Science.gov

Sample records for water injection project

  1. INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2001-09-01

    As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to set. The system then returned to operation as before the test with no major change in the fieldwide injection. The injection and production rates for the field were monitored for approximately one year to give the production side of the system time to stabilize. The polymer treatment conducted on the injection wells in Hawk Point is believed to be the largest treatment of a hot, deep reservoir to date. These injection well treatments did produce some change in the injection profile of the injection wells. However, it is very disappointing that there was no significant improvement in the performance of the field. There was no noticeable reduction in the water production, the water-oil ratio (WOR), or an increase in oil production. The cosponsor has determined that the field is currently at its economic limit because of the high cost of this deep operation and the continual downhole problems. A restructuring of the injection-production pattern is presently being done to prolong the life of the field.

  2. Geothermal injection monitoring project

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, L.

    1981-04-01

    Background information is provided on the geothermal brine injection problem and each of the project tasks is outlined in detail. These tasks are: evaluation of methods of monitoring the movement of injected fluid, preparation for an eventual field experiment, and a review of groundwater regulations and injection programs. (MHR)

  3. Injection-water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

  4. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  5. Corrosion control in water injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1993-08-01

    Corrosion control in water injection systems encompasses a wide range of technologies, including chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and oxygen scavengers); corrosion-resistant materials (metallic and nonmetallic); internal coatings and linings; mechanical removal of dissolved oxygen; velocity control; and prevention of oxygen entry and galvanic couples. This article reviews the way that these technologies are used in modern water-injection systems (both seawater and produced water) to provide an acceptable service life and high-quality injection water.

  6. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.

  7. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  8. The desulvurization by water injection activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yongqi Lu; Jiming Hao; Kebin He

    1996-12-31

    The furnace limestone injection has been paid more attention due to low capital cost, easy installation and operation. However, the SO{sub 2} conversion is low and most of lime remained unreacted while leaving furnace. An activation reactor can be used to form highly active slurry droplets by water sprays and consequent impaction so as to enhance the sorbent utilization and reduce operation cost. In addition, sorbent is directly injected into the duct and activated by water sprays downstream in the so-called duct injection. The authors develop a simplified one-dimensional model to simulate the impaction between droplet and sorbent, evaporation, and reactions which occur simultaneously in the reactor.

  9. Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

  10. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  11. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  12. Water alternating gas injection maximizes recoverable reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Opdal, S.T.

    1995-10-01

    In the North Sea, water alternating gas injection (WAG) can be an alternative to water flooding. The Gullfaks field is located in Block 34/10 in the Norwegian North Sea. Different methods have been investigated to improve the recovery from Gullfaks, including polymers, surfactants, WAG, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells. Several of these methods have been laboratory and field tested. Both horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing are used on a regular basis. In addition, an area in the Lower Brent Formation was selected in 1991 as a pilot for the WAG method. WAG was initially proposed for gas-flooded fields as a method of controlling gas fingering and improving vertical sweep, particularly for miscible CO{sub 2} displacements. Effective at improving immiscible gas injection, WAG can also be beneficiary to fields that are being water flooded. This paper reviews the design problems associated with the WAG operation. It discusses the performance and sweep efficiency which resulted from the WAG.

  13. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  14. Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

  15. Modeling of Water Injection into a Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alred, John W.; Smith, Nicole L.; Wang, K. C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Fitzgerald, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    A loosely coupled two-phase vacuum water plume model has been developed. This model consists of a source flow model to describe the expansion of water vapor, and the Lagrangian equations of motion for particle trajectories. Gas/Particle interaction is modeled through the drag force induced by the relative velocities. Particles are assumed traveling along streamlines. The equations of motion are integrated to obtain particle velocity along the streamline. This model has been used to predict the mass flux in a 5 meter radius hemispherical domain resulting from the burst of a water jet of 1.5 mm in diameter, mass flow rate of 24.2 g/s, and stagnation pressure of 21.0 psia, which is the nominal Orbiter water dump condition. The result is compared with an empirical water plume model deduced from a video image of the STS-29 water dump. To further improve the model, work has begun to numerically simulate the bubble formation and bursting present in a liquid stream injected into a vacuum. The technique of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to formulate this simulation. A status and results of the on-going effort are presented and compared to results from the literature.

  16. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  17. Can Earthquakes Induced by Deep Fluid Injection Projects Be Controlled or Limited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.; Williams, C. F.; Hickman, S.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Projects that involve the injection of high-pressure fluids at depth include Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration and liquid waste disposal. We consider some case histories to address the question of the extent to which earthquakes induced by fluid injection can be controlled or limited. For instance, can induced earthquakes be controlled in ways that don't compromise the effectiveness of a given injection project? It is difficult to answer this question definitively because, to our knowledge, only one successful experiment in earthquake control has been performed (Raleigh et al., Science, v. 191, pp. 1230-1237, 1976). Moreover, for numerous injection projects, the induced earthquakes of maximum magnitude have been post shut-in, e.g., the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well, a liquid waste disposal project for which the three largest induced earthquakes occurred more than a year after injection had been terminated. For EGS operations requiring the injection of liquid into rock of low permeability, estimations of maximum magnitudes based on the volume of injected fluid have been moderately successful. For a typical magnitude distribution of induced earthquakes, it can be shown that the largest event accounts for about half of the total induced seismic moment, which is given by the volume of injected liquid multiplied by the modulus of rigidity (McGarr, J. Geophys. Res., v. 81, p. 1487, 1976). The Basel Deep Heat Mining project, an EGS injection of 11,500 cubic meters of water into low-permeability rock at a depth of five km, induced earthquakes with magnitudes that exceeded the safety threshold and so injection was discontinued (Deichmann and Giardini, Seismol. Res. Letters, v. 80, p. 784, 2009). Approximately half a day after shut-in, however, an earthquake of magnitude 3.4 occurred, the largest event of the sequence. It is worth noting that the magnitude of this earthquake is quite close to what could have been estimated based on the volume of injected water. An EGS project in the Cooper Basin, Australia, provides another recent example for which the maximum magnitude agrees with that estimated on the basis of the volume of water injected into low-permeability rock. In this case, the injection of 20,000 cubic meters of water resulted in a maximum magnitude of 3.7. Thus, for EGS projects, maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes seem to be limited according to the volume of injected liquid. Among the issues that are, as yet, unresolved is the possibility that a small-scale fluid injection project may trigger a much larger earthquake on a pre-existing fault that is in a state close to failure.

  18. Gel injection successfully shuts off excess water

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Unocal applied a high-temperature organic polymer gel in Feather field Well H-43 in the UK North Sea to reduce water production in them more-permeable upper perforated section of the Brent Sand. The operation and technical details of the polymer system developed by Unocal, and how it was applied, are described in paper SPE 30426, ``Water shut off in the North Sea; Testing a new polymer system in the Heather field, UKCS Block 2/5.`` The authors concluded that the new gel system successfully isolated the Upper Brent water production, increasing oil production and decreasing water production. Lower perforations were successfully isolated using sized calcium carbonate suspended in an HEC polymer--a technique difficult to monitor in the deviated well. Batch mixing provided ``excellent`` quality gel, closely matching lab measured performance. And the gel required no pre-cooling in the near-wellbore area. Some 1,100 bbl were injected without excessive wellhead pressure, at 1 bpm. A summary of the paper`s highlights is presented here.

  19. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  20. Geomechanics of subsurface water withdrawal and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Land subsidence and uplift, ground ruptures, and induced seismicity are the principal geomechanic effects of groundwater withdrawal and injection. The major environmental consequence of groundwater pumping is anthropogenic land subsidence. The first observation concerning land settlement linked to subsurface processes was made in 1926 by the American geologists Pratt and Johnson, who wrote that "the cause of subsidence is to be found in the extensive extraction of fluid from beneath the affected area." Since then, impressive progress has been made in terms of: (a) recognizing the basic hydrologic and geomechanic principles underlying the occurrence; (b) measuring aquifer compaction and ground displacements, both vertical and horizontal; (c) modeling and predicting the past and future event; and (d) mitigating environmental impact through aquifer recharge and/or surface water injection. The first milestone in the theory of pumped aquifer consolidation was reached in 1923 by Terzaghi, who introduced the principle of "effective intergranular stress." In the early 1970s, the emerging computer technology facilitated development of the first mathematical model of the subsidence of Venice, made by Gambolati and Freeze. Since then, the comprehension, measuring, and simulation of the occurrence have improved dramatically. More challenging today are the issues of ground ruptures and induced/triggered seismicity, which call for a shift from the classical continuum approach to discontinuous mechanics. Although well known for decades, anthropogenic land subsidence is still threatening large urban centers and deltaic areas worldwide, such as Bangkok, Jakarta, and Mexico City, at rates in the order of 10 cm/yr.

  1. Application for Underground Injection Control Permit for the PUNA Geothermal Venture Project

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-01

    Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) plans to construct and operate the 25 MW Puna Geothermal Venture Project in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii. The project will drill geothermal wells within a dedicated 500-acre project area, use the produced geothermal fluid to generate electricity for sale to the Hawaii Electric Light Company for use on the Island of Hawaii, and inject all the produced geothermal fluids back into the geothermal reservoir. Since the project will use injection wells, it will require an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit from the Drinking Water Section of the State of Hawaii Department of Health. The PGV Project is consistent with the State and County of Hawaii's stated objectives of providing energy self-sufficiency and diversifying Hawaii's economic base. The project will develop a new alternate energy source as well as provide additional information about the nature of the geothermal resource.

  2. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  3. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  4. Status of NINJA: the Numerical INJection Analysis project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadonati, Laura; Aylott, Benjamin; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Boyle, Michael; Brady, Patrick R.; Brown, Duncan A.; Brgmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Camp, Jordan; Campanelli, Manuela; Centrella, Joan; Chatterji, Shourov; Christensen, Nelson; Chu, Tony; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Nils; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Faber, Joshua; Fairhurst, Stephen; Farr, Benjamin; Fischetti, Sebastian; Guidi, Gianluca; Goggin, Lisa M.; Hannam, Mark; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Kalogera, Vicky; Keppel, Drew; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Krishnan, Badri; Laguna, Pablo; Lousto, Carlos O.; Mandel, Ilya; Marronetti, Pedro; Matzner, Richard; McWilliams, Sean T.; Matthews, Keith D.; Mercer, R. Adam; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R. P.; Mrou, Abdul H.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ochsner, Evan; Pan, Yi; Pekowsky, Larne; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Pollney, Denis; Pretorius, Frans; Raymond, Vivien; Reisswig, Christian; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rinne, Oliver; Robinson, Craig; Rver, Christian; Santamara, Luca; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore; Scheel, Mark A.; Schnetter, Erik; Seiler, Jennifer; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Sperhake, Ulrich; Stroeer, Alexander; Sturani, Riccardo; Tichy, Wolfgang; Liu, Yuk Tung; van der Sluys, Marc; van Meter, James R.; Vaulin, Ruslan; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John; Vicer, Andrea; Whelan, John T.; Zlochower, Yosef

    2009-06-01

    The 2008 NRDA conference introduced the Numerical INJection Analysis project (NINJA), a new collaborative effort between the numerical relativity community and the data analysis community. NINJA focuses on modeling and searching for gravitational wave signatures from the coalescence of binary system of compact objects. We review the scope of this collaboration and the components of the first NINJA project, where numerical relativity groups, shared waveforms and data analysis teams applied various techniques to detect them when embedded in colored Gaussian noise.

  5. Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

  6. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  7. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  8. Vapour generation in hot permeable rock through injection of water

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Woods, Andrew W.

    1992-01-01

    We present a non-linear model to describe vapor generation in a hot, permeable rock through injection of water. We develop similarity solutions describing the steady injection of fluid from a line source. A systematic parameter study has shown that, with other parameters fixed, as (1) the reservoir pressure increases, the mass fraction vaporized decreases; (2) the reservoir temperature increases, the mass fraction vaporized increases; (3) as the mass injection rate increases, the mass fraction vaporized decreases; and (4) as the porosity increases, the mass fraction vaporized decreases. We then present similarity solutions which describe injection from (1) a point source, with the mass flux injected proportional to t{sup 1/2}; and (2) a planar source, with the mass flux injected proportional to t{sup -1/2}, where t is the time of injection. These results suggest that for steady injection, the vapor production gradually increases for injection from a point source, and gradually decreases for planar injection. We confirm this prediction with numerical calculations describing the vapor production resulting from steady injection from line, point and planar sources.

  9. Water Jet Impingement Flow Characteristics in Direct Vessel Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sang H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    Water jet impingement is a peculiar phenomenon in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) in which the safety injection nozzle is located in the outer reactor vessel, not in the cold leg such as in OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1,000 MWe). Therefore, the injected emergency core coolant (ECC) water spreads with a form of parabolic liquid film in the inner barrel after impinging. It is presently considered that the downcomer flow behavior is strongly governed by the location and geometry of the water injection nozzles. The impingement in the reactor vessel downcomer is one of the unknown important phenomena during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). There is thus a strong need to find how the injected flow strikes the inner downcomer wall and how wide the liquid film spreads by the impingement phenomenon. The liquid film gets in contact with the steam flow in the reactor downcomer such that the interfacial area of liquid film affects the direct bypass according to the nozzle location and geometry. The water jet impingement consists of three rather distinctive flow regions. Albeit the relevant hydrodynamic characteristics are simple and well known in simple geometries, the findings are not readily applicable in the annular reactor downcomer. Analytical and experimental approaches for impingement flow by water injection have yielded detailed flow mechanisms classified in the downcomer. The water injected through three boundaries showed varying behavior according to the injection velocity, injection nozzle diameter, wall curvature, and injection nozzle inclination. As the water injection velocity increases the liquid film spreading width increases, but the spreading width proportional to the injection velocity is tapered due to breakup. Given the injection velocity, a large diameter of injection nozzle increases the film spreading width. Impingement on the flat plate has a larger film spreading width than on the curved plate. Moreover, a larger curvature decreases the film spreading width. The inclined angle of the injection nozzle is a pivotal factor in reducing the film width by increasing the downward velocity. Given the same conditions, the film spreading width lessens as the inclined angle increases. (authors)

  10. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  11. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  12. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  13. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

  14. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

  15. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  16. Seismic modeling of CO2-injection based EGR (project CLEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpt, L.; Buske, S.

    2009-04-01

    The joint research project CLEAN (CO2 Largescale EGR in the Altmark Natural-gas field) is a scientific program accompanying the Enhanced-Gas-Recovery (EGR) project within the second largest natural gas field in Europe - the Altmark gas field. Within this program a set of active and passive seismic surveys are planned in order to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution as well as the related processes of CO2 injection into the reservoir. These experiments comprise time-lapse 3D-VSP/MSP (vertical/moving-source-profiling) surveys as well as the installation of a borehole seismometer network for monitoring and analysis of injection induced seismicity. For both configurations we have performed elastic finite-difference simulations of the seismic wavefield based on a given subsurface model and for a range of injection-induced variations of seismic parameters. We will show the results and discuss the findings in terms of survey design, the estimation of expected changes in the seismic wavefield (reflectivity, traveltime, etc.), the repeatability of the measurements and the understanding of the limits for a rock-physical interpretation of the observed effects.

  17. Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula Basalt Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Continental flood basalts represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood basalt lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-saturated supercritical CO2 show that mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood basalt being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with basalt-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood basalts in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in regions of these countries where conventional storage options are limited.

  18. Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula Basalt Pilot Project

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Continental flood basalts represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood basalt lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-saturated supercritical CO2 show thatmore » mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood basalt being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with basalt-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood basalts in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in regions of these countries where conventional storage options are limited.« less

  19. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  20. SURFACE WATER EMAP PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface water component of the EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot is a five-year effort to assess the ecological condition of rivers and streams across 12 states in the western United States. EMAP is designed to monitor indicators of poll...

  1. Development of gas turbine steam injection water recovery (SIWR) system

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.B.; Otter, A. den )

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses a closed-loop'' steam injection water recovery (SIWR) cycle that was developed for steam-injected gas turbine applications. This process is needed to support gas turbine steam injection especially in areas where water cannot be wasted and complex water treatment is discouraged. The development of the SIWR was initiated by NOVA in an effort to reduce the environmental impact of operating gas turbines and to find suitable solution for its expanding gas transmission system to meet further air emission restrictions. While turbine steam injection provides many benefits, it has not been considered for remote, less supported environments such as gas transmission applications due to its high water consumption. The SIWR process can alleviate this problem regardless of the amount of injection required. The paper also covers conceptual designs of a prototype SIWR system on a small gas turbine unit. However, because of relatively high costs, it is generally believed that the system is more attractive to larger size turbines and especially when it is used in conjunction with cogeneration or combined cycle applications.

  2. Project W.A.T.E.R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EnviroTeach, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Introduces networking projects for studying rivers and water quality. Describes two projects in South Africa (Project W.A.T.E.R and SWAP) associated with the international network, Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. Discusses water test kits and educational material developed through Project W.A.T.E.R. (Water Awareness through…

  3. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-11-06

    Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

  4. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  5. Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

  6. Water injection in longwall top-coal caving face in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, Z.; Gui, F.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discussed the means of improving dust control efficiency using water injection. At first, the authors point out that internal water has effect on dust control. The objective of water injection is to increase the amount of internal water. Secondly, by analyzing the development trend of crack in top-coal, proper water injection station and boreholes can be determined for dust control.

  7. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

    2015-06-01

    Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  8. Pecos River Water Management Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. D.; James, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is providing technical assistance to farmer members of the Carlsbad Irrigation District (CID) to better plan the storage, delivery, and application of water to the Carlsbad Project. The surface waters along the Pecos River are allocated by the State of New Mexico to three major entities: 1) The State of Texas - each year a percentage of water from the natural river flow must be delivered to Texas as governed by the Interstate Streams Commission; 2) CID farmer members - a fixed portion of water must be delivered to the farming members of the CID; and 3) wildlife - an amount of water must be allocated to support the wildlife habitat in the Pecos River, most notably, the endangered Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow. The Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference is under investigation by other state and national agencies and preliminary work has established that water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity (dunes, ripples, etc.) are the key parameters influencing minnow habitat preference. The amount of water (river flow rate) necessary to maintain a preferable habitat to support this species has yet to be determined. With a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, the farmers of the CID are supported, and New Mexico meets its commitments to the State of Texas. This study investigates the relationship between flow rate in the river and water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity. The goal is to establish a predictive tool that supports informed decisions about water management practices along the Pecos River that will maximize water available for agriculture and the State of Texas while maintaining the aquatic habitat.

  9. Evaluating the performance of open-hole, perforated and fractured water injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, S.; Sharma, M.M.

    1995-12-31

    The performance, i.e., the half-life of water injectors, is very important to the economics of water injection projects. A simulator is presented to predict the decline in injectivity of water injection wells. Equations are presented that allow one to model open-hole and perforated completions as well as fractured wells. The mechanism of injectivity decline can be determined by comparing core flow test data with one of four type curves. The transition time is used to determine when external filtration becomes dominant so that the appropriate models can be used for early and late time. The simulator can be used whether or not core flow data is available. Empirical equations are provided to estimate the filtration parameters if core flow test data is not available. The simulator is easy to use, has interactive input and output and is available for PCs and Unix workstations. Examples are provided to show how the simulator can be used to predict the performance of injectors in a variety of cases. The simulator predictions are compared with experimental data. The simulation results are then used to suggest the optimum water quality that will minimize the total cost of water treatment and periodic well stimulation.

  10. Evaluation of centrifugal compressor performance with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beede, William L; Hamrick, Joseph T; Withee, Joseph R , Jr

    1951-01-01

    The effects of water injection on a compressor are presented. To determine the effects of varying water-air ratio, the compressor was operated at a constant equivalent impeller speed over a range of water-air ratios and weight flows. Operation over a range of weight flows at one water-air ratio and two inlet air temperatures was carried out to obtain an indication of the effects of varying inlet air temperature. Beyond a water-air ratio of 0.03 there was no increase in maximum air-weight flow, a negligible rise in peak total-pressure ratio, and a decrease in peak adiabatic efficiency. An increase in inlet air temperature resulted in an increase in the magnitude of evaporation. An analysis of data indicated that the magnitude of evaporation within the compressor impeller was small.

  11. Hydrological and chemical monitoring during Fluid Injection Test in Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, M.; Tanaka, H.; Kuo, T.; Tsao, C.; Giletycz, S.; Chen, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, T.; Ma, K.

    2007-12-01

    Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project drilled two research boreholes (Hole A and B; approximately 40 m of their distance) through the Chelungpu Fault in Da-Keng, which ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, in 2004. A branched borehole was drilled from Hole B in 2005 (Hole C), and then both Hole A and Hole C were perforated at the depth of the fault zone. The depth of perforation is 1111 m in Hole A and 1137 m in Hole C. Between the two boreholes, Fluid Injection Test (FIT) was performed on from November 2006 to March 2007 to estimate permeability and to understand hydrological and chemical properties along Chelungpu fault. Water was injected four times from Hole C at constant pressure during this FIT (4 MPa on November 2006 and January 2007, 3 and 5 MPa on March 2007). The arrival of injected water was monitored by seismometers, manometers, a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and chemical sensors at Hole A. In this present, we will report the results of water quality, gas and water pressure monitoring at Hole A. During FIT, tap water was used for injected water, which was characterized by high Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP; 250 mV) and high Dissolved Oxygen (DO; 5.6 mg/L). Because both ORP and DO of the well water at Hole A kept low (ORP; -350 - -150, DO; <0.5 mg/L) before FIT, the arrival of injected water can be found by rise of these values. 1st FIT was performed for approximately 100 hours from 22:00 on 7th to 8:30 on 12th November. As a result, the values of ORP and DO increased on 10th November, which is 3 days after the start of 1st FIT. Then, the flow rate at Hole A suddenly increased 7 days after the first chemical reaction on 10th, that is, 10 days after the start of 1st FIT. This suggests that the permeability is 10-16 m2 assuming that the width of a permeable zone is 1 m by the preliminary estimation of the permeability based on the model of Kitagawa et al. (2002).

  12. Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Dobson, P.F.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) modeling of a proposed stimulation injection associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths below 3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring from the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11), located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir.

  13. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  14. Mitigation of microbial corrosion in Ras Budran water injection plant

    SciTech Connect

    Khattab, N.M.

    1995-12-01

    The Oil Company is water flooding Ras Budran field with Gulf of Suez water as a secondary means of oil recovery. Mitigation of microbial corrosion in Ras Budran water treatment plant is achieved by the continuous chlorination and weekly slugging of two types of biocides alternatively. Three years from commissioning, water quality started deteriorating at the offshore platforms in terms of high H{sub 2}S, iron contents, counts and corrosion rates. The main cause was attributed to the adhering property of sessile sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) that could neither be controlled by corrosion inhibitor nor biocide treatment. In accordance, a cleaning and sterilization program was established for the piggable section of the sub sea injection line. This paper also presents the recent failure experienced in the remaining unpiggable section of the injection line. Diagnosis and analysis revealed that microbial corrosion was the main contributor to the failure due to the lack of pigging facility and the inability of removing the complex biofilms in which sessile bacteria grow, and rendering the applied biocides ineffective. For further confirmation intelligent pigging of the intact pipeline was run. Results showed that the line is in good condition internally with no significant corrosion.

  15. Simulation of altering residual water saturation near wellbore for CO2 injectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Lee, T.; Lee, S.; Park, K.

    2014-12-01

    Volumetric CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers is one of the most important factor for large scale CCS projects. The maximum sustainable injection rate or the injectivity is another important criterion which is dependent on many reservoir specific properties including permeability, porosity, formation thickness, areal extent, pressure and relative permeability. Among those parameters, we focused on the residual wetting phase saturation expressed in relative permeability curve. From previous experiments, residual brine saturation is typically between 0.4 and 0.6. Higher displacement efficiency cannot be expected with those values because the displacement efficiency is inversely proportional to the residual oil saturation. Also, it is natural that the end-point relative permeability for CO2 should be low. The reason is that the high CO2-brine interfacial tension disturbs CO2 invasion into small pores. In this study, chemical flooding was assumed with surfactants or intermediate fluid which is miscible with both water and CO2 to reduce the interfacial tension. We didn't use the chemicals to improve the displacement efficiency all over the field but intend to improve the injectivity at least near the wellbore region swept by the chemicals. Once lower residual brine saturation was achieved, the higher CO2 saturation could be maintained and the better CO2 injectivity was shown. Injection tests using a commercial model showed that the increase of the injectivity was not very high but the enhancement was meaningful.

  16. Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

  17. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.; Ehrlich, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.

  18. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  19. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  20. Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

  1. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type of simulation studies can be applied to Hot Dry Rock systems to investigate the effects of dissolution/precipitation of solid salt, if present in the system, on the feasibility of the project.

  3. Poroelastic modeling to assess the effect of water injection for land subsidence mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    The possible effect of water injection to mitigate land subsidence was studied through numerical simulations based on the theory of poroelasticity. The Kujukuri Plain, Japan, was chosen as a study area. The effect of past injection was evaluated by comparing a model with injection and the one without injection. The calculated results suggested that the past injection played a significant role to reduce land subsidence. For achieving more effective mitigation practices in the future, we proposed to install injection wells in shallower formations. The effect of proposed injection method to mitigate land subsidence from 2014 to 2030 was also investigated. The calculated results show that the proposed method can work similarly by lesser water injection than the past method. The results also indicate that the upper limit of injection rate should be carefully determined to control the pore pressure build-up in the formation to be small enough to avoid formation failure.

  4. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  5. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  6. Sodium-water reaction acoustic noise for liquid phase injections. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, K.R.; Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.

    1981-02-01

    Data on liquid and steam injections into sodium were recorded during a series of wastage experiments. These data are analyzed for acoustic power and spectral characteristics, expanding the data base up to 10 gm/sec injection rates from the earlier 0.5 gms/sec. No significant difference in acoustic power was measured between low temperature steam and liquid injections for the same mass flowrates. The bandwidth for steam injections is broader than for liquid injections. Reaction product deposition during water injections appears to cause a decrease in signal strength with test duration.

  7. The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

    2014-12-01

    In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated in produced water, suggesting that most populations in injected water did hardly reach production wells in this reservoir. We further investigated microbial communities in water samples collected from wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells in a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir. The results indicated that, except for the community reconstruction mainly resulted from dissolved oxygen, most populations were simultaneously detected in the wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells, suggesting that most microbial populations in injected water reached the production wells. This study suggest that microbial populations in injected water can pass through reservoir strata and reach production wells, but the reservoir heterogeneity, interwell spacing, sieve effect of strata and dissolved oxygen exert significant influence on microbial migration and distribution in reservoirs.

  8. Field studies of microbiological corrosion in water injection plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elboujdaini, M.; Sastri, V.S.

    1995-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance, weight loss and potentiodyne techniques were used to determine the corrosion rates of carbon steel along with the determination of activities of both sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acid-producing bacteria (APB) in a water injection field test facility. Corrosion rates determined by the potentiodyne technique did not correlate with the bacterial activity. Corrosion rates obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were comparable to the rates obtained by weight loss measurements. The average corrosion rates obtained by EIS paralleled the cumulative SRB activity over 84 days, and the addition of biocide resulted in reduced bacterial activity and corrosion rate. The depression angles in Nyquist plots were high (30{degree}, 29{degree}) for control and biocide lines respectively indicating a fair degree of pitting corrosion. After 42 days, the values were lower, 11{degree} for biocide line compared to 22{degree} for control he showing the decrease in pitting tendency in line to which biocide was added at the end of 28 days.

  9. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of formaldehyde in water.

