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1

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

Adetoba, L.A.

1984-04-01

2

Water Injected Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

3

Corrosion control in water injection systems  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion control in water injection systems encompasses a wide range of technologies, including chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and oxygen scavengers); corrosion-resistant materials (metallic and nonmetallic); internal coatings and linings; mechanical removal of dissolved oxygen; velocity control; and prevention of oxygen entry and galvanic couples. This article reviews the way that these technologies are used in modern water-injection systems (both seawater and produced water) to provide an acceptable service life and high-quality injection water.

Patton, C.C. (C.C. Patton and Associates Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-08-01

4

Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

1989-01-01

5

LOPEZ WATER SUPPLY PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project, recently completed in San Luis Obispo County, Calif., is an unusual multipurpose water-supply system. It successfully combines water conservation, public water supply, recreation, flood protection, and the preservation of fish and wildlife.

Charles H. Lawrance; Keith G. Tranbarger; Richard A. Drahn

1971-01-01

6

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students from around the globe will team up to test fresh water. With this collaborative project, students will compare the water quality of their local river, stream, lake or pond with other fresh water sources around the world. The focus of the project is to assess the quality of water based on physical characteristics and chemical substances, and to look for relationships and trends among the data collected by all project participants.

2009-01-01

7

How Hunt alternates gas\\/water injection at Fairway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternate gas and water injection in the Fairway field of E. Texas will increase oil recovery to an estimated 50% as compared to an estimated 37% by water injection alone. The residue gas injected is miscible with the reservoir oil. Mobility control is by water injection. Ratio of gas volume to water volume injected is about 0.7. Oil initially in

Kastrop

1973-01-01

8

GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

John K. Godwin

2005-12-01

9

Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

Norum, Thomas D.

2004-01-01

10

Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

Pierazzo, E.

2005-01-01

11

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

SciTech Connect

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01

12

Temperature Distribution Around Water Injectors: Effects on Injection Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cold water is injected into a reservoir at initial temperature conditions, the sands around the water injector into which injection occurs will be cooled down to virtually the temperature of the injected water. The resulting temperature distribution can be described by simple expressions even in the case of a multi-layered reservoir. The presence of such a cold water bank

R. J. Platenkamp

1985-01-01

13

Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed irregularities. The so-called pumping model provided good estimates of the storage in the hyporheic zone under different stream discharges and stream flow conditions along streams. Evaluations Hobøl River, Norway, and Säva Brook, Sweden, at two occasions in both stream indicate that the relative residence time in the hyporheic zone is linearly proportional to the squared Froude Number. The residence time is scaled with water depth and hydraulic conductivity of the bed. The effect of such transient storage in e.g. the hyporheic zone gives rise to a tailing, but the breakthrough curve become increasingly symmetrical with Damköhler number. Such a symmetrical breakthrough can be erroneously taken as an effect of in-stream dispersion, even though this similarity is merely due to the physical analogy of various advection velocities over the transport cross-section, differential advection.

Wörman, A.

2009-04-01

14

Lesotho Highlands Water Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kingdom of Lesotho is a tiny landlocked country, about the size of the state of Maryland, and it is completely surrounded by South Africa. Its most significant natural resource is water, and thus the majority of its economy is based on providing water and electricity to South Africa. The Lesotho Highlands Water Project website is a window into the effects such a large water project can have on a community, arguably some of them negative. For instance, visitors should check out the "FAQs" section to read some of the issues that have come up with the project, including loss of property and livelihood. The "Documents & Reports" link has dozens of documents, including ones about "IFR" (which stands for Instream Flow Requirement), "Hydrology" and "Studies & Special Reports". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Villages of the Dammed Response", under "Studies & Special Reports", which is an excellent letter to the editor at the Globe and Mail that highlights the debate surrounding the Water Project and what it promises.

15

Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

Daggett, David L.

2005-01-01

16

International Water Law Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As clean water has increasingly become a resource subject to scarcity, international politics and law have become involved with the issues of access to and maintenance of water sources. This site provides comprehensive information on the subject, featuring full texts of the major diplomatic documents, including rules on international groundwaters and rivers agreed upon at UN conferences in Helsinki and Seoul, treaty drafts, regional agreements as well as international case law, an extensive bibliography, and links to related sites. The site was conceived and developed by Gabriel Eckstein in conjunction with The World's Water project of the Pacific Institute.

Eckstein, Gabriel.

17

Modeling of Water Injection into a Vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A loosely coupled two-phase vacuum water plume model has been developed. This model consists of a source flow model to describe the expansion of water vapor, and the Lagrangian equations of motion for particle trajectories. Gas/Particle interaction is modeled through the drag force induced by the relative velocities. Particles are assumed traveling along streamlines. The equations of motion are integrated to obtain particle velocity along the streamline. This model has been used to predict the mass flux in a 5 meter radius hemispherical domain resulting from the burst of a water jet of 1.5 mm in diameter, mass flow rate of 24.2 g/s, and stagnation pressure of 21.0 psia, which is the nominal Orbiter water dump condition. The result is compared with an empirical water plume model deduced from a video image of the STS-29 water dump. To further improve the model, work has begun to numerically simulate the bubble formation and bursting present in a liquid stream injected into a vacuum. The technique of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to formulate this simulation. A status and results of the on-going effort are presented and compared to results from the literature.

Alred, John W.; Smith, Nicole L.; Wang, K. C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Fitzgerald, Steven M.

1997-01-01

18

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01

19

After fogging process in water injected gas turbine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In gas turbine system with after fogging, water droplets are injected after compressor. After fogging could have more significant potential for enhancement of specific power production compared to inlet fogging alone, since a larger water injection rate is possible. Transient analysis of after fogging process is carried out by using a heat and mass transfer modeling on water droplet evaporation. Transient variables such as droplet diameter and air temperature are evaluated as the droplet evaporation proceeds for different values of initial droplet diameter, pressure ratio of compressor, and water injection ratio. The evaporation time for injected droplets are also estimated. Present results show that the evaporation time decreases sensitively with increasing pressure ratio or initial droplet diameter. However, the effect of water injection ratio on evaporation time is relatively insignificant unless water injection ratio is near the critical ratio.

Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Kyoungjin

2013-12-01

20

Reductions in Multicomponent Jet Noise by Water Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and

Thomas D Norum

21

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

22

Status of NINJA: the Numerical INJection Analysis project  

E-print Network

The 2008 NRDA conference introduced the Numerical INJection Analysis project (NINJA), a new collaborative effort between the numerical relativity community and the data analysis community. NINJA focuses on modeling and searching for gravitational wave signatures from the coalescence of binary system of compact objects. We review the scope of this collaboration and the components of the first NINJA project, where numerical relativity groups shared waveforms and data analysis teams applied various techniques to detect them when embedded in colored Gaussian noise.

Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Laura Cadonati; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterjis; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

2009-05-26

23

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOEpatents

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30

24

Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

2011-01-01

25

Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

2014-01-01

26

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

27

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

28

Injection of water into a porous medium saturated with steam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with injection of water into heated porous media saturated with steam. It is assumed that phase transformations\\u000a occur entirely on the frontal surface which separates regions filled with water and steam. Two modes of injection are possible.\\u000a In the first mode, which is realized at rather substantial differences between the initial temperature of the reservoir and\\u000a the

V. Sh. Shagapov; L. A. Nasyrova; E. V. Galiakbarova

2000-01-01

29

Western water law project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students read one of two articles (the "cases") from High Country News, a bi-weekly periodical that covers environmental issues in the western North America. Both articles are about situations in which the use of ground water by irrigators has decreased the amount of surface water available for users with senior water rights. I divide the class into groups representing 1) surface water users, 2) ground water users, and 3) a regulatory board. The groups read and discuss each article and prepare a case to present to the regulatory board. After each group has prepared their case, we gather for a hearing, where groups of consultants present their cases and are questioned by the regulatory board. At the end, the regulatory board makes "decisions" on each "case". The decision isn't the focus of the exercise. The most valuable part is the subsequent discussion about the cases and the common issues in them that get the students to recognize the connection between surface and ground water and how humans have come up with confusing and sometimes scientifically conflicting sets of laws to regulate each.

Todd Rayne

30

SURFACE WATER EMAP PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The surface water component of the EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot is a five-year effort to assess the ecological condition of rivers and streams across 12 states in the western United States. EMAP is designed to monitor indicators of poll...

31

Improvement of water injectivity in the Hobbs (Grayburg-San Andres) field. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This field trial was a cooperative project with MORANCO of Hobbs, New Mexico. The purpose was to investigate and improve water injectivity into the Grayburg formation at their Rice-Hardin waterflood in Lea County. Our laboratory tests with resrevoir cores indicated that certain chemical treatments had the ability to increase injectivity by slightly more than 20%. These treatments were designed to reduce the oil saturation in a region about 8 to 10 feet out from the injection wellbore. Two of the most promising treatments were selected for the field trial. Rice No. 1 injection well was treated with a surfactant solution, and Hardin No. 3 was treated with an aromatic solvent followed by a surfactant solution. Costs of chemicals were approximately $3000 per well. As a result of these treatments, both wells are taking slightly more water at pressures that are 400 psi less than the before-treatment levels. Since the actual improvement in injectivity is on the order of 30 to 40%, the field treatments apparently worked somewhat better than indicated by the laboratory tests. Based on the encouraging results obtained from the trial, we feel that these concepts can be applied to other waterflood projects and may also have potential in certain enhanced recovery projects where low injectivity is a problem.

Martin, F.D.; Taber, J.J.

1982-11-01

32

A water-based system for ceramic injection moulding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-based binders for injection moulding of ceramics use low moulding temperatures allowing moulding and die temperatures to be similar. Most of the binder system can be driven off as water vapour, cutting process time, reducing burn-out problems and causing less environmental pollution. The difficulties with removing moulded articles from the die must be overcome. To address this problem, gel strength

R. J. Huzzard; S. Blackburn

1997-01-01

33

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOEpatents

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01

34

Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

2014-01-01

35

Evaluating reservoir production strategies in miscible and immiscible gas-injection projects  

E-print Network

, comprehensive reservoir engineering and project monitoring are necessary for typical miscible flood projects than for other recovery methods. This project evaluated effects of important factors such as injection pressure, vertical-to-horizontal permeability...

Farzad, Iman

2004-11-15

36

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

Pruess, Karsten

2006-11-06

37

Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

38

EFFECTS OF WATER INJECTION INTO FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS  

E-print Network

effects. Commercial scale reinjection i n geothermal power plants has been practiced a t The Geysers, ESGP-TR-57 SGP-TR-57 EFFECTS OF WATER INJECTION INTO FRACTURED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS: A SUMMARY OF EXPERIENCE WORLDWIDE BY ROLAND N . HORNE JUNE 1982 SPONSORED BY THE GEOTHERMAL AND HYDROPOWER TECHNOLOGIES

Stanford University

39

Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection  

DOEpatents

A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

2012-10-23

40

Seawater injection barrier recharge with advanced reclaimed water at Llobregat delta aquifer (Spain).  

PubMed

The main aquifer of the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) has been affected by seawater intrusion since the 1960s. The Catalan Water Agency (ACA) has sponsored the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the progress of seawater intrusion advance due to the intensive aquifer development. The hydraulic barrier consists of 15 wells into which highly treated reclaimed water from the waste water treatment plant of the Baix Llobregat is injected. Water is subjected, prior to the distribution to the injection wells, to secondary and tertiary treatments, and later to ultrafiltration, UV disinfection without chlorination, and salinity reduction through reverse osmosis. A preliminary pilot phase of the project was started in late 2007, with highly positive results, and the second phase started in mid 2010. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical monitoring data indicate an efficient performance and aquifer improvement. The evaluation of such efficiency and operational costs has been analyzed and discussed. PMID:22949237

Ortuño, F; Molinero, J; Garrido, T; Custodio, E

2012-01-01

41

Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) modeling of a proposed stimulation injection associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths below 3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring from the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11), located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir.

Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Dobson, P.F.

2010-02-01

42

Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil  

E-print Network

, attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

Nesse, Thomas

2005-02-17

43

Multifluid Flows, Interface Capturing and Application to the Simulation of the Water Assisted Injection Molding Process  

E-print Network

Injection Molding Process T. Coupez (a), H. Digonnet (a), A. Rodriguez-Villa (b), W. Zerguine (a,b) and L Water Assisted Injection Molding (WAIM) is a recent injection process, similar to Gas Assisted Injection Molding, but that presents a number of advantages: for example, water allows a rapid cooling

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

44

Analysis of the steam injection at the Visalia Superfund Project with fully compositional nonisothermal finite difference simulations.  

PubMed

By injecting steam, over 1.1 million pounds of creosote has been recovered at the Visalia, California Superfund Site from an aquifer 102ft underground. In the first 6 weeks of injection 320,000lb of creosote were recovered or destroyed versus <1lb per day in a pump and treat. The finite difference simulator STARS1, which is widely used in the oil industry to model thermal recovery, has been used to simulate simplified models of the project, to analyze recovery mechanisms, and to demonstrate how the operation of similar projects can be improved. The simulations indicate that vaporization of dense, nonaqueous, phase liquids (DNAPLs) is the most important recovery mechanism, that liquid production is enhanced because a gas phase is present, and that the project could have been completed more rapidly if an additional injector or producer had been added in the center of the site. In addition, the mineralization (conversion to carbon dioxide) of DNAPLs could result from reaction with water, injected air or, most likely, both. The mechanisms are likely to be similar to subcritical water oxidation. While this analysis suggests methods to improve operation of future steam projects, Visalia has been a very successful demonstration of the potential of steam injection to clean up recalcitrant hydrocarbons and will be an inspiration for future projects. PMID:11975995

Kuhlman, Myron I

2002-05-01

45

CFD Validation of Gas Injection into Stagnant Water  

SciTech Connect

Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant water have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant water. Flow visualization data were obtained with a high-speed camera for the comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. The CFD model is validated with these experimental measurements at different gas flow rates. The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The acoustic signature aspect of this validation is particularly interesting since it has applicability to the injection of gas into liquid mercury, which is opaque.

Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

2007-01-01

46

Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

2010-01-01

47

Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.

Hickey, J.J.; Ehrlich, G.G.

1984-01-01

48

Mitigation of microbial corrosion in Ras Budran water injection plant  

SciTech Connect

The Oil Company is water flooding Ras Budran field with Gulf of Suez water as a secondary means of oil recovery. Mitigation of microbial corrosion in Ras Budran water treatment plant is achieved by the continuous chlorination and weekly slugging of two types of biocides alternatively. Three years from commissioning, water quality started deteriorating at the offshore platforms in terms of high H{sub 2}S, iron contents, counts and corrosion rates. The main cause was attributed to the adhering property of sessile sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) that could neither be controlled by corrosion inhibitor nor biocide treatment. In accordance, a cleaning and sterilization program was established for the piggable section of the sub sea injection line. This paper also presents the recent failure experienced in the remaining unpiggable section of the injection line. Diagnosis and analysis revealed that microbial corrosion was the main contributor to the failure due to the lack of pigging facility and the inability of removing the complex biofilms in which sessile bacteria grow, and rendering the applied biocides ineffective. For further confirmation intelligent pigging of the intact pipeline was run. Results showed that the line is in good condition internally with no significant corrosion.

Khattab, N.M. [Suez Oil Co., Cairo (Egypt)

1995-12-01

49

Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects  

E-print Network

Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects A.Keller, S. Hughes, S. Bennett, M, the Metropolitan Water District, the California Urban Water Conservation Council, Santa Clara Valley Water District) as a result of energy and water conservation; ~ Determined total cost of implementing the conservation

Keller, Arturo A.

50

Case History and Appraisal of the Medicine Pole Hills Unit Air Injection Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medicine Pole Hill (MPHU) EOR project is the deepest air-injection\\/in-situ-combustion project in the Williston basin. A unit comprising 9,600 acres with 13 producing wells was formed in July 1985, and air-injection operations began in October 1987. Laboratory combustion tests and detailed feasibility studies were completed before starting the full scale project. The combination of light oil (39° API), carbonate

V. K. Kumar; M. R. Fassihi; D. V. Yannimaras

1995-01-01

51

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-03-01

52

Municipal water supply project analysis: case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contents: General case studies; Sector studies, master plans and demand forecasting; Discounting and its applications; Accounting and finance; Water rate structures and pricing; Economic analysis; Project management.

F. H. Jr Lamson-Scribner; J. W. Huang

1977-01-01

53

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics  

SciTech Connect

This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

NONE

1996-01-01

54

Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

1996-01-01

55

Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type of simulation studies can be applied to Hot Dry Rock systems to investigate the effects of dissolution/precipitation of solid salt, if present in the system, on the feasibility of the project.

Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

2012-04-01

56

FINAL REPORT ARIZONA WATER INSTITUTE PROJECT  

E-print Network

Director, ITCA -Norm DeWeaver, policy advisor to ITCA on water infrastructure and climate change -Margaret1-17-08 FINAL REPORT ARIZONA WATER INSTITUTE PROJECT "ARIZONA TRIBAL APPROACHES TO WATER MANAGEMENT" ASU American Indian Policy Institute and The Inter Tribal Council of Arizona in collaboration

Fay, Noah

57

Tracing and age-dating injected groundwater of the west basin barrier project, Los Angeles, CA  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary report summarizes results from isotopic data recently generated on water collected for the West Basin Municipal Water District (WBMWD). Samples comprised monitoring and production wells up to 3.5 miles form the injection barrier, in addition to barrier product and blend water.

Davisson, M L; Eaton, Gp; Hudson, G B; Koester, C

1999-03-26

58

Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

1951-01-01

59

Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

60

On spurious water flow during numerical simulation of steam injection into water-saturated soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of steam injection into a water-saturated porous medium may be hindered by unphysical behavior causing the model to slow down. We show how spurious water flow may arise on the boundary between a steam zone and a saturated zone, giving rise to dramatic pressure drops. This is caused by the discretization of the temperature gradient coupled with the direct relation between pressure and temperature in the steam zone. The problem may be a severe limitation to numerical modeling. A solution is presented where the spurious water flow is blocked and this widely enhances the performance of the model. This new method is applied to a previously reported example exhibiting numerical problems. Furthermore, it is applied to the simulation of 2-D sandbox experiments where LNAPL is remediated from a smearing zone by steam injection. These experiments would have been difficult to analyze numerically without the adjustment to prevent spurious flow.

Gudbjerg, J.; Trötschler, O.; Färber, A.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Jensen, K. H.

2004-12-01

61

On spurious water flow during numerical simulation of steam injection into water-saturated soil.  

PubMed

Numerical simulation of steam injection into a water-saturated porous medium may be hindered by unphysical behavior causing the model to slow down. We show how spurious water flow may arise on the boundary between a steam zone and a saturated zone, giving rise to dramatic pressure drops. This is caused by the discretization of the temperature gradient coupled with the direct relation between pressure and temperature in the steam zone. The problem may be a severe limitation to numerical modeling. A solution is presented where the spurious water flow is blocked and this widely enhances the performance of the model. This new method is applied to a previously reported example exhibiting numerical problems. Furthermore, it is applied to the simulation of 2-D sandbox experiments where LNAPL is remediated from a smearing zone by steam injection. These experiments would have been difficult to analyze numerically without the adjustment to prevent spurious flow. PMID:15610904

Gudbjerg, J; Trötschler, O; Färber, A; Sonnenborg, T O; Jensen, K H

2004-12-01

62

GEWEX Water Vapor Project (GVaP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Water Vapor Project (GVaP) is to improve the understanding of water vapor in meteorological, hydrological, and climatological processes through improving knowledge of water vapor and its variability on all scales. This goal clearly requires a multiscale observing strategy. A pilot project was deemed the most appropriate first step toward achieving this goal. An implementation plan was developed for this pilot phase. The four research components of the pilot phase are presented here.

Starr, David

1993-01-01

63

Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects  

SciTech Connect

Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

2011-03-11

64

The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated in produced water, suggesting that most populations in injected water did hardly reach production wells in this reservoir. We further investigated microbial communities in water samples collected from wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells in a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir. The results indicated that, except for the community reconstruction mainly resulted from dissolved oxygen, most populations were simultaneously detected in the wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells, suggesting that most microbial populations in injected water reached the production wells. This study suggest that microbial populations in injected water can pass through reservoir strata and reach production wells, but the reservoir heterogeneity, interwell spacing, sieve effect of strata and dissolved oxygen exert significant influence on microbial migration and distribution in reservoirs.

Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

2014-12-01

65

Characterization of coal water slurry sprays from a positive displacement fuel injection system  

E-print Network

system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering Characterization of Coal Water Slurry Sprays from a positive Displacement Fuel Injection System A Thesis by Ajoy Kumar Seshadri Approved as to style and content by...

Kumar Seshadri, Ajoy

1991-01-01

66

UK Droughts & Water Scarcity WP Project Title  

E-print Network

UK Droughts & Water Scarcity Lead Grant Reference WP Project Title Research Organisation Grant Holder Excellence Rank NE/L01016X/1 WP1 Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK of Drought for User Decision-Making University of Reading Leonard Shaffrey 7 1 NE/L010631/1 WP2 Not funded 5

67

Effect of Injected Water on Hydraulic Fracturing Deduced from Acoustic Emission Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  —In order to investigate the effects of injected water in hydraulic fracturing, experiments were conducted on cubic granite\\u000a specimens, comparing fracturings induced by conventional water injection with those induced by pressurization of a urethane\\u000a sleeve, thereby realizing \\

T. Ishida; Q. Chen; Y. Mizuta

1997-01-01

68

Fluoride transport due to injection of reject water from RO process into the ground water through downstream bore well.  

PubMed

Fluoride removal using Reverse Osmosis has appreciable amount of fluorine in the reject stream. Disposal of reject water to surface water further contaminates the water body. It is required to dispose of this reject into the environment with minimal pollution. So a study on disposal of fluoride contaminated reject inside the ground water through bore well is done through theoretical modelling using COMSOL multiphysics software. It has been established that the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water due to injection of fluoride contaminated reject through bore well depends on the injection rate of reject inside the bore well and not on the initial background concentration of fluoride in the ground water. It has been found that for reject injection rate of 30 m3/day the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water with respect to initial background concentration of fluoride is less than 10% at a distance above 600m from the injection source after 100 years. PMID:23505817

Babu, C Anand; Agarwal, Sourabh; Sujish, D; Rajan, K K

2011-10-01

69

Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

Becker, Arthur

2006-01-01

70

Efficiency Projects and Water Reuse  

E-print Network

-Pronged Approach; Better Audits and Better Meters ? Water Saved is Energy Saved ESL-KT-11-11-36 ? Replacement of Coarse Air Diffusers and Blower Improvements at WWTP ?Efficient Aeration At Wastewater Plant Look For The Low Hanging Fruit! ESL-KT-11...-11-36 ? Replacement of coarse-air diffusers ?Efficient Aeration At Wastewater Plant ESL-KT-11-11-36 The Payoff ?Efficient Aeration At Wastewater Plant 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 kW City of Cleburne Wastewater...

Pannell, B.

2011-01-01

71

An assessment of the thermodynamic performance of mixed gas-steam cycles. Part B: Water-injected and HAT cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part B of this paper focuses on intercooled recuperated cycles where water is injected to improve both efficiency and power output. This concept is investigated for two basic cycle configurations: a Recuperated Water Injected (RWI) cycle, where water is simply injected downstream of the HP compressor, and a Humid air Turbine (HAT) cycle, where air\\/water mixing is accomplished in a

P. Chiesa; G. Lozza; E. G. Macchi; S. Consonni

1995-01-01

72

Illinois drainage water management demonstration project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary monitoring results, and other observations.

Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.

2004-01-01

73

Deep injection of waste water in the Western Canada sedimentary basin.  

PubMed

Injection of wastes into the deep subsurface has become a contentious issue, particularly in emerging regions of oil and gas production. Experience in other regions suggests that injection is an effective waste management practice and that widespread environmental damage is unlikely. Over the past several decades, 23?km(3) of water has been injected into the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The oil and gas industry has injected most of this water but large amounts of injection are associated with mining activities. The amount of water injected into this basin during the past century is 2 to 3 orders magnitude greater than natural recharge to deep formations in the WCSB. Despite this large-scale disturbance to the hydrogeological system, there have been few documented cases of environmental problems related to injection wells. Deep injection of waste appears to be a low risk activity based on this experience but monitoring efforts are insufficient to make definitive statements. Serious uncharacterized legacy issues could be present. Initiating more comprehensive monitoring and research programs on the effects of injection in the WCSB could provide insight into the risks associated with injection in less developed sedimentary basins. PMID:24841226

Ferguson, Grant

2015-03-01

74

Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate.The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02867d

Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

2013-10-01

75

Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

1995-10-01

76

Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters  

SciTech Connect

The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

1982-06-22

77

Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.  

SciTech Connect

The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J. (Energy Systems); (MIchigan Technological Univ.)

2008-10-06

78

Ecosystem services review of water projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water projects are typically evaluated using benefit cost analysis. Ecosystem services are the direct and indirect benefits that people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these benefits are ignored in benefit cost analysis, because of the absence of markets and the limited information or understanding of how the benefits from ecosystem services are produced. Regional or local government may be interested

Edward J. S. Hearnshaw; Ross Cullen; Kenneth F. D. Hughey

2010-01-01

79

Planning intraseasonal water requirements in irrigation projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of planning intraseasonal irrigation requirements for the reservoir based projects with an extensive water distribution network is addressed. The network is hierarchical and consists of canals, distributaries or laterals and field turnouts or outlets. Irrigation requirements are estimated by considering the problem at two levels. At the first level, the intraseasonal weekly and biweekly irrigation requirements of crops

M. S. Hajilal; N. H. Rao; P. B. S. Sarma

1998-01-01

80

Control of water coning in gas reservoirs by injecting gas into the aquifer  

E-print Network

of water in the producing well. fiost research on water coning has been directed toward minimizing water production by reduced well penetration or production rate con- tro1. An alternative method for gas wells with water coning problems, is to inject.... This gives high water cuts in the early stages of the succeeding production, when gas is injected deep in the aquifer. This was not a significant problem for the high permeability ratio. When the well is put on production, the established cone overrides...

