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1

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with

Adetoba

1984-01-01

2

Field injectivity experiences with miscible recovery projects using alternate rich gas and water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar operating procedures were used in 4 miscible projects utilizing alternate injection cycles of rich gas and water to achieve an improved mobility ratio and, therefore, an improved sweep efficiency. In 3 of the projects, the water injection rates before and after rich gas injection were as anticipated. However, unanticipated reductions in water injection rates occurred in one project after

M. T. Jr. Harvey; J. L. Shelton; C. H. Kelm

1974-01-01

3

INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to set. The system then returned to operation as before the test with no major change in the fieldwide injection. The injection and production rates for the field were monitored for approximately one year to give the production side of the system time to stabilize. The polymer treatment conducted on the injection wells in Hawk Point is believed to be the largest treatment of a hot, deep reservoir to date. These injection well treatments did produce some change in the injection profile of the injection wells. However, it is very disappointing that there was no significant improvement in the performance of the field. There was no noticeable reduction in the water production, the water-oil ratio (WOR), or an increase in oil production. The cosponsor has determined that the field is currently at its economic limit because of the high cost of this deep operation and the continual downhole problems. A restructuring of the injection-production pattern is presently being done to prolong the life of the field.

Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

2001-09-01

4

Geothermal injection monitoring project  

SciTech Connect

Background information is provided on the geothermal brine injection problem and each of the project tasks is outlined in detail. These tasks are: evaluation of methods of monitoring the movement of injected fluid, preparation for an eventual field experiment, and a review of groundwater regulations and injection programs. (MHR)

Younker, L.

1981-04-01

5

Injection-water quality  

SciTech Connect

Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

Patton, C.C. (C.C. Patton and Associates, Inc. (US))

1990-10-01

6

Water injection profiling  

SciTech Connect

Water injection profiling of a well by nuclear logging is disclosed. A dual detector sonde with a high energy neutron source and a spinner flowmeter is oriented and positioned above and below perforations in the casing of an injection well to monitor upward and downward flow, respectively, of injection water. The water is irradiated by the neutron source and resulting gamma ray production is sensed as the activated water flows by the spaced detectors. Count rate data is reduced and analyzed in terms of two energy windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow behind the casing. Fluid flow within the casing is measured by means of the spinner flowmeter. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formations is calculated.

Arnold, D.M.

1980-11-11

7

Case history of the University Block 9 (Wolfcamp) field--a gas-water injection secondary recovery project. [Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wolfcamp reservoir of the University Block 9 field has been a very successful secondary recovery project. The domal limestone reservoir, south of Andrews, Tex., was discovered in 1953. The reservoir performed during its primary life under fluid expansion and solution-gas drive with no evident water encroachment. In 1958, an engineering committee recommended unitization and a peripheral secondary recovery project

Cone

1970-01-01

8

Pilot Study on Treatment of Surface Water for Groundwater Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A groundwater recharge demonstration project sponsored by the US Bureau of Reclamation is being conducted by the Salt Lake County Water Conservancy District in Utah. Treated surface water will be injected in winter into the aquifer through injection wells and recovered through separate wells during the peak summer months. The conveyance capacity of the project will be 1,000 gpm (5.5

Eva C. Nieminski; Susan L. Fenhaus

1991-01-01

9

Project Weather and Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

2000-01-01

10

Water analysis prevents injection-well plugging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A line drive waterflood had such a severe plugging problem that a few months after start-up, the entire first line of injection wells had to be abandoned. Injection was shifted to the second line of wells. However, increased injection pressure was soon noted. The injection water was obtained from a shallow aquifer which furnished an adequate supply from a single

1983-01-01

11

Corrosion control in water injection systems  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion control in water injection systems encompasses a wide range of technologies, including chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and oxygen scavengers); corrosion-resistant materials (metallic and nonmetallic); internal coatings and linings; mechanical removal of dissolved oxygen; velocity control; and prevention of oxygen entry and galvanic couples. This article reviews the way that these technologies are used in modern water-injection systems (both seawater and produced water) to provide an acceptable service life and high-quality injection water.

Patton, C.C. (C.C. Patton and Associates Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-08-01

12

Water development projects map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new map showing major water development projects across the United States has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The map shows the location, size, and ownership of approximately 2800 of the nation's major multipurpose and flood control dams and virtually all of the reservoir storage and flood control capacity of the country. Other features illustrated on the map include U.S. Bureau of Reclamation surface water irrigation projects; watershed protection projects of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service; hydroelectric power facilities, including both federal plants and nonfederal plants leased by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigation and flood damage reduction projects; and the federal systems of wild and scenic rivers. The map also delineates major rivers and the 21 USGS water resources region boundaries so that users of the map can locate development projects with respect to drainage basins.

13

GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

John K. Godwin

2005-12-01

14

Lesotho Highlands Water Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kingdom of Lesotho is a tiny landlocked country, about the size of the state of Maryland, and it is completely surrounded by South Africa. Its most significant natural resource is water, and thus the majority of its economy is based on providing water and electricity to South Africa. The Lesotho Highlands Water Project website is a window into the effects such a large water project can have on a community, arguably some of them negative. For instance, visitors should check out the "FAQs" section to read some of the issues that have come up with the project, including loss of property and livelihood. The "Documents & Reports" link has dozens of documents, including ones about "IFR" (which stands for Instream Flow Requirement), "Hydrology" and "Studies & Special Reports". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Villages of the Dammed Response", under "Studies & Special Reports", which is an excellent letter to the editor at the Globe and Mail that highlights the debate surrounding the Water Project and what it promises.

15

Fiber glass casing solves water injection problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shell Oil Co. has successfully run 51 Fiberglas (reinforced thermal resin) liners averaging 500 ft in length in water injection wells on the Denver Unit, Wasson field, Gaines and Yoakum counties, Texas. In addition, Fiberglass tubulars make up the lower 400 ft of 7-in. casing string set in 6 new infill injection wells on the unit. Fiberglass pipe can be

1972-01-01

16

Water Alternating Gas (WAG) Injection Micromodel Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A research project consisting of experimental studies using micromodels, together with mathematical network modelling is currently underway to generate information required for simulating the performance of the oil reservoirs when produced with the WAG injection recovery method. This paper covers the progress made on mi cromodel studies during the first year of the project. In this study a physical

M. Sohrabi

17

Fracture instability caused by cold water injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study has been motivated by microseismic activity observed during enhanced geothermal well stimulations. Induced seismicity due to fluid injection is of great concern in enhanced geothermal stimulation but it is also of interest in other fields of research, such as hydrocarbon reservoirs and CO2 sequestration. In general terms, induced seismicity occurs when the isotropically effective stress reduction, due to the fluid pressure increase caused by fluid injection, is high enough to produce failure conditions. The objective is to test the conjecture that cold water injection produces mechanical instability not only due to hydraulic effects, but also due to coupled thermal effects. To test this conjecture, two sets of model runs have been performed on very simplified geometries of a horizontal and a vertical fracture. For each geometry, both hydro mechanical (HM) and hydro thermo mechanical (THM) numerical simulations have been performed to analyze the processes involved in geothermal reservoir stimulation. Isothermal water injection in a fracture produces an overpressure that reduces the effective stresses and tends to open the fracture. Nevertheless, fractures are confined by the surrounding rock mass, which opposes to its opening and shearing. The overall effect is sensitive to boundary conditions, stiffness and permeability of fracture and matrix. Cold water injection produces a higher overpressure because the water viscosity increase is more pronounced than the water density increase for decreasing temperature. This results in a larger fracture opening tendency. However, cold water also contracts the rock. The effect of the contraction is twofold. On the one hand, contraction of the fracture filling tends to compensate hydraulic expansion. As a result, inside the fracture, stability is comparable to that of the isothermal case. On the other hand, cooling of the matrix adjacent to the fracture also causes it to contract, but now in the direction of opening the fracture. These opposing trends lead to very unstable conditions at the fracture edges because the normal effective stress is highly reduced. Therefore, induced seismicity is likely to be triggered when injecting cold water. The results confirm that indeed THM effective stresses are consistently more unstable (closer to a hypothetical yield surface) than HM effective stresses. The overall phenomenon is complex because all processes are highly coupled in non trivial ways. Thermal and hydraulic characteristic times are different from each other and also between fracture and matrix. Therefore, it is not clear a priori which process dominates. Furthermore, the mechanical effect of pressure and temperature changes is very sensitive to problem settings. Identifying the parameters controlling seismic potential requires further work.

De Simone, S.; Vilarrasa, V.; Carrera, J.

2012-04-01

18

Can Earthquakes Induced by Deep Fluid Injection Projects Be Controlled or Limited?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projects that involve the injection of high-pressure fluids at depth include Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration and liquid waste disposal. We consider some case histories to address the question of the extent to which earthquakes induced by fluid injection can be controlled or limited. For instance, can induced earthquakes be controlled in ways that don't compromise the effectiveness of a given injection project? It is difficult to answer this question definitively because, to our knowledge, only one successful experiment in earthquake control has been performed (Raleigh et al., Science, v. 191, pp. 1230-1237, 1976). Moreover, for numerous injection projects, the induced earthquakes of maximum magnitude have been post shut-in, e.g., the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well, a liquid waste disposal project for which the three largest induced earthquakes occurred more than a year after injection had been terminated. For EGS operations requiring the injection of liquid into rock of low permeability, estimations of maximum magnitudes based on the volume of injected fluid have been moderately successful. For a typical magnitude distribution of induced earthquakes, it can be shown that the largest event accounts for about half of the total induced seismic moment, which is given by the volume of injected liquid multiplied by the modulus of rigidity (McGarr, J. Geophys. Res., v. 81, p. 1487, 1976). The Basel Deep Heat Mining project, an EGS injection of 11,500 cubic meters of water into low-permeability rock at a depth of five km, induced earthquakes with magnitudes that exceeded the safety threshold and so injection was discontinued (Deichmann and Giardini, Seismol. Res. Letters, v. 80, p. 784, 2009). Approximately half a day after shut-in, however, an earthquake of magnitude 3.4 occurred, the largest event of the sequence. It is worth noting that the magnitude of this earthquake is quite close to what could have been estimated based on the volume of injected water. An EGS project in the Cooper Basin, Australia, provides another recent example for which the maximum magnitude agrees with that estimated on the basis of the volume of water injected into low-permeability rock. In this case, the injection of 20,000 cubic meters of water resulted in a maximum magnitude of 3.7. Thus, for EGS projects, maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes seem to be limited according to the volume of injected liquid. Among the issues that are, as yet, unresolved is the possibility that a small-scale fluid injection project may trigger a much larger earthquake on a pre-existing fault that is in a state close to failure.

McGarr, A.; Williams, C. F.; Hickman, S.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

2011-12-01

19

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

Not Available

1991-01-01

20

Water-injection system tailored to Abu Dhabi environment  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the Abu Dhabi Co. for Onshore Oil Operations (ADCO) began implementation of a new water injection (pressure maintenance) system design to enhance the management of its three major oil fields, Asab, Bab, and Bu Hasa. The objective of the new program is to maximize hydrocarbon recovery and ensure a 20-year production plateau rate from each developed oil reservoir by upgrading and expanding the existing ''paired'' injection system into a ''cluster'' injection system. The engineering of these clusters schemes in the Asab and Bab fields is currently being done in-house by company staff. By developing in-house standards, design procedures, and specifications, it is possible to combine sound engineering practice with practical operating knowledge, which results in a project tailored to the local environment. Additional advantages include reduced capital investment, less maintenance costs, and easier accommodation for future modification.

Saadawi, H.

1986-08-01

21

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

22

Application for Underground Injection Control Permit for the PUNA Geothermal Venture Project  

SciTech Connect

Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) plans to construct and operate the 25 MW Puna Geothermal Venture Project in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii. The project will drill geothermal wells within a dedicated 500-acre project area, use the produced geothermal fluid to generate electricity for sale to the Hawaii Electric Light Company for use on the Island of Hawaii, and inject all the produced geothermal fluids back into the geothermal reservoir. Since the project will use injection wells, it will require an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit from the Drinking Water Section of the State of Hawaii Department of Health. The PGV Project is consistent with the State and County of Hawaii's stated objectives of providing energy self-sufficiency and diversifying Hawaii's economic base. The project will develop a new alternate energy source as well as provide additional information about the nature of the geothermal resource.

None

1989-06-01

23

A laboratory study of Wilmington tar zone COâ injection project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study of heavy oil recovery by COâ injection was undertaken in support of the Wilmington Tar Zone COâ Injection project operated by Long Beach Oil Development Company. The work included: - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and COâ. - Phase behavior of Tar Zone reservoir oil and the refinery gas (82% COâ - 18% Nâ) used

V. Sankur; J. L. Creek; S. S. DiJulio; A. S. Emanuel

1984-01-01

24

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01

25

After fogging process in water injected gas turbine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In gas turbine system with after fogging, water droplets are injected after compressor. After fogging could have more significant potential for enhancement of specific power production compared to inlet fogging alone, since a larger water injection rate is possible. Transient analysis of after fogging process is carried out by using a heat and mass transfer modeling on water droplet evaporation. Transient variables such as droplet diameter and air temperature are evaluated as the droplet evaporation proceeds for different values of initial droplet diameter, pressure ratio of compressor, and water injection ratio. The evaporation time for injected droplets are also estimated. Present results show that the evaporation time decreases sensitively with increasing pressure ratio or initial droplet diameter. However, the effect of water injection ratio on evaporation time is relatively insignificant unless water injection ratio is near the critical ratio.

Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Kyoungjin

2013-08-01

26

Water injection operations and studies in the Geysers geothermal field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water Injection Operations and Studies in the Geysers Geothermal Field Water injection into the steam reservoir at The Geysers began in 1969 for powerplant condensate disposal. The 82 MW installed capacity at that time has since grown to 2,043 MW, of which 1,103 MW is supplied by the Unocal-NEC-Thermal (U-N-T) joint venture. All of these plants rely on injection into

B. J. Barker; J. J. Maney; D. J. Camille; K. H. Williamson

1990-01-01

27

Underground injection control program and potential effects on ground water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Section 1421 of the Safe Drinking Water Act requires the EPA administrator to promulgate regulations establishing minimum requirements for state underground injection control programs in order to protect existing and potential underground sources of drinking water from endangerment by undergound injection of fluids. The regulations are designed to be administratively compatible with and nonduplicative of existing state programs. Regulations for

Belk

1977-01-01

28

Projective-injective modules, Serre functors and symmetric algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe Serre functors for (generalisations of) the category O associated\\u000awith a semi-simple complex Lie algebra. In our approach, projective-injective\\u000amodules play an important role. They control the Serre functor in the case of a\\u000aquasi-hereditary algebra having a double centraliser property with respect to a\\u000asymmetric algebra. As an application of the double centraliser property and our\\u000adescription

Volodymyr Mazorchuk; Catharina Stroppel

2008-01-01

29

The California State Water Project: A Reassessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a California State water project intended to transport water from the northern half of the state to the southern half. Assesses major features of the project, explains agricultural uses of the water, identifies other project activities, and surveys problems affecting the project. Explains the stances of various environmental groups,…

Cantor, Leonard M.

1980-01-01

30

Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

Pruess, K.

1995-01-01

31

Experimental Study of Water Injection into Geothermal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water injection or reinjection in geothermal reservoirs has been proven as a successful engineering technique with many benefits\\u000a such as maintaining reservoir pressure and sustaining well productivity. However, many questions related to water injection\\u000a into geothermal reservoirs still remain unclear; for example, how the in-situ water saturation changes with reservoir pressure\\u000a and temperature, and how the reservoir pressure influences well

Kewen Li; Huda Nassori; Roland N. Horne

2010-01-01

32

Seismic modeling of CO2-injection based EGR (project CLEAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint research project CLEAN (CO2 Largescale EGR in the Altmark Natural-gas field) is a scientific program accompanying the Enhanced-Gas-Recovery (EGR) project within the second largest natural gas field in Europe - the Altmark gas field. Within this program a set of active and passive seismic surveys are planned in order to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution as well as the related processes of CO2 injection into the reservoir. These experiments comprise time-lapse 3D-VSP/MSP (vertical/moving-source-profiling) surveys as well as the installation of a borehole seismometer network for monitoring and analysis of injection induced seismicity. For both configurations we have performed elastic finite-difference simulations of the seismic wavefield based on a given subsurface model and for a range of injection-induced variations of seismic parameters. We will show the results and discuss the findings in terms of survey design, the estimation of expected changes in the seismic wavefield (reflectivity, traveltime, etc.), the repeatability of the measurements and the understanding of the limits for a rock-physical interpretation of the observed effects.

Houpt, L.; Buske, S.

2009-04-01

33

Increasing the effectiveness of operation of water injection wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available foreign experience on improving the effectiveness of flooding by regulating the profiles of intake capacity of water injection wells is generalized. The employed reagents and materials are described, results are analyzed of work to increase the profiles of intake capacity into the injection wells. Different technologies are examined for use of plugged materials and methods of evaluating the

I. A. Sidorov; V. A. Kan; Yu. A. Poddubnyy

1982-01-01

34

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

35

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

36

The global water systems project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Water System (GWS) plays a central and integrative role in the dynamics of the Earth system. It is a regulator of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, and it is also is essential for sustenance of human societies. The GWS is increasingly modified by humans and through climate effects (facets of it have moved well outside the range of natural variability), without adequate understanding of how the system works. For understanding the changes, feedbacks and potentially critical thresholds within the Earth system, and eventually for better managing the GWS, new synthetic knowledge is required. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) is a new activity being undertaken jointly by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International Geophshere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), International Human Dimensions Program (IHP), and Diversitas. It will address the GWS in a comprehensive fashion at the global scale, building upon the emerging new consolidated Earth systems data sets, global monitoring tools, and predictive and coupled modeling capabilities. The central scientific question that motivates the GWSP is: "How are humans changing the global water cycle, the associated biogeochemical cycles, and the biological components of the GWS, and what are the social feedbacks arising from these changes?" GWSP will be structured around three "framing questions": a) What are the relative magnitudes of global-scale changes in the global water system that are attributable to changing human activities, and to environmental factors such as climate variability and change?; b) What are the main mechanisms by which human activities are affecting the global water system; and c) To what extent is the global water system resilient to global change? Examples of issues that might be addressed under each of these questions are provided.

Hoff, H.; Jaeger, C.; Leveque, C.; Lettenmaier, D.; Lins, H.; Meybeck, M.; Niasse, M.; Vorosmarty, C.

2003-04-01

37

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOEpatents

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01

38

Water spray ejector system for steam injected engine  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method of increasing the power output of a steam injected gas turbine engine. It comprises: a compressor, a combustor having a dome which receives fuel and steam from a dual flow nozzle, and a turbine in series combination with a gas flow path passing therethrough, and a system for injection of superheated steam into the gas flow path, the method comprising spraying water into the steam injection system where the water is evaporated by the superheated steam, mixing the evaporated water with the existing steam in the steam injection system so that the resultant steam is at a temperature of at least 28 degrees celsius (50 degrees fahrenheit) superheat and additional steam is added to the dome from the fuel nozzle to obtain a resultant increased mass flow of superheated steam mixture for injection into the gas flow path, and controlling the amount of water sprayed into the steam injection system to maximize the mass flow of superheated steam without quenching the flame.

Hines, W.R.

1991-10-08

39

Central Arizona Project, (Irrigation Water and Water Supplies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement concerns a project to furnish irrigation water and municipal water supplies to the water-deficient areas of Arizona (particularly Yuma, Maricopa, Pinal, Pima, and Cochise Counties) and western New Mexico (particularly Grant County) through d...

1971-01-01

40

Environmental management of water projects  

SciTech Connect

This book is divided in three parts and contains the following: PART I: ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENTS. Environmental conditions for water resource projects. Characteristics of some large scale reservoirs. Biological parameters of the TVA Eurasian watermilfoil management program. Ecological parameters influencing aquatic plant growth. Biological parameters influencing growth and reproduction of hydrilla. PART II: EVALUATION OF SELECTED AQUATIC HERBICIDES. Technical review of the factors affecting 2,4-D for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting endothall for aquatic use. Technical review of factors affecting diquat for aquatic use. Technical review of the factors affecting use of dicamba. Technical review of the factors affecting aquatic use of dichlobenil. PART III: EVALUATION OF VEGETATION MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS. Strategies for aquatic vegetation management. (A) conversion of factors for U.S. and metric units. (B) Glossary of terms. Index.

Gangstad, E.O.; Stanley, R.A.

1987-01-01

41

New logging instruments for polymer and water injection wells  

SciTech Connect

Conventional nuclear flowmeters do not function satisfactorily in polymer injection wells or in water injection wells at low flow rates. In polymer wells, accurate injection profiles depend on the variable shot duration of the radioactive tracer material. The conventional nuclear flowmeter ejects tracer material perpendicular to the logging instrument which may cause it to stick to the well-bore wall or fail to reach the maximum flow region. In water injection wells, sidewall mixing of radioactive tracer material is apt to cause inaccurate injection profiles. These problems have led to the development of a new generation of nuclear flowmeters: the Swing-Arm Tracer instrument and the Basket Nuclear Flowmeter instrument. The Swing-Arm Tracer instrument uses a motor-driven arm to inject radioactive tracer material into the fluid flow column. The Basket Nuclear Flowmeter uses a motor-operated basket or funnel device channels and accelerates the well-bore injection fluid through the center of the logging instrument. The presentation of flow loop studies and field examples demonstrate the improvement of these new instruments over the conventional nuclear flowmeter.

Roesner, R.E.; Sloan, M.L.; Turney, R.A.

1983-01-01

42

Development and evaluation of micellar solutions to improve water injectivity  

SciTech Connect

Versatile micellar compositions have been developed for use in improving the injectivity of water-injection wells. These fluids improve injectivity by removing both residual oil saturation and clogging deposits from the vicinity of the well. The micellar solutions are composed of a hydrocarbon solvent, fresh water with added salt, a petroleum sulfonate surfactant, and a co-surfactant alcohol. Extensive compositional studies were made varying both the type and amount of these components to develop a single water-free micellar concentrate for mixing with water under a diversity of field conditions. A key factor in the development of this practical concentrate is the use of selected ethoxylated alcohols as the co-surfactant. Micellar fluids prepared from this concentrate have shown miscibility with oil and water, stability over a temperature range of 32$ to 200$F, and stability over a broad range of salt contents of the makeup water. In the past, low permeability formations (<20 md) such as limestones and dolomites have not been responsive to treatments with micellar fluids. A staged injection process has been developed to permit treatment in such formations.

Dauben, D.L.; Froning, H.R.

1970-01-01

43

Development of gas turbine steam injection water recovery (SIWR) system  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes and discusses a closed-loop'' steam injection water recovery (SIWR) cycle that was developed for steam-injected gas turbine applications. This process is needed to support gas turbine steam injection especially in areas where water cannot be wasted and complex water treatment is discouraged. The development of the SIWR was initiated by NOVA in an effort to reduce the environmental impact of operating gas turbines and to find suitable solution for its expanding gas transmission system to meet further air emission restrictions. While turbine steam injection provides many benefits, it has not been considered for remote, less supported environments such as gas transmission applications due to its high water consumption. The SIWR process can alleviate this problem regardless of the amount of injection required. The paper also covers conceptual designs of a prototype SIWR system on a small gas turbine unit. However, because of relatively high costs, it is generally believed that the system is more attractive to larger size turbines and especially when it is used in conjunction with cogeneration or combined cycle applications.

Nguyen, H.B.; Otter, A. den (NOVA Corp., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1994-01-01

44

Mechanism of Injectivity Loss During Water-Alternating-Gas (WAG) Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of current oil reservoirs are approaching the end of their waterflooding life. At this stage a significant quantity of oil (40-60%) will still remain in the reservoir. It is known that using the Water- Alternating-Gas (WAG) injection some of that oil can be produced. The WAG scheme is a combination of two traditional techniques of improved hydrocarbon recovery: waterflooding

MEHRAN SOHRABI; MAHMOUD JAMIOLAHMADY

45

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

Pruess, Karsten

2006-11-06

46

Seawater injection barrier recharge with advanced reclaimed water at Llobregat delta aquifer (Spain).  

PubMed

The main aquifer of the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) has been affected by seawater intrusion since the 1960s. The Catalan Water Agency (ACA) has sponsored the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the progress of seawater intrusion advance due to the intensive aquifer development. The hydraulic barrier consists of 15 wells into which highly treated reclaimed water from the waste water treatment plant of the Baix Llobregat is injected. Water is subjected, prior to the distribution to the injection wells, to secondary and tertiary treatments, and later to ultrafiltration, UV disinfection without chlorination, and salinity reduction through reverse osmosis. A preliminary pilot phase of the project was started in late 2007, with highly positive results, and the second phase started in mid 2010. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical monitoring data indicate an efficient performance and aquifer improvement. The evaluation of such efficiency and operational costs has been analyzed and discussed. PMID:22949237

Ortuño, F; Molinero, J; Garrido, T; Custodio, E

2012-01-01

47

Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) modeling of a proposed stimulation injection associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths below 3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring from the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11), located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir.

Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Dobson, P.F.

2010-02-01

48

Sagebrush to Cropland. A Western Water Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Boise Irrigation project begun in Idaho in the early 1900's now spreads water through 1800 miles of canals to 340,000 acres or 530 square miles. The project, one of the first large Bureau of Reclamation projects, was analyzed during the 1970s to deter...

J. Francis R. Schermerhorn

1979-01-01

49

Cfd Modelling of Water Injection for Turbine Blade Cleaning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CFD modeling of water injection for turbine blade cleaning has been carried out to predict the water coverage on a stationary blade row, which will enable a better understanding on the interactions between hot-air flow and cold-water droplets. A generic configuration was used in a priori in-house experiment, which provides test data for CFD validation. The two-phase flow CFD model adopts the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, in which the air-flow was treated as the continuous phase and water droplets as the dispersed phase. CFD predictions are found in fairly good agreement with test results, particularly the water coverage on the downstream blade row. Moreover, CFD modeling provides further details, including the trajectory of water droplets, which are difficult to be obtained by experiments, and yet extremely useful for understanding the flow physics.

Yao, J.; Yao, Y.; Mason, P. J.; Zhang, T.; Heyes, F. J. G.; Roach, P. E.

50

Analysis of the steam injection at the Visalia Superfund Project with fully compositional nonisothermal finite difference simulations.  

PubMed

By injecting steam, over 1.1 million pounds of creosote has been recovered at the Visalia, California Superfund Site from an aquifer 102ft underground. In the first 6 weeks of injection 320,000lb of creosote were recovered or destroyed versus <1lb per day in a pump and treat. The finite difference simulator STARS1, which is widely used in the oil industry to model thermal recovery, has been used to simulate simplified models of the project, to analyze recovery mechanisms, and to demonstrate how the operation of similar projects can be improved. The simulations indicate that vaporization of dense, nonaqueous, phase liquids (DNAPLs) is the most important recovery mechanism, that liquid production is enhanced because a gas phase is present, and that the project could have been completed more rapidly if an additional injector or producer had been added in the center of the site. In addition, the mineralization (conversion to carbon dioxide) of DNAPLs could result from reaction with water, injected air or, most likely, both. The mechanisms are likely to be similar to subcritical water oxidation. While this analysis suggests methods to improve operation of future steam projects, Visalia has been a very successful demonstration of the potential of steam injection to clean up recalcitrant hydrocarbons and will be an inspiration for future projects. PMID:11975995

Kuhlman, Myron I

2002-05-01

51

Isotopic Approaches to Evaluate the Fate of Injected CO2 in Two Geological Storage Projects in Mature Oilfields in Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring and verification of CO2 storage is an essential component of geological storage projects. We present evidence from two enhanced oil recovery projects in Canada that geochemical and isotopic techniques can be successfully used to trace the fate of injected CO2. Geochemical and isotopic data for fluids and gases obtained from multiple wells at the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project (Saskatchewan, Canada) and from the Penn West Pembina Cardium CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring Pilot (Alberta, Canada) were collected before and throughout the CO2 injection phase. Carbon isotope ratios of injected CO2 in the Weyburn project were significantly lower than those of background CO2 in the reservoir. In contrast, carbon isotope ratios of injected CO2 at Penn West's Pembina Cardium CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring Pilot were markedly higher than those of background CO2. After commencement of CO2 injection, the concentrations and carbon isotope values of CO2 and HCO3- in fluids and gases repeatedly obtained from monitoring wells were determined. Increasing CO2 and HCO3- concentrations in concert with carbon isotope values trending towards those of the injected CO2 revealed effective solubility and ionic trapping of injected CO2 at several monitoring wells at both study sites. In addition, changes in the oxygen isotope values of reservoir fluids provided independent evidence for dissolution of injected CO2 in the produced waters. We conclude that geochemical and isotopic monitoring techniques can play an essential role in verification of CO2 storage provided that the isotopic composition of the injected CO2 is distinct.

Mayer, B.; Johnson, G.; Nightingale, M.; Maurice, S.; Raistrick, M.; Taylor, S.; Hutcheon, I.; Perkins, E.

2008-12-01

52

SELECTED WATER DECONTAMINATION RESEARCH PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Environment Federation (WEF), through funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD), will host the first of three regional water sector stakeholder workshops March 15-17, 2005 at the Phoenix Marriot...

53

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics  

SciTech Connect

This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

NONE

1996-01-01

54

Global Warming and Water Management: Water Allocation and Project Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the sensitivity of the benefits of alternative water allocation schemes and of project evaluation to global warming. If global warming shifts the mean of annual water supplies, there could be large impacts on the expected values of alternative water allocation schemes. The first section of the paper explores how well alternative schemes (such as market mechanisms, prior

Robert Mendelsohn; Lynne L. Bennett

1997-01-01

55

Peru: CARE OPG Water Health Services Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Where piped water is a local priority, A.I.D. should be willing to authorize projects aimed solely at improving the accessibility, quantity, and quality of water to the exclusion of other health interventions. This and other lessons found in this report w...

J. Haratani A. M. Viveros-Long A. M. B. M. de Gonzales

1981-01-01

56

Injecting acid gas with water creates new disposal option  

SciTech Connect

A scheme for injecting low-volume acid gases in an aqueous phase into a disposal well has decreased acid-gas disposal costs and facilitated operations in two Canadian fields. PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd. and DPH Engineering Inc. developed the scheme. With tightening environmental policies, many companies are investigating alternatives to atmospheric sulfur and greenhouse gas emissions. Alberta`s oil and gas industry typically recovers a high percentage of sulfur in large, sour-gas processing plants, but has looked for more cost-effective approaches when dealing with small-volume plants. This first in a series of two articles describes the acid gas/water injection process and laboratory testing. The concluding part will discuss field results.

Kopperson, D.; Horne, S.; Kohn, G.; Romansky, D.; Chan, C. [PanCanadian Petroleum Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Duckworth, G.L. [DPH Engineering Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1998-08-03

57

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-03-01

58

Flow injection photoinduced chemiluminescence determination of imazalil in water samples.  