    PubMed

    Motyka, Kamil; Onjia, Antonije; Mikuska, Pavel; Vecera, Zbynek

    2007-02-15

    A modification of the Trautz-Schorigin reaction into a flow-injection analysis configuration is described. Different approaches were used at the optimization of chemiluminescence determination of formaldehyde in water based on the reaction of formaldehyde, gallic acid and hydrogen peroxide in an alkaline solution. Detection system with a 218microl chemiluminescence cell was optimized by both a one-variable-at-a-time method, and a modified simplex method. A calibration graph is linear in the concentration range 4x10(-8) to 1x10(-5)M HCHO. The detection limit of formaldehyde for a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 is 4x10(-8)M. The relative standard deviations for 15 repeated measurements of 1x10(-6) and 5x10(-6)mol l(-1) HCHO are 4.32 and 3.33%, respectively. The analysis time is 1.5min. The method was applied to the determination of formaldehyde in urban rainwater. A comparison of results found by proposed method with those obtained by fluorimetric reference method provided a good agreement. PMID:19071392

  10. Long-term experiments of waste water injection in the Otake geothermal field, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Itoi, R.; Fukuda, M. ); Jinno, K. ); Hirowatari, K. ); Shinohara, N. ); Tomita, T. )

    1989-01-01

    The Otake geothermal water has been injected into two injection wells for up to 656 days. The injection and two other observation wells range in depth from 365 to 450 m. The average silica concentration in the water was in a range from 541 to 587 mg/1. The water was injected at 80, 60, and 50{sup 0}C to change the degree of supersaturation with silica. Both the falloff test and the maximum injectivity test were repeated to examine the decrease of injectivity. A tracer test, caliper log, and borehole televiewer survey were also conducted. The permeability-thickness product (kh) of Injection Well R-2 has reduced from 91 darcy-m down to 4 darcy-m after injecting 5.49 x 10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ water. In the case of Well R-1, its injectivity was nearly eliminated after injecting a total of 4.59x10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ water; its kh value of 224 darcy-m decreased to 0.79 darcy-m, and the water level rose up over the wellhead.

  11. Sequential injection methodology for carbon speciation in bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ins C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, Antnio O S S

    2013-05-17

    A sequential injection method (SIA) for carbon speciation in inland bathing waters was developed comprising, in a single manifold, the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), free dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity. The determination of DIC, CO2 and TC was based on colour change of bromothymol blue (660 nm) after CO2 diffusion through a hydrophobic membrane placed in a gas diffusion unit (GDU). For the DIC determination, an in-line acidification prior to the GDU was performed and, for the TC determination, an in-line UV photo-oxidation of the sample prior to GDU ensured the conversion of all carbon forms into CO2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined by subtracting the obtained DIC value from the TC obtained value. The determination of alkalinity was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of bromocresol green colour change (611 nm) after reaction with acetic acid. The developed SIA method enabled the determination of DIC (0.24-3.5 mg C L(-1)), CO2 (1.0-10 mg C L(-1)), TC (0.50-4.0 mg C L(-1)) and alkalinity (1.2-4.7 mg C L(-1) and 4.7-19 mg C L(-1)) with limits of detection of: 9.5 ?g C L(-1), 20 ?g C L(-1), 0.21 mg C L(-1), 0.32 mg C L(-1), respectively. The SIA system was effectively applied to inland bathing waters and the results showed good agreement with reference procedures. PMID:23639397

  12. H2S Injection and Sequestration into Basalt - The SulFix Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudbrandsson, S.; Moola, P.; Stefansson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric H2S emissions are among major environmental concern associated with geothermal energy utilization. It is therefore of great importance for the geothermal power sector to reduce H2S emissions. Known solutions for H2S neutralization are both expensive and include production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid that needs to be disposed of. Icelandic energy companies that utilize geothermal power for electricity production have decided to try to find an environmentally friendly and economically feasible solution to reduce the H2S emission, in a joint venture called SulFix. The aim of SulFix project is to explore the possibilities of injecting H2S dissolved in water into basaltic formations in close proximity to the power plants for permanent fixation as sulfides. The formation of sulfides is a natural process in geothermal systems. Due to basalt being rich in iron and dissolving readily at acidic conditions, it is feasible to re-inject the H2S dissolved in water, into basaltic formations to form pyrite. To estimate the mineralization rates of H2S, in the basaltic formation, flow through experiments in columns were conducted at various H2S concentrations, temperatures (100 - 240C) and both fresh and altered basaltic glass. The results indicate that pyrite rapidly forms during injection into fresh basalt but the precipiation in altered basalt is slower. Three different alteration stages, as a function of distance from inlet, can be observed in the column with fresh basaltic glass; (1) dissolution features along with precipitation, (2) precipitation increases, both sulfides and other secondary minerals and (3) the basalt looks to be unaltered and little if any precipitation is observed. The sulfur has precipitated in the first half of the column and thereafter the solution is possibly close to be supersaturated with respect to the rock. These results indicate that the H2S sequestration into basalt is possible under geothermal conditions. The rate limiting step is the availability of iron released from the dissolving rock. The rapid precipitation of secondary phases in the column suggests the possibility of decreased porosity in the vicinity of the injection well.

  13. SELECTED WATER DECONTAMINATION RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Federation (WEF), through funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD), will host the first of three regional water sector stakeholder workshops March 15-17, 2005 at the Phoenix Marriot...

  14. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  15. Stimulation of water injection wells in the Los Angeles basin using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Patterson, D.E.; Aseltine, R.J.; Young, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive stimulation program was developed to improve the injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills Hills and San Vicente Fields. In recent years the wells had low to zero injectivity and very limited vertical distribution of injected water as a result of formation damage, sand face plugging, and perforation blockage. A stimulaiton strategy was developed which sequentially removed this damage. It began with redesigning the central water plant to provide clean injection brine. The casing was mechanically cleaned. Near-wellbore solids were dissolved or loosened using hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach); then, removed from the well by reverse circulating and suction washing. Remaining damage was treated with hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acid and bleach using circulation wash and selective squeeze techniques. Two- to three-fold improvements in injectivity after stimulation were common. Vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial 0-30% coverage to 85-95% after stimulation. 10 refs.

  16. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  17. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A.

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

  18. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 4, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ``LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.`` The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.

  19. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection...

  20. Deep injection of waste water in the Western Canada sedimentary basin.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Injection of wastes into the deep subsurface has become a contentious issue, particularly in emerging regions of oil and gas production. Experience in other regions suggests that injection is an effective waste management practice and that widespread environmental damage is unlikely. Over the past several decades, 23?km(3) of water has been injected into the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The oil and gas industry has injected most of this water but large amounts of injection are associated with mining activities. The amount of water injected into this basin during the past century is 2 to 3 orders magnitude greater than natural recharge to deep formations in the WCSB. Despite this large-scale disturbance to the hydrogeological system, there have been few documented cases of environmental problems related to injection wells. Deep injection of waste appears to be a low risk activity based on this experience but monitoring efforts are insufficient to make definitive statements. Serious uncharacterized legacy issues could be present. Initiating more comprehensive monitoring and research programs on the effects of injection in the WCSB could provide insight into the risks associated with injection in less developed sedimentary basins. PMID:24841226

  1. Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, C.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The 250 sq mi area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex geohydrologic system having diverse groundwater quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 ft. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding, supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Potential groundwater contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and injected into deep zones. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day (gpd) into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 ft below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gpd for 10 years. 63 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Mechanical instability induced by water weakening in laboratory fluid injection tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C.; Dautriat, J.; Sarout, J.; Delle Piane, C.; Menndez, B.; Macault, R.; Bertauld, D.

    2015-06-01

    To assess water-weakening effects in reservoir rocks, previous experimental studies have focused on changes in the failure envelopes derived from mechanical tests conducted on rocks fully saturated either with water or with inert fluids. So far, little attention has been paid to the mechanical behavior during fluid injection under conditions similar to enhanced oil recovery operations. We studied the effect of fluid injection on the mechanical behavior of the weakly consolidated Sherwood sandstone in laboratory experiments. Our specimens were instrumented with 16 ultrasonic P wave transducers for both passive and active acoustic monitoring during loading and fluid injection to record the acoustic signature of fluid migration in the pore space and the development of damage. Calibration triaxial tests were conducted on three samples saturated with air, water, or oil. In a second series of experiments, water and inert oil were injected into samples critically loaded up to 80% or 70% of the dry or oil-saturated compressive strength, respectively, to assess the impact of fluid migration on mechanical strength and elastic properties. The fluids were injected with a low back pressure to minimize effective stress variations during injection. Our observations show that creep takes place with a much higher strain rate for water injection compared to oil injection. The most remarkable difference is that water injection in both dry and oil-saturated samples triggers mechanical instability (macroscopic failure) within half an hour whereas oil injection does not after several hours. The analysis of X-ray computed tomography images of postmortem samples revealed that the mechanical instability was probably linked to loss of cohesion in the water-invaded region.

  3. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  4. GROUND WATER ISSUE: STEAM INJECTION FOR SOIL AND AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  5. Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

    1982-06-22

    The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

  6. The utility of three-dimensional optical projection tomography in nerve injection injury imaging.

    PubMed

    Cvetko, E; ?apek, M; Damjanovska, M; Reina, M A; Eren, I; Stopar-Pintari?, T

    2015-08-01

    The examination of nerve microarchitecture has hitherto been limited solely to two-dimensional imaging techniques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of optical projection tomography to discern the nerve microarchitecture and injection injury in three dimensions. Five piglets were studied, whose median and lingual nerves were unilaterally injected post mortem with preset volumes of local anaesthetic, excised and subsequently made transparent with benzyl alcohol benzyl benzoate. Images were captured in three dimensions. The same contralateral nerves were used as controls. Using optical projection tomography, we observed differences between the internal organisation of the median and the lingual nerves, which potentially explain the variations in their susceptibility to injury. This was demonstrated in three dimensions as a disruption to the fascicles in the lingual nerve, and their displacement in the median nerve. This new technology offers potential for studying nerve microarchitecture topography and its tolerance to injection injury. PMID:25827062

  7. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary monitoring results, and other observations.

  8. Experimental and numerical study on the fracture of rocks during injection of CO2-saturated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Wu, Zhishen; Lei, Xing-Lin; Murakami, Yutaka; Satoh, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 into depleted hydrocarbon reserviors or saline aquifers presents the enormous potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuels. However, it may give rise to a complicated coupling physical and chemical process. One of the processes is the hydro-mechanical impact of CO2 injection. During the injection project, the increase of pore pressures of storing formations can induce the instability, which finally results in a catastrophic failure of disposal sites. This paper focuses mainly on the role of CO2-saturated water in the fracturing behavior of rocks. To investigate how much the dissolved CO2 can influence the pore pressure change of rocks, acoustic emission (AE) experiments were performed on sandstone and granite samples under triaxial conditions. The main innovation of this paper is to propose a time dependent porosity method to simulate the abrupt failure process, which is observed in the laboratory and induced by the pore pressure change due to the volume dilatancy of rocks, using a finite element scheme associated with two-phase characteristics. The results successfully explained the phenomena obtained in the physical experiments.

  9. Geohydrology and water quality in northern Portage County, Ohio, in relation to deep-well brine injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Geohydrology and water quality of the principal freshwater aquifers near oilfield and gasfield brine-injection wells in northern Portage County, Ohio, were evaluated. Since 1975, 13 wells in this part of the Country have been used to dispose of more than 4.5 million barrels of brine by injection into Silurian carbonate and sandstone rocks that generally are greater than 3,500 feet below land surface. More than 3,000 feet of interbedded shales, sandstones, carbonates, and evaporites separate the freshwater aquifers from these brine-injection zones. The shallowest brine-injection zone is greater than 2,200 feet below sea level. Native fluids in the injection zones have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 125,000 milligrams per liter and are hydraulically isolated from the freshwater aquifers. No known faults or fracture systems are present in northern Portage County, although abandoned oil and gas wells could exist and serve as conduits for migration of injected brine. Pennsylvanian clastic units are freshwater bearing in northern Portage County, and two bedrock aquifers generally are recognized. The shallower bedrock aquifer (Connoquenessing Sandstone Member of the Pottsville Formation) principally consists of sandstone; this aquifer is separated from a deeper sandstone and conglomerate aquifer in the lower part of the Sharon Member (Pottsville Formation) by shale in the upper part of the Sharon Member that acts as a confining unit. The upper sandstone aquifer is the surficial aquifer where overlying glacial deposits are unsaturated in the uplands; glacial deposits comprise the surficial aquifer in buried valleys where the sandstone is absent. These two surficial aquifers are hydraulically connected and act as a single unit. The lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer is the most areally extensive aquifer within the project area. From November 1987 through August 1988, ground-water levels remained at least 60 feet higher in the upper sandstone aquifer than in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer at a topographically high recharge area. Water levels in the surficial aquifers and the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer were nearly the same along the Cuyahoga River. Ground water in the upper sandstone aquifer flows radially from topographically high recharge areas into the glacial deposits in the buried valleys. Much of the ground water in these surficial aquifers discharges into the Cuyahoga River. Most ground water in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer flows toward discharge areas near the Cuyahoga River and Eagle Creek. In June 1988, the Cuyahoga River gained 15.8 cubic feet per second of water from the aquifers between the northern edge of Portage County and State Route 303. Ground water may have discharged into the upstream end of Lake Rockwell but did not discharge into the downstream end of the Lake during most of the period from October 1987 through September 1988. Measurements of the specific conductance of ground water sampled from areas near the 13 brine-injection wells and along the Cuyahoga River indicate no widespread ground-water contamination related to brine injection. Chemical analysis of water from 25 wells indicates that most ground waters are a calcium bicarbonate type. Water analyses show that four wells sampled contain water with chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter. Sodium concentrations in water from these four wells ranged from 67 to 190 milligrams per liter. A mixing diagram constructed from bromide and chloride data was used to distinguish between the sources of elevated chloride concentrations in these four wells. Waters from two of the wells have been mixed with oilfield and gasfield brine, and waters from the other two wells have been mixed with a salt-solution brine such as that derived from diluted highway-deicing salts.

  10. Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1991-01-01

    A considerable body of field experience with injection has been accumulated at Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California; the results have been mixed. There are well documented cases where injection has increased flow rates of nearby wells. Return of injected fluid as steam from production wells has been observed directly through chemical and isotopic changes of produced fluids (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Nuti et al., 1981). In other cases injection has caused thermal interference and has degraded the temperature and pressure of production wells. Water injection into depleted vapor zones gives rise to complex two-phase fluid flow and heat transfer processes with phase change. These are further complicated by the fractured-porous nature of the reservoir rocks. An optimization of injection design and operating practice is desirable; this requires realistic and robust mathematical modeling capabilities.

  11. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  12. Simultaneous water and gas injection pilot at the Kuparek River Field, surface line impact

    SciTech Connect

    Stoisits, R.F.; Krist, G.J.; Rugen, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Immiscible writer alternating gas (IWAG) injection has effectively managed produced gas at the Kuparuk River Field: increasing field oil rate and recovery. Although IWAG economics are very favorable, this pilot study was undertaken to ascertain whether separate water and gas injection lines to the drill sites and on-pad distribution systems can be eliminated by simultaneously injecting water and gas in waterflood lines. A significant problem in simultaneous water and gas injection is the phase separation which occurs at branches in the injection pipe network. The higher density phase, because of its greater momentum, will tend to flow in the straight or least deviated pipe branch, while the lower density phase will tend to flow into the most deviated branch of pipe. Studies conducted at ARCO`s Exploration and Production Technology Research Center in Plano, Texas; indicated that static mixers positioned at the pipe branches could achieve equal distribution of the phases to both runs of the pipe branch. In the pilot study gas was injected into all 8 inches waterflood line which supplied two drill sites. A static mixer was placed at the function for the two drill sites. Static mixers were also placed in the 4 inches injection manifold of one of the drill sites, the other drill site had no mixers in the injection manifold. Gas was distributed to both drill sites. At the drill site with static mixers in the injection manifold. gas was distributed to the wells on the injection manifold; while at the drill site without static mixers, phase separation occurred and only one well on the injection manifold received gas.

  13. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  14. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  15. 76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement... Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project. The Washington State..., Congress initiated the Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project (YRBWEP) in response to...

  16. Water management in the arid west: the Cheyenne Water Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beiswenger, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    An effect of energy-related growth in Wyoming has been increased competition for water. The 1982 Wyoming State Legislature authorized a large-scale water-development program using funds obtained through mineral severance taxes. A primary focus of the water-development program has been the Colorado River Basin, where Wyoming has an undeveloped water entitlement. An attitude evolved that Wyoming should hasten to develop this entitlement before it was lost to downstream users. This use it or lose it doctrine has been and still is a dominating factor in the politics of water in Wyoming. This doctrine became a major factor in the Cheyenne Water Project, a proposal for an interbasin transfer of water from the Colorado River Basin to the North Platte River Basin to supply the City of Cheyenne. Two issues, municipal water conservation and instream flow protection, were perceived to be in conflict with the use it or lose it doctrine and became focal points for controversy during an impact statement process and a bond-issue political campaign. A scaled-down version of the project was finally approved, but widespread public interest was instrumental in forcing a consideration of water-conservation alternatives for Cheyenne, and instream flows will be protected in the future by mitigation required through the federal impact statement process. 40 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Integrated hydraulic and organophosphate pesticide injection simulations for enhancing event detection in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Rafi; Lahav, Ori; Ostfeld, Avi

    2014-10-15

    As a complementary step towards solving the general event detection problem of water distribution systems, injection of the organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CP) and parathion (PA), were simulated at various locations within example networks and hydraulic parameters were calculated over 24-h duration. The uniqueness of this study is that the chemical reactions and byproducts of the contaminants' oxidation were also simulated, as well as other indicative water quality parameters such as alkalinity, acidity, pH and the total concentration of free chlorine species. The information on the change in water quality parameters induced by the contaminant injection may facilitate on-line detection of an actual event involving this specific substance and pave the way to development of a generic methodology for detecting events involving introduction of pesticides into water distribution systems. Simulation of the contaminant injection was performed at several nodes within two different networks. For each injection, concentrations of the relevant contaminants' mother and daughter species, free chlorine species and water quality parameters, were simulated at nodes downstream of the injection location. The results indicate that injection of these substances can be detected at certain conditions by a very rapid drop in Cl2, functioning as the indicative parameter, as well as a drop in alkalinity concentration and a small decrease in pH, both functioning as supporting parameters, whose usage may reduce false positive alarms. PMID:25016300

  18. Breakup of molten aluminum jets injected into water

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Finfrock, C.C.; Schwarz, C.E.; Hyder, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    A series of eighteen tests were performed to investigate the behavior of a molten jet of aluminum as it penetrates a deep pool of subcooled water. Jet penetration lengths required for breakup were found to agree with an existing model. Debris size and density were measured and are presented as a function of the jet diameter and water pool temperature. For those tests that exhibited the ability to spread across the steel baseplate under the water, the melt spreading behavior is compared to the existing melt spreading correlation. In the jet mode of melt-water contact, no explosive interactions were observed in these tests. Due to the nearly prototypical nature of these tests, it appears reasonable to conclude that gamma heating of non-fuel components during the DEGB-LOCA would, at worst, benignly melt some aluminum components in the reactor tank, resulting in large particles or debris formations which would remain in the tank and be coolable.

  19. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  20. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

  1. Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and West Charlotte counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and water-quality characteristics, construction of single-zone wells would eliminate cross-contamination and borehole interflow. Such a program, when combined with the plugging of shallow-cased wells having long open-hole intervals connecting multiple zones, would safeguard ground-water resources in the study area. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 feet below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The first well began injecting reverse-osmosis wastewater in 1984, and since then, other wells have been drilled and permitted for injection of treated sewage. A numerical model was used to evaluate injection-well design and potential for movement of injected wastewater within the hydrogeologic framework. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gallons per day for 10 years. In this simulation, a convection cell developed around the injection well with the buoyant fresh injectant rising to form a lens within the injection zone below the lower Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit. Around an ideal, fully penetrating well cased 50 feet into the injection zone and open from a depth of 1,150 feet to 2,050 feet, simulations show that the injectant moves upward to a depth of 940 feet, forms a lens about 600 feet thick, and spreads radially outward to a distance of about 2,300 feet after 10 years. Comparison simulations of injection through wells having open depth intervals of 1,150 to 1,400 feet and 1,450 to 2,050 feet demonstrate that such changes in well construction have little effect on the areal spread of the injectant lens or the rate of upward movement. Simulations also indicate that reverse-osmosis wastewater injected beneath a supply well field, where water levels above the semiconfining unit are lowered 20 feet by pumping, would move upward after 10 years to a de

  2. Geysers injection modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1994-04-01

    Our research is concerned with mathematical modeling techniques for engineering design and optimization of water injection in vapor-dominated systems. The emphasis in the project has been on the understanding of physical processes and mechanisms during injection, applications to field problems, and on transfer of numerical simulation capabilities to the geothermal community. This overview summarizes recent work on modeling injection interference in the Southeast Geysers, and on improving the description of two-phase flow processes in heterogeneous media.

  3. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  4. Oil recovery process involving the injection of thickened water

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D.E.; Chen, C.S.; Sheppard, E.W.

    1980-09-16

    Waterflood oil recovery process involving the use of an amphoteric polyelectrolyte as a thickening agent for mobility control. The amphoteric polyelectrolyte is a copolymer of a quaternary vinyl pyridinium sulfonate and a water-insoluble alpha olefin or hydrogenated diene. Specifically disclosed are vinyl pyridinium sulfonate-styrene block copolymers. The amphoteric polyelectrolytes are stable in high temperature and high brine environments.

  5. Turbine Inlet Analysis of Injected Water Droplet Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, Kevin

    Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature at which it operates at peak capacity. In order to attain this temperature in the hotter months various cooling methods are used such as refrigeration inlet cooling systems, evaporative methods, and thermal energy storage systems. One of the more widely used is the evaporative systems because it is one of the safest and easiest to utilize method. However, the behavior of water droplets within the inlet to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets behave within the inlet so that water droplets above a critical diameter will not enter the compressor and cause damage to the compressor blades. In order to do this a FLUENT simulation was constructed in order to determine the behavior of the water droplets and if any droplets remain at the exit of the inlet, along with their size. In order to do this several engineering drawings were obtained from SRP and studies in order to obtain the correct dimensions. Then the simulation was set up using data obtained from SRP and Parker-Hannifin, the maker of the spray nozzles. Then several sets of simulations were run in order to see how the water droplets behaved under various conditions. These results were then analyzed and quantified so that they could be easily understood. The results showed that the possible damage to the compressor increased with increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. This is due in part to the fact that in order to keep a constant relative humidity at varying temperatures the mass fraction of water vapor in the air must be changed. As temperature increases the water vapor mass fraction must increase in order to maintain a constant relative humidity. This in turn makes it slightly increases the evaporation time of the water droplets. This will then lead to more droplets exiting the inlet and at larger diameters.

  6. Micronized-coal-water slurry sprays from a diesel engine positive displacement fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.; Seshadri, A.K.; Zicterman, G.

    1991-12-31

    Experiments have been conducted to characterize the sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system for a diesel engine. Diesel fuel water and three concentrations of micronized-coal-water slurry were used in these experiments. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and still photographs of the sprays were obtained. In addition, instaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. Data were acquired as a function of fluid, nozzle orifice diameter, rack setting and chamber conditions. The high speed movies were used to determine spray penetration and spray growth.

  7. Geochemical Differentiation of Injected Freshwater Vertical and Horizontal Flow Through Deep Saline Water Karst Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, W.; Price, R.

    2008-05-01

    Geochemical data at two deep well injection sites of freshwater into deep saline karst aquifers in south Florida indicate chemically distinct vertical and horizontal flow pathways once the freshwater is introduced into the aquifers. Ammonium contained in the injected water is higher than native aquifer water background levels, and exhibits a high seasonal variability in response to the wet and dry climatic conditions in south Florida. Geochemical data indicate that the injected ammonium behaves conservatively when mixed with native water, and thus can be used to distinguish flowpaths of injected water. Ammonium data in conjunction with major ion chemistry and stable isotope data were used to identify source and pathways of the freshwater injectate. Data indicate multiple pathways that are distinct depending on their pathway to the aquifer, and suggest vertical migration a result of either natural or well construction-induced fractures. Once introduced into the overlying aquifer, horizontal migration appears to be the result of natural advection/diffusion through a highly heterogeneous carbonate aquifer with little mixing of native waters.

  8. High-pressure water-gun injection injuries to the extremities. A report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Weltmer, J B; Pack, L L

    1988-09-01

    High-pressure water-gun injection injuries are different from injection injuries that are caused by other agents, in that they are associated with extensive subcutaneous emphysema but only slight soft-tissue inflammation or destruction. The cases of six patients who had such an injury were reviewed. It was found that local irrigation and débridement, together with a short course of penicillin or a broad-spectrum cephalosporin, resulted in complete recovery from this relatively benign variant of high-pressure injection injury. PMID:2901420

  9. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  10. Modification of the quality of water injected into Louisiana gulf coast sands: Effects of cation exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanor, Jeffrey S.

    1982-06-01

    Interest in artificially recharging selected shallow sands in South Louisiana with fresh water has been stimulated by the desire to retard contamination of municipal groundwater supplies by brackish water, to retard ground subsidence and decrease pumping lifts, and to develop emergency subsurface supplies of potable water for communities dependent on surface waters susceptible to contamination. Results of field experiments, laboratory work, and model calculations demonstrate that ion exchange reactions involving clays dispersed in aquifer sands can be expected to modify significantly the composition of waters injected into Gulf Coast sediments. As little as 0.1 weight percent smectite (montmorillonite) can remove, by exchange with absorbed Na, a significant fraction of the dissolved Ca and Mg present in the injected water. The hardness of the water is thus reduced, which may be a desirable modification in water quality. Exchange occurs as fast as the fluids can be pumped into or out of the aquifer, and the water-softening capacity of the aquifer can be restored by allowing sodium-rich native pore waters to sweep back over the dispersed clays. Each acre of an aquifer 50 feet thick and containing 0.1 wt % smectite could soften half a million gallons of injected Mississippi River water. Many individual Gulf Coast aquifers underlie tens of thousands of acres, and their potential softening capacity is thus enormous. Additional exchange processes involving adjacent aquitard shales presumably will operate over long-term periods. It is possible that Gulf Coast aquifers will be used at some point in the future as processing plants to treat injected water to improve its quality for a variety of municipal and industrial purposes.

  11. Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

  12. A probabilistic assessment of waste water injection induced seismicity in central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Hauksson, E.; Ampuero, J. P.; Aminzadeh, F.; Cappa, F.; Saleeby, J.

    2014-12-01

    The recent, large increase in seismic activity within the central and eastern U.S. may be connected to an increase in fluid injection activity since ~2001. Anomalous seismic sequences can easily be identified in regions with low background seismicity rates. Here, we analyze seismicity in plate boundary regions where tectonically-driven earthquake sequences are common, potentially masking injection-induced events. We show results from a comprehensive analysis of waste water disposal wells in Kern county, the largest oil-producing county in California. We focus on spatial-temporal correlations between seismic and injection activity and seismicity-density changes due to injection. We perform a probabilistic assessment of induced vs. tectonic earthquakes, which can be applied to different regions independent of background rates and may provide insights into the probability of inducing earthquakes as a function of injection parameters and local geological conditions. Our results show that most earthquakes are caused by tectonic forcing, however, waste water injection contributes to seismic activity in four different regions with several events above M4. The seismicity shows different migration characteristics relative to the injection sites, including linear and non-linear trends. The latter is indicative of diffusive processes which take advantage of reservoir properties and fault structures and can induce earthquakes at distances of up to 10 km. Our results suggest that injection-related triggering processes are complex, possibly involving creep, and delayed triggering. Pore-pressure diffusion may be more extensive in the presence of active faults and high-permeability damage zones thus altering the local seismic hazard in a non-linear fashion. As a consequence, generic "best-practices" for fluid injections like a maximum distance from the nearest active fault may not be sufficient to mitigate a potential seismic hazard increase.

