Sample records for water hydroid cordylophora

  1. Climate Change Likely to Facilitate the Invasion of the Non-Native Hydroid, Cordylophora caspia, in the San Francisco Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Mariah H.; Wintzer, Alpa P.; Wetzel, William C.; May, Bernie

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and invasive species can both have negative impacts on native species diversity. Additionally, climate change has the potential to favor invasive species over natives, dealing a double blow to native biodiversity. It is, therefore, vital to determine how changing climate conditions are directly linked to demographic rates and population growth of non-native species so we can quantitatively evaluate how invasive populations may be affected by changing conditions and, in turn, impact native species. Cordylophora caspia, a hydrozoan from the Ponto-Caspian region, has become established in the brackish water habitats of the San Francisco Estuary (SFE). We conducted laboratory experiments to study how temperature and salinity affect C. caspia population growth rates, in order to predict possible responses to climate change. C. Caspia population growth increased nonlinearly with temperature and leveled off at a maximum growth rate near the annual maximum temperature predicted under a conservative climate change scenario. Increasing salinity, however, did not influence growth rates. Our results indicate that C. caspia populations in the SFE will benefit from predicted regional warming trends and be little affected by changes in salinity. The population of C. caspia in the SFE has the potential to thrive under future climate conditions and may subsequently increase its negative impact on the food web. PMID:23071559

  2. Genetic analysis reveals multiple cryptic invasive species of the hydrozoan genus Cordylophora

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadine C. Folino-Rorem; John A. Darling; Cori A. D’Ausilio

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the patterns and dynamics of biological invasions is a crucial prerequisite to predicting and mitigating their\\u000a potential ecological and economic impacts. Unfortunately, in many cases such understanding is limited not only by ignorance\\u000a of invasion history, but also by uncertainty surrounding the ecology, physiology, and even systematics of the invasive taxa\\u000a themselves. The invasive, colonial euryhaline hydroid Cordylophora has

  3. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermiogenesis in the hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia with comments on structure and evolution of the sperm in the Cnidaria and the Porifera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ÅKE FRANZÉN

    1996-01-01

    Spermiogenesis in the hydroid, Cordylophora caspia, illustrates many of the features of this process in cnidarians and those of primitive sperm structure in primitive metazoans. The electron-dense vesicles or granular material in the acrosomal region of the cnidarian sperm may have evolved into the typical cup-shaped acrosomal vesicle found in sperm fiom many phyla. Cnidarian sperm are of the primitive

  4. Microsatellite loci for the invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora caspia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. Here we describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate ...

  5. Occurrence and biogeography of hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Nizinski, Martha S.; Ross, Steve W.

    2008-06-01

    Deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern USA (SEUS) support diverse fish and invertebrate assemblages, but are poorly explored. This study is the first to report on the hydroids collected from these habitats in this area. Thirty-five species, including two species that are likely new to science, were identified from samples collected primarily by manned submersible during 2001-2005 from deep-water coral habitats off North Carolina to east-central Florida. Eleven of the species had not been reported since the 19th to mid-20th century. Ten species, and one family, the Rosalindidae, are documented for the first time in the SEUS. Latitudinal ranges of 15 species are extended, and the deepest records in the western North Atlantic for 10 species are reported. A species accumulation curve illustrated that we continue to add to our knowledge of hydroid diversity in these habitats. Sexually mature individuals were collected for 19 species during the summer to early autumn months. Most of the observed species (89%) liberate planula larvae as part of their life cycles, suggesting that these species exhibit a reproductive strategy that reduces the risk of dispersal to sub-optimal habitats. Hydroids occurred across various substrata including coral rubble, live corals, rock and other animal hosts including hydroids themselves. All observed species were regionally widespread with typically deep-neritic to bathyal sub-tropical/tropical distributions. Hydroid assemblages from deep-water SEUS coral habitats were most similar to those from adjacent deep-water habitats off the SEUS (17 shared species), and those in the Straits of Florida/Bahamas and Caribbean/West Indian regions (14 and 8 shared species, respectively). The similarity to sub-tropical and tropical assemblages and the richness of plumularioids in the SEUS deep-water coral habitats support the idea of a Pleistocene intrusion of tropical species northwards following an intensification of the Gulf Stream from the Caribbean.

  6. Distribution, abundance and benthic-pelagic coupling of suspended hydroids on Georges Bank1, 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concelman, Stephanie; Bollens, Stephen M.; Sullivan, Barbara K.; Madin, Laurence P.; Horgan, Erich; Butler, Mari; van Keuren, Donna

    Clytia spp. hydroids (Phylum Cnidaria), typically attached to a substrate during their asexual, polyp stage, have been found in significant numbers within the mesozooplankton on Georges Bank, North Atlantic Ocean. We examined unpublished historical records of the 1939-1941 cruises of the R/V Atlantis and obtained samples at four-study sites on Georges Bank in June/July 1995 in an attempt to (1) quantify the planktonic and benthic distributions of hydroids on Georges Bank, and (2) determine the coupling between benthic and pelagic habitats of this population. We found that planktonic hydroids have a patchy distribution, varying both spatially and temporally (most abundant in summer months, absent in winter). In 1939-1941 the planktonic hydroids were most broadly distributed following a spring (1940) with strong wind events; hydroids were absent from all samples in 1941. In 1995 we found the highest abundance of planktonic Clytia spp. hydroids (6213.5±1343.6 hydranths m -3) in the central crest of the bank, "downstream" in the Georges Bank circulation pattern from sites along the northeast peak of the Bank where large populations of benthic Clytia spp. hydroids were found (up to 6465 hydranths m -2). Our plankton sampling did not show significant numbers of hydroids in the water column at the Northeast peak sites, indicating that large numbers of planktonic hydroids are not being introduced into the Bank's circulation patterns from off-Bank sites to the northeast (e.g. Scotian shelf). The source population for planktonic hydroids found in the central region of the Bank is most likely the benthic habitats on the northeast peak of the Bank. We hypothesize, and our limited data suggest, that hydroids are detached from the benthos by storm action or other disturbance, advected clockwise with the mean residual circulation, and concentrated and retained in the central, low-advective region of the Bank.

  7. Shared Skeletal Support in a Coral-Hydroid Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Pantos, Olga; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Hydroids form symbiotic relationships with a range of invertebrate hosts. Where they live with colonial invertebrates such as corals or bryozoans the hydroids may benefit from the physical support and protection of their host's hard exoskeleton, but how they interact with them is unknown. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the physical interactions between the colonial hydroid Zanclea margaritae and its reef-building coral host Acropora muricata. The hydroid tissues extend below the coral tissue surface sitting in direct contact with the host's skeleton. Although this arrangement provides the hydroid with protective support, it also presents problems of potential interference with the coral's growth processes and exposes the hydroid to overgrowth and smothering. Desmocytes located within the epidermal layer of the hydroid's perisarc-free hydrorhizae fasten it to the coral skeleton. The large apical surface area of the desmocyte and high bifurcation of the distal end within the mesoglea, as well as the clustering of desmocytes suggests that a very strong attachment between the hydroid and the coral skeleton. This is the first study to provide a detailed description of how symbiotic hydroids attach to their host's skeleton, utilising it for physical support. Results suggest that the loss of perisarc, a characteristic commonly associated with symbiosis, allows the hydroid to utilise desmocytes for attachment. The use of these anchoring structures provides a dynamic method of attachment, facilitating detachment from the coral skeleton during extension, thereby avoiding overgrowth and smothering enabling the hydroid to remain within the host colony for prolonged periods of time. PMID:21695083

  8. Revision of the European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    . The family Oceanidae includes the genera Cordylophora, Corydendrium, Merona, Oceania, Rhizogeton, Turritopsis Pachycordyle and Silhouetta. Turritopsis polycirrha and T. dohrnii are both regarded as valid species and distinct from T. nutricula of the western Atlantic. Histological sections confirmed that Turritopsis

  9. Effects of oil pollution on hydroid behavior and neurophysiology. [Tubularic crocea; Myrionema hargitti

    SciTech Connect

    Michel, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The hydroids, Tubularia crocea and Myrionema hargitti are sensitive organisms for assessing the effects of oil pollution. The abilities of these hydroids to capture Artemia nauplii were reduced after 1 hr exposure to a water-soluble fraction (WSF) of Monterey Formation crude oil. Algal symbionts within Myrionema contribute photosynthetically-fixed carbon to the host hydroid. No significant effects upon these symbionts were noted after 1 or 3 h but significant reductions in the mitotic index, photosynthesis and carbon translocation rates were observed after a 24-48 h exposure to 100% WSF. Myrionema hargitti was less responsive to mechanical stimuli after a brief 100% WSF exposure. The responsiveness to a feeding stimulant (proline) and concert frequency of 100% WSF-treated Tubularia crocea were lower than controls. Significant increases in epithelial activity were also recorded at 1% WSF and the increased firing frequency did not persist beyond the duration of the exposure. Bioaccumulation of /sup 3/H-toluene (20 ppm) from 100% WSF reached a maximum within 1 min but declined over the next hour. Higher concentrations of /sup 3/H-toluene evoked increased hydranth shedding with 1 h but these hydranths never accumulated as much /sup 3/H-toluene as hydranths exposed to lower concentrations.

  10. Genetic analysis across different spatial scales reveals multiple dispersal mechanisms for the invasive hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Darling, John A; Folino-Rorem, Nadine C

    2009-12-01

    Discerning patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. The globally invasive colonial hydrozoan Cordylophora produces propagules both sexually and vegetatively and is associated with multiple potential dispersal mechanisms, making it a promising system to investigate complex patterns of population structure generated throughout the course of rapid range expansion. Here, we explore genetic patterns associated with the spread of this taxon within the North American Great Lakes basin. We collected intensively from eight harbours in the Chicago area in order to conduct detailed investigation of local population expansion. In addition, we collected from Lakes Michigan, Erie, and Ontario, as well as Lake Cayuga in the Finger Lakes of upstate New York in order to assess genetic structure on a regional scale. Based on data from eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci we examined the spatial extent of clonal genotypes, assessed levels of neutral genetic diversity, and explored patterns of migration and dispersal at multiple spatial scales through assessment of population level genetic differentiation (pairwise F(ST) and factorial correspondence analysis), Bayesian inference of population structure, and assignment tests on individual genotypes. Results of these analyses indicate that Cordylophora populations in this region spread predominantly through sexually produced propagules, and that while limited natural larval dispersal can drive expansion locally, regional expansion likely relies on anthropogenic dispersal vectors. PMID:19889038

  11. [Relay-ray way of hydroplasm movement in hydroid colonies].

    PubMed

    Burykin, Iu B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we continued the investigation of the distribution system of colonial hydroids in the course of its development, starting with its emergence during the planula metamorphosis and ending with the formed colony. The hydroplasmic stream system of two species of colonial hydroids--Perigonimus abyssi G.O. Sars, 1874, and Stauridia producta Wright, 1858--was studied. W found that the main principle by which hydroplasma moves in these colonies, which form no shoots, is the relay-race from one hydranth to another through a stolon fragment connecting them or directly from one hydranth to the next one, etc. W show that the efficiency of the conducting (distribution) system does not depend on the level of complexity of the colonial structure. The results of this study confirm the absence of general colonial processes of integration and self-regulation in hydroid polyps. PMID:23785849

  12. Effects of initial surface wettability on biofilm formation and subsequent settlement of Hydroides elegans.

    PubMed

    Huggett, Megan J; Nedved, Brian T; Hadfield, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    Hydroides elegans is a major fouling organism in tropical waters around the world, including Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. To determine the importance of initial surface characteristics on biofilm community composition and subsequent colonization by larvae of H. elegans, the settlement and recruitment of larvae to biofilmed surfaces with six different initial surface wettabilities were tested in Pearl Harbor. Biofilm community composition, as determined by a combined approach of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and fluorescence in situ hybridization, was similar across all surfaces, regardless of initial wettability, and all surfaces had distinct temporal shifts in community structure over a 10 day period. Larvae settled and recruited in higher numbers to surfaces with medium to low wettability in both May and August, and also to slides with high wettability in August. Pearl Harbor biofilm communities developed similarly on a range of surface wettabilities, and after 10 days in Pearl Harbor all surfaces were equally attractive to larvae of Hydroides elegans, regardless of initial surface properties. PMID:19306143

  13. Hydroid defenses against predators: the importance of secondary metabolites versus nematocysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Stachowicz; Niels Lindquist

    2000-01-01

    Marine hydroids are commonly thought to be defended by stinging organelles called nematocysts that penetrate predator tissues\\u000a and inject proteinaceous venoms, but not all hydroids possess these nematocysts. Although an increasing number of bioactive\\u000a secondary metabolites have been isolated from marine hydroids, ecological roles of these compounds are poorly known. To test\\u000a the hypothesis that nematocysts and noxious secondary metabolites

  14. Planktonic hydroids on Georges Bank: ingestion and selection by predatory fishes1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avent, Sean R.; Bollens, Stephen M.; Butler, Mari; Horgan, Erich; Rountree, Rodney

    Planktonic colonial hydroids ( Clytia gracilis) recently have been found to be abundant, but patchily distributed in time and space, on Georges Bank, northwest Atlantic Ocean. However, the processes regulating the occurrence of these hydroid colonies (i.e., seasonality, growth, advection, diffusion, sinking, and predation) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the potential role of predation by fish upon the unattached hydroids. The two components of this study were (i) analyses of historical fish trawl surveys and stomach contents data collected in the coastal northwest Atlantic Ocean (including Georges Bank), and (ii) laboratory experiments testing for the presence of selective feeding by juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua) on hydroids relative to two co-occurring planktonic copepods ( Calanus finmarchicus and Centropages hamatus). We found that 32 and 11 species of fish ingested hydroids in the coastal northwest Atlantic Ocean and Georges Bank, respectively, during 1973-1990. However, hydroids were rarely an important part of the diet of these fishes. The most important predator of these cnidarians on Georges Bank was winter flounder, with 28.0% of its population having ingested hydroids, with a mean % (by weight) of hydroids in the diet of 4.1%, during 1973-80. Laboratory experiments indicated juvenile cod ingested planktonic hydroids, but overwhelmingly preferred either of the two copepods as prey. While field and laboratory results indicated that a wide variety of fishes feed on hydroids, we concluded that emergences and disappearances of planktonic hydroids on Georges Bank are not greatly impacted by fish predation. Other factors, in particular physical processes (i.e., advection, diffusion, and sinking), seasonal cycles of activity and inactivity, and predation by invertebrates, should be examined.

  15. Serotonin involvement in the metamorphosis of the hydroid Eudendrium racemosum.

    PubMed

    Zega, Giuliana; Pennati, Roberta; Fanzago, Arianna; De Bernardi, Fiorenza

    2007-01-01

    Hydroid planulae metamorphose in response to an inducing external stimulus, usually a bacterial cue. There is evidence that neurotransmitters participate in the signal transduction pathway of hydroid metamorphosis. Eudendrium racemosum is a colonial hydroid common in the Mediterranean Sea. It lacks the medusa stage and the planulae develop on female colonies during the fertile season. In this work, serotonin (5-HT) was localized in some planula ectodermal cells. Co-localization of serotonin and beta-tubulin suggested that 5-HT was present in sensory nervous cells and in different ectodermal cells. To investigate the role of neurotransmitters in metamorphosis, E. racemosum planulae were treated with serotonin and dopamine and with agonists and antagonists of the corresponding receptors. Serotonin and a serotonin receptor agonist induced metamorphosis, while a 5-HT receptor antagonist inhibited it. Dopamine and all dopaminergic drugs used did not show any significant effect on the onset of metamorphosis. Results from this work showed that 5-HT could stimulate metamorphosis in E. racemosum planulae in the presence of a natural inducer. A mechanism by which this neurotransmitter could act in this phase is proposed. PMID:17554682

  16. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 5. - This study reviews. Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - revision - taxonomy - north- eastern Atlantic - Mediterranean

  17. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1. - This study reviews used since their original introduction by Haeckel. Keywords: Marine invertebrates - Cnidaria - Hydrozoa

  18. 137HYDROIDS OF THE DANISH EXPEDITION TO THE KEI ISLANDS Steenstrupia

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    -256. Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the Danish expedition to the Kei Islands PETER SCHUCHERT Schuchert, P. Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the Danish expedition to the Kei Islands. ­ Steenstrupia 27 (2): 137. sibogae, n. status. Keywords: marine Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata, Leptothecata, taxonomy, revision

  19. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2. - This study reviews affinis (Hartlaub, 1914). Keywords: Cnidaria - Hydrozoa - Bougainvilliidae - Pandeidae - Cytaeididae

  20. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4 Peter.Schuchert@ville-ge.ch The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 4. - This study reviews not replace M. hargitti or M. amboinense. Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa ­ Eudendriidae - revision

  1. AN EXAMPLE OF REVERSAL OF POLARITY DURING ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION OF A HYDROID

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CADET HAND; MEREDITH L. JONES

    A number of small and curious hydroids have been described over the years. These hydroids, in general, occur on soft bottoms as members of the fauna of the upper few millimeters and are of rather diverse asexual reproductive habits. This group, most of which are unrelated systematically, includes Boreohydra, Psammo- hydra, Corymorpha, Heteractis, Euphysa (the last three closely related), Halermita

  2. Report on a collection of Hydroida from the Caribbean region, including an annotated checklist of Caribbean Hydroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Vervoort

    1968-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The present report deals with a collection of Hydroids from the Zoological Museum, Munich, German Federal Republic (Zoologische Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates, München), collected during various expeditions in the Caribbean region. I have thought it advisable to include in this report an annotated checklist of all Hydroids that in the course of time have been recorded from the Caribbean

  3. CHANGES IN THE SPERMATOZOON DURING FERTILIZATION IN HYDROIDES HEXAGONUS (ANNELIDA)

    PubMed Central

    Colwin, Laura Hunter; Colwin, Arthur L.

    1961-01-01

    In the previous paper the structure of the acrosomal region of the spermatozoon was described. The present paper describes the changes which this region undergoes during passage through the vitelline membrane. The material used consisted of moderately polyspermic eggs of Hydroides hexagonus, osmium-fixed usually 9 seconds after insemination. There are essentially four major changes in the acrosome during passage of the sperm head through the vitelline membrane. First, the acrosome breaks open apically by a kind of dehiscence which results in the formation of a well defined orifice. Around the lips of the orifice the edges of the plasma and acrosomal membranes are then found to be fused to form a continuous membranous sheet. Second, the walls of the acrosomal vesicle are completely everted, and this appears to be the means by which the apex of the sperm head is moved through the vitelline membrane. The lip of the orifice comes to lie deeper and deeper within the vitelline membrane. At the same time the lip itself is made up of constantly changing material as first the material of the outer zone and then that of the intermediate zone everts. One is reminded of the lip of an amphibian blastopore, which during gastrulation maintains its morphological identity as a lip but is nevertheless made up of constantly changing cells, with constantly changing outline and even constantly changing position. Third, the large acrosomal granule rapidly disappears. This disappearance is closely correlated with a corresponding disappearance of a part of the principal material of the vitelline membrane from before it, and the suggestion is made that the acrosomal granule is the source of the lysin which dissolves this part of the vitelline membrane. Fourth, in the inner zone the fifteen or so short tubular invaginations of the acrosomal membrane, present in the normal unreacted spermatozoon, lengthen considerably to become a tuft of acrosomal tubules. These tubules are the first structures of the advancing sperm head to touch the plasma membrane of the egg. It is notable that the surface of the acrosomal tubules which once faced into the closed acrosomal cavity becomes the first part of the sperm plasma membrane to meet the plasma membrane of the egg. The acrosomal tubules of Hydroides, which arise simply by lengthening of already existing shorter tubules, are considered to represent the acrosome filaments of other species. PMID:13694877

  4. The hydroid Hydractinia: a versatile, informative cnidarian representative.

    PubMed

    Frank, U; Leitz, T; Müller, W A

    2001-10-01

    The Cnidaria represent the most ancient eumetazoan phylum. Members of this group possess typical animal cells and tissues such as sensory cells, nerve cells, muscle cells and epithelia. Due to their unique phylogenetic position, cnidarians have traditionally been used as a reference group in various comparative studies. We propose the colonial marine hydroid, Hydractinia, as a convenient, versatile platform for basic and applied research in developmental biology, reproduction, immunology, environmental studies and more. In addition to being a typical cnidarian representative, Hydractinia offers many practical and theoretical advantages: studies that are feasible in Hydra like regeneration, pattern regulation, and cell renewal from stem cells, can be supplemented by genetic analyses and classical embryology in Hydractinia. Metamorphosis of the planula larva of Hydractinia can be used as a model for cell activation and communication and the presence of a genetically controlled allorecognition system makes it a suitable model for comparative immunology. Most importantly, Hydractinia may be manipulated at most aspects of its (short) life cycle. It has already been the subject of many studies in various disciplines, some of which are discussed in this essay. PMID:11598963

  5. Evolutionary genetics of the hydroid allodeterminant alr2.

    PubMed

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Moreno, Maria A; Yund, Philip O; Lakkis, Fadi G; Dellaporta, Stephen L; Buss, Leo W

    2012-12-01

    We surveyed genetic variation in alr2, an allodeterminant of the colonial hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. We generated cDNA from a sample of 239 Hydractinia colonies collected at Lighthouse Point, Connecticut, and identified 473 alr2 alleles, 198 of which were unique. Rarefaction analysis suggested that the sample was near saturation. Most alleles were rare, with 86% occurring at frequencies of 1% or less. Alleles were highly variable, diverging on average by 18% of the amino acids in a predicted extracellular domain of the molecule. Analysis of 152 full-length alleles confirmed the existence of two structural types, defined by exons 4-8 of the gene. Several residues of the predicted immunoglobulin superfamily-like domains display signatures of positive selection. We also identified 77 unique alr2 pseudogene sequences from 85 colonies. Twenty-seven of these sequences matched expressed alr2 sequences from other colonies. This observation is consistent with pseudogenes contributing to alr2 diversification through sequence donation. A more limited collection of animals was made from a distant, relict population of H. symbiolongicarpus. Sixty percent of the unique sequences identified in this sample were found to match sequences from the Lighthouse Point population. The large number of alr2 alleles, their degree of divergence, the predominance of rare alleles in the population, their persistence over broad spatial and temporal scales, and the signatures of positive selection in multiple residues of the putative recognition domain paint a consistent picture of negative-frequency-dependent selection operating in this system. The genetic diversity observed at alr2 is comparable to that of the most highly polymorphic genetic systems known to date. PMID:22855537

  6. HYDROIDS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS COLLECTED BY THE STEAMER ALBATROSS IN 1902.

    E-print Network

    HYDROIDS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS COLLECTED BY THE STEAMER ALBATROSS IN 1902. By C. c. NUTTING OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS COLLECTED BY THE STEAMER ALBATROSS IN 1902. By C. C. NUTTING, Professor ofZoology, State University ofIowa. Previous to the Hawaiian cruise of the Albat'ro88 almost nothing was known regarding

  7. [The principles of functioning of the distribution system in colonial hydroids].