Haugen, Sigurd Arild

1980-01-01

81

Modeling and Analysis of Reservoir Response to Stimulation by Water Injection  

E-print Network

The distributions of pore pressure and stresses around a fracture are of interest in conventional hydraulic fracturing operations, fracturing during water-flooding of petroleum reservoirs, shale gas, and injection/extraction operations in a...

Ge, Jun

2011-02-22

82

Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells  

SciTech Connect

The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

1999-07-01

83

CARBONATED WATER INJECTION FOR OIL RECOVERY AND CO2 STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 injection is increasingly considered as having potential applications as a possible enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process for oil reservoirs. Storage potential of these reservoirs to store CO2 for a long period of time also provides an opportunity to develop sustainable solutions in response to the challenge of continued use of fossil fuels, climate-change and compliance with national and international

M. Sohrabi; M. Riazi; M. Jamiolahmady; S. Ireland; C. Brown

84

Pressure-Transient Testing of Water-Injection Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an interpretation method for injectivity and falloff testing in a single-layer oil reservoir that is under waterflooding and develops analytical solutions for pressure and saturation distributions. The effects of relative permeability, wellbore storage, and skin are considered in these solutions. New field-dependent type curves for falloff tests, which exhibit features that do not appear in the currently

Maghsood Abbaszadeh; Medhat Kamal

1989-01-01

85

Improvement of gas-turbine-engine performance by water injection into turbine cooling air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of reducing the temperature of the cooling air in a high-pressure turbine, one involving injection of water and the other the use of a heat exchanger, are analyzed. It is shown that even for moderate relative cooling depths of the blades (0.4-0.5), the injection of water into the cooling system makes it possible to substantially reduce the specific

G. M. Gorelov; V. P. Danilchenko; V. Y. Reznik

1985-01-01

86

Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

Sung, Meagan

87

Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport  

SciTech Connect

Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

M.A. Plummer

2013-09-01

88

Combined biological treatment and underground injection of refinery waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petroleum refinery wastewater is split into two streams. Biological treatment is used for 6.3 million gallons per day for 150 ppM five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD) waste, and the remaining 0.4 million gallons per day of wastewater, containing ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, and sulfides with a 4,000 ppM BOD, is injected into a 7,000-foot-deep geologic formation. Both treatment systems and

F. D. Sutterfield; E. C. Donaldson; F. S. Mannning

1976-01-01

89

Elimination of the Schlieren effect in the determination of reactive phosphorus in estuarine waters by flow-injection analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional flow-injection manifolds with sample injection for the determination of reactive phosphorus in estuarine waters are limited by the Schlieren or refractive index (RI) effect which can cause major errors in quantification. A simple flow-injection (FI) manifold which obviates this RI error in reactive phosphorus measurement is reported. It involves the injection of acidic molybdophosphate reagent into a carrier stream

Ian D. McKelvie; Darren M. W. Peat; G. Peter Matthews; Paul J. Worsfold

1997-01-01

90

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

Not Available

1994-06-01

91

Geysers injection modeling  

SciTech Connect

Our research is concerned with mathematical modeling techniques for engineering design and optimization of water injection in vapor-dominated systems. The emphasis in the project has been on the understanding of physical processes and mechanisms during injection, applications to field problems, and on transfer of numerical simulation capabilities to the geothermal community. This overview summarizes recent work on modeling injection interference in the Southeast Geysers, and on improving the description of two-phase flow processes in heterogeneous media.

Pruess, K.

1994-04-01

92

Integrated hydraulic and organophosphate pesticide injection simulations for enhancing event detection in water distribution systems.  

PubMed

As a complementary step towards solving the general event detection problem of water distribution systems, injection of the organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CP) and parathion (PA), were simulated at various locations within example networks and hydraulic parameters were calculated over 24-h duration. The uniqueness of this study is that the chemical reactions and byproducts of the contaminants' oxidation were also simulated, as well as other indicative water quality parameters such as alkalinity, acidity, pH and the total concentration of free chlorine species. The information on the change in water quality parameters induced by the contaminant injection may facilitate on-line detection of an actual event involving this specific substance and pave the way to development of a generic methodology for detecting events involving introduction of pesticides into water distribution systems. Simulation of the contaminant injection was performed at several nodes within two different networks. For each injection, concentrations of the relevant contaminants' mother and daughter species, free chlorine species and water quality parameters, were simulated at nodes downstream of the injection location. The results indicate that injection of these substances can be detected at certain conditions by a very rapid drop in Cl2, functioning as the indicative parameter, as well as a drop in alkalinity concentration and a small decrease in pH, both functioning as supporting parameters, whose usage may reduce false positive alarms. PMID:25016300

Schwartz, Rafi; Lahav, Ori; Ostfeld, Avi

2014-10-15

93

Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

2012-05-01

94

Joint management of water and electricity in State Water Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationship between California's water and electrical power is important for improving the management and planning of these two vital resources to the state's economy development and people's well-being. It is often unclear for consumers, managers and decision-makers that water and electricity in California are inextricably connected. In the past, insufficient considerations of electricity production, consumption and cost in the State Water Project (SWP) - the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system-has led to significant water rate and electricity rate increase. An innovative concept of this proposed study is developing new technology capable of managing and planning water and power jointly in SWP to promote its operation efficiency, sustainability and resilience to potential water shortage caused by climate change and population increase. To achieve this goal, a nonlinear, two-fold network model describing water delivery in company with power consumption and generation will be constructed, and a multi-objective optimization scheme is to be used to resolve this complex nonlinear network problem.

Yang, T.

2013-12-01

95

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-07-01

96

Melt quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of our work is

Dae H. Cho; Richard J. Page; Sherif H. Abdulla; Mark H. Anderson; Helge B. Klockow; Michael L. Corradini

2006-01-01

97

Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury's Cranfield, Mississippi, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood. Injection was started in July 2008 and has now achieved injection rates greater than 1.2 million tons/year though 23 wells, with cumulative mass injected as of August, 2010 of 2.2 million metric tons. Injection is into coarse grained fluvial deposits of the Cretaceous lower Tuscaloosa Formation in a gentle anticline at depths of 3300 m. A team of researchers from 10 institutions has collected data from five study areas, each with a different goal and different spatial and temporal scale. The Phase 2 study began at the start of injection and has been using pressure and temperature as a tool for assessing permanence mostly in the oil productive interval. Real-time read-out shows high sensitivity to distant changes in injection rate and confirms the geologic model of reservoir compartmentalization. Above-zone pressure monitoring ???120 m above the injection interval is used to test the sensitivity of this approach for documentation of integrity of the confining system in an area of numerous well completions as pressure increase is induced in the reservoir by more than 70 bar. Monitoring of the High Volume Injection Test (HiVIT) area includes repeat measurements of aqueous geochemistry in the injection zone. Rock-water-CO 2 interactions in the reservoir as CO2 dissolves are minimized by mineral "armoring" by abundant chlorite cement in high permeability reservoir sandstone. Geochemical monitoring of confined freshwater aquifers at depths of 70-100 m is underway. Groundwater analysis focuses on assessment of the sensitivity of this method to detect leakage above background variability. A repeat seismic survey of the HiVIT is planned for late 2010 to assess saturation change especially in downdip brine-only areas. A study focused on feasibility of monitoring the shallow subsurface to separate leakage from normal complex surface fluxes is underway at an monitoring array installed in October 2009 to assess the interactions of recharge, soil gas, and shallow groundwater aquifers. Recent well re-entry and tracer injection will provide further information to interpret observed elevated deep-sourced methane. The Detailed Area Study (DAS) is collecting dense time-lapse data from closely-spaced three well array of an injector and two observation wells. The observation wells were completed with fiberglass casing to facilitate electrical resistance tomography (ERT) measurements, and a diverse array of instrumentation was both cemented behind casing and suspended on tubing. Injection started at the DAS December 1, 2009. We have measured pulsed neutron and resistivity via wireline, downhole and above-zone pressure, distributed temperature, and fluid chemistry including introduced pulses of perfluorocarbons, noble gases, and SF6 as tracers. Between wells, time-lapse crosswell seismic and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) are used to measure saturation change. The goals are to measure changes as fluids evolve from single phase (brine) to two phase (CO2-brine) in order to document linkages between pressure and sweep efficiency. A time-lapse VSP survey bridges the vertical resolution and areal coverage between cross-well and surface seismic. The repeat surveys for many tools are scheduled for September, 2010. Reservoir characterization based on cores, historic and new wireline log data, production history, hydrologic tests, fluid analysis, and a three-D seismic survey have been used in multiple numerical models to predict reservoir response in order to design effective monitoring strategies and optimize deployment. History matching of observed respons

Hovorka, S.D.; Meckel, T.A.; Trevino, R.H.; Lu, J.; Nicot, J.-P.; Choi, J.-W.; Freeman, D.; Cook, P.; Daley, T.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J. B.; Freifeild, B.M.; Doughty, C.; Carrigan, C.R.; La-Brecque, D.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Phelps, T.J.; Yang, C.; Romanak, K.D.; Zhang, T.; Holt, R.M.; Lindler, J.S.; Butsch, R.J.

2011-01-01

98

Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and West Charlotte counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and water-quality characteristics, construction of single-zone wells would eliminate cross-contamination and borehole interflow. Such a program, when combined with the plugging of shallow-cased wells having long open-hole intervals connecting multiple zones, would safeguard ground-water resources in the study area. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 feet below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The first well began injecting reverse-osmosis wastewater in 1984, and since then, other wells have been drilled and permitted for injection of treated sewage. A numerical model was used to evaluate injection-well design and potential for movement of injected wastewater within the hydrogeologic framework. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gallons per day for 10 years. In this simulation, a convection cell developed around the injection well with the buoyant fresh injectant rising to form a lens within the injection zone below the lower Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit. Around an ideal, fully penetrating well cased 50 feet into the injection zone and open from a depth of 1,150 feet to 2,050 feet, simulations show that the injectant moves upward to a depth of 940 feet, forms a lens about 600 feet thick, and spreads radially outward to a distance of about 2,300 feet after 10 years. Comparison simulations of injection through wells having open depth intervals of 1,150 to 1,400 feet and 1,450 to 2,050 feet demonstrate that such changes in well construction have little effect on the areal spread of the injectant lens or the rate of upward movement. Simulations also indicate that reverse-osmosis wastewater injected beneath a supply well field, where water levels above the semiconfining unit are lowered 20 feet by pumping, would move upward after 10 years to a de

Hutchinson, C.B.

1992-01-01

99

Disposal of produced waters: Undergrown injection option in the Black Warrior Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of large volumes of water produced simultaneously with coal-bed methane is a costly, environmentally sensitive problem. Underground injection into deeper, naturally fractured, low-porosity formations is feasible provided that the total dissolved solids level of these formation waters comply with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Greater fracture density in proximity to structures formed by Appalachian and Ouachita tectonism, along with

I. Ortiz; T. F. Weller; R. V. Anthony; D. Dziewulski; J. Lorenzen; J. H. Jr. Frantz

1993-01-01

100

Rise in the intramammary pressure of the ewe after injection of water into the inguinal artery  

E-print Network

to that observed with 4 to 50 mlU doses of oxytocin (fig. 1), although the latency time and the duration tended to be shorter with water than with oxytocin. Some studies to interpret the effect of water on intramam- mary of oxytocin (Syntocynon, Sandoz), diluted in 1 or 2 ml of physiological serum and injected in 3.5 seconds

Boyer, Edmond

101

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 12, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

In December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled {open_quotes}LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.{close_quotes} The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The three project phases are: (1) Design; (2A) Long Lead Procurement; (2B) Construction; and (3) Operations. The design phase began on August 8, 1990 and was scheduled to last six months. Phase 2A, long lead procurement, overlaps the design phase and was expected to require about four months to complete. The construction phase was then to continue for another seven months, while the operations phase was scheduled to last about twenty-six months. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the U.S. DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the twelfth Technical Progress Report covering the period July 1, 1993 through the end of September 1993. Due to the power plant`s planned outage in March 1991, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1993-12-31

102

Cold Water Injection Into Single- and Two-Phase Geothermal Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximate analytical solutions are derived for cold water injection into single- and two-phase "porous medium" geothermal reservoirs. A numerical geothermal reservoir simulator is used to verify the applicability of the analytical solutions for pressure transient analysis. In accordance with these numerical results the analytical solutions indicate that the pressure buildup behavior during injection into either a single-phase liquid or two-phase reservoir is governed by the kinematic viscosity of the cold injected fluid. The falloff pressures after cold water injection into a single-phase liquid reservoir (except for very early shut-in times) are primarily controlled by the kinematic viscosity of the in situ (hot) reservoir fluid. For two-phase reservoirs, however, the falloff behavior is considerably more complex and cannot be fully described by the analytical solution developed in this paper.

Garg, S. K.; Pritchett, J. W.

1990-02-01

103

Radiative shielding by water mist : comparisons between downward, upward and impacting injection of droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiative shielding with water curtain has been studied numerically, investigating three different possibilities of droplet injection : downward, upward and impacting on a wall to be protected. The efficiency has been evaluated based on radiation attenuation predicted considering a given incident flux attenuated when crossing the area where water is injected. For upward and downward injection, a simple water curtain is considered. For the impacting spray case, a water film streaming on the wall is considered in addition to the spray (an idealized film with constant and fixed thickness for the moment). The dynamics has been imported from an Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation and radiative transfer has been addressed with a Monte Carlo method. Results show that the upward injection performs better than the downward injection due to a favoring dynamics that increases the residence time of droplets. The impacting spray could be even more efficient owing to the possible high attenuation efficiency of films, but present results still make use of simplifications on the water film falling on the wall and present promising observations require further verification.

Lechêne, S.; Acem, Z.; Parent, G.; Collin, A.; Boulet, P.

2012-06-01

104

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of a positive displacement fuel injection system  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been completed to characterized coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For one set of cases studied, the time-averaged cone angle was 15.9{degree} and 16.3{degree} for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively.

Seshadri, A.K.; Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1992-12-31

105

Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

Somsel, James P.

1998-01-01

106

The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design  

SciTech Connect

The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

Boni, Roberto; /INFN, Rome; Guiducci, Susanna; /INFN, Rome; Preger, Miro; /INFN, Rome; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Chance, Antoine; /Saclay; Dadoun, Olivier; /Orsay, LAL; Poirier, Freddy; /Orsay, LAL; Variola, Alessandro; /Orsay, LAL; Seeman, John; /SLAC

2012-07-05

107

Rapid determination of fluoride in potable waters by potentiometric flow injection analysis  

SciTech Connect

A potentiometric flow injection analysis system is described, enabling tap water and other fluoride-bearing matrices of low interferent level to be determined at the rate of 360 samples per hour using an electrode polished with slurried alumina. Important parameters, such as carrier stream composition, sample volume and detector cell design are discussed with respect to their system. Fluoride electrodes regenerated with silver fluoride and silver epoxy are evaluated in flow injection mode, both before and after polishing.

Davey, D.E.; Mulcahy, D.E.; O'Connell, G.R.

1986-01-01

108

Earthquakes induced by water injection at ?3 km depth within the Rongchang gas field, Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unwanted water, amounting more than 1 million m3, has been injected intermittently at a pumping pressure of 2.1–2.9 MPa (over hydrostatic) at 2.6–2.9 km depth within the Rongchang gas field, western Chongqing, China, since July 1988. The injections have induced more than 32,000 surface-recorded earthquakes, including 2 of ML ? 5, 14 of ML ? 4, and more than 100

Xinglin Lei; Guozheng Yu; Shengli Ma; Xueze Wen; Qiang Wang

2008-01-01

109

NEED Project: Energy of Moving Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource for middle school provides 13 complete lessons for teaching about hydropower and conversion of moving water to electrical energy. The unit crosses the curriculum to include physical science, engineering design, earth systems, language arts, social studies and math. As with all NEED educational materials, this resource includes every component required for immediate classroom use: lesson plans, illustrated lab procedures, rubric, pre and post-test assessments, age-appropriate background information, worksheets, graphics for classroom projection, and student guidebooks. Specific physical science objectives revolve around energy flow in systems and the concept that energy is never destroyed, but can be converted from one form to another. Each investigation requires students to first read about the topic in "infobooks" (included in the materials), then make predictions, complete the lab, record data, and write a conclusion. The NEED Project is a national initiative to bring innovative curriculum materials in energy education to K-12 teachers and learners.

2013-05-10

110

Disposal of produced waters: Undergrown injection option in the Black Warrior Basin  

SciTech Connect

The disposal of large volumes of water produced simultaneously with coal-bed methane is a costly, environmentally sensitive problem. Underground injection into deeper, naturally fractured, low-porosity formations is feasible provided that the total dissolved solids level of these formation waters comply with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Greater fracture density in proximity to structures formed by Appalachian and Ouachita tectonism, along with a higher total dissolved solids level in both the production and injection formation waters, occurs in the eastern, southern, and northern margins of the coal-bed methane (CBM) area of the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. Injection permeability is developed where fractures intersect formations with suitable lithologies and thickness. Initial results indicate that the lower Pottsville sands, which thicken to the south, have the highest initial injection potential, although these sands appear dirty and tight on the logs. Normal faulting and matrix porosity, in addition to fracturing, may increase permeability in this formation. In the shallower, northern edge of the CBM area, thin-bedded Mississippian sands with high porosity, such as the Hartzelle, may be present. Injection potential also occurs in the fractured Devonian chert and silecous carbonate lithologies in the Upper Silurian where they thicken to the southwest, and in sandy carbonate lithologies in the undifferentiated Silurian and Ordovician at the eastern margin of the overthrust. The Cambrian-Ordovician Knox Formation has injection potential in a 6-mi wide zone at the eastern margin of the basin, where the upper Knox is dolomitized below the unconformity.

Ortiz, I.; Weller, T.F.; Anthony, R.V. (United Energy Development Consultants, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Dziewulski, D. (BioIndustrial Technologies, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Lorenzen, J. (ResTech, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Frantz, J.H. Jr. (S.A. Holditch Associates, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States))

1993-08-01

111

Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water\\/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200–3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition

M. Abu-Zaid

2004-01-01

112

Relative Permeability Studies of Gas-Water Flow Following Solvent Injection in Carbonate Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow studies were conducted of 19 preserved cores from four oil-wet carbonate reservoirs to provide data for evaluating the water-rich, gas-injection improved recovery process. Results indicate that these cores were water repellent following displacement of oil by a solvent similar to the reservoir solvent. Restored-state tests of some of the same cores following cleaning by a polar solvent yielded water-wet

F. N. Schneider; W. W. Owens

1976-01-01

113

Oil recovery process involving the injection of thickened water  

SciTech Connect

Waterflood oil recovery process involving the use of an amphoteric polyelectrolyte as a thickening agent for mobility control. The amphoteric polyelectrolyte is a copolymer of a quaternary vinyl pyridinium sulfonate and a water-insoluble alpha olefin or hydrogenated diene. Specifically disclosed are vinyl pyridinium sulfonate-styrene block copolymers. The amphoteric polyelectrolytes are stable in high temperature and high brine environments.

Byham, D.E.; Chen, C.S.; Sheppard, E.W.

1980-09-16

114

Regional Drinking Water Security District Level Pilot Project  

E-print Network

Regional Drinking Water Security District Level Pilot Project Concept Note Milind Sohoni Head. The central objective of the project will be to ensure regional drinking water security for a district for drinking water. · Supply and Logistics: To assist the rural drinking water department in various logistical

Sohoni, Milind

115

Comparing strategies: State funding of capital projects versus water conservation  

E-print Network

10 tx H2O Winter 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director COMPARING STRATEGIES State funding of capital projects versus water conservation The Texas Legislature seems intent on helping local water...

Finch, Dr. Calvin

2013-01-01

116

Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

Perkins, H. C.

1974-01-01

117

Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 ?m should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

2004-01-01

118

The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote regional collaboration,  

E-print Network

The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote & Extension Service. Our Goal and Approach The goal of this Project is to provide leadership for water also can check the quality of your public drinking water supply, learn which wastes are released

119

Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

2011-01-01

120

Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems  

SciTech Connect

Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1991-01-01

121

Modeling Studies of Cold Water Injection into Fluid-Depleted, Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Reinjection experiments in the strongly fluid-depleted reservoir of Larderello have revealed the possibility of increasing production rates and overall heat extraction by injection into high permeability, low pressure zones of the reservoir (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Cappetti et al., 1983; Bertrami et al., 1985). A large fraction (over 80%) of the injected water was recovered as steam in the most favorable area and, despite the short distance between injection and producing wells (the minimum distance being about 150 m), no significant temperature change has been observed in the latter, after 3 years of injection at a rate ranging from 10 to 50 kg/s (Bertrami et al., 1985). The physical processes involved in cold water injection into a ''superheated'' fractured reservoir are not yet fully understood, and this insufficient knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms limits the possibility of forecasting future reservoir behavior and optimizing the heat extraction process. Numerical simulation can be a very effective tool in the study of the complex phenomena involved, allowing a rapid examination of different situations and conditions, a systematic investigation of the effects of various parameters on reservoir performance, and some insight into long term behavior. We have performed simulation experiments on simple one-dimensional, porous and fractured reservoir models in order to study the migration of injected water, thermodynamic conditions in the boiling zone, heat extraction, and vapor generation. A two-dimensional radial porous medium model, with some characteristics typical of the high productivity zones of Larderello, has, also been applied for studying the- evolution. of the shape and the thermodynamic conditions of the injection plume in the presence of gravity, reservoir heterogeneities and anisotropy.

Calore, C.; Pruess, K.; Celati, R.

1986-01-21

122

Study on Using the Water Alternating Gas Injection Technologic to Improve the Ultra Low Permeability Reservoir Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

To rationally develop low permeability reservoir, enhanced oil recovery, Changqing Oilfield launched a special low permeability oil field development studies. Based Changqing oilfield Yanhewan block this typical ultra-low permeability reservoir, use the numerical simulation method simulate the instability of water injection and gas injection alternating different effects of the development. The simulation results show that injection cycle in the early

Zhang Yi; Zhang Ning-sheng; Li Jun-gang; Shi Hai-xia; Tong Xiao-hua

2010-01-01

123

Stimulation of Water Injection Wells in the Los Angeles Basin By Using Sodium Hypochlorite and Mineral Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stimulation program was developed to improve injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills and San Vicente fields. Damage materials were removed by stimulating the wells with bleach and acid using a variety of tools and techniques. Two- to three-fold injectivity improvements were common, and vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial coverage

David Clementz; David Patterson; Richard Aseltine; Roger Young

1982-01-01

124

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project: A project proposed by: LIFAC North America, Inc  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a project proposed by LIFAC North America, Inc., (LIFAC NA). The host site will be a coal-fired powerplant of Richmond Power Light in Indiana. LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In the LIFAC process, limestone is injected into the upper part of the furnace where the temperatures are sufficiently high to calcine the calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) to lime (CaO), which reacts with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas to form calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), some of which oxidizes to form calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). The flue gas leaving the boiler then enters LIFAC's unique humidification chamber which increases the water content of the flue gas and activates the lime to enhance SO{sub 2} removal. Reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions are approximately 75--80%. Spent sorbent is then removed, along with the fly ash by an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse. 6 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-10-01

125

The Relationship Analysis between Water Injection and Microfacies of SHA1 Reservoir of Liao He Basin, China  

PubMed Central

SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

2014-01-01

126

The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.  

PubMed

SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

2014-01-01

127

Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

2008-01-01

128

Flow structures of gaseous jets injected into water for underwater propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous jets injected into water are typically found in underwater propulsion, and the flow is essentially unsteady and turbulent.\\u000a Additionally, the high water-to-gas density ratio can result in complicated flow structures; hence measuring the flow structures\\u000a numerically and experimentally remains a challenge. To investigate the performance of the underwater propulsion, this paper\\u000a uses detailed Navier-Stokes flow computations to elucidate the

Jia-Ning Tang; Ning-Fei Wang; Wei Shyy

2011-01-01

129

Influence of Cold Water Injection on Residual Oil Saturation of Multilayered Oil Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study contains information on the results of some calculations describing the influence of cold-water injection on oil output from a multilayered oil reservoir. It is shown that there exists a real possibility of a complete or almost complete loss in productivity of a low-permeable sublayer adjacent to a highly permeable one, due to the filtration resistance's redistribution under the

L. Rubinstein

1975-01-01

130

Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

131

Conjunctive optimal scheduling of pumping and booster chlorine injections in water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends previous work on optimal booster chlorination injection design and operation in water distribution systems by solving the scheduling problem of pumping units in conjunction with the design and operation problem of booster chlorination stations. Two models are formulated and solved using a genetic algorithm scheme tailor-made to EPANET: Min Cost—for minimizing the costs of pumping and the

Avi Ostfeld; Elad Salomons

2006-01-01

132

ANALYSIS OF RESIDUE LEVELS IN KERNEL AND NUT WATER OF COCONUT PALMS INJECTED WITH MONOCROTOPHOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monocrotophos (60 %), a systemic organophosphate insecticide, was injected into the trunk of coconut palms of 8-10 m height and 20 years of age at the rate of 20.0 ml per palm. The residue levels of monocrotophos In coconut water and kernel at various stages of nut development and different durations after ap- plication, measured by GLC, showed that the

C. S. RANASINGHE; W. P. K. K. FERNANDO; S. M. M. ZANEER

133

USE OF A COMBINED AIR INJECTION/EXTRACTION (CIE) WELL TO MINIMIZE VACUUM ENHANCED WATER RECOVERY  

EPA Science Inventory

A conventionally constructed observation well was modified to allow combined air injection and extraction (CIE) during a pilot study in which dual vapor extraction (DVE) was applied. ompared to DVE, water recovery rates were reduced over 90% while the distribution of subsurface v...