  13. Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 ?m should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

  14. Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Projection. Annual Report, Jan 1 - Dec 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This 1997 annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to use British Steel technology1*2 that uses granular coal to provide a portion of the fuel requirements of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical and economic issues associated with the use of coal for injection into blast furnaces. To achieve the progmm objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at the Burns Harbor Plant (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  15. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

  16. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef. PMID:26213059

  17. The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, Roberto; Guiducci, Susanna; Preger, Miro; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Chance, Antoine; Dadoun, Olivier; Poirier, Freddy; Variola, Alessandro; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

  18. Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    1991-01-01

    Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs such as Larderello, Italy, and The Geysers, California, are fundamentally water-short systems. This is apparent from the relatively low pressures in the natural state, typically about 35 bars at 1000 m depth, which is much below hydrostatic pressures. It is also apparent from the high heat content of the produced fluids, typically superheated steam. Large-scale production from these systems has caused reservoir pressures and well flow rates to decline, leading to an underutilization of installed electrical generating capacity. Clearly, these reservoirs are beginning to run out of fluid, while heat reserves in place are still enormous. (At Larderello, there is a long-term trend of increasing formation temperatures in the upper productive zones of the reservoir; Sestini, 1970). Reinjection of colder waste waters, or injection of waters from a source other than the geothermal reservoir, is the primary means by which dwindling fluid reserves can be replenished. A considerable body of field experience with injection has been accumulated at Larderello and The Geysers; the results have been mixed. There are well documented cases where injection has increased flow rates of nearby wells. Return of injected fluid as steam from production wells has been observed directly through chemical and isotopic changes of produced fluids (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Nuti et al., 1981). In other cases injection has caused thermal interference and has degraded the temperature and pressure of production wells. Water injection into depleted vapor zones gives rise to complex two-phase fluid flow and heat transfer processes with phase change. These are further complicated by the fractured-porous nature of the reservoir rocks. An optimization of injection design and operating practice is desirable; this requires realistic and robust mathematical modeling capabilities.

  19. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  20. Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy breeder material

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W. ); Savatteri, C. )

    1990-10-01

    A fusion safety experiment was conducted to determine the consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy under postulated reactor accident conditions. The temperature and pressure response, fraction of water reacted, quantity of hydrogen produced, and behavior of radioactive species associated with the use of this alloy as a breeder material were determined. The reaction products were identified and the aerosol was characterized for particle size, chemical composition, and deposition rate. The water injection was shown to be self limiting for a blanket module designed to withstand the pressure of the water coolant. Radioactive doses associated with the aerosol release from a high-temperature alloy breeder module were determined to be several orders of magnitude below the dose limit for acute health effects. The results were compared to previous experiments and recommendations were made. 5 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Intracutaneous Injections of Sterile Water over the Secrum for Labour Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Kirti N; Nischal, Hitesh; Batra, S

    2009-01-01

    Summary During first stage of labour, many women suffer from lower back pain. Since cutaneous afferents from the lower back converge to the dorsal horns in the same segments there is anatomical support for the lower back pain being a referred pain. Intracutaneous injections of sterile water in the skin over the sacrum have been shown to relieve the pain of labour and it is free from negative side effects associated with use of other methods. The study was conducted after approval of institutional ethical committee on 100 pregnant patients admitted to the labour room of Lok Nayak hospital, New Delhi. Patients received 4 intracutaneous injections of sterile water or normal saline 0.5ml in the lumbo-sacral region. Pain scores, progress of labour and fetal outcome were studied. There was significant reduction of pain scores in the sterile water group but not in the normal saline group at 10, 45 and 90 minutes after injection. There was no difference in the progress of labour and fetal outcome between the two groups. To conclude intracutoneous sterile water injections over the sacrum is a simple and effective method to control pain during labour. PMID:20640118

  3. USE OF A COMBINED AIR INJECTION/EXTRACTION (CIE) WELL TO MINIMIZE VACUUM ENHANCED WATER RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A conventionally constructed observation well was modified to allow combined air injection and extraction (CIE) during a pilot study in which dual vapor extraction (DVE) was applied. ompared to DVE, water recovery rates were reduced over 90% while the distribution of subsurface v...

  4. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  5. Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

  6. Is There Evidence of Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the Lowermost Stratosphere Over Boulder, Colorado?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10.1002/grl.50421.

  7. The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  8. The Relationship Analysis between Water Injection and Microfacies of SHA1 Reservoir of Liao He Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  9. Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Water sampling and numerical modeling were used to estimate ground-water nutrient fluxes in the Kihei area of Maui, where growth of macroalgae (seaweed) on coral reefs raises ecologic concerns and accumulation on beaches has caused odor and removal problems. Fluxes and model results are highly approximate, first-order estimates because very few wells were sampled and there are few field data to constrain model calibration. Ground-water recharge was estimated to be 22.6 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) within a 73-square-mile area having a coastline length of 8 miles or 13 km (kilometers). Nearly all of the recharge discharges at the coast because ground-water withdrawals are small. Another 3.0 Mgal/d of tertiary-treated wastewater effluent is injected into the regional aquifer at a County treatment plant midway along the coast and about a mile from shore. The injection plume is 0.93 miles wide (1.5 km) at the shore, as estimated from a three-dimensional numerical ground-water model. Wastewater injected beneath the brackish ground-water lens rises buoyantly and spreads out at the top of the lens, diverting and mixing with ambient ground water. Ground water discharging from the core of the injection plume is less than 5 years old and is about 60 percent effluent at the shore, according to the model. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in treated effluent were 7.33 and 1.72 milligrams per liter, roughly 6 and 26 times background concentrations at an upgradient well. Background nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes carried by ground water are 7.7 and 0.44 kg/d-km (kilograms per day per kilometer of coast). Injected wastewater fluxes distributed across the plume width are 55 and 13 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly 7 and 30 times background flux. However, not all of the injected load reaches coastal waters because nutrients are naturally attenuated in the oxygen-depleted effluent plume. Water from a downgradient well reflects this attenuation and provides a more conservative estimate of injection flux approaching the shore: 27 and 1.5 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly one-half and one-ninth the injection-source estimates, and 3.5 and 3.4 times background flux. Effluent has 8 O and 2 H stable-isotope signatures that are distinct from local ground water, as well as 15 N and 11 B signatures diagnostic of domestic waste and laundry detergents, respectively. Pharmaceuticals and organic wastewater compounds also were present in effluent and the downgradient well. These isotopes and chemicals served as wastewater tracers in Kihei ground water and may be useful tracers in nearshore marine waters and aquifers elsewhere in Hawaii.

  10. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Bhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  11. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Baumgartner, L K; Miller, D N; Repert, D A; Bhlke, J K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 microM) and ammonium (19 to 625 microM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with (15)N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. PMID:16382283

  12. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  13. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project: A project proposed by: LIFAC North America, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report describes a project proposed by LIFAC North America, Inc., (LIFAC NA). The host site will be a coal-fired powerplant of Richmond Power Light in Indiana. LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In the LIFAC process, limestone is injected into the upper part of the furnace where the temperatures are sufficiently high to calcine the calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) to lime (CaO), which reacts with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas to form calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), some of which oxidizes to form calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). The flue gas leaving the boiler then enters LIFAC's unique humidification chamber which increases the water content of the flue gas and activates the lime to enhance SO{sub 2} removal. Reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions are approximately 75--80%. Spent sorbent is then removed, along with the fly ash by an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  15. Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

  16. Understanding and Quantifying Controls of Arsenic Mobility during Deepwell Re-injection of CSG Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Rathi, B.; Prommer, H.; Donn, M.; Siade, A. J.; Berg, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Australia, the injection of reverse-osmosis treated production water from coal seams into the surrounding, deep aquifers may provide the most viable method to dispose of large quantities of production water. The geochemical disequilibrium between the injectant water composition and the target aquifer can potentially drive a range of water-sediment interactions that must be clearly understood and quantified in order to anticipate and manage future water quality changes at both the local and regional scale. In this study, we use a multi-scale geochemical characterisation of a proposed reinjection site in combination with geochemical/reactive transport modeling to understand and predict the long-term fate of arsenic; and explore means for suitably mitigating an undesired increase of naturally occurring arsenic concentrations. We use a series of arsenic sorption experiments with the aquifer material from an injection trial site in Queensland, Australia to quantify As sorption/desorption from mineral surfaces in response to changes in site-specific geochemical conditions. Batch experiments with arsenite were performed under anoxic conditions to replicate the highly reducing in-situ conditions. The results showed significant arsenic mobility at pH >8. Competitive sorption effects with phosphate and the impact of varying temperatures were also tested in batch mode. A site-specific general composite (GC) surface complexation model (SCM) was derived through inverse geochemical modeling, i.e., selection of appropriate surface complexation reactions and optimization of sorption constants. The SCM was subsequently tested and further improved during the interpretation of data from column flow-through experiments and from a field injection trial. Eventually the uncertainty associated with estimates of sorption constants was addressed and the effects of this uncertainty on field-scale model predictions were analyzed.

  17. The 2013 seismic sequence close to gas injection platform of the Castor project, offshore Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, Simone; Grigoli, Francesco; Heimann, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Buforn, Elisa; Maghsoudi, Samira; Blanch, Estefania; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    A spatially localized seismic sequence has originated few tens of kilometres offshore the Mediterranean coast of Spain, starting on September 5, 2013, and lasting at least until October 2013. The sequence culminated in a maximal moment magnitude Mw 4.3 earthquake, on October 1, 2013. The epicentral region is located near the offshore platform of the Castor project, where gas is conducted through a pipeline from mainland and where it was recently injected in a depleted oil reservoir, at about 2 km depth. We analyse the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and use full waveform techniques to derive absolute and relative locations, estimate depths and focal mechanisms for the largest events in the sequence (with magnitude mbLg larger than 3), and compare them to a previous event (April 8, 2012, mbLg 3.3) taking place in the same region prior to the gas injection. Moment tensor inversion results show that the overall seismicity in this sequence is characterized by oblique mechanisms with a normal fault component, with a 30° low-dip angle plane oriented NNE-SSW and a sub- vertical plane oriented NW-SE. The combined analysis of hypocentral location and focal mechanisms could indicate that the seismic sequence corresponds to rupture processes along sub- horizontal shallow surfaces, which could have been triggered by the gas injection in the reservoir,. An alternative scenario includes the iterated triggering of a system of steep faults oriented NW-SE, which were identified by prior marine seismics investigations. The most relevant seismogenic feature in the area is the Fosa de Amposta fault system, which includes different strands mapped at different distances to the coast, with a general NE-SW orientation, roughly parallel to the coastline. No significant known historical seismicity has involved this fault in the past. Our both scenarios exclude its activation, as its known orientation is inconsistent with focal mechanism results.

  18. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.; Berger, Brett

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  19. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  20. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  1. Numerical Studies of High-Intensity Injection Painting for Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Injection phase space painting enables the mitigation of space charge and stability issues, and will be indispensable for the Project-X at Fermilab [1], delivering high-intensity proton beams to HEP experiments. Numerical simulations of multi-turn phase space painting have been performed for the FNAL Recycler Ring, including a self-consistent space charge model. The goal of our studies was to study the injection painting with inclusion of 3D space charge, using the ORBIT tracking code. In a current scenario the painting lasts for 110 turns, twice faster, than we considered in this paper. The optimal wave-forms for painting kickers, which ensure the flatter phase distributions, should be found. So far we used a simplified model for painting kicker strength (implemented as the 'ideal bump' in ORBIT). We will include a more realistic field map for the chicane magnets. Additional stripping simulations will be combined. We developed a block for longitudinal painting, which works with arbitrary notches in incoming micro-bunch buckets. The appropriate choice of the amplitude of the second harmonic of RF field will help to flatten the RF-bucket contours, as was demonstrated in 1D simulations. Non-linear lattice issue will be also addressed.

  2. Projecting Sexual and Injecting HIV Risks into Future Outcomes with Agent-Based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobashev, Georgiy V.; Morris, Robert J.; Zule, William A.

    Longitudinal studies of health outcomes for HIV could be very costly cumbersome and not representative of the risk population. Conversely, cross-sectional approaches could be representative but rely on the retrospective information to estimate prevalence and incidence. We present an Agent-based Modeling (ABM) approach where we use behavioral data from a cross-sectional representative study and project the behavior into the future so that the risks of acquiring HIV could be studied in a dynamical/temporal sense. We show how the blend of behavior and contact network factors (sexual, injecting) play the role in the risk of future HIV acquisition and time till obtaining HIV. We show which subjects are the most likely persons to get HIV in the next year, and whom they are likely to infect. We examine how different behaviors are related to the increase or decrease of HIV risks and how to estimate the quantifiable risk measures such as survival HIV free.

  3. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 5, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post- furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the US DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the fifth Technical Progress Report covering the period October 1, 1991 through the end of December 1991. Due to the power plant`s planned outage schedule, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

  4. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.R.

    1993-09-30

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated geological model that will be used to select sites for the demonstration in Part 2. Included in Part 1 of the project is the drilling of an infill well, coring 100{prime} of the Cypress Sand, and various injectivity testing to gather information used to update the model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented.

  5. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  6. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  7. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017,...

  8. Effects of Water Injection into Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs: A Summary of Experience Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, Roland N.

    1982-06-01

    Reinjection of water into fractured geothermal reservoirs holds potential both for improvement and degradation of total energy recovery. The replacement of reservoir fluid can mean support of placement of reservoir pressures and also more efficient thermal energy recovery, but at the same time the premature invasion of reinjected water back into production wells through high permeability fractures can reduce discharge enthalpy and hence deliverability and useful energy output. Increases in reservoir pressure and maintenance of field output have been observed in operating fields, but unfortunately so too have premature thermal breakthroughs. The design of reinjection schemes, therefore, requires careful investigation into the likely effects, using field experimentation. This paper summarizes field experience with reinjection around the world, with the intention of elucidating characteristics of possible problems. The results summarized in this paper fall into three categories of interest: permeability changes dye to injection (both increases and decreases); the path followed by injected water (as indicated by tracer tests); and the thermal and hydraulic influences of injection on the reinjection well itself and on surrounding producers. [DJE-2005

  9. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  10. Seismicity Induced by Water Injection for Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation 5 km Below the City of Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deichmann, N.; Mai, M.; Bethmann, F.; Ernst, J.; Evans, K.; Fh, D.; Giardini, D.; Hring, M.; Husen, S.; Kstli, P.; Bachmann, C.; Ripperger, J.; Schanz, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2007-12-01

    To stimulate the reservoir for a proposed "hot dry rock" geothermal project in the city of Basel, approximately 11500 m3 of water were injected between December 2nd and 8th, 2006, at high pressures into a 5 km deep well. A six-sensor borehole array, installed at depths between 300 and 2700 meters around the well to monitor the induced seismicity, recorded more than 10500 events during the injection phase. Events with magnitudes as low as ML 0.7 were also recorded by regional networks in Switzerland, Germany and France, as well as by up to 30 strong-motion stations installed in the epicentral area. Due to excessive seismic activity, that included an ML 2.7 event, injection had already been stopped when a few hours later an ML 3.4 event jolted the city of Basel. A large amount of (non-structural) damage, corresponding to an intensity of V (EMS98), has been claimed by home owners. The unusual number of damage claims compared to past events in this magnitude range observed in Switzerland is partly due to the shallow hypocenter (5 km) beneath a densely populated city. In addition, ground-motion modelling shows that the radiation pattern of the earthquake source was oriented unfavourably for the city of Basel and that in numerous locations shaking was amplified significantly by local site conditions. After bleed-off, about one third of the injected water volume flowed back out of the well. Although seismic activity declined rapidly thereafter, three additional ML>3 events occurred over the following two months. From a statistical analysis it is expected that it may take on the order of a decade for the activity to decrease to the regional background level scaled to the size of the source region. The hypocenters of the located events (about 3500 to date) are restricted to a NW-SE oriented lens-shaped cloud, about 1 km in diameter and 200 m wide, with a single offsetting branch to the ESE. The orientation of the cloud and the focal mechanisms determined so far match the stress field derived from observations of borehole breakouts and natural seismicity. Due to the premature abortion of the stimulation process, the size of the stimulated volume is insufficient for a commercially viable exploitation of geothermal energy. At present the project is on hold, pending a comprehensive assessment of the seismic risk associated with a continuation.

  11. Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

  12. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    PubMed

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 ?L, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water. PMID:26452844

  13. Experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit characteristics at superheated water injection into a compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favorskii, O. N.; Alekseev, V. B.; Zalkind, V. I.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Ivanov, P. P.; Marinichev, D. V.; Nizovskii, V. L.; Nizovskii, L. V.

    2014-05-01

    The results from experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit (GTU) characteristics at injection of cold and superheated (metastable) water to the inlet of the GTU compressor are presented. In the latter case, the finer water atomization is obtained. The water injection makes it possible to considerably increase the unit power. At a constant temperature of the working fluid downstream of the turbine combustion chamber, water injection in an amount of 1% of the air flow rate provides an increase in the turbine power by approximately 12% and expands GTU controlling potentialities. The use of the metastable superheated water atomization enables one to more reliably implement the technology of water injection into a compressor, especially into intermediate compressor stages. However, it requires accounting for operational conditions of particular installation. Due to small water droplet residence time in the compressor flow path, even with fine water atomization, in aircraft engine derivative power turbines, about 15-20% of moisture injected have no time to completely evaporate within the compressor. When injecting cold water, this figure is from 5 to 10% larger.

  14. Stimulation of water injection wells, in the Los Angeles basin by using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids

    SciTech Connect

    Clementz, D.M.; Aseltine, R.J.; Patterson, D.E.; Young, R.E.

    1982-09-01

    A stimulation program was developed to improve injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills and San Vicente fields. Damage materials were removed by stimulating the wells with bleach and acid using a variety of tools and techniques. Two- to three-fold injectivity improvements were common, and vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial coverage of 0 to 30% to 85 to 95% after stimulation.

  15. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  16. Subsurface brine injection: Proactive approach to close the produced water loop in the western desert of Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, E.E.; Nour, M.H.

    1996-11-01

    In 1988 a major onshore production facility was producing oil from eight formations in six oil fields located in the western desert of Egypt. Two of these formations include active water drive reservoirs, in addition; three reservoirs at that date were receiving water injection to enhance oil recovery. To handle the increasing volumes of the produced water (which is contaminated with oil, production chemicals and other pollutants), three alternatives were investigated: (1) Injection into disposal wells. (2) Dumping in surface disposal pits. (3) Re-injection to waterflood some oil reservoirs. The investigation revealed that the first two options are technically unfavorable, also they are conventional Waste Management Technologies (WMT) which provide short-term remedial solution. In contrast, Produced Water Re-Injection (PWRI) is an Environmental Control Technology (ECT) which minimize the environmental impact through process improvements. A state -of-the-art re-injection process was utilized using chemical treatment, gas liberation, settling, filtration and injection. This process represents a combination of two (ECT) methods: Reuse (for water flooding) and Recycling (when brine is redisposed underground). This process reduce the overall volumes of produced water to be disposed, increase the oil reserves, reservoir pressure and oil production and converse the underground water reserve.

  17. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  18. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform...

  19. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform...

  1. Antimicrobial use through feed, water, and injection in 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Leigh B; Waldner, Cheryl L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Harding, John C S; Gow, Sheryl P; Wilkins, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging animal welfare and public health issue linked to antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock. This study was conducted in 2004 on 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan. On-farm records and questionnaires were used to retrospectively describe the antimicrobial exposures of pigs through feed, water, and injection. Antimicrobial use in all production categories was described over 12 months. On-farm records and questionnaires provided sufficient data to describe antimicrobial exposure rates through feed and water. In contrast, on-farm records did not supply sufficient data to describe parenteral antimicrobial exposure rates. Records lacked data on the number of exposures per treatment, therefore parenteral AMU was described as an exposure incidence. Parenteral exposure records were often unavailable for pigs less than 22 kg, in which case questionnaires were used. The incidence of parenteral AMU was significantly higher in herds reporting exposure by questionnaire compared with existing records, suggesting that on-farm records did not reliably describe parenteral AMU. However, because antimicrobial exposures in feed and water were markedly more common than through injection, it was concluded that existing on-farm data would be a valuable resource for investigating AMU and AMR in pigs. PMID:18505203

  2. Antimicrobial use through feed, water, and injection in 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Rosengren, Leigh B.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Harding, John C.S.; Gow, Sheryl P.; Wilkins, Wendy L.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging animal welfare and public health issue linked to antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock. This study was conducted in 2004 on 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan. On-farm records and questionnaires were used to retrospectively describe the antimicrobial exposures of pigs through feed, water, and injection. Antimicrobial use in all production categories was described over 12 months. On-farm records and questionnaires provided sufficient data to describe antimicrobial exposure rates through feed and water. In contrast, on-farm records did not supply sufficient data to describe parenteral antimicrobial exposure rates. Records lacked data on the number of exposures per treatment, therefore parenteral AMU was described as an exposure incidence. Parenteral exposure records were often unavailable for pigs less than 22 kg, in which case questionnaires were used. The incidence of parenteral AMU was significantly higher in herds reporting exposure by questionnaire compared with existing records, suggesting that on-farm records did not reliably describe parenteral AMU. However, because antimicrobial exposures in feed and water were markedly more common than through injection, it was concluded that existing on-farm data would be a valuable resource for investigating AMU and AMR in pigs. PMID:18505203

  3. Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

  4. Video- Water Injected Into Bubble Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Dr. Pettit demonstrates using a syringe to inject water into a bubble. The result amazed Dr. Pettit and his crew mates. They observed that the droplets may bounce around for 5 or 6 collisions within the bubble, and then may partially or all at once exchange masses with the bubble. Dr. Pettit speculates the dynamics as a possible interplay between tension forces of kinetic energy and momentum, and possibly even charged forces.

  5. The Model of Lake Operation in Water Transfer Projects Based on the Theory of Water- right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi-peng, Yan; Chao, Liu; Fang-ping, Tang

    the lake operation is a very important content in Water Transfer Projects. The previous studies have not any related to water-right and water- price previous. In this paper, water right is divided into three parts, one is initialization waterright, another is by investment, and the third is government's water- right re-distribution. The water-right distribution model is also build. After analyzing the cost in water transfer project, a model and computation method for the capacity price as well as quantity price is proposed. The model of lake operation in water transfer projects base on the theory of water- right is also build. The simulation regulation for the lake was carried out by using historical data and Genetic Algorithms. Water supply and impoundment control line of the lake was proposed. The result can be used by south to north water transfer projects.

  6. ICPP injection well alternative project, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) portion of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been obtaining water needed for its operations from the Snake River aquifer, which occupies the entire region underlying the site. Most of this water has been used for cooling operating equipment, while a small portion has found various process uses. After passing through the ICPP process area, these waters are then returned to the aquifer. A small portion (about 1%) of the returned stream contains measurable amounts of radioactivity derived from the miscellaneous process users. This report and the recommendations contained herein are based upon stream flows projected for 1985 as supplied by DOE for the ICPP. 26 different alternatives for handling cooling water, chemical, and low level radioactive water disposal are examined. These cases are considered from technical, environmental, safety, and economic points of view. The level of detail is sufficient to eliminate non-viable cases, and to identify those which offer improvements over present practice. The Environmental/Safety Risk Factors were evaluated on a qualitative comparison basis only. Before a recommended improvement is incorporated into the waste disposal system, a conceptual design study should be made which would evaluate all those secondary effects and environmental factors that, by the very nature of the screening process, this study has not provided. Certain synergistic combinations have been noted and are discussed. This report does note whether the operations considered are in regulatory compliance, or are likely to be capable of providing lasting improvement to the waste water system. Qualitative comparisons were made between the various alternatives to confirm their relationship with applicable standards.

  7. Water governance within Kenya's Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin: Assessing the performance of water projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, P. F.; Evans, T. P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Gower, D.; McBride, L.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change processes are projected to change the availability and seasonality of streamflow with dramatic implications for irrigated agricultural systems. Within mountain environments, this alteration in water availability may be quite pronounced over a relatively short distance as upstream users with first access to river water directly impact the availability of water to downstream users. Livelihood systems that directly depend on river water for both domestic consumption and practices such as irrigated agriculture are particularly vulnerable. The Mount Kenya region is an exemplary case of a semi-arid upstream-downstream system in which water availability rapidly decreases and directly impacts the livelihoods of river water users existing across this steep environmental gradient. To effectively manage river water within these water-scarce environs, water projects have been established along the major rivers of the Mount Kenya region. These water projects are responsible for managing water within discrete sub-catchments of the region. While water projects develop rules that encourage the responsible use of water and maintenance of the project itself, the efficiency of water allocation to the projects' members remains unclear. This research analyzes water projects from five sub-catchments on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya. It utilizes data from household surveys and water project management surveys as well as stream gauge data and flow measurements within individual water projects to assess the governance structure and performance of water projects. The performance of water projects is measured through a variety of household level metrics including: farm-level water flow and volume over time, mean and variability in maize yield, per capita crop productivity, household-level satisfaction with water availability, number of days where water volume was insufficient for irrigation, and quantity harvested compared with expected quantity harvested. We present results demonstrating the heterogeneity of these individual measures and discuss the influence of topography, network design, household behaviors and water governance on the overall performance of these water projects. This work is the foundation for an agent-based model of these water projects that investigates the impact of climate change and population pressure on sustained agricultural production in the region. Additionally, the study highlights the utility of pairing distinct fields of scholarship by utilizing both survey responses and hydrological data to study complex social-ecological systems. This pairing allows for insights regarding governance structures that are effectively managing river water in the present and helps to understand the structures that may be suitable for future water management.

  8. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  9. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  10. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-12-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Detecting total toxicity in water using a mediated biosensor system with flow injection.

    PubMed

    Yong, Daming; Liu, Changyu; Zhu, Chengzhou; Yu, Dengbin; Liu, Ling; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-11-01

    A novel total toxicity detection method based on a mediated biosensor system with flow injection (MB-FI) was developed to rapidly and reliably detect respiration inhibitors (i.e., As2O3, KCN, salicylic acid (SA), 2,4-dintirophenol (DNP)) in water. The mediated biosensor toxicity assessment using microorganisms immobilized in calcium alginate filaments can greatly simplify the testing process and save time. In the MB-FI system, ferricyanide together with a respiration inhibitor was injected into the bioreactor, inhibiting the respiration of the immobilized microorganisms. The degree of inhibition was measured by determining the ferrocyanide generated in the effluent, expressed as the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50). The IC50 values for the four respiration inhibitors obtained using this method were comparable to those obtained using the classic method, confirming that this approach is an alternative alert method. More importantly, this constructed biosensor system with flow injection will facilitate the application and commercialization of this toxicity monitoring technology. PMID:26071865

  13. Microbial analysis of backflowed injection water from a nitrate-treated North Sea oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Bdtker, Gunhild; Lysnes, Kristine; Torsvik, Terje; Bjrnestad, Eva ; Sunde, Egil

    2009-03-01

    Reservoir souring in offshore oil fields is caused by hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), most often as a consequence of sea water injection. Biocide treatment is commonly used to inhibit SRB, but has now been replaced by nitrate treatment on several North Sea oil fields. At the Statfjord field, injection wells from one nitrate-treated reservoir and one biocide-treated reservoir were reversed (backflowed) and sampled for microbial analysis. The two reservoirs have similar properties and share the same pre-nitrate treatment history. A 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis (PCR-DGGE) combined with enrichment culture studies showed that, after 6 months of nitrate injection (0.25 mM NO(3) (-)), heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) formed major populations in the nitrate-treated reservoir. The NRB community was able to utilize the same substrates as the SRB community. Compared to the biocide-treated reservoir, the microbial community in the nitrate-treated reservoir was more phylogenetically diverse and able to grow on a wider range of substrates. Enrichment culture studies showed that SRB were present in both reservoirs, but the nitrate-treated reservoir had the least diverse SRB community. Isolation and characterisation of one of the dominant populations observed during nitrate treatment (strain STF-07) showed that heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria affiliated to Terasakiella probably contributed significantly to the inhibition of SRB. PMID:19137339

  14. Recent history provides sustainable African water quality project insight.

    PubMed

    Holm, Rochelle H

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale projects to provide clean drinking water undertaken in the developing world can contribute to significantly improving the livelihood of rural communities. There has been a historical tendency to poorly plan such projects leading to an unsustainable future. Recent history indicates three simple steps to ensuring successful and enduring clean water projects. First, identification of need by the indigenous community provides ownership in the project. Second, a partnership between key individuals in the indigenous community with the donor provides for ambassadors on both sides of the project. Finally, an exit strategy by the donors for the indigenous communities ensures local sustainability for the future. The study site is the village of Geisha in northern Malawi, Africa. Sustainable implementation approaches are discussed in this case study as well as the various lessons learned. Improved project processes ensure sustainable small-scale water quality projects by donor organizations in developing countries. PMID:22070428

  15. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Aquifer pressure buildup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg has been testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. Treated sweage that had a mean chloride concentration of 170 milligrams per liter (mg/l) was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4. 7 multiplied by 10**5 cubic feet per day (ft**3/d). The volume of water injected during the year was 1. 7 multiplied by 10**8 cubic feet. Pressure buildup at the end of one year ranged from less than 0. 1 to as much as 2. 4 pounds per square inch (lb/in**2) in observation wells at the site. Pressure buildup in wells open to the upper part of the injection zone was related to buoyant lift acting on the mixed water in the injection zone in addition to subsurface injection through the injection well. Calculations of the vertical component of pore velocity in the semiconfining bed underlying the shallowest permeable zone of the Floridan aquifer indicate upward movement of native water.