    PubMed

    Burykin, Iu B

    2010-01-01

    Experimental study of the hydroplasmic flows in Gonothyraea loveni (Allm., 1859) uncovers a hydraulic principle determining the functioning of a pulsatory-type distribution system in colonial hydroids during metamorphosis of the planula, formation of the primary shoot, and colony growth. The absence of regulation of the hydroplasmic movement cycle is demonstrated. PMID:20873147

  8. CHANGES IN THE SPERMATOZOON DURING FERTILIZATION IN HYDROIDES HEXAGONUS (ANNELIDA)

    PubMed Central

    Colwin, Arthur L.; Colwin, Laura Hunter

    1961-01-01

    This, the last of a series of three papers, deals with the final events which lead to the incorporation of the spermatozoon with the egg. The material used consisted of moderately polyspermic eggs of Hydroides hexagonus, osmium-fixed at various times up to five minutes after insemination. The first direct contact of sperm head with egg proper is by means of the acrosomal tubules. These deeply indent the egg plasma membrane, and consequently at the apex of the sperm head the surfaces of the two gametes become interdigitated. But at first the sperm and egg plasma membranes maintain their identity and a cross-section through the region of interdigitation shows these two membranes as a number of sets of two closely concentric rings. The egg plasma membrane rises to form a cone which starts to project into the hole which the spermatozoon earlier had produced in the vitelline membrane by means of lysis. But the cone does not literally engulf the sperm head. Instead, where they come into contact, sperm plasma membrane and egg plasma membrane fuse to form one continuous membranous sheet. At this juncture the two gametes have in effect become mutually incorporated and have formed a single fertilized cell with one continuous bounding membrane. At this time, at least, the membrane is a mosaic of mostly egg plasma membrane and a patch of sperm plasma membrane. The evidence indicates that the fusion of the two membranes results from vesiculation of the sperm and egg plasma membranes in the region at which they come to adjoin. Once this fusion of membranes is accomplished, the egg cytoplasm intrudes between the now common membrane and the internal sperm structures, such as the nucleus, and even extends into the flagellum; finally these sperm structures come to lie in the main body of the egg. The vesiculation suggested above appears possibly to resemble pinocytosis, with the difference that the vesicles are formed from the plasma membranes of two cells. At no time, however, is the sperm as a whole engulfed and brought to the interior of the egg within a large vesicle. PMID:13694875

  9. Reproduction of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata (L., 1758) (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in the White Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei A. Slobodov; Nickolai N. Marfenin

    Populations of the colonial hydroid Obelia geniculata in the White Sea reproduce asexually by frustule formation. Young medusae appear in the plankton during July and August.\\u000a The number of medusae rarely exceeds 36 per m3, and the average number varies every year from 0.4 to 10 per m3. The size of medusae is smaller than reported from other regions. The

  10. Molecular evidence shows low species diversity of coral-associated hydroids in Acropora corals.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Silvia; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Denis, Vianney; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Leung, Julia K L; Tsai, Wan-Sen; Wallace, Carden C; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-01-01

    A novel symbiosis between scleractinians and hydroids (Zanclea spp.) was recently discovered using taxonomic approaches for hydroid species identification. In this study, we address the question whether this is a species-specific symbiosis or a cosmopolitan association between Zanclea and its coral hosts. Three molecular markers, including mitochondrial 16S and nuclear 28S ribosomal genes, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), were utilized to examine the existence of Zanclea species from 14 Acropora species and 4 other Acroporidae genera including 142 coral samples collected from reefs in Kenting and the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, Togian Island, Indonesia, and Osprey Reef and Orpheus Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and 28S genes showed that Acropora-associated Zanclea was monophyletic, but the genus Zanclea was not. Analysis of the ITS, and 16S and 28S genes showed either identical or extremely low genetic diversity (with mean pairwise distances of 0.009 and 0.006 base substitutions per site for the 16S and 28S genes, respectively) among Zanclea spp. collected from diverse Acropora hosts in different geographic locations, suggesting that a cosmopolitan and probably genus-specific association occurs between Zanclea hydroids and their coral hosts. PMID:23209655

  11. Molecular Evidence Shows Low Species Diversity of Coral-Associated Hydroids in Acropora Corals

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Denis, Vianney; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Hsu, Chia-Ming; Leung, Julia K. L.; Tsai, Wan-Sen; Wallace, Carden C.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2012-01-01

    A novel symbiosis between scleractinians and hydroids (Zanclea spp.) was recently discovered using taxonomic approaches for hydroid species identification. In this study, we address the question whether this is a species-specific symbiosis or a cosmopolitan association between Zanclea and its coral hosts. Three molecular markers, including mitochondrial 16S and nuclear 28S ribosomal genes, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS), were utilized to examine the existence of Zanclea species from 14 Acropora species and 4 other Acroporidae genera including 142 coral samples collected from reefs in Kenting and the Penghu Islands, Taiwan, Togian Island, Indonesia, and Osprey Reef and Orpheus Island on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the 16S and 28S genes showed that Acropora-associated Zanclea was monophyletic, but the genus Zanclea was not. Analysis of the ITS, and 16S and 28S genes showed either identical or extremely low genetic diversity (with mean pairwise distances of 0.009 and 0.006 base substitutions per site for the 16S and 28S genes, respectively) among Zanclea spp. collected from diverse Acropora hosts in different geographic locations, suggesting that a cosmopolitan and probably genus-specific association occurs between Zanclea hydroids and their coral hosts. PMID:23209655

  12. CO2-Driven Ocean Acidification Alters and Weakens Integrity of the Calcareous Tubes Produced by the Serpulid Tubeworm, Hydroides elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Vera Bin San; Li, Chaoyi; Lane, Ackley Charles; Wang, Yanchun; Lu, Xingwen; Shih, Kaimin; Zhang, Tong; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of anthropogenic CO2-driven ocean acidification (OA), coastal waters are becoming increasingly challenging for calcifiers due to reductions in saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals. The response of calcification rate is one of the most frequently investigated symptoms of OA. However, OA may also result in poor quality calcareous products through impaired calcification processes despite there being no observed change in calcification rate. The mineralogy and ultrastructure of the calcareous products under OA conditions may be altered, resulting in changes to the mechanical properties of calcified structures. Here, the warm water biofouling tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was reared from larva to early juvenile stage at the aragonite saturation state (?A) for the current pCO2 level (ambient) and those predicted for the years 2050, 2100 and 2300. Composition, ultrastructure and mechanical strength of the calcareous tubes produced by those early juvenile tubeworms were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation. Juvenile tubes were composed primarily of the highly soluble CaCO3 mineral form, aragonite. Tubes produced in seawater with aragonite saturation states near or below one had significantly higher proportions of the crystalline precursor, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and the calcite/aragonite ratio dramatically increased. These alterations in tube mineralogy resulted in a holistic deterioration of the tube hardness and elasticity. Thus, in conditions where ?A is near or below one, the aragonite-producing juvenile tubeworms may no longer be able to maintain the integrity of their calcification products, and may result in reduced survivorship due to the weakened tube protection. PMID:22912726

  13. Assemblages of hydroids (Cnidaria) from three seamounts near Bermuda in the western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calder, Dale R.

    2000-06-01

    Three seamounts flanking the oceanic island of Bermuda were sampled for hydroids. Collecting was undertaken by submersible (SDL-1) and by dredge at depths between 48 and 107 m on the summits of Argus and Challenger banks. A shallower collection (<20 m) from the pilings of a tower on Argus Bank was made using SCUBA. Major bottom types on both banks were aggregations of rhodoliths, limestone reefs, and areas of calcareous sand. Hydroids were ubiquitous, but quite sparse, on firm substrata. None was collected on sandy bottoms. Of 45 species identified from the two oceanic banks, over half (25) were found on both. On Bowditch Seamount, samples were obtained at depths between 1285 and 1381 m by dredge and grab. Of four species found, only one ( Filellum serratum) occurred in shallower collections from Argus and Challenger banks. Most species (43 of 48) from the three seamounts have been reported elsewhere in the Western Atlantic Tropical region, and many (38 of 48) are known from Bermuda. No endemics were discovered, and no relicts or exotics were recognized. Gonophores in >70% of the species are fixed sporosacs instead of free medusae. This conforms with a hypothesis that invertebrates of oceanic islands and seamounts tend to have short-lived pelagic larval stages, ensuring the greatest retention and conservation of propagules.

  14. FMRF-amide immunoreactivity pattern in the planula and colony of the hydroid Gonothyraea loveni.

    PubMed

    Mayorova, Tatiana; Kosevich, Igor

    2013-02-01

    Gonothyraea loveni (Allman, 1859) is a colonial thecate hydrozoan with a life cycle that lacks a free-swimming medusa stage. The development from zygote to planula occurs within meconidia attached to the female colony. The planula metamorphosis results in the formation of a primary hydranth. The colony then grows by development of new colony elements. In the present work, we studied the temporal pattern of the formation of FMRF-amide-positive cells during embryogenesis, in larvae and during early colony ontogeny. FMRF-amide-positive cells appear in the planula only after its maturation. However, they disappear after planula settlement. For the first time, we show that neural cells are present in the coenosarc of the hydroid colony. We also trace the process of neural net formation during the development of a new shoot internode of the G. loveni colony. PMID:23218960

  15. Marine hydroid perisarc: a chitin- and melanin-reinforced composite with DOPA-iron(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Prajatelistia, Ekavianty; Iordachescu, Mihaela; Waite, J Herbert

    2013-09-01

    Many marine invertebrates utilize biomacromolecules as building blocks to form their load-bearing tissues. These polymeric tissues are appealing for their unusual physical and mechanical properties, including high hardness and stiffness, toughness and low density. Here, a marine hydroid perisarc of Aglaophenia latirostris was investigated to understand how nature designs a stiff, tough and lightweight sheathing structure. Chitin, protein and a melanin-like pigment, were found to represent 10, 17 and 60 wt.% of the perisarc, respectively. Interestingly, similar to the adhesive and coating of marine mussel byssus, a DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) containing protein and iron were detected in the perisarc. Resonance Raman microprobe analysis of perisarc indicates the presence of catechol-iron(III) complexes in situ, but it remains to be determined whether the DOPA-iron(III) interaction plays a cohesive role in holding the protein, chitin and melanin networks together. PMID:23791678

  16. [Spectral diversity among the members of the family of Green Fluorescent Protein in hydroid jellyfish (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa)].

    PubMed

    Ianushevich, Iu G; Shagin, D A; Fradkov, A F; Shakhbazov, K S; Barsova, E V; Gurskaia, N G; Labas, Iu A; Matts, M V; Luk'ianov, k A; Lul'ianov, S A

    2005-01-01

    The cDNAs encoding the genes of new proteins homologous to the well-known Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) from the hydroid jellyfish Aequorea victoria were cloned. Two green fluorescent proteins from one un-identified anthojellyfish, a yellow fluorescent protein from Phialidium sp., and a nonfluorescent chromoprotein from another unidentified anthojellyfish were characterized. Thus, a broad diversity of GFP-like proteins among the organisms of the class Hydrozoa in both spectral properties and primary structure was shown. PMID:15787213

  17. The role of alpha-amidated neuropeptides in hydroid development--LWamides and metamorphosis in Hydractinia echinata.

    PubMed

    Plickert, Günter; Schetter, Eva; Verhey-Van-Wijk, Nicole; Schlossherr, Jörg; Steinbüchel, Marlis; Gajewski, Martin

    2003-09-01

    Peptides are increasingly attracting attention as primary signals in the control of development. Even though a large number of peptides have been characterized in cnidarians, little experimental evidence addresses their endogenous role. The life cycle of Hydractinia echinata includes metamorphosis from planula larva into the adult stage of the polyp. This process of stage conversion includes internal signalling, which controls cell cycle activity, cell differentiation, cell death and proportion-controlled morphogenesis. LWamide peptides are considered to be part of the control system. We implemented methods to silence gene activity by dsRNAi in Hydractinia and show a substantial knock-down of LWamide gene activity. In addition, LWamide function was knocked-out pharmacologically by targeting the biosynthesis of amidated peptides and thus preventing functional LWamides. Here we show that extinction of bioactive LWamides from planulae causes loss of metamorphosis competence, a deficiency which can be rescued by synthetic LWamide peptides. Thus, it is shown that LWamides are indispensable and act by conveying outer metamorphosis stimuli to target cells within the animal. Considering non-availability of genetic analysis and the so-far limited success in expressing transgenes in hydroids, gene functions are difficult to analyse in hydroids. The approach as outlined here is suitable for functional analysis of genes encoding amidated peptides in hydroids. PMID:14584781

  18. [Inductive activity of the posterior tip of planula in the marine hydroid Dynamena pumila].

    PubMed

    Kraus, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    Activity of organizer regions is required for body plan formation in the developing organism. Transplanting a fragment of such a region to a host organism leads to the formation of a secondary body axis that consists of both the donor's and the host's tissues (Gerhart, 2001). The subject of this study, the White Sea hydroid cnidarian Dynamena pumila L. (Thecaphora, Sertulariidae), forms morphologically advanced colonies in the course of complex metamorphosis of the planula larva. To reveal an organizer region, a series of experiments has been performed in which small fragments of donor planula tissues were transplanted to embryos at the early and late gastrula stage, as well as to planulae. Only transplantations of a posterior tip fragment of a donor planula to a host planula of the same age led, in the course of metamorphosis, to the formation of a secondary shoot, which involved up to 50% of the host's tissues. After transplantations of tissue fragments of the anterior tip and the middle of the planula body, the formation of any ectopic structures was never observed. It was concluded that the posterior tip of the planula has organizer properties in Dynamena. PMID:21542340

  19. Calcification in the planula and polyp of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Rogers, C L; Thomas, M B

    2001-08-01

    This study examines calcification in planulae and polyps of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. We observed that established colonies produce a crystalline mat on their substratum and that crystals visible by polarized light microscopy occur in the vacuoles of the gastrodermal cells of both polyps and planulae. The crystalline mat was found by infrared spectroscopy to contain calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite. The composition of the vacuolar crystals and the cellular mechanisms for manufacturing them were explored by alteration of calcium levels in the environment and by the use of pharmacological agents (acetazolamide, caffeine, DIDS, diltiazem, nifedipine, procaine, Ruthenium Red, ryanodine and verapamil) that affect cellular uptake and transport of calcium and bicarbonate. The results indicated that the crystals in the vacuoles contained calcium carbonate. The gastrodermal cells are hypothesized to serve as a physiological sink for excess calcium that enters the organism during motility, secretion and metamorphosis of the planula, and to create a crystalline substratum for the colony of polyps. PMID:11533115

  20. The ontogeny of allorecognition in a colonial hydroid and the fate of early established chimeras.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Marc-Aurel; Mokady, Ofer; Frank, Uri

    2002-08-01

    Colonies of the marine hydroid, Hydractinia, are able to discriminate between their own tissues and those belonging to unrelated conspecifics. We have studied the ontogeny of this allorecognition system by a series of allogeneic transplantations along a developmental gradient, including two-cell-stage embryos, 8 h morulae, planula larvae and metamorphosed polyps. Allograft acceptance of incompatible tissue was observed in all embryonic and larval stages, whereas metamorphosed polyps rejected incompatible transplanted allografts. Most of the chimeras established at the two-cell-stage, although composed of two allogeneic, incompatible entities with mismatching allorecognition loci, developed normally and remained stable through metamorphosis. The results of post metamorphic transplantation assays among the chimeras and the naive ramets, suggested that both incompatible genotypes were still represented in the chimera despite the onset of alloimmune maturation. The naive colonies always rejected each other. Chimeras established from later embryonic and larval stages did not develop into adult chimeric entities, but rather separated immediately post metamorphosis. We thus show that (1) allorecognition in this species matures during metamorphosis and (2) genetically incompatible entities may coexist in one immunologically mature, chimeric soma, provided that they were grafted early enough in ontogeny. PMID:12216981

  1. Ultrastructure of the calcium-sequestering gastrodermal cell in the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    PubMed

    Dandar-Roh, Alicia M; Rogers-Lowery, Constance L; Zellmann, Erhard; Thomas, Mary Beth

    2004-05-01

    Large, free-floating crystals of calcium carbonate occur in vacuoles of gastrodermal cells of the hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. Here, morphological details about the process by which these cells accumulate and sequester calcium are provided by a cytochemical method designed to demonstrate calcium at the ultrastructural level. Electron-dense material presumably indicative of the presence of calcium was EGTA-sensitive and was shown by parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy spectroscopic imaging (ESI) to contain calcium. Calcium occurred in only one cell type, the endodermally derived gastrodermal cell. In these cells, the electron-dense material appeared first as a fine precipitate in the cytosol and nucleus and later as larger deposits and aggregates in the vacuole. During the life cycle, gastrodermal cells of the uninduced planula and the planula during metamorphic induction sequestered calcium. In primary polyps and polyps from established colonies, gastrodermal cells sequestered calcium, but the endodermal secretory cells did not. Our observations support the hypothesis that gastrodermal cells function as a physiological sink for calcium that enters the organism in conjunction with calcium-requiring processes such as motility, secretion, and metamorphosis. PMID:15108164

  2. Inhibitory effects of a branched-chain fatty acid on larval settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Li, Honglei; Li, Xiancui; Xiao, Xiang; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Eleven strains of Streptomyces isolated from deep-sea sediments were screened for anti-larval settlement activity and all were active. Among those strains, Streptomyces sp. UST040711-290 was chosen for the isolation of bioactive antifouling compounds through bioassay-guided isolation procedure. A branched-chain fatty acid, 12-methyltetradecanoid acid (12-MTA) was purified, and it strongly inhibited the larval settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans. Streptomyces sp. UST040711-290 produced the highest yield of 12-MTA when the bacterium was cultured at 30 degrees C and pH 7.0 in a modified MGY medium. To investigate the potential antifouling mechanism of 12-MTA in the larval settlement of Hydroides elegans, the expression level of four marker genes, namely, Ran GTPase activating protein (GAP), ATP synthase (AS), NADH dehydrogenase (ND), and cell division cycle protein (CDC), was compared among the untreated larvae (the control), isobutylmethylxanthine (an effective settlement inducer), and 12-MTA-treated larvae. The 12-MTA treatment down-regulated the expression of GAP and up-regulated the expression of AS in the H. elegans larvae, but did not affect the expression of ND and CDC. This study provides the first evidence that a branched-chain fatty acid produced by a marine bacterium isolated from deep-sea sediment effectively inhibited the larval settlement of the biofouling polychaete H. elegans and its effects on the expression of genes important for larval settlement. PMID:19030931

  3. Extraction, partial purification and properties of obelin, the calcium-activated luminescent protein from the hydroid Obelia geniculata

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anthony K.

