired by insects and spiders. The fundamental\\u000a physical constraints on the size, proportion and dynamics of natural water-walkers are enumerated and used as design criteria\\u000a for analogous mechanical devices. We report devices capable of rowing along the surface, leaping off the surface and climbing\\u000a menisci by deforming the
David L. Hu; Manu Prakash; Brian Chan; John W. M. Bush
This activity, created to accompany the museum's Milstein Hall of Ocean Life, gives students a hands-on look at how some ocean creatures rely on buoyancy for external support. The activity starts with a class discussion in which students ponder how their lives would be different if they lived in water. Then, using plastic baggies filled with water to represent jellyfish, they examine how these creatures without "organic support" rely on buoyancy.
The Syr Darya River used to broaden into a rich delta at Kazalinsk, a town in central Asia's Kazakhstan, then dump into the Aral Sea, formerly the world's fourth largest lake. The Syr Darya River was once home to many species of fish and fowl, and a region of productive tugai forests. The river and lake, however, began shrinking in the 1960s as Soviet engineers and hydrologists siphoned off large amounts of water to irrigate cotton fields in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, in a drive to meet the Communist government's 5-year planning objectives regardless of environmental costs. By 1990, the Aral Sea had lost 66% of its original volume and the Syr Darya River now usually disappears into the desert west of town. Almost 1 million hectares of tugai wetlands were converted into desert between 1960 and 1990. Even though little remains alive in the Syr Darya as it passes through Kazalinsk, and what water remains is highly polluted by farms and cities to the east, the people of Kazalinsk still depend upon the Syr Darya for drinking water and other daily water needs, despite the health risks. Considerable morbidity in the region is attributed to this contaminated water supply. Water resources are being wasted everywhere in the interest of development. Like Syr Darya, and even in the US, many of the world's rivers no longer reach their former deltas. China especially has problems to resolve given its huge population and rapidly developing economic base. Approximately 300 major cities across northern and central China, including Beijing, already have critical water shortages. Wars may develop over access to freshwater sources. Water concerns in Egypt and the Jordan River Basin are noted. PMID:12294358
This lesson, provided by Science NetLinks, teaches students the importance of healthy ecosystems by investigating the example of natural water purification. Students will learn how ecosystems remove pollution from the water and how much it costs humans to do this artificially once ecosystems are no longer healthy. The class will then create a "River Newspaper" reporting on the condition of the local environment.
The Cassini spacecraft flew close to Saturn's small moon Enceladus three times in 2005. Cassini's UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph observed stellar occultations on two flybys and confirmed the existence, composition, and regionally confined nature of a water vapor plume in the south polar region of Enceladus. This plume provides an adequate amount of water to resupply losses from Saturn's E ring and to be the dominant source of the neutral OH and atomic oxygen that fill the Saturnian system. PMID:16527971
Hansen, Candice J; Esposito, L; Stewart, A I F; Colwell, J; Hendrix, A; Pryor, W; Shemansky, D; West, R
The new Eos editor for hydrology is Ivan Johnson, a water and soils engineering consultant from Arvada, Colo. He succeeds Mary Anderson, the editor for the last few years and the initiator of the special WaterWatch section in Eos. In taking over the job, Johnson stated, “I look forward to the assistance of all members of the AGU Hydrology Section in providing me with papers, meeting summaries, and news so I can maintain the excellent quality of reporting started by Mary.”
We are about to enter into the world of science and discover many new things about the water cycle. Introduction Below is a list of websites I have created for you to go and do certain activities. I will give you directions of things I would like for you to do at each website. All About The Water Cycle Here is a game you can play. ...