  16. Hydrologic data for 1994-96 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents data on precipitation, water levels, and water quality that have been collected or compiled for water years 1994 through 1996 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program, under the guidance of the Bureau of Reclamation. This is the second report for the project. The first report (Carter, 1995) presented data collected through water year 1993. The purpose of the Huron Project is to demonstrate the artificial recharge potential of glacial aquifers in eastern South Dakota. High flows from the James River during spring runoff were used as a source of supplemental recharge for the Warren aquifer, which is a buried, glacial aquifer. In 1990, 70 observation wells were installed by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) specifically for this study, and 15 existing DENR observation wells were incorporated into the study. In 1993, the recharge well was installed. After a trial injection of recharge water in April 1994, continuous injection began in June 1994. Many sites were monitored to obtain information before, during, and after recharging the aquifer. This report presents data that were collected during the three phases of recharge. Precipitation data are collected at two sites within the study area. A site description and daily precipitation for water years 1994-95 are presented for one precipitation site. Water-level hydrographs are presented for the 85 observation wells and the recharge well. Hydrographs are shown for the period from October 1, 1993, through November 29, 1995. Recharge water was injected from June 2, 1994, through July 29, 1994, and from June 14, 1995, through September 13, 1995. The cumulative volume of injected water and the injection rates into the aquifer are presented for the periods of recharge. Water-quality data were collected from screening, detailed, and plume-monitoring sampling programs. Screening water-quality data for six observation wells are presented. These data include primarily field parameters and common ions. The four detailed sampling sites represent the quality of untreated water, treated water, and ground water from the Warren aquifer. Data presented for the detailed sampling program include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, total organic carbon, herbicides, insecticides, and volatile organic compounds. Water-quality data for the plume-monitoring sampling program were collected from 25 sites during injection of recharge water into the Warren aquifer in 1994 and 1995. The data for the plume-monitoring program include primarily field parameters and common ions. Data for quality-assurance samples also are presented.

  17. Quenching of a highly superheated porous medium by injection of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichot, F.; Bachrata, A.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J.; Quintard, M.

    2012-11-01

    Understanding of two-phase flow through porous medium with intense phase change is of interest in many situations, including nuclear, chemical or geophysical applications. Intense boiling occurs when the liquid is injected into a highly superheated medium. Under such conditions, the heat flux extracted by the fluid from the porous medium is mainly governed by the nucleation of bubbles and by the evaporation of thin liquid films. Both configurations are possible, depending on local flow conditions and on the ratio of bubble size to pore size. The present study is motivated by the safety evaluation of light water nuclear reactors in case of a severe accident scenario, such as the one that happened in Fukushima Dai-ichi plant in March, 2011. If water sources are not available for a long period of time, the reactor core heats up due to the residual power and eventually becomes significantly damaged due to intense oxidation of metals and fragmentation of fuel rods resulting in the formation of a porous medium where the particles have a characteristic length-scale of 1 to 5 mm. The coolability of the porous medium will depend on the water flow rate which can enter the medium under the available driving head and on the geometrical features of the porous matrix (average pore size, porosity). Therefore, it is of high interest to evaluate the conditions for which the injection of water in such porous medium is likely to stop the progression of the accident. The present paper addresses the issue of modelling two-phase flow and heat transfers in a porous medium initially dry, where water is injected. The medium is initially at a temperature well above the saturation temperature of water. In a first part, a summary of existing knowledge is provided, showing the scarcity of models and experimental data. In a second part, new experimental results obtained in an IRSN facility are analysed. The experiment consists in a bed of steel particles that are heated up to 700°Cbefore injecting water. The facility is briefly described. The velocity of the "quench front" (location where particles are quickly cooled down) and the total pressure drop across the medium are estimated. The dependencies of those quantities with respect to the inlet water flow rate, the initial temperature of the medium and the diameter of particles are obtained. In a third part, a model is proposed, based on a previously developed model which is improved in order to take into account intense boiling regimes (in particular nucleate boiling). The model includes a function that takes into account the contact area between water and the particles which depends on the temperature of particles and on the void fraction. That function affects the local intensity of phase change. The model involves a few parameters which cannot be evaluated analytically. Those parameters are bounded, following the analysis of experimental data. Finally, the model is assessed by comparison of calculations with those new experimental data. The satisfactory agreement shows that the model is almost predictive in the range of parameters studied. The experimental results also show that the quench front becomes unstable under certain conditions. This is also analysed and compared with the predictions of the model.

  18. Low-cost real-time infrared scene generation for image projection and signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; King, David E.; Bowden, Mark H.

    1998-07-01

    As cost becomes an increasingly important factor in the development and testing of Infrared sensors and flight computer/processors, the need for accurate hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL) simulations is critical. In the past, expensive and complex dedicated scene generation hardware was needed to attain the fidelity necessary for accurate testing. Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost-effective replacements for dedicated scene generators. These new scene generators are mainly constructed from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components. At the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC), researchers have developed such a dynamic IR scene generator (IRSG) built around COTS hardware and software. The IRSG is used to provide dynamic inputs to an IR scene projector for in-band seeker testing and for direct signal injection into the seeker or processor electronics. AMCOM MRDEC has developed a second generation IRSG, namely IRSG2, using the latest Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI) Onyx2 with Infinite Reality graphics. As reported in previous papers, the SGI Onyx Reality Engine 2 is the platform of the original IRSG that is now referred to as IRSG1. IRSG1 has been in operation and used daily for the past three years on several IR projection and signal injection HWIL programs. Using this second generation IRSG, frame rates have increased from 120 Hz to 400 Hz and intensity resolution from 12 bits to 16 bits. The key features of the IRSGs are real time missile frame rates and frame sizes, dynamic missile-to-target(s) viewpoint updated each frame in real-time by a six-degree-of- freedom (6DOF) system under test (SUT) simulation, multiple dynamic objects (e.g. targets, terrain/background, countermeasures, and atmospheric effects), latency compensation, point-to-extended source anti-aliased targets, and sensor modeling effects. This paper provides a comparison between the IRSG1 and IRSG2 systems and focuses on the IRSG software, real time features, and database development tools.

  19. Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina; Vakh, Christina; Shishov, Andrey; Zubakina, Ekaterina; Moskvin, Aleksey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The simple and easy performed automated method for the IR determination of petroleum products (PP) in water using extraction-chromatographic cartridges has been developed. The method assumes two stages: on-site extraction of PP during a sampling by using extraction-chromatographic cartridges and subsequent determination of the extracted PP using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with IR detection. The appropriate experimental conditions for extraction of the dissolved in water PP and for automated SIA procedure were investigated. The calibration plot constructed using the developed procedure was linear in the range of 3-200μgL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD), calculated from a blank test based on 3σ was 1µgL(-1). The sample volume was 1L. The system throughput was found to be 12h(-1). PMID:26653498

  20. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  1. 14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

  3. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

  4. A Bridge over Troubled Waters: Project STREAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Michele; Knutson, Zandra

    1979-01-01

    Project STREAM (Special Training in Remedial Education Activities for Mainstreaming), a program providing regular elementary teachers with skills to individualize programs for handicapped children in their regular classrooms, is described. (PHR)

  5. Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for observation wells in the Mount Pleasant area. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 2 are between 2 and 106 feet lower for production wells and observation wells and between 11 and 27 feet higher for the injection wells in the Mount Pleasant area. Water budgets for the model area immediately surrounding the Mount Pleasant area were calculated for 2011 and for 2050. The largest flow component for the 2050 water budget in the Mount Pleasant area is discharge through wells at rates between 7.1 and 10.9 million gallons of water per day. This groundwater is replaced predominantly by between 6.0 and 7.8 million gallons per day of lateral groundwater flow within the Middendorf aquifer for the Base Case and two scenarios and through reclaimed-water injection of 3 million gallons per day for Scenarios 1 and 2. In addition, between 175,000 and 319,000 gallons of groundwater are removed from this area per day because of the regional hydraulic gradient. Additional sources of water to this area are groundwater storage releases at rates between 86,800 and 116,000 gallons per day and vertical flow from over- and underlying confining units at rates between 69,100 and 150,000 gallons per day. Reclaimed water injected into the Middendorf aquifer at three hypothetical injection wells moved to the Mount Pleasant Waterworks production wells in 18 to 256 years as indicated by particle-tracking simulations. Time of travel varied from 18 to 179 years for simulated conditions of 20 percent uniform aquifer porosity and between 25 to 256 years for 30 percent uniform aquifer porosity.

  6. ICPP water inventory study project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, B.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Water inventory Study was initiated in September 1993 with the formation of a joint working group consisting of representatives from DOE-ID, State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, US Geological Survey, and INEL employees to investigate three issues that had been identified by the INEL Oversight Program at ICPP: (1) the water inventory imbalance at ICPP, (2) the source of water infiltrating into the Tank Farm vault sumps, and (3) the source of water providing potential recharge to perched water bodies underlying ICPP. These issues suggested that water was being lost from the ICPP distribution system. The INEL Oversight Program was concerned that the unaccounted for water at ICPP could be spreading contaminants that have been released over the past 40 years of operations of ICPP, possibly to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This report summarizes the findings of each of the component investigations that were undertaken to resolve each of the three issues. Concerns about the risk of spreading contaminants will be resolved as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study being undertaken at ICPP in compliance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order between DOE-H), EPA, and the State of Idaho. This report will be a key input to that study.

  7. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  8. Sustainability of global water use: past reconstruction and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2014-10-01

    Overuse of surface water and an increasing reliance on nonrenewable groundwater resources have been reported over various regions of the world, casting significant doubt on the sustainable water supply and food production met by irrigation. To assess the limitations of global water resources, numerous indicators have been developed, but they rarely consider nonrenewable water use. In addition, surface water over-abstraction is rarely assessed in the context of human and environmental water needs. Here, we perform a transient assessment of global water use over the historical period 1960-2010 as well as the future projections of 2011-2099, using a newly developed indicator: the blue water sustainability index (BlWSI). The BlWSI incorporates both nonrenewable groundwater use and nonsustainable water use that compromises environmental flow requirements. Our results reveal an increasing trend of water consumed from nonsustainable surface water and groundwater resources over the historical period (˜30%), and this increase is projected to continue further towards the end of this century (˜40%). The global amount of nonsustainable water consumption has been increasing especially since the late 1990s, despite a wetter climate and increasing water availability during this period. The BlWSI is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the renewability and degradation of surface water and groundwater resources as a result of human water over-abstraction.

  9. Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana

    In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water to meet all domestic demands. Domestic water supply must be accompanied by appropriate sanitation and hygienic education.

  10. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junsang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, Kwangho; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in rats. Methods: All experiments were performed at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Each group contained 10 Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 males and 5 females. GP was prepared in a sterile room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under regulations of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). GP dosages were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL for the experimental groups; normal saline was administered to the control group. The animals general condition was examined daily for 14 days, and the rats were weighed on the starting day and at 3, 7 and 14 days after administration of the pharmacopuncture. Hematological and biochemistry tests and autopsies were done to test the toxicological effect of GP after 14 days. This study was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotextech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test of intramuscular injections of GP, and no significant changes in the general conditions, body weights, hematological and biochemistry tests, and autopsies were observed. The local injection site showed no changes. Based on these results, the lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results suggest that GP is relatively safe. Further studies, including a repeated toxicity test, are needed to provide more concrete evidence for the safety of GP. PMID:26120491

  11. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented on the 43 projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Grant Program in fiscal year 1986. The report gives the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investigator(s); dates; and a project description which includes (1) identification of the water related problems and problem-solution approach, (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, (4) approach, and (5) result users. The 43 projects include 14 in the area of groundwater management, 6 in surface-water management, 2 in systems-operating/planning, 3 in irrigation management, 8 in desalination/reuse, 6 in economic/institutional studies, and 4 in climate variability. The reports contain tables showing (1) funding according to research topic, (2) projects funded to type of submitting organization, (3) proposals received, research topic, and funding levels, and (4) submitting organization. A comparison is given to fiscal year 1985 in each case. (USGS)

  12. 61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. The Water-to-Wire (W2W) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lovelace, Edward C.

    2011-11-01

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which the principal investigator discusses project progress to evaluate & optimize the performance, environment, and cost factors of the Free Flow Power hydrokinetic system for Mississippi River commercial deployment

  14. Injection of water and polyphosphate into pork to improve juiciness and tenderness after cooking.

    PubMed

    Sheard, P R; Nute, G R; Richardson, R I; Perry, A; Taylor, A A

    1999-04-01

    Two injection levels (5 and 10%) and three concentrations of polyphosphate (0, 3 and 5%) were used in 64 pork loin portions to assess the influence of polyphosphate injection on eating quality of pork steaks cooked by grilling to a centre temperature of 72.5 or 80°C and assessed by a trained ten member sensory panel. Polyphosphate improved water holding, and generally produced more tender and more juicy meat than control steaks, although pork flavour intensity was reduced and abnormal flavour intensity increased. Raising the centre temperature from 72.5 to 80°C increased the cooking loss from 35 to 42%, reduced tenderness, juiciness and abnormal flavours and increased pork flavour intensity. Steaks containing 5% polyphosphate and cooked to 80°C were more tender and as juicy as steaks without polyphosphate cooked to the lower centre temperature. These effects were generally larger than those that can be achieved `naturally' by, for example, changing diets and breeds but whether the technology will be utilised in an increasingly `additive free' climate is debatable. PMID:22062033

  15. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site.

  16. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote

  18. Lessons Learned from a Third World Water and Sanitation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-McLean, Terri

    1991-01-01

    The seven-step project cycle used in a water sanitation project in Belize from 1986-89 is described. The direct involvement of community organizations, village councils, family gatherings, parent-teacher organizations, political groups, Village Health Committees, and volunteer organizations is emphasized. (CW)

  19. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  20. 77 FR 59240 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... INFORMATION: This notice lists the projects, described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of...

  1. 77 FR 55893 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... INFORMATION: This notice lists the projects, described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of...

  2. A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host rock during deep well injection

    SciTech Connect

    Spycher, Nicolas; Larkin, Randy

    2004-05-14

    A new disposal well was drilled in the vicinity of an injection well that had been in operation for 12 years. The drilling activities provided an opportunity to assess the fate and transport of waste products injected in the nearby well, and the impact, if any, on the host geologic formation. The origin of the fluid collected while drilling the new well and the interaction between injected waste and the formation were investigated using analyses of formation waters, waste, and formation minerals, by applying traditional graphical methods and sophisticated numerical models. This approach can be used to solve a wide range of geochemical problems related to deep well injection of waste. Trilinear Piper diagrams, Stiff diagrams, and correlation plots show that the chemical characteristics of recovered fluid at the new well are similar to those of formation water. The concentrations of most major constituents in the fluid appear diluted when compared to formation water sampled at other locations. This could be explained by mixing with waste, which is less saline than formation water. However, the waste injected near the new well consists primarily of ammonia and sulfate, and these waste constituents are not found at concentrations elevated enough to suggest that significant mixing of formation water with waste has occurred. To determine whether chemical interactions between injected waste and formation could explain the chemistry of fluid recovered from the new well, we simulated the chemical reaction between waste, formation water, and the formation rock by numerical modeling. Initial modeling calculations were done using a multicomponent geochemical reaction-path model to simulate fresh waste reacting with the formation. A more complex simulation coupling flow, transport, and reaction was then run using a multicomponent geochemical reactive transport model. These numerical simulations were carried out to calculate porosity changes and evaluate chemical processes resulting in mineral precipitation and dissolution. The simulations indicate that the waste injected in the vicinity of the new well is mildly reactive with the formation, and that there is a small porosity increase upon injection (approximately one to two percent) in the near-wellbore region. The simulations predict the precipitation of anhydrite, ammonium clay, and ammonium feldspar minerals. However, the precipitation of these minerals is not sufficient to account for the lower-than-expected sulfate and ammonia concentrations away from the injection well. This modeling work is preliminary in nature, and provides an example of the application of sophisticated modeling tools to problems involving deep-well injection of waste.

  3. Characterizing near-surface CO2 conditions before injection - Perspectives from a CCS project in the Illinois Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, R.A., II; Krapac, I.G.; Lewicki, J.L.; Curtis-Robinson, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is conducting a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) project in Decatur, Illinois, USA to demonstrate the ability of a deep saline formation to store one million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from an ethanol facility. Beginning in early 2011, CO2 will be injected at a rate of 1,000 tonnes/day for three years into the Mount Simon Sandstone at a depth of approximately 2,100 meters. An extensive Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program has been undertaken for the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) and is focused on the 0.65 km2 project site. Goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. MVA efforts are being conducted pre-, during, and post- CO2 injection. Soil and net CO2 flux monitoring has been conducted for more than one year to characterize near-surface CO2 conditions. More than 2,200 soil CO2 flux measurements have been manually collected from a network of 118 soil rings since June 2009. Three ring types have been evaluated to determine which type may be the most effective in detecting potential CO 2 leakage. Bare soil, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm into the ground and were prepared to minimize surface vegetation in and near the rings. Bare soil, deep-depth rings were prepared similarly, but were driven 46 cm. Natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm and are most representative of typical vegetation conditions. Bare-soil, shallow-depth rings had the smallest observed mean flux (1.78 ??mol m-2 s-1) versus natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings (3.38 ??mol m-2 s-1). Current data suggest bare ring types would be more sensitive to small CO2 leak signatures than natural ring types because of higher signal to noise ratios. An eddy covariance (EC) system has been in use since June 2009. Baseline data from EC monitoring is being used to characterize pre-injection conditions, and may then be used to detect changes in net exchange CO2 fluxes (Fc) that could be the result of CO2 leakage into the near-surface environment during or following injection. When injection at IBDP begins, soil and net CO2 monitoring efforts will have established a baseline of near-surface conditions that will be important to help demonstrate the effectiveness of storage activities. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Design, testing, and evaluation of a water injection grouting system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The necessity of grouting vertical ground heat exchanger boreholes is well established. The use of chip bentonite was investigated as an alternative to slurry grouting methods for backfilling geothermal bores. Grouting a geothermal bore with chip bentonite has many potential benefits if the bore can be completely grouted from bottom to top. High solids content grouts that are possible with chip bentonite could increase the thermal conductivity of the grout and make it less susceptible to performance reductions associated with drying of the grout. The lower price of chip bentonite compared to powder bentonite grouts would reduce the cost of grouting. Chip bentonites would also have an advantage over powder bentonite grouts by reducing the amount of dust created during the grouting process. The proposed grouting system would use water to transport chip bentonite through a tremie pipe into the bore. The properties of chip bentonite grouts were first examined by pouring chip bentonite into a standing column of water. Chip bentonite grouts had percent solids ranging from 50% to 60% and thermal conductivity from 0.46 to 0.52 Btu/hr ft F. Tests were also performed with a thermal additive mixed with the bentonite chips. Additives tested included pea rock, masonry sand, and crushed quartzite. The additive in the wet grout accumulated in pockets, creating possible avenues for hydraulic movement. Total percent solids of bentonite and additive mixtures ranged from 60% to 80%. Thermal conductivity results were varied, but generally increased with increasing percentages of additive. The feasibility of transporting bentonite chips with water through a tremie pipe was studied with two types of water injection systems. Both systems incorporated a pressurized solids tank to keep water from hydrating the chips prior to entering the water stream. A low pressure system was able to transfer pea rock successfully through a short length of tremie pipe. The use of bentonite chips caused plugging at the feeding point. A higher pressure system was built to handle the higher pressures caused by the transportation of material through longer tremie pipes. An auger was used to transfer chips out of the solids tank and drop them into a cone mixing chamber. Difficulties in trying to balance air and water pressures to keep the water level below the height of the auger proved to be too complex for further experimentation. Neither system is recommended as a model for a practical grouting system.

  5. Groundwater thermal-effective injection systems in shallow aquifers: possible alternatives to vertical water wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Urbanized areas have environmental features that may influence the development of low-enthalpy geothermal systems and the choice of the most suitable among the available (roughly earth-coupled closed-loop and groundwater open-loop type). In particular, if compared to less anthropized areas, some characteristic urban elements require particular attention: underground extensive use, contamination of groundwater, interference between the systems, authorization procedures and planning restrictions, the competition with cogeneration systems and the impact on emissions of pollutants. In this general context, the increasing implementation in several areas of the world of the open-loop groundwater heat pumps technology which discharge into the aquifer for cooling and heating buildings, could potentially cause, even in the short term, a significant environmental impact associated with thermal interference with groundwater, particularly in the shallow aquifers. The discharge of water at different temperatures compared to baseline (warmer in summer and colder in winter) poses a number of problems in relation to the potential functionality of many existing situations of use of the groundwater (drinking water wells, agricultural, industrial, etc.). In addition, there may be cases of interference between systems, especially in the more densely urbanized areas. Appropriate hydrogeological investigations should be performed for the characterization of the main hydrogeological parameters of the subsoil at the considered site in order to minimize the environmental impact of discharges into aquifers. The current Italian legislation related to withdrawals and discharges into aquifers designs a framework suitable for the protection of groundwater and induce deciding the best configuration of the plant with a case by case approach. An increased contact area between the dispersant system and the ground makes it possible to affect a greater volume of aquifer and, consequently, reduce the areal extent of the thermal plume that develops around the area of injection minimizing the time and the space needed for the disappearance of the thermal plume and the restoration of undisturbed temperature conditions. The reduction in plan and temporal extension of the thermal plume would have several benefits, minimizing the use of large areas around the buildings involved by the thermal perturbation, with direct implementation benefits. In order to investigate alternatives to traditional drilled water well for the re-injection and dispersion of water in aquifer downstream of the heat pump, we modeled with FEFLOW the possible reverse use of commercial draining gabions in various types of ground configuration, geometry and interconnection with systems of pre-fabricated vertical drains on a possible reliable test-site. The results highlighted that they can represent a good and efficient alternative for the groundwater dispersion in the aquifers.

  6. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based technology for prediction of soil erosion by water at hillslope profile, field, and small watershed scales. In particular, WEPP utilizes observed or generated daily climate inputs to drive the surface hydrology processes (infiltrat...

  7. WATER SYSTEM OPERATOR TRAINING FOR THE CENTRAL ARIZONA PROJECT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. CAP carries water from Lake Havasu down to Tucson. The CAP canal system is a 336-mile long system of aqueducts, tunnels, pumping pla...

  8. 78 FR 27471 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(e)...

  9. 77 FR 55892 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  10. 77 FR 21143 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  11. 78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  12. 78 FR 2315 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  13. 76 FR 66117 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's...

  14. 78 FR 17281 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  15. 77 FR 16317 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  16. 77 FR 25010 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  17. 77 FR 34455 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  18. 76 FR 53526 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  19. 77 FR 55891 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  20. 76 FR 42159 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  1. 78 FR 15402 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR Sec. 806.22(e) and...

  2. 78 FR 27470 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  3. 77 FR 4859 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's...

  4. 77 FR 66909 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  5. 77 FR 59239 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  6. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  7. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  8. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado for the upcoming year. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies. The WSAP bridges water quality characterization and data collection objectives for the surface remediation program (Subpart A) and the ground water compliance program (Subpart B) identified in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994).

  9. Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project. Phase I status report, April 1981-April 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, L.; Hanson, J.; Didwall, E.; Kasameyer, P.; Smith, A.; Hearst, J.; Daily, W.; Crow, N.; Younker, J.; Murray, W.

    1982-08-13

    The feasibility of using remote geophysical techniques to monitor the movement of injected brine has been evaluated. It was established that no single approach is likely to be identified that can be used to accurately monitor the precise location of the injected fluid. Several approaches have been considered in parallel because they add new dimensions to the existing monitoring capabilities, and are likely to cover a range of applications at a variety of geothermal sites. These include: microseismicity - a seismic net is used to record small magnitude events associated with injection; streaming potential - self potential anomalies produced by a moving fluid identify fluid flow direction; cross borehole geotomography - two-dimensional image of flow pathways is constructed using electromagnetic waves; and well pressure response to solid earth tide - changes in pore pressures are used to discriminate fracture/pore porosity and estimate fracture orientations.

  10. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

  11. Geochemical changes in pore water and reservoir rock due to CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, Farhana; Blum, Philipp; Nowak, Marcus; Haderlein, Stefan; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    In response to current global warming, carbon capture and storage has been identified as one of the promising option. Thus, it can be an interim solution that is indeed a bridge to the future renewable energy without altering the present mode of energy consumption. Although large natural CO2 sinks are terrestrial eco-system and oceans, geological media or more specifically large sedimentary basins are now the most feasible options for carbon sequestration. At the study site, a former gas field (Altmark), which is located in the South of the Northeast German Basin, CO2 is planned to be injected into the reservoir with high pressure (> 50 bar) and temperature (125C). Afterwards, CO2 dissolves into the pore water leading to acidification and follow up reactions such as dissolution/precipitation, which potentially change the porosity-permeability of the reservoir and the wetting properties of the mineral surfaces. The Altmark site was chosen due to its large storage capacity, well explored reservoir, high seal integrity due to the presence of massive salt layer (cap rock) and existing infrastructure required for enhanced gas recovery. The main objective of the current study is to quantify the CO2 trapping in aqueous solution under in situ reservoir condition. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the geochemical changes in fluid composition due to dissolution of minerals under controlled laboratory conditions and to quantify the concentrations of complexing agents that might influence the concentration of total dissolved CO2 in aqueous solution over time. To observe these geochemical and hydraulic changes due to the injection of CO2, a closed system (batch system) technique is developed to study the influence of salinity, temperature, pressure and kinetics on mineral reactions. In addition to the closed system, a flow through (open) autoclave system was constructed. Water saturated sedimentary rock cores (e.g. from the Altmark site; 5cm long, 3cm diameter) are going to be flushed by a pre-equilibrated mixture of CO2 and water at a constant rate for several months. Fluid samples will be collected at regular intervals and analyzed by IC and ICP-OES/MS. XRF and SEM analysis will also be performed for the solid phase. The outcome of the laboratory experiments will be used as input parameters for the geochemical modeling in order to provide the parameters to calculate the subsurface volume available for storage of dissolved CO2 ("solubility trapping").

  12. Determination of Trace Nickel in Natural Water by Flow Injection Analysis with Cetrimonium Bromide as Sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. X.; Zhang, C. X.; Li, N.; Zhang, X. S.

    2015-11-01

    2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) is a highly sensitive chromogenic reagent that can react with most of the transition and alkaline earth metals. The Ni(II)-5-Br-PADAP complex is more stable than other metal-5-Br-PADAP complexes. In the presence of seignette salt, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can decompose most of the 5-Br-PADAP complexes with metals except for iron, cobalt, and nickel. Cetrimonium bromide (CTMAB) as a sensitizer for the color reaction forms a ternary complex with nickel and 5-Br-PADAP with maximum absorption wavelength at 561 nm. CTMAB can significantly improve the sensitivity and selectivity of nickel determination, as well as the stability and solubility of compounds. In this study, the determination of trace nickel in natural water samples was performed by flow injection analysis. The calibration lines were established in the range of 0-200 μg/l of nickel (n ≥ 3), and the limit of detection was 0.093 μg/l. The relative standard deviation was 2.55% for the determination of 25 μg/l nickel (n ≥ 20). The recoveries of this method ranged from 91.0 to 101% for environmental water samples. A large amount of aluminum, calcium, cadmium, copper, bicarbonate, magnesium, zinc, and iron, except for cobalt, did not interfere with the determination of nickel.