    1974-01-01

    1. The Ca2+-activated luminescent protein obelin was extracted from the hydroid Obelia geniculata. 2. After the addition of a large excess of calcium (greater than 5mm) a peak in the rate of luminescence occurred within 100ms, followed by an exponential decay (k=2.8s?1). The obelin activity (light emitted) was measured by the peak height or by the total number of counts recorded on a scalar in the first 10s after addition of Ca2+. 3. After an overnight extraction in 40mm-EDTA–200mm-Tris–HCl, pH7.0, 7.2×1011 counts were obtained from 186g of wet hydroids. 4. The stability of the crude extracts was dependent on pH, being optimal at pH7.0. 5. Obelin could be purified threefold with a yield of 69% by selecting the protein precipitated between 60%- and 100%-saturated (NH4)2SO4. The precipitate could be stored for at least 6 months as a suspension in 40mm-EDTA+saturated (NH4)2SO4, pH7.0, frozen at ?70°C with a recovery of 95–100%. 6. Luminescence was also stimulated by Sr2+. However, obelin appeared to have a lower affinity for Sr2+ than for Ca2+. Mg2+ inhibited Ca2+-activated luminescence. 7. Obelin could be used to assay as little as 50pmol of Ca2+ in a final volume of 1ml. 8. At pH7.0 in Ca2+–EGTA [ethanedioxybis(ethylamine)tetra-acetate] buffers the rate of obelin luminescence was proportional to the square of the free Ca2+ concentration in the presence and absence of 1 and 10mm-Mg2+. Over the range 0.1–10?m-Ca2+ less than 0.03% of the obelin was consumed/s. 9. In order to use obelin to study free ionized Ca2+ concentrations similar to those found inside cells in the presence of 10mm-Mg2+ a minimum of 108 counts were required. A total of 1012 counts can be readily extracted from about 200g of wet hydroids. Thus a sufficient quantity of an aequorin-like calcium-activated luminescent protein should now be available to workers in the United Kingdom in order to carry out physiological experiments. PMID:4156828

  4. Harry Beal Torrey (1873-1970) of California, USA, and his research on hydroids and other coelenterates.

    PubMed

    Calder, Dale R

    2013-01-01

    Harry Beal Torrey was born on 22 May 1873 in Boston, Massachusetts. Two years later his family moved to Oakland, California. Torrey earned B.S. and M.S. degrees in zoology from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1895 and 1898 respectively, a Ph.D. in zoology from Columbia University in 1903, and an M.D. from the Medical College of Cornell University in 1927. He began his academic career as a marine biologist, investigating taxonomy, reproduction, morphology, development, regeneration, and behaviour of cnidarians of the west coast of the United States, but his research interests soon shifted to experimental biology and endocrinology. He eventually entered the field of medicine, specializing in public health, and served as a physician and hospital administrator. Torrey held academic positions at the University of California, Berkeley (1895-1912), the Marine Biological Association of San Diego (1903-1912), Reed College (1912-1920), the University of Oregon (1920-1926), and Stanford University (1928-1938). Following retirement from academia, he served as Director of the Children's Hospital of the East Bay, Oakland, California, from 1938 to 1942. In retirement, he continued an association with the University of California at Berkeley, near his home. Of 84 publications by him listed herein, 31 dealt with coelenterates. This paper focuses on his early research on coelenterate biology, and especially his contributions to taxonomy of hydroids. He was author or coauthor of six genera and 48 species-group taxa of Cnidaria, and he also described one new species each of Ctenophora and Phoronida. Although he abandoned systematic work early in his career, his most widely cited publication is a taxonomic monograph on hydroids of the west coast of North America, published in 1902. He died, at age 97, on 9 September 1970. PMID:24614029

  5. Molecular Identification and Ultrastructural and Phylogenetic Studies of Cyanobacteria from Association with the White Sea Hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758)

    PubMed Central

    Koksharova, O. A.; Kravzova, T. R.; Lazebnaya, I. V.; Gorelova, O. A.; Baulina, O. I.; Lazebny, O. E.; Fedorenko, T. A.; Lobakova, E. S.

    2013-01-01

    Three new cyanobacterial strains, that have been previously purified from the hydroid Dynamena pumila (L., 1758), isolated from the White Sea, were studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy methods and were characterized by using almost complete sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA, and part of the gene for 23S rRNA. The full nucleotide sequences of the rRNA gene clusters were deposited to GenBank (HM064496.1, GU265558.1, JQ259187.1). Comparison of rRNA gene cluster sequences of Synechococcus cyanobacterium 1Dp66E-1, Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E, and Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E with all sequences present at the GenBank shows that these cyanobacterial strains do not have 100% identity with any organisms investigated previously. Furthermore, for the first time heterotrophic bacterium, associated with Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E, was identified as a member of the new phylum Gemmatimonadetes, genus of Gemmatimonas (GenBank accession number is JX437625.1). Phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. 1Dp66E-1 forms the unique branch and belongs to a cluster of Synechococcus, including freshwater and sea strains. Oscillatoriales cyanobacterium 2Dp86E belongs to a cluster of Leptolyngbya strains. Isolate Nostoc sp. 10Dp66E forms unique branch and belongs to a cluster of the genus Nostoc, with the closest relative of Nostoc commune isolates. PMID:23762857

  6. Hydroids of the genus Sertularella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) from the Pacific coast of Canada in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Choong, Henry H C

    2015-01-01

    Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America. PMID:25781750

  7. Deep-water Hydrozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa) in the Sea of Japan, collected during the 51st Cruise of R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev, with description Opercularella angelikae, sp. nov.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanjants, Sofia D.

    2013-02-01

    A report is given about Hydrozoa collected at depths between 455 and 3666 m in the Sea of Japan during the Russian-German expedition on R/V Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev. Ten species were found, with four of them being typical bathyal-abyssal and abyssal zones. A new species, Opercularella angelikae, is described, and it was the dominant hydroid in samples from 970 to 3660 m. Four eurybathic species characteristics of the Sea of Japan were sampled between 455 and 582 m. Abyssal (pseudoabyssal after Andriashev, 1979) hydroid fauna in the Sea of Japan is reported. The hypothesis that an exclusively deep-water fauna is lacking in abyssal regions of the Sea of Japan is disputed. The author's personal opinion considered concerning the borders of 1000 m between shallow and deep hydrozoan species in the Sea of Japan.

  8. Temperature Dependent Effects of Elevated CO2 on Shell Composition and Mechanical Properties of Hydroides elegans: Insights from a Multiple Stressor Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Vera B. S.; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Lu, Xing Wen; Zhang, Tong; Shih, Kaimin

    2013-01-01

    The majority of marine benthic invertebrates protect themselves from predators by producing calcareous tubes or shells that have remarkable mechanical strength. An elevation of CO2 or a decrease in pH in the environment can reduce intracellular pH at the site of calcification and thus interfere with animal’s ability to accrete CaCO3. In nature, decreased pH in combination with stressors associated with climate change may result in the animal producing severely damaged and mechanically weak tubes. This study investigated how the interaction of environmental drivers affects production of calcareous tubes by the serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans. In a factorial manipulative experiment, we analyzed the effects of pH (8.1 and 7.8), salinity (34 and 27‰), and temperature (23°C and 29°C) on the biomineral composition, ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the tubes. At an elevated temperature of 29°C, the tube calcite/aragonite ratio and Mg/Ca ratio were both increased, the Sr/Ca ratio was decreased, and the amorphous CaCO3 content was reduced. Notably, at elevated temperature with decreased pH and reduced salinity, the constructed tubes had a more compact ultrastructure with enhanced hardness and elasticity compared to decreased pH at ambient temperature. Thus, elevated temperature rescued the decreased pH-induced tube impairments. This indicates that tubeworms are likely to thrive in early subtropical summer climate. In the context of climate change, tubeworms could be resilient to the projected near-future decreased pH or salinity as long as surface seawater temperature rise at least by 4°C. PMID:24265732

  9. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ... you probably need more water. What about bottled water? top Some people like bottled water for its ...

  10. Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Frank Dunnivant

    2008-02-20

    Water is an environmental chemistry Flash video designed to give students and educators an informative look into Water Treatment and Waste Water Treatment. It covers a variety of water and waste water treatment plants and processes including: Watersheds, Ozonation, Chlorination, Flocculation, Sand Filtration, Trickling Filters, Activated Sludge, and more. This program includes both live video and animations.~~~~

  11. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to groundwater (the fresh water found under the Earth’s surface that supplies wells and springs). Everything that ... body is water. 4. How much of the earth’s surface is water? About 80 percent of the ...

  12. Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Perhaps the single most critical element of the Earth system is water, the carrier and bearer of life that is inextricably woven into the fabric of the Earth system. Only on Earth does water occur in equilibrium ...

  13. Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial examines the importance of water to Earth's ecosystems. Topics include the sources and distribution of water, the water cycle, and how snow and rain occur. There is a discussion of the phases in which it can exist (solid, liquid, or vapor), and a description of how animals adapt to cold snowy environments in the winter. Examples include burrowing, hibernation, migration, and thick fur. A quiz and glossary are included.

  14. Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Idaho PTV

    2011-10-06

    This video segment from IdahoPTV's D4K shows us from where we get water, how it's stored and how powerful it can be. We learn how important it is to conserve the .3% of usable fresh water available on earth.

  15. Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    J. Adam Frederick

    2010-02-01

    The same water that has existed on Earth for millions of years travels through a series of steps in a cycle from mountains to the sea, flows in and out of the cells in your body, and comprises 95% of the mass of a jellyfish. In short, water is the connect

  16. Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... authorities have websites that include data on drinking water quality, including results of lead testing. Links to such data can be found on the EPA website: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/dwinfo.htm . ... with Elevated Lead in Tap Water---District of Columbia, 2004 . MMWR. April 2, 2004; ...

  17. Hydroide Storage Vessel wall stress measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Pechersky, M.J.

    1997-07-31

    Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is likely responsible for the lack of wall stress. This morphology also implies that decay helium that remains in the titanium hydride (that is, helium that is not released as gas to the free volume) should not cause significant wall stresses when the HSV is used for long-term tritium storage. Holographic interferometry proved to be an extremely sensitive technique to measure swelling, having a detection limit of about 3 microns surface displacement.

  18. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errinalabrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae).

    PubMed

    Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A

    2015-01-01

    A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errinalabrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246

  19. Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errina labrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D.; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errina labrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246

  20. Genetic analysis reveals multiple cryptic invasive species of the hydrozoan gene Cordylophora

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the patterns and dynamics of biological invasions is a crucial prerequisite to predicting and mitigating their potential ecological and economic impacts. Unfortunately, in many cases such understanding is limited not only by ignorance of invasion history, but also b...

  1. Invaders eating invaders: Exploitation of novel alien prey by the alien shimofuri goby in the San Francisco Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matern, S.A.; Brown, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    The shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus), which is native to Asian estuaries, was recently introduced to the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. We conducted gut content analyses to examine the goby's feeding ecology in this highly invaded estuary. Shimofuri gobies were generalist predators on benthic invertebrates, consuming seasonally abundant prey, especially amphipods (Corophium spp.). In addition, shimofuri goby utilized two novel prey items not exploited by other resident fishes - hydroids (Cordylophora caspia) and barnacle (Balanus improvisus) cirri, both of which are alien. The shimofuri goby's feeding ecology appears well-suited to the fluctuating environment of the San Francisco Estuary and may partially explain observed increases in shimofuri goby abundance compared with declines in populations of some native species. ?? Springer 2005.

  2. Genetic analysis across differential spatial scales reveals multiple dispersal mechanisms for the invasive hydrozoan Cordylophora in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. Here we explore genetic ...

  3. Water, Water Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2009-01-01

    Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.

  4. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    This is a short NASA video on the water cycle. The video shows the importance of the water cycle to nearly every natural process on Earth and illustrates how tightly coupled the water cycle is to climate.

  5. Water Resources Water Quality and Water Treatment

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump

  6. Turbid water Clear water

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Jules

    Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide-submerged mines in turbid coastal waters. To extract high resolution bathymetric information optically from turbid

  7. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners estimate how much water they think can be found in various locations on the Earth in all its states (solid, liquid, and gas) to discover the different water ratios in the Earth's total water supply. Learners divide 1000 ml of water (representing the total amount of water on Earth) amongst eight beakers as they predict the various ratios. Then learners measure the amounts of water that reflect the actual ratios and compare their predictions to reality. Learners will be surprised to find out that most of Earth's water is found in the ocean. This resource also includes information about flash floods and flood safety.

  8. Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Regina Bale

    2012-07-17

    Water, Water Everywhere! Research the Water Cycle asks students to conduct their own research on the water cycle (hydrologic cycle). Working collaboratively in small groups, students will research and write about the relationships between stages in the water cycle and the three states of matter relating to water. After completing this lesson, students will be prepared to create a model of the water cycle.

  9. Water, water everywhere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pennisi

    1993-01-01

    The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers.

  10. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH.....................Meet the Faculty 4.....................GuestColumn 5.....................WaterSupplySecurity 7...................Nebraska Depletions Plan 10 ..................Water News Briefs 11 ..................Calendar 12

  11. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Guest Column 10..............Water News Briefs 11..............Calendar 12..............Free Lectures Continue Summer Water/Natural Resources Tour Examines Republican River Issues by Steve Ress This summer

  12. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selinger, Ben

    1979-01-01

    Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)

  13. Water, Water, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, John A.

    2000-01-01

    The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)

  14. Water, water everywhere

    SciTech Connect

    Pennisi, E.

    1993-02-20

    The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.

  15. Water Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Walle, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)

  16. Water Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... best measure of protection. Back Continue Making Kids Water Wise It's important to teach your kids proper ... water during bad weather, especially lightning. Back Continue Water Park Safety Water parks can be a lot ...

  17. Water, Water Everywhere!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sible, Kathleen P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)

  18. Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Water Science for Schools explaines the uses of ground water in the United States. The main uses of ground water include "irrigation uses, drinking-water and other public uses, and for supplying domestic water to people who do not receive public-supply water." Check out this site to learn more.

  19. Potable water from waste water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillies

    1981-01-01

    The idea of obtaining potable water from waste water is a psychologically difficult one for many people to accept. The tendency is to think that waste water is dirty and cannot be converted to clean water. This book describes significant advances in waste water treatment technology which make possible the control and\\/or removal of conventional pollutants, thus making potable water

  20. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCHGroundwaterRecharge 6-7 ............ NebraskaWaterMarketingPolicyChoices 10 .............Water News Briefs 11 sites visited on July's water and natural resources tour (photo: Kyle Hoagland). (continued on page 9

  1. water intake Water sampling site

    E-print Network

    x Drinking water intake WWTP discharge WWTP Water sampling site Reference MICROPOLLUTANT PLUME at WWTP discharge · Conductivity may be used to predict concentrations of waste water derived MPs downstream, a drinking water plant pumps lake water (ca. 100'000 m3 /day) for potable water (sand filter

  2. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKAíS WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH the Faculty 4................ Guest Column 5................ Clean Water Act 6................ Water News in Empty Hog Barns by Steve Ress, UNL Water Center Jim Rosowski sees potential for a freshwater farming

  3. Special Topics in Water Science (Water Pollution)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Basics Water Properties Water Cycle Surface Water Groundwater Water Quality Water Use Activities Photos Q&A Teachers Contact ... explore other water-science topic areas, such as water quality, urbanization and water, saline water, watersheds, runoff, and ...

  4. Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial introduces students to the importance of water to living organisms, including humans. The discussion points out that all organisms contain water, and decribes how water is accumulated and stored. There is also an examination of the water supplies of Winnipeg, Ontario, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and a discussion of the importance of purifying driking water supplies to remove harmful bacteria and microbes.

  5. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.

  6. Earth's Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides an overview of the distribution and occurence of water on Earth. Topics include where and how much water there is, the water cycle, and how water is measured. There is also discussion of characteristics and distribution of surface water, groundwater, glaciers, and icecaps.

  7. Water, Water Everywhere, But...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Cliff

    Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…

  8. Water Properties

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-11-04

    This simple description of the chemical and physical properties of water was produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. It includes a brief quiz to assess prior knowledge, diagrams of water molecules, and important numerical data about water.

  9. Healthy Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5 Causes - Drinking Water Outbreaks Giardia Legionella Shigella Norovirus Campylobacter Top 5 Causes - Recreational Water Outbreaks Cryptosporidium Pseudomonas Shigella Legionella Norovirus For a complete listing of water-related surveillance ...

  10. Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

  11. Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Jersey

    2006-01-01

    Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.

  12. Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shelton, Thodore B.

    This publication, authored by Thodore B. Shelton of Rutgers University, summarizes the information necessary for interpreting drinking water quality analyses performed by water testing laboratories. It focuses on testing results obtained from drinking water supplies from public water systems and non-public water systems (home wells). It is intended primarily for homeowners, but environmental organizations, health departments, and commercial water testing laboratories and others should find this material of interest and value.

  13. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH................ Sidney Area Deals with Drought 6................ Water and Electricity Are Inseparable 10's School of Natural Resource Sciences,Conservation and Survey Division and Water Center into the School

  14. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    INSIDE UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT PROTECTING NEBRASKA'S WATER RESOURCES THROUGH RESEARCH Researchers Honing Methods to Sample Field Run-off Water by Steve Ress The effectiveness of riparian buffer is important since many fertilizers and pesticides are designed to adhere to soil molecules. So if water

  15. Water, Water Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about floods, discovering that different types of floods occur from different water sources, but primarily from heavy rainfall. While floods occur naturally and have benefits such as creating fertile farmland, students learn that with the increase in human population in flood-prone areas, floods are become increasingly problematic. Both natural and manmade factors contribute to floods. Students learn what makes floods dangerous and what engineers design to predict, control and survive floods.

  16. WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality is important not only because of its linkage to the availability of water for various uses and its impact on public health, but also because water quality has an intrinsic value. he quality of life is often judged on the availability of pristine water. ontamination ...

  17. WATER USAGE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-02-11

    DESK Standard: Understand how the water cycle relates to the water supply in your community. Thirstin Glass DATES: You can begin this activity on September 18. You should complete it by September 22. OBJECTIVE: We have been learning about water and the water cycle in class. It is important for you to understand the impact you have on this cycle. Each person uses ...

  18. Stacking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students become familiar with how ocean water forms density-stratified layers in many places. They design and carry out a series of tests to show how water masses of four different densities interact, using clear straws to stack colored water of different salinities. Temperature is varied to increase the differences in density of each water sample.

  19. Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Staley

    2009-11-09

    4th Grade Science - Water Cycle Water Cycle two day interactive lesson plan. DAY 1: Welcome to the Water Cycle! Today we are going to be exploring and finding out more about the wonderful Water Cycle! For starters we are going to start with a movie, click the following link and watch the video and ...

  20. Parasites: Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... water, they can spread the parasite into the water and continue the cycle of contamination and infection. Schistosomiasis can be spread when people swim in or have contact with freshwater lakes that are contaminated ... drinking water or recreational water. Individuals spending time in the ...

  1. Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) general interest publication presents a description of ground water in the U.S. This includes what ground water is, how it occurs, aquifers and wells, ground water quality and what affects it, and the state of U.S. ground water resources.

  2. Water Ways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahrling, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water

  3. Disappearing Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2005-01-01

    In this outdoor water activity, learners explore evaporation by painting with water and tracing puddles. Learners will discover that wet things become dry as the water evaporates. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 36 of the PDF.

  4. Water Quality

    MedlinePLUS

    What is in that water that you just drank? Is it just hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Is it safe for drinking? All water is of a certain "quality" (and you can't tell by just looking), but what does "water quality" really mean? Water full of dirt and ...

  5. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.

  6. Water Systems

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water cycle concepts and basics including the distribution of water on the planet in oceans, rivers and lakes, glaciers and atmosphere. Defines basic terms: states of water, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, melting. Good illustrations, maps and photos. Excellent list itemizes human uses and impacts on water and the water cycle. Links to more detailed references are provided, case studies illustrate current concerns and issues in Ontario, Canada.

  7. Marketing water

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    and Texas AgriLife Extension Service, gives ?earth friendly? gardening solutions to reduce water pollution. Austin is also tailoring a water conserva- tion program, developed for the Texas Water Development Board, to the city?s needs. The campaign... ] Many cities are promoting landscape management and water conservation practices with their citizens. This garden demonstrates the EARTH- KIND principles of environmentally tolerant, low water use ornamentals. tx H2O | pg. 18 and no adverse runoff...

  8. Water Phases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Every day, we encounter water in its three phases: liquid water, solid ice, and water vapor, an invisible gas. Most other substances can exist in these three phases as well, but water is unique because it is the only substance that can exist in all three phases at Earth's ordinary temperature conditions. This slide show provides examples of water in each of its three phases.

  9. Earth's Water:Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This USGS site contains graphs, tables, and charts for the following ground water topics: What is ground water, ground water flow diagrams, importance of groundwater, and trends in ground-water use. Ground water quality, pesticides, aquifers, waterwells, artesian wells, sinkholes, and land subsidence are also covered. There are a variety of links within all of the above topics and a very complete glossary, as well as numerous charts, maps, photographs and illustrations.

  10. Water tight.

    PubMed

    Postel, S

    1993-01-01

    Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures. Multilateral development agencies have identified some developing country cities as demonstrated sites for urban water conservation. PMID:12286138

  11. Water Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

  12. Wasted waters.

    PubMed

    Niemczynowicz, J

    1996-11-01

    This article presents the increasing mismanagement of water as a result of increasing delivery of water volume, water pollution, and water wasting. One example of water mismanagement is irrigation, through which 67% of water is withdrawn from the hydrological cycle. In addition, reports from European communities reveal that pesticides from agriculture worsen the existing underground pollution. Furthermore, a 25% drop in land productivity was observed in Africa due to erosion, salinization, water logging, and desertification. Also, 23% of withdrawn water goes to industries, which are the major polluters. Since 1900 about 250,000 tons of cadmium have been produced worldwide, which eventually enter and harm the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, high mercury levels were observed in Malaysia's Kelang River in the late 1980s, and river pollution in Thailand and Malaysia is recorded to be 30-100 times higher than accepted levels. Aside from that, the human race must also understand that there is a connection between water scarcity and water quality. When there is water pollution, it is expected that many people will suffer diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasite infections, which will further increase the mortality rate to 3.3 million per year. Realizing the severity of the problem, it is suggested that the human race must learn to recycle water like stormwater to prevent scarcity with drinking water. PMID:12295784

  13. Branding water

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  14. Branding water.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-06-15

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528

  15. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  16. Water Distribution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Grade 6-10 geography lesson plan evaluating population growth and water availability in the United States and in other countries. Students will learn how to draw bar graphs and develop plans of action for water scarcity problems.