134

Tertiary oil recovery process involving multiple cycles of gas--water injection after surfactant flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil recovery efficiency of a tertiary oil recovery process such as a surfactant flood is improved by injecting after the surfactant solution alternating cycles of water and small volume slugs of a gas such as air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, flue or exhaust gas, natural gas, methane, ethane, propane, butane, liquefied petroleum gas and mixtures thereof. (auth)

Carlin

1975-01-01

135

Energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) in Turkey. This integrated socioeconomic development project is one of the largest of its kind in the world. The GAP region is rich in water and soil resources. The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers represent over 28% of the nation's water supply by rivers, and

Kamil Kaygusuz

1999-01-01

136

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01

137

Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water sampling and numerical modeling were used to estimate ground-water nutrient fluxes in the Kihei area of Maui, where growth of macroalgae (seaweed) on coral reefs raises ecologic concerns and accumulation on beaches has caused odor and removal problems. Fluxes and model results are highly approximate, first-order estimates because very few wells were sampled and there are few field data to constrain model calibration. Ground-water recharge was estimated to be 22.6 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) within a 73-square-mile area having a coastline length of 8 miles or 13 km (kilometers). Nearly all of the recharge discharges at the coast because ground-water withdrawals are small. Another 3.0 Mgal/d of tertiary-treated wastewater effluent is injected into the regional aquifer at a County treatment plant midway along the coast and about a mile from shore. The injection plume is 0.93 miles wide (1.5 km) at the shore, as estimated from a three-dimensional numerical ground-water model. Wastewater injected beneath the brackish ground-water lens rises buoyantly and spreads out at the top of the lens, diverting and mixing with ambient ground water. Ground water discharging from the core of the injection plume is less than 5 years old and is about 60 percent effluent at the shore, according to the model. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in treated effluent were 7.33 and 1.72 milligrams per liter, roughly 6 and 26 times background concentrations at an upgradient well. Background nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes carried by ground water are 7.7 and 0.44 kg/d-km (kilograms per day per kilometer of coast). Injected wastewater fluxes distributed across the plume width are 55 and 13 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly 7 and 30 times background flux. However, not all of the injected load reaches coastal waters because nutrients are naturally attenuated in the oxygen-depleted effluent plume. Water from a downgradient well reflects this attenuation and provides a more conservative estimate of injection flux approaching the shore: 27 and 1.5 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly one-half and one-ninth the injection-source estimates, and 3.5 and 3.4 times background flux. Effluent has 8 O and 2 H stable-isotope signatures that are distinct from local ground water, as well as 15 N and 11 B signatures diagnostic of domestic waste and laundry detergents, respectively. Pharmaceuticals and organic wastewater compounds also were present in effluent and the downgradient well. These isotopes and chemicals served as wastewater tracers in Kihei ground water and may be useful tracers in nearshore marine waters and aquifers elsewhere in Hawaii.

Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

2007-01-01

138

Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

2006-01-01

139

Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones  

SciTech Connect

Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

1995-01-01

140

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated geological model that will be used to select sites for the demonstration in Part 2. Included in Part 1 of the project is the drilling of an infill well, coring 100{prime} of the Cypress Sand, and various injectivity testing to gather information used to update the model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-09-30

141

Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

2004-01-01

142

Projecting Sexual and Injecting HIV Risks into Future Outcomes with Agent-Based Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal studies of health outcomes for HIV could be very costly cumbersome and not representative of the risk population. Conversely, cross-sectional approaches could be representative but rely on the retrospective information to estimate prevalence and incidence. We present an Agent-based Modeling (ABM) approach where we use behavioral data from a cross-sectional representative study and project the behavior into the future so that the risks of acquiring HIV could be studied in a dynamical/temporal sense. We show how the blend of behavior and contact network factors (sexual, injecting) play the role in the risk of future HIV acquisition and time till obtaining HIV. We show which subjects are the most likely persons to get HIV in the next year, and whom they are likely to infect. We examine how different behaviors are related to the increase or decrease of HIV risks and how to estimate the quantifiable risk measures such as survival HIV free.

Bobashev, Georgiy V.; Morris, Robert J.; Zule, William A.

143

Bacterial diversity in water injection systems of Brazilian offshore oil platforms.  

PubMed

Biogenic souring and microbial-influenced corrosion is a common scenario in water-flooded petroleum reservoirs. Water injection systems are continuously treated to control bacterial contamination, but some bacteria that cause souring and corrosion can persist even after different treatments have been applied. Our aim was to increase our knowledge of the bacterial communities that persist in the water injection systems of three offshore oil platforms in Brazil. To achieve this goal, we used a culture-independent molecular approach (16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries) to analyze seawater samples that had been subjected to different treatments. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the bacterial communities from the different platforms were taxonomically different. A predominance of bacterial clones affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, mostly belonging to the genus Marinobacter (60.7%), were observed in the platform A samples. Clones from platform B were mainly related to the genera Colwellia (37.9%) and Achromobacter (24.6%), whereas clones obtained from platform C were all related to unclassified bacteria. Canonical correspondence analyses showed that different treatments such as chlorination, deoxygenation, and biocide addition did not significantly influence the bacterial diversity in the platforms studied. Our results demonstrated that the injection water used in secondary oil recovery procedures contained potentially hazardous bacteria, which may ultimately cause souring and corrosion. PMID:19830416

Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

2010-01-01

144

Phase II Final Project Report Paso del Norte Watershed Council Coordinated Water Resources Database and GIS Project  

E-print Network

The Coordinated Water Resources Database and GIS Project (Project) was developed to provide improved access to regional water resources data in the Paso del Norte region for regional water stakeholders to make timely decisions in water operations...

Brown, Christopher; Sheng, Zhuping; Bourdon, Marc

145

Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

2011-01-01

146

Uncertainty in projected impacts of climate change on water  

E-print Network

warming Source: IPCC Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability -- Summary1928 2000 Uncertainty in projected impacts of climate change on water Uncertainty in projected impacts of climate change on water Cambio Climático y Políticas Públicas Centro de Cambio Global

Maurer,. Edwin P.

147

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31

148

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m(exp 3), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6 degrees. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

Caton, J. A.; Payne, S. E.; Terracina, D. P.; Kihm, K. D.

149

Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

Andrews, W.J.

1994-01-01

150

Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.; Berger, Brett

1987-01-01

151

Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

1992-01-01

152

Water governance within Kenya's Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin: Assessing the performance of water projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change processes are projected to change the availability and seasonality of streamflow with dramatic implications for irrigated agricultural systems. Within mountain environments, this alteration in water availability may be quite pronounced over a relatively short distance as upstream users with first access to river water directly impact the availability of water to downstream users. Livelihood systems that directly depend on river water for both domestic consumption and practices such as irrigated agriculture are particularly vulnerable. The Mount Kenya region is an exemplary case of a semi-arid upstream-downstream system in which water availability rapidly decreases and directly impacts the livelihoods of river water users existing across this steep environmental gradient. To effectively manage river water within these water-scarce environs, water projects have been established along the major rivers of the Mount Kenya region. These water projects are responsible for managing water within discrete sub-catchments of the region. While water projects develop rules that encourage the responsible use of water and maintenance of the project itself, the efficiency of water allocation to the projects' members remains unclear. This research analyzes water projects from five sub-catchments on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya. It utilizes data from household surveys and water project management surveys as well as stream gauge data and flow measurements within individual water projects to assess the governance structure and performance of water projects. The performance of water projects is measured through a variety of household level metrics including: farm-level water flow and volume over time, mean and variability in maize yield, per capita crop productivity, household-level satisfaction with water availability, number of days where water volume was insufficient for irrigation, and quantity harvested compared with expected quantity harvested. We present results demonstrating the heterogeneity of these individual measures and discuss the influence of topography, network design, household behaviors and water governance on the overall performance of these water projects. This work is the foundation for an agent-based model of these water projects that investigates the impact of climate change and population pressure on sustained agricultural production in the region. Additionally, the study highlights the utility of pairing distinct fields of scholarship by utilizing both survey responses and hydrological data to study complex social-ecological systems. This pairing allows for insights regarding governance structures that are effectively managing river water in the present and helps to understand the structures that may be suitable for future water management.

McCord, P. F.; Evans, T. P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Gower, D.; McBride, L.; Caylor, K. K.

2013-12-01

153

Governance on Small Towns Water Supply Project in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper is a brief midterm governance assessment of Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project (STWSSSP) being implemented by Government of Nepal. The assessment is made at implementation as well as operational stage for the first phase of the project. The Governance of the project at feasibility study & detail design, implementation and operation & management stages are

Shashi Bhattarai; Binay Shah; Srijan Aryal

154

Effects of Water Injection into Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs: A Summary of Experience Worldwide  

SciTech Connect

Reinjection of water into fractured geothermal reservoirs holds potential both for improvement and degradation of total energy recovery. The replacement of reservoir fluid can mean support of placement of reservoir pressures and also more efficient thermal energy recovery, but at the same time the premature invasion of reinjected water back into production wells through high permeability fractures can reduce discharge enthalpy and hence deliverability and useful energy output. Increases in reservoir pressure and maintenance of field output have been observed in operating fields, but unfortunately so too have premature thermal breakthroughs. The design of reinjection schemes, therefore, requires careful investigation into the likely effects, using field experimentation. This paper summarizes field experience with reinjection around the world, with the intention of elucidating characteristics of possible problems. The results summarized in this paper fall into three categories of interest: permeability changes dye to injection (both increases and decreases); the path followed by injected water (as indicated by tracer tests); and the thermal and hydraulic influences of injection on the reinjection well itself and on surrounding producers. [DJE-2005

Horne, Roland N.

1982-06-01

155

Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

Lacombe, P.J.

1996-01-01

156

Experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit characteristics at superheated water injection into a compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results from experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit (GTU) characteristics at injection of cold and superheated (metastable) water to the inlet of the GTU compressor are presented. In the latter case, the finer water atomization is obtained. The water injection makes it possible to considerably increase the unit power. At a constant temperature of the working fluid downstream of the turbine combustion chamber, water injection in an amount of 1% of the air flow rate provides an increase in the turbine power by approximately 12% and expands GTU controlling potentialities. The use of the metastable superheated water atomization enables one to more reliably implement the technology of water injection into a compressor, especially into intermediate compressor stages. However, it requires accounting for operational conditions of particular installation. Due to small water droplet residence time in the compressor flow path, even with fine water atomization, in aircraft engine derivative power turbines, about 15-20% of moisture injected have no time to completely evaporate within the compressor. When injecting cold water, this figure is from 5 to 10% larger.

Favorskii, O. N.; Alekseev, V. B.; Zalkind, V. I.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Ivanov, P. P.; Marinichev, D. V.; Nizovskii, V. L.; Nizovskii, L. V.

2014-05-01

157

The San Jose Del Monte Water Supply Expansion Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is an expansion of the existing water supply system in San Jose Del Monte and is being proposed for funding by the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA), a government-owned quasi-corporate entity that provides institutional and financial support to the municipal water districts in the country. The project aims to increase the district’s system operational storage in order to

Glenn Jenkins; BAHER EL-HIFNAWI

1999-01-01

158

Remediation of an Organic Fluid Present Below the Water Table by Steam Injection Above  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injection of steam in the subsurface has been utilized to remediate contaminated sites where nonaqeuous phase liquid (NAPL) was present both above and below the water table. Steam injection is efficient because the vapor pressure of contaminants increase dramatically with temperature. Futhermore, since two immiscible liquids will boil when the sum of their vapor pressures is equal to the surrounding pressure all NAPLs will start to boil below the boiling point of water. This may be a dominant mechanism for the mass transfer of NAPL into the steam zone. In many cases a steady-state steam zone will be present above a saturated zone containing NAPL, which then will be heated by conduction. At a certain temperature boiling will occur and due to bouyancy gas will be transported from the saturated zone into the steam zone. This mass transfer mechanism is orders of magnitude faster than diffusionevaporation. Two-dimensional experiments in a sand box with the interior dimensions 122 \\times 58 \\times 8.5 cm were carried out to investigate this mechanism. The sand box was packed with a low permeable bottom layer and a high permeable top layer. TCE was injected at the top of the low permeable layer, which prevented it from further downward migration. The water table was located in the high permeable layer above the contaminant. Steam was injected in the left hand side of the sand box and effluent gasses were extracted at the right hand side. A steady-state steam zone formed in the top of the high permeable layer and the saturated zone below was only heated by conduction. When the temperature in the contaminated area reached approximately 74 oC boiling of TCE and water occured and the vapors were transported up in the unsaturated steam zone. This could be registered from the outflow of steam where separate phase TCE appeared in the condenser. The experiment was modeled using the numerical code T2VOC, which simulates multidimensional, non-isothermal, multiphase flow and transport in porous media. For these experiments it was shown that when heating from above with steam injection, TCE present below the water table was transported upwards to the steam zone and not further downward.

Gudbjerg, J.; Jensen, K. H.; Sonnenborg, T. O.

2001-12-01

159

The Virginia Pipeline: Australia's largest water recycling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to conserve, reuse and recycle water is becoming increasingly important for both environmental and economic reasons. The Virginia Pipeline is Australia's largest water recycling project. More than half the output from (the capital of South Australia) Adelaide's largest wastewater treatment plant is further treated to achieve a product water quality fit for irrigation of vegetable crops with minimal

B. Kracman; R. Martin; P. Sztajnbok

160

Water Research Foundation Project 4090 Decision Support System  

E-print Network

Water Research Foundation Project 4090 Decision Support System for Sustainable Energy Management > Uncertainties ­ Future energy pricing ­ Reliability of energy supplies ­ Water supply forecasts ­ Customer use ­ Simon Fraser University Vancouver, BC Canada April 10th, 2009 2nd Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability

Keller, Arturo A.

161

Preliminary Report on Water Supply, Millimeter Array Project, National Radio  

E-print Network

INVEREX Preliminary Report on Water Supply, Millimeter Array Project, National Radio Astronomy of water supply and (2) any obvious geological evidence regarding the quality of the basement which would 22­23,in which a geological observation and search for water supply were conducted. The regional

Groppi, Christopher

162

The Karjat Drinking Water Project GISE (CSE)-CTARA  

E-print Network

The Karjat Drinking Water Project GISE (CSE)-CTARA Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni () May% literacy. 175 hamlets, 49 gram-panchayats, 3 towns. () May 24, 2010 2 / 11 #12;Drinking water Though about 2000-3000mm rainfall, frequent and severe drinking water shortage in many wadis. This year, about 25

Sohoni, Milind

163

14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

164

The Taweelah A2 independent water and power project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taweelah A2 is the first independent water and power project in Abu Dhabi under the government privatization policy. In response to the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) request for proposals, CMS Energy prepared and submitted their offer in April 1998. Following clarifications, the Power and Water Purchase Agreement was signed on 3 October 1998. CMS appointed Mott MacDonald

Neil Wade; John Willis; Jim McSorley

1999-01-01

165

Development of a Fully Automated Flow Injection Analyzer Implementing Bioluminescent Biosensors for Water Toxicity Assessment  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of an automated Flow Injection analyzer for water toxicity assessment. The analyzer is validated by assessing the toxicity of heavy metal (Pb2+, Hg2+ and Cu2+) solutions. One hundred ?L of a Vibrio fischeri suspension are injected in a carrier solution containing different heavy metal concentrations. Biosensor cells are mixed with the toxic carrier solution in the mixing coil on the way to the detector. Response registered is % inhibition of biosensor bioluminescence due to heavy metal toxicity in comparison to that resulting by injecting the Vibrio fischeri suspension in deionised water. Carrier solutions of mercury showed higher toxicity than the other heavy metals, whereas all metals show concentration related levels of toxicity. The biosensor’s response to carrier solutions of different pHs was tested. Vibrio fischeri’s bioluminescence is promoted in the pH 5–10 range. Experiments indicate that the whole cell biosensor, as applied in the automated fluidic system, responds to various toxic solutions. PMID:22163592

Komaitis, Efstratios; Vasiliou, Efstathios; Kremmydas, Gerasimos; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Georgiou, Constantinos

2010-01-01

166

Modeling studies of cold water injection into fluid-depleted, vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

The physical processes involved in cold water injection into a ''superheated'' fractured reservoir are not yet fully understood, and this insufficient knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms limits the possibility of forecasting future resevoir behavior and optimizing the heat extraction process. Numerical simulation can be a very effective tool in the study of the complex phenomena involved, allowing a rapid examination of different situations and conditions, a systematic investigation of the effects of various parameters on reservoir performance, and some insight into long term behavior. We have performed simulation experiments on simple one-dimensional, porous and fractured reservoir models in order to study the migration of injected water, thermodynamic conditions in the boiling zone, heat extraction, and vapor generation. A two-dimensional radial porous medium model, with some characteristics typical of the high productivity zones of Larderello, has also been applied for studying the evolution of the shape and the thermodynamic conditions of the injection plume in the presence of gravity, reservoir heterogeneities and anisotropy.

Calore, C.; Pruess, K.; Celati, R.

1986-01-01

167

Properties of seismic wave scattering around water injection well at Fenton Hill hot dry rock geothermal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the scattering properties of microcracks created by water injection in hot dry rock a method for analyzing trajectory ellipsoids of semismic particle motions has been applied. Lengths and directions of three principal axes of trajectory ellipsoids were calculated, and a distribution of the shape of these ellipsoids suggests existence of a strong scattering region around the injection point.

O. Nishizawa; C. Pearson; J. Albright

1983-01-01

168

Stoichiometric H 2ICE with water injection and exhaust and coolant heat recovery through organic Rankine cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High power density, stoichiometric, turbocharged, directly injected engines with water injection and a three way catalytic converter after treatment have been proposed as one of the most promising H2ICE [1]. These throttle controlled engines have top brake efficiencies exceeding 40%, but large penalties in efficiency reducing the load with 1 bar BMEP values approaching 10%. Recovery of the large amount of

Alberto Boretti

2011-01-01

169

ICPP injection well alternative project, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) portion of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been obtaining water needed for its operations from the Snake River aquifer, which occupies the entire region underlying the site. Most of this water has been used for cooling operating equipment, while a small portion has found various process uses. After passing through the ICPP process area, these waters are then returned to the aquifer. A small portion (about 1%) of the returned stream contains measurable amounts of radioactivity derived from the miscellaneous process users. This report and the recommendations contained herein are based upon stream flows projected for 1985 as supplied by DOE for the ICPP. 26 different alternatives for handling cooling water, chemical, and low level radioactive water disposal are examined. These cases are considered from technical, environmental, safety, and economic points of view. The level of detail is sufficient to eliminate non-viable cases, and to identify those which offer improvements over present practice. The Environmental/Safety Risk Factors were evaluated on a qualitative comparison basis only. Before a recommended improvement is incorporated into the waste disposal system, a conceptual design study should be made which would evaluate all those secondary effects and environmental factors that, by the very nature of the screening process, this study has not provided. Certain synergistic combinations have been noted and are discussed. This report does note whether the operations considered are in regulatory compliance, or are likely to be capable of providing lasting improvement to the waste water system. Qualitative comparisons were made between the various alternatives to confirm their relationship with applicable standards.

Not Available

1980-10-01

170

Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well injection at Grand Junction, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Grand Junction ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site; modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

Not Available

1994-07-18

171

The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

1973-01-01

172

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

173

WATER SUPPLY PROJECTS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain adjustments must be made by a western engineer when planning and building in a developing country. The stage of development, funds available, and local customs must be considered when planning and executing a project.

G. E. Arnold

1970-01-01

174

Sustainability of global water use: past reconstruction and future projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overuse of surface water and an increasing reliance on nonrenewable groundwater resources have been reported over various regions of the world, casting significant doubt on the sustainable water supply and food production met by irrigation. To assess the limitations of global water resources, numerous indicators have been developed, but they rarely consider nonrenewable water use. In addition, surface water over-abstraction is rarely assessed in the context of human and environmental water needs. Here, we perform a transient assessment of global water use over the historical period 1960–2010 as well as the future projections of 2011–2099, using a newly developed indicator: the blue water sustainability index (BlWSI). The BlWSI incorporates both nonrenewable groundwater use and nonsustainable water use that compromises environmental flow requirements. Our results reveal an increasing trend of water consumed from nonsustainable surface water and groundwater resources over the historical period (˜30%), and this increase is projected to continue further towards the end of this century (˜40%). The global amount of nonsustainable water consumption has been increasing especially since the late 1990s, despite a wetter climate and increasing water availability during this period. The BlWSI is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the renewability and degradation of surface water and groundwater resources as a result of human water over-abstraction.

Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

2014-10-01

175

Robustness and uncertainties in global water scarcity projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity is both a natural and human-made phenomenon and defined as the condition where there are insufficient water resources to satisfy long-term average requirements. Many regions of the world are affected by this chronic imbalance between renewable water resources and water demand leading to depletion of surface water and groundwater stocks. Total freshwater abstraction today amounts to 3856 km³ of which 70% are withdrawn by the agricultural sector, followed by the industry (19%) and domestic sectors (11%) (FAO 2010). Population growth and consumption change have led to threefold increase in total water withdrawals in the last 60 years through a rising demand for electricity, industrial and agricultural products, and thus for water (Flörke et al. 2013). The newly developed "Shared Socio-Economic Pathways" (SSPs) project global population to increase up to 7.2 or even 14 billion people by 2100 (O'Neill et al. 2012); and meeting future water demand in sufficient quantity and quality is seen as one of the key challenges of the 21st century. So far, the assessment of regional and global water-scarcity patterns mostly focused on climate change impacts by driving global hydrological models with climate projections from different GCMs while little emphasis has been put on the water demand side. Changes in future water scarcity, however, are found to be mainly driven by changes in water withdrawals (Alcamo et al. 2007, Hanasaki et al. 2012), i.e. sensitivity to climate change outweighs exposure. Likewise, uncertainties have mainly been assessed in relation to the spread among climate scenarios and from global hydrological models (GHMs) (Haddeland et al. 2011, 2013; Schewe et al. 2013, Wada et al. 2013) while the contribution of water use modelling related to total uncertainty remains largely unstudied. The main objective of this study is to address the main uncertainties related to both climate and socio-economic impacts on global and regional water scarcity, and to provide robust and consistent conclusions to be used for decision making. The analysis is based on an ensemble of hydrological and water demand projections for the 21st century as simulated by three state-of-the-art global hydrological and water use models forced by climate projections of five global circulation models and socio-economic drivers corresponding to SSP2. The GHM-ensemble shows reasonable agreement in projected domestic and irrigation water withdrawals whilst there is a large discrepancy between the projections of industrial water withdrawals which translates into considerable uncertainty in temporal and spatial water-scarcity patterns. Consequently, impact assessments need to consider water demand as an additional dimension of uncertainty to assess both exposure and sensitivity to climate change.

Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide

2014-05-01

176

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects was written for non-economists working in the planning, implementation, and management of water supplies. Created by the Asian Development Bank, the handbook is a resource guide to help staff of government agencies, financing institutions, and water utilities understand the principles of economic analysis of water supply projects. Written in easy-to-understand language, the handbook consists of nine chapters, each with separate tables of contents, with titles such as "Least Cost Analysis," "Demand Analysis and Forecasting," and "Sensitivity and Risk Analysis." Each chapter is available only in .pdf format and must be downloaded separately. Also included are an appendix and glossary.

1999-01-01

177

Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1986  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information is presented on the 43 projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Grant Program in fiscal year 1986. The report gives the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investigator(s); dates; and a project description which includes (1) identification of the water related problems and problem-solution approach, (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, (4) approach, and (5) result users. The 43 projects include 14 in the area of groundwater management, 6 in surface-water management, 2 in systems-operating/planning, 3 in irrigation management, 8 in desalination/reuse, 6 in economic/institutional studies, and 4 in climate variability. The reports contain tables showing (1) funding according to research topic, (2) projects funded to type of submitting organization, (3) proposals received, research topic, and funding levels, and (4) submitting organization. A comparison is given to fiscal year 1985 in each case. (USGS)

Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

1986-01-01

178

Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)  

SciTech Connect

Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

2008-12-31

179

75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is commencing...

2010-08-12

180

75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is commencing...

2010-08-13

181

ICPP water inventory study project summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Water inventory Study was initiated in September 1993 with the formation of a joint working group consisting of representatives from DOE-ID, State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, US Geological Survey, and INEL employees to investigate three issues that had been identified by the INEL Oversight Program at ICPP: (1) the water inventory imbalance at ICPP, (2) the source of water infiltrating into the Tank Farm vault sumps, and (3) the source of water providing potential recharge to perched water bodies underlying ICPP. These issues suggested that water was being lost from the ICPP distribution system. The INEL Oversight Program was concerned that the unaccounted for water at ICPP could be spreading contaminants that have been released over the past 40 years of operations of ICPP, possibly to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This report summarizes the findings of each of the component investigations that were undertaken to resolve each of the three issues. Concerns about the risk of spreading contaminants will be resolved as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study being undertaken at ICPP in compliance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order between DOE-H), EPA, and the State of Idaho. This report will be a key input to that study.

Richards, B.T.

1994-01-01

182

Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

183

Antimicrobial use through feed, water, and injection in 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging animal welfare and public health issue linked to antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock. This study was conducted in 2004 on 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan. On-farm records and questionnaires were used to retrospectively describe the antimicrobial exposures of pigs through feed, water, and injection. Antimicrobial use in all production categories was described over 12 months. On-farm records and questionnaires provided sufficient data to describe antimicrobial exposure rates through feed and water. In contrast, on-farm records did not supply sufficient data to describe parenteral antimicrobial exposure rates. Records lacked data on the number of exposures per treatment, therefore parenteral AMU was described as an exposure incidence. Parenteral exposure records were often unavailable for pigs less than 22 kg, in which case questionnaires were used. The incidence of parenteral AMU was significantly higher in herds reporting exposure by questionnaire compared with existing records, suggesting that on-farm records did not reliably describe parenteral AMU. However, because antimicrobial exposures in feed and water were markedly more common than through injection, it was concluded that existing on-farm data would be a valuable resource for investigating AMU and AMR in pigs. PMID:18505203

Rosengren, Leigh B.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Harding, John C.S.; Gow, Sheryl P.; Wilkins, Wendy L.