PubMed

In this work, a fast, simple and economic method is proposed for the determination of imazalil in water samples by flow injection photoinduced chemiluminescence. In this method, imazalil degrades in basic media through the use of a photoreactor, and the resulting photofragments react with ferricyanide and generate the direct chemiluminescence signal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that a chemiluminescence method has been proposed for the determination of this fungicide. All physical and chemical parameters in the flow injection chemiluminescence system were optimized in the experimental setting. In the absence of preconcentration, the linear dynamic range for imazalil was 0.75-5 mg L(-1) and the detection limit was 0.171 mg L(-1). The application of solid-phase extraction with C18 cartridges allowed the elimination of interference ions, the reduction of the linear dynamic range to 15-100 ?g L(-1), and a detection limit of 3.4 ?g L(-1). This detection limit is below the maximum concentration level established by the Regulations of the Hydraulic Public Domain for pesticide dumping. The sample throughput after solid-phase extraction of the analyte was 12 samples h(-1). The intraday and interday coefficients of variation were below 9.9% in all cases. This method was applied to the analysis of environmental water samples, and recoveries of between 95.7 and 110% were obtained. PMID:20890748

Meseguer-Lloret, S; Torres-Cartas, S; Gómez-Benito, M C

2010-10-03

59

The Efficacy of Artecoll Injections for the Augmentation of Nipple Projection in Breast Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Various techniques have been used in an attempt to achieve long-term nipple projection following nipple-areolar reconstruction. A common setback, however, is the diminution of projection overtime; this phenomenon is particularly evident following implant-based breast reconstruction. Artecoll may be suitable for injection into the nipple complex to maintain permanent, 3-dimensional projection. Artecoll is an injectable substance that is biocompatible and immunologically inert and resists degradation in vivo. The purpose of this study was thus to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of Artecoll (polymethylmethacrylate microspheres suspended in 3.5% denatured bovine collagen with 0.3% lidocaine) in obtaining and maintaining nipple projection following postmastectomy, nipple-areolar reconstruction. Methods: A prospective, clinical trial was performed. Consecutive patients deemed to have inadequate nipple projection at least 6 months following “C-V flap” or “modified-skate flap” reconstruction were identified. Only women who had postmastectomy reconstruction with tissue expanders and implants were considered eligible for participation. Artecoll was injected under the nipple at 2 time points: baseline and 3 months. Calipers were used to measure nipple projection preinjection and postinjection at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results: Thirty-three nipples were injected in 23 patients. There were no adverse events. Prior to injection, mean nipple projection was 1.33 ± 1.0 mm. The mean increase in projection over the 9-month study period was both clinically and statistically significant (1.60 ± 1.24 mm; P <.001). A history of prior irradiation was a significant negative predictor of final nipple projection (P = .012). Conclusion: Artecoll injection is both feasible and effective in increasing and maintaining nipple projection in the setting of implant-based breast reconstruction.

McCarthy, Colleen M.; VanLaeken, Nancy; Lennox, Peter; Scott, Amie M.; Pusic, Andrea L.

2010-01-01

60

Overview and status of the Los Alamos PSR injection upgrade project  

SciTech Connect

An upgrade is in progress to the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to allow direct injection of the H{sup {minus}} beam into the ring and provide a beam bump system to move the circulating beam off the stripper foil. The primary benefits of this upgrade are matching the transverse phase space of the injected beam to the PSR acceptance and reduction of foil hits by the circulating beam by a factor of ten. Foil thickness is optimized to minimize the combination of circulating-beam losses plus losses due to excited H{sup 0} states produced at injection. An overall factor of five reduction in losses is expected. The project comprises extensive modifications of the injection line, the injection section of the ring, and the waste-beam transport line. The authors will discuss the goals of the project, present an overview of the technical design, and describe the status of the implementation plan.

Fitzgerald, D.H.; Ahn, H.; Blind, B. [and others

1997-08-01

61

Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

1995-10-01

62

Study solid rocket motor with water injection for emergency rescue system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of water injection on the specific impulse of a solid propellant rocket motor was investigated experimentally for different injection head sizes, injector types, and propellant formulations. The results are used to obtain a formula for calculating two-phase losses, which are dependent on the water injection rate. It is found that water injection into the solid propellant rocket motor, designed for an emergency rescue system, makes it possible to enhance the efficiency of the propellant and decrease the weight of the propellant charge. The optimum water injection rate is determined.

Prisniakov, V. F.; Fomin, S. P.; Shishkin, A. M.; Tikhomirov, E. L.

1992-08-01

63

Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type of simulation studies can be applied to Hot Dry Rock systems to investigate the effects of dissolution/precipitation of solid salt, if present in the system, on the feasibility of the project.

Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

2012-04-01

64

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

65

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

66

Care and feeding of steam-injection EOR projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam-enhanced recovery methods have been the overwhelming EOR champions since their inception in the mid-1960`s. About 6 of every 10 EOR barrels produced worldwide are the result of some steam process. Historically most well known in the San Joaquin Valley of California, large steam projects exist in countries around the world, including Venezuela, Canada, Colombia, Indonesia, China, and the CIS.

1996-01-01

67

Steam injection project M-6: effect of the irregular permeability distribution on the behavior of the production-injection  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates, theoretically, the criterion utilized in locating production and injection wells in the continuous steam drive M-6 project in East Tia Juana field. The conceptual approach of the study consisted of evaluating the injection-production behavior of 2 contrasting permeability patterns, utilizing the TRS/3 intercomp thermal simulator. The results demonstrate that higher production rates, higher overall recovery, and better process efficiency are obtained if the production wells were situated in zones of good permeability. Thus, it is considered that the criterion used in locating the producers can be substantiated on the basis of the results obtained. In addition to satisfying the principal objective of this work, conclusions can be drawn on the general behavior of the process, particularly, the importance of gravitational forces and the production after breakthrough.

Diaz, J.

1980-07-01

68

Industrial boiler furnace sorbent injection algorithm development. Project summary  

SciTech Connect

The Industrial Combustion Emission (ICE) Model is one of four stationary source emission and control cost forecasting models developed by EPA for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The ICE Model projects air pollution emissions (sulfur dioxide, sulfates, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter), cost, and fuel mix for industrial fossil-fuel-fired (natural gas, distillate and residual fuel oil, and coal) boilers by state and year (1980) baseline, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2020, and 2030. The report describes the development of a performance and control cost algorithm for the ICE Model.

Maddox, J.

1988-04-01

69

Care and feeding of steam-injection EOR projects  

SciTech Connect

Steam-enhanced recovery methods have been the overwhelming EOR champions since their inception in the mid-1960`s. About 6 of every 10 EOR barrels produced worldwide are the result of some steam process. Historically most well known in the San Joaquin Valley of California, large steam projects exist in countries around the world, including Venezuela, Canada, Colombia, Indonesia, China, and the CIS. Therefore, one would think that most of the basic problems, such as effective steam-distribution piping systems and accurate methods of metering steam into wells, would have been solved years ago. Unfortunately, this is not the case. In fact, this technology has been woefully lacking compared with its relative importance. This paper summarizes current efforts by the industry to improve metering and distribution of quality steam.

Jones, J.E. [Santa Fe Energy Resources Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States)

1996-02-01

70

Sorbent injection into a slipstream baghouse for mercury control: Project summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project led by the Energy and Environmental Research Center to test and demonstrate sorbent injection as a cost-effective mercury control technology for utilities burning lignites has shown effective mercury capture under a range of operating conditions. Screening, parametric, and long-term tests were carried out at a slipstream facility representing an electrostatic precipitator–activated carbon injection–fabric filter configuration (called a TOXECON™

Jeffrey S. Thompson; John H. Pavlish; Lucinda L. Hamre; Melanie D. Jensen; David Smith; Steve Podwin; Lynn A. Brickett

2009-01-01

71

Nonisothermal Effects in Water-Injection Well Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses models for one- and two-phase injection-well tests where the injected fluid has a temperature different from that of the reservoir field. After a brief discussion of the relative significance of different nonisothermal effects, an integral form of the model equations is used to develop approximate analytical expressions describing temperature and pressure in the reservoir during injection. The

Barkve Tor

1989-01-01

72

How to justify water conservation projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

An easy-to-use five-step program simplifies decision making for water conservation projects. Operating companies can justify or nullify proposals using these action steps: (1) define objectives, specify detailed results; (2) gather information, find as much pertinent and critical data on the system(s) to be controlled; (3) generate and develop ideas, explore all possible solutions before deciding; (4) implement changes, formulate how

Goldblatt

1993-01-01

73

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated

Baroni

1993-01-01

74

Method of improved oil recovery by simultaneous injection of steam and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is disclosed for recovering heavy oil from a subterranean, permeable, heavy oil-containing formation comprising injecting steam into the lower portion of the formation, injecting a controlled amount of unheated water into the upper portion of the formation and displacing the oil through the formation toward a production well where the oil is produced. The steam injection releases heat

A. S. Odeh; B. J. Dotson

1983-01-01

75

What's your water-injection problem. Part 1. Stimulating injection wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The best treatment for reduced injection-well capacity is one designed around a laboratory analysis of the plugging material. If this material is not available for analysis, the treatment should be designed to reveal as much as possible about the plugging problem while improving injectivity. A 4-step procedure (slug, soak, acidize, or fracture) with the proper tools and chemicals can improve

S. Shryock; J. Knox

1965-01-01

76

Sodium-water reaction acoustic noise for liquid phase injections. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Data on liquid and steam injections into sodium were recorded during a series of wastage experiments. These data are analyzed for acoustic power and spectral characteristics, expanding the data base up to 10 gm/sec injection rates from the earlier 0.5 gms/sec. No significant difference in acoustic power was measured between low temperature steam and liquid injections for the same mass flowrates. The bandwidth for steam injections is broader than for liquid injections. Reaction product deposition during water injections appears to cause a decrease in signal strength with test duration.

Callis, K.R.; Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.

1981-02-01

77

Consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy breeder material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fusion safety experiment was conducted to determine the consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy under postulated reactor accident conditions. The temperature and pressure response, fraction of water reacted, quantity of ...

D. W. Jeppson C. Savatteri

1990-01-01

78

Water Injection into Navy Gas-Turbine Combustors to Reduce NOx Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Land-based water injection into the combustor of gas turbines is a state-of-the-art technology, which is a low-risk, low-cost option for reduction of gas-turbine emissions. A controller for a water-injected combustor (WIC) system was designed for automati...

H. B. Urbach D. T. Knauss B. L. Wallace J. Emory J. Frese

1997-01-01

79

Fluoride transport due to injection of reject water from RO process into the ground water through downstream bore well.  

PubMed

Fluoride removal using Reverse Osmosis has appreciable amount of fluorine in the reject stream. Disposal of reject water to surface water further contaminates the water body. It is required to dispose of this reject into the environment with minimal pollution. So a study on disposal of fluoride contaminated reject inside the ground water through bore well is done through theoretical modelling using COMSOL multiphysics software. It has been established that the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water due to injection of fluoride contaminated reject through bore well depends on the injection rate of reject inside the bore well and not on the initial background concentration of fluoride in the ground water. It has been found that for reject injection rate of 30 m3/day the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water with respect to initial background concentration of fluoride is less than 10% at a distance above 600m from the injection source after 100 years. PMID:23505817

Babu, C Anand; Agarwal, Sourabh; Sujish, D; Rajan, K K

2011-10-01

80

Stimulation of water injection wells in the Los Angeles basin using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive stimulation program was developed to improve the injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills Hills and San Vicente Fields. In recent years the wells had low to zero injectivity and very limited vertical distribution of injected water as a result of formation damage, sand face plugging, and perforation blockage. A stimulaiton strategy was developed which sequentially removed this damage. It began with redesigning the central water plant to provide clean injection brine. The casing was mechanically cleaned. Near-wellbore solids were dissolved or loosened using hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach); then, removed from the well by reverse circulating and suction washing. Remaining damage was treated with hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acid and bleach using circulation wash and selective squeeze techniques. Two- to three-fold improvements in injectivity after stimulation were common. Vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial 0-30% coverage to 85-95% after stimulation. 10 refs.

Clementz, D.M.; Patterson, D.E.; Aseltine, R.J.; Young, R.E.

1982-01-01

81

Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties, Florida  

SciTech Connect

The 250 sq mi area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex geohydrologic system having diverse groundwater quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 ft. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding, supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Potential groundwater contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and injected into deep zones. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day (gpd) into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 ft below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gpd for 10 years. 63 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

Hutchinson, C.B. (Geological Survey, Tallahassee, FL (United States))

1991-01-01

82

Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces.  

PubMed

The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate. PMID:24056998

Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

2013-09-13

83

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200°C (2,200°F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling

D. A. Conley; J. L. Edson; C. F. Fineman

1995-01-01

84

Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate.The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02867d

Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

2013-10-01

85

Logical approach yields correct injection water quality. [North sea oil wells  

SciTech Connect

North Sea oil fields need water injection to maintain reservoir pressure. Sea water thus directly injected contains suspended solids of 0.2 to 0.8 mg/l, composed mostly of plankton. To prevent plugging of tubulars, filters of sand, dual media, diatomaceous earth, or cartridge construction may be used. In the end, the nature of the reservoir will determine the degree of filtration needed. Other treatments of the injection water may be called for to minimize corrosion and to inhibit bacterial growth. 6 refs.

King, P.J.; Robinson, K.

1981-10-01

86

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

Not Available

1994-06-01

87

Influence of water injection on performance and emissions of a direct-injection hydrogen research engine.  

SciTech Connect

The application of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as an internal combustion (IC) engine fuel has been under investigation for several decades. The favorable physical properties of hydrogen make it an excellent alternative fuel for IC engines and hence it is widely regarded as the energy carrier of the future. Direct injection of hydrogen allows optimizing this potential as it provides multiple degrees of freedom to influence the in-cylinder combustion processes and consequently engine efficiency and exhaust emissions.

Nande, A. M.; Wallner, T.; Naber, J. (Energy Systems); (MIchigan Technological Univ.)

2008-10-06

88

A Successful Gas-Injection Project in a Heavy Oil Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meneven, an affiliate of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A., has been conducting a natural-gas-injection project in a heavy-oil reservoir (14 to 20 API), located in E. Venezuela, immediately north of the Orinoco oil belt, since 1963. Laboratory tests were made to investigate recovery mechanisms, and a black-oil simulator was used to match performance history and predict future performance under continued gas

F. M. Garcia

1983-01-01

89

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-07-01

90

Injection characteristics of coal-water slurries in medium-speed diesel equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the injection characteristics of several micronized coal-water slurries (CWSs, where s implies plural) which were investigated at high injection pressures (40 to 140 MPa, or 6,000 to 20,000 psi). Detailed spray characteristics including drop-size distributions and cone angles were measured using a continuous, high-pressure injection system spraying through various hole shapes and sizes into a continuous,

L. G. Dodge; T. J. Callahan; T. W. Ryan; J. A. Schwalb; C. E. Benson; R. P. Jr. Wilson

1992-01-01

91

Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters  

SciTech Connect

The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

1982-06-22

92

CARBONATED WATER INJECTION FOR OIL RECOVERY AND CO2 STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 injection is increasingly considered as having potential applications as a possible enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process for oil reservoirs. Storage potential of these reservoirs to store CO2 for a long period of time also provides an opportunity to develop sustainable solutions in response to the challenge of continued use of fossil fuels, climate-change and compliance with national and international

M. Sohrabi; M. Riazi; M. Jamiolahmady; S. Ireland; C. Brown

93

Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells  

SciTech Connect

The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

1999-07-01

94

A compact flow injection analysis system for surface mapping of phosphate in marine waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, construction and validation of a compact, portable flow injection analysis (FIA) instrument for underway analysis of phosphate in marine waters is described. This portable system employs gas pressure for reagent propulsion and computer controlled miniature solenoid valves for precise injection of multiple reagents into a flowing stream of filtered sample. A multi-reflection flow cell with a solid state

Amanda J Lyddy-Meaney; Peter S Ellis; Paul J Worsfold; Edward C. V Butler; Ian D McKelvie

2002-01-01

95

Removal of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide from injection water by a hydrocarbon gas cycling process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equipment handling water containing relatively large quantities of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide is susceptible to excessive corrosion that may attain conditions not economically controllable using corrosion inhibitors. One such extreme condition developed in a waterflood, where selective injection into multiple zones through common well bores necessitated annular injection that eliminated the feasibility of using downhole protective coatings. Severe tubing

1968-01-01

96

Antihemophilic Factor - 5 mL of Sterile Water for Injection ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Certain components used in the packaging of this ... concentrate and the Sterile Water for Injection, USP ... any air bubbles by gently tapping the syringe ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

97

Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Projection. Annual Report, Jan 1 - Dec 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to use British Steel technology1*2 that uses granular coal to provide a portion of the fuel requirements of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical and economic issues associated with the use of coal for injection into blast furnaces. To achieve the progmm objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at the Burns Harbor Plant (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

None

1998-04-01

98

Combined biological treatment and underground injection of refinery waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A petroleum refinery wastewater is split into two streams. Biological treatment is used for 6.3 million gallons per day for 150 ppM five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD) waste, and the remaining 0.4 million gallons per day of wastewater, containing ammonia, mercaptans, phenol, and sulfides with a 4,000 ppM BOD, is injected into a 7,000-foot-deep geologic formation. Both treatment systems and

F. D. Sutterfield; E. C. Donaldson; F. S. Mannning

1976-01-01

99

Biological Assessment on the Continued Long-term Operations of the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) propose to operate the Central Valley Project (CVP) and State Water Project (SWP) to divert, store, re-divert, and convey CVP and SWP (Project) water consistent...

2008-01-01

100

Water soluble progesterone–hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin complex for injectable formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of cyclodextrin to increase the water solubility of progesterone (P) was described by Pitha as a complex with ?-cyclodextrin\\u000a and derivates to obtain a water soluble formulation (Pitha, J.: US patent n. 4,727,064). Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPBCD)\\u000a has a high water solubility which allows the solubilization of high quantity of P. Considering a 1:2 guess\\/host complex stoichiometry\\u000a it is possible

G. Zoppetti; N. Puppini; M. Pizzutti; A. Fini; T. Giovani; S. Comini

2007-01-01

101

Theoretical investigation of the injection and evaporation of water in a hydrogen/oxygen steam generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is injected into the gas stream for the purpose of cooling the reaction products resulting from the stochiometric combustion of hydrogen with oxygen. The penetration of the jet decisively influences the temperature profile across the flow cross section in the water vapor. The penetration of the water jet into the stream is calculated using the jet shedding model and compared with the garden hose model. Models for the evaporation of water droplets in superheated steam are developed for calculating the evaporation paths. The parameters which influence the injection and evaporation process are subjected to variation and their effects in the evaporation paths are analyzed.

Beer, Stefan

1991-07-01

102

Melt quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of our work is

Dae H. Cho; Richard J. Page; Sherif H. Abdulla; Mark H. Anderson; Helge B. Klockow; Michael L. Corradini

2006-01-01

103

78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin...receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval...Tioga County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 4.000 mgd;...

2013-02-20

104

78 FR 27471 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION...described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

2013-05-10

105

78 FR 15402 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin...receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval...Lycoming County, Pa.; Consumptive Use of Up to 0.060 mgd;...

2013-03-11

106

The Effect of Temperature, Pressure, and Mixing Ratio of the Injection Water With Formation Water on Strontium Sulfate Scale Formation in the Siri Oilfield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced oil recovery methods are used to recover the percents of oil that are not naturally recoverable from reservoirs. Water injection as a secondary recovery is used to maintain the pressure in water-drive reservoirs. An important point for having a successful injection is the compatibility of injection and formation waters. OLI ScaleChem software predicts mineral scaling potentials of 54 solids

M. Amiri; J. Moghadasi; M. Pordel

2012-01-01

107

The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design  

SciTech Connect

The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

Boni, Roberto; /INFN, Rome; Guiducci, Susanna; /INFN, Rome; Preger, Miro; /INFN, Rome; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Chance, Antoine; /Saclay; Dadoun, Olivier; /Orsay, LAL; Poirier, Freddy; /Orsay, LAL; Variola, Alessandro; /Orsay, LAL; Seeman, John; /SLAC

2012-07-05

108

Emissions from large-scale medium-speed diesel engines: 3. Influence of direct water injection and common rail  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of direct water injection (DWI) on emissions from a multivariable large-scale (6–18 cyl, ~1 MW\\/cyl) diesel engine is reported, using a combined injection valve and nozzle that allows for injection of water and fuel oil into the cylinder. This method allows for injecting a relatively large amount of water without derating the engine power and NOx emissions can be more

Arto Sarvi; Pia Kilpinen; Ron Zevenhoven

2009-01-01

109

Vasopressin antagonist disrupts the circadian rhythm of water intake on suprachiasmatic injection.  

PubMed

The present study makes an attempt to find out the action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its antagonist d-(CH2)5 Tyr (Me) AVP applied at the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) on the circadian rhythm of water intake. Chronic implantation of a 22 G stainless steel cannula for injection was performed using a stereotaxic technique under Nembutal anesthesia. AVP and its antagonist were injected into the SCN of free-moving rats at the beginning of light and dark phases of the light-dark (LD) cycle. Injections of AVP during either phase did not disrupt the circadian pattern of water intake while the injections of the antagonist disrupted it. The findings are suggestive of the involvement of AVP as a mediator of the circadian rhythm of water intake at the level of the neural pacemaker, SCN. PMID:1394607

Reghunandanan, V; Reghunandanan, R; Marya, R K; Singh, P I

1992-10-01

110

Breakup of molten aluminum jets injected into water  

SciTech Connect

A series of eighteen tests were performed to investigate the behavior of a molten jet of aluminum as it penetrates a deep pool of subcooled water. Jet penetration lengths required for breakup were found to agree with an existing model. Debris size and density were measured and are presented as a function of the jet diameter and water pool temperature. For those tests that exhibited the ability to spread across the steel baseplate under the water, the melt spreading behavior is compared to the existing melt spreading correlation. In the jet mode of melt-water contact, no explosive interactions were observed in these tests. Due to the nearly prototypical nature of these tests, it appears reasonable to conclude that gamma heating of non-fuel components during the DEGB-LOCA would, at worst, benignly melt some aluminum components in the reactor tank, resulting in large particles or debris formations which would remain in the tank and be coolable.

Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.; Schwarz, C.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hyder, M.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1992-01-01

111

Analysis and Design of a Deep Reservoir, High Volume Nitrogen Injection Project in the R-1 Sand, Lake Barre Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expansion of a low volume gas injection project in the R-1 Sand, Segment G in the Lake Barre Field, Louisiana, was investigated. Computer modeling shows that over five million barrels of oil can be produced. An evaluation of the future enhanced oil recovery alternatives of the reservoir was performed. Nitrogen injection was determined to be the only feasible method

James Haag

1981-01-01

112

Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and West Charlotte counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and water-quality characteristics, construction of single-zone wells would eliminate cross-contamination and borehole interflow. Such a program, when combined with the plugging of shallow-cased wells having long open-hole intervals connecting multiple zones, would safeguard ground-water resources in the study area. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 feet below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The first well began injecting reverse-osmosis wastewater in 1984, and since then, other wells have been drilled and permitted for injection of treated sewage. A numerical model was used to evaluate injection-well design and potential for movement of injected wastewater within the hydrogeologic framework. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gallons per day for 10 years. In this simulation, a convection cell developed around the injection well with the buoyant fresh injectant rising to form a lens within the injection zone below the lower Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit. Around an ideal, fully penetrating well cased 50 feet into the injection zone and open from a depth of 1,150 feet to 2,050 feet, simulations show that the injectant moves upward to a depth of 940 feet, forms a lens about 600 feet thick, and spreads radially outward to a distance of about 2,300 feet after 10 years. Comparison simulations of injection through wells having open depth intervals of 1,150 to 1,400 feet and 1,450 to 2,050 feet demonstrate that such changes in well construction have little effect on the areal spread of the injectant lens or the rate of upward movement. Simulations also indicate that reverse-osmosis wastewater injected beneath a supply well field, where water levels above the semiconfining unit are lowered 20 feet by pumping, would move upward after 10 years to a de

Hutchinson, C. B.

1992-01-01

113

Elimination of the Schlieren effect in the determination of reactive phosphorus in estuarine waters by flow-injection analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional flow-injection manifolds with sample injection for the determination of reactive phosphorus in estuarine waters are limited by the Schlieren or refractive index (RI) effect which can cause major errors in quantification. A simple flow-injection (FI) manifold which obviates this RI error in reactive phosphorus measurement is reported. It involves the injection of acidic molybdophosphate reagent into a carrier stream

Ian D. McKelvie; Darren M. W. Peat; G. Peter Matthews; Paul J. Worsfold

1997-01-01

114

Huambo Returnees Rural Water and Sanitation Project: Angola.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project planned to construct/rehabilitate 20 hand-dug wells and where this was not possible, to drill boreholes. Each of these 20 water points was to be maintained and managed by a water committee elected by the community. The project also aimed to c...

2005-01-01

115

Determination of colloid silver in drinking water by flow injection analysis with TLS spectrometric UV detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work flow injection analysis coupled to collinear dual beam thermal lens spectrometric UV detection was used for determination of silver in water. The detection is based on the increase in absorbance resulting from the formation of colloidal elemental silver due to reduction of Ag+ after reaction with BH4-. The optimal performance of the experimental setup was achieved with 500 ?L sample injection loops or larger and the flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The estimated limit of detection (LOD) for silver in water was 0.01 mg/L what compares favorably with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for silver in drinking water.

Korte Kobylinska, D.; Bruzzoniti, M. C.; Sarzanini, C.; Franko, Mladen

2010-03-01

116

Theoretical investigation of the injection and evaporation of water in a hydrogen/oxygen steam generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the cooling of the reaction products resulting from a stoichiometric hydrogen/oxygen combustion, water is injected normal to the gas stream. The penetration of the jet strongly influences the temperature distribution across the streaming water vapor. The penetration of the jet is calculated by using the jet shedding model. The results are compared with the data of the garden hose model. To calculate the lifetime of a water droplet in super heated stream, several models are developed. The parameters of the injection and evaporation process are varied and analyzed.

Beer, Stefan

1990-05-01

117

EE in Italy: Mantova's Water Analysis Project (WAP).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an account of Italy's environmental research project carried out by five high schools, titled the Water Analysis Project. Examines the historical and socioeconomic context in which it grew and developed; its objectives, processes, professional and pedagogical results. Discusses student and teacher benefits from the project. (MCO)

Sutti, Sandro

1990-01-01

118

Oil recovery process involving the injection of thickened water  

SciTech Connect

Waterflood oil recovery process involving the use of an amphoteric polyelectrolyte as a thickening agent for mobility control. The amphoteric polyelectrolyte is a copolymer of a quaternary vinyl pyridinium sulfonate and a water-insoluble alpha olefin or hydrogenated diene. Specifically disclosed are vinyl pyridinium sulfonate-styrene block copolymers. The amphoteric polyelectrolytes are stable in high temperature and high brine environments.

Byham, D.E.; Chen, C.S.; Sheppard, E.W.

1980-09-16

119

Can the pilot BOT Project provide a template for future projects? A case study of the Chengdu No. 6 Water Plant B Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chengdu No. 6 Water Plant B Project is a central government promoted pilot Build Operate Transfer (BOT) project in Chinese water sector, but the mode of the Chengdu project has not been well applied to the following BOT water supply projects. First hand data about the Chengdu project was collected focusing on project development process and organization, and lessons

Chuan Chen

2009-01-01

120

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of a positive displacement fuel injection system  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been completed to characterized coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For one set of cases studied, the time-averaged cone angle was 15.9{degree} and 16.3{degree} for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively.

Seshadri, A.K.; Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1992-12-31

121

Cold Water Injection Into Single- and Two-Phase Geothermal Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximate analytical solutions are derived for cold water injection into single- and two-phase "porous medium" geothermal reservoirs. A numerical geothermal reservoir simulator is used to verify the applicability of the analytical solutions for pressure transient analysis. In accordance with these numerical results the analytical solutions indicate that the pressure buildup behavior during injection into either a single-phase liquid or two-phase reservoir is governed by the kinematic viscosity of the cold injected fluid. The falloff pressures after cold water injection into a single-phase liquid reservoir (except for very early shut-in times) are primarily controlled by the kinematic viscosity of the in situ (hot) reservoir fluid. For two-phase reservoirs, however, the falloff behavior is considerably more complex and cannot be fully described by the analytical solution developed in this paper.

Garg, S. K.; Pritchett, J. W.

1990-02-01

122

Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water\\/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200–3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition

M. Abu-Zaid

2004-01-01

123

Earthquakes induced by water injection at ?3 km depth within the Rongchang gas field, Chongqing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unwanted water, amounting more than 1 million m3, has been injected intermittently at a pumping pressure of 2.1–2.9 MPa (over hydrostatic) at 2.6–2.9 km depth within the Rongchang gas field, western Chongqing, China, since July 1988. The injections have induced more than 32,000 surface-recorded earthquakes, including 2 of ML ? 5, 14 of ML ? 4, and more than 100

Xinglin Lei; Guozheng Yu; Shengli Ma; Xueze Wen; Qiang Wang

2008-01-01

124

Study of powder injection into water using an on-lineparticle detection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Particle behaviour during the downwards, pneumatic injection of powder into anaqueous medium (water) has been investigated by means of a new method which involves thedirect measurement of particles by an Aqueous Particle Sensor (APS) unit. Through this method,phenomena and parameters related to injection processes, such as gas–particle disengagementdistance, liquid–particle jet diameter, jet cone angle, particle dispersion and distribution within theliquid,

Guler Yamanoglu; R. I. L Guthrie; Dipak Mazumdar

1999-01-01

125

Direct injection of hydrogen, oxygen and water in a novel two stroke engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short communication proposes novel two stroke engine burning hydrogen in oxygen in presence of large amounts of steam as residual gases. This engine has a bowl-in-piston combustion chamber, exhaust valves only and it uses direct injection of hydrogen, oxygen and water. Diesel-like compression ignition combustion is achieved by injecting the oxygen and the hydrogen in the surrounding steam close

Alberto Boretti; Azmi Osman; Ishak Aris

2011-01-01

126

Microbial analysis of backflowed injection water from a nitrate-treated North Sea oil reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reservoir souring in offshore oil fields is caused by hydrogen sulphide (H2S) produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), most often as a consequence of sea water injection. Biocide treatment is\\u000a commonly used to inhibit SRB, but has now been replaced by nitrate treatment on several North Sea oil fields. At the Statfjord\\u000a field, injection wells from one nitrate-treated reservoir and one

Gunhild Bødtker; Kristine Lysnes; Terje Torsvik; Eva Ø. Bjørnestad; Egil Sunde

2009-01-01

127

A Sustainable Waste Water Management Project: MEDAWARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEDAWARE Project was initiated by the collaboration of 7 Med countries in 2003. The main aim of the project was to develop tools and guidelines for the promotion of the urban wastewater treatment and reuse in the agricultural production in the Mediterranean countries for a sustainable environment and resources. Within this scope METU team undertook an inventory of the

Filiz Dilek; Celal F Gökçay

128

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01

129

The Virginia Pipeline: Australia's largest water recycling project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to conserve, reuse and recycle water is becoming increasingly important for both environmental and economic reasons. The Virginia Pipeline is Australia's largest water recycling project. More than half the output from (the capital of South Australia) Adelaide's largest wastewater treatment plant is further treated to achieve a product water quality fit for irrigation of vegetable crops with minimal

B. Kracman; R. Martin; P. Sztajnbok

130

Isotopic Approaches to Evaluate the Fate of Injected CO2 in Two Geological Storage Projects in Mature Oilfields in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring and verification of CO2 storage is an essential component of geological storage projects. We present evidence from two enhanced oil recovery projects in Canada that geochemical and isotopic techniques can be successfully used to trace the fate of injected CO2. Geochemical and isotopic data for fluids and gases obtained from multiple wells at the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas

B. Mayer; G. Johnson; M. Nightingale; S. Maurice; M. Raistrick; S. Taylor; I. Hutcheon; E. Perkins

2008-01-01

131

Perspectives of CO2 Injection in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Venezuela's condensed and light and medium crude oil fields have been under exploitation for more than four decades using water and gas injection. To date, the expected recovery factors are about 30% and 45% of the OOIP for water and gas injection projects, respectively. Given the maturity of these resources, IOR projects will be required, but they have to be

E. Manrique; A. Ranson; V. Alvarado

132

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

133

Water management in the arid west: the Cheyenne Water Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effect of energy-related growth in Wyoming has been increased competition for water. The 1982 Wyoming State Legislature authorized a large-scale water-development program using funds obtained through mineral severance taxes. A primary focus of the water-development program has been the Colorado River Basin, where Wyoming has an undeveloped water entitlement. An attitude evolved that Wyoming should hasten to develop this

Beiswenger

1983-01-01

134

Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper  

SciTech Connect

This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

Alan K. Yonk

2003-09-01

135

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

136

Water Quality Evaluation of the Bluestone Project, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The water quality evaluation has been prepared for the Bureau of Reclamation, Region 4, U. S. Department of the Interior, Salt Lake City, Utah, for inclusion in their feasibility report for the Bluestone Reservoir Project, Colorado. The primary purposes o...