  17. Fluoridated Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... more other elements. Fluorides are present naturally in water and soil at varying levels. In the 1940s, scientists discovered that people who lived where drinking water supplies had naturally occurring fluoride levels of approximately ...

  18. Microbiology: water

    SciTech Connect

    Geldrich, E.E.

    1982-06-01

    Topics discussed in this literature review with 173 references dealing with the microbiology of aquatic ecosystems include microbial indicators of water pollution, and the microbial ecology of water. Solar radiation and naturally occurring microbial predators are important forces in the natural self-purification of polluted surface waters. The relationship between water quality and microbiology of river systems and natural lakes is discussed.(KRM)

  19. Water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.

    1973-01-01

    The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.

  20. Water Walk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beth Isaacs

    2009-01-01

    Learners take a field trip along a local body of water and conduct a visual survey to discover information about local land use and water quality. Learners document their findings by mapping and profiling the water body. They can upload their measurements via the internet to a GLOBE scientist. Learners also use this initial investigation to raise questions about local land use and/or water quality issues that may require further study.

  1. Falling Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students drop water from different heights to demonstrate the conversion of water's potential energy to kinetic energy. They see how varying the height from which water is dropped affects the splash size. They follow good experiment protocol, take measurements, calculate averages and graph results. In seeing how falling water can be used to do work, they also learn how this energy transformation figures into the engineering design and construction of hydroelectric power plants, dams and reservoirs.

  2. Surface Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the USGS Water Science for School's page and the topic is surface water. Explained are surface water use, importance, rivers and streams. Also answers the questions of what is runoff, how is the flow of a stream measured, how does stream height relate to flow and much, much more.

  3. Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Terry

    2009-04-03

    Water Cycle fun From water cycle Web Quest Links Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Resources Teacher Guide Introduction Luke Warm, a weather man, and you will help two baseball players understand why the big game might be rained out. You will explore the Water cycle and ...

  4. Water electrolysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Takahashi

    1979-01-01

    The electrolysis of water is evaluated as a potentially efficient, low cost means of hydrogen production. The theoretical energy and voltage, current, and energy efficiencies of water electrolysis are considered. The present status of water electrolysis is reviewed, with attention given to caustic potash of soda electrolytes, electrode materials, diaphragms inserted between the electrodes, and the design of unipolar and

  5. Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Uses of ERTS-1 imagery and data for water resources surveys and management are summarized. Areas discussed are: (1) land use and geology; (2) flood plain and flood inundation mapping; (3) snow cover mapping; (4) glacier observations; (5) data collection systems; (6) surface waters; (7) wetlands mapping; (8) water quality; (9) soil mapping; (10) phreatophyte and riparian vegetation mapping; and (11) evapotranspiration.

  6. Water Treatment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This web site showcases Lenntech's Complete Water treatment and Air filtration solutions. This company designs, manufactures and installs complete air and water treatment system solutions. Lenntech proclaims, "Our wide range of technologies and extended know-how in all water-related sectors will guarantee you a cost-efficient solution meeting your water quality requirements." Whether or not you're looking to purchase one of these fine water treatment systems, the site will still provide beneficial resources about how said systems operate.

  7. Water Conservation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

  8. Water Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.

  9. EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION

    E-print Network

    Kane, Andrew S.

    EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies;Water Conservation Initiative 2: Enhancing and protecting water quality, quantity, and supply Priority 1

  10. Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

  11. Ecological and morphological characteristics of Ephelota gemmipara (Ciliophora, Suctoria), epibiontic on Eudendrium racemosum (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Tazioli, Silvia; Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the suctorian Ephelota gemmipara and the large hydroid Eudendrium racemosum from the North Adriatic Sea has been studied over its full annual cycle. Ephelota gemmipara settles on the perisarc of the hydroid, usually close to the hydranths in order to exploit the hydroid's food discharges. The life cycle of E. gemmipara is influenced by temperature variations and by its relationship with the host. The hydroid shows an active phase in the summer, and it gets through the adverse winter season forming resting stages. In April, when temperature increases, the hydroid starts its active phase and it is colonized by suctorians. From May to September the suctorians produce multiple buds (swarmers) that detach from the parental cells to settle on an Eudendrium colony. The abundance of the suctorian peaks in September, with more than 1.2 million ind. m(-2). Their proliferation coincides with the maximal abundance of their host and the highest water temperatures. On the contrary, sexual reproduction and the encystment occur when the temperature and the abundance of E. racemosum decrease. Lastly, we also report the presence of symbionts such as bacteria and the parasitic protozoans Tachyblaston ephelotensis and Enigmocoma acinetarum. PMID:23711377

  12. Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Bear Snow Vegetation RhinoWater Vegetation Ground Water Ground Sky Sky Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Water Vegetation Ground Rhino Water Rhino Water Ground Ground Vegetation Water Rhino Vegetation Rhino Vegetation Ground Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky Rhino Vegetation Ground Sky

  13. Water Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.

  14. Water Quality

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Park Service

    2011-08-20

    In this online interactive, learners explore the various types of life that live in fresh water systems and how the presence of these organisms is an indication of the overall health of the water. Learners perform a water quality test that simulates tests performed in the field and use the data to determine the pollution level of three different streams. This activity also introduces learners to macroinvertebrates (animals without backbones).

  15. Water Purifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

  16. Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lori Peterson

    2009-09-28

    Students will use this short interactive activity to check their understanding on what they learned about the water cycle Do you drink the same water as your great grandparents did? Check this website then answer the following questions. COLLECTION 1. How many times does water go through the cycle? 2. Explain each part of the cycle and why it is important. 3. Construct a model or diagram based off the information from this ...

  17. Water Jetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.

  18. Computerized Waters

    E-print Network

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    Microsoft Windows,Dr. Ralph Wurbs has designed a computer mod- eling system that has changed the way Texas manages its rivers, streams and reservoirs. The modeling system called Water Rights Availability Package, or WRAP for short, is a set of computer... water use and assesses the impacts on all the other water uses in the river basin. #2; Dr. Ralph Wurbs, professor of civil engineering, examines the Texas river basin maps with Richard Hoffpauir, graduate student. These maps were developed, using...

  19. Treatment of Well Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... CDC–INFO Drinking Water Home Public Water Systems Water Quality & Testing Consumer Confidence Reports Regulations Water Sources Water Treatment Disinfection with Chlorine & Chloramine Disinfection ...

  20. Water Harvesting

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Critchley, Will

    This manual has been written with the intention of providing technicians and extension workers with practical guidelines on the implementation of water harvesting schemes. However it will also be of interest to a wider audience, such as rural development specialists and planners. The focus of the manual is on simple, field scale systems for improved production of crops, trees and rangeland species in drought prone areas. Water harvesting systems for water supply such as haffirs, ponds and rooftop tanks are not covered in this manual, nor are large-scale water spreading systems (spate irrigation).

  1. Water Exploration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathy Kelly Ellins

    2012-01-01

    Water Exploration uses a project-based learning approach, permitting students to conduct research and build an understanding about water science and critical water-related issues. All learning activities and resources are packaged into three modules, or Legacy Cycles, in a way that enhances student learning by making use of the Internet and computer technology to promote inquiry learning. The Earth Science Literacy Principles provide the organizing framework for the lessons and activities in each Water Exploration Legacy Cycle. The curriculum is applicable to high school science courses such as Earth and Space Science, Advanced Placement Environmental Science, Biology, Chemistry, and Aquatic Science.

  2. Source Water Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Drinking Water Source Water Source Water Protection Source Water Protection The drinking water we receive from our ... communities, resource managers and the public. My Source Water Basic Information Frequent Questions Source Water Pocket Guide ( ...

  3. Water Science for Schools: USGS Water Information

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-07-02

    This site offers information on many aspects of water, including text, pictures, data, maps, and an interactive center where users can offer opinions and test their water knowledge. Main topics include: water basics, Earth's water, water use, and special topics such as acid rain, saline water and other water-quality issues. Links to other water-related sites are also provided.

  4. Mixing Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about temperature and energy transfer. The probe is designed to find out whether students recognize that a transfer of energy from the warm water to the cool water occurs until they reach the same temperature. Additionally, students' explanations reveal whether they use an addition, subtraction, or averaging strategy to determine the resulting temperature.

  5. Water snails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Scott Bauer (USDA; ARS)

    2005-08-03

    Water snails have a shell for protection. They have two tentacles, a foot, and a head and a tail region. Water snails have eyes at the base of their sensory stalks. The stalks are used to smell and feel around the snail's environment.

  6. Water Filter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Boston

    2002-01-01

    In this engineering activity, challenge learners to invent a water filter that cleans dirty water. Learners construct a filter device out of a 2-liter bottle and then experiment with different materials like gravel, sand, and cotton balls to see which is the most effective.
    Safety note: An adult's help is needed for this activity.

  7. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  8. WATER EROSION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water erosion is caused by the detachment and transport of soil by runoff, melting snow or ice, and irrigation. Excessive erosion could threaten the production of agricultural and forest products. Erosion may also impact water conveyance and storage structures, and contribute to pollution from land ...

  9. Ground Water And Drinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the official website for the Office of Groundwater and Safe Drinking Water (OGWDW) at the Environmental Protection Aagency (EPA). The OGWDW works to ensure safe drinking water and to protect the quality of our nation's drinking water supply. This mission is accomplished using five guiding principles: prevention, risk-based priority setting for new and existing regulations, public and private partnerships, flexibility and effectiveness in implementation while maintaining a national public health baseline, accountability of all parties through public participation and accessible information, and clear documentation and presentation of results. This site is a major clearinghouse for safe water guidelines, programs, data, publications, and news relevant to the OGWDW's operations.

  10. Post-embryonic larval development and metamorphosis of the hydroid Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, C.

    1990-09-01

    The morphology and histology of the planula larva of Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) and its metamorphosis into the primary polyp are described from light microscopic observations. The planula hatches as a differentiated gastrula. During the lecithotrophic larval period, large ectodermal mucous cells, embedded between epitheliomuscular cells, secrete a sticky slime. Two granulated cell types occur in the ectoderm that are interpreted as secretory and sensorynervous cells, but might also be representatives of only one cell type with a multiple function. The entoderm consists of yolk-storing gastrodermal cells, digestive gland cells, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes. The larva starts metamorphosis by affixing its blunt aboral pole to a substratum. While the planula flattens down, the mucous cells penetrate the mesolamella and migrate through the entoderm into the gastral cavity where they are lysed. Subsequently, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes migrate in the opposite direction, i.e. from entoderm to ectoderm. Then, the polypoid body organization, comprising head (hydranth), stem and foot, all covered by peridermal secretion, becomes recognisable. An oral constriction divides the hypostomal portion of the gastral cavity from the stomachic portion. Within the hypostomal entoderm, cells containing secretory granules differentiate. Following growth and the multiplication of tentacles, the head periderm disappears. A ring of gland cells differentiates at the hydranth's base. The positioning of cnidae in the tentacle ectoderm, penetration of the mouth opening and the multiplication of digestive gland cells enable the polyp to change from lecithotrophic to planktotrophic nutrition.

  11. INTRODUCTION The marine hydroids of Iceland have been the subject of

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    project with the objec- Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Iceland collected by the BIOICE programme Peter Schuchert Schuchert P. 2000. Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Iceland collected by the BIOICE programme. Sarsia 85:411- 438. This study summarises the findings of benthic hydrozoans (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, including Hydroidea

  12. The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 3

    E-print Network

    Schuchert, Peter

    of Turritopsis polycirrha (Keferstein, 1862). Hydractinia areolata Alder, 1862 is selected as type species belonging to Turritopsis dohrnii (Weismann, 1883). Keywords: Cnidaria - marine - Hydrozoa - Hydractiniidae

  13. Egg Size Effects across Multiple Life-History Stages in the Marine Annelid Hydroides diramphus

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Richard M.; Marshall, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    The optimal balance of reproductive effort between offspring size and number depends on the fitness of offspring size in a particular environment. The variable environments offspring experience, both among and within life-history stages, are likely to alter the offspring size/fitness relationship and favor different offspring sizes. Hence, the many environments experienced throughout complex life-histories present mothers with a significant challenge to optimally allocate their reproductive effort. In a marine annelid, we tested the relationship between egg size and performance across multiple life-history stages, including: fertilization, larval development, and post-metamorphosis survival and size in the field. We found evidence of conflicting effects of egg size on performance: larger eggs had higher fertilization under sperm-limited conditions, were slightly faster to develop pre-feeding, and were larger post-metamorphosis; however, smaller eggs had higher fertilization when sperm was abundant, and faster planktonic development; and egg size did not affect post-metamorphic survival. The results indicate that egg size effects are conflicting in H. diramphus depending on the environments within and among life-history stages. We suggest that offspring size in this species may be a compromise between the overall costs and benefits of egg sizes in each stage and that performance in any one stage is not maximized. PMID:25036850

  14. Maintenance of Variation and Adaptive Consequences of Encrusting Growth Forms in the Clonal Hydroid Genus Hydractinia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Ferrell

    2007-01-01

    Traits with close ties to fitness are central in understanding the process of adaptation and whether, and in what contexts, selection acts to erode genetically based phenotypic variation. The persistence and even predominance of apparently unfit genotypes in natural populations is particularly problematic. Genetically based growth form variation in the clonal hydrozoan genus Hydractinia epitomizes this problem. A rich literature

  15. Egg size effects across multiple life-history stages in the marine annelid Hydroides diramphus.

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard M; Marshall, Dustin

    2014-01-01

    The optimal balance of reproductive effort between offspring size and number depends on the fitness of offspring size in a particular environment. The variable environments offspring experience, both among and within life-history stages, are likely to alter the offspring size/fitness relationship and favor different offspring sizes. Hence, the many environments experienced throughout complex life-histories present mothers with a significant challenge to optimally allocate their reproductive effort. In a marine annelid, we tested the relationship between egg size and performance across multiple life-history stages, including: fertilization, larval development, and post-metamorphosis survival and size in the field. We found evidence of conflicting effects of egg size on performance: larger eggs had higher fertilization under sperm-limited conditions, were slightly faster to develop pre-feeding, and were larger post-metamorphosis; however, smaller eggs had higher fertilization when sperm was abundant, and faster planktonic development; and egg size did not affect post-metamorphic survival. The results indicate that egg size effects are conflicting in H. diramphus depending on the environments within and among life-history stages. We suggest that offspring size in this species may be a compromise between the overall costs and benefits of egg sizes in each stage and that performance in any one stage is not maximized. PMID:25036850

  16. Ground water. [Water pollution control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Costle

    1980-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the Nation's ground water is contaminated by a variety of sources. These include unprotected industrial, municipal, and radioactive disposal sites, petroleum exploration and mining activities, agricultural operations such as insecticide spraying, high de-icing salts and others. As of March 1980, more than 8000 chemical tests have been performed on well water, with chlorinated organic solvents

  17. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  18. Sinking Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-01

    In this experiment, learners float colored ice cubes in hot and cold water. They compare the behavior of the melting ice cubes to understand how temperature is related to ocean currents and how temperature changes water density. The printable eight-page handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get learners thinking about how and why water temperature changes along with depth. Illustrated experiment directions and a worksheet help learners use the experiment results to gain a deeper understanding of buoyancy and density.

  19. Fragile Waters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    In this activity (on pages 18-29) learners explore the impact of the March 24, 1989 oil spill in Alaska caused by the Exxon Valdez tanker. First they use a map to track the movement of the spill over 56 days. Learners then explore how oil behaves in water by examining the relative weight of water vs. oil, and the properties of oil. They test how oil damages various natural materials such as bird feathers, fur fabric, plants, shells, and rocks, and then try water and detergent to see which cleaning methods work best.

  20. Montana Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Montana University System Water Center at Montana State University-Bozeman, this impressive site offers a wealth of information regarding issues related to water in Montana and nationally. A mix of political (regarding recent legislation), educational, research, and funding/employment "water information" is posted at this Website, under several section headings: Information, Featured Programs, Policy & Legislation, Learning Resources, and Montana Watersheds. In addition, a substantial collection of links to related organizations and resources assists users in finding further online information.

  1. Cleaning Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students design and build their own water filtering system and collect data to compare water quality before and after filtering. They will conclude by developing a conclusion based upon their results and comparing individual results to class results to look for patterns. The activity is designed to accompany the Kids' Science News Network (KSNN) 21st Century Explorer 30-second news break entitled 'Where would a space explorer find water and oxygen?' The activity includes a teacher's guide and instructions for students, and a Spanish translation is available.

  2. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.

  3. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.

  4. Water Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by a lifeguard. No one can anticipate changing ocean currents, rip currents, sudden storms, or other hidden ... body of water (like a river, lake, or ocean) is different from swimming in a pool. You ...

  5. Fertilized water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Following the most extensive study of nutrients in the nation's water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey finds that the drinking water standard for nitrate, a nutrient commonly derived from fertilizer, was exceeded in 21% of shallow wells in agricultural areas. The standard was exceeded in only 1% of public supply wells and in very few streams.The study indicates that nitrate levels in ground and surface waters are higher in agricultural areas, indicating patterns of contamination related to land use. The highest concentrations of nitrate were in shallow ground water, less than 100 feet below the surface. Concentrations were higher in parts of the Northeast, Midwest, and on the West Coast, with generally lower concentrations in the Southeast.

  6. Healthy Waters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jason Voss

    This activity is an mock investigation into different macroinvertebrates found in the streams in your local city. Students will record and analyze data that will lead them to learn if the water quality is good or bad in their backyard.

  7. Water Fountain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners explore how a hydraulic pump works. Learners work in teams to design and build a unique water fountain that employs a hydraulic pump. This lesson also contains a demonstration of a hydraulic pump in action.

  8. Grabbing Water

    E-print Network

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...

  9. Water Privatisation 

    E-print Network

    Zölls, Elisa

    2011-08-17

    This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...

  10. WATER ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...

  11. Water Resources Georgia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water Resources Georgia: From the USGS web site comes the Georgia Water Information Network (GWIN)which offers water information for thousands of surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality measurement sites in Georgia.

  12. Total Water Management - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  13. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or ground water. Surface water collects in streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Ground water is water located ... protect drinking water and its sources, which include rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. Top ...

  14. Filtering Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brieske, Joel A.

    2003-01-01

    The first site related to water filtration is from the US Environmental Agency entitled EPA Environmental Education: Water Filtration (1 ). The two-page document explains the need for water filtration and the steps water treatment plants take to purify water. To further understand the process, a demonstration project is provided that illustrates these purification steps, which include coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The second site is an interesting Flash animation called Filtration: How Does it Work (2 ) provided by Canada's Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. Visitors will learn various types of filtration procedures and systems and the materials that are used such as carbon and sand. Next, from the National Science Foundation is a learning activity called Get Out the Gunk (3 ). Using just a few simple items from around the house, kids will be able to answer questions like "Does a filter work better with a lot of water rushing through, or a small trickle?" and "Does it make the water cleaner if you pour it through a filter twice?" The fourth Web site, Rapid Sand Filtration (4 ), is provided by Dottie Schmitt and Christie Shinault of Virginia Tech. The authors describe the process, which involves the flow of water through a bed of granular media, normally following settling basins in conventional water treatment trains to remove any particulate matter left over after flocculation and settling. Along with its thorough description, readers can view illustrations and photographs that further explain the process. The Vegetative Buffer Strips for Improved Surface Water Quality (5) Web site is provided by the Iowa State University Extension office. The document explains what vegetative buffer strips are, how they filter contaminants and sediment from surface water, how effective they are, and more. The sixth offering is a file called Infiltration Basins and Trenches (6) that is offered by the University of Wisconsin Extension. These structures are intended to collect water, have it infiltrate into the ground, and have it purified along the way. This document explains how effective they are at removing pollutants, how to install them, design guidelines, maintenance, and more. Next, from a site called Wilderness Survial.net is the Water Filtration Devices (7) page. Visitors read how to make a filtering system out of cloth, sand, crushed rock, charcoal, or a hollow log, although as is stated, the water still has to be purified. The last site, from the US Geological Survey, is called A Visit to a Wastewater-Treatment Plant: Primary Treatment of Wastewater (8). Although geared towards children, the site does a good job of explaining what happens at each stage of the treatment process and how pollutants are removed to help keep water clean. Everything from screening, pumping, aerating, sludge and scum removal, killing bacteria, and what is done with wastewater residuals is covered.

  15. Arnold Schwarzenegger WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER

    E-print Network

    Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor WATER HEATERS AND HOT WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS;#12;Appendices Appendix A. Multifamily Water Heating Construction Practices, Pricing and Availability Survey Report Appendix B. Multifamily Water Heating Controls Performance Field Report Appendix C. Pipe

  16. Water Walk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this field activity, students conduct a visual survey of a hydrology study site, and collect information about land cover and water quality. These observations are used to stimulate research-able questions about land cover and water chemistry that can be the focus of future investigations. The use of archival evidence in an investigation is discussed. This is a learning activity associated with the GLOBE hydrology investigations and is supported by the Hydrology chapter of the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  17. Water watch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture and fall streamflow, particularly in the Western US. The information is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Dept. of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, the California Dept. of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through October 1992. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in July.

  18. Water Watch

    SciTech Connect

    Gruber, N.

