Meek, Mariah H.; Wintzer, Alpa P.; Wetzel, William C.; May, Bernie
Climate change and invasive species can both have negative impacts on native species diversity. Additionally, climate change has the potential to favor invasive species over natives, dealing a double blow to native biodiversity. It is, therefore, vital to determine how changing climate conditions are directly linked to demographic rates and population growth of non-native species so we can quantitatively evaluate how invasive populations may be affected by changing conditions and, in turn, impact native species. Cordylophora caspia, a hydrozoan from the Ponto-Caspian region, has become established in the brackish water habitats of the San Francisco Estuary (SFE). We conducted laboratory experiments to study how temperature and salinity affect C. caspia population growth rates, in order to predict possible responses to climate change. C. Caspia population growth increased nonlinearly with temperature and leveled off at a maximum growth rate near the annual maximum temperature predicted under a conservative climate change scenario. Increasing salinity, however, did not influence growth rates. Our results indicate that C. caspia populations in the SFE will benefit from predicted regional warming trends and be little affected by changes in salinity. The population of C. caspia in the SFE has the potential to thrive under future climate conditions and may subsequently increase its negative impact on the food web. PMID:23071559
Mant, R C; Moggridge, G; Aldridge, D C
In recent years biofouling from native (bryozoans, sponges) and non-native (Cordylophora) animals has increased in UK water treatment works (WTW). A survey of six UK water companies and eight WTWs revealed that these taxa were more widespread and abundant than previously recognised. Primary problems related to the occlusion of underfloor nozzles and tailpipes in rapid gravity filter beds (RGFs). These cost the UK water industry pound 1.49 m between 2005 and 2009. Additional impacts came from skin irritation to operatives from sponge spicules and the potential for elevated bacterial pathogen levels. Sponges penetrated the furthest through the water treatment process, reaching the point of final chlorination at one WTW. A monitoring plate study showed pronounced seasonality in fouling, with most taxa peaking in mid to late summer before a winter die-off. Control options, including the use of chlorine, and the importance of resistant stages for each taxon are discussed. PMID:21902018
Cordylophora caspia, a colonial hydrozoan native to the Ponto-Caspian region, has become a common invader of both fresh and brackish water ecosystems of North America and Europe. Here we describe 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci for this species. Preliminary analyses indicate ...
R. C. Mant; G. D. Moggridge; D. C. Aldridge
Cordylophora caspia is a hydrozoan which causes biofouling in power plants and is an increasing problem in UK drinking water treatment works. Thermal control is not usually feasible without a ready source of hot water so laboratory experiments were conducted to assess whether using pulsed doses of chlorine is an alternative solution. C. caspia polyps disintegrated after a single 20 min
Mant, R C; Moggridge, G D; Aldridge, D C
Cordylophora caspia is a hydrozoan which causes biofouling in power plants and is an increasing problem in UK drinking water treatment works. Thermal control is not usually feasible without a ready source of hot water so laboratory experiments were conducted to assess whether using pulsed doses of chlorine is an alternative solution. C. caspia polyps disintegrated after a single 20 min dose (the length of one backwash cycle in water treatment work filter beds) of 2.5 ppm chlorine. Without further treatment colonies regenerated within 3 days, but repeated dosing with chlorine for 20 min each day inhibited this regeneration. The resistance of surviving colonies to chlorine increased over time, although colony size and polyp regeneration continued to fall. These results suggest pulsed treatment with chlorinated backwashes at 2 ppm could be used to control C. caspia biofouling in rapid gravity filters and this may have relevance to other settings where thermal control is not feasible. PMID:22554274
Lader, Pål; Fredriksson, David W.; Guenther, Jana; Volent, Zsolt; Blocher, Nina; Kristiansen, David; Gansel, Lars; Decew, Jud
The present study investigated the drag increase on aquaculture nets due to biofouling of the colonial hydroid Ectopleura larynx. It had two main parts: firstly the growth characteristics of E. larynx were investigated by use of field tests at a Norwegian aquaculture site; secondly the hydrodynamic drag on the fouled twines was studied in a towing tank by using fabricated models of net twines with artificial hydroid fouling. In the field tests, the growth of the hydroids was first measured after three weeks of immersion and then again after six weeks. During this interval, the density of hydroids and the thickness of the hydroid stem were almost constant (1.4 hydroids/mm and 0.29 mm, respectively), while the average length of the hydroids increased from 6.4 to 11.2 mm. The hydroid length followed a Rayleigh distribution, while the thickness was normal (Gaussian) distributed. Replicas of twines with three different levels of hydroid growth were made (1.5 hydroids/mm twine, hydroid length 9 mm, 16 mm and 20 mm), and the drag on these twines was measured at different towing velocities (0.1 to 1.4 m/s) and with different twine configurations. For the twine with the shortest hydroids (9 mm), the drag was from 1.5 times ( Re=4000) to 2.2 times ( Re=1000) the drag on a clean twine. For the longest hydroids (21 mm), the drag was 2 times and 3.8 times, respectively.
Altuna, Alvaro; Murillo, Francisco J; Calder, Dale R
Five species of aglaopheniid hydroids (Aglaophenopsis cornuta, Cladocarpus diana, C. formosus, C. integer, and Nematocarpus ramuliferus) were collected from the Flemish Cap, Flemish Pass, and Grand Banks of Newfoundland during surveys with bottom trawls, rock dredges, and scallop gear. All are infrequently reported species, with C. diana being discovered for the first time since its original description from Iceland. We document here the southernmost collections of C. diana and N. ramuliferus, both previously unknown in the western Atlantic. Each of the five species is described and illustrated based on fertile material, a key is provided for their identification, and bathymetric distributions are noted. Known depth ranges are extended for A. cornuta, C. diana, and C. integer. Aglaophenopsis and Nematocarpus are recognized as genera distinct from the polyphyletic Cladocarpus, based on the unique structure of the phylactocarp in the former, and the existence of appendages with nematothecae (ramuli) on almost all thecate internodes of hydrocladia in the latter. These appendages occur even in the absence of gonothecae, and are here considered defensive structures that protect the hydranths. In differing from typical phylactocarps, we accept the contention that they are characters of generic value. PMID:25112767
Madin, Laurence P.; Bollens, Stephen M.; Horgan, Erich; Butler, Mari; Runge, Jeffrey; Sullivan, Barbara K.; Klein-Macphee, Grace; Durbin, Edward; Durbin, Ann G.; Van Keuren, Donna; Plourde, Stéphane; Bucklin, Ann; Elizabeth Clarke, M.
Hydroids are typically attached, benthic cnidarians that feed on a variety of small prey. During sampling on Georges Bank in spring 1994, we found huge numbers of hydroids suspended in the plankton. They fed on young stages of copepods that are an important prey for fish, as well as on young fish themselves. Two independent methods were used to estimate feeding rates of the hydroids; both indicate that the hydroids are capable of consuming from 50% to over 100% of the daily production of young copepods. These results suggest that hydroids can have a profound effect on the population dynamics of zooplankton and young fish on Georges Bank.
Hydroids are important fouling organisms. Ayers and Turner (1952) reported that 265 ol the known 2,000-3,000 species have this propetty. Euclentlriunz, Tubulmia, Clytia, Obelia, and PlumuJaria were among those implicated. A square foot of surface may support several pounds of hydroid fouling ( Ayers and Turner, 1952). Little is known about the bathymetric distribution of hydroids. Fraser has discussed some
Avent, Sean R.; Bollens, Stephen M.; Butler, Mari; Horgan, Erich; Rountree, Rodney
Planktonic colonial hydroids ( Clytia gracilis) recently have been found to be abundant, but patchily distributed in time and space, on Georges Bank, northwest Atlantic Ocean. However, the processes regulating the occurrence of these hydroid colonies (i.e., seasonality, growth, advection, diffusion, sinking, and predation) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the potential role of predation by fish upon the unattached hydroids. The two components of this study were (i) analyses of historical fish trawl surveys and stomach contents data collected in the coastal northwest Atlantic Ocean (including Georges Bank), and (ii) laboratory experiments testing for the presence of selective feeding by juvenile cod ( Gadus morhua) on hydroids relative to two co-occurring planktonic copepods ( Calanus finmarchicus and Centropages hamatus). We found that 32 and 11 species of fish ingested hydroids in the coastal northwest Atlantic Ocean and Georges Bank, respectively, during 1973-1990. However, hydroids were rarely an important part of the diet of these fishes. The most important predator of these cnidarians on Georges Bank was winter flounder, with 28.0% of its population having ingested hydroids, with a mean % (by weight) of hydroids in the diet of 4.1%, during 1973-80. Laboratory experiments indicated juvenile cod ingested planktonic hydroids, but overwhelmingly preferred either of the two copepods as prey. While field and laboratory results indicated that a wide variety of fishes feed on hydroids, we concluded that emergences and disappearances of planktonic hydroids on Georges Bank are not greatly impacted by fish predation. Other factors, in particular physical processes (i.e., advection, diffusion, and sinking), seasonal cycles of activity and inactivity, and predation by invertebrates, should be examined.
Knight, D P
With histochemical methods, the perisarc and a certain cell type in Laomedea flexuosa have been shown to contain a catecholamine. The only catecholamine detected in methanolic extracts of the hydroid is dopamine. It is thought to be transferred from spherical inclusions in these cells to the perisarc and to be involved in sclerotization. The dopamine-containing cells appear to differentiate in specific regions of the colony and migrate out to all other regions by active amoeboid movement between ectodermal epithelial cells. The rivets (or desmocytes) contain an unidentified phenolic substance and may also be sclerotized structures. PMID:18631526
lack a comprehensive, up-to-date treatise like the one by Cornelius (1995) for the thecate hydroids Anthoathecata (Cornelius, 1995) will be revised, as will the supraspecific taxa where necessary. Taxa for which
Thilagam, H; Gopalakrishnan, S; Vijayavel, K; Raja, P Vivek
The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established a suite of methods that use coastal invertebrate species as bioassay organisms to test industrial and domestic effluent as well as coastal waters for potential toxicity. Although these methods are used globally, the potential of such toxicity tests has not been adequately explored for Asian coastal waters. This study describes bioassay utilizing the gametes of Hydroides elegans to monitor coastal water quality and is based on the sensitivity of H. elegans embryo and larva to different concentrations of effluents and water samples collected from different regions of east coast of India. Among the water samples collected from different regions, seawater from Ennore station showed decrease in percentage of development, and 25% effluent concentration led to development arrest of H. elegans embryos. The different morphological effects produced by effluents clearly reflect the defect in early differentiation of embryonic cells. Since fertilization can be inhibited in the presence of any xenobiotic, both fertilization and early development can be used as a biological indicator for a rapid bioassay to monitor pollution. Toxicity tests utilizing early life stages of H. elegans are suitable for the assessment of effects produced by low levels of pollutants due to their high sensitivity to various contaminants relative to other marine species and also due to the relative simplicity of the bioassay. PMID:18317832
Pettengill, J B; Wendt, D E; Schug, M D; Hadfield, M G
The polychaete tubeworm Hydroides elegans (Haswell) is a biofouling species with relatively limited larval dispersal. Four highly polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to make inferences about the migration and global population structure of 137 individuals from seven sub-populations located in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and in the Mediterranean Sea. The results of the genetic analyses suggest minimal population sub-structure (F(st) = 0.09). Estimates of pairwise F(st) and migration rates using the coalescent-based method of MIGRATE suggest that there is little genetic differentiation between certain populations. Variation in relatedness among pairs of populations is consistent with a suite of local and global factors. The most likely explanation for close genetic relatedness among certain populations over such vast distances is the regular and consistent transport of adults and larvae on the hulls and in the ballast water of ships, respectively. PMID:17653927
Harmata, Katherine L.; Somova, Emily L.; Parrin, Austin P.; Bross, Lori S.; Glockling, Sally L.; Blackstone, Neil W.
ABSTRACT The gastrovascular system of colonial hydroids is central to homeostasis, yet its functional biology remains poorly understood. A probe (2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) identified fluorescent objects at polyp-stolon junctions that emit high levels of ROS. A nuclear probe (Hoechst 33342) does not co-localize with these objects, while a mitochondrial probe (rhodamine 123) does. We interpret these objects as mitochondrion-rich cells. Confocal microscopy showed that this fluorescence is situated in large columnar cells. Treatment with an uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol) diminished the ROS levels of these cells relative to background fluorescence, as did removing the stolons connecting to a polyp-stolon junction. These observations support the hypothesis that the ROS emanate from mitochondrion-rich cells, which function by pulling open a valve at the base of the polyp. The open valve allows gastrovascular fluid from the polyp to enter the stolons and vice versa. The uncoupler shifts the mitochondrial redox state in the direction of oxidation, lowering ROS levels. By removing the stolons, the valve is not pulled open, metabolic demand is lowered, and the mitochondrion-rich cells slowly regress. Transmission electron microscopy identified mitochondrion-rich cells adjacent to a thick layer of mesoglea at polyp-stolon junctions. The myonemes of these myoepithelial cells extend from the thickened mesoglea to the rigid perisarc on the outside of the colony. The perisarc thus anchors the myoepithelial cells and allows them to pull against the mesoglea and open the lumen of the polyp-stolon junction, while relaxation of these cells closes the lumen. PMID:26231625
Harmata, Katherine L; Somova, Emily L; Parrin, Austin P; Bross, Lori S; Glockling, Sally L; Blackstone, Neil W
The gastrovascular system of colonial hydroids is central to homeostasis, yet its functional biology remains poorly understood. A probe (2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate) for reactive oxygen species (ROS) identified fluorescent objects at polyp-stolon junctions that emit high levels of ROS. A nuclear probe (Hoechst 33342) does not co-localize with these objects, while a mitochondrial probe (rhodamine 123) does. We interpret these objects as mitochondrion-rich cells. Confocal microscopy showed that this fluorescence is situated in large columnar cells. Treatment with an uncoupler (2,4-dinitrophenol) diminished the ROS levels of these cells relative to background fluorescence, as did removing the stolons connecting to a polyp-stolon junction. These observations support the hypothesis that the ROS emanate from mitochondrion-rich cells, which function by pulling open a valve at the base of the polyp. The open valve allows gastrovascular fluid from the polyp to enter the stolons and vice versa. The uncoupler shifts the mitochondrial redox state in the direction of oxidation, lowering ROS levels. By removing the stolons, the valve is not pulled open, metabolic demand is lowered, and the mitochondrion-rich cells slowly regress. Transmission electron microscopy identified mitochondrion-rich cells adjacent to a thick layer of mesoglea at polyp-stolon junctions. The myonemes of these myoepithelial cells extend from the thickened mesoglea to the rigid perisarc on the outside of the colony. The perisarc thus anchors the myoepithelial cells and allows them to pull against the mesoglea and open the lumen of the polyp-stolon junction, while relaxation of these cells closes the lumen. PMID:26231625
Ryan S. Schwarz; Linda Hodes-Villamar; Kelly A. Fitzpatrick; Matthew G. Fain; Austin L. Hughes; Luis F. Cadavid
Animal taxa display a wide array of immune-type receptors that differ in their specificities, diversity, and mode of evolution.\\u000a These molecules ensure effective recognition of potential pathogens for subsequent neutralization and clearance. We have characterized\\u000a a family of putative immune recognition molecules in the colonial hydroid Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus. A complementary DNA fragment with high similarity to the sea urchin l-rhamnose-binding
Symbiotic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and residing in the tropical hydroid Myrionema amboinense acclimate to low photon flux associated with low light 'shade' environments by increasing the amount of photosynthetic pigments per algal cell. The photosynthetic light intensity (PI) curves suggested that the low-light pigment response involved an increase in the number of photosynthetic units (PSU) in the chloroplast in addition to any increases in PSU size. Comparisons of light-dependent portion of the P-I curves of freshly isolated zooxanthellae (FIZ) with those from symbionts within the intact animal suggest that the host cell environment reduced average light levels reaching the symbiotic algae by more than half. This phenomenon may protect the algae from photobleaching of pigments and/or photoinhibition of photosynthesis at high light intensities present in shallow water habitats. In addition, maximum photosynthesis (P(max)) of symbionts removed from the host cell was higher than that recorded from dinoflagellates in the intact association, suggesting that the availability of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis may be limited in the intact hydroid. Shaded polyps contained fewer zooxanthellae and had less tissue biomass (measured as protein) than unshaded polyps. However symbionts from shaded polyps acclimated to the low light intensities by increasing chlorophyll levels and photosynthetic rates. The higher photosynthetic rates may have resulted from increased availability of carbon dioxide associated with lower symbiont density. Calculations of the contribution of zooxanthellae carbon to the host animal's respiratory demand (CZAR) showed that zooxanthellae from shaded polyps living in the field potentially provide about the same amount of carbon to their host as zooxanthellae from polyps living in the field in unshaded high light intensities. PMID:11137502
Chan, Vera Bin San; Li, Chaoyi; Lane, Ackley Charles; Wang, Yanchun; Lu, Xingwen; Shih, Kaimin; Zhang, Tong; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen
As a consequence of anthropogenic CO2-driven ocean acidification (OA), coastal waters are becoming increasingly challenging for calcifiers due to reductions in saturation states of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals. The response of calcification rate is one of the most frequently investigated symptoms of OA. However, OA may also result in poor quality calcareous products through impaired calcification processes despite there being no observed change in calcification rate. The mineralogy and ultrastructure of the calcareous products under OA conditions may be altered, resulting in changes to the mechanical properties of calcified structures. Here, the warm water biofouling tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, was reared from larva to early juvenile stage at the aragonite saturation state (?A) for the current pCO2 level (ambient) and those predicted for the years 2050, 2100 and 2300. Composition, ultrastructure and mechanical strength of the calcareous tubes produced by those early juvenile tubeworms were examined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation. Juvenile tubes were composed primarily of the highly soluble CaCO3 mineral form, aragonite. Tubes produced in seawater with aragonite saturation states near or below one had significantly higher proportions of the crystalline precursor, amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) and the calcite/aragonite ratio dramatically increased. These alterations in tube mineralogy resulted in a holistic deterioration of the tube hardness and elasticity. Thus, in conditions where ?A is near or below one, the aragonite-producing juvenile tubeworms may no longer be able to maintain the integrity of their calcification products, and may result in reduced survivorship due to the weakened tube protection. PMID:22912726
Calder, Dale R.
Three seamounts flanking the oceanic island of Bermuda were sampled for hydroids. Collecting was undertaken by submersible (SDL-1) and by dredge at depths between 48 and 107 m on the summits of Argus and Challenger banks. A shallower collection (<20 m) from the pilings of a tower on Argus Bank was made using SCUBA. Major bottom types on both banks were aggregations of rhodoliths, limestone reefs, and areas of calcareous sand. Hydroids were ubiquitous, but quite sparse, on firm substrata. None was collected on sandy bottoms. Of 45 species identified from the two oceanic banks, over half (25) were found on both. On Bowditch Seamount, samples were obtained at depths between 1285 and 1381 m by dredge and grab. Of four species found, only one ( Filellum serratum) occurred in shallower collections from Argus and Challenger banks. Most species (43 of 48) from the three seamounts have been reported elsewhere in the Western Atlantic Tropical region, and many (38 of 48) are known from Bermuda. No endemics were discovered, and no relicts or exotics were recognized. Gonophores in >70% of the species are fixed sporosacs instead of free medusae. This conforms with a hypothesis that invertebrates of oceanic islands and seamounts tend to have short-lived pelagic larval stages, ensuring the greatest retention and conservation of propagules.
Galea, Horia R; Ferry, Romain
A new species of hydroid, Podocoryna martinicana sp. nov., is described from the Lesser Antilles. It lives symbiotically with Iridopagurus caribbensis (A. Milne-Edwards & Bouvier, 1893) (Decapoda: Paguridae) inhabiting various gastropod shells. Its colonies are highly organized and develop exclusively around the aperture of the host shell. A few large, columnar gastrozooids provided with numerous tentacles arise from a perisarc-covered stolonal mat on the inner lip of the shell, and appear to form a gate when the hermit is withdrawn, while numerous, small, highly prolific gonozooids dress a line on the edge of the outer lip. Slender, very contractile tentaculozooids occur variably among the colonies. The dispersive stage, a free-swimming medusa with four well-developed marginal tentacles and no ocelli, is solely described based on young, sexually immature specimens. The species is further characterized by the peculiar bright white tinge of the core of both hydroid and medusa tentacles. Rich illustrations, data on the nematocyst complement, as well as comparisons with related congeners are provided. PMID:26106712
Gopalakrishnan, S; Thilagam, H; Raja, P Vivek
A toxicity test was developed to examine the effects of heavy metal contaminants on the early life stages of the marine polychaete. We have studied the effects of metals on fertilization and early development of marine polychaete Hydroides elegans. These heavy metals have often been found in polluted ground and water near industrial discharges, and have therefore been detected from time to time in the food chain. They have been reported to alter various reproduction functions in various animals including marine populations. The toxic effect of mercury, cadmium, lead, nickel and zinc on sperm viability, fertilization, embryogenesis and larvae of H. elegans was examined. We observed that the rate of fertilization decreased when the sperm was incubated with heavy metals. Treatment of eggs with each metal did not prevent fertilization, but delayed or blocked the first mitotic divisions, and altered early embryonic development. All these effects were observed at relatively high concentrations. However, bio-accumulation in sediments and aquatic organisms have been reported. Polychaete eggs may then be in contact with very high concentrations of these heavy metals in areas where these metals are not handled or stocked properly, and then develop into abnormal embryos. In addition to bivalves and sea-urchins, polychaete embryos can provide biological criteria for seawater quality standards taking into account the sensitivity of the invertebrates and their contribution in detection of harmful chemicals with no marked effect on the species. Our results indicate that the early development of H. elegans is highly sensitive to heavy metals and this polychaete can be routinely employed as a test organism for ecotoxicity bioassays in tropical and subtropical regions. PMID:18022210
Hwang, Dong Soo; Masic, Admir; Prajatelistia, Ekavianty; Iordachescu, Mihaela; Waite, J Herbert
Many marine invertebrates utilize biomacromolecules as building blocks to form their load-bearing tissues. These polymeric tissues are appealing for their unusual physical and mechanical properties, including high hardness and stiffness, toughness and low density. Here, a marine hydroid perisarc of Aglaophenia latirostris was investigated to understand how nature designs a stiff, tough and lightweight sheathing structure. Chitin, protein and a melanin-like pigment, were found to represent 10, 17 and 60 wt.% of the perisarc, respectively. Interestingly, similar to the adhesive and coating of marine mussel byssus, a DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) containing protein and iron were detected in the perisarc. Resonance Raman microprobe analysis of perisarc indicates the presence of catechol-iron(III) complexes in situ, but it remains to be determined whether the DOPA-iron(III) interaction plays a cohesive role in holding the protein, chitin and melanin networks together. PMID:23791678
Cantero, Álvaro L Peña
A number of benthic hydroid species inhabiting the Southern Ocean are insufficiently characterized. A revision of eight little-known Antarctic species of the order Anthoathecata was made, based on the study of type material. Some of the species have not been recorded since their original description a century ago. Four species (Bimeria corynopsis, Bougainvillia macloviana, ?Koellikerina belgicae and Rhizorhagium antarcticum) belong to the family Bougainvilliidae, two species (Hydractinia angusta and H. dendritica) to the family Hydractiniidae, Perarella clavata to the family Cytaeididae and, finally, Rhysia halecii to the family Rhysiidae. For each species a list of synonyms, a description, a discussion on its relationship with other species and its systematic position, and an account of its autecological data are given. All records found in the literature have been checked. PMID:26249498
González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano
In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.