2008-01-01

184

Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper  

SciTech Connect

This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

Alan K. Yonk

2003-09-01

185

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site.

Not Available

1994-02-01

186

Models for water and power scheduling for the California State Water project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale simulation\\/optimization model provides schedules for operation of water and power for the California State Water Project (SWP). The SWP consists of a series of reservoirs linked by rivers, pumping plants, canals, tunnels, and generating plants and is operated by the California Department of Water Resources. The Department provides water to municipal and agricultural users, and manages its electrical

M. Hossein Sabet; James Q. Coe

1986-01-01

187

Improvement of the high-speed logD assay using an injection marker for the water plug aspiration/injection method.  

PubMed

An improved method for the high-speed assay for logD (HSLogD) employing an injection marker is described. The critical process of HSLogD is automated sampling of the water phase, which prevents contamination from the octanol phase. However, deployment of HSLogD sometimes produces incorrect and inaccurate values compared with data from closely related methods due to low solubility of compounds or instrument problems. Therefore, careful manual inspection of data is needed to confirm the results obtained by this method. To solve this problem, compounds were screened for suitability as injection markers and 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-4,8-dimethylquinoline was the most suitable compound examined. Introduction of the injection marker into the process successfully eliminated the need for the tedious and time-consuming manual inspection process. PMID:19237161

Nishimura, Ikuko; Hirano, Atsushi; Yamashita, Taro; Fukami, Takehiro

2009-04-10

188

Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Aquifer pressure buildup  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of St. Petersburg has been testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. Treated sweage that had a mean chloride concentration of 170 milligrams per liter (mg/l) was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4. 7 multiplied by 10**5 cubic feet per day (ft**3/d). The volume of water injected during the year was 1. 7 multiplied by 10**8 cubic feet. Pressure buildup at the end of one year ranged from less than 0. 1 to as much as 2. 4 pounds per square inch (lb/in**2) in observation wells at the site. Pressure buildup in wells open to the upper part of the injection zone was related to buoyant lift acting on the mixed water in the injection zone in addition to subsurface injection through the injection well. Calculations of the vertical component of pore velocity in the semiconfining bed underlying the shallowest permeable zone of the Floridan aquifer indicate upward movement of native water.

Hickey, J.J.

1984-01-01

189

75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY...prepared for the Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa...information effectively lowered the water supply project target from 3.2 mgd to...

2010-05-12

190

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

Tillman, Gus

191

An approach to the economic analysis of water supply projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development economists are increasingly concerned about the correct approach to economic analysis of projects. By looking for a compromise between theory (which identifies ideals) and practice (which deals within the bounds of time and resource constraints), Lovei focuses on potential guidelines for economic appraisals of water supply projects. He summarizes theory and the current World Bank guidelines on the economic

Laszlo Lovei

1992-01-01

192

Microbial analysis of backflowed injection water from a nitrate-treated North Sea oil reservoir.  

PubMed

Reservoir souring in offshore oil fields is caused by hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), most often as a consequence of sea water injection. Biocide treatment is commonly used to inhibit SRB, but has now been replaced by nitrate treatment on several North Sea oil fields. At the Statfjord field, injection wells from one nitrate-treated reservoir and one biocide-treated reservoir were reversed (backflowed) and sampled for microbial analysis. The two reservoirs have similar properties and share the same pre-nitrate treatment history. A 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis (PCR-DGGE) combined with enrichment culture studies showed that, after 6 months of nitrate injection (0.25 mM NO(3) (-)), heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) formed major populations in the nitrate-treated reservoir. The NRB community was able to utilize the same substrates as the SRB community. Compared to the biocide-treated reservoir, the microbial community in the nitrate-treated reservoir was more phylogenetically diverse and able to grow on a wider range of substrates. Enrichment culture studies showed that SRB were present in both reservoirs, but the nitrate-treated reservoir had the least diverse SRB community. Isolation and characterisation of one of the dominant populations observed during nitrate treatment (strain STF-07) showed that heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria affiliated to Terasakiella probably contributed significantly to the inhibition of SRB. PMID:19137339

Bødtker, Gunhild; Lysnes, Kristine; Torsvik, Terje; Bjørnestad, Eva Ø; Sunde, Egil

2009-03-01

193

Pressure-transient behavior during cold water injection into geothermal wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

During injection testing, the pressures in geothermal wells used for reinjection sometimes initially increase but then decline as injection continues. Injection tests carried out at the Yutsubo geothermal field in Kyushu, Japan, exhibit this peculiar behavior. During injection testing of Yutsubo well YT-2, the observed downhole pressures eventually began to decline despite sustained injection rates. We have carried out numerical

Shinsuke Nakao; Tsuneo Ishido

1998-01-01

194

Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based technology for prediction of soil erosion by water at hillslope profile, field, and small watershed scales. In particular, WEPP utilizes observed or generated daily climate inputs to drive the surface hydrology processes (infiltrat...

195

WATER SYSTEM OPERATOR TRAINING FOR THE CENTRAL ARIZONA PROJECT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. CAP carries water from Lake Havasu down to Tucson. The CAP canal system is a 336-mile long system of aqueducts, tunnels, pumping pla...

196

Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

2007-01-01

197

Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the\\u000a same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed\\u000a a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north–east of the Kathmandu valley. The

Ram B. Khadka; Anil B. Khanal

2008-01-01

198

Spectrophotometric determination of chloride in waters using a multisyringe flow injection system.  

PubMed

A multisyringe flow injection system (MSFIA) with spectrophotometric detection is proposed as a fast, robust and low-reagent consumption system for the determination of chloride (Cl(-)) in waters. The system is based in the classic reaction of Cl(-) with Fe(3+) and Hg(SCN)(2), but due to the hazardous properties of this last reagent, the proposed methodology has been developed with the aim to minimize the consumption of this one, consuming less than 0.05 mg of Hg for a Cl(-) determination, being the system of this type with the lowest Hg consumption. The linear working range was between 1 and 40 mg L(-1) Cl(-) and the detection limit was 0.2 mg L(-1) Cl(-). The repeatability (RSD) was 0.8% for a 10 mg L(-1) Cl(-) solution, and the injection throughput was 130 h(-1). The proposed system is compared with other chloride monitoring flow systems, this comparison is realized with a point of view of the equilibrium between the obtained analytical features and produced residues toxicity. The proposed system was applied to the determination of Cl(-) in mineral, tap and well water. PMID:18371814

Maya, Fernando; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

2008-02-15

199

Native Waters: An American Indian Water Resource Education Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This community education initiative supports the efforts of Native American tribal leaders, educators, and students to develop contemporary, scientifically accurate, and culturally sensitive water education resources, programs, and networking opportunities. A traveling exhibit provides a Native American point of view on protection and conservation of water resources. A teachers' guide is provided to accompany the exhibit. Other materials include learning opportunities for students and educators, news articles, publications, scholarship information, and links to related information.

2004-01-01

200

Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for observation wells in the Mount Pleasant area. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 2 are between 2 and 106 feet lower for production wells and observation wells and between 11 and 27 feet higher for the injection wells in the Mount Pleasant area. Water budgets for the model area immediately surrounding the Mount Pleasant area were calculated for 2011 and for 2050. The largest flow component for the 2050 water budget in the Mount Pleasant area is discharge through wells at rates between 7.1 and 10.9 million gallons of water per day. This groundwater is replaced predominantly by between 6.0 and 7.8 million gallons per day of lateral groundwater flow within the Middendorf aquifer for the Base Case and two scenarios and through reclaimed-water injection of 3 million gallons per day for Scenarios 1 and 2. In addition, between 175,000 and 319,000 gallons of groundwater are removed from this area per day because of the regional hydraulic gradient. Additional sources of water to this area are groundwater storage releases at rates between 86,800 and 116,000 gallons per day and vertical flow from over- and underlying confining units at rates between 69,100 and 150,000 gallons per day. Reclaimed water injected into the Middendorf aquifer at three hypothetical injection wells moved to the Mount Pleasant Waterworks production wells in 18 to 256 years as indicated by particle-tracking simulations. Time of travel varied from 18 to 179 years for simulated conditions of 20 percent uniform aquifer porosity and between 25 to 256 years for 30 percent uniform aquifer porosity.

Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

2009-01-01

201

Modeling of Nitric Oxide Formation in Single Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Diesel-Water Emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Water injection into the combustion chamber of die sel engine found to be one of best method for in-cylinder control of NO x formation. Approach: The combustion of water- diesel emulsion in diesel engine was simulated usin g a computer program to estimate the heat release rate, cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and NO

K. Kannan; M. Udayakumar

2009-01-01

202

40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

emissions, you must install, calibrate, maintain and operate a continuous monitoring system to monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine when burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection for...

2013-07-01

203

40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

emissions, you must install, calibrate, maintain and operate a continuous monitoring system to monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine when burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection for...

2011-07-01

204

New methods for adaptive water management under uncertainty - The NeWater project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European 'Integrated Project' (IP) NeWater is presented, an inter- disciplinary project developing new methods for integrated water resources management taking into account the complexity of the river basins to be managed and the difficulty to predict the factors influencing them (e.g. climate, socio-economic developments). The central focus of NeWater is a transition from currently prevailing regimes of river basin

C. Pahl-Wostl; J. Möltgen; J. Sendzimir; P. Kabat

205

Swan Lake Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Project: Post-Project Monitoring of Water Quality, Sedimentation, Vegetation,  

E-print Network

1 Swan Lake Habitat Rehabilitation and Enhancement Project: Post-Project Monitoring of Water Brighton, IL 62002 3 Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-6504 4 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Carterville Fishery Resources Office Marion, Illinois Prepared

206

Characterizing near-surface CO2 conditions before injection - Perspectives from a CCS project in the Illinois Basin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is conducting a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) project in Decatur, Illinois, USA to demonstrate the ability of a deep saline formation to store one million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from an ethanol facility. Beginning in early 2011, CO2 will be injected at a rate of 1,000 tonnes/day for three years into the Mount Simon Sandstone at a depth of approximately 2,100 meters. An extensive Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program has been undertaken for the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) and is focused on the 0.65 km2 project site. Goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. MVA efforts are being conducted pre-, during, and post- CO2 injection. Soil and net CO2 flux monitoring has been conducted for more than one year to characterize near-surface CO2 conditions. More than 2,200 soil CO2 flux measurements have been manually collected from a network of 118 soil rings since June 2009. Three ring types have been evaluated to determine which type may be the most effective in detecting potential CO 2 leakage. Bare soil, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm into the ground and were prepared to minimize surface vegetation in and near the rings. Bare soil, deep-depth rings were prepared similarly, but were driven 46 cm. Natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm and are most representative of typical vegetation conditions. Bare-soil, shallow-depth rings had the smallest observed mean flux (1.78 ??mol m-2 s-1) versus natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings (3.38 ??mol m-2 s-1). Current data suggest bare ring types would be more sensitive to small CO2 leak signatures than natural ring types because of higher signal to noise ratios. An eddy covariance (EC) system has been in use since June 2009. Baseline data from EC monitoring is being used to characterize pre-injection conditions, and may then be used to detect changes in net exchange CO2 fluxes (Fc) that could be the result of CO2 leakage into the near-surface environment during or following injection. When injection at IBDP begins, soil and net CO2 monitoring efforts will have established a baseline of near-surface conditions that will be important to help demonstrate the effectiveness of storage activities. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Locke, R.A., II; Krapac, I.G.; Lewicki, J.L.; Curtis-Robinson, E.

2011-01-01

207

Injection performance evaluation in Unit 13, SMUDGEO{number}1, and Bear Canyon areas of The Southeast Geysers  

SciTech Connect

Steam production data from wells surrounding Unit 13 injection well CA 956A-1 and Unit 16 injection well Barrows-1 were analyzed to estimate annual and cumulative recovery factors due to water injection into these wells. Production and injection data from SMUDGEO#1 and Bear Canyon wellfields were also analyzed to obtain recovery of the injected water in those wellfields. The results of this study may be useful in designing future injection projects in vapor dominated systems.

Goyal, K.P.

1994-01-20

208

Thermoelectric and electrochemical self-potential anomalies induced by water injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downhole measurements of electrokinetic (EK) streaming potential, using electrodes mounted on the outside of insulated casing, has been shown to be useful for informing production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. However, spontaneous potentials due to thermoelectric (TE) and/or electrochemical (EC) effects may also be present during production and may contribute to the signal measured at the production well. We present a study of the contribution of these effects based on numerical models of subsurface potentials during production. We find that the injection of seawater, which typically has a different temperature and salinity to the formation brine, leads to the generation of both TE and EC potential signals in an oil reservoir, which may be measured at the production well along with EK potential signals. In particular, there is a peak in the TE potential before and after the temperature front, with a change in sign occurring close to the midpoint of the front, and the signal decaying with distance from the front. The EC potential has a similar profile, with a change in sign occurring close to the location of the salinity front. In both cases, the absolute magnitude of the signal is related to the overall temperature and/or salinity contrast between the injected fluids and the formation brine, and the magnitude of the TE and EC coupling coefficient. When we use the maximum theoretical magnitude for the TE and EC coupling coefficients, in the case of a perfect membrane, the lag in the temperature front relative to the saturation front leads to a negligible TE potential signal at the production well until long after water breakthrough occurs. In contrast, the EC potential contributes significantly to the spontaneous potential measured at the production well before the waterfront arrives, as the salinity front and the saturation front approximately coincide. The dependence of the TE and EC coupling coefficients upon temperature, salinity and/or partial water saturation is still uncertain. We explore the contribution of the EK and EC potential signals to the overall signal measured at the well as a function of salinity and water saturation. Our results imply that measurements of the spontaneous potential at a production well will combine contributions from both streaming and electrochemical effects, and may be used to detect an advancing waterfront some time before water breakthrough occurs at the well. Moreover, inversion of the measured signals could be used to determine the water saturation in the vicinity of the well, and to regulate flow into the well using control valves in order to maintain or increase oil production.

Gulamali, Murtaza; Leinov, Eli; Jackson, Matthew; Pain, Christopher

2010-05-01

209

Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir  

PubMed Central

Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

2011-01-01

210

A compact flow injection analysis system for surface mapping of phosphate in marine waters.  

PubMed

The design, construction and validation of a compact, portable flow injection analysis (FIA) instrument for underway analysis of phosphate in marine waters is described. This portable system employs gas pressure for reagent propulsion and computer controlled miniature solenoid valves for precise injection of multiple reagents into a flowing stream of filtered sample. A multi-reflection flow cell with a solid state LED photometer is used to detect filterable reactive phosphate (0.2 mum) as phosphomolybdenum blue. All the components are computer controlled using software developed using the Labviewtrade mark graphical programming language. The system has the capacity for sample throughput of up to 380 phosphate analyses per hour, but in the mode described here was operated at 225 analyses per hour. Under these conditions, the system exhibited a detection limit of 0.15 muM, reproducibility of 1.95 % RSD (n=9) and a linear response (r(2)=0.9992) when calibrated in the field with standards in the range 0.81-3.23 muM. The system was evaluated for the mapping of phosphate concentrations in Port Phillip Bay, south eastern Australia, and during the course of a 150 km cruise, 542 analyses were performed automatically. In general, good agreement was observed between analyses obtained using the portable FIA system and those obtained from manual sampling and laboratory analysis. PMID:18968838

Lyddy-Meaney, Amanda J; Ellis, Peter S; Worsfold, Paul J; Butler, Edward C V; McKelvie, Ian D

2002-12-01

211

A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host rock during deep well injection  

SciTech Connect

A new disposal well was drilled in the vicinity of an injection well that had been in operation for 12 years. The drilling activities provided an opportunity to assess the fate and transport of waste products injected in the nearby well, and the impact, if any, on the host geologic formation. The origin of the fluid collected while drilling the new well and the interaction between injected waste and the formation were investigated using analyses of formation waters, waste, and formation minerals, by applying traditional graphical methods and sophisticated numerical models. This approach can be used to solve a wide range of geochemical problems related to deep well injection of waste. Trilinear Piper diagrams, Stiff diagrams, and correlation plots show that the chemical characteristics of recovered fluid at the new well are similar to those of formation water. The concentrations of most major constituents in the fluid appear diluted when compared to formation water sampled at other locations. This could be explained by mixing with waste, which is less saline than formation water. However, the waste injected near the new well consists primarily of ammonia and sulfate, and these waste constituents are not found at concentrations elevated enough to suggest that significant mixing of formation water with waste has occurred. To determine whether chemical interactions between injected waste and formation could explain the chemistry of fluid recovered from the new well, we simulated the chemical reaction between waste, formation water, and the formation rock by numerical modeling. Initial modeling calculations were done using a multicomponent geochemical reaction-path model to simulate fresh waste reacting with the formation. A more complex simulation coupling flow, transport, and reaction was then run using a multicomponent geochemical reactive transport model. These numerical simulations were carried out to calculate porosity changes and evaluate chemical processes resulting in mineral precipitation and dissolution. The simulations indicate that the waste injected in the vicinity of the new well is mildly reactive with the formation, and that there is a small porosity increase upon injection (approximately one to two percent) in the near-wellbore region. The simulations predict the precipitation of anhydrite, ammonium clay, and ammonium feldspar minerals. However, the precipitation of these minerals is not sufficient to account for the lower-than-expected sulfate and ammonia concentrations away from the injection well. This modeling work is preliminary in nature, and provides an example of the application of sophisticated modeling tools to problems involving deep-well injection of waste.

Spycher, Nicolas; Larkin, Randy

2004-05-14

212

Flow structures of gaseous jets injected into water for underwater propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous jets injected into water are typically found in underwater propulsion, and the flow is essentially unsteady and turbulent. Additionally, the high water-to-gas density ratio can result in complicated flow structures; hence measuring the flow structures numerically and experimentally remains a challenge. To investigate the performance of the underwater propulsion, this paper uses detailed Navier-Stokes flow computations to elucidate the gas-water interactions under the framework of the volume of fluid (VOF) model. Furthermore, these computations take the fluid compressibility, viscosity, and energy transfer into consideration. This paper compares the numerical results and experimental data, showing that phenomena including expansion, bulge, necking/breaking, and back-attack are highlighted in the jet process. The resulting analysis indicates that the pressure difference on the rear and front surfaces of the propulsion system can generate an additional thrust. The strong and oscillatory thrust of the underwater propulsion system is caused by the intermittent pulses of the back pressure and the nozzle exit pressure. As a result, the total thrust in underwater propulsion is not only determined by the nozzle geometry but also by the flow structures and associated pressure distributions.

Tang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Ning-Fei; Shyy, Wei

2011-08-01

213

Water development projects and marital violence: experiences from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the implications of a groundwater development project on women's workload and their experience of marital violence in a Bangladesh village. We believe that the project facilitated irrigation water but also that it resulted in seasonal domestic water shortages. Men used deep motorized pumps for irrigation, and women used shallow handpumps for domestic purposes. Many handpumps dried out, so women had to walk to distant wells. This increased their workload and challenged their possibilities of fulfilling household obligations, thereby increasing the risk of normative marital male violence against women as a punishment for their failure. PMID:22325022

Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Resurreccion, Bernadette P; Wamala, Sarah

2012-01-01

214

Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project. Phase I status report, April 1981-April 1982  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using remote geophysical techniques to monitor the movement of injected brine has been evaluated. It was established that no single approach is likely to be identified that can be used to accurately monitor the precise location of the injected fluid. Several approaches have been considered in parallel because they add new dimensions to the existing monitoring capabilities, and are likely to cover a range of applications at a variety of geothermal sites. These include: microseismicity - a seismic net is used to record small magnitude events associated with injection; streaming potential - self potential anomalies produced by a moving fluid identify fluid flow direction; cross borehole geotomography - two-dimensional image of flow pathways is constructed using electromagnetic waves; and well pressure response to solid earth tide - changes in pore pressures are used to discriminate fracture/pore porosity and estimate fracture orientations.

Younker, L.; Hanson, J.; Didwall, E.; Kasameyer, P.; Smith, A.; Hearst, J.; Daily, W.; Crow, N.; Younker, J.; Murray, W.

1982-08-13

215

Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

1993-01-01

216

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. 418.25 Section...PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management § 418.25 Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. The District...

2014-10-01

217

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. 418.25 Section...PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management § 418.25 Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. The District...

2013-10-01

218

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. 418.25 Section...PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management § 418.25 Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. The District...

2012-10-01

219

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. 418.25 Section...PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management § 418.25 Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. The District...

2011-10-01

220

Groundwater thermal-effective injection systems in shallow aquifers: possible alternatives to vertical water wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanized areas have environmental features that may influence the development of low-enthalpy geothermal systems and the choice of the most suitable among the available (roughly earth-coupled closed-loop and groundwater open-loop type). In particular, if compared to less anthropized areas, some characteristic urban elements require particular attention: underground extensive use, contamination of groundwater, interference between the systems, authorization procedures and planning restrictions, the competition with cogeneration systems and the impact on emissions of pollutants. In this general context, the increasing implementation in several areas of the world of the open-loop groundwater heat pumps technology which discharge into the aquifer for cooling and heating buildings, could potentially cause, even in the short term, a significant environmental impact associated with thermal interference with groundwater, particularly in the shallow aquifers. The discharge of water at different temperatures compared to baseline (warmer in summer and colder in winter) poses a number of problems in relation to the potential functionality of many existing situations of use of the groundwater (drinking water wells, agricultural, industrial, etc.). In addition, there may be cases of interference between systems, especially in the more densely urbanized areas. Appropriate hydrogeological investigations should be performed for the characterization of the main hydrogeological parameters of the subsoil at the considered site in order to minimize the environmental impact of discharges into aquifers. The current Italian legislation related to withdrawals and discharges into aquifers designs a framework suitable for the protection of groundwater and induce deciding the best configuration of the plant with a case by case approach. An increased contact area between the dispersant system and the ground makes it possible to affect a greater volume of aquifer and, consequently, reduce the areal extent of the thermal plume that develops around the area of injection minimizing the time and the space needed for the disappearance of the thermal plume and the restoration of undisturbed temperature conditions. The reduction in plan and temporal extension of the thermal plume would have several benefits, minimizing the use of large areas around the buildings involved by the thermal perturbation, with direct implementation benefits. In order to investigate alternatives to traditional drilled water well for the re-injection and dispersion of water in aquifer downstream of the heat pump, we modeled with FEFLOW the possible reverse use of commercial draining gabions in various types of ground configuration, geometry and interconnection with systems of pre-fabricated vertical drains on a possible reliable test-site. The results highlighted that they can represent a good and efficient alternative for the groundwater dispersion in the aquifers.

Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

2014-05-01

221

The effect on recovery of the injection of alternating slugs of gas and water at pressures above the bubble point  

E-print Network

TW EFFECT ON RECOVERY OF THE INJECTION OF ALTERNATING SLUGS OF GAS AND WATER AT PRESSURES ABOVE THE BUBBLE POINT A Thesis by James Wilson Givens Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the d egree of MASTERS OF SCIENCE August, l96t Major Subject; Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT ON RECOVERY OF THE INJECTION OF ALTERNATING Sj UGS OF GAS AND WATER AT PRESSURES ABOVE THE BUBBLE POINT A Thesis...

Givens, James Wilson

1961-01-01

222

76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Enhancement Project. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) will be a joint lead agency with Reclamation in the...uncertainties have been addressed. In 2003, Reclamation and Ecology initiated the Yakima River Basin Water Storage...

2011-04-05

223

Supervised injection sites: Minister of Health ready to review applications for pilot research projects.  

PubMed

Since 1 January 2003, Health Canada has been prepared to receive proposals for pilot supervised injection sites (SISs). Vancouver has already indicated that it will submit a proposal within a few months. Other cities that have expressed an interest in opening SISs include Montréal, Québec, Winnipeg, and Victoria. PMID:14719489

Jürgens, Ralf

2002-12-01

224

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell`s construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site.

Not Available

1994-01-01

225

Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

226

Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillsl...

227

Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1985  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information on each of the 24 projects funded by the U.S. Geological Survey in FY 1985 under section 105 of Public Law 93-242 (the Water Resources Research Act of 1984) is presented, including the grant number, organization, the period of performance, and a brief description of the work to be carried out. (Lantz-PTT)

U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

1985-01-01

228

Minimizing the operating and capital costs of water supply projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequencing the expansion of water supply projects to minimize discounted operating and capital costs can be formulated graphically as finding a least cost path from the present to the fully expanded future. In light of this model a simple dynamic programing algorithm or minimal cost network algorithm can be readily used in conjunction with a computer to solve the problem.

James B. Lucke

1976-01-01

229

The economic potential of rural water supply projects in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rationale behind the decision to invest in the development of rural water supply in Tanzania is discussed. It is shown that theoretically economic as well as social benefits are supposed to influence investment decisions. In practice, however, choice of projects to be developed are made solely on the basis of social rather than economic factors. Economic potential of such

Mark R. Mujwahuzi

1984-01-01

230

The TAMU Water Project: Critical Environmental Justice as Pedagogy  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Curriculum and Instruction The TAMU Water Project: Critical Environmental Justice as Pedagogy Copyright 2010 Marissa Isela Mu... OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, Lynn M. Burlbaw Committee Members, Bryan Boulanger B. Stephen Carpenter, II Dominique Chlup Head of Department, Dennie Smith August 2010 Major Subject: Curriculum and Instruction iii ABSTRACT...