    1993-08-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch,[close quotes] focusing on streamflow, is based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of hydrology and River Forecast Centers, US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, Soil Conservation Service, California Department of Water Resources, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through August. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in May.

  19. Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete

    E-print Network

    Effects of Salinity on Spawning and Early Development of the Tube-Building Polychaete Hydroides. Ambient salinities drop dramatically during monsoon season in Hong Kong coastal waters, posing a number- tigated (1) whether adults would retain their gametes when external salinity dropped to levels too low

  20. Effect of Bacteria Associated with the Green Alga Ulva reticulata on Marine Micro and Macrofouling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey V Dobretsov; Pei-Yuan Qian

    2002-01-01

    The green alga Ulva reticulata (Forsskal) is often free from biofouling in Hong Kong waters. An early study indicated that bioactive substances from this alga inhibit settlement of the polychaete Hydroides elegans (Haswell). It is also predicted that epibiotic bacteria protect this alga from micro- and macrofouling. In this study, bacterial strains from the surface of U. reticulata were isolated

  1. Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    Regional Water Management: Adapting to Uncertain Water Supply and Demand Jim Schneider, Ph · How Nebraska manages water · Dealing with uncertain water supplies: adaptive management #12;Regional · Identify the basin goals and concerns · Assess the water supply and water demands · Develop

  2. WATER MARKETS AND DECENTRALIZED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. William Easter; Robert R. Hearne

    1994-01-01

    Because of its importance and the perceived inability of private sector sources to meet water demands, many countries have depended on the public sector to provide water services for their populations. Yet this has resulted in many inefficient public water projects and in inadequate supplies of good quality and reliable water. Decentralization of water management, including the use of water

  3. Water Detectives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this introductory classroom activity, students exercise their scientific skills of observation and deduction as they use their senses and simple laboratory assays, such as pH indicator paper, to identify mystery pollutants in water samples. Activity includes a student worksheet. This is a learning activity within the Hydrology chapter, GLOBE Teacher's Guide.

  4. Blue Water

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....

  5. Water Sampling

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon Drilling Platform exploded and sank, causing an enormous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. U.S. Geological Survey field offices responded immediately by organizing teams to take pre-spill sediment and water samples in order to establish a baseline survey. This...

  6. Water Hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important new reference book entitled the “Encyclopedia of Invasive Introduced Species” is being published by the University of California Press. We were invited to provide a chapter on water hyacinth, which is the world’s worst aquatic weed. In this chapter, we provide information on the origi...

  7. Water Spout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…

  8. Grabbing water

    E-print Network

    P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet

    2012-07-16

    We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.

  9. Investigating Water

    E-print Network

    Howard Jr., Ronald A.

    2002-01-02

    substances. It covers most of the earth?s surface, sometimes to a depth of more than a mile. It exists as a colorless gas in the atmosphere. It caps the poles with ice and occurs in the snows of winter. Liquid water fills brooks, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds...

  10. Weightless Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this physics activity (page 5 of the PDF), learners will witness the effects of free fall by observing falling water, and will gain a better understanding of the concept of weightlessness. Although this activity was created as a post-visit for a workshop about astronomy, it also makes an excellent stand alone activity!

  11. Troubling Waters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carolyn J. Strange (freelance writer; )

    2008-12-01

    One of the world's richest deltas has been radically replumbed, its ecosystem is collapsing, and Californians are realizing their water supply is tapped out. Despite decades of efforts--and some positive trends--solutions may not be any closer. Downstream, the San Francisco Bay looks good by comparison.

  12. Water Filtration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Erica K.

    2004-01-01

    A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.

  13. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Andrus

    2007-10-12

    4th Grade Science Learn all about the Water Cycle! The Water Cycle: Water Storage Learn about Evaporation, Condensation, Precipitation, and Collection! The Water Cycle Here are some activites to learn about the water cycle. Hydrologic Cycle ...

  14. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ........SPECIAL BUREAU OF RECLAMATION CENTENNIAL COVERAGE 14..............Water News Briefs 15 Keyes, Commissioner of Reclamation, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. Several con- vention topics will focus in the teens or 1920's. Exact date unknown U.S. Bureau of Reclamation projects to "reclaim" the arid western

  15. UNL WATER CENTER WATER CURRENT

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    at drought condi- tions in the North Platte River watershed from head- waters in Colorado to Lake Mc in the North Platte River watershed, and with the current drought conditions in those areas, the tour should.....................Managing the Missouri River System 5.....................Nebraska's Wetlands 6.....................Risk

  16. Water Striders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1981-01-01

    In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners catch and observe water striders to explore their movement and feeding behaviors. To observe strider locomotion, learners look closely at caught water striders' body structure, then mark the striders' bodies with a dot of thick tempera or acrylic paint and release the insects back to different areas of the pond habitat. The paint markings make it easier for learners to watch each insect's movement. To observe strider feeding, learners catch other small insects from the pond habitat and offer them to caught striders. After the activity, all organisms should be released into the pond habitat. If possible, learners can return to the strider habitat a few weeks after the activity, to check how far the marked striders have moved from where they were released.

  17. Troubled Waters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Farmer

    In this activity, students explore the influences of different parameters on the environmental quality of a river system. They will run a computer model of a river system, interpret graphs, and adjust model parameters such as wind speed, sewage load, and other variables to determine their effects on water quality. For teachers, there are additional background materials, teaching tips, evaluation methods, and links to national standards.

  18. Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.

  19. Earth's Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The total amount of water on Earth, the places in which it is found and the percentages of fresh vs. salt are examined in this lesson. A short demonstration allows students to visualize the percentage differences and a coloring exercise illustrates locations. This lesson uses the 5E instructional model. All background information, student worksheets and images/photographs/data are included in these downloadable sections: Teacher's Guide, Student Capture Sheet and PowerPoint Presentation.

  20. Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montogmery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Ward, Aub N.; Walters, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 60 surface-water stations (including 42 gaging stations) and 112 wells; and water levels for 304 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  1. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 66 gaging stations; stage only for 70 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 25 gaging stations) and 108 wells; and water levels for 221 observation wells. Also included are data for 204 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  2. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only for 73 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 66 surface-water stations (including 39 gaging stations) and 92 wells; and water levels for 205 observation wells. Also included are data for 166 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  3. Water resources data, Louisiana, water year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 56 surface-water stations (including 44 gaging stations) and 142 wells; and water levels for 313 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal and State agencies in Louisiana.

  4. Water Resources Data, Louisiana, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Labbe, Charles K.; Walters, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 85 gaging stations; stage only for 79 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 52 surface-water stations (including 40 gaging stations) and 104 wells; and water levels for 300 observation wells. Also included are data for 143 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.

  5. Campus Water Uses and Potential Water Efficiencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvin Kuo; Melany Hunt; John Onderdonk; Matthew Berbee

    2008-01-01

    With recent increases in the price of water, saving water has become one of the main focuses for sustainability. The California Institute of Technology used 200,000,000 gallons of water in the year 2008; however the institute has never tracked this water to its destination within the campus. Using data collected from water meters on campus and from the utility company

  6. Water Wise: A Water Use Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Reclamation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This guide for elementary school students deals with the importance of and the uses of water, especially in the western United States. Topics covered include the importance of water as a resource; the need for conservation; water storage through dams and reservoirs; irrigation; the lack of water in the old West; the uses of water for cities and…

  7. Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans

    E-print Network

    and a local university, the WSP process resulted in improvements at the drinking water treatment plantCS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths

  8. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING Committee on Natioha1 Water Resources report in 1961 and the formation of the Committee on Water Resources in emphasis"and values regarding water resources' research. Interest has shifted from}J4ter supply

  9. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING.ROGRAM FOR THE 1972, I~TERDISCIPL1NARY SEMINAR ON WATER RESOURCES1 The Interdisciplinary Water Resources Seminar upper classmen,graduate stUdents, ~rofessiona1 persons, faculty, nd others interested 1n water topics

  10. Water Sustainability Program Challenges to Sustainable Water

    E-print Network

    Cushing, Jim. M.

    Water Sustainability Program Forum Challenges to Sustainable Water Management in Arizona Sharon B. Megdal Director, WSP & Water Resources Research Center November 22, 2010 smegdal@cals.arizona.edu #12;· The Water Sustainability Program endeavors to ensure that we have safe and reliable water supplies

  11. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, water resources professionals squarely faced the fact that water has changed and improved the entire planning process so that it will ultimately serve water and other

  12. Water, Water Everywhere! [Narrator] Water, Water Everywhere Water is all around us, and its importance to nearly every process

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Water, Water Everywhere! [Narrator] Water, Water Everywhere Water is all around us, and its naturally as a liquid, gas, and solid. The process by which water moves around the Earth, from the ocean to the atmosphere to the land, and back to the ocean, is called the water cycle. Water regulates climate, storing

  13. Water Source Books

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Online curriculum guides for K-12 with over 324 activities related to wetlands, coastal waters, and water resources. Each grade section (K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12) is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters.

  14. Water, Ohio's Remarkable Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Carrie J.

    Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…

  15. Discovering the Water Cycle!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Mortensen

    2009-10-09

    We will be learning about what the water cycle is and how it works. Resources! The Hydrologic Cycle: Water's journey through time The Water Cycle Thirstin's Water Cycle Activity Water evaporates from the surface Water Wonders These are a collection of websites that are going to help us in our journey of discovering what the water cycle is. ...

  16. Be Water Wise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Sandra K.; Pettus, Alvin M.

    Various topics on water and water conservation are discussed, each general topic followed by a student activity. Topics include: (1) importance of water; (2) water in the environment; (3) getting water to and from homes (making water usable; treating wastewater; on-site systems, including water wells and septic tanks); (4) relationship between…

  17. Principles of Water Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, T.D.

    1984-01-01

    CONTENTS: Introduction to Water Quality Concepts. Natural Environmental Processes. Toxic Metals as Factors in Water Quality. Refractory Organic Compounds. Nutrients, Productivity, and Eutrophication. Microbes and Water Quality. Thermal Effects and Water Quality. Air Quality. Water Quality Interactions. Introduction to Water Quality Modeling. Water Quality Standards, and Management Approaches.

  18. Water Resources of Alaska

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Geological Survey (U.S.). Water Resources Division. Alaska District.

    1999-01-01

    The Water Resources of Alaska homepage is provided by the US Geological Survey. The goal of this project is to study and understand Alaska's hydrology (surface water, ground water, and water quality) for use and management of the nation's water resources. The site features a list of published reports and information about current projects as well as a vast amount of hydrologic data such as surface water, ground water, water quality, glaciers, water use, and hydrologic data reports.

  19. California's Water Energy Relationship

    E-print Network

    ?........................................................6 THE WATER USE CYCLE .........................................................................................................................7 THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF THE WATER USE CYCLE ................................................................................................................................................16 Energy Recovery from the Water Use Cycle...............................................................................................

  20. Water Wonders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    Students will be introduced to different species of macroinvertebrates. They will hypothesize why each insect looks the way it does. Then students will make observations of macroinvertebrates in an aquarium in their classroom. For an optional extension, teachers can take students to a local stream or pond to conduct field observations. Materials needed include sand, water, aquatics plants and insects; estimated materials cost does not include aquarium. This is the 3rd of 3 sets of learning activities that are companion activities to the Elementary GLOBE children's book, Discoveries at Willow Creek. Includes a teacher implementation guide.

  1. Water Purification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Silver ionization water purification technology was originally developed for Apollo spacecraft. It was later used to cleanse swimming pools and has now been applied to industrial cooling towers and process coolers. Sensible Technologies, Inc. has added two other technologies to the system, which occupies only six square feet. It is manufactured in three capacities, and larger models are custom built on request. The system eliminates scale, corrosion, algae, bacteria and debris, and because of the NASA technology, viruses and waterborne bacteria are also destroyed. Applications include a General Motors cooling tower, amusement parks, ice manufacture and a closed-loop process cooling system.

  2. Fresh Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BioNagy

    2008-10-25

    You will use online resources to learn about freshwater ecosystems, the critters that live in them and the effect we have on them. You may choose to print this page out to assist you in answering questions. In studying fresh water, we will be looking at three different ecosystems: Streams and Rivers; Ponds and Lakes; and Wetlands. The following site contains information about all 3. Answer the questions on loose-leaf or in an MS Word document, to be printed. Freshwater Ecosystems (title provided or enhanced by cataloger) After clicking the link above, click on "Rivers ...

  3. Water watch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on spring flood potential based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through June 1992. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented in the Hydropower Generation Report can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in March.

  4. Water watch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on soil moisture conditions across the country as of the first of April. In addition, the department describes streamflow conditions across the US forecast for April through July. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service. For purposes of providing this information, the US is divided into six regions. The Hydropower Generation Report can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in March.

  5. Environment Canada: Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This comprehensive site contains facts, figures, references, teacher's aides, news, events, and much more on subjects pertaining to water. Some of the subjects touched on include aquatic ecosystems, groundwater, lakes, permafrost, properties of water, rivers, sediment, snow and ice, water and climate, and Wetlands. Water policy and legislation is also discussed and includes information on federal-provincial cooperation, international, legislation and regulation, provincial/territorial, and water policy in Canada. There is also a section on the management of water including bulk water removal and water export, Flood Damage Reduction Program, floods, water efficiency/conservation, water modeling, water pollution, water quality, water resource economics, and water use. The section on water and culture discusses Aboriginal issues, water and art, and water and Canadian identity. The site is available in English and French.

  6. Improved water does not mean safe water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  7. Water Resources Outreach Program - Water Education Posters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site contains a series of six posters all relating to water education: wetlands, water use, waste water, navigation, ground water, and water quality. Each poster includes information about the topic as well as related classroom activities. The objective of the water-resources education program is to stimulate interest in and provide a basic knowledge of water resources for students in grades K-12. This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website is part of the Water Resources Education Initiative (WREI), a program developed by the USGS in 1991.

  8. Water resources data, Nebraska, water year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitch, D. E., (compiler); Soensken, P.J.; Sebree, S.K.; Wilson, K.E.; Walczyk, V.C.; Drudik, R.A.; Miller, J.D.; Hull, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Nebraska water resources data report for water year 2004 includes records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; water elevation and/or contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and quality of ground water in wells. This report contains records of stream stage for 3 stations; stream discharge for 101 continuous and 5 crest-stage gaging stations, and 6 miscellaneous sites; stream water quality for 7 gaging stations and 40 miscellaneous sites; water elevation and/or contents for 2 lakes and 1 reservoir; ground-water levels for 74 observation wells; and ground-water quality for 200 wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected in and near Nebraska by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies.

  9. Important Water Quality Factors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides basic information about factors commonly analyzed in water quality studies of drinking water, waste water and natural water. The factors are listed alphabetically with descriptions and explanations about what the results of measurements mean in environmental terms.

  10. Sodium in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

  11. Water Contamination Demonstration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Summary: Misplaced Matter and Water Pollution The drinking water pollution demonstration provides a very simple but dramatic way to get students to think about water contamination and drinking water standards, ...

  12. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water Fluoridation Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Community Water Fluoridation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... What's this? Submit Button Related Links Overview for Community Water Fluoridation Guidelines & Recommendations for Fluoride Fact Sheets ...

  13. Learn about Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Learn about Water When the water in our rivers, lakes, and oceans becomes polluted, the effects can ... resources . Water Bodies Oceans, Coasts, Estuaries and Beaches Rivers and Streams Wetlands More Water Bodies resources Drinking ...

  14. Drinking Water Standards

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

    2006-04-26

    This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

  15. Water Safety Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    Water Safety Quiz Trivia quiz loading... Please enable javascript. Stay Safe around Water Download water safety tips in English or Spanish and share them with your friends. Make Water Safety a Priority Contact your local Red Cross ...

  16. Build a Kit: Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your family’s needs during an emergency. How Much Water Do I Need? You should store at least ... of water per person. How Should I Store Water? It is recommended you purchase commercially bottled water, ...

  17. Water Science School

    MedlinePLUS

    The USGS Water Science School The USGS Water Science School Welcome to the U.S. Geological Survey's ( USGS ) Water Science School. We offer information on many aspects of water, along with pictures, ...

  18. Lead and tap water

    MedlinePLUS

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water and requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports, which include information about lead amounts, are available to consumers. For ...

  19. Water: Consumer Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... EPA's (PDF) page to learn more. Your Drinking Water Quality Water On Tap: What You Need to ... Drinking Water Sources (PDF) (2 pp, 563K) Drinking Water Emergencies Learn what to do in the event ...

  20. Private Ground Water Wells

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Water Healthy Water Home Share Compartir Private Ground Water Wells Many people in the United States receive ... answers to frequently asked questions about wells . Ground Water and Wells When rain falls, much of it ...

  1. Autoionization of water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Craig Merlic

    This site provides an animation showing the three normal vibrational modes of the water molecule as well as proton transfer in the following three situations: (1) hydronium ion/water, (2) hydroxide ion/water, and (3)two water molecules.

  2. Water Structure and Behavior

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Martin Chaplin

    In this site, Martin Chaplin has brought together a selection of ideas concerning the complex behavior of water in hopes of encouraging both the understanding of water and further work. Some of the many ideas presented are: the structure of water, water anomalies, hydrogen bonding, the phase diagram of water, and water hydration.

  3. MODELING WATER QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality models are based on some representation of hydrology and may include movement of surface water, ground water, and mixing of water in lakes and water bodies. Water quality models simulate some combination of sediment, nutrients, heavy metals, xenobiotics, and aquatic biology. Althoug...

  4. WRAMS, sustainable water recycling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Chapman

    2006-01-01

    The Water Reclamation and Management Scheme (WRAMS) at Sydney Olympic Park was built as part of the Olympic Games in 2000. The Scheme was designed to treat raw domestic sewage into recycled water which is then sold back to consumers. The main elements of WRAMS are a water reclamation plant, a water treatment plant, storm water collection, clean water storage

  5. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Amanda

    2011-02-14

    Students will understand and explain parts of the water cycle. First watch the video to get a background about the water cycle: water cycle video Draw and explain the water cycle in your own words (include the terms: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, at least 3 bodies of water, the sun). Before reading the experiment record your predictions: If you put a small amount of water ...

  6. Testing the Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finks, Mason

    1993-01-01

    Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)

  7. China's water scarcity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Jiang

    2009-01-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water

  8. EPANET water quality model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rossman

    1993-01-01

    EPANET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. EPANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also

  9. Waters of the Earth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this lesson, students make a visual display showing the distribution of water on earth. Using separate bottles, students illustrate the amount of water in oceans, fresh water locked up as ice, underground fresh water, surface fresh water, and water in air and soil.

  10. Everyone into the Water!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Christina L.

    2007-01-01

    As the days grow longer and warmer with the approach of summer, everyone's thoughts turn to the outdoors and the clear blue of water sports. While recreational choices range from in-the-water activities like water polo to under-the-water sports like free diving, and on-the-water diversions like water skiing, this article focuses on print, video,…

  11. Water Resources Policy & Economics

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    Water Resources Policy & Economics FOR 4984 Selected Course Topics · Appropriative and riparian water institutions · Incentives for conservation · Water rights for in-stream environmental use · Surface water-groundwater management · Water quality regulations · Water markets · Economic and policy

  12. SOIL WATER SENSING FOR PLANT WATER UPTAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the many ways to deduce plant water uptake, the soil water balance is the most frequently used, with plant water uptake determined as the residual of other terms in the equation. Extensive work with weighing lysimeters and soil water sensing methods allows us to contrast the effectiveness of and ...

  13. Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Household Water Quality Home Water Quality Problems­ Causes and Treatments Blake Ross, Extension cause health problems, damage equipment or plumbing, or make the water undesirable due to taste, odor, appearance or staining. Waterrelated problems will be found primarily in homes serviced by a private water

  14. Virtual water trade and world water resources.

    PubMed

    Oki, T; Kanae, S

    2004-01-01

    Global virtual water trade was quantitatively estimated and evaluated. The basic idea of how to estimate unit requirement of water resources to produce each commodity is introduced and values for major agricultural and stock products are presented. The concept of virtual water and the quantitative estimates can help in assessing a more realistic water scarcity index in each country, projecting future water demand for food supply, increasing public awareness on water, and identifying the processes wasting water in the production. Really required water in exporting countries is generally smaller than virtually required water in importing countries, reflecting the comparative advantage of water use efficiency, and it is estimated to be 680 km3/y for 2000. On the contrary the virtually required water for the same year is estimated to be 1,130 km3/y, and the difference of 450 km3/y is virtually saved by global trade. However, solely virtual water should not be used for any decision making since the idea of virtual water implies only the usage and influence of water and no concerns on social, cultural, and environmental implications. Virtual water trade also does not consider other limiting factors than water. PMID:15195440

  15. Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan

    E-print Network

    Page 1 Water Withdrawals and Water Use in Michigan Michigan State University · New · February 2011 information about the amount of water used in Michigan and the purposes of its use is important for effective River Basin Water Resources Compact (the Compact). As part of implementing the Compact and facilitating

  16. Water 3: Accounting For Our Water Needs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-19

    How do we account for water use? What is the difference between water consumed and water withdrawn? What is the water footprint tool? This video examines these questions. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

  17. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING OF THE DIRECTOR . . · Once again during the spring 1973 semester the Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute will sponsor an Interdisciplinary Water Resources Seminar. These seminars have been held for the past five

  18. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING ALLOTMENT PROJECT DEADLINE The Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute is now prepared to receive basicIe. LB-334, enacted by the 1969 Legislature, authorized the Nebraska Soil a~d Water Conservation

  19. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING,000,000 for the Sec. 101 matching grant program, and $2,000,000 for the Title II program. INTERDISCIPLINARY WATER RESOURCE SEMINAR An Interdisciplinary Water Resource Seminar will be offered during the 1970 Semeste

  20. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING LABLE FRm1 ~.~, VI I RI RI I · The Nebraska Water Resources Research Institute has recently issued a new. This publi- cation may be obtained by writing: Dr. Warren Viessman, Jr., Director, Nebraska Water Resources

  1. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING Research application is an educational activity. Its aim is to pro- duce a change in the water resource environment by producing a change in people who manage water resources. #12;-2- 6. Provide Readable Reports

  2. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING~ November 1973 Opportunities for cost effective research related to energy-water issues are abundant. Many. It would be impossible to list all fruitful avenues for energy-water research, but some important issues

  3. WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    WATER RESOURCES NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE 212 AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING BUILDING during precipitation-free periods and constitutes the principal source of fresh water for many arid local- ities. About 70-80 percent of the water used in Nebraska is from groundwater sources, while the national

  4. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  5. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Lopez

    2009-07-09

    Students will learn the process of the water cycle. Alabama Course of Study: Science. Second Grade: Standard 9: Describe evaporation, condensation, and precipitation in the water cycle. What is the water cycle? On the worksheet provided, list the 4 parts of the water cycle. Between the parts draw a small picture to represent what is happening during this cycle. The Water Cycle See how we use the water in the water cycle. Thirstins Water Cycle Name 3 ways water changes form. This is an animated diagram of the Water Cycle Here is a ...