Gopalakrishnan, S; Thilagam, H; Raja, P V
The toxicity of heavy metals to marine invertebrates has been widely investigated; however, the effects on marine sedentary polychaetes have largely been ignored. The toxicity of copper, aluminium, lead, nickel, and zinc on fertilization, embryogenesis, and larvae of Hydroides elegans was examined in laboratory acute-toxicity tests. Exposure to metal during fertilization or early developmental stages leads to fertilization block and arrested development, which resulted in morphologic abnormalities in embryo and larvae. Fertilization rate showed a drastic decrease at the highest metal concentration tested. Embryos of H. elegans showed a differential response to metals, and the responses were stage-specific. The different morphologic effects of heavy metals reflect differentiation of the early embryonic cells. For individual metals, the toxicity ranking for 24-hour trochophore larvae was Cu > Al > Pb > Ni > Zn, with EC(50) values of 0.122, 0.210, 0.231, 0.316, and 0.391 mg l(-1), respectively. Rate of larval development and embryogenesis were the most sensitive end points, although the latter is more advisable for routine assessment of seawater quality because of its greater simplicity. In addition to bivalves and sea urchins, polychaete embryos can provide biologic criteria for seawater quality taking into account the sensitivity of a polychaete and contributing to the detection of harmful chemicals with no marked effect on the species currently in use in seawater quality bioassays. PMID:17165103
The marine hydroid Plumularia setacea has a near-cosmopolitan distribution. As in other sessile invertebrates with limited dispersal abilities, the wide distribution could also be a taxonomic artefact and the species might in fact be a complex of sibling species. To investigate this, a set of worldwide samples of P. setacea and several closely related species was examined using the mitochondrial markers 16S and COI, as well as the nuclear marker ITS. The results suggest an even higher degree of genetic diversity than expected. Almost all sampled regions had only private haplotypes and the resulting trees split into a multitude of geographically delimited lineages, this both for the mitochondrial and nuclear markers. In the framework of a genealogical species concept, these lineages would qualify as cryptic species. Using alternative species concepts, the results could be reconciled with traditional taxonomy by regarding P. setacea as a single species with an extensive population subdivision. A rapid molecular clock, limited dispersal abilities, and localized clonal propagation are likely the factors that explain the high but dispersed genetic diversity within this species. PMID:24602986
Chan, Vera Bin San; Vinn, Olev; Li, Chaoyi; Lu, Xingwen; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Schopf, J William; Shih, Kaimin; Zhang, Tong; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen
The serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans, is an ecologically and economically important species whose biology has been fairly well studied, especially in the context of larval development and settlement on man-made objects (biofouling). Nevertheless, ontogenetic changes associated with calcareous tube composition and structures have not yet been studied. Here, the ultrastructure and composition of the calcareous tubes built by H. elegans was examined in the three early calcifying juvenile stages and in the adult using XRD, FTIR, ICP-OES, SEM and Raman spectroscopy. Ontogenetic shifts in carbonate mineralogy were observed, for example, juvenile tubes contained more amorphous calcium carbonate and were predominantly aragonitic whereas adult tubes were bimineralic with considerably more calcite. The mineral composition gradually shifted during the tube development as shown by a decrease in Sr/Ca and an increase of Mg/Ca ratios with the tubeworm's age. The inner tube layer contained calcite, whereas the outer layer contained aragonite. Similarly, the tube complexity in terms of ultrastructure was associated with development. The sequential appearance of unoriented ultrastructures followed by oriented ultrastructures may reflect the evolutionary history of serpulid tube biominerals. As aragonitic structures are more susceptible to dissolution under ocean acidification (OA) conditions but are more difficult to be removed by anti-fouling treatments, the early developmental stages of the tubeworms may be vulnerable to OA but act as the important target for biofouling control. PMID:25600412
Zhang, Yu; Sun, Jin; Xiao, Kang; Arellano, Shawn M; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Qian, Pei-Yuan
Larval settlement and metamorphosis of a common biofouling polychaete worm, Hydroides elegans, involve remarkable structural and physiological changes during this pelagic to sessile habitat shift. The endogenous protein molecules and post-translational modifications that drive this larval transition process are not only of interest to ecologists but also to the antifouling paint industry, which aims to control the settlement of this biofouling species on man-made structures (e.g., ship hulls). On the basis of our recent proteomic studies, we hypothesize that rapid larval settlement of H. elegans could be mediated through changes in phosphorylation status of proteins rather than extensive de novo synthesis of proteins. To test this hypothesis, 2D gel-based multiplexed proteomics technology was used to monitor the changes in protein expression and phosphorylation status during larval development and metamorphosis of H. elegans. The protein expression profiles of larvae before and after they reached competency to attach and metamorphose were similar in terms of major proteins, but the percentage of phosphorylated proteins increased from 41% to 49% after competency. Notably, both the protein and phosphoprotein profiles of the metamorphosed individuals (adult) were distinctly different from that of the larvae, with only 40% of the proteins phosphorylated in the adult stage. The intensity ratio of all phosphoprotein spots to all total protein spots was also the highest in the competent larval stage. Overall, our results indicated that the level of protein phosphorylation might play a crucial role in the initiation of larval settlement and metamorphosis. PMID:20666481
of Lytocarpia orientalis (Billard, 1908). The following 15 species are new records for Indonesian waters Billard, 1925. Halecium simplex Pictet, 1893 is transferred to Mitrocomium, as M. simplex, n. comb. Thecocarpus perarmatus Billard, 1908 is transferred to Lytocarpia, as L. perarmata, n. comb., and T
Choong, Henry H C
Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America. PMID:25781750
Chan, Vera B. S.; Thiyagarajan, Vengatesen; Lu, Xing Wen; Zhang, Tong; Shih, Kaimin
The majority of marine benthic invertebrates protect themselves from predators by producing calcareous tubes or shells that have remarkable mechanical strength. An elevation of CO2 or a decrease in pH in the environment can reduce intracellular pH at the site of calcification and thus interfere with animal’s ability to accrete CaCO3. In nature, decreased pH in combination with stressors associated with climate change may result in the animal producing severely damaged and mechanically weak tubes. This study investigated how the interaction of environmental drivers affects production of calcareous tubes by the serpulid tubeworm, Hydroides elegans. In a factorial manipulative experiment, we analyzed the effects of pH (8.1 and 7.8), salinity (34 and 27‰), and temperature (23°C and 29°C) on the biomineral composition, ultrastructure and mechanical properties of the tubes. At an elevated temperature of 29°C, the tube calcite/aragonite ratio and Mg/Ca ratio were both increased, the Sr/Ca ratio was decreased, and the amorphous CaCO3 content was reduced. Notably, at elevated temperature with decreased pH and reduced salinity, the constructed tubes had a more compact ultrastructure with enhanced hardness and elasticity compared to decreased pH at ambient temperature. Thus, elevated temperature rescued the decreased pH-induced tube impairments. This indicates that tubeworms are likely to thrive in early subtropical summer climate. In the context of climate change, tubeworms could be resilient to the projected near-future decreased pH or salinity as long as surface seawater temperature rise at least by 4°C. PMID:24265732
... bugs. These chemicals may be washed into our water supply. Lead pipes. Lead can cause health problems for people, especially babies, children, and pregnant women. Lead gets into drinking water from the pipes that carry the water in ...
Clark, E.A.; Pechersky, M.J.
Holographic Interferometry and strain gauge measurements were used to determine whether a prototype Hydride Storage Vessel (HSV) swelled while it was loaded in eleven stages with hydrogen. Bed swelling is inferred from deformation of the surface of the HSV. No swelling was detected, even after saturating the hydride material inside the HSV. The large chunky morphology of the titanium is likely responsible for the lack of wall stress. This morphology also implies that decay helium that remains in the titanium hydride (that is, helium that is not released as gas to the free volume) should not cause significant wall stresses when the HSV is used for long-term tritium storage. Holographic interferometry proved to be an extremely sensitive technique to measure swelling, having a detection limit of about 3 microns surface displacement.
... Water helps you digest food, absorb nutrients from food, and then get rid of the unused waste. Water is found in foods—both solids and ... plenty of fluids. Water helps you digest your food, absorb nutrients, and then get rid of unused waste. Go4Life has tips to help you add liquids ...
Southern hemisphere deep-water stylasterid corals including a new species, Errinalabrosa sp. n. (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Stylasteridae), with notes on some symbiotic scalpellids (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Scalpellidae).
Pica, Daniela; Cairns, Stephen D; Puce, Stefania; Newman, William A
A number of stylasterid corals are known to act as host species and create refuges for a variety of mobile and sessile organisms, which enhances their habitat complexity. These include annelids, anthozoans, cirripeds, copepods, cyanobacteria, echinoderms, gastropods, hydroids and sponges. Here we report the first evidence of a diverse association between stylasterids and scalpellid pedunculate barnacles and describe a new stylasterid species, Errinalabrosa, from the Tristan da Cunha Archipelago. Overall, five stylasterid species are found to host eight scalpellid barnacles from several biogeographic regions in the southern hemisphere (Southern Ocean, temperate South America and the southern Indo-Pacific realms). There is an apparent lack of specificity in this kind of association and different grades of reaction to the symbiosis have been observed in the coral. These records suggest that the association between pedunculate barnacles and hard stylasterid corals has a wide distribution among different biogeographic realms and that it is relatively rare and confined largely to deep water. PMID:25632246
Understanding the patterns and dynamics of biological invasions is a crucial prerequisite to predicting and mitigating their potential ecological and economic impacts. Unfortunately, in many cases such understanding is limited not only by ignorance of invasion history, but also b...
Messing, C. G.; Reed, J. K.; Brooke, S. D.
Exploration of deep-water bioherms dominated by the scleractinian corals Lophelia pertusa and Enallopsammia profunda along the east coast of Florida in ~400-800 m depth reveals an often dense and rich assemblage of small (~1-30 mm) epifauna on dead coral branches, which is often dominated by agglutinated astrorhizacean foraminifers accompanied by thecate and athecate hydroids, sponges, stylasterids, anemones and barnacles. The dominant agglutinated foraminifer is an arborescent form up to 15 mm tall, consisting of a basal tube that gives rise to branchlets of successively decreasing diameter and thickly coated with fine-grained material including coccoliths and diatom frustules. The large numbers of foraminifers generate an enormous adhesive, sediment-trapping surface area and may represent an important accelerated route for sediment deposition and bioherm growth relative to baffling of suspended sediment particles by the coral branches themselves. These foraminifers also occur on still living coral, suggesting that they may either contribute to coral death or invade stressed colonies. They may thus be responsible for or contribute to the small percent of living corals observed in many of these habitats. Other epifauna appear to colonize after the coral has died.
Reijnen, Bastian T.; van der Meij, Sancia E.T.; van Ofwegen, Leen P.
Abstract An overview of the octocoral and hydrozoan host species of pygmy seahorses is provided based on literature records and recently collected field data for Hippocampus bargibanti, Hippocampus denise and Hippocampus pontohi. Seven new associations are recognized and an overview of the so far documented host species is given. A detailed re-examination of octocoral type material and a review of the taxonomic history of the alcyonacean genera Annella (Subergorgiidae) and Muricella (Acanthogorgiidae) are included as baseline for future revisions. The host specificity and colour morphs of pygmy seahorses are discussed, as well as the reliability of (previous) identifications and conservation issues. PMID:21747677
Understanding patterns of post-establishment spread by invasive species is critically important for the design of effective management strategies and the development of appropriate theoretical models predicting spatial expansion of introduced populations. Here we explore genetic ...
Everybody knows that children love water and how great water play is for children. The author discusses ways to add water to one's playscape that fully comply with health and safety regulations and are still fun for children. He stresses the importance of creating water play that provides children with the opportunity to interact with water.
This is a short NASA video on the water cycle. The video shows the importance of the water cycle to nearly every natural process on Earth and illustrates how tightly coupled the water cycle is to climate.
Water Resources TD 603 Lecture 1: Water Quality and Water Treatment CTARA Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay 2nd November, 2011 #12;OVERVIEW Water Quality WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TREATMENT PLANTS WATER TRE OVERVIEW OF THE LECTURE 1. Water Distribution Schemes Hand Pump
Moura, Carlos J
Twenty-seven species of hydroids were collected from the peaks (35-42 meters depth) of the Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic) during the oceanographic campaign 'LusoExpedição Olympus 2008'. Twenty-one of these species are new for the Gorringe Bank that now has published records for a total of 37 hydroid species. Lafoeina tenuis, Sertularella ellisii and Clytia hemisphaerica were the most abundant hydroid species collected. Results revealed spatial differences in the composition of species assemblages along the summits of the Gorringe, as only 14 of the species sampled were found both in the Ormonde and Gettysburg seamounts. The large density of algae at the peaks of the seamounts sustain a considerable hydrozoan diversity (23 species), but visibly inhibits the establishment of hydroids to the rocky substrates (only 2 species found). All the known hydrozoan species from the peaks of the Gorringe were exclusively collected during summer, thus sampling in other seasons may reveal further hydrozoan diversity due to seasonal patterns of growth of algae and hydroids. Nevertheless, the reasonably high levels of hydrozoan biodiversity demonstrated only from a small portion the summits of the Gorringe, corroborate its seamounts as 'biodiversity hotspots'. In agreement with previous investigations with shallow-water molluscs and sponges, the shallow-water hydroid fauna of the Gorringe revealed greater biogeographical affinities with the Mediterranean and mainland Portugal. This is the first report of Eudendrium armatum outside of the Mediterranean. PMID:26249487
Turbid water Clear water pixel position cameraresponsecameraresponse pixel position ABSTRACT: A new the backscatter component resulting in enhanced performance in turbid waters. The system is expected to provide-submerged mines in turbid coastal waters. To extract high resolution bathymetric information optically from turbid
Keep Our Water Clean Keep Our Water Clean Home and garden pesticides and fertilizers are polluting residues wash into gutters, storm drains, and streams by rain,garden watering,or cleaning up drinking water. Follow these tips to keep our rivers, creeks, and oceans clean. What can you do to protect
Eberhard, Marc O.
-based unit investigating the journey of your drinking water from source to tap a variety of sources (the tap, after being filtered, a stream or pond, the toilet, smelly water, colored 1 Water, water everywhere, but is it safe to drink? An Inquiry
Fahey, John A.
The brain needs energy, oxygen, and water to operate. Access to the bathroom pass can become a major conflict between teachers and students and has great potential for disrupting classes. The classroom can be humanized by granting more bathroom passes and allowing water bottles. (MLH)
Water is a major component in many consumer products. Azeotropic distillation of products such as detergents and foodstuffs to form a two-phase distillate is a simple experimental method to determine the percentage of water in the product. (Author/GA)
... Causes of Drinking and Recreational Water Outbreaks* Top 5 Causes - Drinking Water Outbreaks Giardia Legionella Shigella Norovirus Campylobacter Top 5 Causes - Recreational Water Outbreaks Cryptosporidium Pseudomonas Shigella Legionella ...
The first part of this article describes the current understanding of the dynamic interaction between protein folding and function and water, dependent on the polarity of water. The second part examines the role of water in converting organic matter into oil and coal by summarizing the history and result of experiments done over the last 13 years by Exxon researchers. Water under pressure and at high temperatures (300 C) can act as a solvent, a catalyst, and a reagent. Organic molecules can be fragmented by high temperature, but water and brine can also fragment them, sometimes more effectively. The actual mechanism by which water works is still a matter of active investigation, but the fact that it can be involved in oil formation could weak havoc on established ideas. Among the possibilities in the immediate future using hot water include the following: introducing hydrogen to coal for easier liquefaction and cost reduction; add hydrogen to low quality oil deposits for better quality and easier extraction; increasing the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol production; breaking down petroleum based wastes to reduce environmental contamination.
Van De Walle, Carol
Describes a two-day field trip, along with follow-up classroom activities and experiments which relate to water resources and water quality. Discusses how trips to a lake and water treatment facilities can enhance appreciation of water. (TW)
Howard Jr., Ronald A.
This 3-ring binder contains teaching plans for 12 lessons on topics such as "Water in Our Daily Lives," "The Water Cycle," "Amazing Aquifers," "Water and Soil," "Aquatic Ecosystems," and "Water Wise Use." Accompanying ...
Sible, Kathleen P.
Describes how problems with water drainage on the playground, and the resulting puddles, provided a wealth of learning opportunities, children's fun, family-school communication, and challenges for one early childhood program. (KB)
This USGS site contains very useful descriptions about many aspects of ground water. The major topics include Ground Water, How Ground Water Occurs, Quality of Ground Water, Appraising the Nation's Ground-Water Resources, and a Glossary. This is a non-technical site, designed for use by the general public. Several charts and diagrams are also included in this site.
A home use water treatment incorporates technology developed to purify water aboard Space Shuttle Orbiters. The General Ionics Model IQ Bacteriostatic Water Softener softens water and inhibits bacteria growth in the filtering unit. Ionics used NASA silver ion technology as a basis for development of a silver carbon dense enough to remain on top of the water softening resin bed.
Materials for teaching a unit on water pollution are provided in this teaching package. These materials include: (1) a student reading booklet; (2) a reference booklet listing a variety of popular chemical, biological, and physical tests which can be performed on a local waterway and providing information about the environmental effects and toxic…
... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include adding fluoride to ...
... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...
... RWI) Water Disinfection for Travelers Water-related Diseases, Contaminants, and Injuries Be Healthy. Think Healthy. Swim Healthy. ... Contact CDC-INFO Parasites About Parasites Animals Blood Food Insects Water Education and Training CDC Bottle Bioassay ...
Water treatment on a large scale enables the supply of clean drinking water to communities. In this activity, learners develop methods to clean a polluted water sample, describe components of a water treatment process, and learn how humans impact Earth's freshwater supply. The activity simulates methods used in real water treatment including aeration, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. This activity would be an excellent adjunct to a guided tour of a local water treatment plant.
Water quality is important not only because of its linkage to the availability of water for various uses and its impact on public health, but also because water quality has an intrinsic value. he quality of life is often judged on the availability of pristine water. ontamination ...
In many communities, schools are among the largest facilities and house the highest concentrations of daytime population. They create a huge demand for water. Even in regions with abundant water supplies, an increase in demand stresses local capacity, and water becomes more expensive. However, with the help of innovative products that reduce water…
WGBH Educational Foundation
In this outdoor water activity, learners explore evaporation by painting with water and tracing puddles. Learners will discover that wet things become dry as the water evaporates. This activity is part of the curriculum Explore Water, related to Peep and the Big Wide World, a preschool science series on public television. The activity starts on page 36 of the PDF.
Mayorova, T D; Kosevich, I A
Serotonin is a widespread neurotransmitter which is present in almost all animal phyla including lower metazoans such as Cnidaria. Serotonin detected in the polyps of several cnidarian species participates in the functioning of a neural system. It was suggested that serotonin coordinates polyp behavior. For example, serotonin may be involved in muscle contraction and/or cnidocyte discharge. However, the role of serotonin in cnidarians is not revealed completely yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural system of Cladonema radiatum polyps. We detected the net of serotonin-positive processes within the whole hydranth body using anti-serotonin antibodies. The hypostome and tentacles had denser neural net in comparison with the gastric region. Electron microscopy revealed muscle processes throughout the hydranth body. Neural processes with specific vesicles and neurotubules in their cytoplasm were also shown at an ultrastructural level. This work demonstrates the structure of serotonin-positive neural system and smooth muscle layer in C. radiatum hydranths. PMID:23515698
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature IRSN Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles ZMUC Zoological Museum Copenhagen, Denmark ZMHC Zoological Museum of Harvard College, USA ZSM
as follows: Starting with the point of Cape Cod as the northern and eastern limits, following the New England of the Gulf Stream, which is followed until off Cape Cod. These limits embrace, roughly, the area that can is indebted to many naturalists for material that he failed to secure himself, and has endeavored to briefly
Buss, Leo W.; Anderson, Christopher P.; Perry, Elena K.; Buss, Evan D.; Bolton, Edward W.
The distribution and absorption of ingested protein was characterized within a colony of Podocoryna carnea when a single polyp was fed. Observations were conducted at multiple spatial and temporal scales at three different stages of colony ontogeny with an artificial food item containing Texas Red conjugated albumin. Food pellets were digested and all tracer absorbed by digestive cells within the first 2–3 hours post-feeding. The preponderance of the label was located in the fed polyp and in a transport-induced diffusion pattern surrounding the fed polyp. After 6 hours post-feeding particulates re-appeared in the gastrovascular system and their absorption increased the area over which the nutrients were distributed, albeit still in a pattern that was centered on the fed polyp. At later intervals, tracer became concentrated in some stolon tips, but not in others, despite the proximity of these stolons either to the fed polyp or to adjacent stolons receiving nutrients. Distribution and absorption of nutrients is sequentially diffusive and directional. PMID:26359660
The morphology and histology of the planula larva of Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) and its metamorphosis into the primary polyp are described from light microscopic observations. The planula hatches as a differentiated gastrula. During the lecithotrophic larval period, large ectodermal mucous cells, embedded between epitheliomuscular cells, secrete a sticky slime. Two granulated cell types occur in the ectoderm that are interpreted as secretory and sensorynervous cells, but might also be representatives of only one cell type with a multiple function. The entoderm consists of yolk-storing gastrodermal cells, digestive gland cells, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes. The larva starts metamorphosis by affixing its blunt aboral pole to a substratum. While the planula flattens down, the mucous cells penetrate the mesolamella and migrate through the entoderm into the gastral cavity where they are lysed. Subsequently, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes migrate in the opposite direction, i.e. from entoderm to ectoderm. Then, the polypoid body organization, comprising head (hydranth), stem and foot, all covered by peridermal secretion, becomes recognisable. An oral constriction divides the hypostomal portion of the gastral cavity from the stomachic portion. Within the hypostomal entoderm, cells containing secretory granules differentiate. Following growth and the multiplication of tentacles, the head periderm disappears. A ring of gland cells differentiates at the hydranth's base. The positioning of cnidae in the tentacle ectoderm, penetration of the mouth opening and the multiplication of digestive gland cells enable the polyp to change from lecithotrophic to planktotrophic nutrition.
In this lesson, students study the availability of water on Earth and discuss methods that can be used to purify and conserve this critical resource. Using multimedia interactives, video, and classroom activities, they will identify sources of fresh water available for consumption, understand the need for water conservation, and compare the benefits and drawbacks of different water management techniques. They will also assess how much water they and their families typically use, and think about ways to reduce their water usage. Finally, students explore different techniques being employed for water management around the world, including the use of dams to create reservoirs.
Tazioli, Silvia; Di Camillo, Cristina Gioia
The relationship between the suctorian Ephelota gemmipara and the large hydroid Eudendrium racemosum from the North Adriatic Sea has been studied over its full annual cycle. Ephelota gemmipara settles on the perisarc of the hydroid, usually close to the hydranths in order to exploit the hydroid's food discharges. The life cycle of E. gemmipara is influenced by temperature variations and by its relationship with the host. The hydroid shows an active phase in the summer, and it gets through the adverse winter season forming resting stages. In April, when temperature increases, the hydroid starts its active phase and it is colonized by suctorians. From May to September the suctorians produce multiple buds (swarmers) that detach from the parental cells to settle on an Eudendrium colony. The abundance of the suctorian peaks in September, with more than 1.2 million ind. m(-2). Their proliferation coincides with the maximal abundance of their host and the highest water temperatures. On the contrary, sexual reproduction and the encystment occur when the temperature and the abundance of E. racemosum decrease. Lastly, we also report the presence of symbionts such as bacteria and the parasitic protozoans Tachyblaston ephelotensis and Enigmocoma acinetarum. PMID:23711377
Water cycle concepts and basics including the distribution of water on the planet in oceans, rivers and lakes, glaciers and atmosphere. Defines basic terms: states of water, evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, melting. Good illustrations, maps and photos. Excellent list itemizes human uses and impacts on water and the water cycle. Links to more detailed references are provided, case studies illustrate current concerns and issues in Ontario, Canada.
This USGS site contains graphs, tables, and charts for the following ground water topics: What is ground water, ground water flow diagrams, importance of groundwater, and trends in ground-water use. Ground water quality, pesticides, aquifers, waterwells, artesian wells, sinkholes, and land subsidence are also covered. There are a variety of links within all of the above topics and a very complete glossary, as well as numerous charts, maps, photographs and illustrations.
Many cities worldwide have gone beyond the limits of their water supply. Growing urban populations increase their demand for water, thereby straining local water supplies and requiring engineers to seek our even more distant water sources. It is costly to build and maintain reservoirs, canals, pumping stations, pipes, sewers, and treatment plants. Water supply activities require much energy and chemicals, thereby contributing to environmental pollution. Many cities are beginning to manage the water supply rather than trying to keep up with demand. Pumping ground water for Mexico City's 18 million residents (500,000 people added/year) surpasses natural replenishment by 50% to 80%, resulting in falling water tables and compressed aquifers. Mexico City now ambitiously promotes replacement of conventional toilets with 1.6 gallon toilets (by late 1991, this had saved almost 7.4 billion gallons of water/year). Continued high rural-urban migration and high birth rates could negate any savings, however. Waterloo, Ontario, has also used conservation efforts to manage water demand. These efforts include retrofit kits to make plumbing fixtures more efficient, efficiency standards for plumbing fixtures, and reduction of water use outdoors. San Jose, California, has distributed water savings devices to about 220,000 households with a 90% cooperation rate. Boston, Massachusetts, not only promoted water saving devices but also repaired leaks and had an information campaign. Increasing water rates to actually reflect true costs also leads to water conservation, but not all cities in developing countries use water meters. All households in Edmonton, Alberta, are metered and its water use is 1/2 of that of Calgary, where only some households are metered. Tucson, Arizona, reduced per capita water use 16% by raising water rates and curbing water use on hot days. Bogor, Indonesia, reduced water use almost 30% by increasing water rates. In the US, more and more states are mandating use of water-efficient plumbing fixtures. Multilateral development agencies have identified some developing country cities as demonstrated sites for urban water conservation. PMID:12286138
The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.
stream_source_info Marketing water savings.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9143 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marketing water savings.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2... partnering to develop water conserva- tion programs for McKinney (see story on page 14). Fort Worth is working on an educa- tional plan with Dallas Water Utilities and the Tarrant Regional Water District. In addition, Dallas has its Save Dallas Water...
de Graaf, I. E. M.