Munoz, Marissa Isela

2010-10-12

231

CO2FieldLab project. Near-surface downhole electrical resistivity monitoring for CO2 shallow injection at the Svelvik ridge (Norway).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CO2FieldLab shallow injection experiment is a collaborative effort aimed at developing, verifying, and evaluating near-surface monitoring techniques for geological sequestration of CO2. The objective is to create a downhole leakage of CO2 in order to demonstrate whether existing monitoring techniques have the ability to detect and quantify the CO2 loss. The CO2FieldLab project associates collaboration from several research groups and organizations (SINTEF, NGI, BRGM, BGS, CNRS, imaGeau and Schlumberger). For this, the field Laboratory for monitoring CO2 migration and leakage was established in Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, located in the Drammensfjord 50 km south of Oslo (Norway). It is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the last deglaciation. The depth to the bedrock is located between 300 and 400 m. The central part of the ridge is aerially exposed up to 70 m above sea level, constituting a phreatic aquifer. The characterization phase and associated modelling suggest that the site is suitable for studying both gas migration and leakage at shallow depths. The shallow aquifer (down to 50 m) consists in a relatively homogeneous sand body with a depositional dip of about 10° to the North. The shallow injection experiment took place in September of 2011 and consisted in an injection of CO2 at a depth of 20 m from a 45° inclined well. The purpose of this phase was to simulate a point source leakage, which could possibly occur due to failure of a deep well completion. A total mass of 1.67 ton of CO2 was injected over a period of 6 days. The water table was located at 60 cm depth during the experiment and a transition from fresh to salt pore water was found below 12 m depth. An integrated set of surface and downhole strategies was deployed across a 64 m2 square monitoring area: cross-hole radar, water and gas phases physico-chemical parameters (BRGM); multi-hole electrical ALERT system (BGS), CO2 concentration in soils and gas flux measurements (BGS); WestBay completion for pressure monitoring and fluid sampling (Schlumberger); permanent downhole electrical resistivity observatory (imaGeau); time-lapse downhole induction and sonic logging (CNRS) All monitoring holes were drilled and equipped down to 20 m depth. The data recorded by CNRS and imaGeau are presented here. Downhole electrical resistivity monitoring identified a couple of conductive clouds due to CO2 dissolving into pore water. A first one appeared few hours after injection below 9 m, and a second one appeared later at about 6 m suggesting progressive upward migration of the injected CO2. Near the base of the monitoring hole and to the opposite, an increase in resistivity was obtained over time from repeated induction logging. This gradual conductivity decrease is coherent with progressive CO2 dissolution within the pore fluid in a zone of transition to sea water found from 12 m depth. The formation fluid sampling is next to confirm this hypothesis.

Denchik, N.; Pezard, P.; Paris, J.; Geeraert, M.; Henry, G.; Baqué, L.; Barry, S.; Neyens, D.

2012-04-01

232

Quality of water recovered from a municipal effluent injection well in the Floridan aquifer system, Pompano Beach, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 69 million gallons of backflow from an injection well used for the disposal of secondary treated municipal effluent in the Floridan aquifer system near Pompano Beach, Florida, was periodically sampled for inorganic quality from March 1975 through March 1977. Analyses of the backflow effluent showed a concomitant increase in dissolved solids and a change in ionic composition as a function of cumulative volume of backflow. Both the increase in dissolved solids and the change in major ionic composition were directly related to an estimated 6 to 7 percent mixing of the moderately saline water in the Florida aquifer system with the injected system with the injected effluent. Although an estimated 3.5 billion gallons of effluent was injected into the aquifer system during the 16-year operation of the Collier Manor treatment plant, only 65 to 70 million gallons was backflowed before the chloride concentration approached 250 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

1984-01-01

233

Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

1998-01-01

234

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-print Network

) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2003-01-01

235

The recovery of oil from carbonate reservoirs by fluid injection  

E-print Network

respectively. The productivity index calculated from the permeability of the cores was 1. 0 'barrels per day per psi. The water injeotion project, in Field B consists of seven oil wells and six water injection wells as shown in Figure 3. Pr oduotion is from... 1954. Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering TABLE OF CONTENTS I. SUMMARY? II. INTRODUCTION III. DATA ON WELL PRODUCTIVITY IV. DATA ON INJECTION PROJECTS Vo DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Well Productivity Water In)ection Pro]cote VI. CONCLUSIONS VII...

Coleman, Dwayne Marvin

1954-01-01

236

Ensemble approach for projections of return periods of extreme water levels in Estonian waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of various drivers to the water level in the eastern Baltic Sea and the presence of outliers in the time series of observed and hindcast water level lead to large spreading of projections of future extreme water levels. We explore the options for using an ensemble of projections to more reliably evaluate return periods of extreme water levels. An example of such an ensemble is constructed by means of fitting several sets of block maxima (annual maxima and stormy season maxima) with a Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel and Weibull distribution. The ensemble involves projections based on two data sets (resolution of 6 h and 1 h) hindcast by the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO; Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) and observed data from four representative sites along the Estonian coast. The observed data are transferred into the grid cells of the RCO model using the HIROMB model and a linear regression. For coastal segments where the observations represent the offshore water level well, the overall appearance of the ensembles signals that the errors of single projections are randomly distributed and that the median of the ensemble provides a sensible projection. For locations where the observed water level involves local effects (e.g. wave set-up) the block maxima are split into clearly separated populations. The resulting ensemble consists of two distinct clusters, the difference between which can be interpreted as a measure of the impact of local features on the water level observations.

Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Pindsoo, Katri; Lagemaa, Priidik

2014-12-01

237

Numerical Simulation of Injection for CO2 Geological Sequestration with a Treatment of CO2 Dissolution into Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered to be one of the greenhouse gases that may most contributes to global warning on the earth. Disposal CO2 from stationary sources into subsurface has been suggested as a possible means for reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. However, much remains to be done in the issues regarding the safety and reliability of CO2 sequestration. In this study, we have developed a simulation code by using the mathematical model of multi-phase multi-component flow in porous media to analyze the flow dynamics in the subsurface. The equation of state for CO2 covering the fluid region from the triple point to supercritical region is employed to model the state of CO2 gas, liquid and supercritical state. The effect of CO2 dissolution in water on the injection behavior is taken into account by using Henry's law extended to CO2/water system. The simulation was implemented under several geological conditions including gas, liquid and supercritical state to analyze optimal injection condition. The injection pressure is lowered at the lower temperature condition and the higher hydrostatic pressure condition. The lower injection pressure may prevent the fracturing of the injection well and excessive permeation of CO2 in the reservoir. The CO2 dissolution is slightly lowering the injection pressure and the effect on the injection pressure is negligible under the realistic hydrostatic pressure and temperature condition. It has been demonstrated that the simulation code developed in this study may be useful to provide fundamental knowledge required for the design of CO2 injection.

Sasaki, K.; Fujii, T.; Niibori, Y.; Ito, T.; Hashida, T.

2007-03-01

238

Water, Power, and Development in Twenty-First Century China: The Case of the South-North Water Transfer Project  

E-print Network

and controversial supply-side water management project, thiswater supply of her city, “The South-North Water Transfer Projectwater supply in and around Beijing as beneficiaries of a national development project

Crow-Miller, Brittany Leigh

2013-01-01

239

Water use trends and demand projections in the Northwest Florida Water Management District  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Northwest Florida Water Management District is located in the western panhandle of Florida and encompasses about 11,200 square miles. In 1995, the District had an estimated population of 1.13 million, an increase of about 47 percent from the 1975 population of 0.77 million. Over 50 percent of the resident population lives within 10 miles of the coast. In addition, hundreds of thousands of visitors come to the coastal areas of the panhandle during the summer months for recreation or vacation purposes. Water withdrawn to meet demands for public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial, agricultural irrigation, and recreational irrigation purposes in the District increased 18 percent (52 million gallons per day) between 1970 and 1995. The greatest increases were for public supply and domestic self-supplied (99 percent increase) and for agricultural irrigation (60 percent increase) between 1970 and 1995. In 1995, approximately 70 percent of the water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, with the majority of this from the Floridan aquifer system. The increasing water demands have affected water levels in the Floridan aquifer system, especially along the coastal areas. The Northwest Florida Water Management District is mandated under the Florida Statutes (Chapter 373) to protect and manage the water resources in this area of the State. The mandate requires that current and future water demands be met, while water resources and water-dependent natural systems are sustained. For this project, curve fitting and extrapolation were used to project most of the variables (population, population served by public supply, and water use) to the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. This mathematical method involves fitting a curve to historical population or water-use data and then extending this curve to arrive at future values. The population within the region is projected to reach 1,596,888 by the year 2020, an increase of 41 percent between 1995 and 2020. Most of the population in this region will continue to reside in the urban areas of Pensacola and Tallahassee, and along the coastal areas. The population served by public water supply is projected to reach 1,353,836 by the year 2020, an increase of nearly 46 percent between 1995 and 2020. Total water demand for the Northwest Florida Water Management District is projected to reach 940.2 million gallons per day in 2000, 1,003.1 million gallons per day in 2010, and 1,059.1 million gallons per day in 2020. Excluding water withdrawn for power generation from these totals, water demands will increase 34 percent between 1995 and 2020, and 58 percent between 1970 and 2020. Specifically, public supply demands are projected to increase 74.1 million gallons per day (53 percent) and domestic self-supplied and small public supply systems demands are projected to increase 9.1 million gallons per day (28 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Commercial- industrial self-supplied demands are projected to increase about 16.9 million gallons per day (13 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Agricultural and recreational irrigation demands combined are projected to increase 16.8 million gallons per day (48 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Water demands for power generation are projected to increase about 53.9 million gallons per day (10 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Although power generation water use shows a projected increase during this time, plant capacities are not expected to change dramatically.

Marella, R.L.; Mokray, M.F.; Hallock-Solomon, Michael

1998-01-01

240

Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well  

PubMed Central

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1?7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images PMID:16347649

McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

1988-01-01

241

Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well.  

PubMed

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. PMID:16347649

McKinley, V L; Costerton, J W; White, D C

1988-06-01

242

2007-2008 Special Projects Turner: Water Ripples Interactive Youth Games  

E-print Network

and conservation. Smolen: Water Policy Primer, Water Rights in Arkansas through New Mexico In follow up to the 4 on water conservation, water allocation, and drought management. Bauske: Advanced Master Gardener Training2007-2008 Special Projects Turner: Water Ripples Interactive Youth Games The Water Ripples project

243

Sensitive enantioanalysis of ?-blockers via field-amplified sample injection combined with water removal in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.  

PubMed

In this study, an on-line sample preconcentration technique, field-amplified sample injection combined with water removal by electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump, was applied to realize a highly sensitive chiral analysis of ?-blocker enantiomers by MEEKC. The introduction of a water plug in capillary before the electrokinetic injection provided the effective preconcentration of chiral compounds. And then the water was moving out of the column from the injection end under the effect of the EOF, which avoided dilution of the stacked ?-blocker enantiomers concentration suffering from the presence of water in separation buffer. Moreover, the addition of H3 PO4 and methanol in the sample solution greatly improved the enhancement efficiency further. Under optimized conditions, more than 2700-fold enhancement in sensitivity was obtained for each enantiomer of bupranolol (BU), alprenolol (AL), and propranolol (PRO) via electrokinetic injection. LODs were 0.10, 0.10, 0.12, 0.11, 0.02, and 0.02 ng/mL for S-BU, R-BU, S-AL, R-AL, S-PRO, and R-PRO, respectively. Eventually, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BU, AL, and PRO in serum samples with good recoveries ranging from 93.4 to 98.2%. PMID:24798241

Ma, Yanhua; Zhang, Huige; Rahman, Zia Ur; Wang, Weifeng; Li, Xi; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

2014-10-01

244

ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

245

A highly efficient six-stroke internal combustion engine cycle with water injection for in-cylinder exhaust heat recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept adding two strokes to the Otto or Diesel engine cycle to increase fuel efficiency is presented here. It can be thought of as a four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. A partial exhaust event coupled with water injection adds an additional power stroke. Waste heat from two sources is effectively converted

James C. Conklin; James P. Szybist

2010-01-01

246

Detecting potential impacts of deep subsurface CO2 injection on shallow drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented here are results from one aspect of collective research conducted at Gulf Coast Carbon Center, BEG, Jackson School at UT Austin. The biggest hurdle to public acceptance of CCS is to show that drinking water resources will not be impacted. Since late 1990s our group has been supported by US DOE NETL and private industry to research how best to detect potential impacts to shallow (0 to ~0.25 km) subsurface drinking water from deep (~1 to 3.5 km) injection of CO2. Work has and continues to include (1) field sampling and testing, (2) laboratory batch experiments, (3) geochemical modeling. The objective has been to identify the most sensitive geochemical indicators using data from research-level investigations, which can be economically applied on an industrial-scale. The worst-case scenario would be introduction of CO2 directly into drinking water from a leaking wellbore at a brownfield site. This is unlikely for a properly screened and/or maintained site, but needs to be considered. Our results show aquifer matrix (carbonate vs. clastic) to be critical to interpretation of pH and carbonate (DIC, Alkalinity, and ?13C of DIC) parameters because of the influence of water-rock reaction (buffering vs. non-buffering) on aqueous geochemistry. Field groundwater sampling sites to date are Cranfield, MS and SACROC, TX CO2-EOR oilfields. Two major aquifer types are represented, one dominated by silicate (Cranfield) and the other by carbonate (SACROC) water-rock reactions. We tested sensitivity of geochemical indicators (pH, DIC, Alkalinity, and ?13C of DIC) by modeling the effects of increasing pCO2 on aqueous geochemistry, and laboratory batch experiments, both with partial pressure of CO2 gas (pCO2) at 1x105 Pa (1 atm). Aquifer matrix and groundwater data provided constraints for the geochemical models. We used results from modeling and batch experiments to rank geochemical parameter sensitivity to increased pCO2 into weakly, mildly and strongly sensitive categories for both aquifer systems. DIC concentration is strongly sensitive to increased pCO2 for both aquifers; however, CO2 outgassing during sampling complicates direct field measurement of DIC. Interpretation of data from in-situ push-pull aquifer tests is ongoing and will be used to augment results summarized here. We are currently designing groundwater monitoring plans for two additional industrial-scale sites where we will further test the sensitivity and utility of our sampling approach.

Smyth, R. C.; Yang, C.; Romanak, K.; Mickler, P. J.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.

2012-12-01

247

Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota; analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degree Celsius) in the deep Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer (180 to 240 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. High-temperature water from the University's steam-generation facilities supplied heated water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal- Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection/withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through another well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection, and withdrawal. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.7 to 18.4 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, noniso- thermal ground-water flow and thermal-energy- transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to (1) field-recorded temperatures at selected locations, in four observation wells; (2) field- recorded temperatures at the production well; and (3) calculated aquifer-thermal efficiences. Model- computed withdrawal-water temperaturs were within an average of about 3 percent of measured values and model-computed aquifer-thermal efficiencies were within an average of about 5 percent of calculated values for the short-term test cycles. These data indicate that the model accurately simulated thermal-energy storage.

Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G.N.

1994-01-01

248

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

249

Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2007-01-08

250

Factors affecting the recovery of petroleum in projects involving the injection of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)  

E-print Network

to the producing well is the primary problem confronting an engineer when instituting a displacement by an LPG slug. Jenks, Campbell, and l3inder made tests to determine the 9 effect of slug size on recovery in a 20 foot linear model. They found no effect... be required. 12 Bowman found that in a semi-miscible process. a slug sise of 35 percent was required to produce essentially 100 percent of the oil in place in a 10 foot unconsolidated sand model with an injection rate of 10 feet per day. The present...

Graham, Gerry A

1961-01-01

251

Abqaiq Hanifa reservoir: Geologic attributes controlling hydrocarbon production and water injection  

SciTech Connect

The Hanifa reservoir at Abqaiq field consists entirely of mudsupported (>90% matrix) limestones that were deposited in the deeper water interior of the Arabian Intrashelf basin. The Hanifa mudstones lack megascopic pore spaces; porosity is evidenced by high porosities (5-32%) within these fine-grained rocks, based on porosity logs and core-plug analyses, absence of visible pore spaces to account for these high pore volumes, and 2000x SEM images that show a crystal framework texture composed of micro-rhombic (clay-size) calcite crystals with 2 - 5 [mu]m-size pore spaces between these calcite crystals. Flow meters indicate that the reservoir is capable of producing/injecting large volumes of oil/water. But there is little stratigraphic predictability to the flow, and thin (2-10 ft) low porosity (<15%) intervals can contribute over 60% of the entire flow. These reservoir attributes, coupled with the low [open quotes]matrix[close quotes] permeabilities (0.1-10 md) of the reservoir indicate the presence of an apparent permeability that is controlling fluid flow. Core studies have revealed that this apparent permeability is in the form of high-angle fractures. These fractures are [le]1 mm wide, contain hydrocarbon residue and calcite cement, and many are in close association with high-amplitude stylolites, suggesting a genetic link between stylolitization and fracturing. Borehole imaging logs are critical for fracture location, abundance, orientation, and size. The Hanifa is separated from the giant Arab-D reservoir by over 450 ft of fine-grained carbonates of the Jubaila Formation. These two reservoirs, however, are in pressure-fluid communication via a network of fractures through the Jubaila carbonates. Reservoir communication and reservoir heterogeneity is a challenge to reservoir geologists and reservoir engineers in formulating a development plan, involving horizontal producer and injector wells, to extract the reserves within the Abqaiq Hanifa reservoir.

Grover, G. Jr. (Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1993-09-01

252

Helicopter payload gains utilizing water injection for hot day power augmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical investigation was undertaken to assess the gains in helicopter mission payload through the use of water injection to produce power augmentation in an altitude-hot day environment. Substantial gains are shown for two representative helicopters, the UH-lH and CH-47B. The UH-lH payload increased 86.7 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission involving two out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover take-offs of 2 minutes each at 5000 ft. (1525 m) 35 C ambient conditions. The CH-47B payload increased 49.5 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission with sling loaded cargo as the outbound payload and a 3000 lb. (1360 kg) internal cargo on the return leg. The mission included two 4 min. OGE hovers at 6000 ft. (1830 m) 35 C. An improvement in take off performance and maximum performance climb also resulted as a consequence of the OGE hover capability and higher maximum power available.

Stroub, R. H.

1972-01-01

253

Methods for Apportioning the Cost of a Water Resource Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous ad hoc methods are used to apportion the costs of a water resource project among participants and/or purposes. Unfortunately these procedures do not always work, i.e., they lead to unfair assignment of costs. Accepted criteria for efficiency/financial analysis used in the water resources field are expressed in axiomatic form. These criteria are compared to accepted axioms of fairness from cooperative n-person game theory. Similarities between the two approaches are identified. The minimum costs, remaining savings (MCRS) method is proposed as an improved method of financial analysis. The MCRS method can be viewed as a generalization of the presently used separable costs, remaining benefits method.

Heaney, James P.; Dickinson, Robert E.

1982-06-01

254

75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for efficient use of water by Federal Wildlife Refuges...Districts that receive water under provisions of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act (CVPIA...format by which Refuge Water Management Plans (Plans...Refuge/ District Water Supply Contracts and...

2010-11-15

255

Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

Glasser, Philip W

1950-01-01

256

Performance of J33-A-21 and J33-A-23 Turbojet-Engine Compressors with Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the performance investigation of compressors for the J33 turbojet engine, the A-21 model and the A-23 model with a 17- and a 34-blade impeller were operated with water injection at their respective design equivalent speeds of 11,500 and 11,750 rpm. Inlet conditions of pressure of 14 inches of mercury absolute and of ambient temperature correspond to those of the investigation of these models without water injection. The water-air ratio by weight ranged from 0.05 to 0.06. By the use of water injection, the peak pressure ratio of the A-21 compressor and the A-23 compressor with a 34-blade impeller increased approximately 0.38, whereas that of the A-23 compressor with a 17-blade impeller increased only 0.14. The decrease in maximum efficiency for the three compressors ranged from 0.12 to 0.14. The highest increase in maximum equivalent weight flow of air plus weight flow of water was 10.90 pounds per second obtained with the A-21 compressor. The increase in air weight flow alone was approximately 5.70 pounds per second for the A-21 compressor end the A-23, 17-blade compressor, which exceeded the increase of 3.15 pounds per second for the A-23; 34-blade compressor.

Beede, William L.; Withee, Joseph R., Jr.

1949-01-01

257

Projections of Water-Cycle Change: Uncertainty and Utility.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate models have proven to be invaluable tools to developing scenarios of possible future water resources. However, hydrologic simulation involves complex interactions among many processes, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, freezing, and thawing, among others. Furthermore, the modeling of these processes and their interactions remains imperfect. Nonetheless, despite these challenges, some broad features of future water availability have emerged consistently across generations of climate models and future scenarios. One can understand these features on the basis of some fairly simple physical principles, but is this understanding useful? Is the climate community producing the information needed to address future water needs by a growing population? This talk will present perspectives on global and regional water cycles seen in ensemble simulation programs such as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Program (CMIP) for global models and the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) for regional models. The talk will consider global and regional models as sources of consistency and differences in their projections of climate change, through their representation of physical processes in the water cycle. The talk will also consider how water utilities previously have used climate information and what requirements this imposes on climate simulation. Finally, the talk will explore the question of how well typical diagnoses evaluate climate simulations on the basis of water resource needs, especially those for formulating management, planning and policy decisions.

Gutowski, W. J.

2012-12-01

258

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

259

UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document  

SciTech Connect

A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

NONE

1996-03-01

260

Transient formation characteristics of temperature stratified flow in a horizontal water pipe with an injection of hot water from a hole of a pipe  

SciTech Connect

Temperature stratified flow was numerically analyzed in a horizontal pipe. Initially cold water is running and developed in a pipe. From a part of a pipe wall, hot water is injected. Subsequent transient velocity and temperature stratification process was numerically analyzed. This process is a model for such transfer phenomena as follows, i.e., blowing of fresh air into a long tunnel, replacing process of hazardous fluids from a pipeline of an industrial plant with safer fluids, ventilation of a large construction house or ducts, transient combustion process in a tunnel or huge duct, transient flow and temperature characteristics in a canal or river with multiple sub channels. These various cases become more complicated and more serious for the larger scale systems. Temperature stratified flow is everywhere established which makes the prediction difficult. This paper presents transient three-dimensional numerical analyses for a horizontal pipe in which laminar cold water runs steadily. Hot water is injected from a lower side corner of a pipe. Model equations consist of fully three-dimensional balance equations in a cylindrical coordinate. Total tube length computed is 10 times of a pipe diameter d{sub 0}. Hot water inlet hole is 0.4d{sub 0} long in an axial direction and {pi}d{sub 0}/8 in a circumferential direction near the entrance of the system. Reynolds number in a pipe is 1000. Reynolds number of the hot water at the injection hole is 447. Grashof number based on the temperature difference is 5 x 10{sup 7} and Pr = 5.41. Transient three-dimensional velocity profiles and isotherms are presented. The instantaneous water temperature represents oscillatory fluctuation depending on the level in a pipe and on the axial distance from the injection hole. For the tube diameter 0.1m, an average temperature arrived a quasi-steady state after 5 minutes with strong temperature stratification even at 1m from an injection hole. Near the injection hole, hot water makes circumferential convection with oscillatory up and down vortex flow in an axial direction. Warmer water makes stratified flow with faster axial velocity near the top of the tube with much slower axial velocity near the bottom of the tube. These fully three-dimensionally complicated flow and temperature stratification characteristics are presented in various ends view and side views of a long pipe. The importance to note the temperature stratified flow is discussed.

Okinotani, Takeshi; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

1999-07-01

261

The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

2008-01-01

262

Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already been reported as degraders of complex organic molecules and pollutants. Nevertheless, a large number of unclassified bacterial and archaeal sequences were found in the analyzed samples, indicating that subsurface waters in oilfields could harbor new and still-non-described microbial species. PMID:23805243

Lenchi, Nesrine; Inceo?lu, Ozgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

2013-01-01

263

Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already been reported as degraders of complex organic molecules and pollutants. Nevertheless, a large number of unclassified bacterial and archaeal sequences were found in the analyzed samples, indicating that subsurface waters in oilfields could harbor new and still-non-described microbial species. PMID:23805243

Lenchi, Nesrine; ?nceo?lu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

2013-01-01

264

Screening and evaluation of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in seawater and effluent water injection systems in Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

Injection water sources in Kuwait range from brackish water (TDS=4000 mg/l) through seawater (TDS = 30,000 mg/l) to high saline brines (TDS = 200,000 mg/l). Some of these water sources are highly sulfide sour and may require treatment to prevent scaling, corrosion or iron sulfide precipitation. Another particular problem in water injection systems is the uncontrolled growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) which leads to increased corrosion of the process plant. Therefore, evaluation schemes were undertaken to study the relative risks of MIC in a range of Kuwait`s water sources, using a combination of field sampling and laboratory biofouling trials. Recirculating biofouling loops were set up with the appropriate site water, and inoculated with the bacteria from the system so that an active biofilm was set up on small studs. These biofouled studs were treated with proprietary biocide inhibitors under various dose rates in order to select the most appropriate control regime for particular water chemistries and process options.

Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Carew, J. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Materials Div.

1999-11-01

265

INITIAL TEST RESULTS OF THE LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER (LIMB) DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses SO2 removal efficiency and low-NOx burner performance obtained during short term tests, as well as the impact of LIMB ash on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. Project goals are to demonstrate 50% or more SO2 remov...

266

A multisyringe flow injection method for the automated determination of sulfide in waters using a miniaturised optical fiber spectrophotometer.  