1969-01-01

137

Soil Gas Monitoring for the ZERT Shallow CO2 Injection Project  

SciTech Connect

The ZERT (Zero Emissions Research and Technology) shallow injection experiment is a collaborative effort aimed at developing, verifying, and evaluating near-surface monitoring techniques for geological carbon sequestration. The goal is to simulate leakage of CO2 to the surface in order to determine if various monitoring techniques have the ability to detect and quantify the CO2 lost to the atmosphere. The site for this experiment is a grass field that is part of an agricultural research facility at Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana. The ZERT project included collaboration from several research groups and organizations. Presented here are the results from the monitoring team of the National Energy Technology Lahoratory (NETL). The purpose of this arrangement was to allow each individual research group to run experiments in such a way that the operations did not interfere with each other.

Strazisar, B.R.; Wells, A.W.; Diehl, J.R.

2008-10-01

138

Comprehensive wellbore steam/water flow model for steam injection and geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive mathemtical model was developed to simulate the downward or upward flow of a steam/water mixture in a well. Comparisons of model predictions with actual field data for both steam injection for oil recovery and geothermal production showed the validity of the model. The proposed model is based on mass and momentum balances in the wellbore and on heat balance in the wellbore and the surrounding media. The model was employed for a series of tests to evaluate the effects of the injection pressure, injection rate, time, and well completion on the downhole steam pressure and quality. It was found that the slip concept and the flow regime are essential elements in wellbore steam/water flow calculations. 18 refs.

Farouq Ali, S.M.

1981-10-01

139

Turbidimetric determination of sulphate in waters employing flow injection and lead sulphate formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical flow-injection procedure based on PbSO4 colloidal formation is proposed as a turbidimetric determination of sulphate in natural waters. Ethanol-water was used as a medium in order to improve the sensibility of the method. Both chemical and flow variables as well as interfering species were studied. A detection limit of 0.3 ?g SO2?4 ml?1 was found, and the analytical

Ricardo Erthal Santelli; Paulo Roberto Salgado Lopes; Regina Célia Leme Santelli; Angela De Luca Rebello Wagener

1995-01-01

140

Combined cycle with low-quality heat integration and water injection into the compressed air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water injection after the compressor into the combustion air of a gas turbine and its evaporation by low-quality heat was analysed for different types of low-temperature heat sources and water-vapour contents of the pressurised air. To integrate low-quality heat—for example solar heat—into a conventional combined cycle efficiently and economically, the cycle must be changed in such a way that

Nikos Aronis; Reinhard Leithner

2004-01-01

141

Injected bubble populations in seawater and fresh water measured by a photographic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bubbles were injected in a laboratory simulation of a breaking wave by an intermittent waterfall. A photographic method was used to investigate the size spectrum of bubbles in the plume generated by the falling water. Bubbles of diameter larger than 0.01 cm were measured. Snapshot obervations were assembled into residence-time weighted spectra. While the general features (log concentration versus log

Meredith A. Haines; Bruce D. Johnson

1995-01-01

142

Comprehensive wellbore steam\\/water flow model for steam injection and geothermal applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive mathemtical model was developed to simulate the downward or upward flow of a steam\\/water mixture in a well. Comparisons of model predictions with actual field data for both steam injection for oil recovery and geothermal production showed the validity of the model. The proposed model is based on mass and momentum balances in the wellbore and on heat

Farouq Ali

1981-01-01

143

The spout of air jets upwardly injected into a water bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spout region of gas jets in liquids has received little attention, although it has both theoretical and practical significance. In this study, the spout of upwardly injected gas jets in water was characterized experimentally in terms of gas fraction, bubble frequency, and axial velocity distributions for ultimate incorporation into turbulent recirculating flow models. The measurements were made with a

V. Sahajwalla; A. H. Castillejos; J. K. Brimacombe

1990-01-01

144

INCREASING DIAGNOSTIC EFFECTIVENESS BY INCLUSION OF FUEL COMPOSITION AND WATER INJECTION EFFECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an analysis of the effect of changing the fuel on the performance of industrial gas turbines and examines the impact of such a change on methods used for engine condition assessment and fault diagnostics. A similar analysis is presented for the effects of water injection in the combustion chamber (which is usually done for reducing NOx emissions).

K. Mathioudakis; N. Aretakis; A. Tsalavoutas

145

Flow-Injection Chemiluminescence Sensor for the Determination of Free Chlorine in Tap Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel chemiluminescence(CL) sensor combined with flow-injection analysis has been developed for determining free chlorine in tap water. The analytical reagent luminol was immobilized on an anion exchange resin column. While a volumn of sodium hydroxide passed through the column, luminol was eluted from the resin in alkaline aqueous solution and then mixed with a sample stream to react and

Wei Qin; Zhujun Zhang; Shuna Liu

1997-01-01

146

Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI.…

Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

1978-01-01

147

IV (Intravenous) Fluidmaker: Preparation of Sterile Water for Injection in a Field Setting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two small, hand-operated systems have been devised for generating sterile, pyrogen-free water for injection (WFI) in the field. Both systems utilize reverse osmosis, ion exchange, a solid matrix filter containing activated carbon and zeta adsorbent, a fin...

W. D. Burrows J. H. Nelson

1988-01-01

148

Use of laboratory tests to evaluate scaling problems during water injection. [Oil well  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater and North sea formation water has been mixed in glass and in porous media. Core tests showed severe permeability loss due to scaling. The extent depended on the mixing ratio and the amount injected. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction were used to identify and compare mineralogy of scales formed in cores. 4 refs.

P. A. Read; J. K. Ringen

1982-01-01

149

OIL RECOVERY FROM WATERFLOODED RESERVOIRS BY INJECTING GAS, ALTERNATELY WITH WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many reservoirs in which water flooding has been implemented, some in a very advanced stage. At the end of waterflood often some 40 to 60% of the original oil-in-place is left behind. Under favourable circumstances, the use of gas injection can result in a better displacement efficiency than waterflooding, but it usually has poorer sweep efficiency and is

M. Sohrabi; G. D. Henderson; D. H. Tehrani; M. I. J. van Dijke; S. R. McDougall; K. S. Sorbie; A. Danesh; B. G. D. Smart

150

TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project  

SciTech Connect

This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

1991-06-01

151

Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.  

PubMed

Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled. PMID:18799199

Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

2008-09-16

152

WATER SYSTEM OPERATOR TRAINING FOR THE CENTRAL ARIZONA PROJECT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. CAP carries water from Lake Havasu down to Tucson. The CAP canal system is a 336-mile long system of aqueducts, tunnels, pumping pla...

153

Building water and sanitation projects in rural Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonprofit technical assistance organization has successfully developed rural water and sanitation projects in remote mountain villages in Guatemala. Essential parts of the program include appropriate technologies, village participation, selffinancing, village-managed operation and maintenance, and use of paraprofessional rural water technicians.

Andrew W. Karp; Stephen B. Cox

1982-01-01

154

IV Fluidmakers: Preparation of Sterile Water for Injection in a Field Setting. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two approaches have been investigated for generating USP sterile, pyrogen-free water for injection (WFI) from potable water in the field. The first approach utilizes reverse osmosis (RO), ion exchange, a solid matrix filter containing activated carbon and...

W. D. Burrows J. H. Nelson

1993-01-01

155

Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments.  

PubMed

Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 microM) and ammonium (19 to 625 microM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with (15)N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. PMID:16382283

Smith, R L; Baumgartner, L K; Miller, D N; Repert, D A; Böhlke, J K

2006-01-01

156

BELTWAY 8 WETLAND WATER QUALITY PROJECT: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR STORM WATER POLISHING AND WETLAND MITIGATION BANKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Harris County Flood Control District is implementing a wetland mitigation bank project that includes highway runoff as a significant water source. Part of this project is being implemented in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation through funding from the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act for water quality improvement. This collaborative effort includes treatment and final polishing of storm

Robert Knight; Robert Adams; C OBRIEN; Eduardo Davis

1998-01-01

157

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1996-02-01

158

The use of chemical tracers to water injection processes applied on Romanian reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrocarbon reservoirs are extremely complex, each reservoir having its own identity. Reservoirs heterogeneity (mainly regarding the layered ones) frequently results in low recovery efficiencies, both under the primary regime and when different agents are injected from the surface. EOR processes efficiency depends on how detailed the reservoir is known and on the information related to fluids flow through reservoir. There are certain analyzes, investigations and tests providing good knowledge about the reservoir. The tracer tests are among them, being frequently used to water injection processes. Depending on the method used, IWTT (Interwell tracer test), SWTT (Single-Well Tracer Test), TWTT (Two-Well Tracer Test), information are obtained as related to: the setting of the preferential flow path of the injected fluid, the identification of water channels, evidencing the geological barriers, determining the residual oil saturation, around the well bore or along the tracer's path between two wells. This paper is focused on ICPT Câmpina efforts related to the use of the chemical tracers to the water injection processes applied to the oil reservoirs of Romania. It describes the usual tracers and the methods used to detect them in the reaction wells. Up to now, more than 50 tests with IWTT tracers have been performed on-site and this work presents some of their results.

Zecheru, M.; Goran, N.

2013-05-01

159

Microbial fouling and clean-up operations in water injection wells  

SciTech Connect

During secondary oil recovery water injection may introduce bacteria into the formation. The microorganisms adhere to the rock surfaces, produce slimes and plug the formation halting oil recovery. The fouling generally is composed of a combination of bacteria (organic matter) and trapped inorganic particles. The authors have investigated effective clean-up operations of microbially fouled surfaces using sequences of acids and bleaches. The bleach must be injected first to dissolve the bacteria and release the inorganic component for acid treatment. The strategy was not successful if reversed. Bleach concentrations as low as 1% effectively removed bacterial fouling.

Cusack, F.; Lappin-Scott, H.M.; Costerton, J.W.; Brown, D.R.; Clementz, D.M.

1988-05-01

160

Effects of suction and injection on a moving plate in a nanofluid: Alumina-water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is performed to study the heat transfer characteristics of steady two-dimensional boundary layer flow past a moving permeable flat plate in an alumina-water nanofluid. The effects of uniform suction and injection on the flow field and heat transfer characteristics are numerically studied by employing an implicit finite difference method. It is found that dual solutions exist when the plate and the free stream move in the opposite directions. The results indicate that suction delays the boundary layer separation, while injection accelerates it.

Alegn, Nur Liyana; Bachok, Norfifah; Ishak, Anuar

2013-04-01

161

Phase II, Final Project Report, Paso del Norte Watershed Council, Coordinated Water Resources Database, and GIS Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Coordinated Water Resources Database and GIS Project was developed to provide improved access to regional water resources data in the Paso del Norte region for regional water stakeholders to make timely decisions in water operations and flood control....

C. Brown M. Bourdon Z. Sheng

2007-01-01

162

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated geological model that will be used to select sites for the demonstration in Part 2. Included in Part 1 of the project is the drilling of an infill well, coring 100{prime} of the Cypress Sand, and various injectivity testing to gather information used to update the model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-09-30

163

On the parameterization of Injection Height and the use of the MISR plume height project data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parameterization of fire injection height in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection height and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) or the brightness temperature which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the plume rise model (PRM) originally developed by Saulo Freitas, so that effects of atmospheric stability and latent heat are also taken into account. The original plume rise model is modified: (i) the input data of convective heat flux and the Active Fire area are directly force from FRP data derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD12 product, (ii) and the dynamical core of the plume model is modified with a new entrainment scheme inspired from latest results in shallow convection parameterization. An original aspect of this work is to present an optimization of the new version of the Freitas PRM based on (i) fire plume characteristics of single fire events extracted from the official MISR plume height project and (ii) atmospheric profile derived from the ECMWF analysis. The selection of the fire events out of the MISR data set represents the main task of this work. In particular, it is shown that the only information extracted from Terra overpass is not enough to guaranty that the injection height of the plume is linked to the FRP measured at the same time. The plume is a dynamical system, and a time delay (related to the atmospheric state) is necessary to adjust change in FRP to the plume behaviour. Therefore, here multiple overpasses of the same fire from Terra and Aqua are used to determine fire and plume behaviours and system in a steady state at the time of MISR (central scan of Terra) overpass are selected for the optimization procedure. Results show that in the case of some fire event, the PRM is able to predict the formation of a pyroconvective cloud where observation from Aqua overpass show massive change in plume behaviour.

Paugam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Atherton, Jonathan; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Freitas, Saulo

2013-04-01

164

Proton magnetic resonance imaging of flow motion of heavy water injected into a hollow fiber dialyzer filled with saline.  

PubMed

Observations using MRI were performed for the motion of heavy water injected into a hollow fiber dialyzer. A cylindrical dialyzer houses a bundle of 10,000 hollow fibers. Because blood components permeate through the hollow fiber membrane from the interior to the exterior of the hollow fiber, which is the dialysate flow path, uniformity of dialysate flow is required. The dialyzer was initially filled with saline and heavy water was injected into the inlet port of the dialysate flow path. MRI tuned for protons could distinguish the injected heavy water from the already present saline. Due to the specific gravity difference, MRI could observe the sedimentation of the injected heavy water flowing beneath the already present saline. The uniformity of the dialysate flow was supported by the finding that the injected heavy water brought about uniform sedimentation and distributed the already present saline uniformly throughout the entire volume of the dialyzer. PMID:15062937

Osuga, T; Obata, T; Ikehira, H

2004-04-01

165

UV Dosage Levels in Summer: Increased Risk of Ozone Loss from Convectively Injected Water Vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observed presence of water vapor convectively injected deep into the stratosphere over the United States can fundamentally change the catalytic chlorine/bromine free-radical chemistry of the lower stratosphere by shifting total available inorganic chlorine into the catalytically active free-radical form, ClO. This chemical shift markedly affects total ozone loss rates and makes the catalytic system extraordinarily sensitive to convective injection into the mid-latitude lower stratosphere in summer. Were the intensity and frequency of convective injection to increase as a result of climate forcing by the continued addition of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, increased risk of ozone loss and associated increases in ultraviolet dosage would follow.

Anderson, James G.; Wilmouth, David M.; Smith, Jessica B.; Sayres, David S.

2012-08-01

166

Monitoring a large volume CO 2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury’s Cranfield, Mississippi, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood.

Susan D. Hovorka; Timothy A. Meckel; Ramon H. Trevino; Jiemin Lu; Jean-Philippe Nicot; Jong-Won Choi; David Freeman; Paul Cook; Thomas M. Daley; Jonathan B. Ajo-Franklin; Barry M. Freifeild; Christine Doughty; Charles R. Carrigan; Doug La Brecque; Yousif K. Kharaka; James J. Thordsen; Tommy J. Phelps; Changbing Yang; Katherine D. Romanak; Tongwei Zhang; Robert M. Holt; Jeffery S. Lindler; Robert J. Butsch

2011-01-01

167

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31

168

Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones  

SciTech Connect

Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

1995-01-01

169

Development Project of Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor (SCPR) development project (Feb. 2001- Mar. 2005) is being performed by a joint team consisting of Japanese universities and nuclear venders with a national fund. The main objective of this project is to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through concentrating three sub-themes: 'plant conceptual design', 'thermohydraulics', and 'material and water chemistry'. The target of the 'plant conceptual design sub-theme' is simplify the whole plant systems compared with the conventional LWRs while achieving high thermal efficiency of more than 40 % without sacrificing the level of safety. Under the 'thermohydraulics sub-theme', heat transfer characteristics of supercritical-water as a coolant of the SCPR are examined experimentally and analytically focusing on 'heat transfer deterioration'. The experiments are being performed using fron-22 for water at a fossil boiler test facility. The experimental results are being incorporated in LWR analytical tools together with an extended steam/R22 table. Under the 'material and water chemistry sub-theme', material candidates for fuel claddings and internals of the SCPR are being screened mainly through mechanical tests, corrosion tests, and simulated irradiation tests under the SCPR condition considering water chemistry. In particular, stress corrosion cracking sensitivity is being investigated as well as uniform corrosion and swelling characteristics. Influences of water chemistry on the corrosion product characteristics are also being examined to find preferable water condition as well as to develop rational water chemistry controlling methods. (authors)

Kataoka, K.; Shiga, S. [Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8517 (Japan); Moriya, K. [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Oka, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Kyushu Univ. (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Hokkaido Univ. (Japan)

2002-07-01

170

Seismicity Induced by Water Injection for Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation 5 km Below the City of Basel, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To stimulate the reservoir for a proposed "hot dry rock" geothermal project in the city of Basel, approximately 11500 m3 of water were injected between December 2nd and 8th, 2006, at high pressures into a 5 km deep well. A six-sensor borehole array, installed at depths between 300 and 2700 meters around the well to monitor the induced seismicity, recorded more than 10500 events during the injection phase. Events with magnitudes as low as ML 0.7 were also recorded by regional networks in Switzerland, Germany and France, as well as by up to 30 strong-motion stations installed in the epicentral area. Due to excessive seismic activity, that included an ML 2.7 event, injection had already been stopped when a few hours later an ML 3.4 event jolted the city of Basel. A large amount of (non-structural) damage, corresponding to an intensity of V (EMS98), has been claimed by home owners. The unusual number of damage claims compared to past events in this magnitude range observed in Switzerland is partly due to the shallow hypocenter (5 km) beneath a densely populated city. In addition, ground-motion modelling shows that the radiation pattern of the earthquake source was oriented unfavourably for the city of Basel and that in numerous locations shaking was amplified significantly by local site conditions. After bleed-off, about one third of the injected water volume flowed back out of the well. Although seismic activity declined rapidly thereafter, three additional ML>3 events occurred over the following two months. From a statistical analysis it is expected that it may take on the order of a decade for the activity to decrease to the regional background level scaled to the size of the source region. The hypocenters of the located events (about 3500 to date) are restricted to a NW-SE oriented lens-shaped cloud, about 1 km in diameter and 200 m wide, with a single offsetting branch to the ESE. The orientation of the cloud and the focal mechanisms determined so far match the stress field derived from observations of borehole breakouts and natural seismicity. Due to the premature abortion of the stimulation process, the size of the stimulated volume is insufficient for a commercially viable exploitation of geothermal energy. At present the project is on hold, pending a comprehensive assessment of the seismic risk associated with a continuation.

Deichmann, N.; Mai, M.; Bethmann, F.; Ernst, J.; Evans, K.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.; Häring, M.; Husen, S.; Kästli, P.; Bachmann, C.; Ripperger, J.; Schanz, U.; Wiemer, S.

2007-12-01

171

Automatic Sampler Coupled with Flow Injection-Chemiluminescence Detection to Monitor Particle\\/Natural Water Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic sampler for natural waters under LabVIEW control is described. The sampler was integrated with an incubation system and coupled with a flow injection?chemiluminescence detection system to study the dissolution of aerosol iron in seawater at environmentally relevant concentrations. Automated sampling of seawater was achieved using a peristaltic pump and a 10?way distribution valve. The software allows full control

Marie J. M. Séguret; Simon J. Ussher; Paul J. Worsfold; Malcolm Nimmo; John W. Wood

2008-01-01

172

Determination of indium in natural waters by flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods have been developed to measure indium (In) in natural waters by flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass\\u000a spectrometry (ICPMS). One is the isotope dilution technique using an113In enriched spike and the other utilizes natural yttrium present in the sample as an internal standard. In the former, optimization\\u000a of the113In spike to minimize error is often difficult for samples

Dia Sotto Alibo; Hiroshi Amakawa; Yoshiyuki Nozaki

1998-01-01

173

The spout of air jets upwardly injected into a water bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spout region of gas jets in liquids has received little attention, although it has both theoretical and practical significance.\\u000a In this study, the spout of upwardly injected gas jets in water was characterized experimentally in terms of gas fraction,\\u000a bubble frequency, and axial velocity distributions for ultimate incorporation into turbulent recirculating flow models. The\\u000a measurements were made with a

V. Sahajwalla; A. H. Castillejos; J. K. Brimacombe

1990-01-01

174

Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.  

PubMed

A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water. PMID:14717185

Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

2003-12-15

175

Automated simultaneous monitoring of nitrate and nitrite in surface water by sequential injection analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully automated procedure based on Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) methodology for simultaneous monitoring of nitrate and nitrite in surface water samples is described. Nitrite was determined directly using the Griess diazo-coupling reaction and the formed azo dye was measured at 540nm in the flow cell of the fibre-optic spectrophotometer. Nitrate zone was passed through a reducing mini-column containing copperised-cadmium.

Zlatuše Legnerová; Petr Solich; Hana Sklená?ová; Dalibor Šat??nský; Rolf Karl???ek

2002-01-01

176

Water development projects and marital violence: experiences from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the implications of a groundwater development project on women's workload and their experience of marital violence in a Bangladesh village. We believe that the project facilitated irrigation water but also that it resulted in seasonal domestic water shortages. Men used deep motorized pumps for irrigation, and women used shallow handpumps for domestic purposes. Many handpumps dried out, so women had to walk to distant wells. This increased their workload and challenged their possibilities of fulfilling household obligations, thereby increasing the risk of normative marital male violence against women as a punishment for their failure. PMID:22325022

Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Resurreccion, Bernadette P; Wamala, Sarah

2012-01-01

177

Evaluation of water-injection impacts for gas-turbine NOx control at compressor stations. Topical report, June-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

Acurex reviewed and analyzed data on operational impacts of water injection to control NOx emissions from gas turbines used in gas compression service and developed cost estimates. At a water/fuel (W/F) ratio of 1.0, weight basis, NOx from gas turbines can be reduced by as much as 70 to 80 percent. The performance is accompanied by a thermal efficiency loss of 2 to 3 percent and an increase in CO and hydrocarbon emissions. Although water injection is a mature technology that has been in use for about 15 years on numerous utility and cogeneration installations, operational experience and cost data for application on gas transmission engines are lacking. Costs published to date for water injection have not sufficiently addressed the incremental cost of increased turbine maintenance. Additionally, the cost to secure large quantities of water at remote locations, where many existing compressor station turbines operate, can significantly impact the economics of retrofit project. The life-cycle costs for such retrofit were estimated in the $8,000 to $12,000 per ton of NOx removed, influenced by site-specific factors such as water availability and quality, size of engine, degree of NOx control, and increased maintenance.

Castaldini, C.

1990-06-01

178

Properties of injectable ready-to-use calcium phosphate cement based on water-immiscible liquid.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are highly valuable materials for filling bone defects and bone augmentation by minimal invasive application via percutaneous injection. In the present study some key features were significantly improved by developing a novel injectable ready-to-use calcium phosphate cement based on water-immiscible carrier liquids. A combination of two surfactants was identified to facilitate the targeted discontinuous exchange of the liquid for water after contact with aqueous solutions, enabling the setting reaction to take place at distinct ratios of cement components to water. This prolonged the shelf life of the pre-mixed paste and enhanced reproducibility during application and setting reactions. The developed paste technology is applicable for different CPC formulations. Evaluations were performed for the formulation of an ?-TCP-based CPC as a representative example for the preparation of injectable pastes with a powder-to-carrier liquid ratio of up to 85:15. We demonstrate that the resulting material retains the desirable properties of conventional CPC counterparts for fast setting, mechanical strength and biocompatibility, shows improved cohesion and will most probably show a similar degree of resorbability due to identical mineral structure of the set products. PMID:23261920

Heinemann, S; Rössler, S; Lemm, M; Ruhnow, M; Nies, B

2012-12-20

179

Membrane vapor enricher for Water For Injection (WFI) production, phase 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Armed Forces have a logistical requirement for a continuous demand, high purity, Water For Injection (WFI) system to alleviate the logistical burden of transport and maintenance of large supplies of parenteral solutions. In this program, the feasibility of incorporating permeable membrane gas separation technology as the key element in the WFI production process has been evaluated. These high productivity, imperfection-free gas permeable membranes are highly selective to water vapor and are packaged in compact and lightweight hollow fiber module elements.

Gollan, Arye; Kleper, Myles H.

1987-12-01

180

Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

Lacombe, P. J.

1996-01-01

181

Air Sparging Versus Gas Saturated Water Injection for Remediation of Volatile LNAPL in the Borden Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the shallow, rather homogeneous, unconfined Borden sand aquifer, field trials of air sparging (Tomlinson et al., 2003) and pulsed air sparging (Lambert et al., 2009) have been conducted, the latter to remediate a residual gasoline source emplaced below the water table. As well, a supersaturated (with CO2) water injection (SWI) technology, using the inVentures inFusion system, has been trialed in two phases: 1. in the uncontaminated sand aquifer to evaluate the radius of influence, extent of lateral gas movement and gas saturation below the water table, and 2. in a sheet pile cell in the Borden aquifer to evaluate the recovery of volatile hydrocarbon components (pentane and hexane) of an LNAPL emplaced below the water table (Nelson et al., 2008). The SWI injects water supersaturated with CO2. The supersaturated injected water moves laterally away from the sparge point, releasing CO2 over a wider area than does gas sparging from a single well screen. This presentation compares these two techniques in terms of their potential for remediating volatile NAPL components occurring below the water table in a rather homogeneous sand aquifer. Air sparging created a significantly greater air saturation in the vicinity of the sparge well than did the CO2 system (60 percent versus 16 percent) in the uncontaminated Borden aquifer. However, SWI pushed water, still supersaturated with CO2, up to about 2.5 m from the injection well. This would seem to provide a considerable advantage over air sparging from a point, in that gas bubbles are generated at a much larger radius from the point of injection with SWI and so should involve additional gas pathways through a residual NAPL. Overall, air sparging created a greater area of influence, defined by measurable air saturation in the aquifer, but air sparging also injected about 12 times more gas than was injected in the SWI trials. The pulsed air sparging at Borden (Lambert et al.) removed about 20 percent (4.6 kg) of gasoline hydrocarbons, mainly pentane and hexane, from the residual gasoline via sparging. A similar mass was estimated to have been removed by aerobic biodegradation. The extent of volatile recovery needs to be better defined and so post-sparging coring and analysis of residual LNAPL is underway. Impressively, the second SWI trial recovered more than 60 percent of the pentane-hexane from the NAPL. In both field experiments there was potential for minor additional recovery if the system had been operated longer. Comparison of efficiency of the pulsed air sparging and SWI systems is difficult in that the initial LNAPL residuals have different chemistry, but similar distribution, different volumes of gas were used, and biodegradation accounted for a significant removal of hydrocarbons only in the air sparging system. The SWI trial recovered an impressive portion of the volatile LNAPL, while using considerably less gas than the air sparging system, but the SWI delivery system was both more complex and more expensive than the air sparging system. Additional trials are underway in more complex aquifers to further assess the performance of the SWI technology, including costs and practical limitations.

Barker, J.; Nelson, L.; Doughty, C.; Thomson, N.; Lambert, J.

2009-05-01

182

Remediation of an Organic Fluid Present Below the Water Table by Steam Injection Above  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injection of steam in the subsurface has been utilized to remediate contaminated sites where nonaqeuous phase liquid (NAPL) was present both above and below the water table. Steam injection is efficient because the vapor pressure of contaminants increase dramatically with temperature. Futhermore, since two immiscible liquids will boil when the sum of their vapor pressures is equal to the surrounding pressure all NAPLs will start to boil below the boiling point of water. This may be a dominant mechanism for the mass transfer of NAPL into the steam zone. In many cases a steady-state steam zone will be present above a saturated zone containing NAPL, which then will be heated by conduction. At a certain temperature boiling will occur and due to bouyancy gas will be transported from the saturated zone into the steam zone. This mass transfer mechanism is orders of magnitude faster than diffusionevaporation. Two-dimensional experiments in a sand box with the interior dimensions 122 \\times 58 \\times 8.5 cm were carried out to investigate this mechanism. The sand box was packed with a low permeable bottom layer and a high permeable top layer. TCE was injected at the top of the low permeable layer, which prevented it from further downward migration. The water table was located in the high permeable layer above the contaminant. Steam was injected in the left hand side of the sand box and effluent gasses were extracted at the right hand side. A steady-state steam zone formed in the top of the high permeable layer and the saturated zone below was only heated by conduction. When the temperature in the contaminated area reached approximately 74 oC boiling of TCE and water occured and the vapors were transported up in the unsaturated steam zone. This could be registered from the outflow of steam where separate phase TCE appeared in the condenser. The experiment was modeled using the numerical code T2VOC, which simulates multidimensional, non-isothermal, multiphase flow and transport in porous media. For these experiments it was shown that when heating from above with steam injection, TCE present below the water table was transported upwards to the steam zone and not further downward.

Gudbjerg, J.; Jensen, K. H.; Sonnenborg, T. O.

2001-12-01

183

Water deprivation activates a glutamatergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the rostral ventrolateral medulla  

PubMed Central

Elevated sympathetic outflow contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure in water-deprived rats. The neural circuitry underlying this response may involve activation of a pathway from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We sought to determine whether the PVH-RVLM projection activated by water deprivation is glutamatergic and/or contains vasopressin- or oxytocin-neurophysins. Vesicular glutamate transporter2 (VGLUT2) mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the majority of PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with cholera-toxin subunit B (CTB; 85% on average with regional differences). Very few RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were immunoreactive for oxytocin- or vasopressin-associated neurophysin. Injection of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the PVH produced clusters of BDA-positive nerve terminals within the ipsilateral RVLM that were immunoreactive (ir) for the VGLUT2 protein. Some of these terminals made close appositions with tyrosine-hydroxylase-ir dendrites (presumptive C1 cells). In water-deprived rats (n=4), numerous VGLUT2 mRNA-positive PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with CTB were c-Fos-ir (16–40% depending on PVH region). In marked contrast, few glutamatergic, RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were c-Fos-ir in control rats (n=3; 0–3% depending on PVH region). Most (94 ± 4%) RVLM-projecting PVH neurons activated by water deprivation contained VGLUT2 mRNA. In summary, the majority of PVH neurons that innervate the RVLM are glutamatergic and this population includes the neurons that are activated by water deprivation. One mechanism by which water deprivation may increase the sympathetic outflow is the activation of a glutamatergic pathway from the PVH to the RVLM.