  6. THE WATER CYCLE/ CLOUDS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms.Brown

    2009-04-06

    Students will learn about the water cycle and how it works. You will explore many resources to find out many new factors about the water cycle. What is the water cycle? National water cycle Name the 4 water parts of the water cycle? Weather wonders Where are 3 places that the water cycle exists- What happens after condensation? animated water cycle Name 4 types of clouds? What is the highest level cloud called? Which cloud is associated with powerful thunderstorms? Cloud Types What do clouds have to do with the water cycle? National water cycle What is ...

  7. Magnificent Ground Water Connection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Magnificent Ground Water Connection is a compilation of ground water-related activities for teaching and learning purposes. The teacher's activity guide is applicable to a wide range of subject matter and the ground water theme is integrated into stories, songs, math, social studies, art and writing. The topics include basic concepts of the water cycle, water distribution, treatment and stewardship. Other subjects include the water cycle and water conservation, New England's ground water resources, ground water contamination and protection. Sections are also available for wetlands, ground water, marine debris, waster, air quality, acid rain, and energy. Users can also access an on-line lending library for educational materials and videos.

  8. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform ? Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  9. Water, Water Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, L.

    2004-01-01

    The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.

  10. Water Remediation Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students measure the effectiveness of water filters in purifying contaminated water. They prepare test water by creating different concentrations of bleach (chlorine-contaminated) water. After passing the contaminated water through commercially available Brita® water filters designed to purify drinking water, students determine the chlorine concentration of the purified water using chlorine test strips and measure the adsorption of chlorine onto activated carbon over time. They graph and analyze their results to determine the effectiveness of the filters. The household active carbon filters used are one example of engineer-designed water purification systems.

  11. Acid in water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laszlo Ilyes (None; )

    2007-05-16

    Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

  12. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  13. Introduction to Water Chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GK-12 Program,

    Students are presented with examples of the types of problems that environmental engineers solve, specifically focusing on water quality issues. Topics include the importance of clean water, the scarcity of fresh water, tap water contamination sources, and ways environmental engineers treat contaminated water.

  14. Drought and Water Allocation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Department of Agriculture's Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library has placed a new database online. The Drought and Water Allocation bibliography includes "71 articles on water allocation as it relates to drought and water shortages dated 1992-1999. Competition for water resources, legal rights and remedies, and economic options are highlighted."

  15. Water Resources of Idaho

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website highlights water resources in the state of Idaho. Details about hydrology programs in the state include ground water data, water quality information, water use in the state of Idaho, surface water, Idaho programs, reports, flood and drought information, and state projects on ice core research and various rivers. There are links to more sites for additional information.

  16. Water security for Kuwait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulhadi Al-Otaibi; Mahmoud Abdel-Jawad

    2007-01-01

    Water security depends on the availability of enough water to meet the demand of all consumption sectors at all times. These conditions are hardly met in water rich countries, as the hydrological cycle is not fully reliable. In arid countries, such as Kuwait, where there is no enough natural fresh water, water security is generally based on enough storage capacity

  17. Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

    E-print Network

    Delene, David J.

    #12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv - Boiling Temperature of Water · Ta ­ Ambient Temperature #12 of Vaporization · cw - Specific Heat of Water · Tv ­ Water Boiling Temperature Solve for Liquid Water Content · P

  18. Save Our Water Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Albert W.

    The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water

  19. Human Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    Students learn about the human water cycle, or how humans impact the water cycle by settling down in civilizations. Specifically, they learn how people obtain, use and dispose of water. Students also learn about shortages of treated, clean and safe water and learn about ways that engineers address this issue through water conservation and graywater recycling.

  20. Water Governance and Legislation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-07-31

    Visitors to this site can review Canadian water policy and legislation for both provinces and federal government. Topics include the nature of water, water policy and legislation, water management, water and culture, and links to information and services (a glossary, news articles, and a teachers' corner). A French translation is available.

  1. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By Marc A. Nelson Arkansas Water Resources Center Ron Redman Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission L. Wade Cash Arkansas Water Resources Center G ROAD 76 BRIDGE ON BALLARD CREEK Submitted to: Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By: Marc

  2. Water Basins Civil Engineering

    E-print Network

    Provancher, William

    Water Basins Civil Engineering Objective · Connect the study of water, water cycle, and ecosystems with engineering · Discuss how human impacts can effect our water basins, and how engineers lessen these impacts: · The basic concepts of water basins are why they are important · To use a topographic map · To delineate

  3. Grains, Water Introduction

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

  4. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 9: Water in Agriculture () January 13, 2010 1 / 14 #12;Water in Agriculture Historically: Biggest consumer of water, in developed kilos of sugar. Though the source of water in all the three cases is usually different. Agriculture

  5. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Arkansas Water Resources Center LASER-PHOTOACOUSTIC DETECTION OF WATER POLLUTANTS PHASE I Principal. '. 18 #12;cor~PLETIONREPORT LASER-PHOTOACOUSTICDETECTIONOF WATER POLLUTANTS: PHASEI October ls 1977 their waters. Recognizing that water pollution can pose serious health hazards and unknown long term effects

  6. WATER POLICIES AND GLOBALIZATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Millard W. Hall; Andrew A. Dzurik

    Earth's water managers live constantly with inadequate policy directives; most water policy having been formulated years ago, to serve in situations that no longer exist. Policy makers today prefer directing their attention to sexier, more immediate problems than water, despite constant warnings about expanding threats to the planet's waters. Historically, water policy changes, at any level of government, come slowly.

  7. WATER RECLAMATION AND AUTOMATED WATER QUALITY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Clara Valley Water District owns and operates a water reclamation facility located in the Palo Alto Baylands area in Northern California. The purpose of the facility is to provide reclaimed water suitable for injection into the groundwater, thereby providing a salt wate...

  8. Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for

    E-print Network

    Saldin, Dilano

    - tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water. · A watershed or basin is an area from which all surface waters (rivers, streams and runoff) flow to- ward two important watersheds. East of the divide surface waters flow to Lake Michigan; west of the divide

  9. Sinking and Floating Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    nancy thill

    This activity is a classroom lab where students learn that cold water is denser and hot water is less dense than room temperature water. Students perform an experiment and relate to their background knowledge to make conjectures.

  10. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA?s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  11. It's Your Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the nation's drinking water sources (the rivers, lakes, groundwater, etc. from which water systems derive their water) ... web site [ www.ostgauthor.rtpnc.epa.gov/type/groundwater/index.cfm ] provides information on EPA's implementation of ...

  12. LOPEZ WATER SUPPLY PROJECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles H. Lawrance; Keith G. Tranbarger; Richard A. Drahn

    1971-01-01

    This project, recently completed in San Luis Obispo County, Calif., is an unusual multipurpose water-supply system. It successfully combines water conservation, public water supply, recreation, flood protection, and the preservation of fish and wildlife.

  13. Reduction of Water Consumption

    E-print Network

    Adler, J.

    Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...

  14. Ground Water Remediation Technologies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) conducts research and provides technical assistance to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted by man-made and natural...

  15. Arsenic in Drinking Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Safe Drinking Water Act Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic iHome Basic Information Arsenic Rule Compliance Help State Guidance Training Funding Publications Arsenic Rule at a Glance Maximum Contaminant Level in ...

  16. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

  17. Why Do Eyes Water?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How the Body Works Main Page Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > Why Do ... coming out of your nose. Continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  18. Water: Human Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Quality Standards Water Quality Criteria Human Health Criteria Human Health Criteria Human health ambient water quality criteria ... Updated National Recommended Water Quality Criteria - Human Health Human Health Research Program Human Health Research provides the ...

  19. Lawn Water Management

    E-print Network

    McAfee, James

    2006-06-26

    Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...

  20. Where's the Water?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adventure Engineering,

    In this lesson, the students will conduct an investigation to purify water. Students will engineer a method for cleaning water, discover the most effective way to filter water, and practice conducting a scientific experiment.

  1. About Body Water

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... in Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders > Water Balance ...

  2. Water in the City

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water in the City is part of the Franklin Institute Science Museum's Science in the City Web site. The activity is described as a way to investigate the most precious natural resource in cities. The resources accumulated and presented on the site are held within several areas that include Water Basics, Water Science, Philadelphia Water Ways, Worldwide Water Ways, and References and Activities. The water basics page, for example, contains a glossary of water terminology; water trivia; and information on water myths and realities, dams, water power, conserving water, and keeping water clean. Although most resources are from outside sources, the site does a good job of explaining the concepts and providing kids with a single spot to explore other sites with information on this specific subject.

  3. Water safety and drowning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... among people of all ages. Learning and practicing water safety is important to prevent drowning accidents. ... Water safety tips for all ages include: Learn CPR. Never swim alone. Never dive into water unless ...

  4. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  5. water transport land runoff

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Monitoring station Land to water transport Urban runoff Cultivated land runoff Wastewater discharges Pasture land runoff Instream transport and removal Land to water transport Monitoring station Benefits of Integrated Monitoring and Modeling Successful management of our Nation's water resources

  6. Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms is a helpful collection of resources for water researchers and professionals provided by the Nevada Division of Water Resources and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. This extensive and freely accessed dictionary contains hundreds of words, which are organized alphabetically, making it perfect for searching and printing. Also provided are dozens of appendixes, abbreviations and acronyms, conversion tables and flow equivalents, and more.

  7. Water Resources of Tennessee

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, from the U.S. Geological Survey, provides real-time, surface-water, ground-water and water-quality data; maps and graphs of current water resource conditions in the U.S. such as a daily streamflow conditions map; publications and product information; information on National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) programs of the Tennessee River Basin and Mobile River Basin; and information on water use in Tennessee.

  8. Water Cycle Webquest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students are introduced to the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellite mission and its role in studying the water cycle. This webquest provides links to eight websites, allowing middle school students to explore the water cycle and its impacts on Earth's weather and climate. Through online videos and articles, students follow a water molecule through the cycle, discover the connection between the water cycle and global water/heat distribution, examine the role of solar energy, and assess the importance of fresh water.

  9. Industrial Water Use

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-10

    As part of its Water Science for Schools site, the US Geological Survey defines industrial water use and includes several tables and maps showing where and how industry uses water. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much surface water is used in industry as well as how much of that water is fresh or saline.

  10. Home Water Audit

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National 4-H Council

    2009-01-01

    This activity offers learners and their families several ways to raise their awareness together about home water. Included are a Home Water Audit Chart to help families record their water; a link to an educational film about water and conservation; ideas for family discussions about water use; information about recycling graywater; and math-themed efforts such as creating a pie chart of use and comparing water bills. The cost of this activity is minimal if a calculator is already on hand.

  11. Water Science for Schools

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Excellent teaching resource from U.S.G.S on water, from basic properties to water quality, inventory of world water sources, how to measure streamflow, components of water use patterns, human impacts, offers a quiz in the interactive Activity Center. Site also available in Spanish, interactive diagram with details of water cycle is available in 50 languages. Provides map and data libraries on who uses water and what for purposes, glossary, question and answer page, pictures and related links.

  12. Industrial Water Demand With Water Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Chao-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Ching; Chan, Li-Mei

    2006-06-01

    This work establishes an industrial water demand (IWD) model for a short term estimate, which considers water reuse technologies and discharge regulations, for the integrated circuit (IC) industry in northern Taiwan. Based on the optimization of an industrial water cost system, a computerized system dynamics model (SD model) is developed to generate individual firm IWD using data from year 2000. A market IWD is further constructed for 25 IC firms in the study area and is approximated by an inverse logistic curve. Analytical results demonstrate that price elasticity varies with water price in cases involving water reuse.

  13. Walk On Water Bugs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-01-28

    In this activity (on pages 29-35), learners examine water pollution and filtration. First, learners build models of water bugs from paper clips, and test the effect of dirt and detergent on their "bugs" floating on the water. Next, learners build a water filter using filter paper, a paper towel, and gravel or sand. The "What We Know" section introduces concepts of how much drinking water is found on Earth, water pollution, the impact of pollution on water quality and surface tension—and how that affects specially adapted species such as water striders.

  14. Trees, Soil and Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keith Addison

    2010-01-01

    Trees, soil and water: Journey to Forever - health care for mountains, trees for deserts, trees for people, forest, forestry, deforestation, erosion, soil conservation, water conservation, desertification.

  15. Mission Geography: Water, Water Almost Everywhere

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mission Geography uses existing NASA data and images where possible to engage students in active, hands-on inquiry, modeling the scientific method and developing students' understanding of environment-society relations and Earth science. In this module, students compare the amount of land and water on Earth; consider craters as evidence of a lack of water on other planets; define and locate water bodies found on Earth; and identify changes that occur in these water bodies. The module contains four investigations in which students compare the amounts of land and water on Earth, learn that the presence of craters indicate a dry planet, study and compare water bodies, and explore how water bodies respond to changes in weather and climate. Each investigation is complete with overview, a list of materials and supplies, content preview, classroom procedures, worksheets, background, and evaluation.

  16. 2010 Water & Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Dor Ben-Amotz

    2010-08-13

    Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).

  17. Water-heating dehumidifier

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2006-04-18

    A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.

  18. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for You Consumers FDA Regulates the Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water ... carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled Water" Under FDA labeling rules, bottled water includes products ...

  19. Sustainability and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Virender A.

    2009-07-01

    World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate(VI) technology to meet the demand of water in this century.

  20. Water, Water, Everywhere: Phase Diagrams of Ordinary Water Substance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Glasser

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional phase diagram for ordinary water substance, with its solid, liquid, and vapor phases, based on fitted authentic experimental data is presented. Such an authentic diagram appears not to have been presented for water before, and may improve the understanding of its phase relationships. The nature of the IAPWS-95 equations, fitted to data, is discussed.

  1. Domestic wash water reclamation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.

  2. Water Cycle Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The water cycle is Earth's natural mechanism for transporting and recycling water between the surface and the atmosphere. Through the processes of condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, transpiration, and evaporation, water continuously travels from the atmosphere to the ground and back again. In this animation from NASA, users can observe the steps of the water cycle. The segment is fifty-two seconds in length.

  3. Global Water Distribution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2005-12-17

    How much water on Earth is fresh water? How much of that fresh water is found in icecaps? Lakes? Rivers? This interactive resource uses bar graphs to illustrate the relative distribution of fresh and salt water on Earth. Adapted from Oxford University Press.

  4. Waves and Water Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  5. The Chemistry of Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water may be one of the most familiar substances on the planet, but it certainly isn’t ordinary. In fact, water’s unique chemical properties make it so complicated that even after decades of research, scientists still have much to learn about this remarkable and versatile substance. This web site contains information on research on the structure and behavior of water molecules.

  6. Journal of Ground Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Ground Water Association

    Ground Water is a leading technical publication strictly for ground water hydrogeologists. Each issue of the journal contains peer-reviewed scientific articles on pertinent ground water subjects. Non-members can read abstracts, book reviews and software spotlight columns. Members of the National Ground Water Association can view complete articles online.

  7. Potable water taste enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.

  8. Computer Room Water Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses the protection of computer rooms from water. Sources of water and potentially vulnerable areas in computer rooms are described. Water detection is then discussed, and several detection systems are detailed. Prices and manufacturers' telephone numbers for some of the systems are included. Water cleanup is also briefly considered. (MES)

  9. Water Molecule Residence Times

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sill - Earth Systems Science

    2010-11-16

    How long will a molecule of Water stay in a particular reservoir? What is the average time a molecule of Water will stay in an ocean? What is the average time a molecule of water will stay in a river? A lake? As groundwater? A glacier? How long will a water vapor molecule stay suspended in the atmosphere? Why is the residence ...

  10. Group 8 - Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Mecham

    2006-11-30

    BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...

  11. Water and Something Else.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hougendobler, Nancy

    Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…

  12. Water Recycling in Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Baverstock; B. Green

    1975-01-01

    During lactation, female rodents, dingoes, and kangaroos consume urine and feces excreted by the young. Studies with tritiated water as a tracer for native water showed that roughly one-third of the water secreted as milk was returned to the mother. The results are cogent to studies of water balance of lactation and to current methods used for estimating milk production.

  13. Alabama Water Use, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.

  14. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hauck

    2006-08-26

    Today you will explore the water cycle. Please visit the following websites (in order!) to gather information about the water cycle. Fill out your Information Sheet as you go. 1. Water cycle story 2. Water Cycle--heat 3. animation (Make sure to read the captions at the bottom!) ...

  15. Old Water Pump

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....

  16. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

  17. WATER RESOURCES AND CLIMATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water resources engineers and managers routinely deal with changes in water availability, demand, and usage. The effects of climate change and variations on water resources represent an additional consideration among others. A book “Climate Change, Climate Variations and Water Resources Engineering...

  18. Exploratorium: Exploring Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…

  19. Water Exploration Station

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chicago Children's Museum

    2008-01-01

    In this activity (located on page 3 of the PDF), learners investigate the way water moves and how we can control and direct water. At the Water Exploration Station, learners experiment with various tools like eye droppers, sponges, turkey basters, etc. to move and play with the water. Included in this lesson guide are challenge questions intended to direct the learning.

  20. Can Water Mean Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Maggie, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This issue of UNICEF News explores the theme of connections between water and health in developing countries. The introductory article discusses prospects for improving health through water projects during the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90). Subsequent articles focus on (1) effects of a piped water supply on…

  1. Update: Nebraska's Integrated Water

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    KS GW NE SW NE GW #12;Republican River · Dry year projection of next year's water supply · Track of hydrologically connected water supplies #12;Republican River Republican River Basin Water Supply 0 200 400 600 · Identify opportunities for meeting water supply needs through structural and nonstructural means · Analyze

  2. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    /L,respectively). Nitrate levels in ground water for pike and Howard Counties were all below the 10 mg/L NO3-N drinkingArkansas Water Resources Center RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY OF NITRATE CONCENTRATIONS IN GROUND WATER caused concern regarding nitrate contamination of the ground water. In the study area of Pike and Howard

  3. Chemistry Review: Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    James Kessler

    2010-01-01

    This Review focuses on the many different aspects and states of water. Water is analyzed by its molecular make-up and structure, and the reasons substances dissolve in water are give. Videos and animations are provided to clearly show the set-up of its molecular structure. The relationship between sugar and water molecules are explained in detail, with models as examples.