PubMed

In this paper, a fully software-controlled multisyringe flow injection (MSFIA) spectrophotometric system is proposed for the determination of sulfide in environmental and waste waters. The implementation of ancillary solenoid valves into the flow network allows a multitude of injection modalities to be explored, the selected modality being directly dependent on the aim of the assays. The multicommuted sandwich-type approach is introduced in this work as an efficient means to warrant high sensitivity for the particular assay with excellent repeatabilities and a considerable reagent saving. Moreover, a high injection frequency may be easily attained by carrying out a multiple injection modality during a single forward displacement of the piston driver bar. The interfacing of the robust and versatile multisyringe piston pump with an optical fiber plug-in spectrophotometer furnished with a light emitting diode enables the miniaturization of the flow analyzer, which is thus readily adaptable to in-situ and real-time monitoring schemes. The flow method is based on the coupling Fischer's reaction of sulfide with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine in the presence of Fe(III) as oxidizing reagent in a 0.7M HCl medium. Careful selection of the physical and chemical variables enabled coefficients of variations better than 1.5% (n = 10) at the 1mgl(-1) level for both injection modalities. Dynamic working ranges of 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-5mgl(-1) sulfide for sandwich and multiple injection techniques, and detection limits of 0.09 and 0.15mgl(-1), respectively, were obtained. Furthermore, the sandwich modality featured an average slope of 0.43 +/- 0.02lmg(-1) calculated from 10 day-to-day calibration plots. This result reveals better sensitivity than other flowing stream methods described in the literature. The multiple injection technique allowed an improvement of the injection throughput up to 80h(-1), although a decrease of sensitivity was concomitantly observed (average slope of 0.17 +/- 0.01lmg(-1)). The multisyringe flow method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfide in different spiked water matrices (namely, mineral, tap, freshwater, seawater and wastewater) with recoveries ranging from 96 to 104%. Good agreement was also found in water samples between the MSFIA results and those of the batch APHA-standard method. PMID:18969720

Ferrer, Laura; de Armas, Graciela; Miró, Manuel; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

2004-12-15

267

Bureau of Reclamation Historic Dams and Water Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do you know about the water way out West? You might know a bit about the dams and water projects that have made cities like Phoenix, Las Vegas, and certainly Los Angeles possible. Well, all of that comes alive with this very unique Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary from the National Park Service. Created in partnerships with the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Conference of State Historic Preservation Officers, the site begins with three great essays: "Water in the West," "Mission of the Bureau of Reclamation," and "Bureau of Reclamation Engineering Achievements." Visitors can look at a list of sites covered by the itinerary, some nice maps of the American West, and the Learn More area, which includes additional helpful resources from a range of agencies and a selected bibliography. Overall, this site is perfect for travelers, historians, and those with an interest in engineering history more specifically.

268

Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well  

SciTech Connect

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples than came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1 omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped.

McKinley, V.L.; Costerton, J.W.; White, D.C.

1988-06-01

269

77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...conservation plans developed by project contractors, including...promoting the highest level of water use efficiency reasonably achievable by project contractors using best available...contract with Reclamation for water supplies (municipal and...

2012-10-22

270

75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...conservation plans developed by project contractors, including...promoting the highest level of water use efficiency reasonably achievable by project contractors using best available...contract with Reclamation for water supplies (municipal and...

2010-07-02

271

78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...conservation plans developed by project contractors, including...promoting the highest level of water use efficiency reasonably achievable by project contractors using best available...contract with Reclamation for water supplies (municipal and...

2013-04-10

272

78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...conservation plans developed by project contractors, including...promoting the highest level of water use efficiency reasonably achievable by project contractors using best available...contract with Reclamation for water supplies (municipal and...

2013-10-24

273

75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...conservation plans developed by project contractors, including...promoting the highest level of water use efficiency reasonably achievable by project contractors using best available...contract with Reclamation for water supplies (municipal and...

2010-11-16

274

77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...conservation plans developed by project contractors, including...promoting the highest level of water use efficiency reasonably achievable by project contractors using best available...contract with Reclamation for water supplies (municipal and...

2012-06-05

275

Science in an Integrated Primary School Project on Water: Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes water-related activities in an elementary school science project. These activities focus on electric generators, rainfall, erosion, floating, water conservation, and other areas. Brief comments on developing such a project are included. (JN)

Ward, Alan

1984-01-01

276

76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of...requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992...for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans (Refuge...

2011-09-22

277

Synchronized droplet size measurements for coal-water-slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31

278

Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs  

PubMed Central

A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24–27°C), Kuparuk (47–70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80–83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined ?D and ?13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

Piceno, Yvette M.; Reid, Francine C.; Tom, Lauren M.; Conrad, Mark E.; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Graff, Craig J.; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C.; Andersen, Gary L.

2014-01-01

279

Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs.  

PubMed

A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24-27°C), Kuparuk (47-70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80-83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined ?D and ?(13)C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

Piceno, Yvette M; Reid, Francine C; Tom, Lauren M; Conrad, Mark E; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G; Fouke, Bruce W; Graff, Craig J; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

2014-01-01

280

Experiment HFR-B1: A preliminary analysis of the water-vapor injection experiments in capsule 3  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary analysis of the response of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel to water vapor addition in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 (HFR-B1/3) has been conducted. The analysis provides an early indication of the behavior of fission gas release under a wider range of water-vapor pressures and of temperatures than heretofore studied. A preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the water-vapor injection tests in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 is presented. The release of fission gas stored in bubbles and the diffusive release of fission-gas atoms are distinguished. The dependence of the release of stored fission gas ({sup 85m}Kr) on water-vapor pressure, P(H{sub 2}O), and temperature were established taking into account the contributing mechanisms of gaseous release, the effect of graphite hydrolysis, and the requirement of consistency with experiment HRB-17 in which similar water-vapor injection tests were conducted. The dependence on P(H{sub 2}O) becomes weaker as temperatures increase above 770{degree}C; the activation energy for release of stored-fission gas is 393 kJ/mol. Isorelease curves for the pressure-temperature plane were deduced from a derived functional relation. The stored-fission gas releases as a function of P(H{sub 2}O) at a common temperature for experiments HFR-B1 and HRB-17 differ by a factor of 4; this discrepancy could be attributed to the differences in fission-rate density and neutron flux between the two experiments. Diffusive release of fission gas occurred during and after the release of stored gas. The ratio of diffusive release during water-vapor injection to that prior to injection varied in contrast to the results from HRB-17. The variation was attributed to the practice of injecting water vapor into HFR-B1 before sintering of the fuel, hydrolyzed in the previous test, was completed. The derived activation energy for diffusive release is 23.6 kJ/mol.

Myers, B.F.

1993-08-01

281

Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: Results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project  

E-print Network

The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA analysis which focused on gravitational waveforms from binary black hole coalescence. Ten numerical relativity groups contributed numerical data which were used to generate a set of gravitational-wave signals. These signals were injected into a simulated data set, designed to mimic the response of the Initial LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Nine groups analysed this data using search and parameter-estimation pipelines. Matched filter algorithms, un-modelled-burst searches and Bayesian parameter-estimation and model-selection algorithms were applied to the data. We report the efficiency of these search methods in detecting the numerical waveforms and measuring their parameters. We describe preliminary comparisons between the different search methods and suggest improvements for future NINJA analyses.

Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Laura Cadonati; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterji; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

2009-07-09

282

Flow injection analysis of trace chromium (VI) in drinking water with a liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection.  

PubMed

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an acknowledged hazardous material in drinking waters. As such, effective monitoring and assessment of the risks posed by Cr(VI) are important analytical objectives for both human health and environmental science. However, because of the lack of highly sensitive, rapid, and simple procedures, a relatively limited number of studies have been carried out in this field. Here we report a simple and sensitive analytical procedure of flow injection analysis (FIA) for sub-nanomolar Cr(VI) in drinking water samples with a liquid core waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The procedure is based on a highly selective reaction between 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide and Cr(VI) under acidic conditions. The optimized experimental parameters included reagent concentrations, injection volume, length of mixing coil, and flow rate. Measurements at 540 nm, and a 650-nm reference wavelength, produced a 0.12-nM detection limit. Relative standard deviations for 1, 2, and 10 nM samples were 5.6, 3.6, and 0.72 % (n?=?9), and the analysis time was <2 min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions, especially Fe(III), were evaluated. Using the FIA-LWCC method, different sources of bottled waters and tap waters were examined. The Cr(VI) concentrations of the bottled waters ranged from the detection limit to ?20 nM, and tap waters collected from the same community supply had Cr(VI) concentration around 14 nM. PMID:23943244

Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Byrne, Robert H

2014-01-01

283

Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% (by man) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31

284

Minimum feasible tariff model for BOT water supply projects in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key issue in implementing water supply projects based on the build, operate and transfer approach is risk allocation. Project risks should be allocated to the best competent party through proper contractual arrangements or through government support so as to achieve a low water tariff. The details of tariff design in BOT water supply projects are identified, and a minimum

Cheng Lianyu; Robert L. K. Tiong

2005-01-01

285

The feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that in certain emergency situations it may be desirable to obtain power from a helicopter engine at levels greater than the maximum rating. Yost (1976) has reported studies concerning methods of power augmentation in the one engine inoperative (OEI) case. It was found that a combination of water/alcohol injection into the inlet and overtemperature/overspeed could provide adequate emergency power. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a feasibility study which analytically investigated the maximum possible level of augmentation with constant gas generator turbine stress rupture life as a constraint. In the proposed scheme, the increased engine output is obtained by turbine overtemperature, however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water.

Van Fossen, G. J.

1983-01-01

286

Development and results of the Hale/Mable leases cooperative polymer EOR injection project, Vacuum (Grayburg-San Andres) field, Lea County, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a case history of the design, implementation, and results of a tertiary polymer EOR injection project conducted by Phillips Petroleum Co. in their Hale and Mable leases located in the Vacuum (Grayburg-San Andres) field, Lea County, NM. Polymer is being injected at a relatively low concentration, and the paper concludes that, given the reservoir rock and fluid properties prevalent in the Hale and Mable leases, a low-concentration polymer flood is just as effective as a higher-concentration flood as long as the total pounds of polymer injected is the same.

Hovendick, M.D. (Phillips Petroleum Co. (US))

1989-08-01

287

Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts of the project, water from domestic use is obtained chiefly from the sandstone beds of the Wind River formation although some is obtained from the alluvium underlying the bottom land and from the unconsolidated deposits underlying the lower terraces along the Wind River. Although adequate quantities if water for domestic use are available from the Wind River formation, there quantities are not considered to be large enough to warrant pumping of ground water for irrigation. Only a few wells are in the nonirrigated part of the area. When this new land is irrigated, a body of ground water will gradually form in the terrace deposits and the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits. Eventually, the terrace deposits may yield adequate quantities of water for domestic and stock use, but only locally are the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits likely to become suitable aquifers. In the Riverton irrigation project area, ground water occurs under water-table conditions near the surface and under artesian conditions in certain strata at both shallow and greater depths. Irrigation is the principal source of recharge to the shallow aquifers; the water level in wells that tap these aquifers fluctuates with irrigation. The depth to water in the shallow wells ranges from less than 1 foot to about 30 feet below the land surface, depending on the season of the year and on the length of time the land has been irrigated. The water level in the wells that tap the deep confined aquifers , which receive recharge indirectly from surface sources, fluctuates only slightly because the recharge and discharge are more constant. In most places the depth to water in wells penetrating the deep confined aquifers is mush greater than that in shallow wells. but in certain low areas water from the deep aquifers flows at the surface from wells. Ground water moves from the area of recharge in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and is discharges either by evapotranspiration; by inflow into streams, drains, or lakes; by pumping or flow of wells; or by flow of springs. Waterlogging and the a

Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

1959-01-01

288

Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2) supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach). Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2), skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2) were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in the three groups, but when compared to the control group, the values remained significantly higher in animals that received the water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. Conclusions In this protocol, water enriched in O2 by electrolysis lessened the decline of peripheral tissue oxygenation. This observation is compatible with the claim that the electrolytic process generates water clathrates which trap O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along pressure gradients. Potential applications of O2-enriched water include an alternate method of oxygen supply. PMID:25210438

Charton, Antoine; Péronnet, François; Doutreleau, Stephane; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Klein, Alexis; Jimenez, Liliana; Geny, Bernard; Diemunsch, Pierre; Richard, Ruddy

2014-01-01

289

Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

2006-09-20

290

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-12-01

291

Project Zoom IN, Citizen Perspectives on Climate and Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspective on climate and water resources can come from the top, scientists sharing invaluable data and findings about how climate dynamics function or quantifications of systems in flux. However, citizens are endowed with an equally as powerful tool for insight: ground zero experience. Project Zoom In is a nascent project undertaken by Global Media Forge to empower youth, educators and scientists with tools to reach the media with locale-specific imagery and perspective of climate dynamics and evidence of anecdotal resource management of liquid gold: fresh water. Zoom In is taking root in Colorado but is designed for national/international scaling. This effort has three limbs: (1) student, scientist and educator workshops teaching invaluable video production skills (2) engaging Colorado school systems to stimulate submission of clips to full video productions to our database, and (3) embedding the findings on a taxonomic GIS interface on-line. The website will be invaluable in classrooms and link network media to individuals with firsthand viewpoints on change.; Climate and Water Resources

Glaser, J. P.

2012-12-01

292

Flow injection screening and semiquantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water by laser induced spectrofluorimetry — chemometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous method is proposed here for the screening and subsequent semiquantitative determination, if required, of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. The experimental arrangement is based on the use of a flow injection (FI) manifold that enables preconcentration of the analytes on a C18 minicolumn before their automatic introduction into a flow-cell for detection. An Nd:YAG laser at 355nm

J Amador-Hernández; J. M Fernández-Romero; M. D Luque de Castro

2001-01-01

293

Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.  

PubMed

Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio. PMID:18457861

Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

2008-06-01

294

Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.  

PubMed

In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 ?mol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts. PMID:22939148

Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

2012-08-30

295

Florida River Project: Measuring discharge, sediment, and water chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the data collection portion of a semester-long project. Before this lab, students will have graphed discharge data for one previous water year, graphed similar data collected by classes during a previous year, written one-page explanations of the techniques that they will be using, and speculated about the results they expect to get. After this lab, their data will be shared with other lab sections, which will have collected similar data at other sites along the same river. Each research group will present their preliminary data to the class during a later lab meeting, and the class will discuss how the different types of data relate to one another. The project culminates in a final paper (one per research group).

Kim Hannula

296

Pharmacological Interventions Including Medical Injections for Neck Pain: An Overview as Part of the ICON§ Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To conduct an overview (review-of-reviews) on pharmacological interventions for neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched from 2006 to 2012. Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) in adults with acute to chronic neck pain reporting effects of pharmacological interventions including injections on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias and extracted data The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel provided critical review. Main Results: We found 26 reviews reporting on 47 RCTs. Most pharmacological interventions had low to very low quality methodologic evidence with three exceptions. For chronic neck pain, there was evidence of: a small immediate benefit for eperison hydrochloride (moderate GRADE, 1 trial, 157 participants);no short-term pain relieving benefit for botulinum toxin-A compared to saline (strong GRADE; 5 trial meta-analysis, 258 participants) nor for subacute/chronic whiplash (moderate GRADE; 4 trial meta-analysis, 183 participants) including reduced pain, disability or global perceived effect; andno long-term benefit for medial branch block of facet joints with steroids (moderate GRADE; 1 trial, 120 participants) over placebo to reduce pain or disability; Reviewers' Conclusions: While in general there is a lack of evidence for most pharmacological interventions, current evidence is against botulinum toxin-A for chronic neck pain or subacute/chronic whiplash; against medial branch block with steroids for chronic facet joint pain; but in favour of the muscle relaxant eperison hydrochloride for chronic neck pain. PMID:24155805

Peloso, Paul M; Khan, Mahweesh; Gross, Anita R; Carlesso, Lisa; Santaguida, Lina; Lowcock, Janet; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, Dave; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Langevin, Pierre; Shi, Qiyun

2013-01-01

297

43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed...will review all projects proposed for funding...Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program....

2012-10-01

298

43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed...will review all projects proposed for funding...Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program....

2013-10-01

299

43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed...will review all projects proposed for funding...Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program....

2010-10-01

300

43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed...will review all projects proposed for funding...Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program....

2014-10-01

301

43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed... Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed...will review all projects proposed for funding...Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program....

2011-10-01

302

Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that the analysis is partially complete, since there if no Assessment of the impact on nonagricultural income and employment, or secondary impacts such as demand for irrigation equipment, services for processing, manufacture and transport services, or investment of new agricultural surpluses. Few empirical studies have been done and the estimates apply only to individual project areas. The results show that inequality is greatest with major (gravity) irrigation, followed by STW, DTW and LLP, FCD (medium to shallow), FCD (deep to shallow), and the most equitable MOSTI. Changes in the absolute income accruing to the rural poor would lead to the rank of major gravity irrigation as raising more above the poverty line, followed by MOSTI, minor irritation (STW, DTW, and LLP), and FCD schemes. PMID:12317341

Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

1991-09-01

303

Twisted injectivity in projected entangled pair states and the classification of quantum phases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a class of projected entangled pair states (PEPS) which is based on a group symmetry twisted by a 3-cocycle of the group. This twisted symmetry is expressed as a matrix product operator (MPO) with bond dimension greater than 1 and acts on the virtual boundary of a PEPS tensor. We show that it gives rise to a new standard form for PEPS from which we construct a family of local Hamiltonians which are gapped, frustration-free and include fixed points of the renormalization group flow. Based on this insight, we advance the classification of 2D gapped quantum spin systems by showing how this new standard form for PEPS determines the emergent topological order of these local Hamiltonians. Specifically, we identify their universality class as DIJKGRAAF-WITTEN topological quantum field theory (TQFT).

Buerschaper, Oliver

2014-12-01

304

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2014-07-01

305

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2013-07-01

306

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2010-07-01

307

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2012-07-01

308

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2010-04-01

309

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2011-04-01

310

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2013-04-01

311

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2014-04-01

312

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2012-04-01

313

A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery  

SciTech Connect

A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy while not resulting in a decrease in power density.

Conklin, Jim [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

2010-01-01

314

Optimal water management and conflict resolution: The Middle East Water Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many situations, actual water markets will not allocate water resources optimally, largely because of the perceived social value of water. It is possible, however, to build optimizing models which, taking account of demand as well as supply considerations, can substitute for actual markets. Such models can assist the formation of water policies, taking into account user-supplied values and constraints. They provide powerful tools for the system-wide cost-benefit analysis of infrastructure; this is illustrated by an analysis of the need for desalination in Israel and the cost and benefits of adding a conveyance line. Further, the use of such models can facilitate cooperation in water, yielding gains that can be considerably greater than the value of the disputed water itself. This can turn what appear to be zero-sum games into win-win situations. The Middle East Water Project has built such a model for the Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian region. We find that the value of the water in dispute in the region is very small and the possible gains from cooperation are relatively large. Analysis of the scarcity value of water is a crucial feature.

Fisher, Franklin M.; Arlosoroff, Shaul; Eckstein, Zvi; Haddadin, Munther; Hamati, Salem G.; Huber-Lee, Annette; Jarrar, Ammar; Jayyousi, Anan; Shamir, Uri; Wesseling, Hans

2002-11-01

315

Effect of Sodium Bisulfite Injection on the Microbial Community Composition in a Brackish-Water-Transporting Pipeline?†  

PubMed Central

Pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water, used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage, are subject to frequent corrosion failures despite the addition of the oxygen scavenger sodium bisulfite (SBS). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the microbial community composition for planktonic samples of transported water and for sessile samples of pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from pipeline cutouts representing corrosion failures. These were obtained from upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP, collected under rapid-flow and stagnant conditions, respectively) of the SBS injection point. Most transported water samples had a large fraction (1.8% to 97% of pyrosequencing reads) of Pseudomonas not found in sessile pipe samples. The sessile population of PAS-616P had methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) as the main (56%) community component, whereas Deltaproteobacteria of the genera Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa were not detected. In contrast, PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP had lower fractions (41% and 0.6%) of Methanobacteriaceae archaea but increased fractions of sulfate-reducing Desulfomicrobium (18% and 48%) and of bisulfite-disproportionating Desulfocapsa (35% and 22%) bacteria. Hence, SBS injection strongly changed the sessile microbial community populations. X-ray diffraction analysis of pipeline scale indicated that iron carbonate was present both upstream and downstream, whereas iron sulfide and sulfur were found only downstream of the SBS injection point, suggesting a contribution of the bisulfite-disproportionating and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the scale to iron corrosion. Incubation of iron coupons with pipeline waters indicated iron corrosion coupled to the formation of methane. Hence, both methanogenic and sulfidogenic microbial communities contributed to corrosion of pipelines transporting these brackish waters. PMID:21856836

Park, Hyung Soo; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Sensen, Christoph W.; Caffrey, Sean M.; Jack, Thomas R.; Boivin, Joe; Voordouw, Gerrit

2011-01-01

316

Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States); [Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

1996-11-01

317

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

2008-07-01

318

The Effects of Droplet Size and Injection Orientation on Water Mist Suppression of Low and High Boiling Point Liquid Pool Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental parametric study of water mist suppression of large-scale liquid pool fires. The experiments were conducted with 50cm diameter pan heptane and JP8 pool fires. Mist was injected into the fire from the base at 90 and 45 and from the top at 90. The results show that base injection of droplets enhanced

CHUKA C. NDUBIZU; RAMAGOPAL ANANTH; PATRICIA A. TATEM

2000-01-01

319

Fast determination of 40 drugs in water using large volume direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work describes a rapid analytical method based on direct sample injection of water samples for the simultaneous identification/quantification of 40 emerging compounds, including pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. The water samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS QqQ). Taking profit of the increasing sensitivity of nowadays tandem mass spectrometers, direct sample injection of large volumes has been an attractive alternative to pre-concentration steps. In this work, the developed methodology has been validated at three concentration levels (10, 100 and 1000 ng/L) in 10 different water samples of different types (5 effluent wastewater and 5 surface water samples). The majority of compounds could be satisfactory validated at these concentrations, showing good recoveries and precision. With only few exceptions, the limits of quantification (LOQs), estimated from the sample chromatogram at lowest spiked level tested, were below 3 ng/L. The method was applied to the analysis of 10 effluent wastewater and 10 surface water samples. Venlafaxine was the compound most frequently detected (80%) in surface water, followed by acetaminophen (70%). Regarding effluent wastewater, valsartan and 4-acetyl aminoantipyrine were detected in 9 out of 10 samples analyzed. These two compounds together with 4-formyl aminoantipyrine and naproxen showed the highest concentrations (>2000 ng/L). In these cases, a dilution step was required for a correct quantification. As an additional evaluation of the method performance, the same water samples were analyzed in another laboratory by a second analytical methodology, based on on-line solid-phase-extraction coupled to LC-MS/MS (QqQ). PMID:25281164

Boix, Clara; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V; Rambla, Javier; Aranda, José L; Ballester, Salomé; Hernández, Félix

2015-01-01

320

Water, water everywhere - and not a drop to spare. [HUD-sponsored conservation project at NBS  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at the National Bureau of Standards Center for Building Technology (NBC/CBT) are conducting a water-conservation research program under the sponsorship of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). In the words of Dr. Lawrence Galowin, a senior mechanical engineer at NBS/CBT, the program aims to develop test data and provide engineering-design methods and laboratory-based evaluation criteria which can be introduced into the building standards and codes system to encourage water-conserving technologies that will perform reliably and effectively for the consumer. Dr. Stephen F. Weber, an economist with NBS/CBT, is working on a method for selecting the most-economical and effective combination of water-conserving options open to the consumer. There is no single recommended combination of water-saving devices which would be economical all across the country, mostly because of diverse water rates, says Weber. As a first step, he has been reviewing 700 water rate schedules supplied by the American Water Works Association. Although still in the early stages of the project, Weber says, one thing which seems clear is that anytime you will have energy savings associated with a reduction in water use, the money you save on energy can equal the savings on your water bill. Both benefits reinforce each other as rewards for conservation. However, they make analysis of benefits more difficult. As a result, coming up with a definitive method for selecting cost-effective water-conservation alternatives will aid consumers and community water planners.

Heyman, M.

1980-07-01

321

Determination of photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of hydroxyl radicals in natural waters using an automatic light irradiation and injection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoformation rates and scavenging rate constants of hydroxyl radicals (OH) in natural water samples were determined by an automatic determination system. After addition of benzene as a chemical probe to a water sample in a reaction cell, light irradiation and injection of irradiated water samples into an HPLC as a function of time were performed automatically. Phenol produced by the

Nobutake Nakatani; Norichika Hashimoto; Hirotaka Shindo; Masatoshi Yamamoto; Megumi Kikkawa; Hiroshi Sakugawa

2007-01-01

322

Assessment of Nitrification Potential in Ground Water Using Short Term, Single-Well Injection Experiments  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the am...

323

Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.  

PubMed

One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation. PMID:25024106

Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

2014-08-19

324

The effects of cold water injection and two-phase flow on skin factor and permeability estimates from pressure falloff analysis  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF COLD WATER INJECTION AND TWO-PHASE FLOW ON SKIN FACTOR AND PERMEABILITY ESTIMATES FROM PRESSURE FALLOFF ANALYSIS A Thesis by FRODE LINGE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in Partial fulfillment... Approved as to style and content by: H. Wu (Chairman of conanittee) ar zman (Member) an ee (Member ) W D, on Gonten (H d of Department) August 1984 ABSTRACT The Effects of Cold Water Injection and Two-Phase Flow on Skin Factor and Permeability...