The world's largest accessible source of freshwater is hidden underground. However it remains difficult to estimate its volume, and we still cannot answer the question; will there be enough for everybody? In many places of the world groundwater abstraction is unsustainable: more water is used than refilled, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions in the world unsustainable water use will increase in the coming decades, due to rising human water use under a changing climate. It would not take long before water shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to prevent such large water conflicts. The world's largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water these aquifers contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add thickness and geohydrological information to these aquifer maps, we can estimate how much water is stored and its flow direction. Also, data on groundwater age and how fast the aquifer is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource. Ultimately, if we can provide this knowledge water conflicts will focus more on a fair distribution instead of absolute amounts of water.
Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina
Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks – are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528
Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina
Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water - specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and rainwater from personal rainwater tanks - are each perceived very differently by the public, (2) external events out of the control of water managers, such as serious droughts or floods, had a minimal effect on people's perceptions of water, (3) perceptions of water were stable over time, and (4) certain water attributes are anticipated to be more effective to use in public communication campaigns aiming at increasing public acceptance for drinking purposes. The results from this study can be used by a diverse range of water stakeholders to increase public acceptance and adoption of water from alternative sources. PMID:24742528
Grade 6-10 geography lesson plan evaluating population growth and water availability in the United States and in other countries. Students will learn how to draw bar graphs and develop plans of action for water scarcity problems.
Bowen, H. J. M.
Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)
... scientists discovered that people who lived where drinking water supplies had naturally occurring fluoride levels of approximately 1 ... is the process of adding fluoride to the water supply so the level reaches approximately 0.7 ppm, ...
Topics discussed in this literature review with 173 references dealing with the microbiology of aquatic ecosystems include microbial indicators of water pollution, and the microbial ecology of water. Solar radiation and naturally occurring microbial predators are important forces in the natural self-purification of polluted surface waters. The relationship between water quality and microbiology of river systems and natural lakes is discussed.(KRM)
This resource introduces students to the idea of saline water. Topics include how saline water is defined and how dissolved salt concentrations are expressed (parts per million). Parameters for the various ranges of salinity (fresh to highly saline, or seawater) are also presented, and there is a brief discussion of water quality considerations regarding saline water. Links to additional information are embedded in the text.
Salomonson, V. V.; Rango, A.
The application of ERTS-1 imagery to the conservation and control of water resources is discussed. The effects of exisiting geology and land use in the water shed area on the hydrologic cycle and the general characteristics of runoff are described. The effects of floods, snowcover, and glaciers are analyzed. The use of ERTS-1 imagery to map surface water and wetland areas to provide rapid inventorying over large regions of water bodies is reported.
Learners take a field trip along a local body of water and conduct a visual survey to discover information about local land use and water quality. Learners document their findings by mapping and profiling the water body. They can upload their measurements via the internet to a GLOBE scientist. Learners also use this initial investigation to raise questions about local land use and/or water quality issues that may require further study.
Water Cycle fun From water cycle Web Quest Links Introduction Task Process Evaluation Conclusion Resources Teacher Guide Introduction Luke Warm, a weather man, and you will help two baseball players understand why the big game might be rained out. You will explore the Water cycle and ...
Students are asked to design methods to filter water using ordinary materials, while also considering their designs' material and cost efficiencies. They learn about the importance of water and its role in our everyday lives. They come to understand what must occur each day so that they can have clean water.
The Aqualizer is designed to cleanse water with minimal use of chemicals by stabilizing the ions in the water. Its applications are both recreational and industrial. A non-electrical passive device, the Aqualizer operates on the principle of catalytic water conditioning. It consists of a stainless steel pipe length with a helical core and is offered in a variety of sizes depending on the quantity of water to be treated. The device is based on NASA silver ionization technology used to purify drinking water aboard the Apollo spacecraft.
This web site showcases Lenntech's Complete Water treatment and Air filtration solutions. This company designs, manufactures and installs complete air and water treatment system solutions. Lenntech proclaims, "Our wide range of technologies and extended know-how in all water-related sectors will guarantee you a cost-efficient solution meeting your water quality requirements." Whether or not you're looking to purchase one of these fine water treatment systems, the site will still provide beneficial resources about how said systems operate.
stream_source_info Computerized Waters.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7109 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Computerized Waters.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 tx H2O | pg.../WRAP modeling system. Hoffpauir traveled to Armenia to help that country work on water modeling and availability. tx H2O | pg. 10 Computerized Waters Currently, the state has about 8,000 active water right permits. TCEQ requires that permit applicants...
This activity was developed to get students thinking about the many ways that people use freshwater and how we can conserve this precious and fundamental natural resource. Students will watch a short documentary describing issues related to clean water availability, analyze water-use data and start to think about how they consume and can conserve water. This background knowledge will lead to students collecting data about their own water use and finding areas in their lives to conserve water. This activity uses the 5E instructional model and is part of the "Survivor Earth" series of one-hour lessons.
EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER CONSERVATION Leadership Team Subcommittee: Joan Bradshaw Michael Dukes Pierce Jones Kati Migliaccio #12;Water Conservation - Situation · Florida water supplies are used for agriculture, natural resources, salt water intrusion protection, drinking water, industry
... Q&A Teachers Contact Back to previous page Water Basics Earth's Water Where is Earth's water? How much water is ... wet is your state? Glaciers and icecaps Watersheds Water Properties Water properties Adhesion and cohesion Capillary action ...
Catherine L. Kling; Marca Weinberg; James E. Wilen
In addition to improving the allocative efficiency of water use, water markets may reduce irrigation-related water quality problems. This potential benefit is examined with a nonlinear programming model developed to simulate agricultural decision-making in a drainage problem area in California's San Joaquin Valley. Results indicate that a 30% drainage goal is achievable through improvements in irrigation practices and changes in
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A compact, lightweight electrolytic water sterilizer available through Ambassador Marketing, generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in water flow system. The silver ions serve as an effective bactericide/deodorizer. Tap water passes through filtering element of silver that has been chemically plated onto activated carbon. The silver inhibits bacterial growth and the activated carbon removes objectionable tastes and odors caused by addition of chlorine and other chemicals in municipal water supply. The three models available are a kitchen unit, a "Tourister" unit for portable use while traveling and a refrigerator unit that attaches to the ice cube water line. A filter will treat 5,000 to 10,000 gallons of water.
Hi-Tech Inc., a company which manufactures water jetting equipment, needed a high pressure rotating swivel, but found that available hardware for the system was unsatisfactory. They were assisted by Marshall, which had developed water jetting technology to clean the Space Shuttles. The result was a completely automatic water jetting system which cuts rock and granite and removes concrete. Labor costs have been reduced; dust is suppressed and production has been increased.
This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.
Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.
Students will use this short interactive activity to check their understanding on what they learned about the water cycle Do you drink the same water as your great grandparents did? Check this website then answer the following questions. COLLECTION 1. How many times does water go through the cycle? 2. Explain each part of the cycle and why it is important. 3. Construct a model or diagram based off the information from this ...
The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.
de Graaf, Inge
The world's largest assessable source of freshwater is hidden underground, but we do not know what is happening to it yet. In many places of the world groundwater is abstracted at unsustainable rates: more water is used than being recharged, leading to decreasing river discharges and declining groundwater levels. It is predicted that for many regions of the world unsustainable water use will increase, due to increasing human water use under changing climate. It would not be long before shortage causes widespread droughts and the first water war begins. Improving our knowledge about our hidden water is the first step to stop this. The world largest aquifers are mapped, but these maps do not mention how much water they contain or how fast water levels decline. If we can add a third dimension to the aquifer maps, so a thickness, and add geohydrological information we can estimate how much water is stored. Also data on groundwater age and how fast it is refilled is needed to predict the impact of human water use and climate change on the groundwater resource.
Kathy Kelly Ellins
Water Exploration uses a project-based learning approach, permitting students to conduct research and build an understanding about water science and critical water-related issues. All learning activities and resources are packaged into three modules, or Legacy Cycles, in a way that enhances student learning by making use of the Internet and computer technology to promote inquiry learning. The Earth Science Literacy Principles provide the organizing framework for the lessons and activities in each Water Exploration Legacy Cycle. The curriculum is applicable to high school science courses such as Earth and Space Science, Advanced Placement Environmental Science, Biology, Chemistry, and Aquatic Science.
This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...
We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...
The primary object of the microbiology of drinking water is to prevent waterborne disease. A drinking-water system can minimize waterborne disease by employing proper treatment and cntrol practices, and by monitoring the effectiveness of these practices. Here, these issues are ad...
Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; And Others
This booklet describes the water resources in Virginia. Main sections included are: (1) "Introduction" (providing a general overview of the richness and diversity of Virginia's water resources both economic and recreational); (2) "River Basins" (illustrating the area drained by nine rivers and their tributaries); (3) "Bays" (including the…
A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.
Water erosion is caused by the detachment and transport of soil by runoff, melting snow or ice, and irrigation. Excessive erosion could threaten the production of agricultural and forest products. Erosion may also impact water conveyance and storage structures, and contribute to pollution from land ...
Giulio Relini; Carlo N. Bianchi
Ecology and distribution of Serpulids (Annelida: Polychaeta) in the Orbetello Lagoon.Serpulids were collected on artificial and natural substrates in the Orbetello Lagoon (Tuscany, Italy). Thirteen species were found in the zone which was under the influence of sea water at the entrance to the lagoon, while only two species — Hydroides dianthus and Mercierella enigmatica — were present in the
University of Nebraska State Museum
In this activity (on pages 18-29) learners explore the impact of the March 24, 1989 oil spill in Alaska caused by the Exxon Valdez tanker. First they use a map to track the movement of the spill over 56 days. Learners then explore how oil behaves in water by examining the relative weight of water vs. oil, and the properties of oil. They test how oil damages various natural materials such as bird feathers, fur fabric, plants, shells, and rocks, and then try water and detergent to see which cleaning methods work best.
Seeking to find a more effective method of filtering potable water that was highly contaminated, Mike Pedersen, founder of Western Water International, learned that NASA had conducted extensive research in methods of purifying water on board manned spacecraft. The key is Aquaspace Compound, a proprietary WWI formula that scientifically blends various types of glandular activated charcoal with other active and inert ingredients. Aquaspace systems remove some substances; chlorine, by atomic adsorption, other types of organic chemicals by mechanical filtration and still others by catalytic reaction. Aquaspace filters are finding wide acceptance in industrial, commercial, residential and recreational applications in the U.S. and abroad.
The Vision Catalyst Purifier employs the basic technology developed by NASA to purify water aboard the Apollo spacecraft. However, it also uses an "erosion" technique. The purifier kills bacteria, viruses, and algae by "catalytic corrosion." A cartridge contains a silver-impregnated alumina bed with a large surface area. The catalyst bed converts oxygen in a pool of water to its most oxidative state, killing over 99 percent of the bacteria within five seconds. The cartridge also releases into the pool low levels of ionic silver and copper through a controlled process of erosion. Because the water becomes electrochemically active, no electricity is required.
This dissertation deals with the policy issues of large-scale, urban water privatisation projects in the face of uncertainty and variability. The main objective is to evaluate whether a single policy approach, namely privatisation associated...
Greenslade, Thomas B.
During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase. However, when I came back nine months later to give a talk about the apparatus, I realized that it was really an early Bernoulli effect demonstration. In the right-hand picture the spigot is open and water can be seen coming out of the spout. The water level in the narrow tube has fallen appreciably, thus showing that the pressure at this point has decreased, in agreement with the non-zero velocity of the water in the horizontal tube. The device was made ca. 1880 by E. S. Ritchie of Boston, MA. (Photos by Thomas B. Greenslade Jr.)
Water poverty has become to the 1990s what fuel poverty was to the 1970s and 1980s. Underlying the growing concern on the issue is, on the one hand, a steep rise in the numbers living on poverty level incomes over the past 15 years and on the other, increasing difficulties among many poorer households in paying for the water that they need. Having briefly outlined current trends in poverty, the article explores these difficulties in relation to the price of and methods of charging for water and sewerage; the options for helping poorer customers; and the consequences of non-payment. It will focus in particular on the implications for health of two controversial issues: compulsory volumetric metering and water disconnections. PMID:7738995
This manual was develped to provide an overview of microfiltration and ultrafiltration technology for operators, administrators, engineers, scientists, educators, and anyone seeking an introduction to these processes. Chapters on theory, water quality, applications, design, equip...
Reis, Pedro Miguel
We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the ...
This review covers developments in water analysis from November 1996 to the end of October 1998, as found in the Chemical Abstracts Service CA Selects for gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, inorganic analytical chemistry, and pollution monitoring. In addition, because develop...
... Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride of the National Research Council, part of the National Academy of Sciences, conducted an extensive literature review concerning the association between fluoridated drinking water and increased cancer risk. ...
The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)
The purpose of this resource is to become familiar with the hydrology of your locale. Students will study and visit the Hydrology Study Site, conduct a visual survey to discover information about local land cover, water quality, and document their findings. They will use this initial investigation to raise questions about local land cover and/or water chemistry issues that may require further investigation.
Kasting, J. F.
Life as we know it, i.e., carbon-based organisms that rely on RNA and DNA for information storage and transfer, requires liquid water. Thus, the search for life elsewhere in the universe generally begins with a search for liquid water. In our own Solar System, Earth is the only planet (or moon) that has liquid water at its surface. Mars and Europa both probably have subsurface water. Researchers from NASA and elsewhere are hoping to eventually probe these subsurface reservoirs and determine whether life exists there. A more promising venue for finding extraterrestrial life is on Earth-like planets around other stars. Such planets can in principle be located and analyzed spectroscopically using large space-based telescopes like NASA's proposed Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Mission (1). The chances of success for this mission depend critically on the abundance of Earth-like planets with liquid water at their surfaces because only there could a biota exist that would be widespread enough to modify the planet's atmosphere in a way that would be detectable. Models of planetary accretion suggest that most terrestrial planets should be endowed with substantial amounts of water (2). Climate models suggest that the "habitable zone" around solar-type stars is relatively wide so that water can remain liquid on a planet's surface for long times (3). Thus, the chances of finding water, and maybe life, elsewhere appear to be good. References: (1) Beichman, C. A., Woolf, N. J. and Lindensmith, C. A. The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF): A NASA Origins Program to Search for Habitable Planets (JPL Publication 99-3) (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, 1999). (2) Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., Lunine, J. I., Petit, J. M., Robert, F., Valsecchi, G. B. and Cyr, K. E. Meteoritics and Planet. Sci. 35, 1309-1320 (2000). (3) Kasting, J. F., Whitmire, D. P. and Reynolds, R. T. Icarus 101, 108-128 (1993).
Dunn, W. F.; Austin, I. G. (inventors)
An apparatus for separating liquids from gases or gaseous fluids is described. Features of the apparatus include: (1) the collection and removal of the moisture in the fluid is not dependent upon, or affected by gravity; (2) all the collected water is cyclically drained from the apparatus irrespective of the attitude of the separator; and (3) a fluid actuator is utilized to remove the collected water from the separator.
Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...
Brieske, Joel A.
The first site related to water filtration is from the US Environmental Agency entitled EPA Environmental Education: Water Filtration (1 ). The two-page document explains the need for water filtration and the steps water treatment plants take to purify water. To further understand the process, a demonstration project is provided that illustrates these purification steps, which include coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. The second site is an interesting Flash animation called Filtration: How Does it Work (2 ) provided by Canada's Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration. Visitors will learn various types of filtration procedures and systems and the materials that are used such as carbon and sand. Next, from the National Science Foundation is a learning activity called Get Out the Gunk (3 ). Using just a few simple items from around the house, kids will be able to answer questions like "Does a filter work better with a lot of water rushing through, or a small trickle?" and "Does it make the water cleaner if you pour it through a filter twice?" The fourth Web site, Rapid Sand Filtration (4 ), is provided by Dottie Schmitt and Christie Shinault of Virginia Tech. The authors describe the process, which involves the flow of water through a bed of granular media, normally following settling basins in conventional water treatment trains to remove any particulate matter left over after flocculation and settling. Along with its thorough description, readers can view illustrations and photographs that further explain the process. The Vegetative Buffer Strips for Improved Surface Water Quality (5) Web site is provided by the Iowa State University Extension office. The document explains what vegetative buffer strips are, how they filter contaminants and sediment from surface water, how effective they are, and more. The sixth offering is a file called Infiltration Basins and Trenches (6) that is offered by the University of Wisconsin Extension. These structures are intended to collect water, have it infiltrate into the ground, and have it purified along the way. This document explains how effective they are at removing pollutants, how to install them, design guidelines, maintenance, and more. Next, from a site called Wilderness Survial.net is the Water Filtration Devices (7) page. Visitors read how to make a filtering system out of cloth, sand, crushed rock, charcoal, or a hollow log, although as is stated, the water still has to be purified. The last site, from the US Geological Survey, is called A Visit to a Wastewater-Treatment Plant: Primary Treatment of Wastewater (8). Although geared towards children, the site does a good job of explaining what happens at each stage of the treatment process and how pollutants are removed to help keep water clean. Everything from screening, pumping, aerating, sludge and scum removal, killing bacteria, and what is done with wastewater residuals is covered.
Angell, C Austen
After providing some background material to establish the interest content of this subject, we summarize the many different ways in which water can be prepared in the amorphous state, making clear that there seems to be more than one distinct amorphous state to be considered. We then give some space to structural and spectroscopic characterization of the distinct states, recognizing that whereas there seems to be unambiguously two distinct states, there may be in fact be more, the additional states mimicking the structures of the higher-density crystalline polymorphs. The low-frequency vibrational properties of the amorphous solid states are then examined in some detail because of the gathering evidence that glassy water, while difficult to form directly from the liquid like other glasses, may have some unusual and almost ideal glassy features, manifested by unusually low states of disorder. This notion is pursued in the following section dealing with thermodynamic and relaxational properties, where the uniquely low excess entropy of the vitreous state of water is confirmed by three different estimates. The fact that the most nearly ideal glass known has no properly established glass transition temperature is highlighted, using known dielectric loss data for amorphous solid water (ASW) and relevant molecular glasses. Finally, the polyamorphism of glassy water, and the kinetic aspects of transformation from one form to the other, are reviewed. PMID:15117262
Water storage can be a viable part of the solution to water conservation. This means that we should include reservoirs. Regardless, one should evaluate all aspects of water conservation principles. Recent drought in California indicates that there is an urgent need to re-visit the techniques used to maintain the water supply-chain mechanism in the entire state. We all recognize the fact that fish and wildlife depend on the streams, rivers and wetlands for survival. It is a well-known fact that there is an immediate need to provide solid protection to all these resources. Laws and regulations should help meet the needs of natural systems. Farmers may be forced to drilling wells deeper than ever. But, they will be eventually depleting groundwater reserves. Needless to say that birds, fish and wildlife cannot access these groundwater table. California is talking a lot about conservation. Unfortunately, the conservation efforts have not established a strong visible hold. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN (Narayanan, 2012). It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The author has previously reported these in detail at the 2012 AGU fall meeting. References: Ziegler, Jay (15 JUNE 2014). The Conversation: Water conservation efforts aren't taking hold, but there are encouraging signs. THE SACRAMENTO BEE. California. Narayanan, Mysore. (2012). The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century. 72nd AGU International Conference. Eos Transactions: American Geophysical Union, Vol. 92, No. 56, Fall Meeting Supplement, 2012. H31I - 1255.http://www.sacbee.com/2014/06/15/6479862/jay-ziegler-water-conservation.html#storylink=cpy
To prevent the accumulation of scale and other solid particles in its bottom portion, this water heater incorporates a specially designed agitator assembly that is cheaper and simpler to use than electrostatic, electronic, or chemical devices. A ring-shaped tube positioned at the bottom of the tank close to the side wall is connected to a second tube that extends toward the tank's center. Openings and venturi fittings on the two tubes cause the water to flow into to the tank horizontally and centrally upward, creating a stirring action at the tank bottom.
P. M. Reis; J. Hure; S. Jung; J. W. M. Bush; C. Clanet
We introduce a novel technique for grabbing water with a flexible solid. This new passive pipetting mechanism was inspired by floating flowers and relies purely on the coupling of the elasticity of thin plates and the hydrodynamic forces at the liquid interface. Developing a theoretical model has enabled us to design petal-shaped objects with maximum grabbing capacity.
Jacobsen, Erica K.
A water filtration column is devised by students using a two-liter plastic bottle containing gravel, sand, and activated charcoal, to test the filtration potential of the column. Results indicate that the filtration column eliminates many of the contaminating materials, but does not kill bacteria.
The Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent has a mechanical system that creates bubbles that rise to the surface and push ice away from the ship's hull. It also happens to churn the water into an amazing shade of blue....
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
During the AAPT summer meeting at Creighton University in 2011, Vacek Miglus and I took pictures of early apparatus at the Creighton physics department. The apparatus in the left-hand picture, shown with the spigot closed, appeared to be a liquid-level device: the water level was the same in both the narrow tube and the flaring glass vase.…
Lawrence Hall of Science
In this outdoor activity/field trip, learners catch and observe water striders to explore their movement and feeding behaviors. To observe strider locomotion, learners look closely at caught water striders' body structure, then mark the striders' bodies with a dot of thick tempera or acrylic paint and release the insects back to different areas of the pond habitat. The paint markings make it easier for learners to watch each insect's movement. To observe strider feeding, learners catch other small insects from the pond habitat and offer them to caught striders. After the activity, all organisms should be released into the pond habitat. If possible, learners can return to the strider habitat a few weeks after the activity, to check how far the marked striders have moved from where they were released.
This set of activities is designed to help students understand water pollution and its potential effects on human and wildlife habitats. They will understand that pollutants can be divided into three groups: chemical, thermal, and biological. Learning objectives include identification of two or more pollutants in a bog, marsh, stream or other wetland area, using words and art to relate a message about pollution, and understanding that some pollutants cannot be seen.
MacCarthy, P.; Klusman, R.W.; Rice, J.A.
This is the twenty-second biennial review dealing with the inorganic and organic analytical chemistry of water. The format of this review is essentially the same as that of the previous review in this series which was published in Analytical Chemistry in 1985. The references used in preparing this review were compiled by a computer-search of Chemical Abstracts covering the period from the previous review (September 1984) through October 1986.
In this activity, students explore the influences of different parameters on the environmental quality of a river system. They will run a computer model of a river system, interpret graphs, and adjust model parameters such as wind speed, sewage load, and other variables to determine their effects on water quality. For teachers, there are additional background materials, teaching tips, evaluation methods, and links to national standards.
Recent research on water characteristics is cited in this review article. Acid precipitation has been noted as one of the major environmental problems of the current decade. It poses a serious challenge to national and international bodies to protect water quality. Considerable interest was voiced in 1980 over the causes and effects, prevention and control of acid rain. One study estimated that acid rain was causing an estimated annual $5 billion loss in crop, forest, and aquatic yields. Several conferences were held during 1980 on acid rain problems. Groundwater contamination from acid rain was cited as one of the many current and anticipated problems in maintaining a clean and healthful water supply. Acid rain and vegetation interactions were studied in depth, as were the effects of acid precipitation on aquatic organisms. A procedure was developed which may be useful in the quantification of acid rain via isolated precipitation events. Acid precipitation was studied in forest environments. Two efforts assessed the potential for acid rain to leach into the soil. 154 references.
Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.
Water resources data for the 2001 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 71 gaging stations; stage only for 73 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 66 surface-water stations (including 39 gaging stations) and 92 wells; and water levels for 205 observation wells. Also included are data for 166 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.
Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montogmery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Ward, Aub N.; Walters, David J.
Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 77 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 60 surface-water stations (including 42 gaging stations) and 112 wells; and water levels for 304 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.
Baumann, Todd; Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Ross, Garron B.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, D.J.
Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Louisiana consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 76 gaging stations; stage only for 86 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 56 surface-water stations (including 44 gaging stations) and 142 wells; and water levels for 313 observation wells. Also included are data for 158 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal and State agencies in Louisiana.
Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Sasser, D.C., Jr.; Walters, David J.
Water resources data for the 2000 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 66 gaging stations; stage only for 70 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 45 surface-water stations (including 25 gaging stations) and 108 wells; and water levels for 221 observation wells. Also included are data for 204 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.