  4. Hold the Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert; Reichardt, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    Many facilities are considering no-water urinals because they are regarded as an effective way to conserve water. Water must be pumped by electricity, some estimate that as much as $300 per year per urinal can be saved in utility costs. The installation of no-water urinals can help buildings achieve credits toward Leadership in Energy and…

  5. Water Pollution-Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Goller

    1972-01-01

    Water pollution regulations and the types and sources of water pollution common to a ``typical'' cement plant are discussed. With the exception of the problem of totally dissolved solids in ``process'' water, solutions to most of the other water pollution problems common to a cement plant have been known. A solution to the problem of totally dissolved solids in ``process''

  6. Reflections on Water (and \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara C. Malt

    In theories of word meaning and concepts, "water" has been taken as a key case ofa natural kind term, and water of a natural kind. I address several questions including:What should a theory of the meaning of the word "water" look like, given observationsabout use of the word? Is there a category of liquids that is water, independent of thenames

  7. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  8. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Submitted to the Washington County Conservation District and Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission & WATER CONSERVATION COMMISSION INTRODUCTION In Northwest Arkansas, nutrients transported by surface water storage structures. In 1991, the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC) and the U. S

  9. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By M.A. Nelson L.W. Cash G.K. Trost to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission M. A. Nelson, L. W. Cash, and G. K. Trost Arkansas Water Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC) and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA

  10. Kunming experiences water shortage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Chaozhen

    1983-01-01

    This article examines a Chinese city's measures to plan the water supply and conserve water, and to ensure a regular supply of water to drink and use in production. The Kunming city government called an emergency mobilization meeting on water conservation. Kunming has suffered from a severe lack of rainfall over the past 2 years. In order to overcome the

  11. Water Waves Roger Grimshaw

    E-print Network

    Water Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves nonlinear waves. Throughout the theory is based on the traditional assumptions that water is inviscid

  12. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 5: Aquifer () August 16 above and below the ground, which affect the water balance. surface features affect infiltration parameters related to water: Porosity, specific yield n, Sy : the maximum volume fraction of water

  13. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 7: Regional Groundwater than the unit situations that we saw. Surface water/Groundwater interactions. lakes and streams springs (seepage) Ambient water-table movements Seasonal changes Inteference with other water end-users. Inherent

  14. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 8: Wells () August 28, 2012 project, utilizing enhanced ground-water. Water lifted from storage, to accumulate overnight from aquifer. Water from shallow aquifer, of about 7-8m thickness. accounts for about 30% of irrigation Unique

  15. Muddy Waters . . . page 4

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Research Institute · Morse Hall, Durham, NH Water, Water Everywhere asdfghjk -- continued on page 2 HereMuddy Waters . . . page 4 Braving the Storm . . . page 5 Winter 2009 Vol. 8 Issue 1 A River Runs's water sys- tem would be fast disappearing from the face of the earth as the program drew to a close

  16. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    : ground water, geochemical evolution, arsenic, sediment/water interaction, alluvial aquifer, geochemical evolution of arsenic in ground water: tracking sources and sinks in the alluvial aquifer of southeastern Arkansas, USA Basic Information Title: Flow and hydrochemical evolution of arsenic in ground water

  17. The Amazing Water Trick

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    Using two baby food jars, food coloring, and an index card, you'll 'marry' the jars to see how hot water and cold water mix. Besides illuminating the cool fact that an index card can act as a lid (with no water gushing out), this activity also teaches about the differing densities of hot and cold water.

  18. Water Resources News

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Water Resources division of the US Geological Service provides this water news resource, tracking current water-related events and recent publications from across the US. Recent news items include: flooding in Texas, the impacts of Hurricane Bonnie, the release of a USGS report on water use in the US, and stream-flow data from Puerto Rico, to name a few.

  19. Water Resources of Utah

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This U.S. Geological Survey website provides real-time streamflow, surface-water, ground-water, and water-quality data; information on water resource programs of Utah such as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study; maps and graphs of current U.S. water resource conditions; and USGS - Utah reports. The site also features a drought watch section for Utah containing drought definitions and more streamflow conditions; a section on the Upper Arkansas River Basin Toxic-Substances Hydrology Project; and information on contamination in ground water at Fry Canyon, Utah.

  20. Colorado Water Knowledge

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Colorado Water Knowledge Web site is maintained by the Colorado State University Colorado Water Resources Research Institute. The site allows kids to explore all aspects of water science including general facts, a description of the water cycle, stream processes, Colorado geology and water history, major aquifers of the area, aquatic life in local waters, Colorado water laws and regulations, and much more. Although it isn't graphic intensive, the site does a good job of explaining the wide array of concepts using simple descriptions, lists of facts, and a few choice illustrations. [JAB

  1. The Water Sourcebooks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    The Water Sourcebooks contain 324 activities for grades K-12 divided into four sections: K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12. Each section is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters. This environmental education program explains the water management cycle using a balanced approach, showing how it affects all aspects of the environment. All activities contain hands-on investigations, fact sheets, reference materials, and a glossary of terms. Activities are organized by objectives, materials needed, background information, advance preparation, procedures, and resources.

  2. Water Info For Kids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The City of Phoenix Web offers the Water Info For Kids page as part of its larger governmental Web site. Six topics are covered including What is water?, What is the Hydrologic (Water) Cycle?, Where does our water come from?, Who uses water?, How can we take care of water?, and Phoenix water and wastewater facts. Each page contains non-technical text and colorful graphics making it especially good for younger students. And, although a "next" link would make the pages flow better from one to the next, the site does a good job of presenting the material in a fun and challenging way.

  3. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Jersey

    2006-01-01

    Did you know that the water we use today is the same water found on Earth millions of years ago? The Earth constantly uses and recycles water in a process called the water cycle. In this lesson, learners explore the four phases of the water cycle. In the investigation Rain in a Jar, learners use hot water and ice to create condensation and a tiny cloud. In Making a Terrarium, learners create an ecosystem and water cycle by growing plants in a closed environment. Investigation spans several days.

  4. Wash water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (editor)

    1973-01-01

    The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.

  5. The Water Filtration Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This demonstration is designed to demonstrate the procedures that municipal water plants use to purify water for drinking. Students will discover that water treatment plants typically clean water by taking it through the processes of aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. They also learn that water in lakes, rivers, and swamps often contains impurities that make it look and smell bad. The water may also contain bacteria and other microbiological organisms that can cause disease. Consequently, water from surface sources must be cleaned before it can be consumed by people.

  6. The African Water Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Abrams, Leonard John.

    1995-01-01

    Created by Len Abrams, the goal of the African Water Page is to "increase communication on the Continent of Africa between people working in water." Issues for discussion include "water policy, water resource management, water supply and environmental sanitation, water conservation and demand management." Visitors to this page can find information about recent policy initiatives in South Africa, water related documents concerning South Africa, Zimbabwe, the African continent, and some international topics. Also included are links to South and Southern African and International sites.

  7. Irrigation Water Use

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-28

    Part of the USGS Water Science for Schools site, this resource defines irrigation water use and includes several tables and maps showing water use by various irrigation systems, by state, by crop, and by percentage of fresh water available. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much ground water and surface water is used for irrigation. Various irrigation systems are defined, described, and pictured, along with a discussion of their relative efficiencies. A Spanish translation is available.

  8. PREFACE: Water at interfaces Water at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

    2010-07-01

    This special issue is devoted to illustrating important aspects and significant results in the field of modeling and simulation of water at interfaces with solutes or with confining substrates, focusing on a range of temperatures from ambient to supercooled. Understanding the behavior of water, in contact with different substrates and/or in solutions, is of pivotal importance for a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Simulations of confined and/or interfacial water are also relevant for testing how different its behavior is with respect to bulk water. Simulations and modeling in this field are of particular importance when studying supercooled regions where water shows anomalous properties. These considerations motivated the organization of a workshop at CECAM in the summer of 2009 which aimed to bring together scientists working with computer simulations on the properties of water in various environments with different methodologies. In this special issue, we collected a variety of interesting contributions from some of the speakers of the workshop. We have roughly classified the contributions into four groups. The papers of the first group address the properties of interfacial and confined water upon supercooling in an effort to understand the relation with anomalous behavior of supercooled bulk water. The second group deals with the specific problem of solvation. The next group deals with water in different environments by considering problems of great importance in technological and biological applications. Finally, the last group deals with quantum mechanical calculations related to the role of water in chemical processes. The first group of papers is introduced by the general paper of Stanley et al. The authors discuss recent progress in understanding the anomalies of water in bulk, nanoconfined, and biological environments. They present evidence that liquid water may display 'polymorphism', a property that can be present in other liquids also. Recent evidence of a close relation between thermodynamical properties and dynamical behaviour of water are also discussed. Gallo et al present the results of a computer simulation of water confined in a cylindrical pore of MCM-41 silica material. The mobile portion of the confined water shows a fragile to strong dynamic transition similar to the bulk. In the bound water, an anomalous diffusion connected to the residence time distribution is found. Franzese et al report calculations on lattice models adapted to describe general properties of water in contact with protein surfaces. The results of Monte Carlo and mean field calculations show the presence of two-dynamical crossovers. Corradini et al investigate the supercooled region of ionic aqueous solutions in order to study the effect of ions on the limit of mechanical stability, the lines of maximum density and the liquid-liquid critical point for different ionic concentrations. The paper by Vallauri et al deals with the dynamical behavior of water close to the liquid-liquid transition by considering the velocity correlation functions calculated in three supercooled states. Suffritti et al study water adsorbed in zeolites with a new empirical potential, structural and dynamical properties are studied in the supercooled region. The second group starts with a paper on the problem of solvation by Lynden-Bell. The author shows how the properties of water and, in particular, solvation properties are modified by changes in the site-site interaction potential of water. Henchman et al derive equations for different thermodynamical quantities like partial enthalpy and partial entropy for dilute solutions of noble gases. The third group starts with Buldyrev et al who study the swelling of bead-on-a-string polymers in Jagla water-like particles, finding similarities with respect to cold denaturation of protein in water. Pellenq et al consider water confined in pores of different materials with different size scales. Silicalite and tobermorite, a layered calcio-silicate model of cement and Vycor are anal

  9. Water use and sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Gardener, E.V.; Hernandez, E.L. [Denver Water, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Denver Water is not in a water crisis. They have a conservation program because it is one part of wise water management in this semi-arid region. Denver gets less than 15 inches of precipitation each year, and most of that falls as snow in the winter and spring. In the past, Denver had to depend upon storing the water in reservoirs to ensure a supply during the hot, dry summer. Now, Denver Water also works to reduce water use as a method to extend supplies. There are other benefits as well. When water is used efficiently, more water can remain for recreation, wetlands, dilution, natural aesthetics, and habitat for fish and other wildlife. By extending supplies, protecting the environment and saving money, they all help to ensure a sustainable future. The water conservation team has started a three-year Integrated Resource Planning process based upon a book entitled, `Integrated Resource Planning for Water Utilities`.

  10. Vadose zone water fluxmeter

    DOEpatents

    Faybishenko, Boris A.

    2005-10-25

    A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.

  11. WATER RESOURCES NEWS NEBRASKA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    of Water Use; (2) Nonpoint Source Pollution; (3) Meeting Water Requirements; (4) Energy-Water Relationships development. (2) Water Pollution and Water Quality Control - Nonpoint Source Pollution Definition: Degradation of water quality from nonpoint source pollution. (3) Water Use Efficiency Definition: Minimize water use

  12. Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of

    E-print Network

    Scott, Christopher

    Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of Recycled Water Arizona Hydrological.Eng. Global Water 22 September 2008 #12;Overview · The Finite Nature of Water · Water Availability and Population Growth · Types of Reuse · Water Efficiency of Reuse · Power Efficiency of Reuse #12;Water Scarcity

  13. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-12-12

    This interactive diagram of the water cycle invites students to click on a part of the cycle to get information about streamflow, surface runoff, freshwater storage, ground-water discharge, ground-water storage, infiltration, precipitation, snowmelt, runoff to streams, springs, condensation, evaporation, transpiration, water in the atmosphere, ice and snow, and oceans. A summary of the water cycle on a single webpage is also available as text with pictures in about fifty languages, text only in thirteen languages, or diagram only.

  14. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation features a detailed six minute animated lesson about the major processes that move water between land, the ocean and the atmosphere, and convert water between states. This brief clip, (6:05-6:20 beginning with diagram of water cycle and ending with narration ?over and over again?), reinforces the idea that water continually moves between Earth's atmosphere and its land and water.

  15. Ground water and energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  16. American Water Works Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Water Works Association (AWWA) describes its endeavors to improve drinking water quality and supply throughout the world. Visitors can find fact sheets on water pollutants, scientific and public articles, and information on conferences. The educational materials include scholarship opportunities, information about the Water and Wastewater Leadership Center, and a seminar schedule. Researchers can find out about the numerous AWWA's development of products and processes to improve public water quality.

  17. Water Treatment Plant

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.

  18. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation is a detailed, labeled diagram of the water cycle. Included in the representation are the major concepts of evaporation, precipitation and ground infiltration, as well as more advanced ideas such as evapotranspiration, and water storage. Above and below the diagram are several paragraphs that provide an introduction to the water cycle, a quick summary of the parts of the water cycle and information about global water distribution.

  19. Innovative Water Reuse

    E-print Network

    Jaber, F. H.

    2011-01-01

    management 1.Rain gardens 2.Porous pavement 3.Green roofs Hydrologic Cycle ISSUES ? Water Conservation ? Is there enough? ? Can conservation make a difference? ? Water Quality ? Contamination/pollution due to runoff Eagle... (soak and cycle) ? Water slowly for better absorption. Use drip or soaker hoses wherever possible Irrigation BMPs ? Never water on windy days ? Water after 6:00 pm and before 10:00 am to reduce wasteful evaporation ? Maintain a 2 to 4 inch mulch...

  20. Water Treatment Process

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.

  1. Water Resource Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.

  2. National Ground Water Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Ground Water Association

    This web site contains a wealth of information for the groundwater professional and for students of hydrogeology. The site features educational materials, information about conferences, courses and workshops, and a bookstore. There is also a searchable database of abstracts from the journals Ground Water, Ground Water Monitoring Review, Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, and the Water Well Journal. Members of the National Ground Water Association may access these articles directly. Publications, fact sheets and industry links are also available.

  3. Water conservation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Darilek, A. [New Mexico State Engineer Office, Santa Fe, NM (United States). Water Conservation Program; Witherspoon, J. [City of Albuquerque, NM (United States). Public Works Dept.; Hutchinson, D.L. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The paper discusses three water conservation programs: statewide water conservation efforts, a 5-point program of the City of Albuquerque, and the program for recycling wastewater by the Intel Corporation. Water conservation programs depend largely on public education programs. Albuquerque`s program, for example, includes development of a K-12th grade curriculum on water conservation, live theater performances promoting conservation for elementary school children, and collaboration with existing community organizations to promote water conservation.

  4. Water purification using sand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Wotton

    2002-01-01

    Slow sand filters are used to purify drinking water. Each filter consists of a large tank containing a bed of sand through which water passes at typical rates of 0.1–0.3 m h-1. Water is cleaned by physico–chemical and biological processes occurring at the air–water interface, within the bulk water, over the surface of the sand, and within the bed of

  5. Water Filtration and Purity of Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, introduces the concept of water purity. In this activity, students will test a sample of water collected from a local water supply and test its purity and evaluate its safety for consumption by looking for pollutants. Before starting, students should have a grasp on how to convert nanoscale measurements. This lab will take two 50 minute classroom sessions. Teacher Preparation Guides, Student Guides, Water Filtration Presentation, and Next Generation Manufacturing Standards for this lesson are included. 

  6. Water Resources Data, Mississippi, Water Year 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D.P.; Storm, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.

  7. Water Vapor Imagery: Water Vapor Imagery Basics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This self-paced, interactive tutorial enables learners to discover practical uses for water vapor imagery from weather satellites. The module introduces the concept and function of the water vapor channel of satellite imagery, and teaches how to interpret and apply data obtained from the water vapor channel. At the end of the tutorial, links are provided to real world data collected by NASA satellites where learners can apply the skills they have acquired. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Water Vapor Imagery. (Note: requires Java plug-in)

  8. OVERVIEW OF USEPA'S WATER SUPPLY & WATER RESOURCES DIVISION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts a wide range of research on regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water, water distribution systems, homeland security, source water protection, and...

  9. Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

  10. KNOW YOUR WATER a consumer's guide to water sources, quality,

    E-print Network

    Wong, Pak Kin

    ,includingNational Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Standards Quality Parameters and Secondary Drinking Water Standards................29 3.2 National Primary Drinking Water Standards.....32 4. Water Treatment 4.1 Home Water Testing

  11. Nebraska Water Conference Council's Annual Water & Natural Resources Tour

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    - Water Center Coordinating Committee Tim Anderson . . . Central Nebraska Public Power & Irrigation . . . Nebraska Public Power District Steve Ress . . . Water Center, University of Nebraska #12;Nebraska WaterNebraska Water Conference Council's Annual Water & Natural Resources Tour A Year of Experience

  12. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Lish

    2009-04-06

    Students will work with interactive internet resources to learn all about the water cycle. Fourth Grade Science Standard 1 Objective 2: Describe the water cycle. Locate examples of evaporation and condensation in the water cycle (e.g., water evaporates when heated and clouds or dew forms when vapor is cooled). Describe the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Identify locations that hold water as it passes through the water cycle (e.g., oceans, atmosphere, fresh surface water, snow, ice, and ground water). Construct a model or diagram to show how water continuously moves through the water cycle over time. Describe how the water cycle relates to the water supply in your community. Web Quest Links Introduction Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide Introduction Have you ever wondered how water gets from oceans, lakes, streams, or clouds into your glass? Check out the following links to learn more about it! TASK Start out by learning the concepts in this song from Bill Nye! Bill Nye the Science Guy- Water Cycle Jump Look ...

  13. Automatic hot water recovery system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haws

    1982-01-01

    Heat in the hot water lines of a water system is automatically recovered by providing a bridge conduit between the cold water lines and the hot water lines and by depressurizing the hot water lines relative to the cold water lines thereby to automatically direct higher pressure cold water into the hot water lines through the interconnection, which preferably is

  14. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    PubMed

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

  15. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, João P. S.

    2010-01-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855

  16. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  17. World Water Council

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In 1997, the World Water Council had its first official forum in Marrakech, and since then they have continued their work on "critical water issues at all levels." Some of these issues include efficient water conservation, water use management, and other relevant matters. With its compelling visual images and design, the homepage contains sections that provide information on upcoming World Water Forums and some very helpful overviews of their work. One such general overview may be found in the "Water at a Glance" area, which provides information on the nature of freshwater resources around the globe. Persons involved in water policy and international affairs may wish to look over their online library, which includes their annual reports, synopses of materials covered in the Water Forum meetings, and papers such as "The Right to Water: From Concept To Implementation." It is also worth noting that many of the materials on the site are available in French and Spanish.

  18. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  19. Water: Too Precious to Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Geographic World, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)

  20. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  1. Water quality in sustainable water management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhakar M. Rao; P. Mamatha

    Water pollution is a serious problem as almost 70% of India's surface water resources and a growing number of its groundwater reserves have been contaminated by biological, organic and inorganic pollutants. Pollu - tion of surface and groundwater resources occurs through point and diffuse sources. Examples of point source pollution are effluents from industries and from sewage-treatment plants. Typical examples

  2. Water resources data, Kentucky. Water year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.

    1991-12-31

    Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.

  3. Water, water everywhere, and its remarkable chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Barber

    2004-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII), the multisubunit pigment–protein complex localised in the thylakoid membranes of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, uses light energy to drive a series of remarkable reactions leading to the oxidation of water. The products of this oxidation are dioxygen, which is released to the atmosphere, and reducing equivalents destined to reduce carbon dioxide to organic molecules. The water oxidation occurs

  4. Ground Water in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2000-01-01

    Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).

  5. The Management of Water: Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the official water pollution site for Canada. In the introduction, the problem is stated with reference to pollutants of the Great Lakes over 360 chemical compounds have been identified. Many are persistent toxic chemicals - alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, mercury and mirex - potentially dangerous to humans and already destructive to the aquatic ecosystems. In referring to water quality, pollutants, toxic substances, and acid rain in the aquatic environment are discussed along with long-range transport of airborne pollutants and toxic chemicals said to be the legacy of a chemical society. Efforts to control water pollution include a multi-barrier approach to protecting drinking water, stated water quality objectives and guidelines, regulations, and advice on how to be a responsible consumer. Other sections include the effects of pollution and groundwater pollution.

  6. Water Resources of Wyoming

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.

  7. Water Conflict Chronology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water is the limiting factor for terrestrial life on earth, and as human populations have grown and expanded through the centuries, access to clean water has become increasingly political. To chronicle this process, Dr. Peter Gleick of the Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment, and Security has compiled this chronology of water conflicts. The resource describes water conflicts starting in 1503, including the date (year), parties involved, basis of conflict, violent conflict, description, and source(s). Water Conflicts are categorized in six ways: Control of Water Resources, Political Tool, Terrorism, Military Target, and Development Disputes. The Chronology is available in HTML or .pdf formats.

  8. Water Resources Penn.

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water Resources Penn.: The Office of Water Management plans, directs and coordinates departmental programs associated with the management and protection of the CommonwealthÂ?s water resources; administers and oversees departmental programs involving surface and groundwater quantity and quality planning, and soil and water conservation; coordinates policies, procedures and regulations which influence public water supply withdrawals and quality, sewage facilities planning, point source municipal and industrial discharges, encroachments upon waterways and wetlands, dam safety, earth disturbance activities and control of storm water and nonpoint source pollution; and coordinates the planning, design and construction of flood protection and stream improvement projects.

  9. Water gas furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallaro, C.

    1985-12-03

    A water gas furnace comprising an outer container to provide a housing in which coke is placed into its lower part. A water container is placed within the housing. The coke is ignited and heats the water in the container converting it into steam. The steam is ejected into the coke, which together with air, produces water gas. Preferably, pumice stones are placed above the coke. The water gas is accepted into the pores of the pumice stones, where the heated pumice stones ignite the water gas, producing heat. The heat is extracted by a heat exchanger provided about the housing.

  10. Water Illusions: Refraction & Magnification

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    New Jersey

    2006-01-01

    Learners demonstrate how water can distort, refract and magnify light. In an investigation called Underwater Differences, learners do activities including the Broken Pencil, examining how a pencil half-in and half-out of water has its appearance affected by the water, and Stick it to the Bottom, examining how a sticker on a table appears different when seen through a jar of water. In an investigation called Bigger Through Water, learners make a water magnifying loop and use it as a lens to read the newspaper or a magazine. The student journal offers an additional Science @ Home activity about scattering the light from a flashlight.