Linge, Frode

1984-01-01

325

Interaction of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Water Resources Applications Project (WRAP) and Coordinated Enhanced Observing Project (CEOP) in Support of Water Resource Management and Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resources Applications Project (WRAP) has been developed within the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) to facilitate the testing of GEWEX products and their transfer to operational water managers. The WRAP activity builds upon projects within the GEWEX Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs), and facilitates dialogue between these CSEs and their local water management communities regarding their information

L. Martz

2004-01-01

326

Ground water in the North Side Pumping Division, Minidoka Project, Minidoka County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

nearby is being developed by private capital. Completion of the Federal reclamation project will more than double the irrigated acreage in the North Side Division of the Minidoka Project. The area to be irrigated with ground water is at the south-central edge of the Snake River Plain adjacent to project lands that have been irrigated for many years with Snake River water.

Crosthwaite, Emerson G.; Scott, R.C.

1956-01-01

327

Grey Relational Model Based on Entropy Weight for Evaluating Water Supply Project Schemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate water supply project schemes scientifically, grey relational analysis model is applied to evaluate the project schemes. In this model, the entropy theory is applied to determine the evaluated index weight, avoiding the subjectivity. Then the evaluation model is applied to water supply project schemes. The result shows that it is coherent to the actual condition. It

Guo Wenxian; Wang Hongxiang; Xu Jianxin; Zhang Li

2010-01-01

328

Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

McGarr, A.

2014-02-01

329

The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are toprovide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.). *The NEWSE Team is: Romanou, Anastasiam, Columbia U.; Brian Soden, U. Miami; William Lapenta, NASA- MSFC; Megan Larko, CREW; Bing Lin, NASA-LaRC; Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA-GSFC; Xiquan Dong, U. North Dakota; Debbie Belvedere, CREW; Mathew Sapiano, U. Maryland; Duane Waliser, NASA-JPL; Eni Njoku, NASA/JPL; Eric Fetzer, NASA-JPL; Eyal Amitai, NASA-GSFC; Xiaogang Gao, U. California, Irvine; George Huffman, NASA-GSFC & SSAI; Jared Entin, NASA; Joseph Santanello, NASA-GSFC; John Roads, UCSD; W. Timothy Liu, NASA-JPL; Lixin Lu, Colorado State U.; Zhengzhao Luo, Colorado State U.; Michael Bosilovich, NASA-GSFC; Michael Jasinski, NASA-GSFC; William Olson, NASA-GSFC & UMBC-GEST; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Phil Arkin, U. Maryland; Paul Houser, CREW & GMU; Ralph Ferraro, NOAA; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Robert Schiffer; UMBC-GEST; Sujay Kumar, NASA-GSFC; Joseph A. Santanello, NASA-GSFC; Tristan L'Ecuyer, Colorado State U.; Wei-Kuo Tao; NASA-GSFC; Xia Feng; George Mason U.

Houser, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

2008-05-01

330

Comprehensive health effects testing program for Denver's potable water reuse demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Health Effects Testing Program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project is designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater compared to Denver's present high?quality drinking water. The 1 million gallon per day (1 mgd) demonstration plant provides water to be evaluated in the studies treating unchlorinated

William C. Lauer; Frank J. Johns; Gary W. Wolfe; Barbara A. Myers; Lyman W. Condie; Joseph F. Borzelleca

1990-01-01

331

The Impact of Field Enhancements and Charge Injection on the Pulsed Breakdown Strength of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique theoretical model of the breakdown mechanism in water has been developed and further tested in both simulation software and experimentation. The conducted experiments test the degree to which electrode material, surface roughness, and surface area impact the dielectric strength of water. Voltage pulses with respective rise times of roughly 200 and 20 ns were applied to a water

David A. Wetz; John J. Mankowski; James C. Dickens; Magne Kristiansen

2006-01-01

332

An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

Hamlin, S.N.

1985-01-01

333

Give Water a Hand. Home Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

334

Give Water a Hand. School Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

335

Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

336

Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being con-  

E-print Network

Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being to brackish groundwater resources is necessary to create a sustainable water supply for Arizona. In bench membranes. This study showed that other miner- PROJECT FACT SHEET Water Recovery and Residuals Management

Fay, Noah

337

The challenge addressed by this project is water resource sustainability and drought planning in an  

E-print Network

The challenge addressed by this project is water resource sustainability and drought planning) Katherine Hirschboeck (UA) External Partners Teresa Makinen (East Valley Water Forum) PROJECT FUNDING CYCLE alternative scenarios for water supply, cities and states in the western United States are setting guidelines

Fay, Noah

338

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

NONE

1996-03-01

339

43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...

2014-10-01

340

43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...

2010-10-01

341

43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...

2012-10-01

342

43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...

2011-10-01

343

43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...Do rural water projects authorized before...enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have...requirements on rural water supply projects that were...

2013-10-01

344

The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system  

SciTech Connect

Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

1992-01-01

345

Assessment of Nitrification Potential in Ground Water Using Short Term, Single-Well Injection Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests.\\u000a The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study\\u000a was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients\\u000a of oxygen (270 to

R. L. Smith; L. K. Baumgartner; D. N. Miller; D. A. Repert; J. K. Böhlke

2006-01-01

346

Organic secondary ion mass spectrometry: Signal enhancement by water vapor injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of the static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) signals resulting from the injection, closely to the\\u000a sample surface, of H2O vapor at relatively high-pressure, was investigated for a set of organic materials. While the ion signals are generally\\u000a improved with increasing H2O pressure upon 12 keV Ga+ bombardment, a specific enhancement of the protonated ion intensity is clearly

Taoufiq Mouhib; Arnaud Delcorte; Claude Poleunis; Patrick Bertrand

2010-01-01

347

Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

1999-01-01

348

Non invasive monitoring of water flow in the vadose zone: the issue of mass balance in controlled tracer injection experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non invasive characterization of the subsurface, with the goal of obtaining data for the calibration of flow and transport hydrologic models, has become very popular in recent years. However, the process of converting geophysical data into quantitative estimates of volumetric water content and/or solute concentrations is not straightforward, as it requires knowledge of (1) resolution and penetration characteristics of the geophysical methods (imaging characteristics); (2) suitable constitutive laws for the conversion of geophysical quantities into hydrologic quantities (petrophysics). In addition, the calibration of flow/transport models on the basis of geophysically-derived data requires that the space/time evolution of these data be summarized in terms that can be directly compared with simulation results. In the case of controlled injection experiments having a point source (e.g. a borehole section), an effective tool is the analysis of spatial moments of the injected slug. However, important issues are still unresolved, particularly with regard to the identifiability of second order spatial moments (spread) and, more disturbing, mass balance. Field experience demonstrates that it is rarely possible to "see" the total injected tracer mass by means of a non invasive method, be it cross-hole ERT or GPR, leading to errors of the order of 50%. The reasons of these limitations lie mostly in the imaging characteristics of the methods. A better understanding of these characteristics can, on the other hand, provide new tools for a more accurate calibration of flow/transport models.

Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Kemna, A.

2006-12-01

349

New method for simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in water using flow injection technique.  

PubMed

The method exploits the possibilities of flow injection gradient titration in a system of reversed flow with spectrophotometric detection. In the developed approach a small amount of titrant (EDTA) is injected into a stream of sample containing a mixture of indicators (sulfosalicylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline). In acid environment sulfosalicylic acid forms a complex with Fe(III), whereas 1,10-phenanthroline forms a complex with Fe(II). Measurements are performed at wavelength lambda=530 nm when radiation is absorbed by both complexes. After injection EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid and forms with Fe(III) more stable colourless complex. As a result, a characteristic "cut off" peak is registered with a width corresponding to the Fe(III) concentration and with a height corresponding to the Fe(II) concentration. Calibration was performed by titration of four two-component standard solutions of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations established in accordance with 2(2) factorial plan. The method was tested with the use of synthetic samples and then it was applied to the analysis of water samples taken from artesian wells. Under optimized experimental conditions Fe(II) and Fe(III) were determined with precision less than 0.8 and 2.5% (RSD) and accuracy less than 3.2 and 5.1% (relative error) within the concentration ranges of 0.1-3.0 and 0.9-3.5 mg L(-1) of both analytes, respectively. PMID:20457295

Kozak, J; Gutowski, J; Kozak, M; Wieczorek, M; Ko?cielniak, P

2010-05-23

350

Water assessment report: Section 13 (c); Great Plains gasification project, Mercer County, ND  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Council is completing a water assessment of synfuels development in the Upper Missouri River Basin. This is being done under Section 13(a) of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act. The assessment area includes the coal deposits in the Mercer County project site. Levels of North Dakota coal gasification development that are several times the production level of the Great Plains gasification project are being examined. This report assesses: (1) the availability of adequate water supplies to meet the water requirements of the project, supporting activities, and other development induced by the project; and (2) the changes in the water resources that will result from the project. Findings of the 13(a) assessment show that water supplies are physically available within the mainstem of the Missouri River in North Dakota to supply the requirements of the gasification facilities and the supporting activities - mining and reclamation, electricity, and project-induced population increases.

None

1980-12-01

351

75 FR 15453 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage...service to the District located within the San Luis Unit of the Central Valley Project in California. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2010-03-29

352

Design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenic species in natural waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in natural waters is described. The instrument incorporates solenoid activated self-priming micropumps and electronic switching valves for controlling the fluidics of the system and a miniature charge-coupled device spectrometer operating in a graphical programming environment. The limits of detection were found to be 0.79 and 0.98 ?M for As(III) and As(V), respectively, with linear range of 1-50 ?M. Spiked ultrapure water samples were analyzed and recoveries were found to be 97%-101% for As(III) and 95%-99% for As(V), respectively. Future directions in terms of automation, optimization, and field deployment are discussed.

Hanrahan, Grady; Fan, Tina K.; Kantor, Melanie; Clark, Keith; Cardenas, Steven; Guillaume, Darrell W.; Khachikian, Crist S.

2009-10-01

353

Design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenic species in natural waters.  

PubMed

The design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in natural waters is described. The instrument incorporates solenoid activated self-priming micropumps and electronic switching valves for controlling the fluidics of the system and a miniature charge-coupled device spectrometer operating in a graphical programming environment. The limits of detection were found to be 0.79 and 0.98 microM for As(III) and As(V), respectively, with linear range of 1-50 microM. Spiked ultrapure water samples were analyzed and recoveries were found to be 97%-101% for As(III) and 95%-99% for As(V), respectively. Future directions in terms of automation, optimization, and field deployment are discussed. PMID:19895074

Hanrahan, Grady; Fan, Tina K; Kantor, Melanie; Clark, Keith; Cardenas, Steven; Guillaume, Darrell W; Khachikian, Crist S

2009-10-01

354

Design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenic species in natural waters  

PubMed Central

The design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in natural waters is described. The instrument incorporates solenoid activated self-priming micropumps and electronic switching valves for controlling the fluidics of the system and a miniature charge-coupled device spectrometer operating in a graphical programming environment. The limits of detection were found to be 0.79 and 0.98 ?M for As(III) and As(V), respectively, with linear range of 1–50 ?M. Spiked ultrapure water samples were analyzed and recoveries were found to be 97%–101% for As(III) and 95%–99% for As(V), respectively. Future directions in terms of automation, optimization, and field deployment are discussed. PMID:19895074

Hanrahan, Grady; Fan, Tina K.; Kantor, Melanie; Clark, Keith; Cardenas, Steven; Guillaume, Darrell W.; Khachikian, Crist S.

2009-01-01

355

Prediction of electron concentration reductions in re-entry flow fields due to electrophilic liquid and water injection.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of an analytical model which leads to predictions of reductions in electron concentrations in reentry flow fields due to the injection of electrophilic liquids and water. The processes incorporated into the model are: penetration and breakup of the liquid jet, droplet acceleration and vaporization, expansion of the liquid spray due to droplet vaporization, electrophilic vapor diffusion, heterogeneous and homogeneous charged species recombination kinetics and homogeneous electron attachment kinetics. Spray boundary calculations are shown to be in good agreement with photographic observations of water and Freon E-3 sprays in wind tunnel tests of a scale model RAM C-III flight vehicle. Fixed-bias electrostatic probe data taken during the RAM C-III flight are interpreted in terms of effective jet penetration distances - which are shown to be consistent with calculations using the present model.

Pergament, H. S.; Mikatarian, R. R.; Kurzius, S. C.

1972-01-01

356

Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers  

SciTech Connect

X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

2010-06-25

357

MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

358

Social and cultural context of rural water and sanitation projects: case studies from Ghana   

E-print Network

The research underpinning this work took place in the context of two rural water and sanitation projects carried out in the Eastern Region of Ghana. The focus of study was on the way engineers can make water and sanitation ...

Furber, Alison Mary

2013-07-01

359

The effects of the implementation of grey water reuse systems on construction cost and project schedule  

E-print Network

. Implementation of a grey water reuse system has a significant effect on the capital cost of a project. The increase in cost may be attributed to dual sanitary and grey water distribution piping which doubles construction piping costs. Disinfection treatment...

Kaduvinal Varghese, Jeslin

2009-05-15

360

ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY - RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WSWRD, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory (IHL) is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes. Recent research projects undertaken by IHL include (1) Climate ...

361

Effect of air injection under subsurface drip irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of corn in a sandy clay loam soil  

PubMed Central

Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) can substantially reduce the amount of irrigation water needed for corn production. However, corn yields need to be improved to offset the initial cost of drip installation. Air-injection is at least potentially applicable to the (SDI) system. However, the vertical stream of emitted air moving above the emitter outlet directly toward the surface creates a chimney effect, which should be avoided, and to ensure that there are adequate oxygen for root respiration. A field study was conducted in 2010 and 2011, to evaluate the effect of air-injection into the irrigation stream in SDI on the performance of corn. Experimental treatments were drip irrigation (DI), SDI, and SDI with air injection. The leaf area per plant with air injected was 1.477 and 1.0045 times greater in the aerated treatment than in DI and SDI, respectively. Grain filling was faster, and terminated earlier under air-injected drip system, than in DI. Root distribution, stem diameter, plant height and number of grains per plant were noticed to be higher under air injection than DI and SDI. Air injection had the highest water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in both growing seasons; with values of 1.442 and 1.096 in 2010 and 1.463 and 1.112 in 2011 for WUE and IWUE respectively. In comparison with DI and SDI, the air injection treatment achieved a significantly higher productivity through the two seasons. Yield increases due to air injection were 37.78% and 12.27% greater in 2010 and 38.46% and 12.5% in 2011 compared to the DI and SDI treatments, respectively. Data from this study indicate that corn yield can be improved under SDI if the drip water is aerated. PMID:25685457

Abuarab, Mohamed; Mostafa, Ehab; Ibrahim, Mohamed

2012-01-01

362

43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one...INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...

2013-10-01

363

43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one...INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...

2010-10-01

364

43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one...INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...

2011-10-01

365

43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one...INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...

2014-10-01

366

43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one...INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...

2012-10-01

367

Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota--Analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degrees Celsius) in the Franconia-Ironton Galesville aquifer (183 to 245 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. The University's steam-generation facilities supplied high-temperature water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection-withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through the other well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection and withdrawal ranging from 5.25 to 8.01 days. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.4 to 18.6 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Average injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. Temperature graphs for selected depths at individual observation wells indicate that the Ironton and Galesville Sandstones received and stored more thermal energy than the upper part of the Franconia Formation. Clogging of the Ironton Sandstone was possibly due to precipitation of calcium carbonate or movement of fine-grain material or both. Vertical-profile plots indicate that the effects of buoyancy flow were small within the aquifer. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, ground-water-flow, and thermal-energy-transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The model was used to simulate the entire short-term testing period of approximately 400 days. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities, which, for final calibration, were simulated as 3.3 and 0.33 meters, respectively. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to (1) measured temperatures at selected altitudes in four observation wells, (2) measured temperatures at the production well, and (3) calculated thermal efficiencies of the aquifer. Model-computed withdrawal-water temperatures were within an average of about 3 percent of measured values and model-computed aquifer-thermal efficiencies were within an average of about 5 percent of calculated values for the short-term test cycles. These data indicate that the model accurately simulated thermal-energy storage within the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer.

Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G.N.

2002-01-01

368

Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

Roark, Paula

369

Fountains, Golf Courses and Music: Design Projects in Water Resources Engineering Education  

E-print Network

Fountains, Golf Courses and Music: Design Projects in Water Resources Engineering Education Thomas engineering "to life." The students (working in groups of 3) designed a water feature (fountain) and a golf of designing a water feature (fountain) and a golf course water system for the proposed resort, "Le Reve

Piechota, Thomas C.

370

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

NONE

1995-06-01

371

Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

2011-01-01

372

Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect

This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

2013-03-06

373

Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

374

Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water  

PubMed Central

Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments. PMID:24499878

Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

2014-01-01

375

Mobilization of waterflood residual oil by gas injection for water-wet conditions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that mechanisms by which waterflood residual oil is mobilized and recovered during tertiary gasflooding at quasistatic rates and strongly water-wet conditions were investigated with 2D glass micromodels. Two three-phase oil/water/gas systems were used in the displacement experiments. One system had a positive spreading coefficient, the other a negative coefficient. Results for the two systems were compared to determine the differences in displacement mechanisms and oil recovery efficiency. Displacement in both systems proceeds by a double-drainage mechanism where a gas/oil displacement is always associated with an oil/water displacement. The oil/water displacement leads to coalescence and reconnection of oil blobs. Oil recovery was significantly higher for the positive spreading system. The higher displacement efficiency resulted from flow through thin but continuous oil films that always separated the oil and water phases in the positive spreading system. The absence of oil films and the possibility of direct gas/water displacements reduced oil recovery for the negative spreading system.

Billiotte, J. (Ecole des Mines de Paris (FR))

1992-03-01

376

Organic secondary ion mass spectrometry: signal enhancement by water vapor injection.  

PubMed

The enhancement of the static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) signals resulting from the injection, closely to the sample surface, of H(2)O vapor at relatively high-pressure, was investigated for a set of organic materials. While the ion signals are generally improved with increasing H(2)O pressure upon 12 keV Ga(+) bombardment, a specific enhancement of the protonated ion intensity is clearly demonstrated in each case. For instance, the presence of H(2)O vapor induces an enhancement by one order of magnitude of the [M + H](+) static SIMS intensity for the antioxidant Irgafos 168 and a ?1.5-fold increase for polymers such as poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). PMID:20864353

Mouhib, Taoufiq; Delcorte, Arnaud; Poleunis, Claude; Bertrand, Patrick

2010-12-01

377

Flow-through solid-phase based optical sensor for the multisyringe flow injection trace determination of orthophosphate in waters with chemiluminescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a novel flow-through solid-phase based chemiluminescence (CL) optical sensor is described for the trace determination of orthophosphate in waters exploiting the multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) concept with multicommutation. The proposed time-based injection flow system relies upon the in-line derivatisation of the analyte with ammonium molybdate in the presence of vanadate, and the transient immobilisation of the

Inês P. A Morais; Manuel Miró; Matias Manera; José Manuel Estela; V??ctor Cerdà; M. Renata S Souto; António O. S. S Rangel

2004-01-01

378

78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive...AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION...This notice lists the projects approved by rule by the Susquehanna River Basin Commission during...

2013-02-20

379

77 FR 21143 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive...AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION...This notice lists the projects approved by rule by the Susquehanna River Basin Commission during...

2012-04-09

380

78 FR 17281 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive...AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION...This notice lists the projects approved by rule by the Susquehanna River Basin Commission during...

2013-03-20

381

78 FR 27471 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive...AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice...lists the approved by rule projects rescinded by the Susquehanna River Basin Commission during the...

2013-05-10

382

77 FR 55893 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive...AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice...This notice lists the projects rescinded by the Susquehanna River Basin Commission during the...

2012-09-11

383

77 FR 59240 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive...AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice...This notice lists the projects rescinded by the Susquehanna River Basin Commission during the...

2012-09-26

384

77 FR 34455 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive...AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION...This notice lists the projects approved by rule by the Susquehanna River Basin Commission during...

2012-06-11

385

2. INVESTIGATION OF CO2 GRAVITY DRAINAGE AFTER WATER INJECTION IN FRACTURED SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

water saturation and fracture intensity. A decline curve analysis was also performed to compare the up and pressures above the MMP of Spraberry crude oil and CO2. The experiments were designed to simulate drainage were also the goal of the investigation. Oil samples produced in the experiments were analyzed

Schechter, David S.

386

Charge injection and transport in high voltage water\\/glycol capacitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water\\/ethylene glycol mixture to be operated at temperatures below 0 °C is being investigated for use as the high permittivity, low loss dielectric in pulse forming lines for pulsed power applications. High voltage open circuit decay curves show a dielectric relaxation time that decreases with initial voltage at room temperature, while at ?10 °C, the open circuit decay has

Markus Zahn; Steven Voldman; Tatsuo Takada; David B. Fenneman

1983-01-01

387

Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

Song Jin

2007-05-31

388

How does popular participation lead to increased sustainability of rural water supply projects?  

Microsoft Academic Search

I worked for Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) as a rural community development worker for a rural development project in Barru District, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia from 1997 through 2000. Rural community development workers of JICA implemented water supply projects in five villages by utilizing popular participation. However, the sustainability of the projects was questioned by a civil engineering expert

Masao Watanabe

2000-01-01

389

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

R. Johansen

2011-09-01

390

A genetic fuzzy analytical hierarchy process based projection pursuit method for selecting schemes of water transportation projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal selection of schemes of water transportation projects is a process of choosing a relatively optimal scheme from a number of schemes of water transportation programming and management projects, which is of importance in both theory and practice in water resource systems engineering. In order to achieve consistency and eliminate the dimensions of fuzzy qualitative and fuzzy quantitative evaluation indexes, to determine the weights of the indexes objectively, and to increase the differences among the comprehensive evaluation index values of water transportation project schemes, a projection pursuit method, named FPRM-PP for short, was developed in this work for selecting the optimal water transportation project scheme based on the fuzzy preference relation matrix. The research results show that FPRM-PP is intuitive and practical, the correction range of the fuzzy preference relation matrix A it produces is relatively small, and the result obtained is both stable and accurate; therefore FPRM-PP can be widely used in the optimal selection of different multi-factor decision-making schemes.

Jin, Juliang; Li, Lei; Wang, Wensheng; Zhang, Ming

2006-10-01

391

Bulk organic matter and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water during groundwater recharge by enhanced direct injection well.  

PubMed

Water shortages lead to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. A new kind of approach, enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir) consisting of short- and long-term soil treatment, is considered to be suitable for large cities in China. In this paper, EnDir was simulated by soil columns in the laboratory with the secondary effluent as raw water that was ozonated before EnDir. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term part of EnDir can remove 47 to 60% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), convert 5 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen to equivalent nitrate-nitrogen, and offer preferred removal of non-UV-absorbing organics. Soluble microbial byproducts and fulvic-acid-like materials can be ozonated and then partially biodegraded. The residuals of organic matter as a refractory fraction are biodegraded continuously during the long-term part. The DOC value of 1.8 to 2.5 mg/L can be reached, and 40% of organic matter with molecular weight less than 500 Da can be removed after full-term EnDir. PMID:19280901

Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang; Xuzhou, Cheng

2009-01-01

392

Feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system which would allow a substantially increased output from a turboshaft engine for brief periods in emergency situations with little or no loss of turbine stress rupture life is proposed and studied analytically. The increased engine output is obtained by overtemperaturing the turbine; however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water. This decrease in cooling air temperature can offset the effect of increased gas temperature and increased shaft speed and thus keep turbine blade stress rupture life constant. The analysis utilized the NASA-Navy-Engine-Program or NNEP computer code to model the turboshaft engine in both design and off-design modes. This report is concerned with the effect of the proposed method of power augmentation on the engine cycle and turbine components. A simple cycle turboshaft engine with a 16:1 pressure ratio and a 1533 K (2760 R) turbine inlet temperature operating at sea level static conditions was studied to determine the possible power increase and the effect on turbine stress rupture life that could be expected using the proposed emergency cooling scheme. The analysis showed a 54 percent increse in output power can be achieved with no loss in gas generator turbine stress rupture life. A 231 K (415 F) rise in turbine inlet temperature is required for this level of augmentation. The required water flow rate was found to be .0109 kg water per kg of engine air flow.

Vanfossen, G. J.

1983-01-01

393

The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

394

The effect of seasonal changes on the selection of biocide inhibitors for Arabian Gulf seawater for water injection purposes  

SciTech Connect

This investigation was carried out to determine the most effective biocide inhibitor for Northern Arabian Gulf Seawater. This seawater will be used for water injection purposes for some oil fields in Kuwait. Arabian Gulf Seawater is known to be very saline during the summer months and less saline during the rainy season of spring. The biocide inhibitors were tested in a rig with six side streams biofouling monitoring tubes (SBMT). Bacterial nutrients were added to the system and carbon steel studs were placed along the tubes of the biocide evaluation test rig (BETR). After a month, a thin, slimy, and black deposit was formed on the carbon steel studs. The deposit contained 107 general aerobic bacteria (GAB), 107 general anaerobic bacteria (GAnB) and 105 sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The most effective biocide inhibitor was found to be a fatty amine aryl quaternary inhibitor at 50% dosage.

Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Al-Muhanna, K.; Al-Bazzaz, W. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1997-08-01

395

Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

1973-01-01

396

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOEpatents

A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Alexoff, David (Westhampton, NY)

1996-01-09

397

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOEpatents

A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

1996-01-09

398

Corrosion of low carbon steel by microorganisms from the 'pigging' operation debris in water injection pipelines.  