Goree, B.B.; Lovelace, W.M.; Montgomery, P.A.; Resweber, J.C.; Labbe, Charles K.; Walters, David J.
Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Louisiana consists of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, and water quality of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water. This report contains records for water discharge at 85 gaging stations; stage only for 79 gaging stations and 7 lakes; water quality for 52 surface-water stations (including 40 gaging stations) and 104 wells; and water levels for 300 observation wells. Also included are data for 143 crest-stage and flood-profile partial-record stations. Additional water data were collected at various sites not included in the systematic data-collection program, and are published as miscellaneous measurements. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Louisiana.
water quality, WSPs have the potential to increase significantly the proportion of people with accessCS232615A Cleaner, Safer Water through Water Safety Plans National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Global Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Team's Water Safety Plan Assistance 1.5 million deaths
Online curriculum guides for K-12 with over 324 activities related to wetlands, coastal waters, and water resources. Each grade section (K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12) is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters.
Groves, Carrie J.
Information on water and water resources in Ohio is presented in seven sections. Water from Ohio streams, water storage, lakes in Ohio, and ground water are discussed in the first section ("Water, A Part of the Earth"). A brief discussion on the ecosystem is provided in the second section ("Water and Life"). Topics discussed in the third section…
This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)website provides water data, online publications, a list of USGS - Wisconsin publications, and links to water resource projects and studies in Wisconsin. The water data consists of real-time streamflow, quarterly streamflow reports, water levels measured by a ground-water observation network of 140 wells throughout Wisconsin, and NWISWeb (National Water Information System on the Web) data (consisting of real-time streamflow, ground level water, surface water and water quality data).
Geological Survey (U.S.). Water Resources Division. Alaska District.
The Water Resources of Alaska homepage is provided by the US Geological Survey. The goal of this project is to study and understand Alaska's hydrology (surface water, ground water, and water quality) for use and management of the nation's water resources. The site features a list of published reports and information about current projects as well as a vast amount of hydrologic data such as surface water, ground water, water quality, glaciers, water use, and hydrologic data reports.
This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on spring flood potential based on reports and data provided by the National Weather Service Office of Hydrology, the US Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Soil Conservation Service, and the US Geological Survey. Ninety-day outlooks are through June 1992. For purposes of reporting, the US is divided into six regions. The data presented in the Hydropower Generation Report can be used to observe how weather conditions affected hydro generation in March.
Silver ionization water purification technology was originally developed for Apollo spacecraft. It was later used to cleanse swimming pools and has now been applied to industrial cooling towers and process coolers. Sensible Technologies, Inc. has added two other technologies to the system, which occupies only six square feet. It is manufactured in three capacities, and larger models are custom built on request. The system eliminates scale, corrosion, algae, bacteria and debris, and because of the NASA technology, viruses and waterborne bacteria are also destroyed. Applications include a General Motors cooling tower, amusement parks, ice manufacture and a closed-loop process cooling system.
Putnam, J.E.; Lacock, D.L.; Schneider, D.R.; Carlson, M.D.
Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 144 complete-record gaging stations; elevation and contents at 19 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records at 2 precipitation stations, water-level data at 18 observation wells; and records of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity at 8 gaging stations. Also included are discharge data for 26 high-flow partial-record stations, and miscellaneous onsite water-quality data collected at 134 stations, and suspended-sediment concentration for 12 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies in Kansas.
Putnam, J.E.; Schneider, D.R.
Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 155 complete-record gaging stations; elevation and contents at 17 lakes and reservoirs; water-quality records at 2 precipitation stations, water-level data at 14 observation wells; and records of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity at 16 gaging stations and 2 lakes with water-quality monitors. Also included are discharge data for 29 high-flow partial-record stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies in Kansas.
... are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Drinking Water Radon in Drinking Water Public Health ... States and community water systems for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, ...
Summary: Misplaced Matter and Water Pollution The drinking water pollution demonstration provides a very simple but dramatic way to get students to think about water contamination and drinking water standards, ...
... water? The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates public drinking water (tap water), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates bottled water products under the authority ...
Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.
Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....
Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.
This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...
This site provides an animation showing the three normal vibrational modes of the water molecule as well as proton transfer in the following three situations: (1) hydronium ion/water, (2) hydroxide ion/water, and (3)two water molecules.
... the water is made during the process of metabolism . You also get water through liquid foods and beverages, such as soup, milk, tea, coffee, soda, drinking water, and juices. Alcohol is not a good source of water because ...
The Hydropower Generation Report provides generation figures for the largest hydropower producers in each of six regions in the US. The report compares, for each month, the amount of hydroelectricity generated (in thousands of megawatt-hours) by each producers in the last two years to the ten-year average for that month. This database is used to figure long-term generation averages and percent of averages. The producers regularly provide current generation data to update the database. This issue of [open quotes]Water Watch[close quotes] focuses on winter snow conditions across the US as of mid-January. In addition, the department provides an outlook of spring flood potential. The information presented is based on data from the US Geological Survey, the National Weather Service, and the Soil Conservation Service.
In this site, Martin Chaplin has brought together a selection of ideas concerning the complex behavior of water in hopes of encouraging both the understanding of water and further work. Some of the many ideas presented are: the structure of water, water anomalies, hydrogen bonding, the phase diagram of water, and water hydration.
Provides information about home drinking water treatment systems to address concerns about the safety and quality of drinking water. Discusses water testing, filtration, product options and selection, water testing resources, water treatment device guidelines, water analysis terminology, and laboratory selection. (MCO)
Weinstein, L. M.
Gage for determining depth of water buildup on outside of aircraft relatively simple to operate and yields result independent of conductivity of water. Gage used to evaluate effects of water on lift and detect water weight excesses. Dual-sensor gage eliminates effects of water conductivity, providing direct correlation between resistivity and water thickness.
Water quality models are based on some representation of hydrology and may include movement of surface water, ground water, and mixing of water in lakes and water bodies. Water quality models simulate some combination of sediment, nutrients, heavy metals, xenobiotics, and aquatic biology. Althoug...
China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water
Students will understand and explain parts of the water cycle. First watch the video to get a background about the water cycle: water cycle video Draw and explain the water cycle in your own words (include the terms: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, at least 3 bodies of water, the sun). Before reading the experiment record your predictions: If you put a small amount of water ...
EXTENSION WATER SUMMIT PRIORITY: WATER QUALITY Leadership Team Subcommittee: Mark Clark Karl Havens BJ Jarvis Kelly Morgan Ramesh Reddy #12;Water Quality Situation (resources) Florida has extensive and diverse water resources 54,836 miles of rivers and streams 1.8 million acres of lakes, reservoirs
This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...
How do we account for water use? What is the difference between water consumed and water withdrawn? What is the water footprint tool? This video examines these questions. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.
Putnam, J.E.; Schneider, D.R.
Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 149 complete-record gaging stations; elevation and contents at 20 lakes and reservoirs; waterquality records at 2 precipitation stations, water-level data at 18 observation wells; and records of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity at 11 gaging stations. Also included are discharge data for 26 high-flow partial-record stations, miscellaneous onsite water-quality data collected at 142 stations, and suspended-sediment concentration for 12 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies in Kansas.
Putnam, J.E.; Lacock, D.L.; Schneider, D.R.; Carlson, M.D.
Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 143 gaging stations; elevation and contents at 19 watershed lakes and reservoirs; and water-level data at 19 observation wells; and records of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity at 4 stations. Also included are data for 26 high-flow and 2 low-flow partial-record stations; and 2 chemical quality of precipitation stations. Miscellaneous onsite water-quality data were collected at 132 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, local, and Federal agencies in Kansas.
Putnam, J.E.; Lacock, D.L.; Schneider, D.R.
Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 145 complete-record gaging stations; elevation and contents at 20 lakes and reservoirs; waterquality records at 2 precipitation stations, water-level data at 19 observation wells; and records of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity at 11 gaging stations. Also included are discharge data for 26 high-flow partial-record stations, miscellaneous onsite water-quality data collected at 140 stations, and suspended-sediment concentration for 12 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies in Kansas.
This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...
The full phase diagram of water in the form of a graphical representation of the three-dimensional (3D) PVT diagram using authentic data is presented. An interesting controversy regarding the phase behavior of water was the much-touted proposal of a solid phase of water, polywater, supposedly stable under atmospheric conditions.
This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform ? Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...
This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...
Putnam, J.E.; Lacock, D.L.; Schneider, D.R.; Carlson, M.D.
Water-resources data for the 1997 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 150 gaging stations; elevation and contents at 19 watershed lakes or reservoirs; and water-level data at 19 wells. Also included are data for 27 high-flow and 2 low-flow partial-record stations; and 2 chemical quality of precipitation stations. Miscellaneous onsite water-quality data were collected at 149 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geologcal Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Kansas.
Putnam, J.E.; Lacock, D.L.; Schneider, D.R.; Carlson, M.D.
Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Kansas consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; elevation and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels of ground-water wells. This report contains records for water discharge at 149 gaging stations; elevation and contents at 19 watershed lakes and reservoirs; and water-level data at 19 wells. Also included are data for 27 high-flow and 2 low-flow partial-record stations; and 2 chemical quality of precipitation stations. Miscellaneous onsite water-quality data were collected at 138 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with State, local, and Federal agencies in Kansas.
Morrison, Jonathan; Sargent, T.C.; Martin, J.W.; Norris, J.R.
This report includes records on both surface and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 52 streamflow-gaging stations and for 38 partial-record streamflow stations and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage-only records for 4 tidal-gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, for 18 ungaged stream sites, and temperature at 1 reservoir site; and (4) water-level records for 73 observation wells. Additional water-quality data are published for 16 miscellaneous surface-water sites and for 19 miscellaneous ground-water sites, which were not part of the systematic data-collection program.
Students measure the effectiveness of water filters in purifying contaminated water. They prepare test water by creating different concentrations of bleach (chlorine-contaminated) water. After passing the contaminated water through commercially available Brita® water filters designed to purify drinking water, students determine the chlorine concentration of the purified water using chlorine test strips and measure the adsorption of chlorine onto activated carbon over time. They graph and analyze their results to determine the effectiveness of the filters. The household active carbon filters used are one example of engineer-designed water purification systems.
Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near
Bromley, Albert W.
The purpose of this booklet, developed as part of Project SOAR (Save Our American Resources), is to give Scout leaders some facts about the world's resources, the sources of water pollution, and how people can help in obtaining solutions. Among the topics discussed are the world's water resources, the water cycle, water quality, sources of water…
Lantz, H. B., Jr.
This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…
Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,
Students learn about the human water cycle, or how humans impact the water cycle by settling down in civilizations. Specifically, they learn how people obtain, use and dispose of water. Students also learn about shortages of treated, clean and safe water and learn about ways that engineers address this issue through water conservation and graywater recycling.
Students are presented with examples of the types of problems that environmental engineers solve, specifically focusing on water quality issues. Topics include the importance of clean water, the scarcity of fresh water, tap water contamination sources, and ways environmental engineers treat contaminated water.
Visitors to this site can review Canadian water policy and legislation for both provinces and federal government. Topics include the nature of water, water policy and legislation, water management, water and culture, and links to information and services (a glossary, news articles, and a teachers' corner). A French translation is available.
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website highlights water resources in the state of Idaho. Details about hydrology programs in the state include ground water data, water quality information, water use in the state of Idaho, surface water, Idaho programs, reports, flood and drought information, and state projects on ice core research and various rivers. There are links to more sites for additional information.
Water is a limited resource in Texas. This booklet explains how homeowners can establish a water management program for a home lawn that both maintains a healthy sod and also conserves water. The publication discusses soil types, grass varieties...
... and states have used this analysis to develop fish consumption rates for human health ambient water quality criteria. Top of ... Change & Water Contaminants of Emerging Concern Drinking Water Monitoring & ...
Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty
Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...
Fresh-water supplies are endangered by overuse, pollution, and the combination of droughts and population migrations. Less than one percent of the earth's water supply is fresh, and this could lessen as the quality of rainwater deteriorates. The private-sector investors in water rights to springs and pure-water sources are bottling water for sale, but this is only a temporary solution. Water-futures speculators are looking to desalination and filtration to make undrinkable water saleable in the future. While current sales of bottled water stress health and status benefits, water entrepreneurs foresee a more-crucial market ahead. Another solution could be to market impure water for non-drinking purposes. Water crises in the arid west and heavily populated northeast could promote a national water planning and management effort. (DCK)
Cooling systems using water evaporation to dissipate waste heat, will require one pound of water per 1,000 Btu. To reduce water consumption, a combination of "DRY" and "WET" cooling elements is the only practical answer. This paper reviews...
restrictions The 19972009 millennium drought placed severe stress on water security in the Australia Capital Water confidently removed temporary water restrictions after the millennium drought. Millennium drought
... Sediments Contaminated Sediments in Water Contaminated Sediments in Water Overview Basic Information Technical Resources CS Data Find ... released years ago while other contaminants enter our water every day. Some contaminants flow directly from industrial ...
Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Landscape Plants: Fertilizing & Watering Prevent runoff and shrubs, either through directly killing plants or making them more prone to disease. Fertilizer runoff into storm drains pollutes waterways. Maintain plant health and protect water quality by fertilizing
Water in the City is part of the Franklin Institute Science Museum's Science in the City Web site. The activity is described as a way to investigate the most precious natural resource in cities. The resources accumulated and presented on the site are held within several areas that include Water Basics, Water Science, Philadelphia Water Ways, Worldwide Water Ways, and References and Activities. The water basics page, for example, contains a glossary of water terminology; water trivia; and information on water myths and realities, dams, water power, conserving water, and keeping water clean. Although most resources are from outside sources, the site does a good job of explaining the concepts and providing kids with a single spot to explore other sites with information on this specific subject.
The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...
This activity offers learners and their families several ways to raise their awareness together about home water. Included are a Home Water Audit Chart to help families record their water; a link to an educational film about water and conservation; ideas for family discussions about water use; information about recycling graywater; and math-themed efforts such as creating a pie chart of use and comparing water bills. The cost of this activity is minimal if a calculator is already on hand.
Table of Contents: Introduction to Ground Water Resource Assessment; Components of a Ground Water Resource Assessment; Approaches to Assessing Aquifer Sensitivity and Ground Water Vulnerability; Comprehensive State Ground Water Protection Program Priority-Setting Characteristics to be Addressed in Ground Water Resource Assessments; Case Studies on the Development and Use of Ground Water Resource Assessments at the State, Local, and Federal Level; Sources of Hydrogeological Information; and Glossary.
The Water Words Dictionary: A Compilation of Technical Water, Water Quality, Environmental, and Water-Related Terms is a helpful collection of resources for water researchers and professionals provided by the Nevada Division of Water Resources and the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. This extensive and freely accessed dictionary contains hundreds of words, which are organized alphabetically, making it perfect for searching and printing. Also provided are dozens of appendixes, abbreviations and acronyms, conversion tables and flow equivalents, and more.
As part of its Water Science for Schools site, the US Geological Survey defines industrial water use and includes several tables and maps showing where and how industry uses water. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much surface water is used in industry as well as how much of that water is fresh or saline.
A water distillation apparatus is disclosed which produces distilled water by means of solar energy. The water to be distilled is confined within an internal chamber and subjected to solar energy through a transparent lid. The water that is distilled collects on the interior surface of the lid. The lid is located at an inclined position with respect to gravity. The droplets of distilled water which adhere to the interior surface of the lid flow to the lowest elevation of the lid. These accumulated droplets of distilled water are to be removed and collected within a collecting container. A water inlet valve assembly is connected to supply water within the internal chamber.
university of Nebraska State Museum
In this activity (on pages 29-35), learners examine water pollution and filtration. First, learners build models of water bugs from paper clips, and test the effect of dirt and detergent on their "bugs" floating on the water. Next, learners build a water filter using filter paper, a paper towel, and gravel or sand. The "What We Know" section introduces concepts of how much drinking water is found on Earth, water pollution, the impact of pollution on water quality and surface tension—and how that affects specially adapted species such as water striders.
Yang, Eunjin; Son, Jaehak; Jablonski, Piotr; Kim, Ho-Young
Small insects such as water striders, springtails, fishing spiders freely move on water by adopting various modes of locomotion, such as rowing, galloping, jumping and meniscus-climbing. As the physics of jumping have not yet been fully understood among those ways of semi-aquatic propulsion, here we present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the dynamics of water striders leaping off water. We first image and analyze the trajectories of the legs and body of jumping water striders of three different species with a high-speed camera. We then theoretically compute the forces acting on the body by considering the capillary interaction between the flexible legs and deforming water meniscus. Our theory enables us to predict the maximum take-off speed for given leg lengths. The experimental measurements suggest that the water striders drive their legs near the optimal speed to gain the maximum take-off speed.
Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)
A water-heating dehumidifier includes a refrigerant loop including a compressor, at least one condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator including an evaporator fan. The condenser includes a water inlet and a water outlet for flowing water therethrough or proximate thereto, or is affixed to the tank or immersed into the tank to effect water heating without flowing water. The immersed condenser design includes a self-insulated capillary tube expansion device for simplicity and high efficiency. In a water heating mode air is drawn by the evaporator fan across the evaporator to produce cooled and dehumidified air and heat taken from the air is absorbed by the refrigerant at the evaporator and is pumped to the condenser, where water is heated. When the tank of water heater is full of hot water or a humidistat set point is reached, the water-heating dehumidifier can switch to run as a dehumidifier.
Water covers more than two thirds of the surface of the Earth and about the same fraction of water forms the total mass of a human body. Since the early days of our civilization water has also been in the focus of technological developments, starting from converting it to wine to more modern achievements. The meeting will focus on recent advances in experimental, theoretical, and computational understanding of the behavior of the most important and fascinating liquid in a variety of situations and applications. The emphasis will be less on water properties per se than on water as a medium in which fundamental dynamic and reactive processes take place. In the following sessions, speakers will discuss the latest breakthroughs in unraveling these processes at the molecular level: Water in Solutions; Water in Motion I and II; Water in Biology I and II; Water in the Environment I and II; Water in Confined Geometries and Water in Discussion (keynote lecture and poster winners presentations).
China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue. PMID:19539423
This article examines a Chinese city's measures to plan the water supply and conserve water, and to ensure a regular supply of water to drink and use in production. The Kunming city government called an emergency mobilization meeting on water conservation. Kunming has suffered from a severe lack of rainfall over the past 2 years. In order to overcome the present water shortage, it was decided to publicize the importance of planning the water supply and water conservation; to set limits on the amount of water used and to crack down on large consumers of water; and to make further rational and scientific uses of water. The Kunming government has proposed saving 20% of the water now being consumed.
Geothermal hot water system including a hot water tank and a warm water tank which are heated independently of each other by a close loop freon system. The closed loop freon system includes a main condenser which heats water for the warm water tank and a super-heated condenser which heats water for the hot water tank, and where the freon passes through a water evaporator which is heated by water such as from a well or other suitable source. The water evaporator in the closed loop freon system passes the water through but no environmental change to the water. An electrical circuit including aquastats in the warm water tank connected therethrough controls operation of the closed loop freon system including respective pumps on the super-heated condenser and main condenser for pumping water. Pumps pump water through the main condenser for the warm tank and through the super-heated condenser for the hot tank. The system provides for energy conservation in that the head pressure of the compressor is kept in the lower operating ranges as determined by the discharge flow of the main condenser which varies by the head pressure and temperature flow control which varies by temperature. The geothermal hot water system uses a least amount of energy in heating the water in the hot tank as well as the warm tank.
Sharma, Virender A.
World's population numbered 6.1 billion in 2000 and is currently increasing at a rate of about 77 million per year. By 2025, the estimated total world population will be of the order of 7.9 billion. Water plays a central role in any systematic appraisal of life sustaining requirements. Water also strongly influences economic activity (both production and consumption) and social roles. Fresh water is distributed unevenly, with nearly 500 million people suffering water stress or serious water scarcity. Two-thirds of the world's population may be subjected to moderate to high water stress in 2025. It is estimated that by 2025, the total water use will increase by to 40%. The resources of water supply and recreation may also come under stress due to changes in climate such as water balance for Lake Balaton (Hungary). Conventional urban water systems such as water supply, wastewater, and storm water management are also currently going through stress and require major rethinking. To maintain urban water systems efficiently in the future, a flexibility approach will allow incorporation of new technologies and adaptation to external changes (for example society or climate change). Because water is an essential resource for sustaining health, both the quantity and quality of available water supplies must be improved. The impact of water quality on human health is severe, with millions of deaths each year from water-borne diseases, while water pollution and aquatic ecosystem destruction continue to rise. Additionally, emerging contaminants such as endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), pharmaceuticals, and toxins in the water body are also of a great concern. An innovative ferrate(VI) technology is highly effective in removing these contaminants in water. This technology is green, which addresses problems associated with chlorination and ozonation for treating pollutants present in water and wastewater. Examples are presented to demonstrate the applications of ferrate(VI) technology to meet the demand of water in this century.
Debrah, E. R.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; van der Zaag, P.
Water is used in almost all human endeavour. Unlike oil, water does not have a substitute. There are many factors that affect the water consumption pattern of people. These include climatic condition, income level and agricultural practices among others. The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to its consumption by people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008). Due to the bulky nature of water, it is not in its raw state a tradable commodity though it could be traded through the exchange of goods and services from one point to the other. Closely linked to the water footprint concept is the virtual water concept. Virtual water can be defined as the volume of water required to produce a commodity or service (Chapagain and Hoekstra, 2008 and Allan, 1999). The international trade of these commodities implies flows of virtual water over large distances. The water footprint of a nation can therefore be assessed by quantifying the use of domestic water resources, taking out the virtual water flow that leaves the country and adding the virtual water flow that enters the country to it. This research focuses on the assessment and analysis of the water footprints of Ghana considering only the consumptive component of the water footprint. In addition to livestock, 13 crops were considered, 4 of which were cash crops. Data was analysed for the year 2001 to 2005 The most recent framework for the analysis of water footprint is offered by Chapagain and Hoekstra. This was adopted for the study. The water footprint calculations show that the water footprint of Ghana is about 20011 Gm³/yr. Base on this the average water footprint of a Ghanaian is 823 m³/cap/yr. Not only agricultural crops but also other products require water for their manufacture, aluminium being a case in point. The water required for energy production through hydropower is important to account for, as well as the question to what extent this may or may not be considered non-consumptive water use. Further research is needed to correctly estimate the water footprint of energy-intensive products. Keywords: water footprint, virtual water, trade, commodity
Jin-Kuk Kim; Robin Smith
Research on cooling systems to date has focussed on the individual components of cooling systems, not the system as a whole. Cooling water systems should be designed and operated with consideration of all the cooling system components because of the interactions between cooling water networks and the cooling tower performance. In re-circulating cooling water systems, cooling water from the cooling
Brand, Judith, Ed.
This issue of Exploratorium focuses on water and its varied uses in our environment. Articles include: (1) "Adventures with Water" (Eric Muller); (2) "Water: The Liquid of Life" (Karen E. Kalumuck); (3) "Water-Drop Projector" (Gorazd Planinsic); (4) "Waterways and Means" (Pearl Tesler); (5) "Explore Natural Phenomena in the Museum--and Just…
BACKGROUND Investigate the issues of water pollution in the world. TASK - What is making the water so polluted? How bad is it? How does nature clean its own water? Who are the worst polluters? What can be done to stop so much pollution? What is the water cycle? What can be done to fix the problem? Explain all this, and 5 ...
The incorporation of domestic water preheating units into an attached solar greenhouse is described. Used, glass-lined water heating tanks were stripped of the outer jackets, insulated, and painted flat black. The tanks were enclosed in breadbox type water heater units with reflective insulated shutters and were mounted at the peak of the attached greenhouse. Placement of the water heaters in
Unterberger, G.L. )
This article addresses meeting and maintaining water pollution controls while keeping up with the new regulations. The topics discussed in the article include discharge regulations, stormwater discharges, wetlands regulation, water use, water-related programs, and keeping an inventory of water pollution regulations, especially those involving pre-approvals, permits or registrations.
Background Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...
Prepared for middle or intermediate grades, this student booklet provides a study of water--the location of major oceans and rivers; the relationship of ancient civilizations to bodies of water; active metals found in sea water; chemical concentrations in water and their effects on marine life; and the concepts of evaporation, transpiration,…
This chapter conducts a multidisciplinary investigation into the public and scientific acceptability of coastal bathing water health risks and proposals to revise EC Bathing Water legislation in the context of UK coastal waters. The research incorporates physical\\/technical, economic, and public\\/social assessment components, which are deployed using a mixed methodological approach. It is found that although bathing water quality has been
Water is injected into the Wilmington field reservoirs to improve ultimate recovery and prevent subsidence--both considered essential to prudent operation. Handling the water, finding good water sources, treating before injection, and behavior after injection create a field of major study. The trouble started when it was noted that oxygen content of Long Beach harbor waters was decreasing. Before 1976, all
Great Lakes water availability studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey aim to help characterize how much water the Basin has now, how water availability is changing, and how much water it can expect to have in the future....