  13. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  14. Quality of water recovered from a municipal effluent injection well in the Floridan aquifer system, Pompano Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 69 million gallons of backflow from an injection well used for the disposal of secondary treated municipal effluent in the Floridan aquifer system near Pompano Beach, Florida, was periodically sampled for inorganic quality from March 1975 through March 1977. Analyses of the backflow effluent showed a concomitant increase in dissolved solids and a change in ionic composition as a function of cumulative volume of backflow. Both the increase in dissolved solids and the change in major ionic composition were directly related to an estimated 6 to 7 percent mixing of the moderately saline water in the Florida aquifer system with the injected system with the injected effluent. Although an estimated 3.5 billion gallons of effluent was injected into the aquifer system during the 16-year operation of the Collier Manor treatment plant, only 65 to 70 million gallons was backflowed before the chloride concentration approached 250 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  15. Drug-related harm among people who inject drugs in Thailand: summary findings from the Mitsampan Community Research Project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For decades, Thailand has experienced high rates of illicit drug use and related harms. In response, the Thai government has relied on drug law enforcement to address this problem. Despite these efforts, high rates of drug use persist, and Thailand has been contending with an enduring epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among people who inject drugs (IDU). Methods In response to concerns regarding drug-related harm in Thailand and a lack of research focused on the experiences and needs of Thai IDU, the Mitsampan Community Research Project was launched in 2008. The project involved administering surveys capturing a range of behavioral and other data to community-recruited IDU in Bangkok in 2008 and 2009. Results In total, 468 IDU in Bangkok were enrolled in the project. Results revealed high rates of midazolam injection, non-fatal overdose and incarceration. Syringe sharing remained widespread among this population, driven primarily by problems with access to syringes and methamphetamine injection. As well, reports of police abuse were common and found to be associated with high-risk behavior. Problems with access to evidence-based drug treatment and HIV prevention programs were also documented. Although compulsory drug detention centers are widely used in Thailand, data suggested that these centers have little impact on drug use behaviors among IDU in Bangkok. Conclusions The findings from this project highlight many ongoing health and social problems related to illicit drug use and drug policies in Bangkok. They also suggest that the emphasis on criminal justice approaches has resulted in human rights violations at the hands of police, and harms associated with compulsory drug detention and incarceration. Collectively, the findings indicate the urgent need for the implementation of evidence-based policies and programs in this setting. PMID:24099081

  16. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  17. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 3, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  18. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a).

  19. Detecting potential impacts of deep subsurface CO2 injection on shallow drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, R. C.; Yang, C.; Romanak, K.; Mickler, P. J.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Presented here are results from one aspect of collective research conducted at Gulf Coast Carbon Center, BEG, Jackson School at UT Austin. The biggest hurdle to public acceptance of CCS is to show that drinking water resources will not be impacted. Since late 1990s our group has been supported by US DOE NETL and private industry to research how best to detect potential impacts to shallow (0 to ~0.25 km) subsurface drinking water from deep (~1 to 3.5 km) injection of CO2. Work has and continues to include (1) field sampling and testing, (2) laboratory batch experiments, (3) geochemical modeling. The objective has been to identify the most sensitive geochemical indicators using data from research-level investigations, which can be economically applied on an industrial-scale. The worst-case scenario would be introduction of CO2 directly into drinking water from a leaking wellbore at a brownfield site. This is unlikely for a properly screened and/or maintained site, but needs to be considered. Our results show aquifer matrix (carbonate vs. clastic) to be critical to interpretation of pH and carbonate (DIC, Alkalinity, and δ13C of DIC) parameters because of the influence of water-rock reaction (buffering vs. non-buffering) on aqueous geochemistry. Field groundwater sampling sites to date are Cranfield, MS and SACROC, TX CO2-EOR oilfields. Two major aquifer types are represented, one dominated by silicate (Cranfield) and the other by carbonate (SACROC) water-rock reactions. We tested sensitivity of geochemical indicators (pH, DIC, Alkalinity, and δ13C of DIC) by modeling the effects of increasing pCO2 on aqueous geochemistry, and laboratory batch experiments, both with partial pressure of CO2 gas (pCO2) at 1x105 Pa (1 atm). Aquifer matrix and groundwater data provided constraints for the geochemical models. We used results from modeling and batch experiments to rank geochemical parameter sensitivity to increased pCO2 into weakly, mildly and strongly sensitive categories for both aquifer systems. DIC concentration is strongly sensitive to increased pCO2 for both aquifers; however, CO2 outgassing during sampling complicates direct field measurement of DIC. Interpretation of data from in-situ push-pull aquifer tests is ongoing and will be used to augment results summarized here. We are currently designing groundwater monitoring plans for two additional industrial-scale sites where we will further test the sensitivity and utility of our sampling approach.

  20. Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1ω7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images PMID:16347649

  1. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters.

  6. Hazard categorization of K Basin water filtration upgrade project

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, K.R.

    1995-10-19

    This supporting document provides the hazards categorization for the K Basin Water Filtration Upgrade Project at K East. All activities associated with the project are less than Hazard Category 3, except for the handling of the ECO-ROK liners containing spent filter cartridges. All activities involving the handling of liners, containing spent cartridges, by monorail, forklift or mobile crane are classified as Hazard Category 3.

  7. Water deprivation activates a glutamatergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the rostral ventrolateral medulla

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Sean D.; Simmons, Johnny R.; Toney, Glenn M.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated sympathetic outflow contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure in water-deprived rats. The neural circuitry underlying this response may involve activation of a pathway from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We sought to determine whether the PVH-RVLM projection activated by water deprivation is glutamatergic and/or contains vasopressin- or oxytocin-neurophysins. Vesicular glutamate transporter2 (VGLUT2) mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the majority of PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with cholera-toxin subunit B (CTB; 85% on average with regional differences). Very few RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were immunoreactive for oxytocin- or vasopressin-associated neurophysin. Injection of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the PVH produced clusters of BDA-positive nerve terminals within the ipsilateral RVLM that were immunoreactive (ir) for the VGLUT2 protein. Some of these terminals made close appositions with tyrosine-hydroxylase-ir dendrites (presumptive C1 cells). In water-deprived rats (n=4), numerous VGLUT2 mRNA-positive PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with CTB were c-Fos-ir (16–40% depending on PVH region). In marked contrast, few glutamatergic, RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were c-Fos-ir in control rats (n=3; 0–3% depending on PVH region). Most (94 ± 4%) RVLM-projecting PVH neurons activated by water deprivation contained VGLUT2 mRNA. In summary, the majority of PVH neurons that innervate the RVLM are glutamatergic and this population includes the neurons that are activated by water deprivation. One mechanism by which water deprivation may increase the sympathetic outflow is the activation of a glutamatergic pathway from the PVH to the RVLM. PMID:16374796

  8. Blue water transfer versus virtual water transfer in China, with a focus on the South-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Junguo

    2015-04-01

    Alongside its astonishing economic growth during the past decades, there has been increasing water stress in many areas in China. Water diversion has been one of the measures in dealing with the problem. The South-North Water Transfer Project is the largest project as such in the world, which aims to transfer water from the Yangtze River to primarily the North China Plain to alleviate the water stress in the region. Water diversion projects play an important role in supporting the continuous economic growth and safeguarding food production in the country. However, they also bring about many negative impacts concerning the environmental and ecosystem sustainability, as well as socio-economic development, both in the source and destination regions of diversions. One question arising is whether a virtual water transfer, primarily in the form of agricultural products, would be one of the tools economically and environmentally advantageous over transferring massive amounts of water to water deficit regions. This study presents an overview of China's water and land endowments and uses across regions, and the spatial distribution of food production. Based on this, the extent to which the virtual water strategy may be useful in dealing with the water stress in northern China as well as its limitations will be discussed. The focus will be on the South-North Water Transfer Project.

  9. Sequential injection system with multi-parameter analysis capability for water quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Kaewwonglom, Natcha; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple sequential injection (SI) system with capability to determine multi-parameter has been developed for the determination of iron, manganese, phosphate and ammonium. A simple and compact colorimeter was fabricated in the laboratory to be employed as a detector. The system was optimized for suitable conditions for determining each parameter by changing software program and without reconfiguration of the hardware. Under the optimum conditions, the methods showed linear ranges of 0.2-10 mg L(-1) for iron and manganese determinations, and 0.3-5.0 mg L(-1) for phosphate and ammonium determinations, with correlation coefficients of 0.9998, 0.9973, 0.9987 and 0.9983, respectively. The system provided detection limits of 0.01, 0.14, 0.004 and 0.02 mg L(-1) for iron, manganese, phosphate and ammonium, respectively. The proposed system has good precision, low chemical consumption and high throughput. It was applied for monitoring water quality of Ping river in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Recoveries of the analysis were obtained in the range of 82-119%. PMID:26452887

  10. Helicopter payload gains utilizing water injection for hot day power augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation was undertaken to assess the gains in helicopter mission payload through the use of water injection to produce power augmentation in an altitude-hot day environment. Substantial gains are shown for two representative helicopters, the UH-lH and CH-47B. The UH-lH payload increased 86.7 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission involving two out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover take-offs of 2 minutes each at 5000 ft. (1525 m) 35 C ambient conditions. The CH-47B payload increased 49.5 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission with sling loaded cargo as the outbound payload and a 3000 lb. (1360 kg) internal cargo on the return leg. The mission included two 4 min. OGE hovers at 6000 ft. (1830 m) 35 C. An improvement in take off performance and maximum performance climb also resulted as a consequence of the OGE hover capability and higher maximum power available.

  11. Robustness and uncertainties in global water scarcity projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity is both a natural and human-made phenomenon and defined as the condition where there are insufficient water resources to satisfy long-term average requirements. Many regions of the world are affected by this chronic imbalance between renewable water resources and water demand leading to depletion of surface water and groundwater stocks. Total freshwater abstraction today amounts to 3856 km³ of which 70% are withdrawn by the agricultural sector, followed by the industry (19%) and domestic sectors (11%) (FAO 2010). Population growth and consumption change have led to threefold increase in total water withdrawals in the last 60 years through a rising demand for electricity, industrial and agricultural products, and thus for water (Flörke et al. 2013). The newly developed "Shared Socio-Economic Pathways" (SSPs) project global population to increase up to 7.2 or even 14 billion people by 2100 (O'Neill et al. 2012); and meeting future water demand in sufficient quantity and quality is seen as one of the key challenges of the 21st century. So far, the assessment of regional and global water-scarcity patterns mostly focused on climate change impacts by driving global hydrological models with climate projections from different GCMs while little emphasis has been put on the water demand side. Changes in future water scarcity, however, are found to be mainly driven by changes in water withdrawals (Alcamo et al. 2007, Hanasaki et al. 2012), i.e. sensitivity to climate change outweighs exposure. Likewise, uncertainties have mainly been assessed in relation to the spread among climate scenarios and from global hydrological models (GHMs) (Haddeland et al. 2011, 2013; Schewe et al. 2013, Wada et al. 2013) while the contribution of water use modelling related to total uncertainty remains largely unstudied. The main objective of this study is to address the main uncertainties related to both climate and socio-economic impacts on global and regional water scarcity, and to provide robust and consistent conclusions to be used for decision making. The analysis is based on an ensemble of hydrological and water demand projections for the 21st century as simulated by three state-of-the-art global hydrological and water use models forced by climate projections of five global circulation models and socio-economic drivers corresponding to SSP2. The GHM-ensemble shows reasonable agreement in projected domestic and irrigation water withdrawals whilst there is a large discrepancy between the projections of industrial water withdrawals which translates into considerable uncertainty in temporal and spatial water-scarcity patterns. Consequently, impact assessments need to consider water demand as an additional dimension of uncertainty to assess both exposure and sensitivity to climate change.

  12. Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2007-01-08

    Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

  13. CO2FieldLab project. Near-surface downhole electrical resistivity monitoring for CO2 shallow injection at the Svelvik ridge (Norway).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P.; Paris, J.; Geeraert, M.; Henry, G.; Baqu, L.; Barry, S.; Neyens, D.

    2012-04-01

    The CO2FieldLab shallow injection experiment is a collaborative effort aimed at developing, verifying, and evaluating near-surface monitoring techniques for geological sequestration of CO2. The objective is to create a downhole leakage of CO2 in order to demonstrate whether existing monitoring techniques have the ability to detect and quantify the CO2 loss. The CO2FieldLab project associates collaboration from several research groups and organizations (SINTEF, NGI, BRGM, BGS, CNRS, imaGeau and Schlumberger). For this, the field Laboratory for monitoring CO2 migration and leakage was established in Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, located in the Drammensfjord 50 km south of Oslo (Norway). It is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the last deglaciation. The depth to the bedrock is located between 300 and 400 m. The central part of the ridge is aerially exposed up to 70 m above sea level, constituting a phreatic aquifer. The characterization phase and associated modelling suggest that the site is suitable for studying both gas migration and leakage at shallow depths. The shallow aquifer (down to 50 m) consists in a relatively homogeneous sand body with a depositional dip of about 10 to the North. The shallow injection experiment took place in September of 2011 and consisted in an injection of CO2 at a depth of 20 m from a 45 inclined well. The purpose of this phase was to simulate a point source leakage, which could possibly occur due to failure of a deep well completion. A total mass of 1.67 ton of CO2 was injected over a period of 6 days. The water table was located at 60 cm depth during the experiment and a transition from fresh to salt pore water was found below 12 m depth. An integrated set of surface and downhole strategies was deployed across a 64 m2 square monitoring area: cross-hole radar, water and gas phases physico-chemical parameters (BRGM); multi-hole electrical ALERT system (BGS), CO2 concentration in soils and gas flux measurements (BGS); WestBay completion for pressure monitoring and fluid sampling (Schlumberger); permanent downhole electrical resistivity observatory (imaGeau); time-lapse downhole induction and sonic logging (CNRS) All monitoring holes were drilled and equipped down to 20 m depth. The data recorded by CNRS and imaGeau are presented here. Downhole electrical resistivity monitoring identified a couple of conductive clouds due to CO2 dissolving into pore water. A first one appeared few hours after injection below 9 m, and a second one appeared later at about 6 m suggesting progressive upward migration of the injected CO2. Near the base of the monitoring hole and to the opposite, an increase in resistivity was obtained over time from repeated induction logging. This gradual conductivity decrease is coherent with progressive CO2 dissolution within the pore fluid in a zone of transition to sea water found from 12 m depth. The formation fluid sampling is next to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. Abqaiq Hanifa reservoir: Geologic attributes controlling hydrocarbon production and water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, G. Jr. )

    1993-09-01

    The Hanifa reservoir at Abqaiq field consists entirely of mudsupported (>90% matrix) limestones that were deposited in the deeper water interior of the Arabian Intrashelf basin. The Hanifa mudstones lack megascopic pore spaces; porosity is evidenced by high porosities (5-32%) within these fine-grained rocks, based on porosity logs and core-plug analyses, absence of visible pore spaces to account for these high pore volumes, and 2000x SEM images that show a crystal framework texture composed of micro-rhombic (clay-size) calcite crystals with 2 - 5 [mu]m-size pore spaces between these calcite crystals. Flow meters indicate that the reservoir is capable of producing/injecting large volumes of oil/water. But there is little stratigraphic predictability to the flow, and thin (2-10 ft) low porosity (<15%) intervals can contribute over 60% of the entire flow. These reservoir attributes, coupled with the low [open quotes]matrix[close quotes] permeabilities (0.1-10 md) of the reservoir indicate the presence of an apparent permeability that is controlling fluid flow. Core studies have revealed that this apparent permeability is in the form of high-angle fractures. These fractures are [le]1 mm wide, contain hydrocarbon residue and calcite cement, and many are in close association with high-amplitude stylolites, suggesting a genetic link between stylolitization and fracturing. Borehole imaging logs are critical for fracture location, abundance, orientation, and size. The Hanifa is separated from the giant Arab-D reservoir by over 450 ft of fine-grained carbonates of the Jubaila Formation. These two reservoirs, however, are in pressure-fluid communication via a network of fractures through the Jubaila carbonates. Reservoir communication and reservoir heterogeneity is a challenge to reservoir geologists and reservoir engineers in formulating a development plan, involving horizontal producer and injector wells, to extract the reserves within the Abqaiq Hanifa reservoir.

  15. Numerical simulation of MH growth/dissociation by hot water injection on the Lab. experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temma, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Pawar, R.; Zyvoloski, G.

    2005-12-01

    Methane Hydrate (MH) is considered to be one of the new-generation energy resources. Aiming to develop the method of extraction of methane gas from MH, laboratory experiments have been performed in order to grasp the MH property in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba in Japan. In this paper, we present the results of the numerical simulation of experiment using by the hot water injection. In this calculation, FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer) code is used. This code is developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this experiment, temperature, pressure and cumulative gas production were measured. From these data, we suppose that MH growth/dissociation occurred by the flow of the hot water. And we make the model of the growth/dissociation. As this model consist of many parameters, it is difficult to determine parameters. Thus, we use PEST (Parameter ESTimation ) in order to determine parameters for the model of the MH growth/ dissociation. We use temperature data of experiment, as observed data. We make two observed data sets at the beginning and later term of experiment. At the results of PEST, we obtain two sets of parameters to get good match the observed data. We think that these sets indicate both the maximum and the minimum values of the MH growth/dissociation model. And, on this range, we continue to calculate until we get the good match. Finally, we obtain the numerical model of the experiment. Also, we conducted the sensitive analysis for the MH growth/ dissociation using this model.

  16. Retinofugal Projections from Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells Revealed by Intraocular Injections of Cre-Dependent Virus

    PubMed Central

    Delwig, Anton; Larsen, DeLaine D.; Yasumura, Douglas; Yang, Cindy F.; Shah, Nirao M.; Copenhagen, David R.

    2016-01-01

    To understand visual functions mediated by intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), it is important to elucidate axonal projections from these cells into the brain. Initial studies reported that melanopsin is expressed only in retinal ganglion cells within the eye. However, recent studies in Opn4-Cre mice revealed Cre-mediated marker expression in multiple brain areas. These discoveries complicate the use of melanopsin-driven genetic labeling techniques to identify retinofugal projections specifically from mRGCs. To restrict labeling to mRGCs, we developed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying a Cre-dependent reporter (human placental alkaline phosphatase) that was injected into the vitreous of Opn4-Cre mouse eyes. The labeling observed in the brain of these mice was necessarily restricted specifically to retinofugal projections from mRGCs in the injected eye. We found that mRGCs innervate multiple nuclei in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus and midbrain. Midline structures tended to be bilaterally innervated, whereas the lateral structures received mostly contralateral innervation. As validation of our approach, we found projection patterns largely corresponded with previously published results; however, we have also identified a few novel targets. Our discovery of projections to the central amygdala suggests a possible direct neural pathway for aversive responses to light in neonates. In addition, projections to the accessory optic system suggest that mRGCs play a direct role in visual tracking, responses that were previously attributed to other classes of retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, projections to the zona incerta raise the possibility that mRGCs could regulate visceral and sensory functions. However, additional studies are needed to investigate the actual photosensitivity of mRGCs that project to the different brain areas. Also, there is a concern of "overlabeling" with very sensitive reporters that uncover low levels of expression. Light-evoked signaling from these cells must be shown to be of sufficient sensitivity to elicit physiologically relevant responses. PMID:26895233

  17. Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasser, Philip W

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

  18. Performance of J33-A-21 and J33-A-23 Turbojet-Engine Compressors with Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beede, William L.; Withee, Joseph R., Jr.

    1949-01-01

    As part of the performance investigation of compressors for the J33 turbojet engine, the A-21 model and the A-23 model with a 17- and a 34-blade impeller were operated with water injection at their respective design equivalent speeds of 11,500 and 11,750 rpm. Inlet conditions of pressure of 14 inches of mercury absolute and of ambient temperature correspond to those of the investigation of these models without water injection. The water-air ratio by weight ranged from 0.05 to 0.06. By the use of water injection, the peak pressure ratio of the A-21 compressor and the A-23 compressor with a 34-blade impeller increased approximately 0.38, whereas that of the A-23 compressor with a 17-blade impeller increased only 0.14. The decrease in maximum efficiency for the three compressors ranged from 0.12 to 0.14. The highest increase in maximum equivalent weight flow of air plus weight flow of water was 10.90 pounds per second obtained with the A-21 compressor. The increase in air weight flow alone was approximately 5.70 pounds per second for the A-21 compressor end the A-23, 17-blade compressor, which exceeded the increase of 3.15 pounds per second for the A-23; 34-blade compressor.

  19. Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota; analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G.N.

    1994-01-01

    In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degree Celsius) in the deep Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer (180 to 240 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. High-temperature water from the University's steam-generation facilities supplied heated water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal- Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection/withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through another well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection, and withdrawal. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.7 to 18.4 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, noniso- thermal ground-water flow and thermal-energy- transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to (1) field-recorded temperatures at selected locations, in four observation wells; (2) field- recorded temperatures at the production well; and (3) calculated aquifer-thermal efficiences. Model- computed withdrawal-water temperaturs were within an average of about 3 percent of measured values and model-computed aquifer-thermal efficiencies were within an average of about 5 percent of calculated values for the short-term test cycles. These data indicate that the model accurately simulated thermal-energy storage.

  20. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell`s construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site.

  1. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters.

  2. Computing the Water Quality Index: The Hudson River Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihich, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Describes a science project at Booker T. Washington Middle School #54 (New York City) where seventh and eighth graders computed the Hudson River's water quality using ClarisWorks spreadsheets and MicroWorlds software. Students gained technology skills and public recognition, as well as scientific and environmental information. Includes sample

  3. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

    1985-01-01

    Information on each of the 24 projects funded by the U.S. Geological Survey in FY 1985 under section 105 of Public Law 93-242 (the Water Resources Research Act of 1984) is presented, including the grant number, organization, the period of performance, and a brief description of the work to be carried out. (Lantz-PTT)

  4. WATER TREATMENT PROJECT: OBSERVATIONS ON USE OF GAC IN PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine if granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption beds applied in water treatment practice slough-off organic materials during the spring warm-up and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of the dilute or low-level COD procedure for the...

  5. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  6. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillsl...

  7. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  8. Ensemble approach for projections of return periods of extreme water levels in Estonian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Pindsoo, Katri; Lagemaa, Priidik

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of various drivers to the water level in the eastern Baltic Sea and the presence of outliers in the time series of observed and hindcast water level lead to large spreading of projections of future extreme water levels. We explore the options for using an ensemble of projections to more reliably evaluate return periods of extreme water levels. An example of such an ensemble is constructed by means of fitting several sets of block maxima (annual maxima and stormy season maxima) with a Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel and Weibull distribution. The ensemble involves projections based on two data sets (resolution of 6 h and 1 h) hindcast by the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO; Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) and observed data from four representative sites along the Estonian coast. The observed data are transferred into the grid cells of the RCO model using the HIROMB model and a linear regression. For coastal segments where the observations represent the offshore water level well, the overall appearance of the ensembles signals that the errors of single projections are randomly distributed and that the median of the ensemble provides a sensible projection. For locations where the observed water level involves local effects (e.g. wave set-up) the block maxima are split into clearly separated populations. The resulting ensemble consists of two distinct clusters, the difference between which can be interpreted as a measure of the impact of local features on the water level observations.

  9. Water use trends and demand projections in the Northwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Mokray, M.F.; Hallock-Solomon, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Northwest Florida Water Management District is located in the western panhandle of Florida and encompasses about 11,200 square miles. In 1995, the District had an estimated population of 1.13 million, an increase of about 47 percent from the 1975 population of 0.77 million. Over 50 percent of the resident population lives within 10 miles of the coast. In addition, hundreds of thousands of visitors come to the coastal areas of the panhandle during the summer months for recreation or vacation purposes. Water withdrawn to meet demands for public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial, agricultural irrigation, and recreational irrigation purposes in the District increased 18 percent (52 million gallons per day) between 1970 and 1995. The greatest increases were for public supply and domestic self-supplied (99 percent increase) and for agricultural irrigation (60 percent increase) between 1970 and 1995. In 1995, approximately 70 percent of the water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, with the majority of this from the Floridan aquifer system. The increasing water demands have affected water levels in the Floridan aquifer system, especially along the coastal areas. The Northwest Florida Water Management District is mandated under the Florida Statutes (Chapter 373) to protect and manage the water resources in this area of the State. The mandate requires that current and future water demands be met, while water resources and water-dependent natural systems are sustained. For this project, curve fitting and extrapolation were used to project most of the variables (population, population served by public supply, and water use) to the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. This mathematical method involves fitting a curve to historical population or water-use data and then extending this curve to arrive at future values. The population within the region is projected to reach 1,596,888 by the year 2020, an increase of 41 percent between 1995 and 2020. Most of the population in this region will continue to reside in the urban areas of Pensacola and Tallahassee, and along the coastal areas. The population served by public water supply is projected to reach 1,353,836 by the year 2020, an increase of nearly 46 percent between 1995 and 2020. Total water demand for the Northwest Florida Water Management District is projected to reach 940.2 million gallons per day in 2000, 1,003.1 million gallons per day in 2010, and 1,059.1 million gallons per day in 2020. Excluding water withdrawn for power generation from these totals, water demands will increase 34 percent between 1995 and 2020, and 58 percent between 1970 and 2020. Specifically, public supply demands are projected to increase 74.1 million gallons per day (53 percent) and domestic self-supplied and small public supply systems demands are projected to increase 9.1 million gallons per day (28 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Commercial- industrial self-supplied demands are projected to increase about 16.9 million gallons per day (13 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Agricultural and recreational irrigation demands combined are projected to increase 16.8 million gallons per day (48 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Water demands for power generation are projected to increase about 53.9 million gallons per day (10 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Although power generation water use shows a projected increase during this time, plant capacities are not expected to change dramatically.

  10. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Piceno, Yvette M.; Reid, Francine C.; Tom, Lauren M.; Conrad, Mark E.; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Graff, Craig J.; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (2427C), Kuparuk (4770C), Sag River (80C), and Ivishak (8083C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined ?D and ?13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

  11. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Piceno, Yvette M; Reid, Francine C; Tom, Lauren M; Conrad, Mark E; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G; Fouke, Bruce W; Graff, Craig J; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C; Andersen, Gary L

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24-27C), Kuparuk (47-70C), Sag River (80C), and Ivishak (80-83C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined ?D and ?(13)C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

  12. Transient formation characteristics of temperature stratified flow in a horizontal water pipe with an injection of hot water from a hole of a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Okinotani, Takeshi; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

    1999-07-01

    Temperature stratified flow was numerically analyzed in a horizontal pipe. Initially cold water is running and developed in a pipe. From a part of a pipe wall, hot water is injected. Subsequent transient velocity and temperature stratification process was numerically analyzed. This process is a model for such transfer phenomena as follows, i.e., blowing of fresh air into a long tunnel, replacing process of hazardous fluids from a pipeline of an industrial plant with safer fluids, ventilation of a large construction house or ducts, transient combustion process in a tunnel or huge duct, transient flow and temperature characteristics in a canal or river with multiple sub channels. These various cases become more complicated and more serious for the larger scale systems. Temperature stratified flow is everywhere established which makes the prediction difficult. This paper presents transient three-dimensional numerical analyses for a horizontal pipe in which laminar cold water runs steadily. Hot water is injected from a lower side corner of a pipe. Model equations consist of fully three-dimensional balance equations in a cylindrical coordinate. Total tube length computed is 10 times of a pipe diameter d{sub 0}. Hot water inlet hole is 0.4d{sub 0} long in an axial direction and {pi}d{sub 0}/8 in a circumferential direction near the entrance of the system. Reynolds number in a pipe is 1000. Reynolds number of the hot water at the injection hole is 447. Grashof number based on the temperature difference is 5 x 10{sup 7} and Pr = 5.41. Transient three-dimensional velocity profiles and isotherms are presented. The instantaneous water temperature represents oscillatory fluctuation depending on the level in a pipe and on the axial distance from the injection hole. For the tube diameter 0.1m, an average temperature arrived a quasi-steady state after 5 minutes with strong temperature stratification even at 1m from an injection hole. Near the injection hole, hot water makes circumferential convection with oscillatory up and down vortex flow in an axial direction. Warmer water makes stratified flow with faster axial velocity near the top of the tube with much slower axial velocity near the bottom of the tube. These fully three-dimensionally complicated flow and temperature stratification characteristics are presented in various ends view and side views of a long pipe. The importance to note the temperature stratified flow is discussed.