Stocker, Sean D.; Simmons, Johnny R.; Toney, Glenn M.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

2010-01-01

184

Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

185

Effect of brine injection on water dynamics in postmortem muscle: study of T2 and diffusion coefficients by MR microscopy.  

PubMed

The dynamics of water in postmortem muscle were studied by magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM). Rabbit muscles were arterially injected with 3 and 5 M NaCl brine. T2 and diffusion mapping were performed during the onset of rigor mortis. A wide spread of T2 values and widely differing postmortem evolutions were observed for injected muscles, whereas T2 was spatially homogeneous for intact muscle. Also, highly variable spatial distribution of diffusion coefficients along (Dz) and across (Dx) the muscle fibers was observed and diffusion anisotropy Dz/Dx) was less marked in injected muscles. The results indicate heterogeneity of brine distribution far from the injection site soon after injection. The postmortem evolution of the parameters is discussed in terms of structural changes induced by brine injection. MRM provides insight into how water dynamics respond to different NaCl concentrations inside muscle. PMID:7739368

Foucat, L; Benderbous, S; Bielicki, G; Zanca, M; Renou, J P

1995-01-01

186

Uncertainties in Picking Climate Projections for Water Resources Impact Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the impact of climate change on the water resources of the Colorado River Basin have been conducted for thirty years. Early hydrology and water resources studies were qualitatively informed by climate model results, whereas more recent studies have been based more directly on the meteorological or climate variable outputs of global climate models (GCMs). Partly due to the computational intensity of hydrologic modeling and partly due to the availability of GCM projections, a number of recent studies for water management have relied on relatively few climate projections (from three up to 22). The Bureau of Reclamation has now applied high-resolution hydrologic modeling to estimate future streamflows based on 112 downscaled projections of future climate by GCMs. These projections cover an overlap period with historical records from 1950 through 1999 and a projection period from 2000 through 2099. The resulting streamflow projections in the Colorado River basin reveal enormous model-to-model variability in estimates of future hydrologic conditions. Part of this uncertainty arises from sampling the low-frequency variability of the climate projections, thus the picture of future climate is highly influenced by which projections are selected and which time frames are sampled. Two runs of the same GCM and emissions scenario, but differing only by initial conditions, can provide very different estimates of future climate and hydrologic conditions. These results also suggest that for this region the influence of the SRES scenarios (b1, a1b, a2) is very much smaller than the variability introduced by the GCM codes and the initial and boundary conditions. These results also expose the difficulty in selecting an unbiased subset of projections for use in impact studies. A common approach is to select projections based on their coverage of the future temperature and precipitation anomaly space, but factors such as the seasonal pattern of precipitation can confound this process and lead to unexpected and misleading results. We describe findings and alternatives approaches for selecting GCM scenarios for hydrology and water resources management impact analyses.

Harding, B. L.; Wood, A. W.; Prairie, J. R.

2010-12-01

187

Impact of Water Projects on River Flow Regimes and Water Quality in Huai River Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the impact of water projects (dams or floodgates) on river hydrology and the surrounding environment is important\\u000a in river basin management. However, it is a difficult scientific issue due to its complexity. Huai River Basin is a unique\\u000a region in China with high densities in both population and water projects and is experiencing a serious pollution problem.\\u000a Based

Yongyong Zhang; Jun Xia; Tao Liang; Quanxi Shao

2010-01-01

188

Stimulation of water injection wells, in the Los Angeles basin by using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids  

SciTech Connect

A stimulation program was developed to improve injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills and San Vicente fields. Damage materials were removed by stimulating the wells with bleach and acid using a variety of tools and techniques. Two- to three-fold injectivity improvements were common, and vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial coverage of 0 to 30% to 85 to 95% after stimulation.

Clementz, D.M.; Aseltine, R.J.; Patterson, D.E.; Young, R.E.

1982-09-01

189

Impact on Caesarean section rates following injections of sterile water (ICARIS): a multicentre randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sterile water injections have been used as an effective intervention for the management of back pain during labour. The objective of the current research is to determine if sterile water injections, as an intervention for back pain in labour, will reduce the intrapartum caesarean section rate. Methods/design Design: A double blind randomised placebo controlled trial Setting: Maternity hospitals in Australia Participants: 1866 women in labour, ?18 years of age who have a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in a cephalic presentation at term (between 37 + 0 and 41 + 6 weeks gestation), who assess their back pain as equal to or greater than seven on a visual analogue scale when requesting analgesia and able to provide informed consent. Intervention: Participants will be randomised to receive either 0.1 to 0.3 millilitres of sterile water or a normal saline placebo via four intradermal injections into four anatomical points surrounding the Michaelis’ rhomboid over the sacral area. Two injections will be administered over the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and the remaining two at two centimetres posterior, and one centimetre medial to the PSIS respectively. Main outcome measure:Proportion of women who have a caesarean section in labour. Randomisation: Permuted blocks stratified by research site. Blinding (masking):Double-blind trial in which participants, clinicians and research staff blinded to group assignment. Funding:Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council Trial registration:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (No ACTRN12611000221954). Discussion Sterile water injections, which may have a positive effect on reducing the CS rate, have been shown to be a safe and simple analgesic suitable for most maternity settings. A procedure that could reduce intervention rates without adversely affecting safety for mother and baby would benefit Australian families and taxpayers and would reduce requirements for maternal operating theatre time. Results will have external validity, as the technique may be easily applied to maternity populations outside Australia. In summary, the results of this trial will contribute High level evidence on the impact of SWI on intrapartum CS rates and provide evidence of the analgesic effect of SWI on back pain.

2013-01-01

190

Thermal coupling may control mechanical stability of geothermal reservoirs during cold water injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic stimulation and geothermal reservoir operation may compromise the rock mechanical stability and trigger microseismic events. The mechanisms leading to this induced seismicity are still not completely understood. It is clear that injection causes an overpressure that reduces the effective stress, bringing the system closer to failure conditions. However, rock instability may not result only from hydraulic effects, but also from thermal effects. In fact, hydro-mechanical (i.e., isothermal) models often fail to reproduce field observations because the injection of cold water into a hot reservoir induces thermal stresses due to rock contraction. Thus, rock instability is likely to result from the superposition of hydraulic and thermal effects. Here, we perform coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical and hydro-mechanical simulations to investigate the effects of cold water injection in a fracture zone-intact rock system. Results show that thermal effects induce a significant perturbation on the stress in the intact rock affected by the temperature drop. This perturbation is likely to trigger induced seismicity in the surroundings of critically oriented fractures near the injection well. Hydro-mechanical simulations show that the behavior depends on the orientation of the faults and on the initial stress tensor. In the direction of the fractures, where the strains are more constrained, total stress increases with increasing pressure; thus, deviatoric stress increases or decreases depending on the initial stress state. The comparison between hydraulic and thermal effects shows that, when the largest confining stress acts perpendicular to the fractures, thermoelastic effects dominate and could trigger induced seismicity.

De Simone, Silvia; Vilarrasa, Victor; Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Meier, Peter

191

Oil Recovery by Low Salinity Water Injection into a Reservoir: A New Study of Tertiary Oil Recovery Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low salinity water injections for oil recovery have shown seemingly promising results in the case of clay-bearing sandstones\\u000a saturated with asphaltic crude oil. Reported data showed that low salinity water injection could provide up to 20% pore volume\\u000a (PV) of additional oil recovery for core samples and up to 25% PV for reservoirs in near wellbore regions, compared with brine

Y. Li

192

Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection  

SciTech Connect

Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

1991-01-01

193

Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection  

SciTech Connect

Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

1991-12-01

194

Stable isotope reactive transport modeling in water-rock interactions during CO2 injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC [2]. HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) [1]. References [1] N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009. [2] Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.

Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre

2010-05-01

195

Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project: comprehensive chronic rat study.  

PubMed

The health effects testing program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project was designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater in comparison with Denver's present high-quality drinking water. The 1 x 10(6) gal/day treatment plant provided 500-fold concentrates of water that had been treated by multiple processes to remove microbial and chemical contaminants. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to the complex mixture solutions for up to 2 yr to evaluate chronic toxicity and oncogenicity effects. The following parameters were evaluated: clinical observations, survival rate, growth, food and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross autopsy and histopathological examination of all lesions, major tissues and organs. Clinical pathology, gross pathology, and microscopic pathology conducted at wk 26 and 65 and at the end of the study did not reveal any findings that could be considered to be treatment related. Administration of drinking water concentrates at up to 500 times the original concentration in the original water samples to F344 rats for up to 104 wk did not result in any overt toxicological or carcinogenic effects. PMID:7959456

Condie, L W; Lauer, W C; Wolfe, G W; Czeh, E T; Burns, J M

1994-11-01

196

Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

Song, Xue-Ling; Zhao, Ying-Bao; Liu, Chao-Ying; Song, Zhe-Ying

2009-07-01

197

43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How Project water may be used. 418.2 Section 418.2 Public...NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water...

2011-10-01

198

43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How Project water may be used. 418.2 Section 418.2 Public...NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water...

2012-10-01

199

Quenching of a highly superheated porous medium by injection of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of two-phase flow through porous medium with intense phase change is of interest in many situations, including nuclear, chemical or geophysical applications. Intense boiling occurs when the liquid is injected into a highly superheated medium. Under such conditions, the heat flux extracted by the fluid from the porous medium is mainly governed by the nucleation of bubbles and by the evaporation of thin liquid films. Both configurations are possible, depending on local flow conditions and on the ratio of bubble size to pore size. The present study is motivated by the safety evaluation of light water nuclear reactors in case of a severe accident scenario, such as the one that happened in Fukushima Dai-ichi plant in March, 2011. If water sources are not available for a long period of time, the reactor core heats up due to the residual power and eventually becomes significantly damaged due to intense oxidation of metals and fragmentation of fuel rods resulting in the formation of a porous medium where the particles have a characteristic length-scale of 1 to 5 mm. The coolability of the porous medium will depend on the water flow rate which can enter the medium under the available driving head and on the geometrical features of the porous matrix (average pore size, porosity). Therefore, it is of high interest to evaluate the conditions for which the injection of water in such porous medium is likely to stop the progression of the accident. The present paper addresses the issue of modelling two-phase flow and heat transfers in a porous medium initially dry, where water is injected. The medium is initially at a temperature well above the saturation temperature of water. In a first part, a summary of existing knowledge is provided, showing the scarcity of models and experimental data. In a second part, new experimental results obtained in an IRSN facility are analysed. The experiment consists in a bed of steel particles that are heated up to 700°Cbefore injecting water. The facility is briefly described. The velocity of the "quench front" (location where particles are quickly cooled down) and the total pressure drop across the medium are estimated. The dependencies of those quantities with respect to the inlet water flow rate, the initial temperature of the medium and the diameter of particles are obtained. In a third part, a model is proposed, based on a previously developed model which is improved in order to take into account intense boiling regimes (in particular nucleate boiling). The model includes a function that takes into account the contact area between water and the particles which depends on the temperature of particles and on the void fraction. That function affects the local intensity of phase change. The model involves a few parameters which cannot be evaluated analytically. Those parameters are bounded, following the analysis of experimental data. Finally, the model is assessed by comparison of calculations with those new experimental data. The satisfactory agreement shows that the model is almost predictive in the range of parameters studied. The experimental results also show that the quench front becomes unstable under certain conditions. This is also analysed and compared with the predictions of the model.

Fichot, F.; Bachrata, A.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J.; Quintard, M.

2012-11-01

200

[Impact of water pollution risk in water transfer project based on fault tree analysis].  

PubMed

The methods to assess water pollution risk for medium water transfer are gradually being explored. The event-nature-proportion method was developed to evaluate the probability of the single event. Fault tree analysis on the basis of calculation on single event was employed to evaluate the extent of whole water pollution risk for the channel water body. The result indicates, that the risk of pollutants from towns and villages along the line of water transfer project to the channel water body is at high level with the probability of 0.373, which will increase pollution to the channel water body at the rate of 64.53 mg/L COD, 4.57 mg/L NH4(+) -N and 0.066 mg/L volatilization hydroxybenzene, respectively. The measurement of fault probability on the basis of proportion method is proved to be useful in assessing water pollution risk under much uncertainty. PMID:19927799

Liu, Jian-Chang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Li-Min; Li, Dai-Qing; Fan, Xiu-Ying; Deng, Hong-Bing

2009-09-15

201

Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Aquifer pressure buildup  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of St. Petersburg has been testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. Treated sweage that had a mean chloride concentration of 170 milligrams per liter (mg/l) was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4. 7 multiplied by 10**5 cubic feet per day (ft**3/d). The volume of water injected during the year was 1. 7 multiplied by 10**8 cubic feet. Pressure buildup at the end of one year ranged from less than 0. 1 to as much as 2. 4 pounds per square inch (lb/in**2) in observation wells at the site. Pressure buildup in wells open to the upper part of the injection zone was related to buoyant lift acting on the mixed water in the injection zone in addition to subsurface injection through the injection well. Calculations of the vertical component of pore velocity in the semiconfining bed underlying the shallowest permeable zone of the Floridan aquifer indicate upward movement of native water.

Hickey, J. J.

1984-01-01

202

Education Projects in the Office of Water. A How-to-Guide for Developing Environmental Education Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide provides you with a roadmap as you develop Environmental Education (EE) projects in EPAs Office of Water. It lays out steps for creating quality EE projects and outlines EPA's procedural guidelines for producing a product or supporting related ...

1999-01-01

203

UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document  

SciTech Connect

A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

NONE

1996-03-01

204

Flow injection analysis of iron in rain water with thiocyanate and surfactant  

PubMed Central

This paper explains a new procedure for flow injection analysis (FIA) determination of iron in rain water based on the colour reaction of Fe3+ with thiocyanate ions in the presence of the cationic surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The value of apparent molar absorptivity of the complex in terms of iron is (2.00) x 104 l mole-1 cm-1 at an absorption maximum of 490 nm. The detection limit of the method is 8 ppb Fe. The sample throughput is 90 samples/h at a flow rate of 4.0 ml/min. The reaction mechanism, optimization of FIA variables, and effect of various types of surfactant are described. None of the tested anions and cations interfered with the determination of iron. The method was used for the quantification and flux determination of iron in rain water.

Tripathi, A. N.; ehikhalikar, S.

1997-01-01

205

Biased-probe-induced water ion injection into amorphous polymers investigated by electric force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although charging of insulators by atomic force microscopy (AFM) has found widespread interest, often with data storage or nanoxerography in mind, less attention has been paid to the charging mechanism and the nature of the charge. Here we present a systematic study on charging of amorphous polymer films by voltage pulses applied to conducting AFM probes. We find a quadratic space charge limited current law of Kelvin probe force microscopy and electrostatic force microscopy peak volumes in pulse height, offset by a threshold voltage, and a power law in pulse width of positive exponents smaller than one. We interpret the results by a charging mechanism of injection and surface near accumulation of aqueous ions stemming from field induced water adsorption, with threshold voltages linked to the water affinities of the polymers.

Knorr, Nikolaus; Rosselli, Silvia; Miteva, Tzenka; Nelles, Gabriele

2009-06-01

206

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...other than Newlands Project purposes. The District will release sufficient water to meet the vested water rights below Sagouspe Dam as specified in the Alpine decree. These water rights are usually met by return flows. Releases for these water rights...

2012-10-01

207

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...other than Newlands Project purposes. The District will release sufficient water to meet the vested water rights below Sagouspe Dam as specified in the Alpine decree. These water rights are usually met by return flows. Releases for these water rights...

2011-10-01

208

A numerical study of water injection on transonic compressor rotor performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, numerical simulations of two-phase flow in a transonic compressor rotor (NASA rotor 37) were performed. Both flow and droplets' governing equations were formulated and solved in the reference frame of the rotating blades. An Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used for the continuous and discrete phases with a two-way interaction model to simulate the mass-, momentum- and energy exchange between the different phases. Water particles were injected at the inlet with uniform particle mass flux, fully evaporating inside the rotating blade row. The phase change was most intense in areas adjacent to shock waves, where the slip velocity of the droplets was the highest. Results show decreased circumferentially averaged total temperature ratio of the air-vapor mixture across the span, which is the direct result of inter-phase energy coupling. An entropy based approach to calculate the isentropic efficiency of a wet compression process in a transonic compressor rotor was also presented. Under the proposed method, the viscous dissipation function was calculated everywhere in the domain in the post-processing phase of the numerical simulation and integrated to the wall, with special treatment in the nearwall regions where high rates of entropy generation occur. For a water to air mass flow ratio of 1% results show increased entropy production across the span, resulting in a 5% drop in compressor isentropic efficiency. Analytical integration of wall functions and numerical integration of the viscous dissipation function allows for reasonable results even with relatively coarse grids and can also be applied for single-phase flows. A parametric study of the effect of initial particle parameters on the wet compression process was also performed. Several speedlines have been computed with different amounts of water, especially near the tip. Results show that numerical stall can be delayed with injection of water near the tip, due to the increase of the axial momentum of the fluid in the endwall region, which is the direct result of phase change.

Szabo, Istvan

209

Induced earthquakes accompanying the water injection experiment at the Nojima fault zone, Japan: Seismicity and its migration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake of M7.2 occurred on January 17, 1995. After the earthquake, a scientific drilling program called the Nojima Fault Zone Probe was carried out at the Nojima fault which ruptured during the mainshock. Water was injected during two periods, February 9-13 and March 16-25, 1997. The pumping pressure at the surface was about 4 MPa. Pressurized water was injected into a 1800-m-deep borehole and supplied to the surrounding rock at depths between 1480 and 1670 m. The total amount of injected water was 258 m3. An increase in earthquake activity was observed 4 or 5 days after the beginning of each water injection. The seismicity increased in the region around 3 or 4 km from the injection point. This suggests that these earthquakes are likely to have been induced by the water injections. The induced earthquakes were located between 2 and 4 km in depth and had magnitudes ranging from -2 to +1. The hypocenters of the induced earthquakes migrated with speeds of ˜2-40 m/h. The speeds decreased with time, suggesting a relationship with the diffusion of water. Values of intrinsic permeability of 10-14-10-15 m2 were obtained from the time dependency of induced seismicity change. The coefficient of friction in the area where the induced earthquakes occurred was estimated to be less than 0.3. Twenty earthquake clusters were found, and cross-spectrum analysis was applied to them. We could distinguish between the induced and noninduced earthquakes from the analysis. The induced earthquakes forming each cluster migrated with speeds of 20-80 m/h, which means microscale water migration or permeation. The present water injection experiment revealed that the Nojima fault zone was highly permeable and could slip with small (˜10% or less) increases in pore fluid pressure or shear stress.

Tadokoro, Keiichi; Ando, Masataka; Nishigami, Kin'ya

2000-03-01

210

Spectrophotometric determination of chloride in waters using a multisyringe flow injection system.  

PubMed

A multisyringe flow injection system (MSFIA) with spectrophotometric detection is proposed as a fast, robust and low-reagent consumption system for the determination of chloride (Cl(-)) in waters. The system is based in the classic reaction of Cl(-) with Fe(3+) and Hg(SCN)(2), but due to the hazardous properties of this last reagent, the proposed methodology has been developed with the aim to minimize the consumption of this one, consuming less than 0.05 mg of Hg for a Cl(-) determination, being the system of this type with the lowest Hg consumption. The linear working range was between 1 and 40 mg L(-1) Cl(-) and the detection limit was 0.2 mg L(-1) Cl(-). The repeatability (RSD) was 0.8% for a 10 mg L(-1) Cl(-) solution, and the injection throughput was 130 h(-1). The proposed system is compared with other chloride monitoring flow systems, this comparison is realized with a point of view of the equilibrium between the obtained analytical features and produced residues toxicity. The proposed system was applied to the determination of Cl(-) in mineral, tap and well water. PMID:18371814

Maya, Fernando; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

2007-10-02

211

Automated simultaneous monitoring of nitrate and nitrite in surface water by sequential injection analysis.  

PubMed

A fully automated procedure based on Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) methodology for simultaneous monitoring of nitrate and nitrite in surface water samples is described. Nitrite was determined directly using the Griess diazo-coupling reaction and the formed azo dye was measured at 540 nm in the flow cell of the fibre-optic spectrophotometer. Nitrate zone was passed through a reducing mini-column containing copperised-cadmium. After the reduction of nitrate into nitrite the sample was aspirated by flow reversal to the holding coil, treated with the reagent and finally passed through the flow cell. The calibration curve was linear over the range 0.05-1.00 mg N l(-1) of nitrite and 0.50-50.00 mg N l(-1) of nitrate; correlation coefficients were 0.9993 and 0.9988 for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. Detection limits were 0.015 and 0.10 mg N l(-1) for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values (n = 3) were 1.10% and 1.32% for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. The total time of one measuring cycle was 250 s, thus the sample throughput was about 14 h(-1). Nitrate and nitrite were determined in the real samples of surface water, and the results have been compared with those obtained by two other flow methods; flow injection analysis based on the same reactions and isotachophoretic determination used in a routine environmental control laboratory. PMID:12146865

Legnerová, Zlatuse; Solich, Petr; Sklenárová, Hana; Satínský, Dalibor; Karlícek, Rolf

2002-06-01

212

Classification of breast lesions pre-contrast injection using water resonance lineshape analysis.  

PubMed

Inhomogeneously broadened, non-Lorentzian water resonances have been observed in small image voxels of breast tissue. The non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance are probably produced by bulk magnetic susceptibility shifts caused by dense, deoxygenated tumor blood vessels (the 'blood oxygenation level-dependent' effect), but can also be produced by other characteristics of local anatomy and physiology, including calcifications and interfaces between different types of tissue. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the detection of non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI allows the classification of breast lesions without the need to inject contrast agent. Eighteen malignant lesions and nine benign lesions were imaged with HiSS MRI at 1.5 T. A new algorithm was developed to detect non-Lorentzian (or off-peak) components of the water resonance. After a Lorentzian fit had been subtracted from the data, the largest peak in the residual spectrum in each voxel was identified as the major off-peak component of the water resonance. The difference in frequency between these off-peak components and the main water peaks, and their amplitudes, were measured in malignant lesions, benign lesions and breast fibroglandular tissue. Off-peak component frequencies were significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of HiSS off-peak component analysis compared with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI parameters. The areas under the ROC curves for the 'DCE rapid uptake fraction', 'DCE washout fraction', 'off-peak component amplitude' and 'off-peak component frequency' were 0.75, 0.83, 0.50 and 0.86, respectively. These results suggest that water resonance lineshape analysis performs well in the classification of breast lesions without contrast injection and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of clinical breast MR examinations. In addition, this approach may provide an alternative to DCE MRI in women who are at risk for adverse reactions to contrast media. PMID:23165988

Wood, Abbie M; Medved, Milica; Bacchus, Ian D; Al-Hallaq, Hania A; Shimauchi, Akiko; Newstead, Gillian M; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Venkataraman, Srirama S; Ivancevic, Marko K; Karczmar, Greg S

2012-11-20

213

Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US

1998-01-01

214

Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project. Phase I status report, April 1981-April 1982  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using remote geophysical techniques to monitor the movement of injected brine has been evaluated. It was established that no single approach is likely to be identified that can be used to accurately monitor the precise location of the injected fluid. Several approaches have been considered in parallel because they add new dimensions to the existing monitoring capabilities, and are likely to cover a range of applications at a variety of geothermal sites. These include: microseismicity - a seismic net is used to record small magnitude events associated with injection; streaming potential - self potential anomalies produced by a moving fluid identify fluid flow direction; cross borehole geotomography - two-dimensional image of flow pathways is constructed using electromagnetic waves; and well pressure response to solid earth tide - changes in pore pressures are used to discriminate fracture/pore porosity and estimate fracture orientations.

Younker, L.; Hanson, J.; Didwall, E.; Kasameyer, P.; Smith, A.; Hearst, J.; Daily, W.; Crow, N.; Younker, J.; Murray, W.

1982-08-13

215

Modeling of Nitric Oxide Formation in Single Cylinder Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Diesel-Water Emulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Water injection into the combustion chamber of die sel engine found to be one of best method for in-cylinder control of NO x formation. Approach: The combustion of water- diesel emulsion in diesel engine was simulated usin g a computer program to estimate the heat release rate, cylinder pressure, brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and NO

K. Kannan; M. Udayakumar

2009-01-01

216

Science in an Integrated Primary School Project on Water: Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes water-related activities in an elementary school science project. These activities focus on electric generators, rainfall, erosion, floating, water conservation, and other areas. Brief comments on developing such a project are included. (JN)

Ward, Alan

1984-01-01

217

Evaluation of Central Valley Project Water Supply and Delivery Systems. Global Climate Change Response Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simple mass balance reservoir operation model for the Central Valley Project (CVP) and State Water Project (SWP) water systems, California, was used to assess the possible global climate change impacts to the CVP. Historic hydrologic parameters were mod...

J. Sandberg P. Manza

1991-01-01

218

Bolsa Island Nuclear Power and Desalting Project Facilities (Cost and Description) and Cost of Desalted Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to review the Bolsa Island desalination project supported jointly by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, Office of Saline Water, Atomic Energy Commission and three power utilities in the area: The project c...

H. J. Mills

1970-01-01

219

Pore-scale interfacial dynamics during gas-supersaturated water injection in porous media - on nucleation, growth and advection of disconnected fluid phases (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degassing and in situ development of a mobile gas bubbles occur when injecting supersaturated aqueous phase into water-saturated porous media. Supersaturated water injection (SWI) has potentially significant applications in remediation of soils contaminated by non-aqueous phase liquids and in enhanced oil recovery. Pore network simulations indicate the formation of a region near the injection boundary where gas phase nuclei are

D. Or; M. Ioannidis

2010-01-01

220

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 3, April--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

Not Available

1991-12-31

221

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effort between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project util...

R. Johansen

2011-01-01

222

Filler Injection Enhances the Projection of the Reconstructed Nipple:An Original Easy Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Reduced nipple projection is the main reason for unsatisfactory nippleareola complex reconstruction, and many techniques have been proposed to maintain projection of the reconstructed nipple. Methods: For 70 patients, 90 nipples were reconstructed using either a small wedge from the labia minora (LMW) (n = 70) or nipple sharing (NS) (n = 20). Two months after reconstruction, each reconstructed

P. Panettiere; L. Marchetti; D. Accorsi

2005-01-01

223

Flow structures of gaseous jets injected into water for underwater propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous jets injected into water are typically found in underwater propulsion, and the flow is essentially unsteady and turbulent. Additionally, the high water-to-gas density ratio can result in complicated flow structures; hence measuring the flow structures numerically and experimentally remains a challenge. To investigate the performance of the underwater propulsion, this paper uses detailed Navier-Stokes flow computations to elucidate the gas-water interactions under the framework of the volume of fluid (VOF) model. Furthermore, these computations take the fluid compressibility, viscosity, and energy transfer into consideration. This paper compares the numerical results and experimental data, showing that phenomena including expansion, bulge, necking/breaking, and back-attack are highlighted in the jet process. The resulting analysis indicates that the pressure difference on the rear and front surfaces of the propulsion system can generate an additional thrust. The strong and oscillatory thrust of the underwater propulsion system is caused by the intermittent pulses of the back pressure and the nozzle exit pressure. As a result, the total thrust in underwater propulsion is not only determined by the nozzle geometry but also by the flow structures and associated pressure distributions.

Tang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Ning-Fei; Shyy, Wei

2011-08-01

224

IV fluidmakers: preparation of sterile water for injection in a field setting.  

PubMed

Two approaches have been investigated for generating USP sterile, pyrogen-free water for injection (WFI) from potable water in the field. The first approach utilizes reverse osmosis (RO), ion exchange, a solid matrix filter containing activated carbon and zeta adsorbent, a final 0.2 microns pore size sterilizing filter and a device for transferring the WFI to an IV bag; prototype systems based on three different hand-operated RO units weigh 1.5-3.5 kg and are capable of producing WFI at rates of 1-10 L/hr. Parenteral solutions were made by adding WFI to an IV bag containing concentrated Ringer's lactate. The second approach, still in the breadboard stage, is similar but utilizes a larger ion exchange column in place of the RO unit and a multiport distribution head to fill a set of 18 1-L IV bags. This system, considered to be disposable, is capable of generating water of WFI quality at a fill rate of 0.5 L/min from a pressurized source. PMID:8360804

Burrows, W D; Nelson, J H

225

Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of aluminum in natural water using eriochrome cyanine R and cationic surfactants  

SciTech Connect

A flow injection analysis spectrophotometric method for determination of aluminum in water using eriochrome cyanine R and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (ECR/CTA) is described. The measurements are performed at a pH of 7.5, and the interference from phosphate and fluoride is greatly reduced compared to the interferences at a pH of 6.0. Dissolved organic carbon up to 20 mg L/sup -1/ C can be tolerated. Of 40 elements tested, only iron, beryllium, lanthanum, and cerium cause strong interference. The effect of iron can be masked (<2 mg L/sup -1/). The detection limit is 1 ..mu..g L/sup -1/ Al and calibration graphs are linear up to 0.8 or 4 mg L/sup -1/ (injection loop 200 or 10 ..mu..L, respectively), Good reproducibility (relative standard deviation 0.7% at 1 mg L/sup -1/) and high sample throughput (120 per hour) are reported.

Roeyset, O.

1987-03-15

226

Direct electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry determination of nickel in sea water using multiple hot injection and Zeeman correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the direct determination of Ni in sea water samples by ETAAS were developed using Zeeman effect background correction system (ZEBC) and a multi-injection technique. A mass of palladium nitrate of 2.5 ?g (for an injection volume of 100 ?l) was used as chemical modifier. The optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1700 and 2100°C, respectively. The characteristic mass

Pilar Bermejo-Barrera; Jorge Moreda-Piñeiro; Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro; Adela Bermejo-Barrera

1998-01-01

227

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-08-09

228

Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that the analysis is partially complete, since there if no Assessment of the impact on nonagricultural income and employment, or secondary impacts such as demand for irrigation equipment, services for processing, manufacture and transport services, or investment of new agricultural surpluses. Few empirical studies have been done and the estimates apply only to individual project areas. The results show that inequality is greatest with major (gravity) irrigation, followed by STW, DTW and LLP, FCD (medium to shallow), FCD (deep to shallow), and the most equitable MOSTI. Changes in the absolute income accruing to the rural poor would lead to the rank of major gravity irrigation as raising more above the poverty line, followed by MOSTI, minor irritation (STW, DTW, and LLP), and FCD schemes. PMID:12317341

Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

1991-09-01

229

Experimental studies of oil withdrawal from salt cavities via fresh-water injection  

SciTech Connect

The US Strategic Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program coordinates the storage of crude oil in underground salt caverns. Oil removal from these caverns will be accomplished by injecting water into a brine volume located beneath the oil, buoyantly displacing the oil upwards, where it will then be recovered through a production pipe located near the top of the cavern. The critical question was whether or not the crude oil would protect the salt walls from dissolution upon exposure to unsaturated brine following oil/brine interface passage. These oil/brine/salt interactions were experimentally investigated in the laboratory. Cylindrical cavities were created by machining (hollowing-out) salt cores from one end, leaving the circular wall and bottom as an integral piece. In each of four separate experiments, a salt cavity was placed vertically in a pressure vessel and its interior filled with crude oil overlying a saturated-brine picket. The vessel was sealed and pressurized to actual SPR-cavern pressure. Fresh water was injected down a tube and into the brine pocket, displacing the coil upwards, where it was recovered from the cavity through a second (production) tube near the top of the vessel. A traversable gamma-beam densitometer was positioned above the initial saturated-brine/oil interface and was used as a non-intrusive diagnostic to define the presence, or absence, of salt dissolution (cavity shape change) during the transient oil-withdrawal process. Such measurements showed the occurrence of salt-wall recession following interface passage in all tests, i.e., crude-oil adherence, and/or penetration, at the salt wall failed to protect the salt from dissolution upon its exposure to unsaturated brine. Measured post-test cavity shapes corroborated the transient results. Both transient and steady-state measurements were found to be in good agreement with numerical predictions. 15 references, 16 figures, 1 table.