Water resources engineers and managers routinely deal with changes in water availability, demand, and usage. The effects of climate change and variations on water resources represent an additional consideration among others. A book “Climate Change, Climate Variations and Water Resources Engineering...
Hutson, Susan S.; Littlepage, Thomas M.; Harper, Michael J.; Tinney, James O.
Water is one of Alabama's most precious natural resources. It is a vital component of human existence and essential to the overall quality of life. Wise stewardship of this valuable resource depends on a continuing assessment of water availability and water use. Population growth in many parts of the State has resulted in increased competition for available water resources. This competition includes offstream uses, such as residential, agricultural, and industrial, and instream uses for maintenance of species habitat and diversity, navigation, power generation, recreation, and water quality. Accurate water-use information is required for sound management decisions within this competitive framework and is necessary for a more comprehensive understanding of the link between water use, water supply, and overall water availability. A study of water use during 2005 was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs, Office of Water Resources, Water Management Branch (ADECA-OWR), to provide water-use data for local and State water managers. The results of the study about the amount of water used, how it was used, and where it was used in Alabama have been published in 'Estimated use of water in Alabama in 2005' by Hutson and others, 2009, and is accessible on the Web at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5163 and available upon request as a CD-ROM through USGS and ADECA-OWR.
Water may be one of the most familiar substances on the planet, but it certainly isn’t ordinary. In fact, water’s unique chemical properties make it so complicated that even after decades of research, scientists still have much to learn about this remarkable and versatile substance. This web site contains information on research on the structure and behavior of water molecules.
Smith, Nathan J.
Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…
National Ground Water Association
Ground Water is a leading technical publication strictly for ground water hydrogeologists. Each issue of the journal contains peer-reviewed scientific articles on pertinent ground water subjects. Non-members can read abstracts, book reviews and software spotlight columns. Members of the National Ground Water Association can view complete articles online.
Water quality standards and criteria are the foundation for a wide range of programs under the Clean Water Act. Specifically, under section 304(a)(1) of the Clean Water Act it requires EPA to develop criteria for water quality that accurately re...
that reduces pesticide and fertilizer runoff and conserves water. Good plant choices, proper site preparation areas to keep water from collecting in unwanted areas. Choose plants that conserve water, buffer runoff, and resist pest problems. Plant water-efficient plants, including many native species, to reduce irrigation
TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 8: Wells () August 28, 2012 project, utilizing enhanced ground-water. Water lifted from storage, to accumulate overnight from aquifer. Water from shallow aquifer, of about 7-8m thickness. accounts for about 30% of irrigation Unique
TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 7: Regional Groundwater than the unit situations that we saw. Surface water/Groundwater interactions. lakes and streams springs (seepage) Ambient water-table movements Seasonal changes Inteference with other water end-users. Inherent
TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 5: Aquifer () August 16 above and below the ground, which affect the water balance. surface features affect infiltration parameters related to water: Porosity, specific yield n, Sy : the maximum volume fraction of water
Water Waves Roger Grimshaw May 7, 2003 Abstract A short review of the theory of weakly nonlinear water waves, prepared for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Nonlinear Science 1 Introduction Water waves nonlinear waves. Throughout the theory is based on the traditional assumptions that water is inviscid
Kravitz, Robert; Reichardt, Klaus
Many facilities are considering no-water urinals because they are regarded as an effective way to conserve water. Water must be pumped by electricity, some estimate that as much as $300 per year per urinal can be saved in utility costs. The installation of no-water urinals can help buildings achieve credits toward Leadership in Energy and…
LeMaire, Peter; Waiveris, Charles
Describes experiments designed to investigate the cooling rate of microwave-boiled water as compared to that of stove-boiled water. Concludes that within experimental limits, microwave-boiled water and stove-boiled water cool at the same rate. (JRH)
Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.
The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.
Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.
System consists of filtration unit, reverse-osmosis module, tanks, pumps, plumbing, and various gauges, meters, and valves. After water is used in washing machine or shower, it is collected in holding tank. Water is pumped through series of five particulate filters. Pressure tank supplies processed water to commode water closet.
Using two baby food jars, food coloring, and an index card, you'll 'marry' the jars to see how hot water and cold water mix. Besides illuminating the cool fact that an index card can act as a lid (with no water gushing out), this activity also teaches about the differing densities of hot and cold water.
WGBH Educational Foundation
How much water on Earth is fresh water? How much of that fresh water is found in icecaps? Lakes? Rivers? This interactive resource uses bar graphs to illustrate the relative distribution of fresh and salt water on Earth. Adapted from Oxford University Press.
An analysis was conducted to determine the causes of and remedies for the unpalatability of potable water in manned spacecraft. Criteria and specifications for palatable water were established and a quantitative laboratory analysis technique was developed for determinig the amounts of volatile organics in good tasting water. Prototype spacecraft water reclamation systems are evaluated in terms of the essential palatability factors.
The Water Sourcebooks contain 324 activities for grades K-12 divided into four sections: K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12. Each section is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters. This environmental education program explains the water management cycle using a balanced approach, showing how it affects all aspects of the environment. All activities contain hands-on investigations, fact sheets, reference materials, and a glossary of terms. Activities are organized by objectives, materials needed, background information, advance preparation, procedures, and resources.
Deckman, G.; Rousseau, J. (editor)
The Wash Water Recovery System (WWRS) is intended for use in processing shower bath water onboard a spacecraft. The WWRS utilizes flash evaporation, vapor compression, and pyrolytic reaction to process the wash water to allow recovery of potable water. Wash water flashing and foaming characteristics, are evaluated physical properties, of concentrated wash water are determined, and a long term feasibility study on the system is performed. In addition, a computer analysis of the system and a detail design of a 10 lb/hr vortex-type water vapor compressor were completed. The computer analysis also sized remaining system components on the basis of the new vortex compressor design.
Wynwood, Sarah Jane; Graham, Glenn Charles; Weier, Steven Lance; Collet, Trudi Anne; McKay, David Brian; Craig, Scott Benjamin
Leptospirosis outbreaks have been associated with many common water events including water consumption, water sports, environmental disasters, and occupational exposure. The ability of leptospires to survive in moist environments makes them a high-risk agent for infection following contact with any contaminated water source. Water treatment processes reduce the likelihood of leptospirosis or other microbial agents causing infection provided that they do not malfunction and the distribution networks are maintained. Notably, there are many differences in water treatment systems around the world, particularly between developing and developed countries. Detection of leptospirosis in water samples is uncommonly performed by molecular methods. PMID:25348115
Abrams, Leonard John.
Created by Len Abrams, the goal of the African Water Page is to "increase communication on the Continent of Africa between people working in water." Issues for discussion include "water policy, water resource management, water supply and environmental sanitation, water conservation and demand management." Visitors to this page can find information about recent policy initiatives in South Africa, water related documents concerning South Africa, Zimbabwe, the African continent, and some international topics. Also included are links to South and Southern African and International sites.
Part of the USGS Water Science for Schools site, this resource defines irrigation water use and includes several tables and maps showing water use by various irrigation systems, by state, by crop, and by percentage of fresh water available. Students and teachers can look at their state and see 1990 data for how much ground water and how much ground water and surface water is used for irrigation. Various irrigation systems are defined, described, and pictured, along with a discussion of their relative efficiencies. A Spanish translation is available.
The Colorado Water Knowledge Web site is maintained by the Colorado State University Colorado Water Resources Research Institute. The site allows kids to explore all aspects of water science including general facts, a description of the water cycle, stream processes, Colorado geology and water history, major aquifers of the area, aquatic life in local waters, Colorado water laws and regulations, and much more. Although it isn't graphic intensive, the site does a good job of explaining the wide array of concepts using simple descriptions, lists of facts, and a few choice illustrations. [JAB
A water heating stove, comprises a fire box substantially surrounded by a water jacket through which water to be heated circulates. The fire box is completely closed by sealing, loading and clean out doors, to provide that the only access for combustion air is a special aperture below the fire, controlled by a thermostatically operated damper. The fire box bottom wall is inclined to allow drainage of water condensates without losing combustion air flow control, via a water trap. The stove includes a heat transfer coil through which water is circulated to supply hot water.
Gardener, E.V.; Hernandez, E.L.
Denver Water is not in a water crisis. They have a conservation program because it is one part of wise water management in this semi-arid region. Denver gets less than 15 inches of precipitation each year, and most of that falls as snow in the winter and spring. In the past, Denver had to depend upon storing the water in reservoirs to ensure a supply during the hot, dry summer. Now, Denver Water also works to reduce water use as a method to extend supplies. There are other benefits as well. When water is used efficiently, more water can remain for recreation, wetlands, dilution, natural aesthetics, and habitat for fish and other wildlife. By extending supplies, protecting the environment and saving money, they all help to ensure a sustainable future. The water conservation team has started a three-year Integrated Resource Planning process based upon a book entitled, `Integrated Resource Planning for Water Utilities`.
Crother, C.M. )
This article describes how officials in Riverside County, Calif. are using constructed wetlands as part of their water-resources-management program, while creating a wildlife-habitat and public-recreation area in the process. As part of its strategy, Eastern Municipal Water District (EMWD), along with the US Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec), is investigating the use of multipurpose constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment, reclaimed-water reuse, environmental enhancement, wildlife-habitat creation, and public education and recreation. EMWD is evaluating the use of wetlands to treat nitrate-contaminated ground water, recharge ground-water basins, concentrate desalination unit brines and treat storm-water runoff. By incorporating reclaimed water into its water-resources-management program, EMWD will have the flexibility to provide water of different qualities throughout the district and save potable water for potable uses.
Faybishenko, Boris A.
A Vadose Zone Water Fluxmeter (WFM) or Direct Measurement WFM provides direct measurement of unsaturated water flow in the vadose zone. The fluxmeter is a cylindrical device that fits in a borehole or can be installed near the surface, or in pits, or in pile structures. The fluxmeter is primarily a combination of tensiometers and a porous element or plate in a water cell that is used for water injection or extraction under field conditions. The same water pressure measured outside and inside of the soil sheltered by the lower cylinder of the fluxmeter indicates that the water flux through the lower cylinder is similar to the water flux in the surrounding soil. The fluxmeter provides direct measurement of the water flow rate in the unsaturated soils and then determines the water flux, i.e. the water flow rate per unit area.
Water Scarcity and Energy: Water and Power Efficiency of Recycled Water Arizona Hydrological.Eng. Global Water 22 September 2008 #12;Overview · The Finite Nature of Water · Water Availability and Population Growth · Types of Reuse · Water Efficiency of Reuse · Power Efficiency of Reuse #12;Water Scarcity
Vlassis Likodimos; Dionysios D. Dionysiou; Polycarpos Falaras
Environmental pollution abatement and especially the growing demand for clean water pose one of the most severe challenges\\u000a worldwide. Besides the scarcity of water resources, the presence of hazardous chemicals with serious adverse health effects,\\u000a even at extremely low concentrations, impose serious considerations for the quality of drinking water. The rapid evolution\\u000a of nanoscale science and technology has dramatically expanded
Van Hylckama, T. E. A.
Some chemical and physical properties of water are discussed and compared with those of other fluids. For instance, the boiling point is much higher than one would expect considering the molecular weight of water. The heat capacity is also much higher but the viscosity is not. The dielectric constant is exceptionally high. These and other properties of water can be explained by the geometry of the water molecule and the structure of water or ice. -Author
. Approximately 90% of work done by the compressor is rejected to the cooling water. 2. The energy used to pump the cooling tower and chiller water and the energy to operate the inside air handlers is rejected to the cooling water. 3. Total energy... ? Geothermal ? Thermal absorption and desiccant systems Direct Expansion Air Cooling Hybrid Cooling Tower Old Chiller Replaced With Geothermal Loop Other Ways to Reduce Water Use ? Energy Conservation ? Air-side Economizers ? Water...
R. S. Wotton
Slow sand filters are used to purify drinking water. Each filter consists of a large tank containing a bed of sand through which water passes at typical rates of 0.1–0.3 m h-1. Water is cleaned by physico–chemical and biological processes occurring at the air–water interface, within the bulk water, over the surface of the sand, and within the bed of
Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Berezkin, S V; Kurochkin, M G; Skuratov, V M
The possibility to mineralize water by metering out concentrated salt solutions in the amounts necessary to bring it to within the potable water standards with intermediate exchange of chlorine ions for bicarbonate-ions has been demonstrated. The proposed technique ensures physiological quality and stability of recovered water mineralized with solutions of inorganic salts. Stability of concentrated salt solutions kept in metering syringes and potable water was evaluated. Organoleptic tests of resultant potable water were conducted. PMID:11840873
Oki, Taikan; Entekhabi, Dara; Harrold, Timothy Ives
The global water cycle consists of the oceans, water in the atmosphere, and water in the landscape. The cycle is closed by the fluxes between these reservoirs. Although the amounts of water in the atmosphere and river channels are relatively small, the fluxes are high, and this water plays a critical role in society, which is dependent on water as a renewable resource. On a global scale, the meridional component of river runoff is shown to be about 10% of the corresponding atmospheric and oceanic meridional fluxes. Artificial storages and water withdrawals for irrigation have significant impacts on river runoff and hence on the overall global water cycle. Fully coupled atmosphere-land-river-ocean models of the world's climate are essential to assess the future water resources and scarcities in relation to climate change. An assessment of future water scarcity suggests that water shortages will worsen, with a very significant increase in water stress in Africa. The impact of population growth on water stress is shown to be higher than that of climate change. The virtual water trade, which should be taken into account when discussing the global water cycle and water scarcity, is also considered. The movement of virtual water from North America, Oceania, and Europe to the Middle East, North West Africa, and East Asia represents significant global savings of water. The anticipated world water crisis widens the opportunities for the study of the global water cycle to contribute to the development of sustainability within society and to the solution of practical social problems.
In most parts of the United States, getting clean, safe water is as easy as turning on a faucet. Generally, this water comes from either groundwater or nearby streams and reservoirs. What most of us never see or have to worry about are the steps required to make this water drinkable. This video segment, adapted from a ZOOM television broadcast, shows how a water treatment facility in Cambridge, Massachusetts purifies its city's water. The segment is two minutes twenty seconds in length.
This interactive diagram allows the user to follow a drop of water from the source through the treatment process. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant. Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams. Users are invited to click on each treatment point on the image to see a little information about that treatment point.
This portal, published by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Science (IFAS) Extension, offers a selection of links to information about water management issues. There is a 'Beginner's Guide to Water Management', which provides a basic introduction to the terminology and concepts used in water management. Other links access information on management in coastal waters, the impact of climate change on water resources, the use of stormwater as an alternative supply, wastewater management, and many others.
Discusses where water hammer occurs, effects of water hammer, and conditions causing water hammer (hydraulic shock, thermal shock, differential shock). Points out that even mild water hammer can weaken and eventually destroy piping, gauges, floats, heat exchange equipment, etc. Suggests that greater understanding of water hammer should help introduce more preventive measures into system designs and installations, which will help provide maximum safety for personnel, lower maintenance cost and reduce system downtime.
This self-paced, interactive tutorial enables learners to discover practical uses for water vapor imagery from weather satellites. The module introduces the concept and function of the water vapor channel of satellite imagery, and teaches how to interpret and apply data obtained from the water vapor channel. At the end of the tutorial, links are provided to real world data collected by NASA satellites where learners can apply the skills they have acquired. This resource is part of the tutorial series, Satellite Observations in Science Education, and is the first of three modules in the tutorial, Water Vapor Imagery. (Note: requires Java plug-in)
Carminati, Andrea; Kroener, Eva; Ahmed, Mutez A. A.; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Holz, Maire; Ghezzehei, Teamrat
Plant roots exude approximately 10% of the carbon assimilated through photosynthesis into the soil, a process referred to as rhizodeposition. Although this may look like a waste of energy, it has been shown that the carbon exuded into the soil helps roots to take up nutrients and promote positive interactions with microorganisms. Here, we show that the mucilaginous fraction of the rhizodeposits, referred to as mucilage, plays also a crucial role on soil-plant water relations and triggers positive feedbacks between the water and carbon cycles. Mucilage is a gel that can absorb large volumes of water, altering the physical properties of the rhizosphere and maintaining the rhizosphere wet and conductive when the soil dries. Acting as a hydraulic bridge between roots and the soil, mucilage facilitates root water uptake and maintains transpiration and photosynthesis in dry soils. By employing a simplified model of root water uptake coupled with mucilage dynamics, we found that indeed the carbon exuded in form of mucilage maintains photosynthesis in dry soils resulting a in a net gain of carbon. In summary, by exuding mucilage, plants modify the physical soil environment, have a better access to water when water is scarce, and maintain photosynthesis for a prolonged time during drought. We propose that mucilage exudation is a plant trait conferring drought resistance. In other words: water for carbon, but also carbon for water.
Morris, F., III; Turnipseed, D.P.; Storm, J.B.
Water resources data for the 2002 water year for Mississippi consist of records of surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 91 streamflow-gaging stations, stage records for 22 of these gaging stations, discharge records for 91 partial-record stations or miscellaneous streamflow sites, including 13 flood hydrograph partial-record stations, 78 crest-stage partial-record stations, and 0 special study and miscellaneous sites; (2) stage only at 9 gaging stations; (3) water-quality records for 13 streamflow-gaging stations, 7 stage-only stations, and 3 water-quality monitor stations, 0 partial-record stations or miscellaneous sites, 97 short-term study sites, and 39 wells; and (4) water-level records for 18 observation wells. Records obtained from water-resources investigations are also included in special sections of the report. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey, and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Mississippi.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) conducts a wide range of research on regulated and unregulated contaminants in drinking water, water distribution systems, homeland security, source water protection, and...
Students will work with interactive internet resources to learn all about the water cycle. Fourth Grade Science Standard 1 Objective 2: Describe the water cycle. Locate examples of evaporation and condensation in the water cycle (e.g., water evaporates when heated and clouds or dew forms when vapor is cooled). Describe the processes of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation as they relate to the water cycle. Identify locations that hold water as it passes through the water cycle (e.g., oceans, atmosphere, fresh surface water, snow, ice, and ground water). Construct a model or diagram to show how water continuously moves through the water cycle over time. Describe how the water cycle relates to the water supply in your community. Web Quest Links Introduction Task Resources Evaluation Conclusion Teacher Guide Introduction Have you ever wondered how water gets from oceans, lakes, streams, or clouds into your glass? Check out the following links to learn more about it! TASK Start out by learning the concepts in this song from Bill Nye! Bill Nye the Science Guy- Water Cycle Jump Look ...
Middleton, J; Saunders, P
Water has been taken for granted as an essential public health need since the Victorian sanitary revolution. Water has come back on to the public health agenda in the United Kingdom because of recent policy changes and their untoward environmental and social impacts; along with water privatization and tough new environmental directives, there have been serious water pollution incidents, water shortages, water debt and disconnection. Along with concern about protecting individual rights to a clean safe water supply, there is concern about the ability of national water resources to meet all our communities' needs, without unacceptable environmental damage. A national plan is needed for the conservation of water and protection of water resources and the environment; adequate central funds are needed to see that this happens. There should be greater emphasis on local water management and a key role for local authorities; there should be fair pricing, protection of water supplies for the poorest and most vulnerable, and a ban on water disconnection to domestic users, on public health grounds. More research is needed into the potential adverse health impact of people on prepayment meters disconnecting themselves. There is a place for water metering as the most rapidly deliverable means of controlling peak demand, reducing overall consumption and avoiding a large-scale environmentally damaging solution to supply more water. However, control of leakage offers the largest potential saving and is the most cost-effective means to protect existing water supply. We question whether private water companies, geared to maximizing profit and share dividends, can deliver a national plan for the protection and management of water resources, for the good of the environment and future generations. The public health lobby must become more actively engaged in the debate about the supply, protection and price of our most precious public health asset-water. PMID:9138226
Cabral, João P S
Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. PMID:21139855
National Geographic World, 1983
Provides background information on many topics related to water. These include the water cycle, groundwater, fresh water, chemical wastes, water purification, river pollution, acid rain, and water conservation. Information is presented at an elementary level. (JM)
Gluntz, Douglas M. (San Jose, CA); Taft, William E. (Los Gatos, CA)
A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.
In 1997, the World Water Council had its first official forum in Marrakech, and since then they have continued their work on "critical water issues at all levels." Some of these issues include efficient water conservation, water use management, and other relevant matters. With its compelling visual images and design, the homepage contains sections that provide information on upcoming World Water Forums and some very helpful overviews of their work. One such general overview may be found in the "Water at a Glance" area, which provides information on the nature of freshwater resources around the globe. Persons involved in water policy and international affairs may wish to look over their online library, which includes their annual reports, synopses of materials covered in the Water Forum meetings, and papers such as "The Right to Water: From Concept To Implementation." It is also worth noting that many of the materials on the site are available in French and Spanish.
Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.
A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.
Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C
In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802
Oteze, G. E.
With the limited data available, the components of the hydrologic cycle of which Nigeria's water resources form a part cannot be adequately quantified. However, some assessment of the water “reserves” of the surface and underground water sources indicate that there are large supplies that can be developed in Nigeria. The exploitation of Nigeria's water resources is in an early stage. Despite the progress that has been made in water supply development since the first waterworks in Nigeria was commissioned in Lagos in 1915, many Nigerians still have no access to a modern water supply. Water shortages exist periodically in almost every major town and are present in many rural areas of the country much of each year. New water laws are needed, as is the definition of the powers of the different water authorities, viz., the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, the River Basin Authorities, and the States' Water Boards. The goals of the water policy must be to make available enough good quality water for domestic uses and to exploit enough water for the use of rapidly growing industries and the year-round needs of agriculture, thereby lessening the adverse effect of the dry season.
Garrett, Carly Sporer
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…
McClain, D.L.; Byrd, F.D.; Brown, A.C.
Water resources data for the 1991 water year for Kentucky consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and lakes; and water-levels of wells. This report includes daily discharge records for 115 stream-gaging stations. It also includes water-quality data for 38 stations sampled at regular intervals. Also published are 13 daily temperature and 8 specific conductance records, and 85 miscellaneous temperature and specific conductance determinations for the gaging stations. Suspended-sediment data for 12 stations (of which 5 are daily) are also published. Ground-water levels are published for 23 recording and 117 partial sites. Precipitation data at a regular interval is published for 1 site. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurement and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the US Geological Survey and cooperation State and Federal agencies in Kentucky.
of water withdrawals and water uses is an important part of complying with the Great LakesSt. Lawrence or more than four trillion total gallons. The Great Lakes, inland lakes and streams, and groundwater sup Use Information Program (NWUIP) and to the Great Lakes Commission for its annual Great Lakes Regional
Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.
Ground water is one of Hawaii's most important natural resources. It is used for drinking water, irrigation, and domestic, commercial, and industrial needs. Ground water provides about 99 percent of Hawaii's domestic water and about 50 percent of all freshwater used in the State. Total ground water pumped in Hawaii was about 500 million gallons per day during 1995, which is less than 3 percent of the average total rainfall (about 21 billion gallons per day) in Hawaii. From this perspective, the ground-water resource appears ample; however, much of the rainfall runs off to the ocean in streams or returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. Furthermore, ground-water resources can be limited because of water-quality, environmental, or economic concerns. Water beneath the ground surface occurs in two principal zones: the unsaturated zone and the saturated zone. In the unsaturated zone, the pore spaces in rocks contain both air and water, whereas in the saturated zone, the pore spaces are filled with water. The upper surface of the saturated zone is referred to as the water table. Water below the water table is referred to as ground water. Ground-water salinity can range from freshwater to that of seawater. Freshwater is commonly considered to be water with a chloride concentration less than 250 mg/L, and this concentration represents about 1.3 percent of the chloride concentration of seawater (19,500 mg/L). Brackish water has a chloride concentration between that of freshwater (250 mg/L) and saltwater (19,500 mg/L).
The representation features a detailed six minute animated lesson about the major processes that move water between land, the ocean and the atmosphere, and convert water between states. Evaporation, condensation, transpiration and water reservoirs are major topics covered by the animation. The portion of the video (05:40 to 06:05 beginning with a drawn scene of mountains, oceans and sky to narration ?dissolved minerals in ground water carried to the ocean for billions of years?) describes pollutants being filtered out of water while minerals, such as sodium and arsenic, are ?picked up? by the water.