  13. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall...

  14. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * *...

  15. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management...

  16. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Project water conservation best management practices that shall `` * * * develop criteria for...

  17. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  18. Screening and evaluation of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in seawater and effluent water injection systems in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Carew, J.

    1999-11-01

    Injection water sources in Kuwait range from brackish water (TDS=4000 mg/l) through seawater (TDS = 30,000 mg/l) to high saline brines (TDS = 200,000 mg/l). Some of these water sources are highly sulfide sour and may require treatment to prevent scaling, corrosion or iron sulfide precipitation. Another particular problem in water injection systems is the uncontrolled growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) which leads to increased corrosion of the process plant. Therefore, evaluation schemes were undertaken to study the relative risks of MIC in a range of Kuwait`s water sources, using a combination of field sampling and laboratory biofouling trials. Recirculating biofouling loops were set up with the appropriate site water, and inoculated with the bacteria from the system so that an active biofilm was set up on small studs. These biofouled studs were treated with proprietary biocide inhibitors under various dose rates in order to select the most appropriate control regime for particular water chemistries and process options.

  19. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  20. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships’ ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  1. Scale issues in the governance of water storage projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zaag, Pieter; Gupta, Joyeeta

    2008-10-01

    In the face of global change, which is characterized by growing water demands and increasingly variable water supplies, the equitable sharing of water and the drought proofing of rural livelihoods will require an increasing physical capacity to store water. This is especially true for the semiarid and dry subhumid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This paper addresses the following question: What criteria should policymakers apply in choosing between centralized storage capacity in the form of conventional large reservoirs and large interbasin water transfer schemes and decentralized and distributed storage systems in the farmers' fields and in microwatersheds and villages (tanks, microdams, and aquifers)? This exploratory paper uses an interdisciplinary framework encompassing the natural and social sciences to develop four indicators that are considered critical for understanding the biochemical, physical, economic, and sociopolitical dimensions of the scale issues underlying the research question. These are the residence time of water in a reservoir, the water provision capacity, the cost effectiveness of providing reliable access to water per beneficiary, and the equity dimension: maximizing the number of beneficiaries and compensating the losers. The procedural governance challenges associated with each indicator are dealt with separately. It is concluded that water storage and the institutional capacity to effectively administer it are recursively linked. This implies that if the scale of new storage projects gradually increases, a society can progressively learn and adapt to the increasing institutional complexity.

  2. Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, V.L.; Costerton, J.W.; White, D.C.

    1988-06-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples than came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1 omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped.

  3. U.S. Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project: Project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA Project processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1987). This scope of work will entail the following activities on a site-specific basis: Develop a compliance strategy based on modification of the UMTRA Surface Project RAPs or develop Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC concurrence on the RAP and full participation of the affected states and tribes. Implement the RAP to include institutional controls, where appropriate, as an interim measure until compliance with the standards is achieved. Institute long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate long-term surveillance program on or before the Project end date. Prepare certification or confirmation reports and modify the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP), where needed, on those sites completed prior to the Project end date.

  4. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  5. Synchronized droplet size measurements for coal-water-slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  6. Trace analysis of isothiazolinones in water samples by large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, P; van Ravestijn, J; de Voogt, P

    2010-08-01

    Isothiazolinones are used as preservatives, biocides and disinfectants in a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Some of the isothiazolinones are difficult to isolate from water due their high polarity. A sensitive and selective analytical method was developed and optimized for the determination of sub-microg/L levels of three isothiazolinones in water samples. Three isothiazolinones are described in this paper: 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone, 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone and 4,5-dichloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone. The analytical method involves a robust large-volume direct on-column loop injection of 2 mL on an Aqua ODS HPLC column and tandem MS detection (HPLC-MS/MS). After filtration, samples are directly injected without further pretreatment. Detection limits of the individual target compounds were between 0.03 and 0.1 microg/L employing Multi-Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry. Based on the constant ratio of two selected product-ions together with the retention time, the identification is very selective and quantification is reliable. The method was successfully applied to real samples of membrane flushings, drinking water, surface waters and waste water. Additional investigations showed the instability of the isothiazolinones in river- and waste water. Preservation of river water and waste water samples with sodium azide (NaN(3)) promotes the stability of the isothiazolines in solution. In membrane flushings, waste water, surface waters and drinking water, levels of the three isothiazolinones were all below the limit of detection. In effluents of households containing washings from normal shampoo use, isothiazolinones could be detected. PMID:20591438

  7. Ames' mutagenic activity in recycled water from an Israeli water reclamation project

    SciTech Connect

    Neeman, I.; Kroll, R.; Mahler, A.; Rubin, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Effluent samples taken from a water reclamation project in Israel were analyzed for mutagenicity and toxicity using the Ames assay test. Test results indicate the presence of low levels of mutagens in recycled water taken from the reclamation plant; samples taken from different sites in the plant yielded different levels of mutagenicity. Improved wastewater treatment technology is needed to make water reuse safe. (2 graphs, 15 references, 1 table)

  8. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Lenchi, Nesrine; Inceo?lu, Ozgl; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirs, Marc; Servais, Pierre; Garca-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already been reported as degraders of complex organic molecules and pollutants. Nevertheless, a large number of unclassified bacterial and archaeal sequences were found in the analyzed samples, indicating that subsurface waters in oilfields could harbor new and still-non-described microbial species. PMID:23805243

  9. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lenchi, Nesrine; İnceoğlu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already been reported as degraders of complex organic molecules and pollutants. Nevertheless, a large number of unclassified bacterial and archaeal sequences were found in the analyzed samples, indicating that subsurface waters in oilfields could harbor new and still-non-described microbial species. PMID:23805243

  10. INITIAL TEST RESULTS OF THE LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER (LIMB) DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses SO2 removal efficiency and low-NOx burner performance obtained during short term tests, as well as the impact of LIMB ash on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. Project goals are to demonstrate 50% or more SO2 remov...

  11. Experiment HFR-B1: A preliminary analysis of the water-vapor injection experiments in capsule 3

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, B.F.

    1993-08-01

    A preliminary analysis of the response of uranium oxycarbide (UCO) fuel to water vapor addition in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 (HFR-B1/3) has been conducted. The analysis provides an early indication of the behavior of fission gas release under a wider range of water-vapor pressures and of temperatures than heretofore studied. A preliminary analysis of selected aspects of the water-vapor injection tests in capsule 3 of experiment HFR-B1 is presented. The release of fission gas stored in bubbles and the diffusive release of fission-gas atoms are distinguished. The dependence of the release of stored fission gas ({sup 85m}Kr) on water-vapor pressure, P(H{sub 2}O), and temperature were established taking into account the contributing mechanisms of gaseous release, the effect of graphite hydrolysis, and the requirement of consistency with experiment HRB-17 in which similar water-vapor injection tests were conducted. The dependence on P(H{sub 2}O) becomes weaker as temperatures increase above 770{degree}C; the activation energy for release of stored-fission gas is 393 kJ/mol. Isorelease curves for the pressure-temperature plane were deduced from a derived functional relation. The stored-fission gas releases as a function of P(H{sub 2}O) at a common temperature for experiments HFR-B1 and HRB-17 differ by a factor of 4; this discrepancy could be attributed to the differences in fission-rate density and neutron flux between the two experiments. Diffusive release of fission gas occurred during and after the release of stored gas. The ratio of diffusive release during water-vapor injection to that prior to injection varied in contrast to the results from HRB-17. The variation was attributed to the practice of injecting water vapor into HFR-B1 before sintering of the fuel, hydrolyzed in the previous test, was completed. The derived activation energy for diffusive release is 23.6 kJ/mol.

  12. Preliminary report on isotope abundance measurements in groundwater samples from the Talbert Injection Barrier Area, Orange County Water District

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, G.B.; Davisson, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Niemeyer, S.; Esser, B.; Beiriger, J.

    1995-02-01

    This report discusses isotope abundance measurements made on a collection of groundwater samples from the Orange County Water District. The water samples were collected in May, 1994 as part of a preliminary study conducted by LLNL to assess the feasibility of tracing and dating reclaimed water used in the Talbert Injection Barrier. A set of samples were collected both near to and far from the barrier and also at different depths in available monitoring wells. A variety of elements were selected for isotopic analysis; hydrogen (tritium), helium, neon, carbon, chlorine and strontium. The tritium abundance combined with the {sup 3}He and {sup 20}Ne abundance provides a method for age dating young (< 40 yr.) groundwater. The abundance of {sup 14}C provides an age dating technique for older (1,000--50,000 yr.) groundwater. The concentrations of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr give information on sea water mixing and water-rock chemical interactions.

  13. The feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in certain emergency situations it may be desirable to obtain power from a helicopter engine at levels greater than the maximum rating. Yost (1976) has reported studies concerning methods of power augmentation in the one engine inoperative (OEI) case. It was found that a combination of water/alcohol injection into the inlet and overtemperature/overspeed could provide adequate emergency power. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a feasibility study which analytically investigated the maximum possible level of augmentation with constant gas generator turbine stress rupture life as a constraint. In the proposed scheme, the increased engine output is obtained by turbine overtemperature, however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water.

  14. Flow injection analysis of trace chromium (VI) in drinking water with a liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Byrne, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an acknowledged hazardous material in drinking waters. As such, effective monitoring and assessment of the risks posed by Cr(VI) are important analytical objectives for both human health and environmental science. However, because of the lack of highly sensitive, rapid, and simple procedures, a relatively limited number of studies have been carried out in this field. Here we report a simple and sensitive analytical procedure of flow injection analysis (FIA) for sub-nanomolar Cr(VI) in drinking water samples with a liquid core waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The procedure is based on a highly selective reaction between 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide and Cr(VI) under acidic conditions. The optimized experimental parameters included reagent concentrations, injection volume, length of mixing coil, and flow rate. Measurements at 540nm, and a 650-nm reference wavelength, produced a 0.12-nM detection limit. Relative standard deviations for 1, 2, and 10nM samples were 5.6, 3.6, and 0.72% (n?=?9), and the analysis time was <2min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions, especially Fe(III), were evaluated. Using the FIA-LWCC method, different sources of bottled waters and tap waters were examined. The Cr(VI) concentrations of the bottled waters ranged from the detection limit to ?20nM, and tap waters collected from the same community supply had Cr(VI) concentration around 14nM. PMID:23943244

  15. Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% (by man) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  16. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs

    PubMed Central

    Charton, Antoine; Péronnet, François; Doutreleau, Stephane; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Klein, Alexis; Jimenez, Liliana; Geny, Bernard; Diemunsch, Pierre; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2) supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach). Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2), skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2) were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in the three groups, but when compared to the control group, the values remained significantly higher in animals that received the water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. Conclusions In this protocol, water enriched in O2 by electrolysis lessened the decline of peripheral tissue oxygenation. This observation is compatible with the claim that the electrolytic process generates water clathrates which trap O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along pressure gradients. Potential applications of O2-enriched water include an alternate method of oxygen supply. PMID:25210438

  17. Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

    2009-07-01

    According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

  18. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Drr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio. PMID:18457861

  19. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  20. Incorporating water consumption into crop water footprint: A case study of China's South-North Water Diversion Project.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhang; Tang, Deshan; Ding, Yifan; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-03-01

    The crop water footprint (WF) indicates the consumption of water for a crop during the planting period, mainly through evapotranspiration. However, as irrigated agriculture accounts for nearly 25% of the global agriculture water usage, evaluation of WF during transportation becomes essential to improve the efficiency of irrigated agriculture. This study aims at building an improved WF model to understand how much WF is produced due to water diversion and how much crop WF increases during the transfer. The proposed model is then used to calculate the WF of four major crops in five provinces along China's South-North Water Transfer Project in two steps. First, the WF of the water transfer project (WFeng) is assessed in a supply chain analysis method. Second, a WF allocation model is built to distribute the project WF for each crop/province. The results show that the evaporation and seepage are the main sources of WFeng. Out of five provinces, two namely Tianjin and Hebei present higher WFblue and WF increase. A positive correlation between water diversion distance and crop WF increase is noted. Among the four crops, cotton presents higher WFblue and WF increase. The crops with higher WFblue tend to be more strongly influenced by the water diversion project, due to high irrigation water dependency. This analysis may expand the WF concept from an evaporation-related term to a term reflecting crop biological processes and water consumption by artificial irrigation projects. Thus, it may serve as an indicator for optimizing future objectives and strategies associated to water resource planning in China and elsewhere. PMID:26760279

  1. Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylott, Benjamin; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Boyle, Michael; Brady, Patrick R.; Brown, Duncan A.; Brgmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Cadonati, Laura; Camp, Jordan; Campanelli, Manuela; Centrella, Joan; Chatterji, Shourov; Christensen, Nelson; Chu, Tony; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Nils; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Faber, Joshua; Fairhurst, Stephen; Farr, Benjamin; Fischetti, Sebastian; Guidi, Gianluca; Goggin, Lisa M.; Hannam, Mark; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Kalogera, Vicky; Keppel, Drew; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Krishnan, Badri; Laguna, Pablo; Lousto, Carlos O.; Mandel, Ilya; Marronetti, Pedro; Matzner, Richard; McWilliams, Sean T.; Matthews, Keith D.; Mercer, R. Adam; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R. P.; Mrou, Abdul H.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ochsner, Evan; Pan, Yi; Pekowsky, Larne; Pfeiffer, H. arald P.; Pollney, Denis; Pretorius, Frans; Raymond, Vivien; Reisswig, Christian; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rinne, Oliver; Robinson, Craig; Rver, Christian; Santamara, Luca; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore; Scheel, Mark A.; Schnetter, Erik; Seiler, Jennifer; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Sperhake, Ulrich; Stroeer, Alexander; Sturani, Riccardo; Tichy, Wolfgang; Liu, Yuk Tung; van der Sluys, Marc; van Meter, James R.; Vaulin, Ruslan; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John; Vicer, Andrea; Whelan, John T.; Zlochower, Yosef

    2009-08-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA analysis which focused on gravitational waveforms from binary black hole coalescence. Ten numerical relativity groups contributed numerical data which were used to generate a set of gravitational-wave signals. These signals were injected into a simulated data set, designed to mimic the response of the initial LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Nine groups analysed this data using search and parameter-estimation pipelines. Matched filter algorithms, un-modelled-burst searches and Bayesian parameter estimation and model-selection algorithms were applied to the data. We report the efficiency of these search methods in detecting the numerical waveforms and measuring their parameters. We describe preliminary comparisons between the different search methods and suggest improvements for future NINJA analyses.

  2. Hydrologic data through 1993 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents data on precipitation, geologic logs, water levels, and water quality that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1993, for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program, under the guidance of the Bureau of Reclamation. The purpose of the Huron Project is to demonstrate the artificial recharge potential of glacial aquifers in eastern South Dakota. High flows from the James River during spring runoff are used as a source of supplemental recharge for the Warren aquifer, which is a buried, glacial aquifer. Prior to the injection of recharge water, which began in April 1994, many sites were monitored to obtain background information. This report presents data that were collected prior to the initiation of recharge. Precipitation data are collected at two sites within the study area. A site description and daily precipitation for water years 1991-93 are presented for one precipitation site. In 1990, 76 test holes were drilled and observation wells were installed at 70 sites. Well information and geologic logs collected during the drilling program for the Huron Project are presented. In addition to the 70 new Huron Project wells, 15 existing observation wells owned by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources were incorporated into the study. Water- level hydrographs are presented for the 85 observation wells. The period of record shown for the hydrographs is from the earliest available record through September 1993. Water-quality data were collected from both screening and detailed sampling programs. Screening water-quality data for 32 observation wells are presented. These data include primarily field parameters and common ions. The eight detailed sampling sites represent the quality of untreated water, treated water, an intermittent stream, and ground water from the Warren aquifer. Data presented for the detailed sampling program include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, total organic carbon, herbicides, insecticides, and volatile organic compounds.

  3. Projections of Water-Cycle Change: Uncertainty and Utility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowski, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate models have proven to be invaluable tools to developing scenarios of possible future water resources. However, hydrologic simulation involves complex interactions among many processes, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, freezing, and thawing, among others. Furthermore, the modeling of these processes and their interactions remains imperfect. Nonetheless, despite these challenges, some broad features of future water availability have emerged consistently across generations of climate models and future scenarios. One can understand these features on the basis of some fairly simple physical principles, but is this understanding useful? Is the climate community producing the information needed to address future water needs by a growing population? This talk will present perspectives on global and regional water cycles seen in ensemble simulation programs such as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Program (CMIP) for global models and the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) for regional models. The talk will consider global and regional models as sources of consistency and differences in their projections of climate change, through their representation of physical processes in the water cycle. The talk will also consider how water utilities previously have used climate information and what requirements this imposes on climate simulation. Finally, the talk will explore the question of how well typical diagnoses evaluate climate simulations on the basis of water resource needs, especially those for formulating management, planning and policy decisions.

  4. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts of the project, water from domestic use is obtained chiefly from the sandstone beds of the Wind River formation although some is obtained from the alluvium underlying the bottom land and from the unconsolidated deposits underlying the lower terraces along the Wind River. Although adequate quantities if water for domestic use are available from the Wind River formation, there quantities are not considered to be large enough to warrant pumping of ground water for irrigation. Only a few wells are in the nonirrigated part of the area. When this new land is irrigated, a body of ground water will gradually form in the terrace deposits and the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits. Eventually, the terrace deposits may yield adequate quantities of water for domestic and stock use, but only locally are the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits likely to become suitable aquifers. In the Riverton irrigation project area, ground water occurs under water-table conditions near the surface and under artesian conditions in certain strata at both shallow and greater depths. Irrigation is the principal source of recharge to the shallow aquifers; the water level in wells that tap these aquifers fluctuates with irrigation. The depth to water in the shallow wells ranges from less than 1 foot to about 30 feet below the land surface, depending on the season of the year and on the length of time the land has been irrigated. The water level in the wells that tap the deep confined aquifers , which receive recharge indirectly from surface sources, fluctuates only slightly because the recharge and discharge are more constant. In most places the depth to water in wells penetrating the deep confined aquifers is mush greater than that in shallow wells. but in certain low areas water from the deep aquifers flows at the surface from wells. Ground water moves from the area of recharge in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and is discharges either by evapotranspiration; by inflow into streams, drains, or lakes; by pumping or flow of wells; or by flow of springs. Waterlogging and the associated development of saline soils are common in parts of the Riverton irrigation project and adjacent irrigated land. The waterlogging is in part the result of the infiltration of irrigation water in excess of the capacity of the aquifers to store and transmit this added recharge. The solution of the drainage problems involves the consideration of a number of factors, some of which are inadequately known in some parts of the area and require further investigation before fully effective drainage measures can be designed. The results of an aquifer test to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the Wind River formation at Riverton indicate a transmissibility of 10,000 gallons per day per foot (10,000 gpd per ft) and a storage coefficient of 2 x 10-4. The results of the test provide a part of the necessary foundation for the solution of present and future water-supply problems at Riverton and throughout the project area. Water from shallow aquifers in irrigated tracts in the Riverton irrigation project area generally contains large amounts of dissolved solids that were leached from the soil and rocks by infiltrating irrigation water. However, wells tapping beds that receive considerable recharge from influent canal and drain seepage yield water of relatively low mineralizatoin. Dilute water is obtained also from some shallow wells in the alluvial bottom lands and on low stream terraces that border the Wind Rover. Water from deep aquifers generally is more dilute than that from shallow aquifers. However, ground water from the deep aquifers, unmixed with irrigation water, generally has a percent sodium greater than 80. Analyses of salt crusts on the ground surface in low areas that are affected by effluent seepage and a high water table show predominance of sodium sulfate salinity, and from determinations of the water-soluble and acid-soluble substances in several samples of soil and shale it is apparent that harmful concentrations of salts are being deposited in poorly drained area. Although most of the soul in the Midvale irrigation district is of the normal arid type, analyses of soil samples show that saline, nonsaline alkaline, and saline alkaline types also are present.

  5. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including endangered and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How Project water may be used....

  6. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including endangered and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How Project water may be used....

  7. Pharmacological Interventions Including Medical Injections for Neck Pain: An Overview as Part of the ICON Project

    PubMed Central

    Peloso, Paul M; Khan, Mahweesh; Gross, Anita R; Carlesso, Lisa; Santaguida, Lina; Lowcock, Janet; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, Dave; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Langevin, Pierre; Shi, Qiyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an overview (review-of-reviews) on pharmacological interventions for neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched from 2006 to 2012. Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) in adults with acute to chronic neck pain reporting effects of pharmacological interventions including injections on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias and extracted data The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel provided critical review. Main Results: We found 26 reviews reporting on 47 RCTs. Most pharmacological interventions had low to very low quality methodologic evidence with three exceptions. For chronic neck pain, there was evidence of: a small immediate benefit for eperison hydrochloride (moderate GRADE, 1 trial, 157 participants);no short-term pain relieving benefit for botulinum toxin-A compared to saline (strong GRADE; 5 trial meta-analysis, 258 participants) nor for subacute/chronic whiplash (moderate GRADE; 4 trial meta-analysis, 183 participants) including reduced pain, disability or global perceived effect; andno long-term benefit for medial branch block of facet joints with steroids (moderate GRADE; 1 trial, 120 participants) over placebo to reduce pain or disability; Reviewers' Conclusions: While in general there is a lack of evidence for most pharmacological interventions, current evidence is against botulinum toxin-A for chronic neck pain or subacute/chronic whiplash; against medial branch block with steroids for chronic facet joint pain; but in favour of the muscle relaxant eperison hydrochloride for chronic neck pain. PMID:24155805

  8. Project "WEST" (Water, the Environment, Science and Teaching)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, E.; Ali-Adeeb, J.; Cerling, T.; Chan, M.; Chapman, D.; Cohen, L.; Davis, M.; Chapmandearing, D.; Hill, S.; Hynek, S.; Millward, L.; O'Grady, S.; Richards, L.; Solomon, K.; Sampson, S.; Schafer, J.; Zanno, L.; Zipser, E.

    2004-12-01

    Project WEST (Water, the Environment, Science, and Teaching) is a graduate student fellowship program funded by a GK-12 grant from the National Science Foundation. WEST links the University of Utah, the Utah Museum of Natural History, and the Salt Lake City school district in enhancing inquiry based science teaching in grades 4, 8, and 9 and the interdisciplinary training of university graduate and undergraduate students in the geosciences. The unifying theme of WEST (water and the environment) emerges because of its simplicity and its significance for human survival and livelihood in the arid west. National standards and Utah standards for teaching science in this grade range lend themselves to focusing on the environment and particularly on the role of water. Every resident in the State of Utah is impacted by the local hydrological cycle: our mountain ranges receive ten times the precipitation of valley floors, water runs off in streams or percolates into the ground supporting the many ecosystems found between 12,000 ft and 3,000 ft elevation, water provides for both agriculture and urban consumption, and flows ultimately to the unique ecosystem of the Great Salt Lake. Water affects recreation, the economy, and settlement. By gaining an enhanced understanding of the role of water in the environment, particularly in this time of severe drought, students will contemplate their place in nature. Project WEST is facilitating integrative and inquiry based learning among elementary, middle, and high school students in a manner that fulfills core curriculum requirements and state standards. It provides professional development tools to school teachers in the form of materials, observatories, workshops, and field trips that promote more effective science teaching. The multidisciplinary nature of WEST (geology, geophysics, meteorology, ecology) also provides intellectual stimulation and enhanced learning opportunities for graduate students and undergraduates selected as GK-12 Fellows.

  9. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  10. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim; Szybist, James P

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy while not resulting in a decrease in power density.

  11. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data from wells near the Hueco Bolson Recharge Project area, El Paso, Texas, 1990 and 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Robert D.; Buszka, Paul M.; Godsy, Edward M.

    1994-01-01

    Tertiary-treated wastewater currently (1991) is being injected into the Hueco bolson aquifer at a site in northeastern El Paso, Texas, to supplement the quantity of available freshwater. Hydrologic data were compiled and water-quality and bacterial data were collected from existing wells near the Hueco Bolson Recharge Project (HBRP) in August and September 1990 and 1991. Borehole tracer tests indicated upward ground-water flow in nearly all tested intervals of several observation wells. The cumulative volume of injected water was less than the volume produced from wells adjacent to the HBRP area. Water levels in three production wells, located more than 1.5 miles from the injection wells, declined at rates comparable to those observed before injection operations. Water levels in wells located within 0.75 mile of the injection-well pipeline declined at a slower rate after HBRP injection operations had begun. Between 1985 and 1991, water levels in observation wells located within 700 feet of an injection well either did not appreciably decline, or declined at smaller rates than water levels in more distant production wells. Trihalomethane compounds were detected in water from 8 of the 16 observation and production wells sampled in 1990 and in 10 of the 17 wells sampled in 1991. Concentrations trihalomethane compounds in these samples ranged from 0.05 to 1.9 ug/L (microgram per liter) in 1990 and from 0.05 to 1.4 ug/L in 1991. Concentrations of trihalomethane compounds in samples of injected water from two wells were 27.8 and 34.6 ug/L respectively, in 1991. Dibromomethane and dichloromethane were detected in water from injection wells and from observation wells within about 700 feet of the injection wells. Aerobic bacteria were determined to be the only bacteria type present in ground water except for samples from two wells, which also contained denitrifying bacteria. The populations of aerobic bacteria determined in ground water ranged from 80 to more than 160,000 most probable number of organisms per milliliter of sample.

  12. Unit Operation Optimization for the Manufacturing of Botanical Injections Using a Design Space Approach: A Case Study of Water Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.380.41 g/g, AWA of 3.74.9 g/g, and SS of 280350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability. PMID:25101624

  13. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability. PMID:25101624

  14. Twisted injectivity in projected entangled pair states and the classification of quantum phases

    SciTech Connect

    Buerschaper, Oliver

    2014-12-15

    We introduce a class of projected entangled pair states (PEPS) which is based on a group symmetry twisted by a 3-cocycle of the group. This twisted symmetry is expressed as a matrix product operator (MPO) with bond dimension greater than1 and acts on the virtual boundary of a PEPS tensor. We show that it gives rise to a new standard form for PEPS from which we construct a family of local Hamiltonians which are gapped, frustration-free and include fixed points of the renormalization group flow. Based on this insight, we advance the classification of 2D gapped quantum spin systems by showing how this new standard form for PEPS determines the emergent topological order of these local Hamiltonians. Specifically, we identify their universality class as DIJKGRAAFWITTEN topological quantum field theory (TQFT). - Highlights: We introduce a new standard form for projected entangled pair states via a twisted group symmetry which is given by nontrivial matrix product operators. We construct a large family of gapped, frustration-free Hamiltonians in two dimensions from this new standard form. We rigorously show how this new standard form for low energy states determines the emergent topological order.