PubMed

Present in all environments, microorganisms develop biofilms adjacent to the metallic structures creating corrosion conditions which may cause production failures that are of great economic impact to the industry. The most common practice in the oil and gas industry to annihilate these biofilms is the mechanical cleaning known as "pigging". In the present work, microorganisms from the "pigging" operation debris are tested biologically and electrochemically to analyse their effect on the corrosion of carbon steel. Results in the presence of bacteria display the formation of black corrosion products allegedly FeS and a sudden increase (more than 400mV) of the corrosion potential of electrode immersed in artificial seawater or in field water (produced water mixed with aquifer seawater). Impedance tests provided information about the mechanisms of the interface carbon steel/bacteria depending on the medium used: mass transfer limitation in artificial seawater was observed whereas that in field water was only charge transfer phenomenon. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results proved that bacterial diversity decreased when cultivating the debris in the media used and suggested that the bacteria involved in the whole set of results are mainly sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and some other bacteria that make part of the taxonomic order Clostridiales. PMID:24355513

Cote, Claudia; Rosas, Omar; Sztyler, Magdalena; Doma, Jemimah; Beech, Iwona; Basseguy, Régine

2014-06-01

399

Contribution of thermoelectric and electrochemical effects to spontaneous potential signals induced by water injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work has demonstrated that downhole measurements of streaming potential, using electrodes mounted on the outside of insulated casing, may be used to inform production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. However, spontaneous potentials due to thermoelectric and/or electrochemical effects may also be present during production and may contribute to the signal measured at the production well. We present a workflow to numerically model spontaneous potentials in the subsurface and ascertain their magnitude in oil reservoirs during production. Our results suggest that the injection of seawater, which typically has a different temperature and salinity to the formation brine, leads to the generation of both thermoelectric and electrochemical potential signals which may be measured at the production well. We observe a peak in the thermoelectric potential before and after the temperature front, with a change in sign occurring close to the midpoint of the front, and the signal decaying with distance from the front. The electrochemical potential has a similar profile, with a change in sign occurring close to the location of the salinity front. In both cases, the absolute magnitude of the signal is related to the overall temperature and/or salinity contrast between the injected fluids and the formation brine, and the magnitude of the thermoelectric or electrochemical coupling coefficient. The lag in the temperature front relative to the saturation front leads to a negligible thermoelectric potential signal at the production well until long after water breakthrough occurs. In contrast, the electrochemical potential contributes significantly to the spontaneous potential measured at the production well before the waterfront arrives, as the salinity front and the saturation front coincide. However, the dependency of the thermoelectric and electrochemical coupling coefficients upon temperature and/or salinity is still uncertain, especially at partial water saturation. We have used the maximum theoretical limit, in the case of the perfect membrane, to estimate these parameters. These results imply that measurements of the spontaneous potential at a production well will combine contributions from both streaming and electrochemical effects, and may be used to detect an advancing waterfront some time before water breakthrough occurs at the well. Moreover, inversion of the measured signals could be used to determine the water saturation in the vicinity of the well, and to regulate flow into the well using control valves in order to maintain or increase oil production.

Gulamali, M. Y.; Saunders, J. H.; Jackson, M.; Pain, C. C.

2009-12-01

400

Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration, operation, monitoring, and proper abandonment will be presented. - Which critical parameters can be monitored? The chances and limitation of different monitoring technologies will be discoursed for a storage site. - How can public involvement reduce risks? This will be shown for hydraulic fracturing operations. - How can geotechnical operation reduce the risk for the groundwater and environment? Some examples will be given to show, that geotechnical operations have the inherent capability to enhance the security of our drinking water. The presentation will discuss how the use of underlying physical and chemical principles can significantly reduce geotechnical risks during fluid injection.

Schilling, Frank R.

2014-05-01

401

Is the Pungwe water supply project a solution to water accessibility and sanitation problems for the households of Sakubva, Zimbabwe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the severe drought of 1991–92, the City of Mutare embarked upon a concerted search for a secure water supply. This search culminated in the decision to transfer water from the Pungwe River via pipeline to the City of Mutare. This project was heralded as bringing ‘purity, security, and prosperity’ to the people of Mutare. Once again, and as is

Azwidowi Mukheli; Gilbert Mosupye; Larry A Swatuk

2002-01-01

402

Water lamp and pinwheels: ambient projection of digital information into architectural space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will be an interface between humans and online digital information. This paper introduces ambient fixtures called Water Lamp and Pinwheels: a new approach to interfacing people with online digital information. The Water Lamp projects water ripple shadow created by a \\

Andrew Dahley; Craig Wisneski; Hiroshi Ishii

1998-01-01

403

Projected Changes in Water Resources and Demands in Central Asia and Their Implications for Irrigated Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projected climate changes in Central Asia are expected to cause substantial changes in the water balance of its river basins (Syrdarja, Amu-Darya, Lake Balkash). Using hydrologic modeling, climate data, and satellite images we model the current and future water situation. Increases in evapotranspiration and the melting of the glaciers that form a major water resource for the region, will affect

R. A. Geerken; J. Vithanage; C. Biradar; A. Platonov; P. Thenkabail; R. B. Smith

2007-01-01

404

Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) –Development History, Model Capabilities and Future Enhancements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was initiated in August 1985 to develop new generation water erosion prediction technology for use by federal agencies involved in soil and water conservation and environmental planning and assessment. Developed by USDA-ARS as a replacement for empirically...

405

Analysis of a rural water supply project in three communities in Mali: Participation and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a qualitative assessment of the participatory water management strategies implemented at the community level in rural Mali through a water supply project — The West Africa Water Initiative (WAWI) — coordinated by Wo rld Vision International, a non-governmental and humanitarian organization. Data for the study were generated through a combination of primary and secondary sources in three

Brett A. Gleitsmann; Margaret M. Kroma; Tammo Steenhuis

2007-01-01

406

OPTIMAL TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL SCHEDULING OF ARID-REGION WATER SUPPLY PROJECTS WITH NONRENEWABLE GROUNDWATER STOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faced with explosive population and business growth, arid-area cities such as Las Vegas, Nevada, are scheduling water supply projects far into the next century. The city now relies on Nevada's small share of the Colorado River and meager local renewable water supplies. Substantial deposits of ground water of adequate quality located at some distance from the population center are a

James F. Booker; R. Garth Taylor; Robert A. Young

1998-01-01

407

Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North Gondar, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well studied. Objectives: To assess the utilization, functionality, community

Mengesha Admassu; Abera Kumie; Mesganaw Fantahun

408

The CTARA-Habitat Center water project Jal-Swarajya Review  

E-print Network

The CTARA-Habitat Center water project Jal-Swarajya Review () April 22, 2008 1 / 22 #12;Jal-well hand-pumps 2,20,000 non-functional 12,000 piped water supply schemes 18,500 "Even those which to sustainability of water sources. Supply led approach-costly and not amenable to management by PRI. About 3

Sohoni, Milind

409

A multisyringe sequential injection method for monitoring water in the energy cogeneration system of a municipal waste incinerator.  

PubMed

Leading-edge urban solid waste ashing plants use burning heat energy to obtain electrical power. Water fed to their boilers for conversion into steam should be highly pure in order to minimize corrosion, scaling and similar phenomena, which can lead to malfunctioning and a reduced useful life but can be avoided by proper management and control of the water supply. In this work, we developed a multiparameter monitor based on multisyringe sequential injection for the sequential determination of up to eight important parameters, namely: pH, specific and acid conductivity, hydrazine, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and total iron. Acid conductivity was determined by passing the sample through a cation-exchange resin in order to retain ammonium ion and release protons. This parameter was deemed the most accurate indicator of dissolved solids in boiler water. Chemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically: hydrazine by reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, ammonium by the modified Berthelot reaction, iron with o-phenanthroline, and phosphate and silica by formation of a molybdoheteropoly blue dye in the presence of ascorbic acid as reductant. Use of the optimum chemical and physical operating conditions provided 3s(blank) detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) N(2)H(4), 0.13 mg l(-1) NH(4)(+), 0.04 mg l(-1) Fe, 0.03 mg l(-1) SiO2 and 0.05 mg l(-1) PO(4)(3-), and relative standard deviations not greater than 2.5%. The methods integrated in the proposed monitor were successfully applied to real samples from the water-steam cycle at the Son Reus ashing plant in Palma de Mallorca (Spain). PMID:19615501

de Mirabó, F M Bauzá; Forteza, R; Cerdà, V

2009-09-15

410

Advanced gas-turbine steam-injection program water treatment for steam-injected gas-turbine systems. Topical report, October 1987March 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water availability, treatment costs, and resultant water quality to ensure technical reliability and economic feasibility of a power plant were determined to define options for reliable, yet cost-effective, water-treatment processes for advanced cogeneration cycles. A review of corrosion and deposition principles for both combustion and steam systems was conducted to identify the most detrimental contaminants causing corrosion and deposition in

R. E. Ayala; J. M. Thames

1989-01-01

411

Bureau of Reclamation Historic Dams and Water Projects: Managing Water in the West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those who have traveled through the western United States can attest to the scale of the massive earth-moving projects that dominate aspects of the landscape. Massive dams and expansive irrigation systems are part of the work of the Bureau of Reclamation, the nation's largest supplier of water and second largest producer of hydroelectric power. This remarkable tour of some of these sites is part of an initiative started by the National Park Service. Visitors will find six areas to explore on the site, including Essays, List of Sites, Maps, and an Introduction. The Essays area offers some nice meditations on the work of the Bureau and its many achievements, while the List of Sites includes information about dozens of locales, including Shasta Dam, Hoover Dam, and the Hungry Horse Dam in Montana. Finally, the Maps area is a great way to figure out your own plan for exploring these magnificent structures.

412

FP7 project MyWater - Merging hydrologic models and EO data for reliable information on Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

21st century reality already sees 2.5 billion people without adequate access to water, whilst climate changes lead to dramatically changing water resources availability and needs. These changes will influence all citizens, and authorities will need more reliable information to adapt to the new situation. The MyWater project responds to these challenges, implementing a new information platform which integrates data from three scientific research areas - earth observation, catchment modelling and meteorology - to better access hydrological processes. This platform will allow a quasi-automatic service chains which output user tailored results like: drinking water needs (quantity and quality), agriculture water needs, water health related indicators, flood scenarios, etc. Overall, MyWater will provide reliable information on water quantity, quality and usage for appropriate water management, improving knowledge and creating the forecasting capabilities necessary to catchment managers, and at the same time optimizing the ratio cost/benefit of water resources monitoring. The work presented regards to the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

Araujo, Antonio; Chambel, Pedro; Silva, Adélio; Velickov, Slavco; van Andel, Schalk; Toth, Gergely; Almeida, Waldenio; Mako, Andras; Alexandridis, Thomas; Cugala, Domigos

2013-04-01

413

Modeling of heavy nitrate corrosion in anaerobe aquifer injection water biofilm: a case study in a flow rig.  

PubMed

Heavy carbon steel corrosion developed during nitrate mitigation of a flow rig connected to a water injection pipeline flowing anaerobe saline aquifer water. Genera-specific QPCR primers quantified 74% of the microbial biofilm community, and further 87% of the community of the nonamended parallel rig. The nonamended biofilm hosted 6.3 × 10(6) SRB cells/cm(2) and the S(35)-sulfate-reduction rate was 1.1 ?mol SO4(2-)/cm(2)/day, being congruent with the estimated SRB biomass formation and the sulfate areal flux. Nitrate amendment caused an 18-fold smaller SRB population, but up to 44 times higher sulfate reduction rates. This H2S formation was insufficient to form the observed Fe3S4 layer. Additional H2S was provided by microbial disproportionation of sulfur, also explaining the increased accessibility of sulfate. The reduced nitrate specie nitrite inhibited the dominating H2-scavenging Desulfovibrio population, and sustained the formation of polysulfide and Fe3S4, herby also dissolved sulfur. This terminated the availability of acetate in the inner biofilm and caused cell starvation that initiated growth upon metallic electrons, probably by the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas population. On the basis of these observations we propose a model of heavy nitrate corrosion where three microbiological processes of nitrate reduction, disproportionation of sulfur, and metallic electron growth are nicely woven into each other. PMID:25020005

Drønen, Karine; Roalkvam, Irene; Beeder, Janiche; Torsvik, Terje; Steen, Ida H; Skauge, Arne; Liengen, Turid

2014-08-01

414

Novel flow injection analysis methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water.  

PubMed

This work describes rapid, sensitive and highly precise methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water samples, using batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques. The proposed methods are based on the selective oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) by iron(III). The absorbance of the resultant green solution of radical cation (ABTS(·+)) was monitored spectrophotometrically at ? max=415 nm. The reaction is stoichiometric with a ratio of 1:1 (Fe(III):ABTS) as determined by Job's and molar ratio methods. The proposed methods allow for the determination of Fe(III) in the ranges 0-4.5 mg L(-1) (LOD 25.5 µg L(-1), %RSD 0.97%, n=7); 0 to 4.5 mg L(-1) (LOD 370 µg L(-1), %RSD 1.28%, n=7) and 0 to 2.7 mg L(-1) (81.6 µg L(-1), %RSD 0.76%, n=6) for batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques, respectively. The proposed methods show high selectivity to Fe(III), as indicated by the high tolerance limits for common interfering ions. The nFIA method was applied in total iron assay in camel blood serum, whereas batch and rFIA methods were successful in the determination of total iron in municipal pipeline water and spiked groundwater. Statistical analysis indicated insignificant differences in accuracy and precision between the results obtained by the developed methods and ICP-AES or phenanthroline methods. PMID:25281080

Elsuccary, S A A; Salem, Alaa A

2015-01-01

415

Preventing livestock water from freezing. Forest Service project record  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available equipment for, and approaches to, preventing livestock water from freezing were surveyed in terms of water circulation, mass insulation, heat pipes, and solar energy. Use of insulated covers and applying insulation to the sides of stock tanks should be considered for ice-free stock water tanks. The propane bubbler seems the most simple and cost-effective freeze-prevention technique in climates that

D. W. McKenzie; T. J. Kashuba; D. Waddington; C. M. Leboeuf; E. K. May

1983-01-01

416

Projected effects of proposed chloride-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the Wichita River basin, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ' plan to control the natural chloride pollution in Wichita River basin includes construction of Truscott Brine Lake on a tributary of North Wichita River. In connection with the proposed brine lake, the U.S. Geological Survey was requested to define the existing ground-water conditions in the shallow freshwater system of the project area and to project the postconstruction effects of the proposed lake on the freshwater aquifer. The freshwater aquifer in the project area is a shallow water-table system with relatively freshwater that contains approximately 500-5,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids and consists of Permian rocks with very small values of hydraulic conductivity. It overlies a brine system that is even less permeable. Two-dimensional mathematical computer models were developed for aquifer simulation of steady-state conditions in a freshwater system and transient conditions in a brine-freshwater system where density effects of the brine are considered. Main results of the project are: (1) Water-level rises in the aquifer of 5-40 feet would be confined to areas near the proposed dam and along lake shoreline, and (2) migration of saltwater downstream from dam generally would be limited to less than 1 mile and apparently, would not reach equilibrium during the 100-year duration of the project. (USGS)

Garza, Sergio

1983-01-01

417

REMOTE SENSING AND INDICATORS: CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE GLOBAL ENERGY AND WATER CYCLE EXPERIMENT (GEWEX) AND ITS WATER RESOURCES APPLICATIONS PROJECT (WRAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Water Resources Applications Project (WRAP) has been developed within the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) to facilitate the testing of GEWEX products and their transfer to operational water managers. The WRAP activity builds upon projects within the GEWEX Continental Scale Experiments (CSEs), and facilitates dialogue between these CSEs and their local water management communities regarding their information needs

Rick Lawford; Michael Manton; Lawrence Martz; Taikan Oki

418

Trace analysis of pesticides in paddy field water by direct injection using liquid chromatography–quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiresidue method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 70 pesticides in paddy field water. After its filtration, water was injected directly in a liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). The list of target analytes included organophosphates, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, carbamates, conazoles, imidazolinones and others compounds widely used in different countries where rice

Lucía Pareja; M. J. Martínez-Bueno; Verónica Cesio; Horacio Heinzen; A. R. Fernández-Alba

2011-01-01

419

Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

2014-01-01

420

Field-amplified sample injection combined with water removal by electroosmotic flow pump in acidic buffer for analysis of phenoxy acid herbicides by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

A procedure that combines two common stacking techniques, field-amplified sample injection and water removal, with an electroosmotic flow pump, is used to separate phenoxy acid herbicides by capillary zone electrophoresis. Before sample loading, a long plug of water was hydrodynamically injected into the capillary both to serve as the medium to permit a high electric field strength and to contain sample anions. Because of this long length of water, the number of ions injected into the capillary was greatly increased. Electrokinetic injection at reversed voltage was then used for introducing negatively charged ions from the diluted sample into the column. The water was removed from the capillary using the electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump when the EOF of the background electrolyte was suppressed. This method afforded a sensitivity enhancement of greater than 3,000 times. Combined with solid-phase extraction, detection limits for the phenoxy acid herbicides as low as 0.01 ng/mL could be achieved. PMID:11467555

Zhu, L; Lee, H K

2001-07-01

421

A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas  

E-print Network

A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant- and water-injected hydraulic fractures induced during a series of hydraulic fracture completions within the Cotton Valley formation of East Texas a series of hydraulic fracture imaging tests in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of East Texas (Walker

422

Staff training for water supply projects in the West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing staff training program and a comprehensive maintenance management system are evolving as a result of recently constructed water treatment plants on the island of Trinidad. With approximately 130 trained technical staff needed to operate the treatment systems, an accelerated four-phase training program was initiated. Local water system engineer and superintendent trainees were sent to the United States for

Dale Batchelor; Fred E. Harem; Merlevyn A. Sankeralli

1981-01-01

423

Combine Water and Energy Services Projects… And BENEFIT!  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are tremendous benefits available to Facility and Energy Managers by combining water and energy services. This trend is likely to become common worldwide over the next decade. This article will emphasize how energy managers can use the same requisite skills to address water issues and generate additional savings.

John J. McGowan

2001-01-01

424

NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

2011-01-01

425

Theoretical analysis of injecting the compressed air through a defensive well into aquifer aimed to separate between polluted and fresh water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injecting a compressed air, through a well, located between the sea or a polluted lake and fresh ground water, creates a "hydraulic barrier" that prevents their mixing. Steady influx of air to a saturated soil produces a pressure gradient from the well and replacement of water by air, hence the interface between air and water increases. After the compression process is stopped, the soil pores are filled with air, so that saturated soil becomes unsaturated with a decreased conductivity. Creating such a barrier, first by the air pressure and second by blocking of the pores, is welcomed at the interface sea-fresh water area, for example. It prevents the loss of fresh water to the sea and it decreases sea water movement into the aquifer. Another positive effect of the air injection is the air flow through unsaturated zone, above the ground water, that decreases polluted water down-seepage from the surface thus defending the fresh ground water against pollution. The regular water well or special drilled one will be used as defensive well. The radius of defensive well can be smaller than the one of the water well. The explanation of the defensive well exploitation in the field for one and multi layer aquifers is presented. Analytical evaluations of the pressure loss and shape of the air-water interfaces in saturated soil are presented for: (a) steady air flow for a one layer aquifer and for a three layer one (leaky aquifer case), (b) transient air flow for a one layer aquifer. It is shown that the shape of air-water interfaces is generally an inverted cone, where the decrease of air pressure in the aquifer with the distance from the well is approximately logarithmic. The necessary pressure to create the effective air flow in the aquifer is only about tens percent higher than static water pressure in the well.

Boger, M.; Ravina, I.

2012-12-01

426

Income-based projections of water footprint of food consumption in Uzbekistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing future water requirements for feeding the growing population of Central Asia can improve understanding of the projected water supply scenarios in the region. Future water requirements will be partially determined by the dietary habits of the populations, and are thus responsive to significant variation of income levels. Using Uzbekistan as an example, this study projects the water footprints of income driven changes on the population's diet in Central Asia. To reveal the influence of large income changes on dietary habits a Normalized Quadratic-Quadratic Expenditure System was calibrated and applied to data from 2009. The national water footprints of food consumption in Uzbekistan were projected until 2034 by applying the parameterized demand system to estimate the respective water footprint values. The results showed that for Uzbekistan the projected increase in the food consumption water footprint would be primarily linked to income growth rather than population growth. Due to the high water footprint of common food products, the composition of the population's diet, and responsiveness to income, economic growth is expected to put greater pressure on water resources in Uzbekistan unless proper measures are undertaken.

Djanibekov, Nodir; Frohberg, Klaus; Djanibekov, Utkur

2013-11-01

427

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

428

A State Grant Program for Water-Supply Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1972 approval of the bonds for the Clean Water Bond Act began a program for creating and upgrading watersupply and wastewater treatment facilities. Grants have been given to 310 out of 361 applicants in this successful program.

Joseph F. Riley

1976-01-01

429

Paso del Norte Watershed Council Coordinated Water Resources Database Project  

E-print Network

The Paso del Norte Watershed Council (PDNWC) is a quasi-governmental organization that serves in an advisory capacity to the New Mexico-Texas Water Commission regarding the selection, planning, and implementation of environmental enhancements...

Brown, Christopher; Sheng, Zhuping; Rich, Matt

430

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1995-09-01

431

Water Use Optimization Toolset Project: Development and Demonstration Phase Draft Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of the development and demonstration phase of the Water Use Optimization Toolset (WUOT) project. It identifies the objective and goals that guided the project, as well as demonstrating potential benefits that could be obtained by applying the WUOT in different geo-hydrologic systems across the United States. A major challenge facing conventional hydropower plants is to operate more efficiently while dealing with an increasingly uncertain water-constrained environment and complex electricity markets. The goal of this 3-year WUOT project, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is to improve water management, resulting in more energy, revenues, and grid services from available water, and to enhance environmental benefits from improved hydropower operations and planning while maintaining institutional water delivery requirements. The long-term goal is for the WUOT to be used by environmental analysts and deployed by hydropower schedulers and operators to assist in market, dispatch, and operational decisions.

Gasper, John R. [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Veselka, Thomas D. [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Mahalik, Matthew R. [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Hayse, John W. [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Saha, Samrat [Argonne National Laboratory] [Argonne National Laboratory; Wigmosta, Mark S. [PNNL] [PNNL; Voisin, Nathalie [PNNL] [PNNL; Rakowski, Cynthia [PNNL] [PNNL; Coleman, Andre [PNNL] [PNNL; Lowry, Thomas S. [SNL] [SNL

2014-05-19

432

SELECTION OF MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE EMALAHLENI (WITBANK) WATER RECLAMATION PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal mining has an impact on the water management of the water scarce Upper Olifants River Catchment. A pre-feasibility study was done by Anglo Coal and Ingwe Collieries Limited to establish the water supply and demand in the catchment. A geo-hydrological model was used for the coalfields to determine the stored water and excess water available. Two distinct collective and

Peter Gunther; Wendy Mey

433

Sustainable Farming in Tap Water Area: A Case of Paldang Project in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

** The experience of the Paldang Project in Korea, a sustainable farming practice in tap water source area, is outlined and discussed in terms of objectives, programs, performance, and future directions. The Project is to provide mutual benefits for farmers and consumers with collaboration of both groups. Sustainable farming is implemented by reducing chemical inputs for crop production and applying

Kie-Yup Shin

434

The Self-Help Handbook for Small Town Water and Wastewater Projects. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook describes a set of tools small communities can use to reduce the cost of drinking water and wastewater projects. It is intended as a desktop reference for two primary audiences: (1) local residents (elected officials, plant operators, and concerned citizens) for whom the book provides detailed advice on how to do conduct a project at…

Schautz, Jane W.; Conway, Christopher M.

435

Idaho EPSCoR RII: Water Resources in a Changing Climate Project Summary  

E-print Network

Idaho EPSCoR RII: Water Resources in a Changing Climate Project Summary Context: Idaho has funding. Idaho's universities, via the ongoing RII Project (V), have built basic research expertise in hydrology and stream ecology. These strengths, combined with Idaho's natural field laboratories, provide

Walden, Von P.

436

Final Technical Report: The Water-to-Wire (W2W) Project  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Free Flow Power (FFP) Water-to-Wire Project (Project) was to evaluate and optimize the performance, environmental compatibility, and cost factors of FFP hydrokinetic turbines through design analyses and deployments in test flumes and riverine locations.

Lissner, Daniel N.; Edward, Lovelace C.

2013-12-24

437

Risk criticality and allocation in privatised water supply projects in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public–private-partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects typically involve a plethora of risks. Given that many risks which are traditionally borne by the government get transferred to the private sector, careful risk allocation is considered to be the key to successful PPP projects. This paper focuses on the current risk allocation practice within Indonesia’s water supply projects. The paper captures, presents and discusses

Andreas Wibowo; Sherif Mohamed

2010-01-01

438

Analysis of thiabendazole, 4-tert-octylphenol and chlorpyrifos in waste and sewage water by direct injection - micellar liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

A micellar liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of the pesticides thiabendazole and chlorpyrifos, as well as an alkylphenol, which is included in pesticide formulations, i.e., 4-tert-octylphenol, in water. A sample was filtered and directly injected, avoiding large extraction steps using toxic solvents, thus expediting the experimental procedure. The contaminants were eluted without interferences in <17 min, using a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate - 6% 1-pentanol buffered at pH 3, running through a C18 column at 1 mL min(-1) under the isocratic mode. This optimal mobile phase was selected using a statistical approach, which considers the retention factor, efficiency and peak shape of the analytes measured in only a few mobile phases. The detection was carried out by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in terms of specificity, calibration range (0.5-10 mg L(-1)), linearity (r(2) > 0.994), limit of detection and quantification (0.2-0.3; and 0.5-0.8 mg L(-1), respectively), intra- and interday accuracy (95.2-102.9%), precision (<8.3%), and ruggedness (<9.3%). The stability in storage conditions (at least 14 days) was studied. The method was safe, inexpensive, produced little pollutant and has a short analysis time, thus it is useful for the routine analysis of samples. Finally, the method was applied to analyse wastewater from the fruit-processing industry, wastewater treatment plants, and in sewage water belonging to the Castelló area (Spain). The results were similar to those obtained by an already reliable method. PMID:25604004

Romero-Cano, Ricard; Kassuha, Diego; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Roca-Genovés, Pasqual; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

2015-03-01