Water Resources Penn.: The Office of Water Management plans, directs and coordinates departmental programs associated with the management and protection of the CommonwealthÂ?s water resources; administers and oversees departmental programs involving surface and groundwater quantity and quality planning, and soil and water conservation; coordinates policies, procedures and regulations which influence public water supply withdrawals and quality, sewage facilities planning, point source municipal and industrial discharges, encroachments upon waterways and wetlands, dam safety, earth disturbance activities and control of storm water and nonpoint source pollution; and coordinates the planning, design and construction of flood protection and stream improvement projects.
Learners demonstrate how water can distort, refract and magnify light. In an investigation called Underwater Differences, learners do activities including the Broken Pencil, examining how a pencil half-in and half-out of water has its appearance affected by the water, and Stick it to the Bottom, examining how a sticker on a table appears different when seen through a jar of water. In an investigation called Bigger Through Water, learners make a water magnifying loop and use it as a lens to read the newspaper or a magazine. The student journal offers an additional Science @ Home activity about scattering the light from a flashlight.
A worldwide organization of water professionals, the International Water Association's (IWA) Web site illustrates its commitment "to help water professionals create innovative, pragmatic, and sustainable solutions to challenging global water needs." Visitors can discover IWA's many activities from conferences and forums to task forces. Researchers can discover the various IWS groups that specialize in topics including Source Management, Education, Health, Management Training, and Water Quality Management. Although many of the publications are restricted to members, educators and students can read reports from the Sustainability in Water Sector and abstracts from IWA journals.
Visitors can access information on a variety of water issues in Arizona, including the Colorado River, riparian areas, water conservation, water rights, and recreation. The Arizona Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) provides FAQ’s, a stream gauge map and a directory of water-related agencies and organizations. Real-time temperature, precipitation, wind speed and direction, and humidity readouts are available via the new WRRC weather station. Other materials include news articles, research reports, presentations, and links to other water-related sites.
Environment Canada (mentioned in the January 21, 1998 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) provides the Properties of Water Webpage. Sections included at the page are the hydrologic cycle; rivers; lakes; snowfall; and measuring, storing, and controlling water, among others. The Quick Facts section contains interesting facts, like the following: raindrops resemble the shape of a hamburger bun, 70% of the human body is water, 75% of earth is covered in water, and most of our food is water (tomatoes 95%, spinach 91%, and beef 61%). This site provides detailed information about water and its properties.
This U.S Geological Survey (USGS) website contains water data including water quality samples and water use data, information on USGS projects, links to USGS educational sites, and a bibliography of USGS water resource publications. Projects and studies covered include: the Wyoming Drought Watch, which contains maps of daily streamflow conditions and historical streamflow data; algal-nutrient relations in the Yellowstone River; county water resource studies; estimating peak-streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites; the Integrating Aquatic Ecosystem Data project of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP); an aquifer; water-quality issues associated with irrigation drainage; watershed delineation; urban hydrology; and a pathogen indicator synoptic study.
33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...
33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...
33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...
33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...
33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...
Playing in the water - whether swimming, boating or diving - can be fun. It can also be dangerous, especially for children. Being safe can ... injuries and drowning. To stay safe in the water Avoid alcohol when swimming or boating Wear a ...
Bush, John W. M.
The ingenious methods employed by insects and spiders to move across a water surface rely on microphysics that is of little use to larger water walkers but of considerable interest to the microfluidics community.
This lesson provides an overview of water use in the industrialized world, including a discussion of the increasing need for conservation as populations grow and water supplies stay roughly constant. Users can listen to a National Public Radio (NPR) show that discusses water-use restrictions that have been enacted in Las Vegas in response to persistent drought conditions, and review online resources on overall and domestic water use in the United States. The lesson includes a two-part activity in which students use an online calculator and other resources to examine water use in their homes and read some ideas for reducing their water use. In the second part, they will use an online 'drip calculator' from the American Water Works Association to investigate how much water can be lost by slow drips and leakage.
Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.
Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)
... safewater/dwinfo.htm and click on your state. Database: EPA collects information on every public drinking water ... in the nation and stores it in a database called the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS). ...
Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty
High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....
Outlines the techniques for silkscreening using water-based inks, concentrating on the qualities of water-based printing that differ from oil-based printing. Includes a step-by-step description of the process illustrated with photographs. (LS)
The contents of this book are: Remedial Actions; Analysis and Control of Rural Ground Wate; Ground Water Contamination Sources; Research Theory, and Practice; and Regulations Pertaining to Rural Ground Water.
Davis, Q. C., IV
Measurement gage provides instant visual indication of water depth based on capillary action and light diffraction in a group of solid, highly polished polymethyl methacrylate rods. Rod lengths are adjustable to measure various water depths in any desired increments.
Lockwood, H. E.
Nine film-filter combinations have been tested for effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail when exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. An experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and an infrared film with selected filters were tested. Results have been tabulated to show the relative capability of each film-filter combination for: (1) image contrast in shallow water (0 to 5 feet); (2) image contrast at medium depth (5 to 10 feet); (3) image contrast in deep water (10 feet plus); (4) water penetration; maximum depth where detail was discriminated; (5) image color (the spectral range of the image); (6) vegetation visible above a water background; (7) specular reflections visible from the water surface; and (8) visual compatibility; ease of discriminating image detail. Recommendations for future recording over water bodies are included.
The detection of water vapour in a carbon star has challenged the understanding of ageing stars. The discovery that such water can be warm shows that our knowledge of these objects is still rudimentary.
Previous studies using tertiary amines to extract water from reagent-grade carboxylate salts (calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate) have shown selectivity for water and not for the carboxylate salts. These results ...
TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Building Numerical Models () August of surface flow of water and infiltration which may include time to flow, movement of solids etc. () August
This schematic shows a cross-section of the planet and how water can migrate through the deep interior of the Earth. Blue arrows indicate a movement of water downward, yellow arrows indicated movement towards the surface.
... EPA) is responsible for making sure that public water supplies within the United States are safe. In 1974, ... law sought to protect the nation’s public drinking water supply by giving EPA authority to set the standards ...
Horowitz, Naomi Leah, 1970-
The act of immersion is a powerful catalyst for the affirmation or transformation of identity. How we place ourselves in water expresses cultural valuations of our bodies, water, and social relations, as well as categories ...
Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...
The project "Water Saving for Development (WaS4D)" is financed by European Territorial Cooperational Programme, Greece-Italy 2007-2013, and aims at developing issues on water saving related to improvement of individual behaviors and implementing innovative actions and facilities in order to harmonize policies and start concrete actions for a sustainable water management, making also people and stakeholders awake to water as a vital resource, strategic for quality of life and territory competitiveness. Drinkable water saving culture & behavior, limited water resources, water supply optimization, water resources and demand management, water e-service & educational e-tools are the key words of WaS4D. In this frame the project objectives are: • Definition of water need for domestic and other than domestic purposes: regional and territorial hydro-balance; • promotion of locally available resources not currently being used - water recycling or reuse and rainwater harvesting; • scientific data implementation into Informative Territorial System and publication of geo-referred maps into the institutional web sites, to share information for water protection; • participated review of the regulatory framework for the promotion of water-efficient devices and practices by means of the definition of Action Plans, with defined targets up to brief (2015) and medium (2020) term; • building up water e-services, front-office for all the water issues in building agricultural, industrial and touristic sectors, to share information, procedures and instruments for the water management; • creation and publication of a user friendly software, a game, to promote sustainability for houses also addressed to young people; • creation of water info point into physical spaces called "Water House" to promote education, training, events and new advisory services to assist professionals involved in water uses and consumers; • implementation of participatory approach & networking for a permanent cooperation among Public Bodies and Institutions, with the creation of a transferable model of best practices. WaS4D will carry out initiatives and advisory services aimed to encourage a behavior change, influencing citizens' demand and support consumers who wish to take action to reduce drinking water use: for the civil use, from literature, it's possible to reduce drinkable water consumption up to 50% using simple and economic tools, with a large environmental positive impact. WaS4D mainly focuses on the needs to define a participatory approach to enhance water-saving culture at urban level, encouraging a shift from supply-driven policies to management policies and from a sectorial to an integrated approach. The innovative character of the project is referred to the integrated approach as well as to the creation of new web services & tools.
Healy, Richard W.; Scanlon, Bridget R.
A water budget is an accounting of water movement into and out of, and storage change within, some control volume. Universal and adaptable are adjectives that reflect key features of water-budget methods for estimating recharge. The universal concept of mass conservation of water implies that water-budget methods are applicable over any space and time scales (Healy et al., 2007). The water budget of a soil column in a laboratory can be studied at scales of millimeters and seconds. A water-budget equation is also an integral component of atmospheric general circulation models used to predict global climates over periods of decades or more. Water-budget equations can be easily customized by adding or removing terms to accurately portray the peculiarities of any hydrologic system. The equations are generally not bound by assumptions on mechanisms by which water moves into, through, and out of the control volume of interest. So water-budget methods can be used to estimate both diffuse and focused recharge, and recharge estimates are unaffected by phenomena such as preferential flow paths within the unsaturated zone. Water-budget methods represent the largest class of techniques for estimating recharge. Most hydrologic models are derived from a water-budget equation and can therefore be classified as water-budget models. It is not feasible to address all water-budget methods in a single chapter. This chapter is limited to discussion of the “residual” water-budget approach, whereby all variables in a water-budget equation, except for recharge, are independently measured or estimated and recharge is set equal to the residual. This chapter is closely linked with Chapter 3, on modeling methods, because the equations presented here form the basis of many models and because models are often used to estimate individual components in water-budget studies. Water budgets for streams and other surface-water bodies are addressed in Chapter 4. The use of soil-water budgets and lysimeters for determining potential recharge and evapotranspiration from changes in water storage is discussed in Chapter 5. Aquifer water-budget methods based on the measurement of groundwater levels are described in Chapter 6.
Increasingly accountable for the environmental quality and cost of managing their waste and process water streams, customers require more precise data about the constituents in their water. This has forced suppliers to unlock some of the secrets of water treatment. In the open exchange of information, users are trading in esoteric formulations for products that are more chemical efficient and environmentally benign. Factoring more prominently in the water treatment equation are service and supply. This paper reviews some of these simpler treatments.
Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.
at various manufacturing sites and in well-water and drinking-water supplies within several months following the April 1997 development of a low-level (4 ppb) detection method. Perchlorate releases have been confirmed in at least 25 states throughout... the United States. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), other federal agencies, states, water suppliers and industry already are actively addressing perchlorate contami- nation through monitoring for its presence in drink- ing water...
Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (editor)
A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.
E. Awuah; K. B. Nyarko; P. A. Owusu; K. Osei-Bonsu
This paper examined water-quality monitoring in two small towns’ water supply systems and unprotected wells in some selected communities. The systems were Bekwai and Juaso in the Ashanti Region. Water samples collected were tested to determine basic water-quality parameters. The main problem identified was the presence of bacteriological parameters; Escherichia coli, Salmonella and coliforms indicating the presence of micro-organisms in
There is growing documentation that a significant portion of the Nation's fresh ground water in the densely populated areas of the USA is contaminated. Because of the slow rates of ground-water movement, ground water once contaminated will remain so for decades, often longer. Cleanup of contaminated ground water is almost always expensive and often technically unfeasible; the expense is often prohibitive. -from Author
These six reminders to younger students are about bad practices that waste or pollute water. These include waiting to fix a leak, using water from the hot water tap when cooking, carelessly discarding motor oil, tossing toxic materials in the trash, watering the lawn in the middle of the day, and using the garbage disposal too much. There is also a link that leads to information about composting.
Supplemental to The World's Water book by Peter Gleick, this site offers data on the world's freshwater resources and uses. Tables and maps provide information on quantity and quality issues including data on access to safe drinking water; waterborne disease outbreaks; desalination capacity; as well as hydroelectric capacity and production. There is also a unique chronology documenting the historical connections between human conflict and water. Additionally there is an expansive list of links to water-relevant agencies and organizations.
U.S. Geological Survey; Fairfax County, VA
The United States uses huge quantities of water. In 1976, for example, it was estimated that for each person in the U.S., about 2,000 gallons of water were used daily in homes, offices, farms, and factories. This means that roughly 420 billion gallons of water were pumped, piped, or diverted each day—about 15 percent more than in 1970. By the year 2000, our daily water needs will probably exceed 800 billion gallons.
Griffin, Ronald C.
AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.
This is the water pollution portal for the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC). NRDC works to continue reductions in industrial water pollution while pressing for effective pollution controls on agriculture, logging and other sources previously exempt from them. They help develop and promote strong federal laws and regulations to address polluted runoff, raw sewage discharges, and factory farm wastes and to sue polluters when the Clean Water Act is violated. This site contains simple issue overviews, news, how-to guides, frequently asked questions, photo essays and more in a section called In Brief. The In Depth section offers reports, white papers, policy analyses and other materials by NRDCs lawyers, scientists and analysts.
The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.
A literature review dealing with the microbiology of potable water and ground water is presented. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the use of granular activated carbon (GAC) and alternate disinfection practices to reduce trihalomethane. Results of studies utilizing GAC columns are reported as well as studies evaluating ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloromines. Virus removal efficiencies were compared with several disinfectants. Ground water studies demonstrate that biological contaminants can travel large distances underground without substantial attenuation by aquifer material.(KRM)
What happens in each stage of the water cycle? First, watch this video to learn about each stage of the water cycle. video Next, click on this link to read more facts about each stages of the water cycle.
TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 6: Mathematics, z). velocity vx (x, y, z, t) : in the x-direction. vx = Kx h/x saturated/water- table. Continuity Equation What is vx x + vy y + vz z ? It is the rate of accumulation of water at the point (x, y
TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 1: A Perspective () July 20, 2012 1 / 17 #12;Outline Two parts: The technical side to water. -M. Sohoni The basic hydrological cycle. The societal side to water. -N. C. Narayanan () July 20, 2012 2 / 17 #12;Texts Applied Hydrogeology, by C. W
The resource is a role-playing game in which students take on the role of a water molecule and travel through nine compartments of the water cycle to gain a better understanding for the true complexity of the movement of water.
EPA NET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. PANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic ...
Edward B. Barbier
Several hydrological studies forecast a global problem of water scarcity. This raises the question as to whether increasing water scarcity may impose constraints on the growth of countries. The influence of water utilisation on economic growth is depicted through a growth model that includes this congestible nonexcludable good as a productive input for private producers. Growth is negatively affected by
Montana State Univ., Bozeman. Watercourse.
A Water Celebration is a free one- to three-day event to entertain and educate communities about the importance of water. Celebrations organized for school children include classroom activities, exhibit areas, contests, games, and teacher networking opportunities. Celebrations for adults range from water conservation conventions to forums on wise…
Bond, Frank M.
Traces the distribution, ownership, and water usage associated with lands in the Colville Reservation in Washington State. Cites specific cases which addressed the reserved water rights doctrine. Assesses the impact of court decisions on insuring water rights for Indians living on the Colville Reservation. (ML)
Hodgson, Ted; Andersen, Lyle; Robison-Cox, Jim; Jones, Clain
Water quality experiments, especially the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality, offer an ideal context for connecting statistics and science. In the STAR program for secondary students and teachers, water quality experiments were also used as a context for teaching statistics. In this article, we trace one activity that uses…
Students learn about the differences between types of water (surface and ground), as well as the differences between streams, rivers and lakes. Then, they learn about dissolved organic matter (DOM), and the role it plays in identifying drinking water sources. Finally, students are introduced to conventional drinking water treatment processes.
Describes the purpose, content, and relevancy of courses dealing with natural and artificial aquatic environments, including surface water and ground water systems as well as water and waste treatment processes. Describes existing programs which are offered at the graduate level in this subject area. (MLH)
This paper reviews principles involved in the processes commonly used to filter drinking water for public water systems. he most common approach is to chemically pretreat water and filter it through a deep (2-1/2 to 3 ft) bed of granuu1ar media (coal or sand or combinations of th...
McMahon, James E.; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Biermayer, Peter
Hot water use in households, for showers and baths as wellas for washing clothes and dishes, is a major driver of household energyconsumption. Other household uses of water (such as irrigatinglandscaping) require additional energy in other sectors to transport andtreat the water before use, and to treat wastewater. In California, 19percent of total electricity for all sectors combined and 32 percent ofnatural gas consumption is related to water. There is a criticalinterdependence between energy and water systems: thermal power plantsrequire cooling water, and water pumping and treatment require energy.Energy efficiency can be increased by a number of means, includingmore-efficient appliances (e.g., clothes washers or dishwashers that useless total water and less heated water), water-conserving plumbingfixtures and fittings (e.g., showerheads, faucets, toilets) and changesin consumer behavior (e.g., lower temperature set points for storagewater heaters, shorter showers). Water- and energy-conserving activitiescan help offset the stress imposed on limited water (and energy) suppliesfrom increasing population in some areas, particularly in drought years,or increased consumption (e.g., some new shower systems) as a result ofincreased wealth. This paper explores the connections between householdwater use and energy, and suggests options for increased efficiencies inboth individual technologies and systems. Studies indicate that urbanwater use can be reduced cost-effectively by up to 30 percent withcommercially available products. The energy savings associated with watersavings may represent a large additional and largely untappedcost-effective opportunity.
Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these issues.
Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) energy and water are interconnected; (2) new energy sources will place increased demands on water supplies; (3) existing energy sources will be subjected to increasing restrictions on their water use; and (4) integrated decision support tools will need to be developed to help policy makers decide which policies and advanced technologies can address these
Environmental Science and Technology, 1975
The Second National Conference on Complete WateReuse stressed better planning, management, and use of water. The sessions covered: water reuse and its problems; water's interface with air and land, and modification of these interactions by the imposition of energy; and heavy metals in the environment and methods for their removal. (BT)
David E. Leland; Paul A. Berg
Statutory provisions under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act require water utilities using unfiltered surface sources to disinfect and filter or to meet stringent criteria for remaining unfiltered. Three unfiltered surface water systems in Oregon were evaluated in two areas: (1) their ability to meet the criteria for remaining unfiltered and (2) the steps they must take
Stephen D. Rhoades
An informal inquiry of 24 cities about local water system standards resulted in a mini-survey of criteria used for engineering and planning purposes. Areas covered were standards for sizes and types of pipes used, spacing of pipeline grids, calculations of water use for residences, velocity and pressure of distributed water, costs for pipe laid, head-loss standards, fire flow standards, and
Ratnesh K Sharma; Tom Christian; Rocky Shih; Alan Mcreynolds; Cullen E. Bash
Fresh water is one of the few resources which is scarce and has no replacement; it is also closely coupled to energy consumption. Fresh water usage for power generation and other cooling applications is well known and accounts for 40% of total freshwater withdrawal in the U.S. A significant amount of energy is embedded in the consumption of water for
TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Lecture 4: Groundwater () December in dried sample. Saturation: When these voids are fully filled with water. Specific Yield Sy : the ration of the colume of water that drains from a rock owing to gravity, to the total rock volumne. 00000000
US Army Corps of Engineers
COCONINO PLATEAU WATER ADVISORY COUNCIL& WATERSHED PARTNERSHIP 3624 E. Mesquite St. Gilbe~t, Arizona 85296" 1832 Participants: Arizona Department of Environmental Quality Arizona Department of Water City ofFlagstaff City of Page City of Sedona City of Williams Coconino County Doney Park Water Company
District of Columbia, University of the
Water Resources Research Center WASHINGTON, DISTRICT Of COLUMBIA #12;ASSESSMENT OF THE STATE OF THE ART AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS IN RECREATION BENEFIT, VALUATION FOR WATER RESOURCES PLANNING conducted by Robert C. Waters Vassilios Moustakis Department of Engineering Administration School
TD 603 Water Resources Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni/ Analysis Framework for the 2009 / 16 #12;Vol II and Vol III Vol. II 1 Annexure I, Chap. 1: Bulk-water and tariffs-Principles. 2 Annexure I, Chap. 2: International Case Studies. 3 Annexure II: Report on water conservation technologies
The Water Resource Adaptation Program (WRAP) contributes to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s (U.S. EPA) efforts to provide water resource managers and decision makers with the tools needed to adapt water resources to demographic and economic development, and future clim...
Climate and water expert Pavel Kabat -- director and CEO of the International Institute for Applied System Analysis in Austria -- calls for a long-term system approach to water research, new partnerships with the developing world and a change in donor practices, to tackle water-climate issues. He talks to Nature Climate Change.
The Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) GIS layer represents the locations of public water system (PWS) facilities in NY and NJ; every PWS has one or more facilities. Data for this layer came from the Safe Drinking Water Information System/Federal version (SDWIS/FED)...
Rising populations around the globe have resulted in an ever-increasing need for potable waters. Communities obtain their potable water from surface or underground sources. The contaminations of these source waters with viruses and other pathogens and parasites has been well docu...
This interactive tour of the water cycle allows students to follow a water molecule from a home's plumbing system as it follows different routes through the hydrologic cycle. Students learn about how water is used, treated, and returned to the natural environment where it can cycle through liquid, solid, and gas phases.
This expansive site provides information about water and its relation to conflict throughout the world. There are numerous articles about and links to information on water laws, disputes, and issues.The site also lists various water-related meetings and conferences being held around the world.
Science teachers can find lesson ideas almost anywhere. For example, during a recent visit to a local dollar store, the author stumbled upon a flower vase filled with water pearls, also known as water beads and jelly beans. She bought several of the bags (search the web to find numerous online sources), and soon began experimenting. Water pearls…
This review examines the current knowledge of water intake as it pertains to human health, including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, and the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, huma...
Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...
Contents: primacy program (what is primacy, advantages and disadvantages, treatment as a state, grant applications and funding); safe drinking water act (sampling requirements, coliform standard, public notification, surface water treatment rule impacts, uic and wellhead protection programs, lead/copper rule); water utility management (how is the utility program evaluated, who's responsible, what is the board and tribal council role).
NJEA Review, 1981
Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)
Only very recently developed as a refined scientific discipline, hydrology has to cope with a complexity of problems concerning the present and future management of a vital natural resource, water. This article examines available water supplies and the problems and prospects of water resource development. (Author/MA)
Roman, Harry T.
The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…
Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.
A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.
Water is very important to plants. Plants need water to produce food and grow. Plants make their own food through a complex, sunlight-powered process called photosynthesis. Simply put, in photosynthesis, water absorbed by a plant's roots and carbon dioxide taken from the air by a plant's leaves combine to make the plant's food. This article…
This project will investigate total water management (TWM) as a way of improving water resource management and reducing waste streams. This project will also improve management of potable water, wastewater and wet-weather flow through combined management, reuse and recycling wil...
Sharpe, M. H.; Roberts, M. L.; Hill, W. E.; Jackson, C. H.
Water blasting system under development removes hard, dense, extraneous material from surfaces. High pressure pump forces water at supersonic speed through nozzle manipulated by robot. Impact of water blasts away unwanted material from workpiece rotated on air bearing turntable. Designed for removing thermal-protection material, system is adaptable to such industrial processes as cleaning iron or steel castings.
Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.
A method for reducing the concentration of many undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite. 1 tab.
Toll, David L.
With increasing population pressure and water usage coupled with climate variability and change, water issues are being reported by numerous groups as the most critical environmental problems facing us in the 21st century. Competitive uses and the prevalence of river basins and aquifers that extend across boundaries engender political tensions between communities, stakeholders and countries. In addition to the numerous water availability issues, water quality related problems are seriously affecting human health and our environment. The potential crises and conflicts especially arise when water is competed among multiple uses. For example, urban areas, environmental and recreational uses, agriculture, and energy production compete for scarce resources, not only in the Western U.S. but throughout much of the U.S. and also in numerous parts of the world. Mitigating these conflicts and meeting water demands and needs requires using existing water resources more efficiently. The NASA Water Resources Program Element works to use NASA products and technology to address these critical water issues. The primary goal of the Water Resources is to facilitate application of NASA Earth science products as a routine use in integrated water resources management for the sustainable use of water. This also includes the extreme events of drought and floods and the adaptation to the impacts from climate change. NASA satellite and Earth system observations of water and related data provide a huge volume of valuable data in both near-real-time and extended back nearly 50 years about the Earth's land surface conditions such as precipitation, snow, soil moisture, water levels, land cover type, vegetation type, and health. NASA Water Resources Program works closely to use NASA and Earth science data with other U.S. government agencies, universities, and non-profit and private sector organizations both domestically and internationally. The NASA Water Resources Program organizes its projects under five functional themes. I) Streamflow and Flood Forecasting 2) Water Supply and Irrigation (includes evapotranspiration) 3) Drought 4) Water Quality 5) Climate and Water Resources. To maximize this activity NASA Water Resources Program works closely with other government agencies (e.g., the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), USAID, the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA)), universities, non-profit national and international organizations, and the private sector. The NASA Water Resources program currently is funding 21 active projects under the functional themes (http://wmp.gsfc.nasa.gov & http://science.nasa.gov/earth-science/applied-sciences/).