Reda, D.C.; Russo, A.J.

1984-03-01

230

A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host rock during deep well injection  

SciTech Connect

A new disposal well was drilled in the vicinity of an injection well that had been in operation for 12 years. The drilling activities provided an opportunity to assess the fate and transport of waste products injected in the nearby well, and the impact, if any, on the host geologic formation. The origin of the fluid collected while drilling the new well and the interaction between injected waste and the formation were investigated using analyses of formation waters, waste, and formation minerals, by applying traditional graphical methods and sophisticated numerical models. This approach can be used to solve a wide range of geochemical problems related to deep well injection of waste. Trilinear Piper diagrams, Stiff diagrams, and correlation plots show that the chemical characteristics of recovered fluid at the new well are similar to those of formation water. The concentrations of most major constituents in the fluid appear diluted when compared to formation water sampled at other locations. This could be explained by mixing with waste, which is less saline than formation water. However, the waste injected near the new well consists primarily of ammonia and sulfate, and these waste constituents are not found at concentrations elevated enough to suggest that significant mixing of formation water with waste has occurred. To determine whether chemical interactions between injected waste and formation could explain the chemistry of fluid recovered from the new well, we simulated the chemical reaction between waste, formation water, and the formation rock by numerical modeling. Initial modeling calculations were done using a multicomponent geochemical reaction-path model to simulate fresh waste reacting with the formation. A more complex simulation coupling flow, transport, and reaction was then run using a multicomponent geochemical reactive transport model. These numerical simulations were carried out to calculate porosity changes and evaluate chemical processes resulting in mineral precipitation and dissolution. The simulations indicate that the waste injected in the vicinity of the new well is mildly reactive with the formation, and that there is a small porosity increase upon injection (approximately one to two percent) in the near-wellbore region. The simulations predict the precipitation of anhydrite, ammonium clay, and ammonium feldspar minerals. However, the precipitation of these minerals is not sufficient to account for the lower-than-expected sulfate and ammonia concentrations away from the injection well. This modeling work is preliminary in nature, and provides an example of the application of sophisticated modeling tools to problems involving deep-well injection of waste.

Spycher, Nicolas; Larkin, Randy

2004-05-14

231

Projected changes in water availability in the United Kingdom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence for a change in the seasonality of UK rainfall consistent with projections from climate models, which could have a significant impact on water availability. This paper describes an analysis of seasonal mean runoff in the UK calculated directly within an ensemble of regional climate models. Both surface and subsurface runoff have been analyzed, and the times at which a climate change signal in the runoff could be detected have also been calculated. Runoff is projected to increase in winter in all regions of the UK, by 5-25% by the 2080s, but remain the same or decrease in the other seasons. We find that a climate change signal could be detected in runoff in winter in western parts of the UK as early as the 2020s, but much later in eastern areas of England. In summer, detection times (2040-2060 s) are generally later than those in winter (2020-2040 s). Our results imply water resources in the southeast of the UK could be reduced during the twenty-first century, and adaptation may be needed long before a formal detection of a climate change signal is made.

Sanderson, Michael G.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Betts, Richard A.

2012-08-01

232

Farmer Participation in the Hall County ACP (Agricultural Conservation Program) Special Water Quality Project, Nebraska, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sample of 103 farm operators in the Hall County Agricultural Conservation Program (ACP) Special Water Quality Project area in Nebraska was interviewed to determine perceptions of water quality problems and awareness of the ACP Special Water Quality Proj...

H. Hoover R. Oscar

1982-01-01

233

78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation...SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review...the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans (Criteria). For...

2013-04-10

234

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

235

Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

Field, S. M.

2007-04-01

236

Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anderson et al. (2012) (A2012) report in situ observations of convectively injected water vapor (H2O) in the North American (NA) summer lowermost stratosphere (LMS), occasionally exceeding 12ppmv. They contend that, in such cold/wet conditions, heterogeneous chemistry on binary water?sulfate aerosols can activate chlorine, leading to catalytic ozone destruction. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder 100 hPa and 82.5 hPa H2O measurements show that, indeed, the NA LMS is unusually wet, both in mean values and in outliers reaching 18ppmv. Using A2012's threshold, 4% (0.03%) of 100 hPa (82.5 hPa) NA July-August observations are cold/wet enough for activation. Cold parcels, whether wet or dry, typically have much less HCl to activate and O3to destroy than A2012's initial conditions. Slightly lower concentrations of HCl and O3 in cold/wet parcels are attributable, at least in part, to dilution by tropospheric air. Alarming reductions in NA summer column O3suggested by A2012 are not seen in the current climate.

Schwartz, Michael J.; Read, William G.; Santee, Michelle L.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Lambert, Alyn; Manney, Gloria L.

2013-05-01

237

Trace level determination of perfluorinated compounds in water by direct injection.  

PubMed

A new, fast LC-MS/MS method for the determination of perfluorinated surfactants in water samples by direct injection without pre-concentration is reported. The current method requires only 4 min to analyze nine perfluoroalkyl compounds in a single analytical run. Standard addition and internal standard quantification were used to determine the level of some perfluorinated carboxylic and sulfonic acids, including perfluorooctanoic sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in Great Lakes water samples. Statistically significant differences were observed between the results obtained using different quantification methods. A relatively small difference between the PFOS values obtained with the standard addition method, with and without peak area normalization, clearly indicates that standard addition is the best quantification method when mass-labeled standards are not available. Based on the paired t-test statistical analysis, the concentrations calculated using external standardization were the least accurate, with the highest mean difference from the standard addition calculated values. Both PFOS and PFOA were present at less than 10 ng l(-1) in all Great Lake samples. Higher levels were detected in tributaries of Lake Ontario and effluents from sewage treatment plants. PMID:18457864

Furdui, Vasile I; Crozier, Patrick W; Reiner, Eric J; Mabury, Scott A

2008-05-23

238

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring (Project Number: 70179)  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem requiring monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to the analytical laboratory where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector using automated microfluidics for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field analytical chemistry.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2002-06-01

239

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Fourth quarterly report, [October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map fades-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and Implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Technical progress for this quarter is described.

Baroni, M.

1994-01-25

240

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress internal and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

Baroni, M.R.

1994-04-30

241

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Third quarterly report, [July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Part 2. Included in Part 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress interval, and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-12-21

242

Development of a System for Electronic Methanol-Water Injection for Automobile Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In October of 1979 work was begun to prepare an electronic fuel injection system which could be added to the existing fuel system on standard automobiles. The injection system would permit the injection of additional fuel required to maintain a combustabl...

D. K. Neely

1981-01-01

243

The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Climatology (NEWCC) Integration Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To date, a truly self-consistent, quantitative description of the Earth's global water and energy cycles, based on the highest quality, independently-observed pieces of information that decipher each of the key storage terms, fluxes, and pathways has been elusive. Such a data compilation of adequate climate quality is of vital interest and an ultimate scientific need of the global observation, modeling, and prediction community. To meet this need, we present results from the first phase of a NASA Energy and Water Cycle Climatology (NEWCC) Integration Project, a collaborative effort whose aim is to construct a defensible, self-consistent, long-term climatology of the global energy and water cycles. Our working hypothesis is that an observationally-based estimate of water and energy fluxes and storages, derived from focused and independently observed components of these cycles, can be balanced and provide useful characterizations and evaluation data for climate prediction and predictability studies. The NEWCC team members are actively involved in key facets of this observational arena, and thus for the first phase of NEWCC, we bring together state-of-the-art, (predominantly) satellite-based observations that include: precipitation, ocean and land evaporation, runoff, atmospheric water storage, ocean and land storage changes, atmospheric transport, radiation, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and subsequently hope to include explicit snow/ice information, such as snow water equivalent and ice mass changes. Our current efforts focus on the period spanning the years 2003 to 2005, for which the most recent and highest-quality satellite-based information is available for all the aforementioned quantities. We present an assessment of the ability of these observational datasets to satisfy the water and energy budgets and the degree to which they show consistency in their mean annual cycles as well as geospatial variability. In doing so, we will highlight, where possible, the most egregious areas of imbalance and inconsistency while also providing a quantification of measurement errors to identify which algorithms and/or measurements hold the most promise for improvement.

Schlosser, C. A.; Lin, B.; NEWCC Team

2008-05-01

244

Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

245

Jordan Water Conservation Education Project Final Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water scarcity is an increasingly serious problem in the desert country of Jordan. Currently, all known sources of water have been tapped. Management of existing water sources and promotion of water rationing programs are vital to ensuring adequate water ...

D. Evans M. Grieser O. Hernandez R. Ledsky S. Middlestadt B. Rawlins J. Sanchack

1996-01-01

246

Factors affecting the chromatographic partitioning of CO 2 and H 2S injected into a water-saturated porous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid gas comprising 98% CO2 and 2% H2S has been injected since 2002 in a depleted gas reservoir in Alberta, Canada, that has 20% water saturation. Carbon dioxide broke through first at producing wells, while H2S broke through after CO2. It was hypothesized that the delayed breakthrough of H2S was due to its greater solubility in reservoir water than that

Stefan Bachu; D. Brant Bennion; Mehran Pooladi-Darvish; Huifang Hong

2009-01-01

247

In Situ Evaluation of Water-Rock Reactions during Carbon Dioxide Injection in Basaltic and Metasedimentary Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large differences between laboratory and field derived mineral reaction rates underscore the importance of evaluating mineral-fluid reactions under in situ conditions in a natural environment. This study investigates the extent of in situ water-rock reactions in basaltic and metasedimentary rocks (rich in Ca, Mg silicates) after the injection of CO2 enriched water, with the objective of providing information pertinent to

J. M. Matter; N. Assayag; D. Goldberg; T. Takahashi

2006-01-01

248

The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are toprovide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.). *The NEWSE Team is: Romanou, Anastasiam, Columbia U.; Brian Soden, U. Miami; William Lapenta, NASA- MSFC; Megan Larko, CREW; Bing Lin, NASA-LaRC; Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA-GSFC; Xiquan Dong, U. North Dakota; Debbie Belvedere, CREW; Mathew Sapiano, U. Maryland; Duane Waliser, NASA-JPL; Eni Njoku, NASA/JPL; Eric Fetzer, NASA-JPL; Eyal Amitai, NASA-GSFC; Xiaogang Gao, U. California, Irvine; George Huffman, NASA-GSFC & SSAI; Jared Entin, NASA; Joseph Santanello, NASA-GSFC; John Roads, UCSD; W. Timothy Liu, NASA-JPL; Lixin Lu, Colorado State U.; Zhengzhao Luo, Colorado State U.; Michael Bosilovich, NASA-GSFC; Michael Jasinski, NASA-GSFC; William Olson, NASA-GSFC & UMBC-GEST; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Phil Arkin, U. Maryland; Paul Houser, CREW & GMU; Ralph Ferraro, NOAA; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Robert Schiffer; UMBC-GEST; Sujay Kumar, NASA-GSFC; Joseph A. Santanello, NASA-GSFC; Tristan L'Ecuyer, Colorado State U.; Wei-Kuo Tao; NASA-GSFC; Xia Feng; George Mason U.

Houser, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

2008-05-01

249

Ground water in the North Side Pumping Division, Minidoka Project, Minidoka County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

nearby is being developed by private capital. Completion of the Federal reclamation project will more than double the irrigated acreage in the North Side Division of the Minidoka Project. The area to be irrigated with ground water is at the south-central edge of the Snake River Plain adjacent to project lands that have been irrigated for many years with Snake River water.

Crosthwaite, Emerson G.; Scott, R. C.

1956-01-01

250

Reflex bronchial vasodilation in dogs evoked by injection of a small volume of water into a bronchus.  

PubMed

Injection of water into a lobar bronchus stimulates airway C-fibers and rapidly adapting receptors and evokes airway defense reflexes. To determine whether this stimulus also evokes a reflex increase in bronchial blood flow (Qbr), we injected 1-2 ml of water into a lobar bronchus in anesthetized dogs. Injection decreased arterial pressure but increased Qbr from 9 +/- 1 to 21 +/- 3 ml/min. The increase had a latency of 6-8 s and reached a peak after approximately 20 s; Qbr returned to control after 60-90 s. Airway mucosal blood flow, measured by colored microspheres, increased in proportion to Qbr. In contrast, flow in an adjacent intercostal artery that did not supply the airway decreased slightly. Injection of isosmotic saline had little effect. In 13 of 16 dogs, the water-induced increase in Qbr was abolished by cutting or cooling the cervical vagus nerves and hence was entirely dependent on centrally mediated vagal pathways. When the vagus nerves were intact, about one-third of the vasodilator response remained after pharmacological blockade of muscarinic and adrenergic receptors. We conclude that in dogs the defense response to water in the lower airways includes a large increase in Qbr that is partly due to activation of nonadrenergic noncholinergic autonomic pathways. PMID:8307879

Pisarri, T E; Coleridge, H M; Coleridge, J C

1993-11-01

251

Sensitive and rapid flow injection analysis of sulfonylurea herbicides in water with micellar-enhanced photochemically induced fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow injection analysis (FIA) system, combined with micellar-enhanced photochemically induced fluorescence (MEPIF) detection is developed for the sensitive and rapid determination of four sulfonylurea herbicides including chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron methyl, 3-rimsulfuron and sulfometuron methyl in water. The use of micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as mobile phase provides improved analytical conditions. The FIA manifold

Atanasse Coly; Jean-Jacques Aaron

1999-01-01

252

Determination of sulphate in water by flow-injection analysis with electrode-separated piezoelectric quartz crystal sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flow-injection analysis (FIA) system with detection by an electrode-separated piezoelectric quartz crystal (ESPQC) was developed for sulphate determination in water. The method was based on the decrease in conductivity upon precipitation of barium sulphate due to the mixing between reagent and sample with change indicated by the frequency shift in the ESPQC sensor. The best performance was achieved

Y. S. Fung; C. C. W. Wong; J. T. S. Choy; K. L. Sze

2008-01-01

253

Modelling transient temperature distribution for injecting hot water through a well to an aquifer thermal energy storage system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat storage systems are usually used to store waste heat and solar energy. In this study, a mathematical model is developed to predict both the steady-state and transient temperature distributions of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system after hot water is injected through a well into a confined aquifer. The ATES has a confined aquifer bounded by aquicludes with

Shaw-Yang Yang; Hund-Der Yeh; Kuang-Yi Li

2010-01-01

254

Visualisation of Oil Recovery by Water Alternating Gas (WAG) Injection Using High Pressure Micromodels - Oil-Wet & Mixed-Wet Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In reservoirs that have been waterflooded or gas injected, it is still possible to recover a significant amount of the remaining oil by water -alternating-gas (WAG) injection. WAG injection has been successfully implemented in some waterflooded reservoirs. However, the physical processes underlying the complex three-phase flow in WAG have not been well understood. A series of WAG experiments has been

M. Sohrabi; D. H. Tehrani; A. Danesh; G. D. Henderson

2001-01-01

255

Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota; analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degree Celsius) in the deep Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer (180 to 240 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. High-temperature water from the University's steam-generation facilities supplied heated water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal- Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection/withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through another well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection, and withdrawal. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.7 to 18.4 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, noniso- thermal ground-water flow and thermal-energy- transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to (1) field-recorded temperatures at selected locations, in four observation wells; (2) field- recorded temperatures at the production well; and (3) calculated aquifer-thermal efficiences. Model- computed withdrawal-water temperaturs were within an average of about 3 percent of measured values and model-computed aquifer-thermal efficiencies were within an average of about 5 percent of calculated values for the short-term test cycles. These data indicate that the model accurately simulated thermal-energy storage.

Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G. N.

1994-01-01

256

Water assessment of Cathedral Bluffs shale oil demonstration project, White River basin - Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This water assessment was undertaken by the U.S. Water Resources Council (WRC) under authority of the Federal Non-Nuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as amended. WRC gives an assessment for the Cathedral Bluffs Shale Oil Demonstration Project, located within the White River Basin, Colorado. The objectives of the study were to identify and document: Water requirements for the project; present and future water supply availability; and water resources impacts.

Not Available

1981-09-01

257

Comprehensive health effects testing program for Denver's potable water reuse demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Health Effects Testing Program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project is designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater compared to Denver's present high?quality drinking water. The 1 million gallon per day (1 mgd) demonstration plant provides water to be evaluated in the studies treating unchlorinated

William C. Lauer; Frank J. Johns; Gary W. Wolfe; Barbara A. Myers; Lyman W. Condie; Joseph F. Borzelleca

1990-01-01

258

Numerical simulation of MH growth/dissociation by hot water injection on the Lab. experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane Hydrate (MH) is considered to be one of the new-generation energy resources. Aiming to develop the method of extraction of methane gas from MH, laboratory experiments have been performed in order to grasp the MH property in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba in Japan. In this paper, we present the results of the numerical simulation of experiment using by the hot water injection. In this calculation, FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer) code is used. This code is developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this experiment, temperature, pressure and cumulative gas production were measured. From these data, we suppose that MH growth/dissociation occurred by the flow of the hot water. And we make the model of the growth/dissociation. As this model consist of many parameters, it is difficult to determine parameters. Thus, we use PEST (Parameter ESTimation ) in order to determine parameters for the model of the MH growth/ dissociation. We use temperature data of experiment, as observed data. We make two observed data sets at the beginning and later term of experiment. At the results of PEST, we obtain two sets of parameters to get good match the observed data. We think that these sets indicate both the maximum and the minimum values of the MH growth/dissociation model. And, on this range, we continue to calculate until we get the good match. Finally, we obtain the numerical model of the experiment. Also, we conducted the sensitive analysis for the MH growth/ dissociation using this model.

Temma, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Pawar, R.; Zyvoloski, G.

2005-12-01

259

Enfuvirtide Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... a previous injection of enfuvirtide.Never reuse needles, syringes, vials of enfuvirtide, or vials of sterile water. Dispose of used needles and syringes in a puncture-resistant container. Do not put ...

260

The spout of air jets upwardly injected into a water bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spout region of gas jets in liquids has received little attention, although it has both theoretical and practical significance. In this study, the spout of upwardly injected gas jets in water was characterized experimentally in terms of gas fraction, bubble frequency, and axial velocity distributions for ultimate incorporation into turbulent recirculating flow models. The measurements were made with a two-element electroresistivity probe coupled to a microcomputer. For the turbulent flow conditions prevailing in the jet plume and spout, special hardware and software were developed to analyze the signals generated by contact of the bubbles with the sensor in real time. Correlations of the gas fraction with axial and radial position for different gas flow rates have been established from the measurements. The dimensions of the spout were obtained from time-exposure photographs; when compared with the gas-fraction measurements, the spout boundary always corresponded to values ranging from 0.82 to 0.86. The radial profiles of bubble frequency at different levels in the spout exhibit a bell shape; the bubble frequency decreases with increasing height. The velocity of the bubbles in the spout drops linearly with increasing axial position.

Sahajwalla, V.; Castillejos, A. H.; Brimacombe, J. K.

1990-02-01

261

US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action ground water Project. Revision 1, Version 1: Final project plan  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy requirements of the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1988). This scope of work will entail the following activities, on a site-specific basis: Development of a compliance strategy based upon modification of the UMTRA Surface Project remedial action plans (RAP) or development of Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC and state or tribal concurrence on the RAP; implementation of the RAP to include establishment of institutional controls, where appropriate; institution of long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate DOE program on or before the Project end date; and preparation of completion reports and final licensing on those sites that will be completed prior to the Project end date.

Not Available

1993-12-21

262

Pharmacological Interventions Including Medical Injections for Neck Pain: An Overview as Part of the ICON§ Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To conduct an overview (review-of-reviews) on pharmacological interventions for neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched from 2006 to 2012. Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) in adults with acute to chronic neck pain reporting effects of pharmacological interventions including injections on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias and extracted data The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel provided critical review. Main Results: We found 26 reviews reporting on 47 RCTs. Most pharmacological interventions had low to very low quality methodologic evidence with three exceptions. For chronic neck pain, there was evidence of: a small immediate benefit for eperison hydrochloride (moderate GRADE, 1 trial, 157 participants);no short-term pain relieving benefit for botulinum toxin-A compared to saline (strong GRADE; 5 trial meta-analysis, 258 participants) nor for subacute/chronic whiplash (moderate GRADE; 4 trial meta-analysis, 183 participants) including reduced pain, disability or global perceived effect; andno long-term benefit for medial branch block of facet joints with steroids (moderate GRADE; 1 trial, 120 participants) over placebo to reduce pain or disability; Reviewers' Conclusions: While in general there is a lack of evidence for most pharmacological interventions, current evidence is against botulinum toxin-A for chronic neck pain or subacute/chronic whiplash; against medial branch block with steroids for chronic facet joint pain; but in favour of the muscle relaxant eperison hydrochloride for chronic neck pain.

Peloso, Paul M; Khan, Mahweesh; Gross, Anita R; Carlesso, Lisa; Santaguida, Lina; Lowcock, Janet; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, Dave; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Langevin, Pierre; Shi, Qiyun

2013-01-01

263

Alamogordo Regional Water Supply Project. Final Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 2-Appendicies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has prepared the Alamogordo Water Supply Project Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to assess the City of Alamogordo's (City's) proposal to develop a municipal potable water supply. The City has determined ...

2012-01-01

264

Biological impacts associated with the proposed retention basin and ground water projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and the ground water projects at Site 300  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses impacts for the proposed retention basin and ground water projects at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Topics discussed include positive impacts, negative impacts, mitigation and monitoring. 4 refs. (KJD)

Not Available

1990-05-30

265

Projected regime shift in Arctic cloud and water vapor feedbacks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (Ts), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in Ts that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and Ts, leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and Ts. We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer A.; Russell, Gary L.

2011-10-01

266

Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

267

Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

268

Preliminary report on isotope abundance measurements in groundwater samples from the Talbert Injection Barrier Area, Orange County Water District  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses isotope abundance measurements made on a collection of groundwater samples from the Orange County Water District. The water samples were collected in May, 1994 as part of a preliminary study conducted by LLNL to assess the feasibility of tracing and dating reclaimed water used in the Talbert Injection Barrier. A set of samples were collected both near to and far from the barrier and also at different depths in available monitoring wells. A variety of elements were selected for isotopic analysis; hydrogen (tritium), helium, neon, carbon, chlorine and strontium. The tritium abundance combined with the {sup 3}He and {sup 20}Ne abundance provides a method for age dating young (< 40 yr.) groundwater. The abundance of {sup 14}C provides an age dating technique for older (1,000--50,000 yr.) groundwater. The concentrations of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr give information on sea water mixing and water-rock chemical interactions.

Hudson, G.B.; Davisson, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Niemeyer, S.; Esser, B.; Beiriger, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Isotope Sciences Div.

1995-02-01

269

Monitoring and detecting CO2 injected into water-saturated sandstone with joint seismic and resistivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of basic studies of monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) storage using electrical and seismic surveys, laboratory experiments have been conducted to measure resistivity and P-wave velocity changes due to the injection of CO2 into water-saturated sandstone. The rock sample used is a cylinder of Berea sandstone. CO2 was injected under supercritical conditions (10MPa, 40°C). The experimental results show that resistivity increases monotonously throughout the injection period, while P-wave velocity and amplitude decrease drastically due to the supercritical CO2 injection. A reconstructed P-wave velocity tomogram clearly images CO2 migration in the sandstone sample. Both resistivity and seismic velocity are useful for monitoring CO2 behaviour. P-wave velocity, however, is less sensitive than resistivity when the CO2 saturation is greater than ~20%. The result indicates that the saturation estimation from resistivity can effectively complement the difficulty of CO2 saturation estimations from seismic velocity variations. By combining resistivity and seismic velocity we were able to estimate CO2 saturation distribution and the injected CO2 behaviour in our sample.

Kim, Jongwook; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Xue, Ziqiu

2011-02-01

270

Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

271

Synchronized droplet size measurements for coal-water-slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31

272

Project SAILS: Launching Information Literacy Assessment Across University Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 2000, a team headquartered at Kent State University launched Project SAILS, with the objective of developing a standardized test for assessing information literacy skills. Auburn University Libraries was one of the charter institutions that participated in pilot testing the Project SAILS instrument. This article provides background information about Auburn's participation in Project SAILS, reports on how Auburn University

Juliet Rumble; Nancy Noe

2009-01-01

273

Balanced charge injection in multilayer polymer light-emitting diode with water soluble nonconjugated polymer dispersed by ionic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have fabricated highly efficient polymeric light-emitting diode (PLED) from ionic compound dispersed water soluble nonconjugated polymer, polyurethane (PU), which was used as an ultrathin hole blocking and electron injection layer (HB-EIL) on the top of commercially available blue-emitting polymer, polyfluorene. The device with HB-EIL showed a maximum quantum efficiency of 1.7%, while the one without HB-EIL showed an

Dong-Kyu Park; A.-Rum Chun; Soo-Hong Kim; Min-Sook Kim; Choong-Gi Kim; Tae-Woo Kwon; Seong-Jin Cho; Hyung-Suk Woo; Jae-Gyoung Lee; Suck-Hyun Lee; Zhi-Xin Guo

2007-01-01

274

Continuous shipboard determination of Fe(II) in polar waters using flow injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the continuous underway determination of Fe(II) in polar waters is reported. Surface seawater is pumped into a shipboard clean room container using a towed fish with Teflon diaphragm pump. Fe(II) was determined by flow injection analysis using a modified FeLume. The seawater is filtered in-line and the sample containing Fe(II) is mixed with luminol (buffered to pH

Peter L Croot; Patrick Laan

2002-01-01

275

Determination of Aluminum Traces in Hemodialysis and Tap Water Using Standard Method's Procedure Modified and Flow Injection Ionic Exchange Preconcentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of aluminum traces in water using a flow injection (FI) preconcentration system has been proposed. The flow system was made up of a peristaltic pump, an injector?commutator, and a minicolumn filled with 300.0 mg of Amberlite IR?120 cationic exchange resin. After the preconcentration step, aluminum was eluted by a 4.0 mol l HCl solution. In a second

Edson Luiz da Silva; Edgard Moreira Ganzarolli; Roldão R. U. de Queiróz

2005-01-01

276

Effects on renal excretion in rats after injection of bile extracts from some fresh-water fish.  

PubMed

Bile acid extracts were prepared from grass carp, bighead, common carp, milk fish and tilapia. Injection of the fish bile extracts (3.6 mg/kg, i.v.) into rats increased renal excretion of water, sodium and potassium; decreased blood pressure; and hemolyzed RBCs. The diuretic, natriuretic, hypotensive and hemolytic actions of the bile extracts were stronger in grass carp, bighead and common carp, moderate in milk fish, and weakest in tilapia. PMID:2017768

Chen, C F; Lin, M C; Liu, F M; Fang, H S

1991-04-01

277

Synthesis and application of a functionalized resin for flow injection\\/F AAS copper determination in waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the development of a new strategy for low-level determination of copper in water samples by using a flow-injection system coupled to solid-phase extraction (SPE) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS) as detector. In order to preconcentrate copper from samples, a minicolumn packed with a styrene-divinylbenzene resin functionalized with (S)-2-[hydroxy-bis-(4-vinyl-phenyl)-methyl]-pyrrolidine-1-carboxylic acid ethyl ester was used and the

Ricardo J. Cassella; Otto I. B. Magalhães; Marcos Tadeu Couto; Edson Luiz S. Lima; Marcia Angélica F. S. Neves; Fernanda Margarida B. Coutinho

2005-01-01

278

Meeting the challenge of policy-relevant science: lessons from a water resource project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water resources scientists face complex tasks in evaluating aspects of water projects, but relatively few assessment procedures have been applied and accepted as standards applications. Decision-makers often rely on environmental assessments to evaluate the value and operation of projects. There is often confusion about scientists' role in policy decisions. The scientist can affect policy-making as an expert witness, an advocate

Berton L. Lamb

1986-01-01

279

INTRODUCTION THE AQUATEST PROJECT: INCREASING THE ABILITY TO MONITOR WATER QUALITY AT SUPPLY LEVEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aquatest project is a collaboration of a number of international organisations seeking to develop a combination of a low-cost water quality field kit and a cellphone based data collection tool. The aim of the project is to support basic drinking water quality monitoring at supply level, as well as the collection of results in a digital format. UCT's contribution

Ulrike Rivett; Melissa Loudon; Jim Wright

280

Scale issues in the governance of water storage projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the face of global change, which is characterized by growing water demands and increasingly variable water supplies, the equitable sharing of water and the drought proofing of rural livelihoods will require an increasing physical capacity to store water. This is especially true for the semiarid and dry subhumid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This paper addresses the following

Pieter van der Zaag; Joyeeta Gupta

2008-01-01

281

Regulation of geochemical activity of microorganisms in a petroleum reservoir by injection of H 2 O 2 or water-air mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of pilot trials of biotechnologies for the enhancement of oil recovery in formation waters of the Gangxi bed\\u000a of the Dagang oil field (China), microbiological processes were investigated. The biotechnologies are based on injection into\\u000a the petroleum reservoir of different oxygen sources (H2O2 solution or a water-air mixture) with nitrogen and phosphorus salts. The injection of water-air

T. N. Nazina; N. K. Pavlova; Fangtian Ni; N. M. Shestakova; V. S. Ivoilov; Qingxian Feng; Zhao Dongyun; T. S. Prusakova; S. S. Belyaev; M. V. Ivanov

2008-01-01

282

Maintenance of flows downstream from water-development projects in Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

All known water projects in Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming with streamflow agreements and data on streamflows below the project were examined to assess the frequency of discrepancies between agreed-to and actual flows. A total of 73 water development projects were identified, involving 119 locations with minimum streamflow agreements. Of these 61 locations, 54 exhibited flows below those established in streamflow agreements on at least some occasions; 28 locations had flows 25% of the established agreement or less. These data are summarized by State, agency, and type of agreement in the main report. An appendix (bound separately) presents detailed data on each of the water development projects examined.

Raley, C.; Hubert, W.; Anderson, S.