  15. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning variables - climate change signal in temporally and spatially integrated variables - has been carefully made with respect their relevance for water resource management. This work proposes a twofold assessment of this selection approach. First, a climate validation allows checking the selection response of more extreme climate variables critical for hydrological impacts as well as spatially distributed ones. Second, a hydrological validation allows checking the selection response of streamflow variables relevant for water resource management. Findings highlight that such validations may critically help preventing misinterpretations and misuses of impact model ensemble outputs for integrated adaptation purposes. This work is part of the GICC R2D2-2050 project (Risk, water Resources and sustainable Development of the Durance catchment in 2050) and the EU FP7 COMPLEX project (Knowledge Based Climate Mitigation Systems for a Low Carbon Economy). Christierson, B. v., Vidal, J.-P., & Wade, S. D. (2012) Using UKCP09 probabilistic climate information for UK water resource planning}. J. Hydrol., {424-425}, 48-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.12.020} Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Terray, L.; Mezghani, A. & Gailhard, J. (2014) Internal variability and model uncertainty components in future hydrometeorological projections: The Alpine Durance basin. Water Resour. Res., {50}, 3317-3341. doi: 10.1002/2013WR014897 Vidal, J.-P. & Hingray, B. (2014) A framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies. EGU2014-7851

  16. Effect of Sodium Bisulfite Injection on the Microbial Community Composition in a Brackish-Water-Transporting Pipeline?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Soo; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Sensen, Christoph W.; Caffrey, Sean M.; Jack, Thomas R.; Boivin, Joe; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water, used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage, are subject to frequent corrosion failures despite the addition of the oxygen scavenger sodium bisulfite (SBS). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the microbial community composition for planktonic samples of transported water and for sessile samples of pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from pipeline cutouts representing corrosion failures. These were obtained from upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP, collected under rapid-flow and stagnant conditions, respectively) of the SBS injection point. Most transported water samples had a large fraction (1.8% to 97% of pyrosequencing reads) of Pseudomonas not found in sessile pipe samples. The sessile population of PAS-616P had methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) as the main (56%) community component, whereas Deltaproteobacteria of the genera Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa were not detected. In contrast, PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP had lower fractions (41% and 0.6%) of Methanobacteriaceae archaea but increased fractions of sulfate-reducing Desulfomicrobium (18% and 48%) and of bisulfite-disproportionating Desulfocapsa (35% and 22%) bacteria. Hence, SBS injection strongly changed the sessile microbial community populations. X-ray diffraction analysis of pipeline scale indicated that iron carbonate was present both upstream and downstream, whereas iron sulfide and sulfur were found only downstream of the SBS injection point, suggesting a contribution of the bisulfite-disproportionating and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the scale to iron corrosion. Incubation of iron coupons with pipeline waters indicated iron corrosion coupled to the formation of methane. Hence, both methanogenic and sulfidogenic microbial communities contributed to corrosion of pipelines transporting these brackish waters. PMID:21856836

  17. Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, T.J.

    1998-10-01

    Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

  18. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-01-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

  19. Near-surface monitoring for the ZERT shallow CO2 injection project

    SciTech Connect

    Strazisar BR; Wells AW; Diehl JR

    2009-12-01

    As part of a collaborative effort operated by the Zero Emission Research and Technology Center (ZERT), a series of two shallow releases of CO2 was performed at a test site in Bozeman, MT. The purpose of the experiment was to simulate possible leakage scenarios from a carbon capture and storage operation in order to further develop and verify monitoring technologies used to characterize and quantify the release of CO2. The project included collaboration with several research groups and organizations. Presented here are the results of soilgasmonitoring conducted by researchers from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, including CO2 flux measurement, soilgas analysis, perfluorocarbon tracer monitoring, and soil resistivity measurements. Together, these methods proved to be effective in detecting and characterizing leakage in the near-surface.

  20. Near-surface monitoring for the ZERT shallow CO2 injection project

    SciTech Connect

    Strazisar, Brian R.; Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. Rodney; Hammack, Richard W.; Veloski, Garret A.

    2009-12-01

    As part of a collaborative effort operated by the Zero Emission Research and Technology Center (ZERT), a series of two shallow releases of CO2 Was performed at a test site in Bozeman, MT. The purpose of the experiment was to simulate possible leakage scenarios from a carbon capture and storage operation in order to further develop and verify monitoring technologies used to characterize and quantify the release of CO2. The project included collaboration with several research groups and organizations. Presented here are the results of soil-gas monitoring conducted by researchers from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, including CO2 flux measurement, soil-gas analysis, perfluorocarbon tracer monitoring, and soil resistivity measurements. Together, these methods proved to be effective in detecting and characterizing leakage in the near-surface.

  1. Overview of the Texas Source Water Assessment Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.

    2000-01-01

    The 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act require, for the first time, that each state prepare a source water assessment for all PWS. Previously, Federal regulations focused on sampling and enforcement with emphasis on the quality of delivered water. These Amendments emphasize the importance of protecting the source water. States are required to determine the drinking-water source, the origin of contaminants monitored or the potential contaminants to be monitored, and the intrinsic susceptibility of the source water. Under the amendments to the Act, States must create SWAP Programs. The programs must include an individual source water assessment for each public water system regulated by the State. These assessments will determine whether an individual drinking water source is susceptible to contamination. During 1997?99, TNRCC and USGS staff met as subject-matter working groups to develop an approach to conducting Source Water Susceptibility Assessments (SWSA) and a draft workplan. The draft workplan was then presented to and reviewed by various stakeholder and technical advisory groups. Comments and suggestions from these groups were considered, and a final workplan was produced and presented to the EPA. After EPA approval, work formally began on the Texas SWAP Project. The project has an expected completion date of September 2002. At that time, initial SWSA of all Texas public water supplies should be complete. Ground-water supplies can be considered susceptible if a possible source of contamination (PSOC) exists in the contributing area for the public-supply well field or spring, the contaminant travel time to the well field or spring is short, and the soil zone, vadose zone, and aquifer-matrix materials are unlikely to adequately attenuate the contaminants associated with the PSOC. In addition, particular types of land use/cover within the contributing area may cause the supply to be deemed more susceptible to contamination. Finally, detection of various classes of constituents in water from wells in the vicinity of a public supply well may indicate susceptibility of the public-supply well even though there may be no identifiable PSOC or land use activity. Surface-water supplies are by nature susceptible to contamination from both point and non-point sources. The degree of susceptibility of a PWS to contamination can vary and is a function of the environmental setting, water and wastewater management practices, and land use/cover within a water supply's contributing watershed area. For example, a PWS intake downstream from extensive urban development may be more susceptible to non-point source contamination than a PWS intake downstream from a forested, relatively undeveloped watershed. Surface-water supplies are also susceptible to contamination from point sources, which may include permitted discharges, as well as accidental spills or other introduction of contaminants.

  2. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs. PMID:22502598

  3. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-04-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  4. Assessment of Nitrification Potential in Ground Water Using Short Term, Single-Well Injection Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the am...

  5. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

    2008-07-01

    During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

  6. Modeling of carbon cycling and biogeochemical changes during injection and recovery of reclaimed water at Bolivar, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Pavelic, Paul; Dillon, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Managed aquifer recharge is an increasingly popular technique to secure and enhance water supplies. Among a range of recharging techniques, single-well aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is becoming a common option to either augment drinking water supplies or facilitate reuse of reclaimed water. For the present study a conceptual biogeochemical model for reclaimed water ASR was developed and incorporated into an existing reactive multicomponent transport model. The conceptual and numerical model for carbon cycling includes various forms of organic and inorganic carbon and several reactive processes that transfer carbon within and across different phases. The major geochemical processes considered in the model were microbially mediated redox reactions, driven by the mineralization of organic carbon, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and ion exchange. The numerical model was tested and applied for the analysis of observed data collected during an ASR field experiment at Bolivar, South Australia. The model simulation of this experiment provides a consistent interpretation of the observed hydrochemical changes. The results suggest that during the storage phase, dynamic changes in bacterial mass have a significant influence on the local geochemistry in the vicinity of the injection/extraction well. Farther away from the injection/extraction well, breakthrough of cations is shown to be strongly affected by exchange reactions and, in the case of calcium, by calcite dissolution.

  7. Integrated water research in the GLOWA Volta Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Berger, T.; Iskandarani, M.; Kunstmann, H.; Park, S.; Vlek, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West African savanna. The river feeds Lake Volta, that provides over 95% of the electricity in Ghana and has the largest surface of any man-made lake in the world. The rural population (per capita income US600/year) increasingly turns to small scale irrigation development to improve the returns on their agricultural activities and reduce dependence on the highly variable rainfall. The irrigation development stands in direct competition with the hydropower generation that drives development in the more urbanized South. The GLOWA Volta Projects seeks to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of water resources in the basin under changing global and regional conditions. The DSS is built upon a scientific analysis of all factors that affect water supply and demand. To understand all aspects of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin one needs to take physical (atmosphere, land, water) as well as social aspects (population, economic development, institutions) into account. The major scientific challenge of the GLOWA Volta Project is the integrated analysis of the bio- physical and socio-economic factors that affect the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin. The presentation introduces the GLOWA Volta Project, focusing on activities that integrate different disciplines. Specifically, we present three sets of activities: (1) the coupling between meteorology and hydrology, (2) development of a Common Sampling Frame for the collection of socio-economic and bio-physical data, and (3) a water use optimization model that incorporates economy, hydrology, and institutional analysis. Finally, we look at recent initiatives in the basin that link science, stakeholders, and policy makers.

  8. Fast determination of 40 drugs in water using large volume direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boix, Clara; Ibez, Mara; Sancho, Juan V; Rambla, Javier; Aranda, Jos L; Ballester, Salom; Hernndez, Flix

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a rapid analytical method based on direct sample injection of water samples for the simultaneous identification/quantification of 40 emerging compounds, including pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. The water samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS QqQ). Taking profit of the increasing sensitivity of nowadays tandem mass spectrometers, direct sample injection of large volumes has been an attractive alternative to pre-concentration steps. In this work, the developed methodology has been validated at three concentration levels (10, 100 and 1000 ng/L) in 10 different water samples of different types (5 effluent wastewater and 5 surface water samples). The majority of compounds could be satisfactory validated at these concentrations, showing good recoveries and precision. With only few exceptions, the limits of quantification (LOQs), estimated from the sample chromatogram at lowest spiked level tested, were below 3 ng/L. The method was applied to the analysis of 10 effluent wastewater and 10 surface water samples. Venlafaxine was the compound most frequently detected (80%) in surface water, followed by acetaminophen (70%). Regarding effluent wastewater, valsartan and 4-acetyl aminoantipyrine were detected in 9 out of 10 samples analyzed. These two compounds together with 4-formyl aminoantipyrine and naproxen showed the highest concentrations (>2000 ng/L). In these cases, a dilution step was required for a correct quantification. As an additional evaluation of the method performance, the same water samples were analyzed in another laboratory by a second analytical methodology, based on on-line solid-phase-extraction coupled to LC-MS/MS (QqQ). PMID:25281164

  9. Water banks and environmental water demands: Case of the Klamath Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Susan M.; Adams, Richard M.; Wallender, Wesley W.

    2004-09-01

    Demand for water for environmental uses, such as to provide critical habitat for endangered species, has increased competition for agricultural water supplies. In the western United States, a significant portion of these water demands is to increase in-stream flows. Given that Endangered Species Act (ESA) requirements supersede prior appropriation rights, ESA water demands have the potential to reduce agricultural diversions, particularly in times of drought. This situation occurred in 2001 in the Klamath Basin of southern Oregon and northern California: an ESA-related judicial ruling on the needs of several endangered fish species resulted in a major reduction in water diversions to the Klamath Reclamation Project. Using the Klamath Basin as an empirical backdrop, this study examines the potential benefits and challenges of water banks to mitigate damages to appropriative water rights holders and to provide water for environmental purposes. Results from this case study indicate that water banks are a potentially cost effective way to meet environmental needs. This study, however, illustrated several of the challenges of implementing a water bank given that modifications to the proposed bank are needed to achieve cost efficiency. Specifically, expanded trading is needed, both intraproject and interproject, to achieve the objectives of providing environmental water at minimum cost to society.

  10. Alaska/Canada. Prudhoe Bay operators lay plans for mammoth seawater injection project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-25

    Production at Prudhoe Bay has passed the billion-barrel mark, and 2 issues are now in the forefront for the operators of North America's largest oil field. First, how should a $2-billion waterflood be developed for the sprawling, complex reservoir. Second, how will gas sales from the field (in contrast to reinjection of produced gas) affect ultimate production of crude, gas, and liquids when the proposed gas pipeline is built. The major producers at Prudhoe Bay - Atlantic Richfield Co., Sohio Alaska Petroleum Co., and Exxon Co - have each constructed 3-dimensional computer models of Prudhoe Bay predicting future reservoir behavior. Also, the State of Alaska has contracted for a similar model to compare with the projections by the companies. The results of these studies (the so-called decline or production curve for the field under various parameters fed into the computer) are not yet available to the general public. Producers at Prudhoe Bay are confident that the reservoir is performing much as they had anticipated when production began in June 1977 and that, with proper management, the long-predicted 40% recovery of original in-place oil in the reservoir can be realized.

  11. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... achievable by project contractors using best available cost-effective technology and best...

  12. 77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... project contractors using best available cost-effective technology and best management practices.''...

  13. Science in an Integrated Primary School Project on Water: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Describes water-related activities in an elementary school science project. These activities focus on electric generators, rainfall, erosion, floating, water conservation, and other areas. Brief comments on developing such a project are included. (JN)

  14. Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

  15. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation. PMID:25024106

  16. Project Zoom IN, Citizen Perspectives on Climate and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Perspective on climate and water resources can come from the top, scientists sharing invaluable data and findings about how climate dynamics function or quantifications of systems in flux. However, citizens are endowed with an equally as powerful tool for insight: ground zero experience. Project Zoom In is a nascent project undertaken by Global Media Forge to empower youth, educators and scientists with tools to reach the media with locale-specific imagery and perspective of climate dynamics and evidence of anecdotal resource management of liquid gold: fresh water. Zoom In is taking root in Colorado but is designed for national/international scaling. This effort has three limbs: (1) student, scientist and educator workshops teaching invaluable video production skills (2) engaging Colorado school systems to stimulate submission of clips to full video productions to our database, and (3) embedding the findings on a taxonomic GIS interface on-line. The website will be invaluable in classrooms and link network media to individuals with firsthand viewpoints on change.; Climate and Water Resources

  17. Injection of Contaminants into a Simulated Water Distribution System Equipped with Continuous Multi-Parameter Water Monitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPAs Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Multi-parameter water monitors for distributions systems have been evaluated as such a water security techn...

  18. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 328.5 Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All... power boats or vessels. (b) Seaplanes on project waters and lands in excess of 24 hours shall...

  19. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 328.5 Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All... power boats or vessels. (b) Seaplanes on project waters and lands in excess of 24 hours shall...

  20. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 328.5 Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All... power boats or vessels. (b) Seaplanes on project waters and lands in excess of 24 hours shall...

  1. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 328.5 Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All... power boats or vessels. (b) Seaplanes on project waters and lands in excess of 24 hours shall...

  2. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  3. Optimal water management and conflict resolution: The Middle East Water Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Franklin M.; Arlosoroff, Shaul; Eckstein, Zvi; Haddadin, Munther; Hamati, Salem G.; Huber-Lee, Annette; Jarrar, Ammar; Jayyousi, Anan; Shamir, Uri; Wesseling, Hans

    2002-11-01

    In many situations, actual water markets will not allocate water resources optimally, largely because of the perceived social value of water. It is possible, however, to build optimizing models which, taking account of demand as well as supply considerations, can substitute for actual markets. Such models can assist the formation of water policies, taking into account user-supplied values and constraints. They provide powerful tools for the system-wide cost-benefit analysis of infrastructure; this is illustrated by an analysis of the need for desalination in Israel and the cost and benefits of adding a conveyance line. Further, the use of such models can facilitate cooperation in water, yielding gains that can be considerably greater than the value of the disputed water itself. This can turn what appear to be zero-sum games into win-win situations. The Middle East Water Project has built such a model for the Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian region. We find that the value of the water in dispute in the region is very small and the possible gains from cooperation are relatively large. Analysis of the scarcity value of water is a crucial feature.

  4. Effects of feed or water restriction, antibiotic injection and receiving diet management on commingled feeder pig performance.

    PubMed

    Brumm, M C; Jesse, G W; Mayes, H F; Clemens, E T

    1989-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of 1) long-acting oxytetracycline injection at market arrival, 2) feed or water access at the auction market and 3) receiving diet management on commingled feeder pig performance. A total of 288 commingled feeder pigs transported over 1,000 km after market management treatments were used in two trials. Pigs given access to feed and water (FW) at the market weighed more (P less than .001) following marketing and transport than pigs given water only (W). Pigs given neither feed nor water (N) were intermediate in arrival weight (19.7, 18.7 and 18.9 kg). There was no effect (P greater than .1) of feed and water offering at the market on final weight (96.6, 95.9 and 96.6 kg), overall average daily gain (.70, .69 and .70 kg/d), overall gain/feed (.31, .31, .32) or percentage death loss (1.0, 2.1 and 4.2%). Injection of long-acting oxytetracycline upon arrival at auction market had no effect (P greater than .1) on pig weight following marketing and transport (19.0 vs 19.2 kg), final weight (96.1 vs 97.0 kg), percentage death loss (3.4 vs 1.4%) or percentage of pigs treated (3.4 vs 4.9%). Compared to providing ad libitum access to feed, restricting feed intake by floor feeding for the first 7 d post-arrival reduced (P less than .01) rate of gain for the first 9 d (-.04 vs. .08 kg/d), but overall there was no effect (P greater than .1) on daily gain (.70 vs .69 kg/d) or gain/feed (.31 vs .31). PMID:2737978

  5. An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

  6. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  7. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  8. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  9. INSTRUMENTATION DESIGN AND INSTALLATION FOR MONITORING AIR INJECTION GROUND WATER REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES. (R825549C050)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  11. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D.; Deo, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

  12. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Project Review Under Section 3.8 of the Compact § 401.36 Water...

  13. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Project Review Under Section 3.8 of the Compact § 401.36 Water...

  14. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Project Review Under Section 3.8 of the Compact § 401.36 Water...

  15. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Project Review Under Section 3.8 of the Compact § 401.36 Water...

  16. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  17. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect

    McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

    2010-06-25

    X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

  18. Cyclophosphamide Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Cytoxan® Injection ... Neosar® Injection ... Cyclophosphamide injection comes as a powder to be added to fluid and injected intravenously (into a vein) by a ... you are feeling during your treatment with cyclophosphamide injection.

  19. Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project

    SciTech Connect

    Field, S. M.

    2007-04-01

    This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

  20. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    .../District managers, biologists, water conservation specialists, engineers, the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, and... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water... ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge Criteria) are now available for...

  1. Simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with direct injection: A green approach.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Marina; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2015-10-30

    This work describes an on-line multi-residue method for simultaneous quantification of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in superficial and wastewater samples. For that, an octyl restricted-access media bovine serum albumin column (RAM-BSA C8) was used for sample clean-up, enrichment and analysis with quantitation carried out by tandem mass spectrometry. For water samples volumes of only 500?L the method provided good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with quantification limits in the order of 20-150ngL(-1). Out of the six fluoroquinolones only ciprofloxacin (195ngL(-1)) and norfloxacin (270ngL(-1)) were quantified in an influent sample of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of So Carlos (SP, Brazil). None were found in the superficial water samples analyzed. The capability of injecting native sample in an automated mode provides high productivity and represents a greener approach in environmental sample analysis. PMID:26427326

  2. Prediction of electron concentration reductions in re-entry flow fields due to electrophilic liquid and water injection.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pergament, H. S.; Mikatarian, R. R.; Kurzius, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of an analytical model which leads to predictions of reductions in electron concentrations in reentry flow fields due to the injection of electrophilic liquids and water. The processes incorporated into the model are: penetration and breakup of the liquid jet, droplet acceleration and vaporization, expansion of the liquid spray due to droplet vaporization, electrophilic vapor diffusion, heterogeneous and homogeneous charged species recombination kinetics and homogeneous electron attachment kinetics. Spray boundary calculations are shown to be in good agreement with photographic observations of water and Freon E-3 sprays in wind tunnel tests of a scale model RAM C-III flight vehicle. Fixed-bias electrostatic probe data taken during the RAM C-III flight are interpreted in terms of effective jet penetration distances - which are shown to be consistent with calculations using the present model.

  3. Design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenic species in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Grady; Fan, Tina K.; Kantor, Melanie; Clark, Keith; Cardenas, Steven; Guillaume, Darrell W.; Khachikian, Crist S.

    2009-01-01

    The design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in natural waters is described. The instrument incorporates solenoid activated self-priming micropumps and electronic switching valves for controlling the fluidics of the system and a miniature charge-coupled device spectrometer operating in a graphical programming environment. The limits of detection were found to be 0.79 and 0.98 ?M for As(III) and As(V), respectively, with linear range of 150 ?M. Spiked ultrapure water samples were analyzed and recoveries were found to be 97%101% for As(III) and 95%99% for As(V), respectively. Future directions in terms of automation, optimization, and field deployment are discussed. PMID:19895074

  4. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring (Project Number: 70179)

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2002-06-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem requiring monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to the analytical laboratory where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector using automated microfluidics for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field analytical chemistry.

  5. Online/offline injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spth, Florian; Metzendorf, Simon; Behrendt, Andreas; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Wagner, Gerd; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2013-11-01

    A compact and rugged distributed feedback (DFB) laser system has been developed as online-offline injection seeder for the laser transmitter of a ground-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (WV DIAL) near 820 nm. The frequency stability of this injection seeder system shows a standard deviation of only 6.3 MHz and a linewidth of less than 4.6 MHz during continuous operation of more than 14 h. These values by far exceed the requirements for WV DIAL. By use of a novel technique based on an electro-optic deflector (EOD), alternating online-offline wavelength switching is achieved for each shot of the seeded laser with 250 Hz with a response time of less than 10 ?s and very low crosstalk between the channels of only 33 dB. As a result, a spectral purity of 99.95% is reached by the WV DIAL transmitter which again fulfills the requirements for WV DIAL measurements with high accuracy. Because moveable parts are not present in the seeding system, this setup is significantly less sensitive to acoustic vibrations and ambient temperature drifts during field experiments than other seeding systems which use external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) and mechanical switches. By our new seeding system not only the requirements for ground-based water-vapor DIAL are met but also for space-borne WV DIAL applications that pose even higher demands to the frequency stability and spectral purity of the laser transmitters.

  6. Water, water everywhere - and not a drop to spare. [HUD-sponsored conservation project at NBS

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, M.

    1980-07-01

    Researchers at the National Bureau of Standards Center for Building Technology (NBC/CBT) are conducting a water-conservation research program under the sponsorship of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). In the words of Dr. Lawrence Galowin, a senior mechanical engineer at NBS/CBT, the program aims to develop test data and provide engineering-design methods and laboratory-based evaluation criteria which can be introduced into the building standards and codes system to encourage water-conserving technologies that will perform reliably and effectively for the consumer. Dr. Stephen F. Weber, an economist with NBS/CBT, is working on a method for selecting the most-economical and effective combination of water-conserving options open to the consumer. There is no single recommended combination of water-saving devices which would be economical all across the country, mostly because of diverse water rates, says Weber. As a first step, he has been reviewing 700 water rate schedules supplied by the American Water Works Association. Although still in the early stages of the project, Weber says, one thing which seems clear is that anytime you will have energy savings associated with a reduction in water use, the money you save on energy can equal the savings on your water bill. Both benefits reinforce each other as rewards for conservation. However, they make analysis of benefits more difficult. As a result, coming up with a definitive method for selecting cost-effective water-conservation alternatives will aid consumers and community water planners.

  7. Comprehensive assessment of projected changes in water availability and aridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2015-04-01

    Substantial changes in the hydrological cycle are projected for the 21st century, with potential major impacts, particularly at regional scale. However, the projections are subject to major uncertainties and the metrics generally used to assess such changes do not fully account for the hydroclimatological characteristics of the land surface. In this context, the 'dry gets drier, wet gets wetter' paradigm is often used as a simplifying summary. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of the paradigm both for observations (Greve et al., 2014) and projections (Roderick et al., 2014), especially casting doubt on applying the widely used P-E (precipitation - evapotranspiration) metric over global land surfaces. Here we show in a comprehensive assessment that projected changes in mean annual P-E are generally not significant in most land areas, with the exception of the northern high latitudes where significant changes towards wetter conditions are found. We further show that the combination of decreasing P and increasing atmospheric demand (potential evapotranspiration, Ep) leads to a significant increase in aridity in many subtropical and neighbouring regions, thus confirming the paradigm for some dry regions, but invalidating it for the relative large fraction of the affected area which is currently in a humid or transitional climate regime. Combining both metrics (P-E and P-E_p) we conclude that the 'dry gets drier, wet gets wetter' paradigm is generally not confirmed for projected changes in most land areas (despite notable exceptions in the high latitudes and subtropics), because of a lack of robustness of the projected changes in some regions (tropics) and because humid to transitional regions are shifting to drier conditions, i.e. not following the paradigm. References Greve, P., Orlowsky, B., Mueller, B., Sheffield, J., Reichstein, M., & Seneviratne, S. I. Global assessment of trends in wetting and drying over land. Nature Geosci. 7, 716-721 (2014). Roderick, M. L., Sun, F., Lim, W. H. & Farquhar, G. D. A general framework for understanding the response of the water cycle to global warming over land and ocean. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 18, 1575-1589 (2014).

  8. Improving oxygen conditions in the deeper parts of bornholm sea by pumped injection of winter water.

    PubMed

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Kaln, Ola

    2013-09-01

    Vertical diffusivity and oxygen consumption in the basin water, the water below the sill level at about 59m depth, have been estimated by applying budget methods to monitoring data from hydrographical stations BY4 and BY5 for periods without water renewal. From the vertical diffusivity, the mean rate of work against the buoyancy forces below 65m depth is estimated to about 0.10mWm(-2). This is slightly higher than published values for East Gotland Sea. The horizontally averaged vertical diffusivity ? can be approximated by the expression ?=a 0 N (-1) where N is the buoyancy frequency and a 0?1.25נ10(-7)m(2)s(-2), which is similar to values for a 0 used for depths below the halocline in Baltic proper circulation models for long-term simulations. The contemporary mean rate of oxygen consumption in the basin water is about 75g O2m(-2)year(-1), which corresponds to an oxidation of 28gCm(-2)year(-1). The oxygen consumption in the Bornholm Basin doubled from the 1970s to the 2000s, which qualitatively explains the observed increasing frequency and vertical extent of anoxia and hypoxia in the basin water in records from the end of the 1950s to present time. A horizontally averaged vertical advection-diffusion model of the basin water is used to calculate the effects on stratification and oxygen concentration by a forced pump-driven vertical convection. It is shown that the residence time of the basin water may be reduced by pumping down and mixing the so-called winter water into the deepwater. With the present rate of oxygen consumption, a pumped flux of about 25km(3)year(-1) would be sufficient to keep the oxygen concentration in the deepwater above 2mLO2L(-1). PMID:23161366

  9. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Soni, Love Kumar; Maheshwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug), by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant) of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide); water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000); and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600). Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends) ranged from 9.091 0.011?mg/ml43.055 0.14?mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 0.012?mg/ml). The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol) was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555989

  10. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Soni, Love Kumar; Maheshwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug), by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant) of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide); water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000); and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600). Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends) ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml-43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml). The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol) was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555989

  11. Effect of air injection under subsurface drip irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of corn in a sandy clay loam soil

    PubMed Central

    Abuarab, Mohamed; Mostafa, Ehab; Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) can substantially reduce the amount of irrigation water needed for corn production. However, corn yields need to be improved to offset the initial cost of drip installation. Air-injection is at least potentially applicable to the (SDI) system. However, the vertical stream of emitted air moving above the emitter outlet directly toward the surface creates a chimney effect, which should be avoided, and to ensure that there are adequate oxygen for root respiration. A field study was conducted in 2010 and 2011, to evaluate the effect of air-injection into the irrigation stream in SDI on the performance of corn. Experimental treatments were drip irrigation (DI), SDI, and SDI with air injection. The leaf area per plant with air injected was 1.477 and 1.0045 times greater in the aerated treatment than in DI and SDI, respectively. Grain filling was faster, and terminated earlier under air-injected drip system, than in DI. Root distribution, stem diameter, plant height and number of grains per plant were noticed to be higher under air injection than DI and SDI. Air injection had the highest water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in both growing seasons; with values of 1.442 and 1.096 in 2010 and 1.463 and 1.112 in 2011 for WUE and IWUE respectively. In comparison with DI and SDI, the air injection treatment achieved a significantly higher productivity through the two seasons. Yield increases due to air injection were 37.78% and 12.27% greater in 2010 and 38.46% and 12.5% in 2011 compared to the DI and SDI treatments, respectively. Data from this study indicate that corn yield can be improved under SDI if the drip water is aerated. PMID:25685457

  12. Effect of air injection under subsurface drip irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of corn in a sandy clay loam soil.