This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver. PMID:20361328
stream_source_info Be Water Smart.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6293 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Be Water Smart.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 W aterSmart, a water... conservation program, uses a unique approach to protect and conserve water quality and quantity in upper Texas Gulf Coast urban landscapes. Part of the Texas Coastal Watershed Program (TCWP), WaterSmart is creating rain gardens as just one method...
Mr. Michael D. Fayer (Stanford University Department of Chemistry)
In many situations, form biology to geology, water occurs not as the pure bulk liquid but rather in nanoscopic environments, in contact with interfaces, interacting with ionic species, and interacting with large organic molecules. In such situations, water does not behave in the same manner as it does in the pure bulk liquid. Water dynamics are fundamental to many processes such as protein folding and proton transport. Such processes depend on the dynamics of water's hydrogen bonding network. Here, the results of ultrafast infrared experiments are described that shed light on the influences of nanoconfinement, interfaces, ions, and organic molecules on water hydrogen bond dynamics.
In the photo above, the cylindrical container being lowered into the water is a water quality probe developed by NASA's Langley Research Center for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in an applications engineering project. It is part of a system- which also includes recording equipment in the helicopter-for on-the-spot analysis of water samples. It gives EPA immediate and more accurate information than the earlier method, in which samples are transported to a lab for analysis. Designed primarily for rapid assessment of hazardous spills in coastal and inland waters, the system provides a wide range of biological and chemical information relative to water pollution.
Provin, Tony; Pitt, John L.
is Acidifying the water will reduce Household water: No EPA 1 drinking water (expressed and carbonates, but it is more likely to be corrosive actual alkalinity.The only way standard has been set; see TDS 2 section on as CaCO 3 ) calculated using the and cause... ash Household water: 1.3 ppm, EPA Primary (Cu) contamination from include jaundice and anemia. (sodium carbonate). Prevent Drinking Water Standard; 1.0 ppm, EPA mining operations, acid High levels may cause corrosion created by high Secondary...
Water, H2O, is familiar to everyone - it shapes our bodies and our planet. But despite its abundance, water has remained a mystery, exhibiting many strange properties that are still not understood. Why does the liquid have an unusually large capacity to store heat? And why is it denser than ice? Now, using the intense X-ray beams from particle accelerators, investigations into water are leading to fundamental discoveries about the structure and arrangement of water molecules. This lecture will elucidate the many mysteries of water and discuss current studies that are revolutionizing the way we see and understand one of the most fundamental substances of life.
This is the home page of the monthly publication US Water News. Most online content is news coverage of water supply and quality, legislation, water rights, conservation, and the global waterfront. The collection of links is quite impressive, with state, federal, international, nonprofit, and many other resources listed. Assorted buyer's guides for a wide variety of water products are given with links to online catalogs. For people that want to stay current on new developments and technologies, there is also information about upcoming water related conferences from around the world.
to the atmosphere through the fan stacks. Tower types The most common cooling tower types are cross flow and counter flow towers. In cross flow towers (the right side of Figure 1), water flows through a return distribution header on the top deck. Water... by the overhead fans. The fill maintains the water in small droplets and adds to the residence time which is essential for efficient heat exchange. The cooled water falls through the fill into the cold water basin and is pumped throughout the plant...
The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)
The purpose of this activity is to measure the total precipitable water vapor (column water vapor) in the atmosphere above an observer's site. Students point a GLOBE/GIFTS water vapor instrument at the sun and record the voltage readings from a digital voltmeter. They observe sky conditions near the Sun and perform the Cloud Protocols. Intended outcomes are that students understand the concept that the atmosphere prevents some of the sun's light from reaching Earth's surface, how water vapor measurements relate to the hydrologic cycle, and how greenhouse gases, such as water vapor, play an important role in weather and climate. Supporting background materials for both student and teacher are included.
Dessler, A E; Schoeberl, M R; Wang, T; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K H
We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry-climate model to be +0.3 W/(m(2)?K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126
Willis, Charles E. (editor)
The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.
Hiergesell, R.A.; Dixon, K.L.
A water budget for the Par Pond hydrologic system was established in order to estimate the rate of groundwater influx to Par Pond. This estimate will be used in modeling exercises to predict Par Pond reservoir elevation and spillway discharge in the scenario where Savannah River water is no longer pumped and discharged into Par Pond. The principal of conservation of mass was used to develop the water budget, where water inflow was set equal to water outflow. Components of the water budget were identified, and the flux associated with each was determined. The water budget was considered balanced when inflow and outflow summed to zero. The results of this study suggest that Par Pond gains water from the groundwater system in the upper reaches of the reservoir, but looses water to the groundwater system near the dam. The rate of flux of groundwater from the water table aquifer into Par Pond was determined to be 13 cfs. The rate of flux from Par Pond to the water table aquifer near the dam was determined to be 7 cfs.
Morris, R D
Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788
Popkin, Barry M.; D’Anci, Kristen E.; Rosenberg, Irwin H.
This review attempts to provide some sense of our current knowledge of water including overall patterns of intake and some factors linked with intake, the complex mechanisms behind water homeostasis, the effects of variation in water intake on health and energy intake, weight, and human performance and functioning. Water represents a critical nutrient whose absence will be lethal within days. Water’s importance for prevention of nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases has emerged more recently because of the shift toward large proportions of fluids coming from caloric beverages. Nevertheless, there are major gaps in knowledge related to measurement of total fluid intake, hydration status at the population level, and few longer-term systematic interventions and no published random-controlled longer-term trials. We suggest some ways to examine water requirements as a means to encouraging more dialogue on this important topic. PMID:20646222
The Water Sourcebooks from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency contain 324 activities for grades K-12 divided into four sections: K-2, 3-5, 5-8, and 9-12. Each section is divided into five chapters: Introduction to Water, Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment, Surface Water Resources, Ground Water Resources, and Wetlands and Coastal Waters. This environmental education program explains the water management cycle using a balanced approach showing how it affects all aspects of the environment. All activities contain hands-on investigations, fact sheets, reference materials, and a glossary of terms. Activities are organized by objectives, materials needed, background information, advance preparation, procedures, and resources. All parts of the program may be printed and copied.
Melnick, Joseph L.; Gerba, Charles P.; Wallis, Craig
Attention is drawn in this paper to the increasing problem of viral contamination of water and shellfish, particularly since growing demands for available water resources by a rising world population and expanding industry will make the recycling of wastewater almost inevitable in the future. The problem of eliminating viruses pathogenic for man from water is considered in the light of present water treatment procedures, which are often inadequate for that purpose. Man may be exposed to waterborne viruses through the consumption of contaminated water, shellfish, or crops, as a result of recreational activities involving water, or from aerosols following the spraying of crops with liquid wastes. Physical and chemical methods of eliminating viruses from water are discussed. PMID:310357
Schroeder, Jenna N.
This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.
Schroeder, Jenna N.
This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.
Davies, D. W.
A model has been developed to test the hypothesis that the observed seasonal and latitudinal distribution of water on Mars is controlled by the sublimation and condensation of surface ice deposits in the Arctic and Antarctic, and the meridional transport of water vapor. Besides reproducing the observed water vapor distribution, the model correctly reproduces the presence of a large permanent ice cap in the Arctic and not in the Antarctic. No permanent ice reservoirs are predicted in the temperate or equatorial zones. Wintertime ice deposits in the Arctic are shown to be the source of the large water vapor abundances observed in the Arctic summertime, and the moderate water vapor abundances in the northern temperate region. Model calculations suggest that a year without dust storms results in very little change in the water vapor distribution. The current water distribution appears to be the equilibrium distribution for present atmospheric conditions.
Zeidel, Mark L.
As a major component of homeostasis, all organisms regulate the water composition of various compartments. Through the selective use of barrier membranes and surface glycoproteins, as well as aquaporin water channels, organisms ranging from Archaebacteria to humans can vary water permeabilities across their cell membranes by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. In barrier epithelia the outer, or exofacial, leaflet acts as the main resistor to water flow; this leaflet restricts water flow by minimizing the surface area of lipid molecules which is not covered by phosphate headgroups and by packing hydrocarbon chains at maximal density. Cells may enhance the barrier by expressing glycoproteins that augment the “thickness” of unstirred layers at their surfaces, reducing osmotic gradients at the lipid bilayer surface. Aquaporins markedly and highly selectively accelerate water flux and are “switched on” either by deployment into membranes or gating. This review summarizes these mechanisms in many species, and indicates potential roles for manipulating water permeabilities in treating disease. PMID:23303973
Finley, T.; Fennessey, K.; Light, R.
understanding that the highest value opportunities for water conservation usually exist where there is the strongest interaction of water and energy. Steam management systems, process cooling, high quality water production and waste water treatment represent...
surface-water total withdrawl for 2005. Darker counties indicate higher total water use. Thermoelectric power generation water-use data have been removed since this water category...
In Danchira village in Ghana for the last 5 years, women and children rise before dawn every day to fetch water from a tributary or the River Densu, which is 5 miles from the village. Diminished rainfall has dried the village's 3 ponds and bore-hole where the women and children used to fetch water. To exacerbate the water problem, the Ghana Water and Sewerage Corporation no longer comes to fill the huge water tank it brought to Danchira when water scarcity first occurred. The villagers could not afford to pay for the water. A 55-year-old mother of 5, Dede Aryehteye, takes her morning bath at the river. When she has dirty laundry, she cleans it in the river. She returns to the village around 8 am. She uses the next hour to filter the dark water 2 times with a device provided free of charge by the national Guinea Worm Eradication Programme to keep the larvae out of the water. Next she sort the water for 3 uses: drinking, household use, and evening bath. Dede then does other domestic chores. She would rather go to her cassava farm in the early morning when it is cool but has to fetch water instead. When she is not too tired and after finishing domestic chores, she goes to the farm. Water-fetching also exhausts the children and gets them to school rather late. Children make up the majority of the 500 people living in Danchira. Water scarcity forced most of the young villagers to flee to the cities. For example, Dede's 4 older children now live in Accra. The water scarcity keeps the farmers from growing maize, cassava, and vegetables. PMID:12287019
US Army Corps of Engineers
103 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;Q:\\COMP\\WATER1\\WRPA December 29, 2000 #12;105 WATER RESOURCES PLANNING ACT [As Amended Through P.L. 106580, Dec. 29, 2000 planning of water and related land resources, through the establishment of a water resources council
Water Management at UBC Okanagan Part 2: Water Features UBC Okanagan 2007 Angele Clarke A SEEDS and Objectives 2 Methods 3 The Symbolic and Cultural Values of Water 3 Landscape Aesthetics Relationship to Water 5 UBC-Okanagan Campus Landscape and Water Features 8 Water Features and the Built Environment Campus
Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.
This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)
... Fact Sheets for Water Fluoridation Fact Sheets for Engineering FAQs for Community Water ... wells. How do I know if my water is from a public water system or a private well? What are the governmental ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...
Gleeson, Joseph G.
Appendix E UC Sustainable Water Systems Policy #12;SustainablePracticesPolicy Section Section I SustainableWater Systems __________________________________________________________________________________ II + Newborn Revenue + Inpatient Revenue. DomesticWater: Potable and non-potable water provided for domestic
Attari, Shahzeen Z.
In a national online survey, 1,020 participants reported their perceptions of water use for household activities. When asked for the most effective strategy they could implement to conserve water in their lives, or what other Americans could do, most participants mentioned curtailment (e.g., taking shorter showers, turning off the water while brushing teeth) rather than efficiency improvements (e.g., replacing toilets, retrofitting washers). This contrasts with expert recommendations. Additionally, some participants are more likely to list curtailment actions for themselves, but list efficiency actions for other Americans. For a sample of 17 activities, participants underestimated water use by a factor of 2 on average, with large underestimates for high water-use activities. An additional ranking task showed poor discrimination of low vs. high embodied water content in food products. High numeracy scores, older age, and male sex were associated with more accurate perceptions of water use. Overall, perception of water use is more accurate than the perception of energy consumption and savings previously reported. Well-designed efforts to improve public understanding of household water use could pay large dividends for behavioral adaptation to temporary or long-term decreases in availability of fresh water. PMID:24591608
Anderson, R.; Collier, R.
Non-potable drinking water is a major problem for much of the world`s population. It has been estimated that from 15 to 20 million children under the age of 5 die from diarrheal conditions brought on by infected drinking water every year. This is equivalent to a fully-loaded DC-10 crashing every ten minutes of every day, 365 days a year. Heat is one of the most effective methods of disinfecting drinking water. Using conventional means of heating water (heating on an open-flamed stove) results in an extremely energy-intensive process. The main obstacle is that for areas of the world where potable water is a problem, fuel supplies are either too expensive, not available, or the source of devastating environmental problems (deforestation). The apparatus described is a solar-powered water disinfection device that can overcome most if not all of the barriers that presently limit technological solutions to drinking water problems. It uses a parabolic trough solar concentrator with a receiver tube that is also a counterflow heat exchanger. The system is totally self-contained utilizing a photovoltaic-powered water pump, and a standard automotive thermostat for water flow control. The system is designed for simplicity, reliability and the incorporation of technology readily accessible in most areas of the world. Experiments at the Florida Solar Energy Center have demonstrated up to 2,500 liters of safe drinking water per day with 28 square meters of solar concentrator.
Water scarcity in some regions is a leading source of economic and political instability. Upstream countries have a clear advantage over downstream countries. Almost 40% of the world's population relies on river systems used by at least 2 countries. Water conflicts are most evident in the Middle East where population growth rates are among the world's highest and agricultural productivity depends almost exclusively on irrigation. Water scarcity is most critical in the Jordan River basin which Israel, Jordan, the occupied West Bank, and part of Syria share. Israel exceeds its renewable water supply by 15%. Even though Jordanians use less than 50% of the water/capita Israel uses, its population grows 3.4%/year of Israel's water supply is the Yarqon-Taninim aquifer whose recharge area is on the West Bank. Israel draws water from this aquifer for its own use, but does not let West Bank Arabs draw from it. Another water supply lies in the Golan Heights with Israel seized from Syria. Its other source is an overpumped coastal aquifer. 9 nations claim the Nile with Egypt being the last country to receive its waters. Egypt has very few of its own water sources plus is has rapid population growth. Turkey plans on constructing 22 dams, 19 hydropower stations, and 25 irrigation systems on the Euphrates river, resulting in a 35% reduction in water flow to Syria in normal years and even more in dry years. This project would also pollute the river with irrigation runoff. International cooperation is needed to address wait crisis. Israel could share its drip irrigation technology with others, such as it has done with the Islamic Central Asian republics. Ethiopia could store Nile water in its highlands which have a lower evaporation rate than that at Egypt's Aswan Dam, resulting in more available water. Perhaps the mutual gains possible from cooperation will unite long standing enemies toward peace. PMID:12286578
Water quality standards are the foundation for water management actions. They provide the basis for regulating discharges of pollutants to surface waters, and provide a target for restoration of degraded waters. Water quality standards identify and protect uses of the water bod...
la Riviere, J. W. Maurits
Discusses the management of the earth's water resources. Describes the global water cycle and the status of water pollution. Recommends that a water-management project should lean toward increasing the efficiency of water consumption rather than toward increasing the supply of water. (YP)
Drinking water safety has traditionally been linked to water quality. The possibility of terrorism directed against the drinking water supply has emphasized the link between water safety and water security. The traditional paradigm in solving water quality problems is to develop ...
Keller, Arturo A.
WATER QUALITY MODELING OF THE STATE OF OHIO COMPONENT OF THE OHIO RIVER BASIN WATER QUALITY TRADING PROGRAM #12;Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water Quality Trading Program #12;2 Water Quality Modeling of the State of Ohio Component of the Ohio River Basin Water
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly called the Clean Water Act (CWA), was adopted on 18 October 1972. Since then it has been amended 18 times, the last amendments were adopted on 4 February 1987. As established, its objective is: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation`s waters. And has, as an interim goal: water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the water. It should be noted that Congress established as the Act`s ultimate goal: the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated. The Act set out to meet this lofty objective and goal through the development and implementation of controls on the point source discharges and the nonpoint source release of pollutants. The regulation of point and nonpoint sources as well as future requirements are discussed.
Aldaya, Maite; Hoekstra, Arjen
In a context where water resources are unevenly distributed and, in some regions precipitation and drought conditions are increasing, enhanced water management is a major challenge to final consumers, businesses, water resource users, water managers and policymakers in general. By linking a large range of sectors and issues, virtual water trade and water footprint analyses provide an appropriate framework to find potential solutions and contribute to a better management of water resources. The water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. The water footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the product, measured over the full supply chain. It is a multi-dimensional indicator, showing water consumption volumes by source and polluted volumes by type of pollution; all components of a total water footprint are specified geographically and temporally. The water footprint breaks down into three components: the blue (volume of freshwater evaporated from surface or groundwater systems), green (water volume evaporated from rainwater stored in the soil as soil moisture) and grey water footprint (the volume of polluted water associated with the production of goods and services). Closely linked to the concept of water footprint is that of virtual water trade, which represents the amount of water embedded in traded products. Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. Virtual water trade between nations and even continents could thus be used as an instrument to improve global water use efficiency and to achieve water security in water-poor regions of the world. The virtual water trade together with the water footprint concept could thus provide an appropriate framework to support more optimal water management practices by informing production and trade decisions and the development and adoption of water efficient technology. In order to move towards better water governance however a further integration of water-related concerns into water-related sectoral policies is paramount. This will require a concerted effort by all stakeholders, the willingness to adopt a total resource view where water is seen as a key, cross-sectoral input for development and growth, a mix of technical approaches, and the courage to undertake and fund water sector reforms. We are convinced that the water footprint analysis can provide a sufficiently robust fact base for meaningful stakeholder dialogue and action towards solutions.
Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach is about our human and environmental qualities with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. Watershed management can be an effective means for crisis intervention and pollution control. This project is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through university curriculam, for professional development in technical and field assistance, and for community awareness in the trade-offs and consequences of resource decisions that affect hydrologic systems. This community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is developed that specifically assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interations between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. Disastrous conditions worldwide have triggered reactions in crisis relief rather than crisis prevention. Through a unified management approach to the preservation of water quality, the flows of water that connect all water users can serve as a basis for the maintenance and protection of our valuable watersheds.
Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Gainaru, Catalin; Handle, Philip H.; Seidl, Markus; Nelson, Helge; Böhmer, Roland
The glassy states of water are of common interest as the majority of H2O in space is in the glassy state and especially because a proper description of this phenomenon is considered to be the key to our understanding why liquid water shows exceptional properties, different from all other liquids. The occurrence of water’s calorimetric glass transition of low-density amorphous ice at 136 K has been discussed controversially for many years because its calorimetric signature is very feeble. Here, we report that high-density amorphous ice at ambient pressure shows a distinct calorimetric glass transitions at 116 K and present evidence that this second glass transition involves liquid-like translational mobility of water molecules. This “double Tg scenario” is related to the coexistence of two liquid phases. The calorimetric signature of the second glass transition is much less feeble, with a heat capacity increase at Tg,2 about five times as large as at Tg,1. By using broadband-dielectric spectroscopy we resolve loss peaks yielding relaxation times near 100 s at 126 K for low-density amorphous ice and at 110 K for high-density amorphous ice as signatures of these two distinct glass transitions. Temperature-dependent dielectric data and heating-rate–dependent calorimetric data allow us to construct the relaxation map for the two distinct phases of water and to extract fragility indices m = 14 for the low-density and m = 20–25 for the high-density liquid. Thus, low-density liquid is classified as the strongest of all liquids known (“superstrong”), and also high-density liquid is classified as a strong liquid. PMID:24101518
... verifies that the plant's product water and operational water supply are obtained from an approved source; inspects washing and sanitizing procedures; inspects bottling operations; and determines whether ... water and product water for contaminants. Americans like bottled ...
This image-rich Micscape Magazine article explores how water bears can be found almost everywhere yet are still unknown to almost everybody, why there are relatively few light microscope photographs of water bears in the literature and on the Web, and how light microscopy can outperform scanning electron microscopy when viewing these animals. It includes a list of historical references, early sketches, and colorful images of water bears, also known as tardigrades.
California Academy of Sciences
In this creative roleplay activity, learners will explore the various processes of the water cycle using movement, sound, and props to aid in comprehension. Learners will understand that water changes forms throughout the water cycle, and that this cycle runs continuously throughout all the cycles at the same time. This standards-based lesson, which is great for the classroom, camps, or afterschool programs, includes roleplay cards and ideas for props.
Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College; Biology)
Sampling of aquatic microorganisms reveals a surprising feature of many open water systems - stratification. Planktonic and benthic microbes occupy distinct zones in stratified water columns. Explore how the benthic consumer populations respond to environmental cues such as changes in sunlight, wind effects, or increases in organics due to pollution with the model HypoxiaZone. * model the effects of reducing nutrient loads to surface waters on microbial populations and oxygen levels within the Mississippi River basin and Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone
Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.
Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.
In an investigation called "Shape It!" learners craft tiny boats out of clay, set them afloat on water and then add weight loads to them, in order to explore: how objects stay afloat in water; what the relationship is among surface tension, buoyancy, density and displacement; and how shape, size, and type of material affect an object's ability to remain buoyant. The introductory text discusses how heavy steel ships can float on bodies of water like rivers, bays and oceans.
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality
This web page hosts information related to groundwater quality in Oregon. Fact sheets about important groundwater problems are available, addressing topics such as septic systems, nonpoint source pollution, total daily maximum loading, drinking water, and storm water management. The site also includes data and maps portraying groundwater quality, describes issues affecting groundwater management, provides results of groundwater assessment programs, and has links to groundwater and water quality regulations and programs. Most of the data and files are in pdf format.
Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,
Students learn about the techniques engineers have developed for changing ocean water into drinking water, including thermal and membrane desalination. They begin by reviewing the components of the natural water cycle. They see how filters, evaporation and/or condensation can be components of engineering desalination processes. They learn how processes can be viewed as systems, with unique objects, inputs, components and outputs, and sketch their own system diagrams to describe their own desalination plant designs.
Until very recently, planetary scientists had thought that Mars is a cold, dry planet. Then in the summer of 2000, NASA released images from the Mars Global Surveyor showing evidence of very recent seepage of ground water from crater and valley slopes in the planet's southern hemisphere. It seems that substantial reservoirs of the water that once may have run so copiously on the surface may still exist. Evidence of other water-created landforms is presented and accompanied by remote imagery.
Water quality is more than meets the eye. Some of its properties are invisible. Teachers using this module will focus on measurable properties of water: mass, volume, and concentration; temperature; dissolved oxygen; pH; and nitrates; and their effects on water quality. Each of these properties is the subject of a lesson plan. The lesson plans include an introduction, lesson objectives, a pre-test, lesson presentation, activity, and a post-test.
Two subjects are covered in this book: oilfield water treatment for steam flooding and treatment for oil removal. This information has not before been available in a single volume. The steam-flood section describes water treating requirements and softener designs, in addition to scale and corrosion problems in steam floods. The section on oil removal describes four basic oil-water separation mechanisms with fifteen variations in equipment designs.
A water purification/recycling system developed by Photo-Catalytics, Inc. (PCI) for NASA is commercially available. The system cleanses and recycles water, using a "photo-catalysis" process in which light or radiant energy sparks a chemical reaction. Chemically stable semiconductor powders are added to organically polluted water. The powder absorbs ultraviolet light, and pollutants are oxidized and converted to carbon dioxide. Potential markets for the system include research and pharmaceutical manufacturing applications, as well as microchip manufacture and wastewater cleansing.
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) page contains information about the water resources in the state of Indiana. The district staff measure streamflow and ground-water levels as well as collect water-quality data (pH and mercury levels) throughout the state. Information on this site includes daily streamflow conditions, Biological Resources Division research in the state, drought information, and studies of the Upper Illinois River basin and White River basin. There are links to other sites for additional information.
Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)
A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.
Arbuckle, J.G.; Randle, R.V. )
The authors offer an explanation of how the clean water laws and regulations affect business operations. This book includes chapters on: Introduction and overview of the Clean Water Act; Enforcement: the power behind the word; toxics water quality standards for industrial and municipal discharges: development and application; Effluent limitations for toxic pollutant discharges from industrial sources: development and application; National pollutant elimination system; Control of stormwater and nonpoint source discharges of water pollution; Reporting and cleanup requirements for releases, spills, or discharges of oil and hazardous substances; Oil spill liability legislation; and Special issues facing publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and their effect on industrial pretreatment obligations and expenses.
Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.