1988-08-01

283

Conserving precious water at the Rocky Mountain pumped-storage project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rocky Mountain is a 760-MW pumped-storage project being constructed about 10 miles northwest of Rome, Georgia. The project's sole source for filling and operating water, Heath Creek, drains only 15 square miles. Flow in the creek averages just 28 cubic feet per second (cfs). Even though the project area receives an average of 55 inches of precipitation each year, rainfall

1993-01-01

284

Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Annual progress report for 1987  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes progress during 1987 of five Hanford Site ground water monitoring projects. Four of these projects are being conducted according to regulations based on the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the state Hazardous Waste Management Act. The fifth project is being conducted according to regulations based on the state Solid Waste Management Act. The

Hall

1988-01-01

285

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

R. Johansen

2011-09-01

286

The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

287

A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery  

SciTech Connect

A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy while not resulting in a decrease in power density.

Conklin, Jim [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

2010-01-01

288

Results and interpretations of hot and cold water injection experiments on Pauzhetka water-dominated geothermal field in Kamchatka  

SciTech Connect

An early injection experiment has been conducted in attempt to evaluate of possibilities of waste disposal and of influence degree of reinjection on thermo and hydro regime of field. Changing of temperature profiles, fluid enthalpy, pressure, well’s output and chemical test data in more than 30 injection, exploitation and observation wells has been analyzed and interpreted. Results have allowed to define of structure and resources of geothermal field more accurately, to determine of rational reinjection strategy and to restart of reinjection in 1994.

Pashkevich, Roman I.

1996-01-24

289

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

2008-07-01

290

Southeast Anatolian Project and Middle East Water: Implications for NATO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water shortages are acute in the Middle East due to limited supplies and growing populations, which drive a concomitant demand for water for personal, agricultural, and industrial purposes. One Middle East country, Turkey, a NATO member, has addressed the...

M. W. Temple

1998-01-01

291

Building New Water Resources Projects or Managing Existing Systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The planning of regional water resources systems and their subsequent management has to rest firmly on three foundations: availability of water of adequate quality, demand for water expressed quantitatively for specific periods of time, and direct, indirect, and externality costs. Mathematical models of hydrosystems represent only a segment of the real world. The basic science of hydrology is an empirical

Nathan Buras

2000-01-01

292

Countywide Projections of Community Water Supply Needs in the Midwest.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis of county-level, public-supply water use in six Midwestern states provides useful insights into the relationship between water use and those factors that are most likely to predict or explain water use. It also provides a perspective on the ...

B. Dziegielewski

2004-01-01

293

Modeling of carbon cycling and biogeochemical changes during injection and recovery of reclaimed water at Bolivar, South Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managed aquifer recharge is an increasingly popular technique to secure and enhance water supplies. Among a range of recharging techniques, single-well aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is becoming a common option to either augment drinking water supplies or facilitate reuse of reclaimed water. For the present study a conceptual biogeochemical model for reclaimed water ASR was developed and incorporated into an existing reactive multicomponent transport model. The conceptual and numerical model for carbon cycling includes various forms of organic and inorganic carbon and several reactive processes that transfer carbon within and across different phases. The major geochemical processes considered in the model were microbially mediated redox reactions, driven by the mineralization of organic carbon, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and ion exchange. The numerical model was tested and applied for the analysis of observed data collected during an ASR field experiment at Bolivar, South Australia. The model simulation of this experiment provides a consistent interpretation of the observed hydrochemical changes. The results suggest that during the storage phase, dynamic changes in bacterial mass have a significant influence on the local geochemistry in the vicinity of the injection/extraction well. Farther away from the injection/extraction well, breakthrough of cations is shown to be strongly affected by exchange reactions and, in the case of calcium, by calcite dissolution.

Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Pavelic, Paul; Dillon, Peter

2005-10-01

294

An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs  

PubMed Central

Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

2012-01-01

295

Injection of Contaminants into a Simulated Water Distribution System Equipped with Continuous Multi-Parameter Water Monitors  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA?s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Multi-parameter water monitors for distributions systems have been evaluated as such a water security techn...

296

El Furrial field miscible gas and water injection enhanced oil recovery project  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Furrial field in the North of Monagas state was discovered in 1987, and originally contained approximately 6.9 million stock tank barrels of off in place. The principal operator, Lagoven S.A., has devoted intensive engineering studies to define the optimum exploitation strategy and maximize final recovery. As a result of these studies, production mechanisms were early identified and a reservoir

P. J. Herbas; L. Diamond; T. Pedroza

1996-01-01

297

Water lamp and pinwheels: ambient projection of digital information into architectural space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will be an interface between humans and online digital information. This paper introduces ambient fixtures called Water Lamp and Pinwheels: a new approach to interfacing people with online digital information. The Water Lamp projects water ripple shadow created by a \\

Andrew Dahley; Craig Wisneski; Hiroshi Ishii

1998-01-01

298

Open Ocean Assessments for Management in the GEF Transboundary Waters Assessment Project (TWAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for a thematic and scientifically-credible assessment of Open Ocean waters as a part of the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Transboundary Waters Assessment Project (TWAP) has been developed in the last 18 months by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, and is presented for feedback and comment. While developed to help the GEF International Waters focal area target investment

A. S. Fischer; K. D. Alverson

2010-01-01

299

Analysis of a rural water supply project in three communities in Mali: Participation and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a qualitative assessment of the participatory water management strategies implemented at the community level in rural Mali through a water supply project — The West Africa Water Initiative (WAWI) — coordinated by Wo rld Vision International, a non-governmental and humanitarian organization. Data for the study were generated through a combination of primary and secondary sources in three

Brett A. Gleitsmann; Margaret M. Kroma; Tammo Steenhuis

2007-01-01

300

Is the Pungwe water supply project a solution to water accessibility and sanitation problems for the households of Sakubva, Zimbabwe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the severe drought of 1991–92, the City of Mutare embarked upon a concerted search for a secure water supply. This search culminated in the decision to transfer water from the Pungwe River via pipeline to the City of Mutare. This project was heralded as bringing ‘purity, security, and prosperity’ to the people of Mutare. Once again, and as is

Azwidowi Mukheli; Gilbert Mosupye; Larry A Swatuk

2002-01-01

301

Determination of Pollutional Potential of the Ogallala Aquifer by Salt Water Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Field studies were conducted to determine whether contamination of the Ogallala Aquifer could result from the current practice of injection of oil-field brines into the Glorieta Sandstone, which lies 500 to 1,000 feet below the Ogallala in Texas County, O...

L. G. McMillion B. W. Maxwell

1970-01-01

302

A flow injection voltammetric electronic tongue applied to paper mill industrial waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A voltammetric electronic tongue with automated operation based on the flow injection (FIA) technique was applied to the characterization of wastewaters coming from the paper mill industry. A metallic multielectrode array – formed by platinum, gold and rhodium electrodes – was employed as the detection system, while the measurements were based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry (LAPV). LAPV consisted in

A. Gutés; F. Cespedes; M. del Valle; D. Louthander; C. Krantz-Rülcker; F. Winquist

2006-01-01

303

Gas migration through water-saturated, fractured rock: results of a gas injection test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of gases and possible development and migration of a gas phase at depth in groundwater-saturated, fractured rock has become an important aspect of assessing the performance and safety of radioactive waste disposal sites. To study gas-phase migration in this environment, helium gas was injected at constant pressure through an access borehole into an inclined fracture zone at a

M. Gascoyne; D. M. Wuschke

1997-01-01

304

The Effects of Droplet Size and Injection Orientation on Water Mist Suppression of Low and High Boiling Point Liquid Pool Fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental parametric study of water mist suppression of large-scale liquid pool fires. The experiments were conducted with 50cm diameter pan heptane and JP8 pool fires. Mist was injected into the fire from the base at 90 and 45 and from the top at 90. The results show that base injection of droplets enhanced

CHUKA C. NDUBIZU; RAMAGOPAL ANANTH; PATRICIA A. TATEM

2000-01-01

305

The Impact of Field Enhancements and Charge Injection on the Pulsed Breakdown Strength of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique theoretical model of the breakdown mechanism in water has been developed and further tested in both simulation software and experimentation. The conducted experiments test the degree to which electrode material, surface roughness, and surface area impact the dielectric strength of water. Voltage pulses with respective rise times of roughly 200 and 20 ns were applied to a water

David A. Wetz; John J. Mankowski; James C. Dickens; Magne Kristiansen

2006-01-01

306

Projected energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems  

SciTech Connect

A computer model has been developed to predict present and future regional water, energy, labor, and capital requirements of irrigated agricultural production in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The energy requirements calculated were on-farm pumping, and total energies. Total energies are the combined energies of on-farm pumping, manufacture, and installation. Irrigation system selections and modifications were based on an economic analysis utilizing the following input parameters: water, energy, labor, and capital costs and requirements; groundwater and surface water pumping lifts; improved application efficiencies; and pumping plant efficiencies. Major conclusions and implications of this analysis indicate that: as water application efficiencies increases additional quantities of water will not become available to other users; an overall increase in water application efficiencies resulted in decreases in gross water applications and increases in overall on-farm pumping and total energy consumptions; more energy will be consumed as pumping and total energies than will be conserved through decreased diversion pumping energy requirements; pump-back and similar technologies have the potential of both increasing application efficiencies and energy conservation; and the interrelationships understood between applying water in quantities greater than required for crop consumptive use and leaching, and late season in-steam flow augmentation and/or aquifer recharge are not well understood, and sound policy decisions concerning agricultural use of water and energy cannot be made until these interrelationships are better understood.

King, L. D.; Hellickson, M. L.; Schmisseur, W. E.; Shearer, M. N.

1978-10-01

307

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

NONE

1996-03-01

308

The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system  

SciTech Connect

Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

1992-01-01

309

Flow injection method for the determination of silver concentration in drinking water for spacecrafts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow injection method has been developed for determination of silver. The method is based on a reduction reaction with sodium borohydride which leads to the formation of a colloidal species which is monitored at a wavelength of 390nm.The reaction variables flow rate, sodium borohydride concentration and pH, which affect sensitivity, were investigated and their effects were established using a

Maria Concetta Bruzzoniti; Dorota Korte Kobylinska; Mladen Franko; Corrado Sarzanini

2010-01-01

310

Organic secondary ion mass spectrometry: Signal enhancement by water vapor injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of the static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) signals resulting from the injection, closely to the\\u000a sample surface, of H2O vapor at relatively high-pressure, was investigated for a set of organic materials. While the ion signals are generally\\u000a improved with increasing H2O pressure upon 12 keV Ga+ bombardment, a specific enhancement of the protonated ion intensity is clearly

Taoufiq Mouhib; Arnaud Delcorte; Claude Poleunis; Patrick Bertrand

2010-01-01

311

Flow injection analysis of the insecticide imidacloprid in water samples with photochemically induced fluorescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow injection analysis (FIA) system, combined with photochemical induced fluorescence (PIF) detection is developed for the sensitive and rapid determination of imidacloprid. It is based on the conversion of imidacloprid into the fluorophore 1-(6-chloro-3-pyridyl-methyl)-2-(hydroxyimino)-3,4-didehydroimidalozolidene. In an aqueous medium, this compound shows native fluorescence with an excitation maximum at 334nm and an emission maximum at 377nm. The linear concentration range

J. L V??lchez; M. C Valencia; A Navalón; B Molinero-Morales; L. F Capitán-Vallvey

2001-01-01

312

Water supply conditions for Bureau of Reclamation Project areas, May 1995. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes water supply conditions at selected Bureau of Reclamation projects and river basins as of May 1, 1995. Water supply is described by several parameters, including soil moisture, streamflow forecasts, snow water equivalents, accumulated precipitation, accumulated inflows, and reservoir storage. Discussion and data are presented for water supply conditions in the 17 Western States in general, with more complete discussion and data provided in individual summaries for each of the five Reclamation Regions.

Leverson, V.; Meyer, S.; Larsen, D.

1995-05-01

313

An Assessment Methodology for the Environmental Impact of Water Resource Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents materials intended for use by reviewers of environmental impact statements on major water resources development reservoir projects. The report is prepared as a series of six related but individually referenced discussions of the follo...

C. Ifeadi D. C. Cooper J. L. Moore M. L. Warner S. Chatterjee

1974-01-01

314

BOHOL-CEBU Water Supply Project, Central Visayas, The Philippines. Volume 1. Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, presents the results of a study which was conducted to address engineering, construction, environmental, economic, financial, legal, and institutional considerations related to the implementation of a project that would divert fresh water fro...

1996-01-01

315

77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...District. City of Santa Barbara. Tulare Irrigation District. Pacheco Irrigation District. City of Tracy. Citrus Heights. Water District. To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 (CVPIA) and the...

2012-06-05

316

The Politics of Economic Feasibility and the Animas-La Plata Water Project: Assessing the Costs of Native American Water Rights Settlements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Reclamation has nearly completed the $500 million dollar Animas-La Plata water project in southwestern Colorado. The purpose of the project is to settle Native American water rights claims by storing municipal and industrial water in Nighthorse Reservoir for the Ute Mountain Ute and Southern Ute Indian Tribes. In addition to water storage, the Ute Mountain Ute and

Brian Ellison; Todd Cherry

317

Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers  

SciTech Connect

X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

2010-06-25

318

A State Grant Program for Water-Supply Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1972 approval of the bonds for the Clean Water Bond Act began a program for creating and upgrading watersupply and wastewater treatment facilities. Grants have been given to 310 out of 361 applicants in this successful program.

Joseph F. Riley

1976-01-01

319

Preventing livestock water from freezing. Forest Service project record  

SciTech Connect

Available equipment for, and approaches to, preventing livestock water from freezing were surveyed in terms of water circulation, mass insulation, heat pipes, and solar energy. Use of insulated covers and applying insulation to the sides of stock tanks should be considered for ice-free stock water tanks. The propane bubbler seems the most simple and cost-effective freeze-prevention technique in climates that are not extreme. Photovoltaic-powered, water-circulation pumps appear to be practical and, because of their low cost, should be further investigated. Mass-insulated tanks are probably one of the simplest and most certain of the approaches presented for preventing freezing in livestock watering tanks. Heat pipes are an alternative to the propane bubbler that do not require a nonrenewable energy source. Photovoltaic cells to power an electric coil heater for freeze prevention in livestock stock tanks is impractical because of the high cost of the photovoltaic cells. Solar-heated (greenhouse effect), water-immersed, insulated tanks within a stock tank are considered excellent.

McKenzie, D.W.; Kashuba, T.J.; Waddington, D.; Leboeuf, C.M.; May, E.K.

1983-11-01

320

Design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenic species in natural waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in natural waters is described. The instrument incorporates solenoid activated self-priming micropumps and electronic switching valves for controlling the fluidics of the system and a miniature charge-coupled device spectrometer operating in a graphical programming environment. The limits of detection were found to be 0.79 and 0.98 ?M for As(III) and As(V), respectively, with linear range of 1-50 ?M. Spiked ultrapure water samples were analyzed and recoveries were found to be 97%-101% for As(III) and 95%-99% for As(V), respectively. Future directions in terms of automation, optimization, and field deployment are discussed.

Hanrahan, Grady; Fan, Tina K.; Kantor, Melanie; Clark, Keith; Cardenas, Steven; Guillaume, Darrell W.; Khachikian, Crist S.

2009-10-01

321

Design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenic species in natural waters  

PubMed Central

The design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in natural waters is described. The instrument incorporates solenoid activated self-priming micropumps and electronic switching valves for controlling the fluidics of the system and a miniature charge-coupled device spectrometer operating in a graphical programming environment. The limits of detection were found to be 0.79 and 0.98 ?M for As(III) and As(V), respectively, with linear range of 1–50 ?M. Spiked ultrapure water samples were analyzed and recoveries were found to be 97%–101% for As(III) and 95%–99% for As(V), respectively. Future directions in terms of automation, optimization, and field deployment are discussed.

Hanrahan, Grady; Fan, Tina K.; Kantor, Melanie; Clark, Keith; Cardenas, Steven; Guillaume, Darrell W.; Khachikian, Crist S.

2009-01-01

322

Sustainable Hydro Assessment and Groundwater Recharge Projects (SHARP) in Germany - Water Balance Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHARP is a European INTERREG IVc Program. It focuses on the exchange of innovative technologies to protect groundwater resources for future generations by considering the climate change and the different geological and geographical conditions. Regions involved are Austria, United Kingdom, Poland, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Greece and Germany. They will exchange practical know-how and also determine know-how demands concerning SHARP’s key contents: general groundwater management tools, artificial groundwater recharge technologies, groundwater monitoring systems, strategic use of groundwater resources for drinking water, irrigation and industry, techniques to save water quality and quantity, drinking water safety plans, risk management tools and water balance models. SHARP Outputs & results will influence the regional policy in the frame of sustainable groundwater management to save and improve the quality and quantity of groundwater reservoirs for future generations. The main focus of the Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Landscape in this project is the enhancement and purposive use of water balance models. Already since 1992 scientists compare different existing water balance models on different scales and coupled with groundwater models. For example in the KLIWEP (Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for the Catchment of River Parthe in Saxony) project the coupled model WaSiM-ETH - PCGEOFIM® has been used to study the impact of climate change on water balance and water supplies. The project KliWES (Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for Catchment Areas in Saxony) still running, comprises studies of fundamental effects of climate change on catchments in Saxony. Project objective is to assess Saxon catchments according to the vulnerability of their water resources towards climate change projections in order to derive region-specific recommendations for management actions. The model comparisons within reference areas showed significant differences in outcome. The values of water balance components calculated with different models partially fluctuate by a multiple of their value. The SHARP project was prepared in several previous projects that were testing suitable water balance models and is now able to assist the knowledge transfer.

Niemand, C.; Kuhn, K.; Schwarze, R.

2010-12-01

323

Hydraulic Communication Between Coalbeds and Overlying Sands in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Implications for Re-injection of Coalbed Methane Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed methane (CBM) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is associated with the production of large volumes of CBM water. CBM water from the PRB has high saline and sodium contents, making it unsuitable for agriculture and environmentally damaging. One option for the disposal of CBM water is re-injection into aquifers, but for injection to be feasible the porosity and permeability of the sands needs to be high, the pore pressure needs to be low, and the aquifer cannot be in hydraulic communication with the coalbeds. In order to determine if pore pressures in the aquifers are low enough to allow for significant CBM water re-injection and to determine whether the coals and sands are in hydraulic communication with each other we have calculated pore pressures in 220 wells that monitor water levels in coalbeds and adjacent sands within the PRB. All 220 wells have pore pressures below hydrostatic pressure, implying that re-injection of CBM water should be feasible. However, by analyzing pore pressure changes with time for both the coals and their overlying sands, we find that sands less than 100 ft from coal appear to be in communication with the coalbed. Therefore, re- injection of CBM water should be carried out in sands further than 100 ft from adjacent coalbeds. It also follows that CO2 sequestration in PRB coalbeds should not be carried out in areas where sands and coals are hydraulically connected, as potential leakage pathways for CO2 maybe present.

Ross, H. E.; Zoback, M. D.

2006-12-01

324

Analytical Review of Research Reports on the Social Impacts of Water Resources Development Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines all available post-audit studies that have found linkages between water development projects and social impacts. It then analyzes and reviews these impacts by the type of study, location, and project. The report is meant to be a refere...

H. H. Hitchcock R. C. Strobel

1979-01-01

325

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1995-09-01

326

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing ir...

1990-01-01

327

Controlled test of anthelmintic activity of levamisole administered to calves via drinking water, subcutaneous injection, or alfalfa pellet premix.  

PubMed

A controlled test of the activity of 3 formulations of levamisole, at the dose level of approximately 8 mg/kg, against naturally occurring infections of gastrointestinal parasites and lungworms was made in 24 calves allotted to 4 groups of 6 calves each. Levamisole was administered to group I calves in the drinking water, to group II calves by subcutaneous injection, and to Group III calves by feeding alfalfa pellets mixed in corn silage; group IV calves were nontreated controls. Group I calves consumed the medicated water between 4 hours and 20 minutes and 9 hours and 40 minutes; group III calves consumed the medicated feed within 2 hours and 15 minutes. For calves of group I, II, and III, removals of 4th-stage Ostertagia sp were 64, 23, and 0%; of mature Ostertagia ostertagi, 90, 93, and 83%; and of mature Trichostrongylus axei, 92, 99, and 92%, respectively. For all 3 treated groups of calves, removal was 100% for 4th-stage Cooperia sp and for mature Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Cooperia oncophora, Cooperia punctata, and Oesophagostomum radiatum. Removals of Dictyocaulus vivipara were 90, 90, and 94% for calves of groups I, II, and III, respectively. There was no evidence of toxicosis. At necropsy, 2 calves in group II had small areas of edema at the sites of injection of levamisole. PMID:125055

Lyons, E T; Drudge, J H; LaBore, D E; Tolliver, S C

1975-06-01

328

Cultural changes and water-asset realignment to support water-reuse projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although product and energy integration is cornerstones in the design and operation of large, integrated chemical plants, generally the effective use of water is not. Water is regarded as cheap, non-hazardous and readily available. The awareness of environmental impacts and the ‘true’ cost of water have made water-systems optimization (WSO) an important topic. The optimization of water use at large,

James G Mann

2003-01-01

329

Research and practice on fluctuation water injection technology at low permeability coal seam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the problem of poor affusion effect on low permeability coal seam, the paper analyzes the micro process of the coal seam water infusion in wetting coal and determines the main factors affecting coal seam water infusion. The permeability of the NO.3 coal seam in east working face of Xingcun coal mine by MTS815.03 servo-controlled rock mechanical

Wei-min Cheng; Wen Nie; Gang Zhou; Yanbin Yu; Youying Ma; Jiao Xue

330

The Streaming Potential Coupling Coefficient of Liquid Carbon Dioxide Injected Into Water Saturated Berea Sandstone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The streaming potential coupling coefficient was determined for a liquid carbon dioxide flood of a water-saturated sample of Berea sandstone. The coupling coefficient for the rock\\/water case was determined both before and after each CO2 flood of three samples using a low-pressure static head method. Next, liquid CO2 was allowed to flow through each sample. As the CO2 displaced the

J. R. Moore; S. D. Glaser; H. F. Morrison

2003-01-01

331

Improving oxygen conditions in the deeper parts of bornholm sea by pumped injection of winter water.  

PubMed

Vertical diffusivity and oxygen consumption in the basin water, the water below the sill level at about 59 m depth, have been estimated by applying budget methods to monitoring data from hydrographical stations BY4 and BY5 for periods without water renewal. From the vertical diffusivity, the mean rate of work against the buoyancy forces below 65 m depth is estimated to about 0.10 mW m(-2). This is slightly higher than published values for East Gotland Sea. The horizontally averaged vertical diffusivity ? can be approximated by the expression ? = a 0 N (-1) where N is the buoyancy frequency and a 0 ? 1.25 × 10(-7) m(2) s(-2), which is similar to values for a 0 used for depths below the halocline in Baltic proper circulation models for long-term simulations. The contemporary mean rate of oxygen consumption in the basin water is about 75 g O2 m(-2) year(-1), which corresponds to an oxidation of 28 g C m(-2) year(-1). The oxygen consumption in the Bornholm Basin doubled from the 1970s to the 2000s, which qualitatively explains the observed increasing frequency and vertical extent of anoxia and hypoxia in the basin water in records from the end of the 1950s to present time. A horizontally averaged vertical advection-diffusion model of the basin water is used to calculate the effects on stratification and oxygen concentration by a forced pump-driven vertical convection. It is shown that the residence time of the basin water may be reduced by pumping down and mixing the so-called winter water into the deepwater. With the present rate of oxygen consumption, a pumped flux of about 25 km(3) year(-1) would be sufficient to keep the oxygen concentration in the deepwater above 2 mL O2 L(-1). PMID:23161366

Stigebrandt, Anders; Kalén, Ola

2012-11-17

332

Mobilization of Waterflood Residual Oil by Gas Injection for Water-Wet Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that mechanisms by which waterflood residual oil is mobilized and recovered during tertiary gasflooding at quasistatic rates and strongly water-wet conditions were investigated with 2D glass micromodels. Two three-phase oil\\/water\\/gas systems were used in the displacement experiments. One system had a positive spreading coefficient, the other a negative coefficient. Results for the two systems were compared to

P. E. Oren; Joel Billiotte; W. V. Pinczewski

1992-01-01

333

Analysis of the steam injection at the Visalia Superfund Project with fully compositional nonisothermal finite difference simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

By injecting steam, over 1.1 million pounds of creosote has been recovered at the Visalia, California Superfund Site from an aquifer 102ft underground. In the first 6 weeks of injection 320,000lb of creosote were recovered or destroyed versus <1lb per day in a pump and treat. The finite difference simulator STARS1Developed, maintained and marketed by Computer Modeling Group Ltd., Calgary,

Myron I. Kuhlman

2002-01-01

334

Safe storage of Co 2 together with improved oil recovery by Co 2-enriched water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2007 IEA's World Energy Outlook report predicts that the world's energy needs will grow by 55% between 2005 and 2030, with fossil fuels accounting for 84% of this massive projected increase in energy demand. An undesired side effect of burning fossil fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2) emission which is now widely believed to be responsible for the problem of

Mehran Sohrabi; Nor Idah Kechut; Masoud Riazi; Mahmoud Jamiolahmady; Shaun Ireland; Graeme Robertson

2011-01-01

335

Maintenance of flows downstream from water-development projects in Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming. Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

All known water projects in Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming with streamflow agreements and data on streamflows below the project were examined to assess the frequency of discrepancies between agreed-to and actual flows. A total of 73 water development projects were identified, involving 119 locations with minimum streamflow agreements. Of these 61 locations, 54 exhibited flows below those established in streamflow agreements on at least some occasions; 28 locations had flows 25% of the established agreement or less. These data are summarized by State, agency, and type of agreement in the main report.

Raley, C.; Hubert, W.; Anderson, S.

1988-08-01

336

Determinants of farm water supply in the Lower Bhavani Project, Coimbatore, South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the determinants of farm water supply was conducted in the Lower Bhavani Project (LBP) Area, in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu during 1978–1979. The distance of a farmer's field from the outlet of the supply channel, size of the farm, number of intervening farmers, social characteristics, and possession of wells for supplymneting the canal water were the key

K. Palanisami; S. R. Subramanian

1983-01-01

337

Water Quality Modeling for the Napa River 100-Year Flood Control Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to compare dissolved oxygen (DO), and other water quality variables between existing and project conditions. The TWOwater quality model cE-QUAL-W2 was selected for the study. Constituents simula...

R. W. Hall M. S. Dortch

1998-01-01

338

Summary of engineering-scale experiments for the Solar Detoxification of Water project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains a summary of large-scale experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the Solar Detoxification of Water project. The objectives of the work performed were to determine the potential of using solar radiation to destroy organic contaminants in water by photocatalysis and to develop the process and improve its performance. For these experiments, we used parabolic troughs to

J. E. Pacheco; L. Yellowhorse

1992-01-01

339

Costly Mistakes In Water Treatment Plant Design For Power Plant Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment cost is a relatively small slice of the operating budget in a typical power plant, generally less than 2 % of the total cost of operation. However, its impact on the plant heat rate, net capacity factor and project profitability can range from significant to disproportionately high. One area of particular concern is the high-purity water requirement in

Luis Carvalho

340

Environmental Assessment of Ground Water Compliance at the Durango, Colorado, UMTRA Project Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the UMTRA Ground Water Project is to protect human health and the environment at abandoned uranium- ore processing sites by complying with the UMTRA ground water standards in 40 CFR 192. Currently, concentrations of uranium, se lenium, cadm...

2002-01-01

341

Projected global climate change impact on water temperatures in five north central U.S. streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of projected global climate change due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 on water temperatures in five streams in Minnesota was estimated using a deterministic heat transport model. The model calculates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the water and is driven by climate parameters and stream hydrologic parameters. The model is most sensitive to air temperature and

H. G. Stefan; B. A. Sinokrot

1993-01-01

342

Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a Solar Hot Water System at a laundry in Fresno, California is described. The system features an integrated wastewater heat recovery subsystem and a solar preheating system designed to supply a part of the hot water requirements. Performance data for a six month period are projected to an annual savings of $18,703.

1980-07-01

343

Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study

Graciana Peter

2010-01-01

344

Interreg IIIB NWE project 'Urban Water' - IUD Modelling in Renfrewshire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates an approach to strategic spatial planning using hydraulic modelling to identify flood risk and potential improvement options. A wealth of clear-cut information is presented to planners in a GIS format to ensure that planning and development can be guided to improve urban water management. Renfrewshire Council has recognised that flooding problems in their urban areas are best

Fiona Dow; Angus Pettit; BSC MSC; David Bassett; Stephen Tingle; Rob Lamb

345

An evaluation of the sustainability of a rural water rehabilitation project in Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated 70% of the national population lives in rural areas in Zimbabwe. Previous studies suggest that groundwater is consumed predominantly without treatment. This study evaluated the sustainability of a rural water point rehabilitation project that was carried out in Mwenezi (Masvingo Province), and Gwanda, Bulilima and Mangwe (Matabeleland South Province) districts by a local NGO. The study was carried out a year after the rehabilitation project. Sustainability indicators considered in the study included the reliability of the system, human capacity development, institutional arrangements, and the impact of the project on rural livelihoods. A combination of field inspections of the water points and interviews with villagers were used as study tools. It was found out that 14% of the water points were broken down in Mwenezi, 17% (Gwanda), 13% (Bulilima) and 25% (Mangwe). Water quality was satisfactory for taste for over 90% and for 62 95% of respondents for soap consumption in all districts. Trained repair personnel were available in over 50% of the cases. Awareness of the training workshops for operation and maintenance in all districts was above 75%. Water point committees existed and functioned in all districts for 50 83% of water points. For 84 93% of the responses financial contributions were made only in the event of a breakdown. The walking distance to a water point was reduced after the project according to 83 100% of respondents in all districts. Health and hygiene knowledge was deemed to have improved due to the project in 46 78% of cases. It was concluded that opportunities for sustainable water supply are there if active community involvement is enhanced, training is lengthened and water point committees strengthened. There is also need to raise the awareness of ordinary villagers. Future rehabilitation projects should consider stricter supervision and equipping the trained personnel with tools.

Hoko, Zvikomborero; Hertle, Jochen

346

Hydrazine and Hydrogen Co-injection to Mitigate Stress Corrosion Cracking of Structural Materials in Boiling Water Reactors (V) Effects of Hydrazine and Dissolved Oxygen on Flow Accelerated Corrosion of Carbon Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrazine and hydrogen co-injection into reactor water via the feed water line can mitigate stress corrosion cracking in BWRs. The effects of water quality variation due to hydrazine injection on flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel used in the BWR feed water line should be considered from the viewpoints of radioactive exposure, radioactive waste generation and plant integrity. Optimization

Kazushige ISHIDA; Yoichi WADA; Masahiko TACHIBANA; Motohiro AIZAWA; Motomasa FUSE; Eiichi KADOI; Hideki TAKIGUCHI

2007-01-01

347

Water Resources Data, Ohio, Water Year 1999, Volume 1. Ohio River Basin Excluding Project Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 120 gaging stations and 69 partial-record sites; water levels at 187 observation wells and 26 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 34 gaging stations, 337 observation wells, and 3 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

Shindel, H. L.; Mangus, J. P.; Trimble, L. E.