  11. International Water Association

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A worldwide organization of water professionals, the International Water Association's (IWA) Web site illustrates its commitment "to help water professionals create innovative, pragmatic, and sustainable solutions to challenging global water needs." Visitors can discover IWA's many activities from conferences and forums to task forces. Researchers can discover the various IWS groups that specialize in topics including Source Management, Education, Health, Management Training, and Water Quality Management. Although many of the publications are restricted to members, educators and students can read reports from the Sustainability in Water Sector and abstracts from IWA journals.

  12. Predicting Ground Water Flow

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students learn how to draw ground water contours and understand how ground water flow may be predicted. As they complete this activity students will be able to draw a ground water contour map, have a basic understanding of how to predict the direction of ground water flow and understand the interrelated nature of ground water and surface water flow. They will also learn the difference between a gaining stream and a losing stream and why it is important to know the difference.

  13. Properties of Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Environment Canada (mentioned in the January 21, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) provides the Properties of Water Webpage. Sections included at the page are the hydrologic cycle; rivers; lakes; snowfall; and measuring, storing, and controlling water, among others. The Quick Facts section contains interesting facts, like the following: raindrops resemble the shape of a hamburger bun, 70% of the human body is water, 75% of earth is covered in water, and most of our food is water (tomatoes 95%, spinach 91%, and beef 61%). This site provides detailed information about water and its properties.

  14. Water Resources Research Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQ’s, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.

  15. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  16. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  17. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  18. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  19. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  20. Urban water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, M. O.; Hinkelmann, R.; Nützmann, G.; Jekel, M.; Singer, G.; Lewandowski, J.; Nehls, T.; Barjenbruch, M.

    2014-06-01

    Urban water systems consist of large-scale technical systems and both natural and man-made water bodies. The technical systems are essential components of urban infrastructure for water collection, treatment, storage and distribution, as well as for wastewater and runoff collection and subsequent treatment. Urban aquatic ecosystems are typically subject to strong human influences, which impair the quality of surface and ground waters, often with far-reaching impacts on downstream aquatic ecosystems and water users. The various surface and subsurface water bodies in urban environments can be viewed as interconnected compartments that are also extensively intertwined with a range of technical compartments of the urban water system. As a result, urban water systems are characterized by fluxes of water, solutes, gases and energy between contrasting compartments of a technical, natural or hybrid nature. Referred to as urban water interfaces, boundaries between and within these compartments are often specific to urban water systems. Urban water interfaces are generally characterized by steep physical and biogeochemical gradients, which promote high reaction rates. We hypothesize that they act as key sites of processes and fluxes with notable effects on overall system behaviour. By their very nature, urban water interfaces are heterogeneous and dynamic. Therefore, they increase spatial heterogeneity in urban areas and are also expected to contribute notably to the temporal dynamics of urban water systems, which often involve non-linear interactions and feedback mechanisms. Processes at and fluxes across urban water interfaces are complex and less well understood than within well-defined, homogeneous compartments, requiring both empirical investigations and new modelling approaches at both the process and system level. We advocate an integrative conceptual framework of the urban water system that considers interfaces as a key component to improve our fundamental understanding of aquatic interface processes in urban environments, advance understanding of current and future system behaviour, and promote an integrated urban water management.

  1. GROUND WATER RESEARCH PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document sets out the objectives of the Environmental Protection Agency's ground-water research; specifies the Agency's legislative mandates in ground water; and describes the research activities which support those mandates with explicit time frames; and identifies the clie...

  2. Drinking Water Problems: Perchlorate

    E-print Network

    Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2005-11-18

    Perchlorate is a potential contaminate of well water that can have harmful effects on human health. Methods of removing perchlorate from water are described and illustrated. There is information to help well owners select and maintain treatment...

  3. NPS Water Quality Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This National Park Service, part of the Department of Interior website, looks at issues concerning water quality, policies and objectives, water quality standards, monitoring and the NPS's cooperation with other agencies.

  4. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    CONJUNCTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT BY TARGET APPROACHES PREPARED FOR: WINTHROP ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION CONJUNCTIVE WATER MANAGEMENT BY TARGET APPROACHES PREPARED FOR:, WINTHROP ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION AND;" c by the Winthrop Rockefeller Foundation. Little Rock. and the International Agricultural Programs Office (through

  5. Home Water Use

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matt Laposata

    This lesson provides an overview of water use in the industrialized world, including a discussion of the increasing need for conservation as populations grow and water supplies stay roughly constant. Users can listen to a National Public Radio (NPR) show that discusses water-use restrictions that have been enacted in Las Vegas in response to persistent drought conditions, and review online resources on overall and domestic water use in the United States. The lesson includes a two-part activity in which students use an online calculator and other resources to examine water use in their homes and read some ideas for reducing their water use. In the second part, they will use an online 'drip calculator' from the American Water Works Association to investigate how much water can be lost by slow drips and leakage.

  6. Martian Surface Water Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audouard, J.; Poulet, F.; Vincendon, M.; Milliken, R. E.; Jouglet, D.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gondet, B.; Langevin, Y.

    2014-07-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the water-related 3µm absorption using OMEGA data. We quantify the surface water reservoir using laboratory studies and reveal the distribution of the amorphous hydrated component measured by Curiosity.

  7. MINE DEVELOPMENT SURFACE WATER

    E-print Network

    Boisvert, Jeff

    Mine Engineering Plan Surface Water Components Site Drainage Mine Site Dewatering (If covered Dewatering Open Pit Lake Drain site / Water Disposal Mine Site Runoff Dikes Seepage Underground Mine Rivers

  8. Electrophoretic Clarification of Water

    E-print Network

    Hiler, E. A.; Lyle, W. M.

    There is an ever growing need for new and superior water treatment methods which will remove the alarming growth and variety of pollutants present in our waters. Suspended particulate matter such as clay, algae, and bacteria are troublesome...

  9. Analyzing water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Report on water resources discusses problems in water measurement demand, use, and availability. Also discussed are sensing accuracies, parameter monitoring, and status of forecasting, modeling, and future measurement techniques.

  10. Travelers' Health: Water Disinfection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from water, which is important for ocean voyagers. Chemicals Tablets or packets of powder can be bought ... camping stores to disinfect water. These usually combine chemical disinfectants (such as chlorine or iodine) with a ...

  11. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  12. Earth Water Filter

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-12-17

    In this video segment adapted from ZOOM, cast members try to make the most effective water filter. They experiment with filtering dirty, salty water through different combinations of sand, gravel, and a cotton bandana.

  13. Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2005-12-02

    High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

  14. What's In My Water?

    E-print Network

    Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.

    2003-04-21

    You can learn about the quality of your water by sending a sample to a laboratory for analysis. This publication will help you understand the lab report by explaining the properties, components and contaminants often found in water. It describes...

  15. Bottled Water Basics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... water may be disinfected with chlorine, chlo- ramine, ozone, or ultraviolet light to kill disease-causing germs. ... water that is disinfected is typically disinfected using ozone or other technologies such as ultraviolet light or ...

  16. GROUND WATER SAMPLING ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Obtaining representative ground water samples is important for site assessment and remedial performance monitoring objectives. Issues which must be considered prior to initiating a ground-water monitoring program include defining monitoring goals and objectives, sampling point...

  17. Walking on water

    E-print Network

    Bush, John W. M.

    The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.

  18. Electrostatic Water Attraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Doherty

    2000-01-01

    In this activity, learners conduct a simple experiment to see how electrically charged things like plastic attract electrically neutral things like water. The plastic will attract the surface of the water into a visible bump.

  19. A Simple Water Channel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, A. S.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)

  20. A gathering of water

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, Naomi Leah, 1970-

    2005-01-01

    The act of immersion is a powerful catalyst for the affirmation or transformation of identity. How we place ourselves in water expresses cultural valuations of our bodies, water, and social relations, as well as categories ...

  1. Water Safety (Recreational)

    MedlinePLUS

    Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...

  2. Global Water Availability

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara Boyer

    Short description This activity is an interactive lecture, where students will learn that fresh water is a limited resource. They will also see that drinkable water is not distributed evenly over the earth.

  3. Water Resources Milind Sohoni

    E-print Network

    Sohoni, Milind

    TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Building Numerical Models () August of surface flow of water and infiltration which may include time to flow, movement of solids etc. () August

  4. Primer on Water Quality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not been established for chemical mixtures. What about bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens in water? The quality ... assured by chemical analyses alone. The presence of bacteria in water, which are normally found in the ...

  5. Water Saving for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Ierotheos

    2013-04-01

    The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a permanent cooperation among Public Bodies and Institutions, with the creation of a transferable model of best practices. WaS4D will carry out initiatives and advisory services aimed to encourage a behavior change, influencing citizens' demand and support consumers who wish to take action to reduce drinking water use: for the civil use, from literature, it's possible to reduce drinkable water consumption up to 50% using simple and economic tools, with a large environmental positive impact. WaS4D mainly focuses on the needs to define a participatory approach to enhance water-saving culture at urban level, encouraging a shift from supply-driven policies to management policies and from a sectorial to an integrated approach. The innovative character of the project is referred to the integrated approach as well as to the creation of new web services & tools.

  6. Global Water Sampling Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    Students from around the globe will team up to test fresh water. With this collaborative project, students will compare the water quality of their local river, stream, lake or pond with other fresh water sources around the world. The focus of the project is to assess the quality of water based on physical characteristics and chemical substances, and to look for relationships and trends among the data collected by all project participants.

  7. Water Bottle Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    awl000422

    2011-10-27

    The effect of water bottles and pollution around the world. Print off 3 copies of this form. W s First, let's learn about Water Bottle Pollution records on your w's form what you learned. Now let's learn about jaguars. Jaguars how can jaguars be harmed by water bottle pollution? Project: Create a travel brochure in Publisher using what you learned about water bottle pollution and jaguars. See ...

  8. THE WATER CYCLE

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hughes

    2006-02-18

    DESK Standard: Understand the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Water Cycle Diagram DATES: You can begin this activity on October 16. You should complete it by October 20. OBJECTIVE: You have been learning about the water cycle in class. This activity gives you the chance to review some important vocabulary: evaporation condensation precipitation collection You will watch a short video and complete a water ...

  9. Save water, save money

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA

    1977-01-01

    The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.

  10. Technology in water conservation

    E-print Network

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01

    rely on sound technology to #24;nd leaks so they can be repaired and the volume of water lost can be reduced. Some of these procedures involve walking over pipelines with simple ampli#24;cation equipment, but the ?hearing detection? can also... levels is a major part of water conservation now, and great opportunities for advances exist that will increase its importance in producing water from conservation activities. TECHNOLOGY IN WATER CONSERVATION UNITED How one computer model makes...

  11. Drinking Water Bloopers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These six reminders to younger students are about bad practices that waste or pollute water. These include waiting to fix a leak, using water from the hot water tap when cooking, carelessly discarding motor oil, tossing toxic materials in the trash, watering the lawn in the middle of the day, and using the garbage disposal too much. There is also a link that leads to information about composting.

  12. Ground water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.H.; McCarty, P.L.; Giger, W.

    1985-01-01

    This book covers the sources, types, and quantities of contaminants in ground water, methods for ground water quality research, subsurface characterization in relation to ground water pollution, and transport and fate of subsurface contaminants. It focuses on the scientific and technological challenges and accomplishments in ground water quality research and assesses the state-of-the-art developments in this area on an international scale.

  13. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-08-18

    This lesson was developed to give participants an understanding of Earth's water cycle. In this one-hour long activity, students participate in a webquest to learn about the water cycle, and then build a mini-model of the water cycle to observe how water moves through Earth's four systems. The activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.

  14. The World's Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-08-13

    Supplemental to The World's Water book by Peter Gleick, this site offers data on the world's freshwater resources and uses. Tables and maps provide information on quantity and quality issues including data on access to safe drinking water; waterborne disease outbreaks; desalination capacity; as well as hydroelectric capacity and production. There is also a unique chronology documenting the historical connections between human conflict and water. Additionally there is an expansive list of links to water-relevant agencies and organizations.

  15. Problem: Ballast Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Identifies invasive species as a top threat to world oceans; provides explanation of shipping and ballast water's roles in the spread of marine exotics. Defines ballast water and its use in shipping, includes diagram of ballast tanks and cycle of loading and discharging water. Outlines threats from marine life transported in ballast water and cites examples of species that have invaded new environments in this way.

  16. Ground water: a review.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author

  17. Microbiology of potable water and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the microbiology of potable water and ground water is presented. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) and alternate disinfection practices to reduce trihalomethane. Results of studies utilizing GAC columns are reported as well as studies evaluating ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloromines. Virus removal efficiencies were compared with several disinfectants. Ground water studies demonstrate that biological contaminants can travel large distances underground without substantial attenuation by aquifer material.(KRM)

  18. Clean Water and Oceans: Water Pollution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.

  19. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  20. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  1. Up Goes the Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Water is very important to plants. Plants need water to produce food and grow. Plants make their own food through a complex, sunlight-powered process called photosynthesis. Simply put, in photosynthesis, water absorbed by a plant's roots and carbon dioxide taken from the air by a plant's leaves combine to make the plant's food. This article…

  2. Energy-Water Nexus

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, W.

    2010-07-26

    Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.

  3. Water and Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Paul Anderson

    2013-03-12

    Paul Anderson begins with a brief description of NASA discoveries related to Mars, Mercury and water. He then explains why water is required for life. He finally uses a simulation to show you why water acts as a wonderful solvent and provides a medium for metabolism.

  4. Water Reuse Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)

  5. River water quality monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Canter

    1985-01-01

    This guide gives information required to plan and conduct river water quality studies. These studies are often necessary to establish baseline conditions, set water quality criteria and standards, monitor temporal changes, and determine the impacts of specific projects and developments. Careful planning and implementation of water quality studies are necessary to optimize the gathered information relative to study expenditures. CONTENTS:

  6. Saving Water Saves Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. McMahon; Camilla Dunham Whitehead; Peter Biermayer

    2006-01-01

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32

  7. Water: Clearly Unique!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Chemical Society

    2011-01-01

    In this activity on page 4 of the PDF, learners conduct some quick and easy tests to determine the differences between water and other liquids that look very similar to water. Learners compare how water, rubbing alcohol, and mineral oil repel, absorb, and evaporate.

  8. Drainage water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces a series of papers that report results of field studies to determine the effectiveness of drainage water management (DWM) on conserving drainage water and reducing losses of nitrogen (N) to surface waters. The series is focused on the performance of the DWM (also called contr...

  9. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    This demonstration introduces the concept of water phases and cycling to younger students through observation, drawing, and writing. They will be able to explain how the Earth's water supply is recycled, form a hypothesis as to how/why the water cycle works, and use writing and drawing to explain how the cycle works.

  10. Outdoor Water Conservation

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    L-438 Outdoor Water Conservation The City of OKLAHOMA CITY UTILITIES DEPARTMENT Oklahoma.JustinQ.Moss 1 #12;2 SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR CREATING A WATER CONSERVING LANDSCAPE 1. GOOD LANDSCAPE PLANNING University Water Saving Design Ideas for Oklahoma Landscapes #12;About this guide: The

  11. The Water Cycle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Baker

    2011-04-18

    What happens in each stage of the water cycle? First, watch this video to learn about each stage of the water cycle. video Next, click on this link to read more facts about each stages of the water cycle.

  12. All About Water!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about the differences between types of water (surface and ground), as well as the differences between streams, rivers and lakes. Then, they learn about dissolved organic matter (DOM), and the role it plays in identifying drinking water sources. Finally, students are introduced to conventional drinking water treatment processes.

  13. Water and Economic Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward B. Barbier

    2004-01-01

    Several hydrological studies forecast a global problem of water scarcity. This raises the question as to whether increasing water scarcity may impose constraints on the growth of countries. The influence of water utilisation on economic growth is depicted through a growth model that includes this congestible nonexcludable good as a productive input for private producers. Growth is negatively affected by

  14. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Keywords -- Agriculture / Pesticides / Water Quality / Poultry Waste / Surface Runoff / Solute TransportArkansas Water Resources Center EFFECT OF LAND APPLICATION OF POULTRY WASTE ON PESTICIDE LOSS June and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas Publication No. PUB-158 Arkansas Water

  15. Water related otitis externa.

    PubMed

    Kujundzi?, Milodar; Braut, Tamara; Manestar, Dubravko; Cattunar, Albert; Malvi?, Goran; Vukeli?, Jelena; Puselja, Zeljko; Linsak, Dijana Tomi?

    2012-09-01

    Water influences skin inflammation of the external auditory canal. The common term for this illness is "swimmer's ear". Contributory factors are length of exposure to water, type of water and water pollution. The aim of the study was to compare risks for contracting the disease between patients with different exposure to swimming pool water. A retrospective case-control analysis of patients at the ENT-clinic was performed. Swimmers and water polo players swam in a swimming pool chlorinated by an automatic swimming pool cleaning system. Water sport players had a higher risk for ear skin inflammation than football players. Senior football players compared with players younger than 13 were not at increased risk. Swimmers and water polo players older than 13 were at higher risk. Swimmers were at higher risk than football players as well as water polo players. There was no difference for the risk of otitis externa between swimmers and water polo players. Swimmers and water polo players compared with other patients of the ENT-clinic were at higher risk than football players. Frequent and longer exposure to water has been proved to increase the risk of external auditory canal inflammation. PMID:23213950

  16. Enceladus' Water Vapour Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Candice J.; Esposito, L.; Colwell, J.; Hendrix, A.; Matson, Dennis; Parkinson, C.; Pryor, W.; Shemansky, D.; Stewart, I.; Tew, J.; Yung, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the discovery of Enceladus water vapor plumes is shown. Conservative modeling of this water vapor is also presented and also shows that Enceladus is the source of most of the water required to supply the neutrals in Saturn's system and resupply the E-ring against losses.

  17. PRINCIPLES OF WATER FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...

  18. Cleaner Water in Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Balow; Ann Marie Paparelli; Qian Song

    2011-01-01

    There are 1.1 billion people in the world who do not have access to clean water. Fresh drinking water has been a major concern among African countries for a very long time. Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda are among those that face a great shortage of clean water. The problem is especially severe in rural areas. The major reasons of for

  19. Water Quality Information Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Water Quality Information Center's database of "Online Documents Covering Water and Agriculture" has an improved interface and more titles. You can now access more than 1,700 documents. The topics include things such as, irrigation, social and legal issues, regional information, water availability and quality.

  20. EPA Student Center: Water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Here are links to EPA and non-EPA resources to help students learn more about water treatment, pollution, and protection. Topics covered include watersheds, wetlands, aquatic ecosystems, marine sanctuaries, water science, and more. This site includes a downloadable program demonstrating how pollutants collect in fish, and a water-efficient landscaping program.

  1. Water Quality Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain

    2004-01-01

    Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…

  2. Water Chemistry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindin, Ervin

    1975-01-01

    Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)

  3. Wind power freshens water

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlor, V.; Sidorov, V.

    1981-01-01

    A wind-powered lighthouse water-freshening installation was installed at lighthouse locations along the Caspian Sea's coast and at one of the collective farms in the Moldavian SSR. From sea water containing up to 36 grams of salts per liter, fresh water with up to 1 gram per liter was produced. Output was 60 liters per hour.

  4. AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

  5. NOAA Water Cycle Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The resource is a role-playing game in which students take on the role of a water molecule and travel through nine compartments of the water cycle to gain a better understanding for the true complexity of the movement of water.

  6. Discover the Water Cycle!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive tour of the water cycle allows students to follow a water molecule from a home's plumbing system as it follows different routes through the hydrologic cycle. Students learn about how water is used, treated, and returned to the natural environment where it can cycle through liquid, solid, and gas phases.

  7. Growing Water Pearls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…

  8. Water and Conflict

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1996-01-01

    This expansive site provides information about water and its relation to conflict throughout the world. There are numerous articles about and links to information on water laws, disputes, and issues.The site also lists various water-related meetings and conferences being held around the world.

  9. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  10. Arkansas Water Resources Center

    E-print Network

    Soerens, Thomas

    Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission By Marc A. Nelson, Ph.D., P.E. L. Wade Cash of Moores Creek above Lincoln Lake 2003 Submitted to the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission M composting, and waste storage structures. In 1991, the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission (ASWCC

  11. Water Conservation in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hayder A. Abdel-Rahman; Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid

    1993-01-01

    Limited resources and growing needs for water have triggered a nationwide campaign for water conservation in the Sultanate of Oman. A land and soil survey study of Oman shows the availability of more arable land than present water resources could support. Groundwater is the main source for agricultural production. Overpumping at rates higher than the natural recharge has resulted in

  12. Water Conservation Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  13. Water Management in Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Tortajada

    2006-01-01

    Water has become an issue of national security for most countries of the world, Singapore being one of them because of its dependence on imports of water from Malaysia. In order to reduce its dependence on external sources, this city–state has developed and implemented extremely efficient demand and supply management practices. In addition to imports of water and land reclamation,

  14. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  15. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH); Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH)

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  16. Water Resource Adaptation Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...

  17. EPANET WATER QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...

  18. International Water Facility

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mohamed Kassas (University of Cairo; )

    2001-02-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article proposes a global initiative to address water shortages because: about 1/3 of world's population does not have enough drinking water, almost half of world's land is without water, converting arid land to fertile land can reduce global warming, and better technology, such as desalination, would give us greater access to freshwater.

  19. USGS Water Management

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    USGS Water Management: The USGS provides maps, reports, and information to help others meet their needs to manage, develop, and protect America's water, energy, mineral, and land resources. Some of the seventeen topics included here are flood forecasting, reservoir management, water allocation and bioremediation.

  20. Saving Water Saves Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter

    2006-06-15

    Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.