. Texas follows the EPA drinking water advisory of 20 to 40 micrograms per liter. How can MTBE be Removed from Well Water? MTBE requires a specific treatment process for removal from water. Well owners can use granular activated carbon or charcoal.... In the home, granular activated carbon filtering sys- tems are usually installed where the treated water will be used for drinking or cooking. Treatment systems can be placed directly on the faucet, on the countertop or under the sink (Fig. 3). Most systems...
Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.
From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.
stream_source_info Surface water quality standards.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 2662 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Surface water quality standards.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 SURFACE WATER QUALITY STANDARDS AAs part of the ongoing program to manage Texaswater quality, the Texas Commission onEnvironmental Quality (TCEQ) is currently review- ing the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards, including the standards for contact...
After 18 years of research into air/water pollution at Stennis Space Center, Dr. B. C. Wolverton formed his own company, Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc., to provide technology and consultation in air and water treatment. Common houseplants are used to absorb potentially harmful materials from bathrooms and kitchens. The plants are fertilized, air is purified, and wastewater is converted to clean water. More than 100 U.S. communities have adopted Wolverton's earlier water hyacinth and artificial marsh applications. Catfish farmers are currently evaluating the artificial marsh technology as a purification system.
Giammarchi, M.; Balata, M.; Ioannucci, L.; Nisi, S.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.; Miramonti, L.
Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.
Giammarchi, M.; Balata, M.; Goretti, A.; Ianni, A.; Ioannucci, L.; Miramonti, L.; Nisi, S.
Astroparticle Physics and Underground experiments searching for rare nuclear events, need high purity materials to act as detectors or detector shielding. Water has the advantage of being cheap, dense and easily available. Most of all, water can be purified to the goal of obatining a high level of radiopurity. Water Purification can be achieved by means of a combination of processes, including filtration, reverse osmosis, deionization and gas stripping. The Water Purification System for the Borexino experiment, will be described together with its main performances.
McFarland, Mark L.; Lemon, Robert G.; Stichler, Charles
land, saline seeps, oil fields, and city and industrial wastewaters gen- erally has higher salt levels. What problems can salty water cause? S alty irrigation water can cause two major problems in crop pro- duction?salinity hazard, Mark Mc... (meq/L) 17-21 23 31 31 *Different units of measurement for total soluble salts represent the same critical value and sodium hazard. When irrigation water is used by plants or evaporates from the soil surface, salts con- tained in the water are left...
In this project you will learn about the different steps of the water cycle and what happens in each step. By the end of the project you will answer the essential question: How is rain made and why does it rain? There are many important steps that take place in the water cycle. Today we are going to learn about each step and the purpose of each step. Read The Water Cycle Information and think of the key steps in the water cycle. In this graphic organizer that I give you put the ...
Dams are widely distributed throughout the U.S. Their impact is perhaps most apparent in western cities, many of which lack a sufficient local water supply and thus rely on water diverted from far-away sources, particularly man-made lakes. This video segment shows how the city of Denver, Colorado, faced with a growing water crisis, developed and later abandoned a plan for a nearby dam and instead adopted policies consistent with a broader water-conservation strategy. The segment is three minutes forty-nine seconds in length.
Moran, E. H.; Tindall, J. A.; Campbell, A. A.
ABSTRACT Energy and water security and sustainability have become a national and global priority. The continued security and economic health of any country depends on a sustainable supply of both energy and water because these two critical natural resources are inexorably linked. The production of energy requires large volumes of water while the treatment and distribution of water is equally dependent upon readily available, low-cost energy. In the U.S. and other countries, irrigated agriculture and thermoelectric generation withdrawals of fresh water are approximately equal however; they are growing due to increasing population. Within the U.S. electricity production requires about 190,000 million gallons of freshwater per day, accounting for over 40 percent of all daily freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. The indirect use of water (home lighting and electric appliances) is approximately equal to its direct use (watering lawns and taking showers). Current trends of water use and availability suggest that meeting future water and energy demands to support continued economic global development will require improved utilization and management of both energy and water resources. Primary concerns include: (1) Increasing populations require more food and energy; this may cause direct competition between the two largest water users for limited water resources (energy and agriculture); (2) Population growth and economic expansion projections indicate the U.S. alone will require an additional 393,000 MW of new generating capacity (equivalent to about 1,000 new 400 MW plants) by the year 2020 - other countries particularly India and China have similar trends; and (3) Potential environmental and ecological restrictions on the use of water for power generation such as the restrictions on cooling water withdrawals and cooling water use for nuclear power plants to protect aquatic species and habitat and the environment may reduce usable supplies. The U.S. and other Nation's abilities to meet the increasing demand for affordable water and energy are being seriously challenged by these emerging issues. This research presents potential solutions for security and sustainability of these systems, which are a pressing global priority.
This set of images summarizes what scientists currently know about the occurrence of water ice and water vapor on the terrestrial planets and satellites in our Solar System. Accompanied by a brief description, the Jpeg images show the ice cap at Mars' south pole, ice rafting on Europa, liquid water covering the surface of Earth (the famous 'Blue Marble' photo), and an impact crater on the Moon that may contain water ice. There is also a diagram showing the possible distribution of ice on Mars, as it varies with latitude.
Users can access information about educational programs and materials for teachers and students, including tours, traveling exhibits and presentations by the staff of the Des Moines Water Works. "Water Trunks", which contain water-related literature, books, science experiments, videos, games, CD-ROMs, hands-on activities, picture cards, career information, and a teacher resource book, are available to order. There are also links to other water websites, a teachers' newsletter and pollution prevention tips for classroom use and for the general public.
Robertson, Franklin; Goodman, Steven J.; Christy, John R.; Fitzjarrald, Daniel E.; Chou, Shi-Hung; Crosson, William; Wang, Shouping; Ramirez, Jorge
This research is the MSFC component of a joint MSFC/Pennsylvania State University Eos Interdisciplinary Investigation on the global water cycle extension across the earth sciences. The primary long-term objective of this investigation is to determine the scope and interactions of the global water cycle with all components of the Earth system and to understand how it stimulates and regulates change on both global and regional scales. Significant accomplishments in the past year are presented and include the following: (1) water vapor variability; (2) multi-phase water analysis; (3) global modeling; and (4) optimal precipitation and stream flow analysis and hydrologic processes.
Le Divenah, C.; Esperou, E.
We have chosen to present the topic "Water", by illustrating problems that will give better opportunities for interdisciplinary work between Natural Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology) teachers at first, but also English teachers and maybe others. Water is considered in general, in all its shapes and states. The question is not only about drinking water, but we would like to demonstrate that water can both be a fragile and short-lived resource in some ways, and an unlimited energy resource in others. Water exists on Earth in three states. It participates in a large number of chemical and physical processes (dissolution, dilution, biogeochemical cycles, repartition of heat in the oceans and the atmosphere, etc.), helping to maintain the homeostasis of the entire planet. It is linked to living beings, for which water is the major compound. The living beings essentially organized themselves into or around water, and this fact is also valid for human kind (energy, drinking, trade…). Water can also be a destroying agent for living beings (tsunamis, mud flows, collapse of electrical dams, pollution...) and for the solid earth (erosion, dissolution, fusion). I) Water, an essential resource for the human kind After having highlighted the disparities and geopolitical problems, the pupils will study the chemistry of water with its components and their origins (isotopes, water trip). Then the ways to make it drinkable will be presented (filtration, decantation, iceberg carrying…) II) From the origin of water... We could manage an activity where different groups put several hypotheses to the test, with the goal to understand the origin(s?) of water on Earth. Example: Isotopic signature of water showing its extraterrestrial origin.. Once done, we'll try to determine the origin of drinking water, as a fossil resource. Another use of isotopes will allow them to evaluate the drinking water age, to realize how precious it can be. III) Water as a sustainable energy resource Water is used to produce energy under different processes like ancient tamed energy such as water mills, locks or more recently tidal energy, marine current power, generators based on swell or osmotic gradients. The pupils will work in groups to present different techniques to the class. We could try to determine if all these energy resources could replace the actual major energy source in France: nuclear. Conclusion: Liquid water is probably the cradle of life. Since the birth of human kind, its history is closely linked to the presence of water: drinking, fishing, hygiene, and also transport or business is strictly depending on this resource. Described as a fragile and limited resource when it is used for human consumption, we realize that water is also an uneven resource of energy for the next generations. The challenge will then be to reconcile these different aspects: respecting this nourishing resource and preserving it from pollution, overexploitation or wasting, and at the same time, using water as energy for a world that has a growing population.
K. William Easter; Robert Hearne
\\u000a To implement effective water management, institutional and organizational arrangements must be developed to deal with market\\u000a and government failures. The major types of market failure are: the positive and negative externalities, which lead to non-optimal\\u000a resource provision; nonexcludability and nonsubtractability, which contribute to the under-provision of goods or services;\\u000a and natural monopolies, which result in non-competitive pricing. Nonexcludability refers to
Keller, Arturo A.
of water in a specific location. #12;Water Extraction & Conveyance Water Treatment End-Use Agricultural Residential Commercial Industrial Water Distribution Wastewater Treatment Wastewater Collection Wastewater Discharge Recycled Water Treatment Recycled Water Distribution Source Source Energy Inputs to Water Systems
Xiaochang C. Wang; Li Luo; Rong Chen; Huu Hao Ngo
The natural water system maintains its dynamic equilibrium through a hydrological cycle that involves a series of natural processes. Such a natural water cycle has been much disturbed by human activities in the process of water use. An urban water system was thus modeled in this paper as a series of artificial water cycles overlaid upon the natural water cycle.
The 1996 Amendments to Section 1453 of the Safe Drinking Water Act require the states to establish and implement a Source Water Assessment Program. Source water is the water taken from rivers, reservoirs, or wells for use as public drinking water. Source water assessment is inten...
Wolverton, B. C.
Removal of phenol by water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in static water was investigated. 2.75 g dry weight of this aquatic plant demonstrated the ability to absorb 100 mg of phenol per plant per 72 hours from distilled water, river water, and bayou water. One hectare of water hyacinth plants is shown to be potentially capable of removing 160 kg of phenol per 72 hours from waters polluted with this chemical.
Sinha, S.K.; Madia, J.; Dixon, S.
The Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (Con Edison) has constructed a first-of-a-kind water hammer events simulator for use at its training center. The Learning Center, Con Edison`s central training facility, intends to use the simulator as an educational tool to demonstrate the various mechanisms of the water hammer phenomenon to power plant designers, engineers and operators. The water hammer phenomenon has been studied extensively for the past 15 years for the nuclear industry. However, the acknowledge of the various water hammer mechanisms and the measures to prevent or mitigate water hammer have not been widely disseminated among the operators of fossil-fueled power plants. Con Edison personnel who operate the various generation stations and the New York City steam distribution systems are expected to benefit from the new simulator. Knowledge gained from interacting with the simulator will be very important in helping the Con Edison prevent, mitigate, or accommodate water hammer at its facilities. The water hammer simulator was fabricated in Con Edison`s central machine shop. Details of the design and construction of the simulator were finalized in consultation with Creare, Inc., an engineering research firm, located in Hanover, New Hampshire. The simulator seeks to recreate the essential features of water hammer in steam mines following the buildup of cold (subcooled) water by condensation and steam-water interaction. This paper describes the fabrication, design, testing, and operation of the Con Edison water hammer simulator. A discussion of how Con Edison plans to use the facility at The Learning Center is included.
One of the most pressing national and global issues is the availability of freshwater due to global climate change, energy scarcity issues and the increase in world population and accompanying economic growth. Estimates of water supplies and flows through the world's hydrologic c...
Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)
This video looks at how water use and energy use are connected when industrial era technologies are used as the primary means of supplying process energy. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.
Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B.; Foley, J. A.
Water scarcity, and its implications for human and ecosystem wellbeing, is well documented. To mitigate activities that exacerbate water scarcity, and to adapt to scarcity when it is unavoidable, we must understand the drivers of water scarcity. Based on data from the new WaterGAP3 model, we analyze patterns of water stress and water use in watersheds globally. Our data include information on multi-sectoral water withdrawal and consumption as well as irrigation data for individual crops. We assess monthly water use and availability as well as annual trends. Of 11,050 basins, about 2.5% are over-extended, with higher levels of water consumption than available water. In most of these basins, irrigated agriculture dominates water withdrawals. In the majority of basins (92%), less than 20% of available water is consumed by human activity. This leaves just 5.5% of basins potentially stressed; they may not be experiencing water limitation at present, but they are highly susceptible. We consider both water availability (supply) and water withdrawals and consumption (demand) as drivers of water stress, finding that over-extended basins are both dry, with about one fifth of the water availability of the lowest stress basins, and heavy water consumers, with more than double the water consumption of moderate-stress basins. Identifying basins likely to experience water stress, and strategies and characteristics of those that are not, will help put all basins on a path toward water sustainability.
Kerry Caslow cleaning a water quality sonde that is outfitted with probes for continuous monitoring of water temperature, specific conductance, and turbidity. It is imperative that the sondes be regularly maintained so that the data, which is published online in realtime, is always accurate....
... wear U.S. Coast Guard-approved life jackets around water, but do not rely on life jackets alone. MAINTAIN CONSTANT SUPERVISION • If you have ... the local emergency number. • Enroll in Red Cross water safety, ... as reaching or throwing equipment, a cell phone, life jackets and a first aid kit. WHAT YOU ...
Esler, William K.; Sanford, Daniel
Water rockets are used to present Newton's three laws of motion to high school physics students. Described is an outdoor activity which uses four students per group. Provides a launch data sheet to record height, angle of elevation, amount of water used, and launch number. (MVL)
Cardoso-Neto, J.E.; Williams, D.W.
A purge water management system is described for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.
In this activity, learners touch supercooled water drops with an ice crystal and trigger the water drops to freeze instantly. Learners discover that this process is used during candy making, when a single sugar crystal is used to crystallize an entire batch of sugar.
Rossen I. Ivanov
The Euler's equations describe the motion of inviscid fluid. In the case of shallow water, when a perturbative asymtotic expansion of the Euler's equations is taken (to a certain order of smallness of the scale parameters), relations to certain integrable equations emerge. Some recent results concerning the use of integrable equation in modeling the motion of shallow water waves are reviewed in this contribution.
***QUAL2E is not included in the current version of BASINS*** QUAL2E is a steady state and quasi-dynamic water quality model for the simulation of point source impact on water quality including nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen and BOD, algae, fecal c...
M. G. Wolman; H. C. Riggs
Surface Water Hydrology is published by the Geological Society of America as Volume O-1 of its The Geology of North America series. The hardbound treatise is edited by M. G. Wolman and H. C. Riggs and is written as a companion to Hydrogeology (Volume O-2 of the same series). The thirteen chapters describe the occurrence and movement of water on
***QUAL2E is not included in the current version of BASINS***
QUAL2E is a steady state and quasi-dynamic water quality model for the simulation of point source impact on water quality including nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen and BOD, algae, fecal c...
The bulk of western ground-water law is currently imposed at the state and local levels, and is highly variable in its technical provisions. Most ground water law is of recent origin (largely since the end of World War II) and continues to evolve through legislative enactments and judicial decisions. The principal purposes of ground water law are: (1) to regulate the rate of depletion to aquifers whose natural and artificial recharge is insufficient; (2) to regulate the rate of depletion to aquifers which supply or support the flow of surface water to prior vested ownership rights which take from streams, lakes, and springs; (3) to protect aquifers from pollution; and (4) to regulate the extraction or injection of ground water in areas prone to geologic instability. The law which attempts to achieve these objectives is a patchwork of federal constitutional principles and judicial doctrine; federal statutes and subsidiary regulations; state constitutional and statutory provisions developed from judicial interpretation; state common law; local ordinances and regulations. Because of the extent and complexity of this body of law, clear-cut answers to all but the most routine and narrow questions are difficult to ascertain. This is due partly to the fact that such questions arose infrequently prior to the time ground water assumed a major role in supplying the water needs of the west, and partly from earlier incomplete and faulty understandings of ground-water hydrology by the courts.
Delene, David J.
Liquid Water Content? Determines the Potential of Enhancing Precipitation using Cloud Seed TechniquesCloud Liquid Water Measurements By David Delene University of North Dakota #12;Why Measure Cloud (Mali, Saudi Arabia) Basic Cloud Parameter (MPACE) Icing Studies (WISP04, Sikorsky) Comparison
Algae are involved in water pollution in a number of important ways. It requires a continuous monitoring and study of algae existing in waters of various quality in order to determine what controls or what changes or what uses can be instituted for the benefit of man and for cons...
This United States Geological Survey (USGS) website is dedicated to water resources and studies in the state of Illinois. It contains real-time and daily streamflow data for the state, historical data, precipitation data, flooding information, groundwater quality, radium and arsenic water pollution, and studies on the Illinois River basin and Illinois lakes. Links are provided for additional information.
Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville.
This set of activities is designed to bring water resource education into the middle school classroom using an interdisciplinary approach. The packet contains timely, localized information about the water resources of west central Florida. Each activity is aligned to middle-school Sunshine State Standards. These hands-on, minds-on activities can…
Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.
High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them....
In this activity, learners build a water squirter using a PVC pipe, dowel, and foam. This activity is great for the summer time and introduces learners to forces and water pressure. Note: an electric drill is recommended for this activity, but not included in the cost of materials.
O'Keefe, Elizabeth S.
Describes a comparative study project where seventh grade students tested water samples from 10 cave sites that had been tested 24 years ago in a study that had attempted to determine if pollution in the environment had reached cave water. Discusses lab skills and some results of the study. (JRH)
A Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources scientist collects water quality data to better understand nutrients' role in the overabundance of duckweed and algae. Too much nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead to an overgrowth of free-floating plants such as duckweed and filamentous alg...
This article, which reviews the subject of detecting viruses in water, encompasses two topics. he first topic consists of methods used for concentrating viruses from large volumes of water into smaller, more manageable volumes. he second topic consists of assay methods used for e...
Cunningham, H. R. (inventor)
A dispenser particularly suited for use in dispensing potable water into food and beverage reconstitution bags is described. The dispenser is characterized by an expansible chamber, selectively adjustable stop means for varying the maximum dimensions, a rotary valve, and a linear valve coupled in a cooperating relation for delivering potable water to and from the chamber.
Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David
One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…
Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David
One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…
Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David
One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on flouridation provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of flouridation, correct…
Koszuta, Laurie Einstein
Water exercise provides benefits independently of participants' skill levels, and reduces the likelihood of injury from overuse syndromes and heat-related problems. The advantages of water resistance exercises for athletes and for elderly, overweight, or physically disabled people are discussed. (MT)
Smith, Daniel W.
Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)
Baylor College of Medicine (Baylor College of Medicine Human Genome Sequencing Center)
This unit explores the effects of contamination of natural resources on personal and community health. It especially focuses on the importance of clean water and how students can contribute to water quality in their communities. It is part of the My World activities from Baylor College of Medicine. Additional activities can be accessed at http://www.k8science.org.
Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David
One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on filtration provides instructional materials for six competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purposes of sedimentation basins and flocculation…
Walker, Mark; Kremer, Angelika; Schluter, Kirsten
"The Dirty Water Challenge" is a fun activity that teaches children about their environment in an engaging and practical way. Inquiry is embedded within the practical--students have to design, plan, and then build their own design of water filter. Students are exposed to important concepts from a variety of scientific disciplines, including how…
Environmental Science and Technology, 1974
Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…
Geldreich, Edwin E.
Presents a literature review of microbiology of water, covering publications of 1967-77. This review covers: (1) microbial indicators of pollution; and (2) microbiology of rivers, potable waters, natural lakes, and impoundments. A list of 192 references is also presented. (HM)
Trisler, Carmen E.
Western states have long had their eye on the Great Lakes as a water source for irrigation and municipal supplies. Great Lakes states protect this water source and oppose any diversion that is not agreed upon by all Great Lakes states and provinces. This article presents a role-play activity simulation of a Great Lakes governors' conference. (MKR)
E. J. Calabrese; C. E. Gilbert
This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.
In this regular column of the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, the author looks at the importance of conserving water and practicing good conservation habits daily. The column is designed for teachers in K-Grade 5 classrooms and presents concepts of climate literacy that are appropriate for young children. Identified online resources provide data collection activities, lessons, and games.
Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others
One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…
Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…
Haley, Richard D.
Provides a simple introduction to animals whose habitat is the thin surface film of water. Describes adaptive mechanisms of water striders, whirlygigs and riffle bugs and suggests ways to observe them in the wild or as aquarium animals. Includes basic demonstrations of the nature of surface tension. (JHZ)
Schneider, William J.
This fundamental element, whether profuse or scarce, rules the life and character of Florida's great park. But water, like living space, is a resource that civilization demands in ever increasing quantities. Examined here are the economics of water use by Florida's east coast cities and its effects on Everglades ecology.
Muscatello, Anthony C.
In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.
Describes four different styles of working exhibited by four different children as they worked with water flow. Each of the four children's approaches varied substantially, but each learned in his own way about water flow. The author believes that each child should be encouraged to follow his own style of learning. (BR)
? WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM CALIFORNIA'S CENTRAL VALLEY 1939-1948 Marine Biological i STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE #12;#12;a WATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM arid to avoid delay in publication. Washington D. CWATER TEMPERATURE RECORDS FROM
Receiver Secondary condenser LC LC Reboiler TC PC Cooling water PC FCPC Condenser LC XC Throttling valve ¨ mx my l© ª y s § y m «¬ ly my wx l n® ® x np © ¯ Condenser Column Compressor Receiver Super-heater Decanter Secondary condenser Reboiler Throttling valve Expansion valve Cooling water
This article from Agriculture21 cites the management practices and policies that will be necessary to avoid water crises in the coming three decades. There are links to information on raising water productivity, improving irrigation technology, and modernizing irrigation management. The text is available in English, French, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese.
Users can read and view pictures that explain the three phases (solid, liquid, and gas) in which water exists. An activity that illustrates water vapor in one's breath and a brief explanation of what phase changes are and what triggers them is also included.
Dever, Jennifer A.
Hydration Dehydration #12;2 To avoid DEHYDRATION To avoid OVERHYDRATION, Nitrogenous Wastes 1) Ammonia l little H2O l Takes a lot of energy to produce II. Water Gain 1. Drinking (reptiles) liquid H2O 2. Food to make enough to exceed water loss from evaporation § Electrolyte concentration in food makes
Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...
Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...
Climate change is having a major effect on water cycles. There is an increased intensity and frequency of severe storms resulting in flooding. Floods in other parts of the world cause death on a major scale. Meanwhile across the planet, one billion people (a sixth of the world's population) do not have access to safe drinking water, and two…
In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…
Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David
One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…
Cardoso-Neto, Joao E. (North Augusta, SC); Williams, Daniel W. (Aiken, SC)
A purge water management system for effectively eliminating the production of purge water when obtaining a groundwater sample from a monitoring well. In its preferred embodiment, the purge water management system comprises an expandable container, a transportation system, and a return system. The purge water management system is connected to a wellhead sampling configuration, typically permanently installed at the well site. A pump, positioned with the monitoring well, pumps groundwater through the transportation system into the expandable container, which expands in direct proportion with volume of groundwater introduced, usually three or four well volumes, yet prevents the groundwater from coming into contact with the oxygen in the air. After this quantity of groundwater has been removed from the well, a sample is taken from a sampling port, after which the groundwater in the expandable container can be returned to the monitoring well through the return system. The purge water management system prevents the purge water from coming in contact with the outside environment, especially oxygen, which might cause the constituents of the groundwater to oxidize. Therefore, by introducing the purge water back into the monitoring well, the necessity of dealing with the purge water as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is eliminated.
Harte, John; El-Gasseir, Mohamed
The water consumption requirements for a variety of energy options are presented, and comparative judgments drawn. Attention is focused on problems resulting from synthetic, gaseous, and liquid fuel production. Scenarios describing possible future levels of coal and electricity use are analyzed. They point to the importance of water supply…
Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David
One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…
... It is odorless and tasteless. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices. Non-cancer effects can include ... arsenic standard for drinking water at .010 parts per million (10 parts per ...
Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David
One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…
Water conservation for agriculture has been important for centuries and is becoming increasingly important due to competition among agricultural and other users. Our objectives were to review progress made in our understanding of factors affecting water conservation during the past 100 years and to ...
Noses Creek at Powder Springs Road, Georgia. Part of the USGS safety protocol is to wear a PFD (personal flotation device) around any surface water. This scientist may not look like he has one on, but he does--it is under his rain coat. This DH-81 sampler is used to sample flood water for suspended-...
Jenkins, David; And Others
This manual of laboratory experiments in water chemistry serves a dual function of illustrating fundamental chemical principles of dilute aqueous systems and of providing the student with some familiarity with the chemical measurements commonly used in water and wastewater analysis. Experiments are grouped in categories on the basis of similar…