2000-01-01

348

Water Resources Data, Ohio, Water Year 2000, Volume 1. Ohio River Basin Excluding Project Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 122 gaging stations and 65 partial-record sites; water levels at 65 observation wells and 23 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 36 gaging stations, 69 observation wells, and 35 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

Shindel, H. L.; Mangus, J. P.; Trimble, L. E.

2001-01-01

349

Water Resources Data, Ohio, Water Year 2001, Volume 1. Ohio River Basin Excluding Project Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 130 gaging stations and 65 partial-record sites; water levels at 160 observation wells and 25 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 25 gaging stations, 31 observation wells, and 9 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

Shindel, H. L.; Mangus, J. P.; Trimble, L. E.

2002-01-01

350

Water Resources Data, Ohio, Water Year 1998, Volume 1. Ohio River Basin Excluding Project Data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 127 gaging stations and 65 partial-record sites; water levels at 348 observation wells and 24 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 25 gaging stations, 317 observation wells, and 26 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

Shindel, H. L.; Mangus, J. P.; Trimble, L. E.

1999-01-01

351

Method of treating petroleum-bearing formations for supplemental oil recovery. [polymer injection followed by slug of high-brine water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymer treatment method is used to improve mobility control in flooding a petroleum-bearing subterranean formation containing petroleum and connate water. Mobility is controlled by injection into the formation of a slug of an aqueous polymer mixture which has a viscosity sensitive to the salt concentration in the water mixed with the same to form the slug. The polymer slug

1975-01-01

352

Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota--Analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degrees Celsius) in the Franconia-Ironton Galesville aquifer (183 to 245 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. The University's steam-generation facilities supplied high-temperature water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection-withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through the other well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection and withdrawal ranging from 5.25 to 8.01 days. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.4 to 18.6 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Average injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. Temperature graphs for selected depths at individual observation wells indicate that the Ironton and Galesville Sandstones received and stored more thermal energy than the upper part of the Franconia Formation. Clogging of the Ironton Sandstone was possibly due to precipitation of calcium carbonate or movement of fine-grain material or both. Vertical-profile plots indicate that the effects of buoyancy flow were small within the aquifer. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, ground-water-flow, and thermal-energy-transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The model was used to simulate the entire short-term testing period of approximately 400 days. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities, which, for final calibration, were simulated as 3.3 and 0.33 meters, respectively. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to (1) measured temperatures at selected altitudes in four observation wells, (2) measured temperatures at the production well, and (3) calculated thermal efficiencies of the aquifer. Model-computed withdrawal-water temperatures were within an average of about 3 percent of measured values and model-computed aquifer-thermal efficiencies were within an average of about 5 percent of calculated values for the short-term test cycles. These data indicate that the model accurately simulated thermal-energy storage within the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer.

Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G. N.

2002-01-01

353

Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

Jager, A.R.

1996-03-01

354

Analyses of PACTEL passive safety injection experiments with APROS, CATHARE and RELAP5 codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Commission fourth framework programme project ‘Assessment of passive safety injection systems of advanced light water reactors’ involved experiments on the PACTEL test facility and computer simulations of selected experiments. The experiments focused on the performance of passive safety injection systems (PSIS) of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) in small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) conditions. The PSIS consisted of

Jari Tuunanen; Juhani Vihavainen; Francesco D'Auria; Monica Frogheri; G. M Galassi; George Kimber; John Lillington; Elizabeth Alien; T. G Williams

2000-01-01

355

Centrifuge modeling of an offshore water-intake project under ice loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sheet pile is a potential structural type for an offshore water-intake project for a thermal power plant in China because of its advantages of low cost and easy construction. However, the soil in offshore areas is under-consolidated and has a high water content. Therefore its bearing capacity is low, and the safety of water-intake structures under various loads is of

Liming Hu; Min Zhao; Jialiu Pu

2010-01-01

356

China: The South-North Water Transfer Project— is it justified?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South-North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP), if fully developed, could divert 40-50 km3\\/yr from the Yangtse basin to the North China plain, alleviating water scarcity for 300-325M people living in what even then will be a highly water-stressed region. Construction of the next stage, diverting up to 20 km3 at a cost of about $17,000M (including $7000M in ancillary costs),

Jeremy Berkoff

2003-01-01

357

Salt River Project experience in conversion from agriculture to urban water use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt River Project (SRP) was established in 1903 to deliver water to farms on about 250,000 ac (100,000 ha) located in South-Central\\u000a Arizona. While SRP continues to deliver water to the entire area, today only about 10% of that land is still in agriculture.\\u000a The remainder has been urbanized. Urbanization of the vast majority of water service area has caused SRP to

Robert S. Gooch; Paul A. Cherrington; Yvonne Reinink

2007-01-01

358

Surface-water-quality assessment of the Yakima River basin, Washington; project description  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment program to: (1) provide a nationally consistent description of the current status of water quality, (2) define water quality trends that have occurred over recent decades, and (3) relate past and present water quality conditions to relevant natural features, the history of land and water use, and land management and waste management practices. At present (1987), The National Water Quality Assessment program is in a pilot studies phase, in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for possible full implementation of the program. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The Yakima River basin in Washington is one of the pilot surface water project areas. The Yakima River basin drains in area of 6,155 sq mi and contains about 1,900 river mi of perennial streams. Major land use activities include growing and harvesting timber, dryland pasture grazing, intense farming and irrigated agriculture, and urbanization. Water quality issues that result from these land uses include potentially large concentrations of suspended sediment, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and trace elements that may affect water used for human consumption, fish propagation and passage, contact recreation, livestock watering, and irrigation. Data will be collected in a nine year cycle. The first three years of the cycle will be a period of concentrated data acquisition and interpretation. For the next six years, sample collection will be done at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This nine year cycle would then be repeated. Three types of sampling activities will be used for data acquisition: fixed location station sampling, synoptic sampling, and intensive reach studies. (Lantz-PTT)

McKenzie, S. W.; Rinella, J. F.

1987-01-01

359

Development of Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in the Chinese Water Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the transformation of urban water services in China since the late 1990s focusing on the interaction between\\u000a the government and private players in the form of public private partnership projects. A lack of fund, outdated technologies\\u000a and management skills, and underpriced water tariffs had deteriorated urban water services in China. Chinese authorities decided\\u000a to adopt private sector

Seungho Lee

2010-01-01

360

What's your water-injection problem. Pt. 3. Maybe corrosion-resistant alloys provide the answer  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way of controlling corrosion is by the use of corrosion-resistant materials. These are generally used in troublesome areas, such as pumps, valves, meters, and pump columns in waterflood projects where impingement, cavitation-erosion, abrasion, and wear are the principal factors involved. Such materials as D-2 Ni-Resist, Type 316 stainless steel, and various bronzes including aluminum bronze and nickel-aluminum bronze are

J. F. Jr

1965-01-01

361

UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water, Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The QAIP outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance activities as management tools to ensure that UMTRA Project activities are carried out in amanner to protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project, and meet or exceed contract requirements.

NONE

1995-11-01

362

Monterey peninsula water supply project supplemental draft environment impact report/statement II. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) has examined 5 alternatives with the basic project purpose of providing a municipal water supply to the Monterey Peninsula that would provide adequate drought protection for existing residents and meet the long term water supply needs of planned growth. The overall project purpose is to provide adequate instream flow to protect the public trust resources of the Carmel River. The 5 alternatives studied are; a 24,000 AF New Los Padres Reservoir, either alone or combined with a 3 MGD desalination plant; a 15,000 AF Canada Reservoir and 3 MGD Desalination Plant; a 7 MGD desalination Plant; and No project.... Water supply, Dams, Section 404 permits.

Not Available

1993-03-12

363

Monterey peninsula water supply project supplemental draft environmental impact report/statement II. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) has examined 5 alternatives with the basic project purpose of providing a municipal water supply to the Monterey Peninsula that would provide adequate drought protection for existing residents and meet the long term water supply needs of planned growth. The overall project purpose is to provide adequate instream flow to protect the public trust resources of the Carmel River. The 5 alternatives studied are; a 24,000 AF New Los Padres Reservoir, either alone or combined with a 3 MGD desalination plant; a 15,000 AF Canada Reservoir and 3 MGD Desalination Plant; a 7 MGD desalination Plant; and No project.... Water supply, Dams, Section 404 permits.

Not Available

1993-03-12

364

Monterey peninsula water supply project supplemental draft environment impact report/statement II. Appendices  

SciTech Connect

The Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) has examined 5 alternatives with the basic project purpose of providing a municipal water supply to the Monterey Peninsula that would provide adequate drought protection for existing residents and meet the long term water supply needs of planned growth. The overall project purpose is to provide adequate instream flow to protect the public trust resources of the Carmel River. The 5 alternatives studied are: a 24,000 AF New Los Padres Reservoir, either alone or combined with a 3 MGD desalination plant; a 15,000 AF Canada Reservoir and 3 MGD Desalination Plant; a 7 MGD desalination Plant; and No project.... Water supply, Dams, Section 404 permits.

Not Available

1993-03-12

365

Cost Sharing for Federal Water Projects: Trends and Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major water policy events beginning with the 1950's are reviewed with respect to their bearing on proposed changes in the much criticized federal policies for nonfederal cost sharing. The cost-sharing proposals of the Carter and Reagan administrations are reviewed. These proposals are discussed with respect to theoretical economic efficiency and political equity. Both sets of proposals represented improvements over the traditional system. However, both were defeated because of political opposition.

Waelti, John J.

1985-02-01

366

Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

NONE

1994-12-31

367

Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium, selenium, and gross-alpha activity that exceed drinking-water standards. Suspected problems include possible contamination of the aquifer by oil-field brines and drilling fluids, pesticides, industrial chemicals, septic-tank effluent, fertilizers, and leakage from sewage systems and underground tanks used for storage of hydrocarbons. There are four major components of the Central Oklahoma aquifer project. The first component is the collection and analysis of existing information, including chemical, hydrologic, and land-use data. The second component is the geohydrologic and geochemical investigations of the aquifer flow system. The third component is the sampling for a wide variety of inorganic, organic, and radioactive constituents as part a regional survey that will produce a consistent set of data among all ground-water pilot projects. These data can be used to: (1) Define regional ground-water quality within the Central Oklahoma aquifer, and (2) compare water quality in the Central Oklahoma aquifer to the water quality in the other ground-water study units of the NAWQA program. The fourth component is topical studies that will address, in more detail, some of the major water-quality issues pertaining to the aquifer.

Christenson, S. C.; Parkhurst, D. L.

1987-01-01

368

Decommissioning a nuclear reactor. [Water Boiler Reactor Project  

SciTech Connect

The process of decommissioning a facility such as a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant presents many waste management options and concerns. Waste minimization is a primary consideration, along with protecting a personnel and the environment. Waste management is complicated in that both radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes must be dealt with. This paper presents the general decommissioning approach of a recent project at Los Alamos. Included are the following technical objectives: site characterization work that provided a thorough physical, chemical, and radiological assessment of the contamination at the site; demonstration of the safe and cost-effective dismantlement of a highly contaminated and activated nuclear-fuelded reactor; and techniques used in minimizing radioactive and hazardous waste. 12 figs.

Montoya, G.M.

1991-01-01

369

Hierarchical formation of supramolecular transient networks in water: a modular injectable delivery system.  

PubMed

A modular one-component supramolecular transient network in water, based on poly(ethylene glycol) and end-capped with four-fold hydrogen bonding units, is reported. Due to its nonlinear structural formation, this system allows active proteins to be added to the hydrogel during formation. Once implanted in vivo it releases the protein by erosion of both the protein and polymer via dissolution. PMID:22528786

Dankers, Patricia Y W; Hermans, Thomas M; Baughman, Travis W; Kamikawa, Yuko; Kieltyka, Roxanne E; Bastings, Maartje M C; Janssen, Henk M; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Larsen, Antje; van Luyn, Marja J A; Bosman, Anton W; Popa, Eliane R; Fytas, George; Meijer, E W

2012-04-23

370

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years.

NONE

1995-09-01

371

Water-alternating-steam process improves project economics at West Coalinga field  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the water-alternating-steam process (WASP) applied to vertical expansion (VE) sands in the pilot area of Section 13D, West Coalinga field to stop wasteful steam production and to improve vertical conformance of injected steam. Before the WASP application, steam breakthrough in the VE sands caused well sanding, cutting of downhole tubulars, and high-temperature-fluid handling problems. To alleviate these problems, pumps had to be raised in five wells and one well had to be shut in, reducing oil production from the VE sands and the lower waterflooded zones. A WASP field test, based on a numerical simulation study, was implemented in July 1988 with alternating slugs of water and steam, each injected over 4 months. The WASP eliminated steam production, allowing the pumps to be lowered and the one shut-in well to return to production.

Hong, K.C.; Stevens, C.E. (Chevron U.S.A. Production Co. (United States))

1992-11-01

372

Water Experiments Related To The "Von Karman Sodium" Dynamo Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the "Von Karman Sodium" (V.K.S.) experiment is to study the "Dynamo Effect," namely the spontaneous generation of magnetic field in a flow of electrically conducting fluid. The device has been built at CEA / Cadarache, in collaboration with CEA / Saclay, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon and Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris. It consists of a cylindrical vessel, filled with liquid Sodium, in which two coaxial rotating disks induce a Von-Karman type flow. Several experimental runs have taken place since June 2000. In order to optimize the V.K.S. set-up, a half-scale water prototype has also been built. It has allowed us to measure mean velocity profiles, as well as pressure fluctuations and mechanical power dissipation. We have observed that under certain circumstances the mean component of the turbulent flow can undergo a global bifurcation.

Marie, L.; Bourgoin, M.; Petrelis, F.; Roy, J.; Burguete, J.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F.; Fauve, S.; Odier, P.; Pinton, J.-F.

2002-07-01

373

Integrative Analysis of Water Quality and Physical Habitat in the Ecological Design of Water Resources Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical approaches to water quality control are finding new challenges as ecosystem issues are addressed in comprehensive water resources management programs. Important issues include the recognition that physical habitat conditions may be more important than water quality when ecosystem sustainability is the management objective. Although past emphasis has been on the control of continuous discharges, modern watershed management recognizes that

EDWIN E. HERRICKS; JIAN-PING SUEN

2006-01-01

374

Characterization of Solids Collected from H-Area Injection Wells and Injection Tank Chemistry from both F- and H-Area Water Treatment Units (WTUs)  

SciTech Connect

This study suggests that a strong poitential exists for both chemical and biological fouling of the injection wells at the F- and H Area remediation systems. To further the potential, an evaluation of WTU process chemistry, characterization of the natural groundwater geochemistry, and analysis of microbiological activity should be performed. This report summarizes the results.

Serkiz, S.M.

1999-04-15

375

Long-term monitoring of the temperature profile in a deep borehole: Temperature variations associated with water injection experiments and natural groundwater discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term temperature monitoring was carried out in a borehole drilled for investigation of the Nojima fault, an active fault in SW Japan, using the distributed optical fiber temperature sensing (DTS) technique. Temperatures in the borehole had been measured every 1 m along an optical fiber cable with a resolution of about 0.1 K over a period of 6 years. Water injection experiments were conducted in this borehole in 1997, 2000 and 2003. Monitoring of the temperature profile was started after the first injection experiment, and the temperature profile remained very stable until the start of the second injection experiment. During the second and third experiments, the temperatures in the borehole dropped due to cooling by the injected water but no appreciable temperature change was observed below about 580 m. It clearly shows that the water leaked out of the hole around this point and the leaking depth is estimated to be about 540 m based on the shape of the temperature profile. After the injection was stopped, the recovery of the temperature to the undisturbed profile was exceptionally slow around the leaking point, resulting in a local temperature anomaly, probably because the water leaking out of the hole had cooled the surrounding formations extensively. A very similar temperature anomaly was observed at the beginning of temperature monitoring, which suggests that water leaked out at the same depth in the first injection experiment as well. Between the second and third injection experiments, the top of the borehole was kept open to allow groundwater discharge for about 1 month in 2000 and 2003. In both periods, groundwater flowed out continuously and the shapes of the observed temperature profiles indicate that the groundwater entered in the hole at the same depth as the leaking point during the injection experiments. The temperature records also show that the rate of discharge had been nearly constant through the two test periods. The water discharge appears to have been little affected by the water injection. These results demonstrate that the optical fiber temperature monitoring system is a very effective tool for hydrological experiments.

Yamano, Makoto; Goto, Shusaku

2005-10-01

376

Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project  

SciTech Connect

Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

Gerald Sehlke

2005-03-01

377

43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more...

2012-10-01

378

Advanced gas-turbine steam-injection program water treatment for steam-injected gas-turbine systems. Topical report, October 1987March 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water availability, treatment costs, and resultant water quality to ensure technical reliability and economic feasibility of a power plant were determined to define options for reliable, yet cost-effective, water-treatment processes for advanced cogeneration cycles. A review of corrosion and deposition principles for both combustion and steam systems was conducted to identify the most detrimental contaminants causing corrosion and deposition in

R. E. Ayala; J. M. Thames

1989-01-01

379

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water monitoring projects for Hanford facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the progress of 13 Hanford ground-water monitoring projects for the period April 1 to June 30, 1989. These projects are for the 300 area process trenches (300 area), 183-H solar evaporation basins (100-H area), 200 areas low-level burial grounds, nonradioactive dangerous waste landfill (southeast of the 200 areas), 1301-N liquid waste disposal facility (100-N area), 1324-N surface

R. M. Smith; D. J. Bates; R. E. Lundgren

1989-01-01

380

Numerical modelling dam break analysis for water supply project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dam provides many benefits to the society, but it can also cause extensive damage to downstream area when it fails. Dam failure can cause extensive damage to properties and loss of human life due to short warning time available. In general, dam spillway was designed to drain the maximum discharge from the dam during the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). The spillway is functioned to prevent the dam from failure due to overtopping, which can lead to the dam failure. Dam failure will result in large volume of water travelling at very high velocity to the downstream area of the dam. It can cause extensive property damage, destruction of important facilities, and significant loss of human life along the way. Due to the potential of high hazard it poses to the downstream area, a dam break analysis is considered very essential. This paper focuses into the dam failure analysis for Kahang Dam by prediction of breach flow hydrographs and generation of inundation map at downstream area. From the PMF scenario simulation, the maximum inflow is 525.12 m3/s and peak discharge from the dam during dam failure is 6188m3/s. The results are able to provide information for preparation of Emergency Response Plan (PMF), in which appropriate steps can be taken by relevant authorities to avoid significant loss of human lives.

Lariyah, M. S.; Vikneswaran, M.; Hidayah, B.; Muda, Z. C.; Thiruchelvam, S.; Abd Isham, A. K.; Rohani, H.

2013-06-01

381

Optimal Operation of Variable Speed Pumping System in China's Eastern Route Project of S-to-N Water Diversion Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic planning model for optimizing operation of variable speed pumping system, aiming at minimum power consumption, was proposed to achieve economic operation. The No. 4 Jiangdu Pumping Station, a source pumping station in China's Eastern Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project, is taken as a study case. Since the sump water level of Jiangdu Pumping Station is affected by the tide of Yangtze River, the daily-average heads of the pumping system varies yearly from 3.8m to 7.8m and the tide level difference in one day up to 1.2m. Comparisons of operation electricity cost between optimized variable speed and fixed speed operations of pumping system were made. When the full load operation mode is adopted, whether or not electricity prices in peak-valley periods are considered, the benefits of variable speed operation cannot compensate the energy consumption of the VFD. And when the pumping system operates in part load and the peak-valley electricity prices are considered, the pumping system should cease operation or lower its rotational speed in peak load hours since the electricity price are much higher, and to the contrary the pumping system should raise its rotational speed in valley load hours to pump more water. The computed results show that if the pumping system operates in 80% or 60% loads, the energy consumption cost of specified volume of water will save 14.01% and 26.69% averagely by means of optimal variable speed operation, and the investment on VFD will be paid back in 2 or 3 years. However, if the pumping system operates in 80% or 60% loads and the energy cost is calculated in non peak-valley electricity price, the repayment will be lengthened up to 18 years. In China's S-to-N Water Diversion Project, when the market operation and peak-valley electricity prices are taken into effect to supply water and regulate water levels in regulation reservoirs as Hongzehu Lake, Luomahu Lake, etc. the economic operation of water-diversion pumping stations will be vital, and the adoption of VFDs to achieve optimal operation may be a good choice.

Cheng, Jilin; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Rentian; Gong, Yi; Zhu, Honggeng; Deng, Dongsheng; Feng, Xuesong; Qiu, Jinxian

2010-06-01

382

Projections from the nucleus reticularis magnocellularis to the rat cervical cord using electrical stimulation and iontophoretic injection methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to clarify the fiber distribution of the nucleus reticularis magnocellularis (NRMC) and adjacent\\u000a areas in the rat spinal cord. Biotinylated dextran amine was injected iontophoretically through a glass capillary into the\\u000a areas, in which a single cell responded to noxious electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve and to a pinch of the thigh\\u000a skin

Shigeo Watanabe; Taiko Kitamura; Lisa Watanabe; Hitoshi Sato; Jinzo Yamada

2003-01-01

383

Studies of the Analyte Carrier Interface in Flow Injection Analysis: Project Report, June 1, 1987-February 1, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is the study of rapid multicomponent analysis of transient species in flowing media. Application of methods developed for multicomponent analysis is aimed at the investigation of dispersion-controlled chemical reactions at an anal...

S. D. Brown

1988-01-01

384

Indirect inductively coupled plasma atomic emission determination of fluoride in water samples by flow injection solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

An indirect determination of fluoride in water by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with flow injection coupled with solvent extraction is reported in this paper. A manifold for rapid determination of fluoride has been designed that uses a single coil for complex formation and extraction. The method involves the formation of lanthanum/alizarin complexone/fluoride complex and its extraction into hexanol containing N,N-diethylaniline. The concentration of fluoride is determined indirectly by introduction of the organic layer into the plasma and measurement of the emission intensity of the La II 333.75-nm line. The optimum experimental conditions for the determination are described. A coiled groove phase separator fitted with a grid and PTFE porous membrane was used in this work. The sampling rate was 36 samples per hour and the calibration graphs were linear from 0.03 to 1.3 {mu}g/mL. The relative standard deviation found was 2.16% for 200 {mu}L of 1 {mu}g/mL of fluoride. The method is selective and has been applied satisfactorily to the determination of fluoride in water samples.

Manzoori, J.L.; Miyazaki, Akira (National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources, Ibaraki (Japan))

1990-11-15

385

Flow injection analysis system based on amperometric thin-film transducers for free chlorine detection in swimming pool waters.  

PubMed

This work reports on the performance of a user-friendly flow injection analysis (FIA) system for the monitoring of free chlorine. A methacrylate flow cell integrating a gold thin-film microelectrode, together with an on-chip gold counter electrode, both fabricated by microfabrication technology, provided robustness, low output impedance, rapid response and low cost to the proposed flow system. An external Ag/AgCl reference electrode placed downstream the chip completes the electrochemical cell. Amperometric detection of chlorine was carried out at a set potential of +350 mV, without oxygen interference. The proposed flow system responded linearly to chlorine concentrations in a range from 0.2 to 5 mgl(-1), with a sensitivity of 0.23 microAlmg(-1), the estimated limit of detection being 0.02 mgl(-1). In addition, the system response was kept stable for at least 10 days (+/-3sigma criterion), by keeping the flow system in an inert atmosphere when not in use. Fifteen samples of swimming pool waters were analyzed and no matrix effects were detected. Also, results were in good agreement with those obtained by a standard method. The excellent analytical performance of the system together with its good working stability would also enable its application for the detection of chlorine in other matrices such as tap water or chlorine stock solutions. PMID:19159791

Olivé-Monllau, Rosa; Orozco, Jahir; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Baeza, Mireia; Bartrolí, Jordi; Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Céspedes, Francisco

2008-10-18

386

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desalination subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, was operated successfully for two years. Water production rates of 180 m³\\/day can be obtained for a period of 24 hours. In addition, once the proper procedures are followed, water production can continue for long periods of time at rates of 135 m³\\/day. Electrical energy costs

J. C. Zimmerman; N. Al-Abbadi

1987-01-01

387

The EPRI state-of-the-art cooling water treatment research project a tailored collaboration program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EPRI Tailored Collaboration State-of-the-Art Cooling Water Treatment Research Program has been initiated with several electric utility participants. Started in January 1995, the program will provide O&M cost reduction through improved cooling water system reliability and operation. This effort is discussed along with the objectives and goals, the participants and project timetable. The program will provide three (3) main results

Babu Nott; K. Anthony Selby; Tammy Brice; Don Goldstrohm; David Morris; S. R. Pate; Dale Smay; Terry Spaulding

1996-01-01

388

Ground-water-quality assessment of the Delmarva Peninsula, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia; project description  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. Three groundwater pilot projects have been started, including the project on the Delmarva Peninsula, which covers eastern Maryland and Virginia and most of Delaware. The objectives of the Delmarva project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality on the Delmarva Peninsula, emphasizing a description of the occurrence of trace elements and manmade organic compounds; (2) relate groundwater quality to land use and geohydrologic conditions; and (3) provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected water quality problems prevalent in the study area. The shallow aquifer system and the deeper aquifers used for public water supply will be addressed. The shallow aquifer system in the Delmarva Peninsula consists of permeable unconsolidated sand and gravel. Flow systems are localized and small-scale. Farming is common on the peninsula, and the migration of agricultural chemicals to the groundwater system is a local water quality concern. To assess the water quality of the groundwater resources, a regional survey for a wide range of constituents will be conducted in all of the pilot projects to provide a representative sample of groundwater analyses for a national assessment of groundwater quality. Results of this survey may be used as a baseline to monitor future water quality trends. (Lantz-PTT)

Bachman, L. J.; Shedlock, R. J.; Phillips, P. J.

1987-01-01

389

How uncertain are climate model projections of water availability indicators across the Middle East?  

PubMed

The projection of robust regional climate changes over the next 50 years presents a considerable challenge for the current generation of climate models. Water cycle changes are particularly difficult to model in this area because major uncertainties exist in the representation of processes such as large-scale and convective rainfall and their feedback with surface conditions. We present climate model projections and uncertainties in water availability indicators (precipitation, run-off and drought index) for the 1961-1990 and 2021-2050 periods. Ensembles from two global climate models (GCMs) and one regional climate model (RCM) are used to examine different elements of uncertainty. Although all three ensembles capture the general distribution of observed annual precipitation across the Middle East, the RCM is consistently wetter than observations, especially over the mountainous areas. All future projections show decreasing precipitation (ensemble median between -5 and -25%) in coastal Turkey and parts of Lebanon, Syria and Israel and consistent run-off and drought index changes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) GCM ensemble exhibits drying across the north of the region, whereas the Met Office Hadley Centre work Quantifying Uncertainties in Model ProjectionsAtmospheric (QUMP-A) GCM and RCM ensembles show slight drying in the north and significant wetting in the south. RCM projections also show greater sensitivity (both wetter and drier) and a wider uncertainty range than QUMP-A. The nature of these uncertainties suggests that both large-scale circulation patterns, which influence region-wide drying/wetting patterns, and regional-scale processes, which affect localized water availability, are important sources of uncertainty in these projections. To reduce large uncertainties in water availability projections, it is suggested that efforts would be well placed to focus on the understanding and modelling of both large-scale processes and their teleconnections with Middle East climate and localized processes involved in orographic precipitation. PMID:20956364

Hemming, Debbie; Buontempo, Carlo; Burke, Eleanor; Collins, Mat; Kaye, Neil

2010-11-28

390

Cellular identification of water gustatory receptor neurons and their central projection pattern in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Water perception is important for insects, because they are particularly vulnerable to water loss because their body size is small. In Drosophila, gustatory receptor neurons are located at the base of the taste sensilla on the labellum, tarsi, and wing margins. One of the gustatory receptor neurons in typical sensilla is known to respond to water. To reveal the neural mechanisms of water perception in Drosophila, it is necessary to identify water receptor neurons and their projection patterns. We used a Gal4 enhancer trap strain in which GAL4 is expressed in a single gustatory receptor neuron in each sensillum on the labellum. We investigated the function of these neurons by expressing the upstream activating sequence transgenes, shibirets1, tetanus toxin light chain, or diphtheria toxin A chain. Results from the proboscis extension reflex test and electrophysiological recordings indicated that the GAL4-expressing neurons respond to water. We show here that the water receptor neurons project to a specific region in the subesophageal ganglion, thus revealing the water taste sensory map in Drosophila.

Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Tanimura, Teiichi

2006-01-01

391

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation.

Not Available

1994-11-01

392

High-resolution projections of surface water availability for Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes to streamflows caused by climate change may have major impacts on the management of water for hydro-electricity generation and agriculture in Tasmania, Australia. We describe changes to Tasmanian surface water availability from 1961-1990 to 2070-2099 using high-resolution simulations. Six fine-scale (∼10 km2) simulations of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration are generated with the CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM), a variable-resolution regional climate model (RCM). These variables are bias-corrected with quantile mapping and used as direct inputs to the hydrological models AWBM, IHACRES, Sacramento, SIMHYD and SMAR-G to project streamflows. The performance of the hydrological models is assessed against 86 streamflow gauges across Tasmania. The SIMHYD model is the least biased (median bias = -3%) while IHACRES has the largest bias (median bias = -22%). We find the hydrological models that best simulate observed streamflows produce similar streamflow projections. There is much greater variation in projections between RCM simulations than between hydrological models. Marked decreases of up to 30% are projected for annual runoff in central Tasmania, while runoff is generally projected to increase in the east. Daily streamflow variability is projected to increase for most of Tasmania, consistent with increases in rainfall intensity. Inter-annual variability of streamflows is projected to increase across most of Tasmania. This is the first major Australian study to use high-resolution bias-corrected rainfall and potential evapotranspiration projections as direct inputs to hydrological models. Our study shows that these simulations are capable of producing realistic streamflows, allowing for increased confidence in assessing future changes to surface water variability.

Bennett, J. C.; Ling, F. L. N.; Post, D. A.; Grose, M. R.; Corney, S. P.; Graham, B.; Holz, G. K.; Katzfey, J. J.; Bindoff, N. L.

2012-05-01

393

Joffre viking tertiary carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery project  

SciTech Connect

Vikor Resources Ltd. and the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority are currently developing a CO/sub 2/ miscible flood project in the Joffre Viking Tertiary Oil Unit. The project is located in an area of the reservoir which had been produced to its economic limit under waterflood in the 1960s. The project consists of 4 water prepressure wells flanking 2 adjacent inverted 5-spot CO/sub 2/ injection patterns, which will be produced under a water alternating gas injection process. This study presents an overview of the CO/sub 2/ handling, injection and tertiary oil producton facilities, wells, and briefly discusses anticipated project performance.

Ilsley, D.B.; Macintyre, K.J.; Stephenson, D.J.

1983-01-01

394

An Economic Analysis of the Proposed Water Resources Project for the Upper French Broad River Basin in Western North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A procedure is developed and tested for evaluating water resources projects based on economic, social, legal, and environmental considerations. The areas of economic theory and public finance that apply to water resources investments supplied the basis fo...

J. Sellers

1972-01-01

395

An Evaluation of the Decision Process in Water Resource Project Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of exploratory attempts to construct the flow of decisions and data into the design of single purpose water supply and flood control projects. Estimates of uncertainty in each of the data inputs and in each calculation in the analysi...

R. K. Linsley S. J. Burges P. W. Whitford

1969-01-01

396

Meteorological and Remotely Sensed Datasets for Hydrological Modelling: A Contribution to the Australian Water Availability Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureau of Meteorology has generated a range of improved spatial climate analyses and remotely sensed datasets for Australia as a contribution to the Australian Water Availability Project. This data includes analyses of rainfall, temperature, vapour pressure and wind run at daily and monthly timescales. Robust topography-resolving analysis methods have been developed and applied to in situ observations of rainfall,

Ian Grant; David Jones; William Wang; Robert Fawcett; David Barratt

397

Optimization of Water Resources Systems by the Gradient Projection and the Conjugate Gradient Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The gradient projection and the conjugate gradient methods are applied to the optimization of complex water resources systems. The most important advantages of these approaches are that they can be used to solve nonlinear problems with a large number of i...

E. S. Lee S. Wazirrudin

1970-01-01

398

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. FLASH EVAPORATOR, CONDENSER (PROJECT FROM EVAPORATOR), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. FLASH EVAPORATOR, CONDENSER (PROJECT FROM EVAPORATOR), AND STEAM EJECTOR (ALONG REAR WALL). INL NEGATIVE NO. 4377. M.H. Bartz, Photographer, 3/5/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

399

SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but

Maximo Peviani; Julio Alterach; Andrea Danelli

2010-01-01

400

SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES, A GUIDE FOR 4-H CLUB LEADERS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS PUBLICATION WAS PREPARED BY THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE FOR USE WITH YOUTH GROUPS. VARIOUS ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP CONCEPTS ABOUT SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION. IN ORDER TO SIMPLIFY THE PROCESS OF DEMONSTRATING THESE ACTIVITIES, MANY OF THE CONCEPTS ARE PICTORIALLY ILLUSTRATED. THE ACTIVITIES…

FOSTER, ALBERT B.; FOX, ADRIAN C.

401

DELIVERING TIMELY WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY. THE LAKE ACCESS-MINNEAPOLIS PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a summary of the near-real-time water quality-monitoring project conducted by a consortium of interested parties in the greater Minneapolis area. It was funded by an EPA program known as EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring, Public Access, and Community Tracking). In 1...

402

Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in support of DOE`s environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE`s General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

1991-12-01

403

Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

1991-12-01

404

Surface water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; project description  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment Program, which at present (1987) is in a pilot phase in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for full implementation of the program in the future. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The preliminary plans for the surface water quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin pilot project are described. The Kentucky River basin drains an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi in east central Kentucky and is underlain by rocks that range in composition from limestone to sandstone and shale. Because greater than 95% of the basin population relies on surface water, surface water quality is of great concern. Land use practices that affect the surface water quality in the basin include agriculture, forestry, oil and gas production, coal mining, and urbanization. Water quality concerns resulting from the various land uses include the effects of: oil and gas field brine discharges; agricultural chemicals; sedimentation caused by coal mining; and trace element impacts from industrial and urban environments. Assessment activity is designed to occur over a 9-year period of time. During the first 3-year period of the cycle, concentrated data acquisition and interpretation will occur. For the next 6 years, sample collection will occur at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This 9-year cycle will then be repeated. Historical data will be evaluated to provide, to the extent possible, a description of existing and past trends in water quality conditions and to develop conceptual models that relate the observed conditions to the sources and causes, both natural and human-controlled. New data will be collected to verify the water quality conditions documented by historic data, to track long-term trends in water quality, to intensify temporal and spatial sampling densities, and to improve the understanding of the relations between water quality conditions and causative factors. (Lantz-PTT)

White, K. D.; Smoot, J. L.; Jackson, J. K.; Choquette, A. F.

1987-01-01

405

SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious problem, and there is a strong need of a more accurate planning and management optimization of the resources. The partnership includes a well balance mixing of public administrations, agencies ruling hydropower development, water bodies conservation and scientific institutions having the most advanced technology applied to water management and hydropower generation. Furthermore, a permanent "consultant panel" integrated by target groups representatives from different European countries are involved in key decisions and meetings, that guaranty a concrete regional scale participation. The present work reports the overall strategy of the project and the description of the main informatic tools that are under development and implementation in five pilot regions, located in Italy, Austria, Romania, Slovenia and Greece. Keywords: WFD Directive, RES-e Directive, water multi-purpose uses, renewable energy, small hydropower production, environmental balance, minimum environmental flow, flood protection

Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

2010-05-01

406

Quantitative analysis on the ecological impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is a key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatiotemporal change of water resources to reinforce the guarantee of the access of water resources. And large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes the uncertainty and additive effect of the ecological impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of large-scale water transfer projects in both construction and operation has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis on the eco-environment of the study area, the influence factors were identified and evaluation indexes were established. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to imitate the laws of ecological and environmental change of the water resource area in a changing climate. The emphasis of influence analysis and quantitative evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites. In the end, an overall influence evaluation of the impact of the project on the water circulation and ecological evolution of the water resource area was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects, i.e. the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water transfer. Its impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Li, H. H.; Wang, G.; Qin, T. L.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L. H.

2011-11-01

407

Simultaneous Filtration and SolidPhase Extraction Combined with Large-Volume Injection in GC\\/MS for UltraTrace Analysis of Polar Pesticides in Surface Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method combining simultaneous filtration and solid-phase extraction (SPE) with large-volume injection (LVI) in gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) was developed to determine 13 polar pesticides in surface water. The selected pesticides - 4 organophosphorus, 7 organonitrogens and 2 triazine degradation products - were extracted from 0.5-L samples of filtered and raw water using cartridges filled with a silica-bonded material (1

Hassan Sabik; Bernard Rondeau; Pierre Gagnon; Roger Jeannot; Katja Dohrendorf

2003-01-01

408

Multidimensional Mixing Behavior of Steam-Water Flow in a Downcomer Annulus During LBLOCA Reflood Phase with a Direct Vessel Injection Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the downcomer annulus of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel with a direct vessel injection mode is presented based on the experimental observation in the MIDAS (multidimensional investigation in downcomer annulus simulation) steam-water test facility. From the steady-state test results to simulate the late reflood phase of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA), isothermal lines show the

Tae-Soon Kwon; Byong-Jo Yun; Dong-Jin Euh; In-Cheol Chu; Chul-Hwa Song

2003-01-01

409

Evaluation of water-injection impacts for gas-turbine NOx control at compressor stations. Topical report, June-September 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acurex reviewed and analyzed data on operational impacts of water injection to control NOx emissions from gas turbines used in gas compression service and developed cost estimates. At a water\\/fuel (W\\/F) ratio of 1.0, weight basis, NOx from gas turbines can be reduced by as much as 70 to 80 percent. The performance is accompanied by a thermal efficiency loss

Castaldini

1990-01-01

410

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. Semiannual water sampling is scheduled for the spring and fall. Water quality sampling is conducted at the processing site (1) to ensure protection of human health and the environment, (2) for ground water compliance monitoring during remedial action construction, and (3) to define the extent of contamination. At the processing site, the frequency and duration of sampling will be dependent upon the nature and extent of residual contamination and the compliance strategy chosen. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation.

NONE

1995-09-01

411

Measurement of physical characteristics of bubbles in gas-liquid plumes: Part II. Local properties of turbulent air-water plumes in vertically injected jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural development of air-water bubble plumes during upward injection into a ladle-shaped vessel has been measured under different conditions of air flow rate, orifice diameter, and bath depth. The measured radial profiles of gas fraction at different axial positions in the plume were found to exhibit good similarity, and the distribution of the phases in the plume was correlated

A. H. Castillejos; J. K. Brimacombe

1987-01-01

412

Supplement to the UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado. The initial WSAP was finalized in August 1994 and will be completely revised in accordance with the WSAP guidance document (DOE, 1995) in late 1996. This version supplements the initial WSAP, reflects only minor changes in sampling that occurred in 1995, covers sampling scheduled for early 1996, and provides a preliminary projection of the next 5 years of sampling and monitoring activities. Once surface remedial action is completed at the former processing sites, additional and more detailed hydrogeologic characterization may be needed to develop the Ground Water Program conceptual ground water model and proposed compliance strategy. In addition, background ground water quality needs to be clearly defined to ensure that the baseline risk assessment accurately estimated risks from the contaminants of potential concern in contaminated ground water at the UC and NC sites.

NONE

1995-09-01

413

Solar Technology Assessment Project. Volume III. Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy  

SciTech Connect

Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat-plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended. (LEW)

Karaki, S.; Loef, G.O.G.

1981-04-01

414

Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

1981-04-01

415

High-resolution projections of surface water availability for Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes to streamflows caused by climate change may have major impacts on the management of water for hydro-electric generation and agriculture in Tasmania, Australia. We present high-resolution projections of Tasmanian surface water availability between 1961-1990 and 2070-2099. Six fine-scale (10 km) simulations of daily rainfall and potential evapotranspiration are generated with the CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM), a variable-resolution regional climate model (RCM). These variables are bias-corrected with quantile mapping and used as direct inputs to the hydrological models AWBM, IHACRES, Sacramento, SIMHYD and SMAR-G to project streamflows. The performance of the hydrological models is assessed against 86 streamflow gauges across Tasmania. The SIMHYD model is the least biased (median bias = -3%) while IHACRES has the largest bias (median bias = -22%). We find the hydrological models that best simulate observed streamflows produce similar streamflow projections. In contrast, the poorly performing IHACRES model amplifies changes more than the other hydrological models. There is much more variation in projections between RCM simulations than between hydrological models. This shows that it is more important to consider the range of RCM simulations than the range of hydrological models used here to adequately describe uncertainty in the projections. We use the SIMHYD model to describe future changes to streamflow in eight rivers. Changes to streamflows are projected to vary by region. Marked decreases of up to 30% are projected for annual runoff in central Tasmania, while runoff is generally projected to increase in the east. Daily streamflow variability is projected to increase for most of Tasmania, consistent with increases in rainfall intensity. Inter-annual variability of streamflows is projected to increase across most of Tasmania. This is the first major Australian study to use high-resolution bias-corrected rainfall and potential evapotranspiration projections as direct inputs to hydrological models. Our study shows that these simulations are capable of producing realistic streamflows, allowing for increased confidence in assessing future changes to surface water variability.

Bennett, J. C.; Ling, F. L. N.; Post, D. A.; Grose, M. R.; Corney, S. C.; Graham, B.; Holz, G. K.; Katzfey, J. J.; Bindoff, N. L.

2012-02-01

416

Climate Change Projections: A User Community Perspective from the Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Water Utility Climate Alliance (WUCA) is a coalition of eight large water providers from around the United States formed in 2007 to address climate change adaptation challenges faced by water utilities. WUCA members include the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, Seattle Public Utilities, Denver Water, New York City Department of Environmental Protection, Portland Water Bureau, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California, San Diego County Water Authority, and Southern Nevada Water Authority. As water utilities contemplate hundreds of billions of dollars in renewal and replacement investment in their aging infrastructures in the coming decades, and the implications of these investments for their ratepayers, they now recognize that those decisions must be made in the context of climate change. Yet long- and short- term climate projections currently provide a wide array of potential climate change effects, in some cases contradictory effects, for such factors as temperature, precipitation, and hydrologic variability. One of the WUCA's early objectives, therefore, has been to raise the urgency level within the climate research community as to the need for climate projections that can be incorporated into water management and planning. In particular, WUCA has identified a need for greater investment and research in higher resolution modeling, at the watershed level or finer grid scale, and in improvements in certain model parameters, such as precipitation, on the part of the climate modeling community. For example, in comments to the federal umbrella effort, the Climate Change Science Program, the Alliance has urged improved data gathering and increased modeling investment. Finally, for this and other programs seeking higher level scientific understanding of climate change, WUCA has found that communication between the climate research community and the "user community" must be enhanced from present levels.

Behar, D.; Fleming, P.; Stickel, L.; Kaatz, L.; Smyth, T.

2008-12-01

417

The impact of uncertainty in climate change scenarios on projections of future water supply from the Asian water towers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water towers of Asia, referred to also as the Third Pole for their importance in terms of cryospheric processes and magnitude of water resources from snow and ice, provide water resources to sustain the lives of nearly two billion people and the source of water for ten major river basins. Assessment of future changes in the water resources from this area is crucial because of the importance of these water sources for population needs and because of the already existing pressure on water availability and increasing water scarcity. Quantifying the response of such catchments to current and future changes in climate is complicated by two main factors: i) the scarcity of ground data, especially those on the cryosphere, which hinders both proper understanding of processes and calibration of models; ii) difficulty in capturing the large variability in climate over short horizontal distances. In addition most predictions of changes in water resources in the region are based on a few GCM scenarios used to force hydrological models. Given the complexity of the climatic mechanisms in the region, and of the monsoon in particular, it is essential that impact studies examine the entire range of expected changes in future climate scenarios. In this study we therefore examine the full range of CMIP3 GCMs to assess the robustness of projected trends in precipitation, air temperature and other variables relevant for cryospheric processes. We do this analysis for the upstream(defined as all area higher than 2000 meter), and downstream areas of the 10 large river basins in Asia that originate in the Himalayas, adjacent mountain ranges and the Tibetan plateau. Secondly, we investigate how this uncertainty in GCM projections translates into the hydrological response of the Hunza catchment in the Karakoram mountains in Pakistan. A physically-based and distributed hydrological model is set-up and calibrated based on observed discharges and MODIS snow cover maps and subsequently forced with the full range of (downscaled) CMIP3 GCMs. Downscaling is carried out using a stochastic approach that permits to establish a range of statistically probable future scenarios and provides information about the local uncertainty in the final result. In this way, we quantify uncertainty in discharge, stream flow composition, glacier evolution and snow cover which is associated with both the range of future GCMs predictions and downscaling technique. Results show that forcing hydrological impact models with only a selection of GCMS can lead to misleading predictions of changes in water resources, and errors can be as large as those associated with the uncertainty in model parameters.

Immerzeel, W. W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Gobiet, A.; Ragettli, S.

2011-12-01

418

Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat, and exacerbating adverse water quality conditions. A reduction in carry over can lead to seasonal reductions in instream flows, which may also negatively affect fish, wildlife, and recreation in Idaho. The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project does provide opportunities to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat by improving water quality and instream flows. Control of point sources, such as sewage and industrial discharges, alone will not achieve water quality goals in Idaho reservoirs and streams. Slow, continuous releases of rented water can increase and stabilize instream flows, increase available fish and wildlife habitat, decrease fish displacement, and improve water quality. Island integrity, requisite for waterfowl protection from mainland predators, can be maintained with improved timing of water releases. Rebuilding Snake River salmon and steelhead runs requires a cooperative commitment and increased flexibility in system operations to increase flow velocities for fish passage and migration. Idaho's resident fish and wildlife resources require judicious management and a willingness by all parties to liberate water supplies equitably.

Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

1992-10-01

419

ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the role of the global water cycle in the Earth system it is essential to be able to measure from space hydro-climatic variables, such as radiation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds, water vapour, surface water and runoff, vegetation state, albedo and surface temperature, etc. Such measurements are required to further increase not only our understanding of the different components of the water cycle and its variability, both spatially and temporally, but also to characterise the processes and interactions between the terrestrial and atmospheric branches of the water cycle, and how this coupling may influence climate variability and predictability. Moreover, enhancing the observational capacity and the model capabilities to predict in a reliable manner the variations in the global water cycle will be a key contribution to the improvement of water governance, the mitigation of water-related damages and the sustainable human development. In the last few years, EO has demonstrated the capacity to provide reliable measurements over oceans, land and atmosphere representing an unique tool for scientist to observe and monitor the earth system. Now, the earth observation panorama is getting into a new era where the increasing number of missions and sensors available for scientific and operational applications, besides the advances in computer science, modelling and data assimilation, open unprecedented opportunities to enhance human capacities to observe, understand and predict the water cycle and its variability in time. However, in order to fully exploit this increasing potential and bring this newly available capacity to practical operational levels, significant scientific efforts are required in order to: • Develop novel and enhanced geo-physical products exploiting available synergies among different observational system; • Consolidate the development of consistent long-term data sets integrating different EO systems in a synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified uncertainties can be produced for climate research and water resources management uses.

Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

2010-05-01

420

Nitrogen Gas Injection. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an executive overview of the main results and achievements of the Nitrogen Gas Injection project carried out at the Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering. Nitrogen injection is a relatively new enh...

J. Hagoort D. M. Boersma

1989-01-01

421

Method of improved oil recovery by simultaneous injection of water with an in-situ combustion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of recovering heavy oil from a subterranean, permeable, heavy oil-bearing reservoir in which an oxygen-containing gas is injected into the lower portion of the reservoir to establish an in-situ combustion reaction therein and to form a combustion front near the injection well. Injection of the oxygen-containing gas is continued to advance the combustion front that heats the oil

A. S. Odch; B. J. Dotson

1985-01-01

422

An analysis of eco-environmental impacts of the south-to-north water transfer project on the receiving areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The receiving areas of the Phase I projects of the eastern and central routes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project cover 41 administrative regions at and above the prefecture level in the provincial level administrative regions of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, and have a carrying capacity of water resources most unadaptive to the needs by the economic and

Lin Wang; Hong Gan; Yuquan Xiao; Jinjun You

2010-01-01

423

APPLICATION OF THE NATIONAL SANITATION FOUNDATION WATER QUALI1Y INDEX IN THE CAZENOVIA CREEK, NY, PILOT WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to develop a watershed-wide water quality management plan for the Buffalo River, NY, the Erie County Department of Environment and Planning has begun a pilot watershed management project for Cazenovia Creek, one of three major tributaries. In support of the management project a water sampling effort covering four events and two non-events for 25 different analytes at

Martin Wills; Kim N. Irvine

424

Spatio-temporal distribution of phytoplankton in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, a water source area for the Southto-North Water Diversion Project (Middle Route), China  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the water source areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is the Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR). To understand\\u000a seasonal variation in phytoplankton composition, abundance and distribution in the DJKR area before water diversion, as well\\u000a as to estimate potential risks of water quality after water diversion, we conducted an investigation on phytoplankton in the\\u000a DJKR from August 2008 to

Dacong Yin; Lingling Zheng; Lirong Song

2011-01-01

425

Water assessment reports on Rio Blanco Oil Shale Demonstration Project and Cathedral Bluffs Shale Oil Demonstration Project, White River Basin - Colorado. Appendices C and D  

SciTech Connect

This report includes: Appendices C, simulation model description and sample outputs; and appendices D, advisory committee meeting minutes. This data pertains to water supply assessments made for the Rio Blanco oil shale demonstration project, and Cathedral Bluffs shale oil demonstration project which are located in Utah and Colorado.

Not Available

1981-09-01

426

Comparison of the Wymark CO2 Reservoir with the Midale Beds at the Weyburn CO2 Injection Project  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO{sub 2}, and may have done so for as long as 50 m.y. in the views of some investigations. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO{sub 2} injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That natural CO{sub 2} can be stored long-term within carbonate strata has motivated the investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analogue to storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} that may ultimately provide additional confidence for CO{sub 2} sequestration in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Previous workers have demonstrated the similarity of the lithofacies at both sites. Here we compare the whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite and celestine are also observed. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is virtually identical to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is particularly rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance within the analyzed Duperow samples, < 3 wt% on a normative basis, with quartz the only phase identifiable in x-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale Beds contain significantly higher silica/silicate concentrations, but the silicate minerals observed, K-feldspar and quartz, are unlikely to participate in carbonate mineral precipitation due to the absence of alkaline earths. Hence, physical and solution trapping are likely to be the primary trapping mechanisms at both sites. Given the similarity of mineral constituents, whole rock and mineral chemistry, reactive transport models developed for the Weyburn site should also be applicable to the Duperow lithologies.

Ryerson, F; Johnson, J

2010-11-22

427

Water-Level Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the water-level monitoring plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Water-level monitoring of the groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site is performed to fulfill the requirements of various state and federal regulations, orders, and agreements. The primary objective of this monitoring is to determine groundwater flow rates and directions. To meet this and other objectives, water-levels are measured annually in monitoring wells completed within the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and in the lower basalt-confined aquifers for surveillance monitoring. At regulated waste units, water levels are taken monthly, quarterly, semi-annually, or annually, depending on the hydrogeologic conditions and regulatory status of a given site. The techniques used to collect water-level data are described in this document along with the factors that affect the quality of the data and the strategies employed by the project to minimize error in the measurement and interpretation of water levels. Well networks are presented for monitoring the unconfined aquifer system, the upper basalt-confined aquifer system, and the lower basalt-confined aquifers, all at a regional scale (surveillance monitoring), as well as the local-scale well networks for each of the regulated waste units studied by this project (regulated-unit monitoring). The criteria used to select wells for water-table monitoring are discussed. It is observed that poor well coverage for surveillance water-table monitoring exists south and west of the 200-West Area, south of the 100-F Area, and east of B Pond and the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). This poor coverage results from a lack of wells suitable for water-table monitoring, and causes uncertainty in representation of the regional water-table in these areas. These deficiencies are regional in scale and apply to regions outside of the operational areas, so these deficiencies do not in anyway reflect on the adequacy of the local-scale well networks used for regulated-unit monitoring. The sediments comprising the unconfined aquifer system have been subdivided into nine hydro-geologic units. The specific hydrogeologic units present within the saturated open interval of each onsite well used for water-level measurements are identified. This was accomplished by geologic interpretation at individual wells combined with extrapolation to nearby wells using a three-dimensional, regional-scale conceptual model of the Hanford Site hydrostratigraphy.

D.R. Newcomer; J.P. McDonald; M.A. Chamness

1999-09-30

428

The CARIPANDA project: Climate change and water resources in the Adamello Natural Park of Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three years (2007-2009) CARIPANDA project funded by the Cariplo Foundation of Italy is aimed to evaluate scenarios for water resources in the Adamello natural Park of Italy in a window of 50 years or so (until 2050). The project is led by Ente Parco Adamello and involves Politecnico di Milano, Università Statale di Milano, Università di Brescia, and ARPA Lombardia as scientific partners, while ENEL hydropower Company of Italy joins the project as stake holder. The Adamello Natural Park is a noteworthy resource in the Italian Alps. The Adamello Group is made of several glacierized areas (c. 24 km2), of both debris covered and free ice types, including the widest Italian Glacier, named Adamello, spreading on an area of about c. 18 km2. Also the Adamello Natural Reserve, covering 217 km2 inside the Adamello Park and including the Adamello glaciers, hosts a number of high altitude safeguarded vegetal and animal species, the safety of which is a primary task of the Reserve. Project's activity involves analysis of local climate trend, field campaigns on glaciers, hydrological modelling and remote sensing of snow and ice covered areas, aimed to build a consistent model of the present hydrological conditions and of the areas. Then, properly tailored climate change projections for the area, obtained using local data driven downscaling of climate change projections from GCMs model, are used to infer the likely response to expected climate change conditions. With two years in the project now some preliminary findings can be highlighted and some preliminary trend analysis carried out. The proposed poster provides a resume of the main results of the project insofar, of interest as a benchmark for similar ongoing and foregoing projects about climate change impact on European mountainous natural areas.

Bocchiola, D.

2009-04-01

429

Phase 1 summaries of radionuclide concentration data for vegetation, river water, drinking water, and fish. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. As part of the HEDR Project, the Environmental Monitoring Data Task (Task 05) staff assemble, evaluate, and summarize key historical measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the environment as a result of Hanford operations. The scope of work performed during Phase I included initiating the search, recovery, and inventory of environmental reports. Summaries of the environmental monitoring data that were recovered and evaluated are presented for specific periods of interest. These periods include vegetation monitoring data (primarily sagebrush) for the years 1945 through 1947, Columbia River water and drinking water monitoring data for the years 1963 through 1966, and fish monitoring data for the years 1964 through 1966. Concern was limited to those radionuclides identified as the most likely major contributors to the dose potentially received by the public during the times of interest: phosphorous-32, copper-64, zinc-65, arsenic-76, and neptunium-239 in Columbia River fish and drinking water taken from the river, and iodine-131 in vegetation. This report documents the achievement of the Phase I objectives of the Environmental Monitoring Data Task.

Denham, D.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Poston, T.M.; Thiede, M.E.; Woodruff, R.K.

1993-06-01

430

Dynamic Permeability Increase During Flow of CO2 Saturated Water Through a Siliciclastic Caprock: an Experimental and Analytical Approach into the Geochemical Impact of CO2 Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field trials into CO2 sequestration are currently being undertaken at the In Salah gas field, Algeria. As a part of a wider project, we are experimentally investigating the geochemical and geomechanical effects of CO2 sequestration on the lower caprock. These are poorly sorted siltstones, cemented with quartz, illite, siderite and chlorite. CO2 injection into saline aquifers and depleted petroleum reservoirs alters in situ geochemical conditions. CO2-rich aqueous fluids are acidic and have the potential to geochemically interact with caprocks. These changes will affect caprock properties such as strength and fluid flow properties, which in turn may facilitate CO2 migration and escape from the intended storage structure. Evaluation of these effects on samples of well characterised caprocks will be crucial in helping to evaluate the long term integrity of CO2 storage. We present results from direct experimental and analytical evaluation of dynamic permeability evolution for the flow of CO2 saturated water through a sample of the lower caprock from the In Salah CO2 storage site. Permeability of this sample was approximately 10-20 m2. Permeability was found to increase by approximately 1 order of magnitude over 72 hours of continuous flow. Porosity was also found to increase, whilst surface area, and sample weight decreased. SEM, XRD, and FTIR analyses revealed dissolution of chlorite and siderite to be the cause of the increase in permeability. This change in permeability, and dissolution of minerals, may locally lead to decreased strength of the caprock and decreased sealing capacity. However, local re-precipitation processes may serve to reverse these processes.

Worden, R. H.; Armitage, P. J.; Faulkner, D. R.

2011-12-01

431

Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

1992-08-01

432

Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilot Project, Canada: Implications for Detection of Wellbore Leakage.  

PubMed

A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection. PMID:24002229

Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bohnhoff, Marco; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Zambrano-Narváez, Gonzalo; Chalaturnyk, Rick

2013-09-02

433

43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

2012-10-01

434

43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous §...

2011-10-01

435

Cluster analysis and quality assessment of logged water at an irrigation project, eastern Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

A multivariate statistical technique, cluster analysis, was used to assess the logged surface water quality at an irrigation project at Al-Fadhley, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The principal idea behind using the technique was to utilize all available hydrochemical variables in the quality assessment including trace elements and other ions which are not considered in conventional techniques for water quality assessments like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Furthermore, the area belongs to an irrigation project where water contamination associated with the use of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides is expected. This quality assessment study was carried out on a total of 34 surface/logged water samples. To gain a greater insight in terms of the seasonal variation of water quality, 17 samples were collected from both summer and winter seasons. The collected samples were analyzed for a total of 23 water quality parameters including pH, TDS, conductivity, alkalinity, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, nitrate, phosphate, bromide, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, arsenic, boron, copper, cobalt, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, mercury and zinc. Cluster analysis in both Q and R modes was used. Q-mode analysis resulted in three distinct water types for both the summer and winter seasons. Q-mode analysis also showed the spatial as well as temporal variation in water quality. R-mode cluster analysis led to the conclusion that there are two major sources of contamination for the surface/shallow groundwater in the area: fertilizers, micronutrients, pesticides, and insecticides used in agricultural activities, and non-point natural sources. PMID:17590259

Hussain, Mahbub; Ahmed, Syed Munaf; Abderrahman, Walid

2007-06-22

436

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

Baroni, M. [American Oil Recovery, Inc., Decatur, IL (United States)

1995-09-01

437

Time Resolved Contrast Enhanced Intracranial MRA Using a Single Dose Delivered as Sequential Injections and Highly Constrained Projection Reconstruction (HYPR CE)  

PubMed Central

Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the brain is challenging due to the need for rapid imaging and high spatial resolution. Moreover, the significant dispersion of the intravenous contrast bolus as it passes through the heart and lungs increases the overlap between arterial and venous structures, regardless of the acquisition speed and reconstruction window. An innovative technique is presented that divides a single dose contrast into two injections. Initially a small volume of contrast material (2–3 mL) is used to acquiring time-resolved weighting images with a high frame rate (2 frames/s) during the first pass of the contrast agent. The remaining contrast material is used to obtain a high resolution whole brain contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance angiography (0.57 × 0.57 × 1 mm3) that is used as the spatial constraint for Local Highly Constrained Projection Reconstruction (HYPR LR) reconstruction. After HYPR reconstruction, the final dynamic images (HYPR CE) have both high temporal and spatial resolution. Furthermore, studies of contrast kinetics demonstrate that the shorter bolus length from the reduced contrast volume used for the first injection significantly improves the arterial and venous separation.

Wu, Yijing; Johnson, Kevin; Kecskemeti, Steven R.; Wang, Kang; Wieben, Oliver; Aagaard-Kienitz, Beverly L.; Rowley, Howard; Korosec, Frank R.; Mistretta, Charles; Turski, Patrick

2011-01-01

438

Cost-benefit analysis of water-reuse projects for environmental purposes: a case study for Spanish wastewater treatment plants.  

PubMed

Water reuse is an emerging and promising non-conventional water resource. Feasibility studies are essential tools in the decision making process for the implementation of water-reuse projects. However, the methods used to assess economic feasibility tend to focus on internal costs, while external impacts are relegated to unsubstantiated statements about the advantages of water reuse. Using the concept of shadow prices for undesirable outputs of water reclamation, the current study developed a theoretical methodology to assess internal and external economic impacts. The proposed methodological approach is applied to 13 wastewater treatment plants in the Valencia region of Spain that reuse effluent for environmental purposes. Internal benefit analyses indicated that only a proportion of projects were economically viable, while when external benefits are incorporated all projects were economically viable. In conclusion, the economic feasibility assessments of water-reuse projects should quantitatively evaluate economic, environmental and resource availability. PMID:21856067

Molinos-Senante, M; Hernández-Sancho, F; Sala-Garrido, R

2011-12-01

439

Decontamination and decommissioning of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR): Project final report, Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Final Report for the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of the Argonne National Laboratory - East (ANL-E) Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) facility contains the descriptions and evaluations of the activities and the results of the EBWR D&D project. It provides the following information: (1) An overall description of the ANL-E site and EBWR facility. (2) The history of the EBWR facility. (3) A description of the D&D activities conducted during the EBWR project. (4) A summary of the final status of the facility, including the final and confirmation surveys. (5) A summary of the final cost, schedule, and personnel exposure associated with the project, including a summary of the total waste generated. This project report covers the entire EBWR D&D project, from the initiation of Phase I activities to final project closeout. After the confirmation survey, the EBWR facility was released as a {open_quotes}Radiologically Controlled Area,{close_quotes} noting residual elevated activity remains in inaccessible areas. However, exposure levels in accessible areas are at background levels. Personnel working in accessible areas do not need Radiation Work Permits, radiation monitors, or other radiological controls. Planned use for the containment str