    PubMed

    Abuarab, Mohamed; Mostafa, Ehab; Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) can substantially reduce the amount of irrigation water needed for corn production. However, corn yields need to be improved to offset the initial cost of drip installation. Air-injection is at least potentially applicable to the (SDI) system. However, the vertical stream of emitted air moving above the emitter outlet directly toward the surface creates a chimney effect, which should be avoided, and to ensure that there are adequate oxygen for root respiration. A field study was conducted in 2010 and 2011, to evaluate the effect of air-injection into the irrigation stream in SDI on the performance of corn. Experimental treatments were drip irrigation (DI), SDI, and SDI with air injection. The leaf area per plant with air injected was 1.477 and 1.0045 times greater in the aerated treatment than in DI and SDI, respectively. Grain filling was faster, and terminated earlier under air-injected drip system, than in DI. Root distribution, stem diameter, plant height and number of grains per plant were noticed to be higher under air injection than DI and SDI. Air injection had the highest water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) in both growing seasons; with values of 1.442 and 1.096 in 2010 and 1.463 and 1.112 in 2011 for WUE and IWUE respectively. In comparison with DI and SDI, the air injection treatment achieved a significantly higher productivity through the two seasons. Yield increases due to air injection were 37.78% and 12.27% greater in 2010 and 38.46% and 12.5% in 2011 compared to the DI and SDI treatments, respectively. Data from this study indicate that corn yield can be improved under SDI if the drip water is aerated. PMID:25685457

  13. Effect of ECC Injection Angle on the Flow Distribution in a Downcomer Annulus During LBLOCA Reflood Phase in the Air-Water Test

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, T.S.; Yun, B.J.; Song, C.H.; Choi, K.Y.; Cho, H.K.

    2002-07-01

    The comparison tests for the direct ECC bypass fraction were experimentally performed with a typical DVI nozzle and an ECC column nozzle having injection angle to the gravity axis. The ECC column nozzle is newly introduced to make an ECC water column in the downcomer region. The injection angle of the ECC water relative to the gravity axis is varied from 0 to {+-} 90 degrees stepped by 45 degrees. The tests are performed in the air-water separate effect test facility (DIVA), which is 1/7.07 linearly scaled-down of the APR1400 nuclear reactor. The test results show that the direct ECC bypass fraction is affected by the ECC injection angle when the ECC water is injected using an ECC column nozzle as a single water column. The injection angle of an ECC water column relative to the circumferential air jet in the DVI system affects the direct ECC bypass fraction during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA. (authors)

  14. The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-05-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are toprovide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.). *The NEWSE Team is: Romanou, Anastasiam, Columbia U.; Brian Soden, U. Miami; William Lapenta, NASA- MSFC; Megan Larko, CREW; Bing Lin, NASA-LaRC; Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA-GSFC; Xiquan Dong, U. North Dakota; Debbie Belvedere, CREW; Mathew Sapiano, U. Maryland; Duane Waliser, NASA-JPL; Eni Njoku, NASA/JPL; Eric Fetzer, NASA-JPL; Eyal Amitai, NASA-GSFC; Xiaogang Gao, U. California, Irvine; George Huffman, NASA-GSFC & SSAI; Jared Entin, NASA; Joseph Santanello, NASA-GSFC; John Roads, UCSD; W. Timothy Liu, NASA-JPL; Lixin Lu, Colorado State U.; Zhengzhao Luo, Colorado State U.; Michael Bosilovich, NASA-GSFC; Michael Jasinski, NASA-GSFC; William Olson, NASA-GSFC & UMBC-GEST; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Phil Arkin, U. Maryland; Paul Houser, CREW & GMU; Ralph Ferraro, NOAA; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Robert Schiffer; UMBC-GEST; Sujay Kumar, NASA-GSFC; Joseph A. Santanello, NASA-GSFC; Tristan L'Ecuyer, Colorado State U.; Wei-Kuo Tao; NASA-GSFC; Xia Feng; George Mason U.

  15. Detection of s-triazine pesticides in natural waters by modified large-volume direct injection HPLC.

    PubMed

    Beale, David J; Kaserzon, Sarit L; Porter, Nichola A; Roddick, Felicity A; Carpenter, Peter D

    2010-07-15

    There is a need for simple and inexpensive methods to quantify potentially harmful persistent pesticides often found in our water-ways and water distribution systems. This paper presents a simple, relatively inexpensive method for the detection of a group of commonly used pesticides (atrazine, simazine and hexazinone) in natural waters using large-volume direct injection high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) utilizing a monolithic column and a single wavelength ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) detector. The best results for this system were obtained with a mobile phase made up of acetonitrile and water in a 30:70 ratio, a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), and a detector wavelength of 230 nm. Using this method, we achieved retention times of less than three minutes, and detection limits of 5.7 microg L(-1) for atrazine, 4.7 microg L(-1) for simazine and 4.0 microg L(-1) for hexazinone. The performance of this method was validated with an inter-laboratory trial against a National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) accredited liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method commonly used in commercial laboratories. PMID:20602952

  16. Effect of nitrate injection on the bacterial community in a water-oil tank system analyzed by PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; von der Weid, Irene; Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mnica; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-04-01

    Sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a major concern for the petroleum industry since it is toxic and corrosive, and causes plugging due to the formation of insoluble iron sulfides (reservoir souring). In this study, PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) using two sets of primers based on the 16S rRNA gene and on the aps gene (adenosine-5-phosphosulfate reductase) was used to track changes in the total bacterial and SRB communities, respectively, present in the water-oil tank system on an offshore platform in Brazil in which nitrate treatment was applied for 2 months (15 nitrate injections). PCR-DGGE analysis of the total bacterial community showed the existence of a dominant population in the water-oil tank, and that the appearance and/or the increase of intensity of some bands in the gels were not permanently affected by the introduction of nitrate. On the other hand, the SRB community was stimulated following nitrate treatment. Moreover, sulfide production did not exceed the permissible exposure limit in the water-oil separation tank studied treated with nitrate. Therefore, controlling sulfide production by treating the produced water tank with nitrate could reduce the quantity of chemical biocides required to control microbial activities. PMID:18180965

  17. Blast furnace coal injection: Engineering aspects of PCI systems, North American market, project overview -- Edison Energy/Great Lakes Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Nolde, H.D.; Wagner, E.D.

    1996-12-31

    The authors give background on the coal injection market for North America outlining the number of furnaces which are currently utilizing coal injection and those planning to implement facilities in the near term. The current highly developed state of coal injection technology emphasizes the reliable economic benefits which can be obtained from the leading technology and system vendors. Key elements for providing successful coal grinding and coal injection technology are: Safe, reliable preparation of coal at constant moisture content; consistent and controllable injection rates; minimum consumption of utility gases and electrical power; reliable long-term operation; minimum and scheduled maintenance; and low labor requirements for maintenance. In today`s operating environment, unless a system fulfills the above requirements, it has very little chance of successful commercial application in the steel industry. Various PCI systems are commercially available. Within this arena, the Dense Phase system has been very successfully received and commands a 65 percent share of the world market.

  18. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Medroxyprogesterone intramuscular (into a muscle) injection and medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous (under the skin) injection are used to prevent pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis ( ...

  19. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cui, J Z; Geng, Z S; Zhang, Y H; Feng, J Y; Zhu, P; Zhang, X B

    2016-03-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  20. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cui, J.Z.; Geng, Z.S.; Zhang, Y.H.; Feng, J.Y.; Zhu, P.; Zhang, X.B.

    2016-01-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  1. 43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Water use for other than Newlands Project... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management 418.25 Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes....

  2. 43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water use for other than Newlands Project... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management 418.25 Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes....

  3. 43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water use for other than Newlands Project... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management 418.25 Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes....

  4. 43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water use for other than Newlands Project... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management 418.25 Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes....

  5. Ground water in the North Side Pumping Division, Minidoka Project, Minidoka County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, Emerson G.; Scott, R.C.

    1956-01-01

    nearby is being developed by private capital. Completion of the Federal reclamation project will more than double the irrigated acreage in the North Side Division of the Minidoka Project. The area to be irrigated with ground water is at the south-central edge of the Snake River Plain adjacent to project lands that have been irrigated for many years with Snake River water.

  6. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How Project water may be used. 418.2 Section 418.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may...

  7. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How Project water may be used. 418.2 Section 418.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may...

  8. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How Project water may be used. 418.2 Section 418.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may...

  9. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  10. Give Water a Hand. Home Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  11. Give Water a Hand. School Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  12. Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  13. The Global Water System Project: Integrative Studies of the Water Cycle (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Lettenmaier, D.; Naiman, R.; Lawford, R.

    2004-05-01

    The water cycle figures prominently in the study of global change. In addition to greenhouse warming and concerns about an accelerated hydrologic cycle, several other anthropogenic factors interact with the water system to produce potentially global-scale effects. Prominent among these are widespread land cover change, urbanization, reservoir construction, irrigated agriculture, destruction of aquatic habitat, and pollution. A rich history of research at the local scale demonstrates the clear impact of such factors on the environment. Evidence now shows that humans are rapidly embedding themselves in the basic character of the water cycle over much broader domains. The collective significance of such a transformation of a basic element of the Earth system remains fundamentally unknown. This presentation summarizes a new project launched as part of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) of the Global Environmental Change Programs (Diversitas, IGBP, IHDP, WCRP) that will study these water cycle changes. The aim of the GWSP is to catalyze our understanding of the dynamics of water in the Earth system, the unique role that humans play in the hydrologic cycle and reciprocal interactions between the biogeophysical and human components of the coupled system. A major emphasis will be on interactions, feedbacks, and thresholds, necessitating a balanced consideration of all factors at play-- physical, chemical, biological, and societal. The GWSP is the product of contributions made by a broad cross-section of the water science and assessment community, with more than 150 contributors to a series of planning meetings, science scoping documents, and a recent Open Science Conference (October 2003; Portsmouth, NH). This paper reviews the scientific rationale for the initiative, presents the Project's key science questions, and describes the emerging agenda for study. Contributions from the North American science community will be reviewed.

  14. Water injection scheme in E2. 0 sand of Nigerian Kolo Creek field - optimization through geological modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Osai, L.N.

    1983-03-01

    The Kolo Creek field is a 5 x 10 km size, faulted, rollover structure with the E2.0 reservoir as the main oil-bearing sand. The reservoir is a 200-ft thick, complex, deltaic sandstone package with a 1.9-tcf size gas cap underlain by a 200-ft thick oil rim containing ca 440 x 106 bbl STOIIP. The sand is penetrated by 34 wells, 25 of which are completed as producers. To date a 16% drop in pressure has occurred. A reservoir engineering study, based on the early pressure decline, led to the implementation of water injection scheme. Immediately prior to the initial phase of the scheme, cores were taken in 2 wells. These cores, side wall samples from other wells, and the detailed correlation made possible by a denser well pattern have resulted in a realistic geologic model. This model will influence the optimal location of future injection and production wells based on the structural and sedimentologic characteristics of the reservoir

  15. Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota--Analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degrees Celsius) in the Franconia-Ironton Galesville aquifer (183 to 245 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. The University's steam-generation facilities supplied high-temperature water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection-withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through the other well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection and withdrawal ranging from 5.25 to 8.01 days. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.4 to 18.6 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Average injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. Temperature graphs for selected depths at individual observation wells indicate that the Ironton and Galesville Sandstones received and stored more thermal energy than the upper part of the Franconia Formation. Clogging of the Ironton Sandstone was possibly due to precipitation of calcium carbonate or movement of fine-grain material or both. Vertical-profile plots indicate that the effects of buoyancy flow were small within the aquifer. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, ground-water-flow, and thermal-energy-transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The model was used to simulate the entire short-term testing period of approximately 400 days. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities, which, for final calibration, were simulated as 3.3 and 0.33 meters, respectively. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to (1) measured temperatures at selected altitudes in four observation wells, (2) measured temperatures at the production well, and (3) calculated thermal efficiencies of the aquifer. Model-computed withdrawal-water temperatures were within an average of about 3 percent of measured values and model-computed aquifer-thermal efficiencies were within an average of about 5 percent of calculated values for the short-term test cycles. These data indicate that the model accurately simulated thermal-energy storage within the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer.

  16. Characterization of Solids Collected from H-Area Injection Wells and Injection Tank Chemistry from both F- and H-Area Water Treatment Units (WTUs)

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-04-15

    This study suggests that a strong poitential exists for both chemical and biological fouling of the injection wells at the F- and H Area remediation systems. To further the potential, an evaluation of WTU process chemistry, characterization of the natural groundwater geochemistry, and analysis of microbiological activity should be performed. This report summarizes the results.

  17. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Sims, State... comments by NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State...

  18. Norway's historical and projected water balance in TWh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Holmqvist, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Hydroelectric power production is closely linked to the water cycle, and variations in power production numbers reflect variations in weather. The expected climate changes will influence electricity supply through changes in annual and seasonal inflow of water to hydropower reservoirs. In Norway, more than 95 percent of the electricity production is from hydroelectric plants, and industry linked to hydropower has been an important part of the society for more than a century. Reliable information on historical and future available water resources is hence of crucial importance both for short and long-term planning and adaptation purposes in the hydropower sector. Traditionally, the Multi-area Power-market Simulator (EMPS) is used for modelling hydropower production in Norway. However, due to the models' high level of details and computational demand, this model is only used for historical analyses and a limited number of climate projections. A method has been developed that transfers water fluxes (mm day-1) and states (mm) into energy units (GWh mm-1), based on hydrological modelling of a limited number of catchments representing reservoir inflow to more than 700 hydropower plants in Norway. The advantages of using the conversion factor method, compared to EMPS, are its simplicity and low computational requirements. The main disadvantages are that it does not take into account flood losses and the time lag between inflow and power production. The method is used operationally for weekly and seasonal energy forecasts, and has proven successful at the range of results obtained for reproducing historical hydropower production numbers. In hydropower energy units, mean annual precipitation for the period 1981-2010 is estimated at 154 TWh year-1. On average, 24 TWh year-1 is lost through evapotranspiration, meaning runoff equals 130 TWh year-1. There are large interannual variations, and runoff available for power production ranges from 91 to 165 TWh year-1. The snow pack on average peaks in the middle of April at 54 TWh, ranging from 33 to 84 TWh. Given its simplicity, the method of using conversion factors is a time and computational efficient way of producing projections of hydropower production potential from an ensemble of climate model simulations. Regional climate model (RCM) projections are obtained from Euro-Cordex, and precipitation and temperature are bias corrected to observation based datasets at 1 km2. Preliminary results, based on an ensemble consisting of 16 members (8 RCMs, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and transient hydrological simulations for the period 1981-2100, indicate an increase in hydroelectric power production of up to 10 percent by the end of the century, given the effect of climate change alone. The expected increase in temperature causes a negative trend for the energy potential stored in the annual maximum snow pack. At the end of the century (2071-2100), the maximum snow pack holds 43 TWh and 30 TWh for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, compared to 54 TWh in 1981-2010. The substantial decrease in the peak snow pack is reflected in the seasonally more even inflow to reservoirs expected in the next decades.

  19. Corrosion of low carbon steel by microorganisms from the 'pigging' operation debris in water injection pipelines.

    PubMed

    Cote, Claudia; Rosas, Omar; Sztyler, Magdalena; Doma, Jemimah; Beech, Iwona; Basseguy, Rgine

    2014-06-01

    Present in all environments, microorganisms develop biofilms adjacent to the metallic structures creating corrosion conditions which may cause production failures that are of great economic impact to the industry. The most common practice in the oil and gas industry to annihilate these biofilms is the mechanical cleaning known as "pigging". In the present work, microorganisms from the "pigging" operation debris are tested biologically and electrochemically to analyse their effect on the corrosion of carbon steel. Results in the presence of bacteria display the formation of black corrosion products allegedly FeS and a sudden increase (more than 400mV) of the corrosion potential of electrode immersed in artificial seawater or in field water (produced water mixed with aquifer seawater). Impedance tests provided information about the mechanisms of the interface carbon steel/bacteria depending on the medium used: mass transfer limitation in artificial seawater was observed whereas that in field water was only charge transfer phenomenon. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results proved that bacterial diversity decreased when cultivating the debris in the media used and suggested that the bacteria involved in the whole set of results are mainly sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and some other bacteria that make part of the taxonomic order Clostridiales. PMID:24355513

  20. The effect of seasonal changes on the selection of biocide inhibitors for Arabian Gulf seawater for water injection purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Al-Muhanna, K.; Al-Bazzaz, W.

    1997-08-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the most effective biocide inhibitor for Northern Arabian Gulf Seawater. This seawater will be used for water injection purposes for some oil fields in Kuwait. Arabian Gulf Seawater is known to be very saline during the summer months and less saline during the rainy season of spring. The biocide inhibitors were tested in a rig with six side streams biofouling monitoring tubes (SBMT). Bacterial nutrients were added to the system and carbon steel studs were placed along the tubes of the biocide evaluation test rig (BETR). After a month, a thin, slimy, and black deposit was formed on the carbon steel studs. The deposit contained 107 general aerobic bacteria (GAB), 107 general anaerobic bacteria (GAnB) and 105 sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The most effective biocide inhibitor was found to be a fatty amine aryl quaternary inhibitor at 50% dosage.

  1. Iron speciation in natural waters by sequential injection analysis with a hexadentate 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelator as chromogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Joana L A; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Nunes, Ana; Rangel, Maria; Rangel, António O S S

    2016-02-01

    A sequential injection method for iron speciation in various types of natural waters was developed using a synthesised hexadentate 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelator (CP256). The denticity of the ligand that allow formation of the corresponding iron(III) complex in a 1:1 stoichiometry proved to be highly advantageous, in comparison with parent bidentate, hydroxy-4-piridinone chelators, with a two fold increase of reaction sensitivity and over 65% decrease of the LOD. A solid phase extraction approach was employed to attain matrix elimination, facilitating iron(III) determination and application to high salinity waters. The combination with the total iron determination obtained by the direct reaction of the ligand resulted in iron speciation. Two detection spectrophotometric cells were tested, a conventional flow cell (CFC) and a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The dynamic concentration ranges were 0.1-2mg/L with the CFC detection and 0.005-0.1mg/L with the LWCC, with limit of detection of 30µg/L and 6µg/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to a variety of natural waters. PMID:26653494

  2. Feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    A system which would allow a substantially increased output from a turboshaft engine for brief periods in emergency situations with little or no loss of turbine stress rupture life is proposed and studied analytically. The increased engine output is obtained by overtemperaturing the turbine; however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water. This decrease in cooling air temperature can offset the effect of increased gas temperature and increased shaft speed and thus keep turbine blade stress rupture life constant. The analysis utilized the NASA-Navy-Engine-Program or NNEP computer code to model the turboshaft engine in both design and off-design modes. This report is concerned with the effect of the proposed method of power augmentation on the engine cycle and turbine components. A simple cycle turboshaft engine with a 16:1 pressure ratio and a 1533 K (2760 R) turbine inlet temperature operating at sea level static conditions was studied to determine the possible power increase and the effect on turbine stress rupture life that could be expected using the proposed emergency cooling scheme. The analysis showed a 54 percent increse in output power can be achieved with no loss in gas generator turbine stress rupture life. A 231 K (415 F) rise in turbine inlet temperature is required for this level of augmentation. The required water flow rate was found to be .0109 kg water per kg of engine air flow.

  3. Water assessment report: Section 13 (c); Great Plains gasification project, Mercer County, ND

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The Water Resources Council is completing a water assessment of synfuels development in the Upper Missouri River Basin. This is being done under Section 13(a) of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act. The assessment area includes the coal deposits in the Mercer County project site. Levels of North Dakota coal gasification development that are several times the production level of the Great Plains gasification project are being examined. This report assesses: (1) the availability of adequate water supplies to meet the water requirements of the project, supporting activities, and other development induced by the project; and (2) the changes in the water resources that will result from the project. Findings of the 13(a) assessment show that water supplies are physically available within the mainstem of the Missouri River in North Dakota to supply the requirements of the gasification facilities and the supporting activities - mining and reclamation, electricity, and project-induced population increases.

  4. 75 FR 71177 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... notice lists the projects, described ] below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of...

  5. US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action ground water Project. Revision 1, Version 1: Final project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-21

    The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy requirements of the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1988). This scope of work will entail the following activities, on a site-specific basis: Development of a compliance strategy based upon modification of the UMTRA Surface Project remedial action plans (RAP) or development of Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC and state or tribal concurrence on the RAP; implementation of the RAP to include establishment of institutional controls, where appropriate; institution of long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate DOE program on or before the Project end date; and preparation of completion reports and final licensing on those sites that will be completed prior to the Project end date.

  6. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration, operation, monitoring, and proper abandonment will be presented. - Which critical parameters can be monitored? The chances and limitation of different monitoring technologies will be discoursed for a storage site. - How can public involvement reduce risks? This will be shown for hydraulic fracturing operations. - How can geotechnical operation reduce the risk for the groundwater and environment? Some examples will be given to show, that geotechnical operations have the inherent capability to enhance the security of our drinking water. The presentation will discuss how the use of underlying physical and chemical principles can significantly reduce geotechnical risks during fluid injection.

  7. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  8. Experimental evaluation of in situ CO2-water-rock reactions during CO2 injection in basaltic rocks: Implications for geological CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Juerg M.; Takahashi, Taro; Goldberg, David

    2007-02-01

    Deep aquifers are potential long-term storage sites for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The retention time and environmental safety of the injected CO2 depend on geologic and physical factors and on the chemical reactions between the CO2, the aquifer water, and the host rocks. The pH buffer capacity of the aquifer water and the acid neutralization potential of the host rocks are important factors for the permanent stabilization of the injected CO2. Mafic rocks, such as basalt, which primarily consists of Ca, Mg silicate minerals, have a high acid neutralization capacity by providing alkaline earth elements that form stable carbonate minerals. The carbonate minerals formed thus sequester CO2 in a chemically stable and environmentally benign form. In this study, we present results from a small-scale CO2 injection test in mafic and metasedimentary rocks. The injection test was conducted using a single-well push-pull test strategy. CO2 saturated water (pH = 3.5) was injected into a hydraulically isolated and permeable aquifer interval to study the acid neutralization capacity of Ca, Mg silicate rocks and to estimate in situ cation release rates. Release rates for Ca, Mg, and Na were calculated by use of solute compositions of water samples retrieved after the CO2 injection, the incubation time of the injected solution within the aquifer, and geometric estimates of the reactive surface area of the host rocks. Our results confirm rapid acid neutralization rates and water-rock reactions sufficient for safe and permanent storage of CO2. Carbonic acid was neutralized within hours of injection into a permeable mafic aquifer by two processes: mixing between the injected solution and the aquifer water, and water-rock reactions. Calculated cation release rates decrease with increasing pH that is confirmed by laboratory-based experiments. Large differences between release rates obtained from the field and laboratory experiments may be mainly due to uncertainties in the estimation of the reactive surface area in the field experiment and in hydrological and geological factors. Our results underscore the importance of defining bulk rock dissolution rates under in situ conditions in order to evaluate target formations for permanent mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide.

  9. The determination of trace lead in drinking water by flow injection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shijun; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Yang, Yujie

    2010-01-01

    Lead is the non-essential trace element in the human body, and it has been confirmed that drinking water is one of the sources of lead in human body. In the research, based on the sensitive colour reaction of lead with I --EV +-PVA, a simple, sensitive, accurate and portable method for the determination of trace lead in drinking waters was proposed. Chemicals and physicals had been optimized in detail. The apparent molar absorption coefficient was up to 7.4 10 5 mol L -1 cm -1. The developed method provided a linearity range over 5-80 ?g L -1. The regression deviation was between 0.71% and 2.33%. The 3 ? detection limit was 0.9 ?g L -1. Close to the quantitation limit for the analyte the relative standard deviation was 1.10% ( n = 10) at 40 ?g L -1. The method developed here for analysis of lead yielded results that were comparable with those of the GFAAS.

  10. A model of reaction field in gas-injected arc-in-water method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns: Influence of water temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Poonjarernsilp, Chantamanee; Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2009-11-15

    The method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) using gas-injected arc in water (GI-AIW) has been experimentally studied. GI-AIW is known as one of the cost-effective methods to obtain SWCNHs. It was revealed that the yield of SWCNHs significantly decreases with the increase in water temperature although the purity of SWCNHs is not dependent on the temperature change. Then the model of relevant reactions in the GI-AIW system was proposed by accounting the emission of carbon vapor, formation of SWCNHs, and diffusion of water vapor in three zones inside the cathode hole (arc plasma zone, quenching zone, and downstream zone). The side reaction between H{sub 2}O and C produces H{sub 2} gas and consumes a certain amount of carbon vapor, resulting in the hindered SWCNH formation. Moreover the observation of the optical spectra emitting from the arc plasma zone strongly supported that the H{sub 2} generating reaction does not occur at arc plasma zone since N{sub 2} flow can purge H{sub 2}O out. The model proposed in this study can precisely explain the correlation between H{sub 2} gas production and water temperature.

  11. Spray tip penetration and cone angles for coal-water slurry using a modified medium-speed diesel engine injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.a.; Seshadri, A.K.; Kihm, K.D.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a medium-speed diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, instantaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a correlations using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base case conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For the cases studied, the time-averaged cone angles ranged between 10.2 and 17.0{degree}.

  12. Injection of treated wastewater for ground-water recharge in the Palo Alto Baylands, California, hydraulic and chemical interactions; preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    An injection-extraction well network in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Francisco Bay, California, was designed to flush the shallow aquifer system of saline water and prevent further inland saline contamination. Clogging processes and solution migration in the vicinity of one injection well were studied. Cyclic evaporative concentration of bay water and infiltration have generated a concentrated ground-water brine. Montmorillonite and illite are the primary clay minerals present in the shallow aquifer system. X-ray diffraction analysis of these clays showed a marked increase in the d-spacing of the crystal lattice when native hypersaline pure water was replaced by injection water. Chloride:magnesium and chloride:potassium ratios in the aquifer system changed during injection, most likely due to ionic exchange reaction. Similar variations in chloride:boron, chloride:iron, and chloride:manganese ratios probably resulted from reduction-oxidation reactions. Ground-water quality appears to have been chiefly affected by the processes of dilution and dispersion. Extraction pump test data yielded a transmissivity value of 960 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0005. Vertical permeability of the upper confining layer is 0.08 feet per day. (USGS)

  13. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Alexoff, David

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  14. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  15. Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

  16. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  17. A multisyringe sequential injection method for monitoring water in the energy cogeneration system of a municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    de Mirab, F M Bauz; Forteza, R; Cerd, V

    2009-09-15

    Leading-edge urban solid waste ashing plants use burning heat energy to obtain electrical power. Water fed to their boilers for conversion into steam should be highly pure in order to minimize corrosion, scaling and similar phenomena, which can lead to malfunctioning and a reduced useful life but can be avoided by proper management and control of the water supply. In this work, we developed a multiparameter monitor based on multisyringe sequential injection for the sequential determination of up to eight important parameters, namely: pH, specific and acid conductivity, hydrazine, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and total iron. Acid conductivity was determined by passing the sample through a cation-exchange resin in order to retain ammonium ion and release protons. This parameter was deemed the most accurate indicator of dissolved solids in boiler water. Chemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically: hydrazine by reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, ammonium by the modified Berthelot reaction, iron with o-phenanthroline, and phosphate and silica by formation of a molybdoheteropoly blue dye in the presence of ascorbic acid as reductant. Use of the optimum chemical and physical operating conditions provided 3s(blank) detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) N(2)H(4), 0.13 mg l(-1) NH(4)(+), 0.04 mg l(-1) Fe, 0.03 mg l(-1) SiO2 and 0.05 mg l(-1) PO(4)(3-), and relative standard deviations not greater than 2.5%. The methods integrated in the proposed monitor were successfully applied to real samples from the water-steam cycle at the Son Reus ashing plant in Palma de Mallorca (Spain). PMID:19615501

  18. ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY - RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WSWRD, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory (IHL) is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes.Recent research projects undertaken by IHL include (1) Climate ...

  19. 75 FR 15453 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Repayment Contract. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation will be initiating negotiations with the Westlands Water District...

  20. Investigation of the probability of concurrent drought events between the water source and destination regions of China's water diversion project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomang; Luo, Yuzhou; Yang, Tiantian; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Minghua; Liu, Changming

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the concurrent drought probability between the water source and destination regions of the central route of China's South to North Water Diversion Project. We find that both regions have been drying from 1960 to 2013. The estimated return period of concurrent drought events in both regions is 11 years. However, since 1997, these regions have experienced 5 years of simultaneous drought. The projection results of global climate models show that the probability of concurrent drought events is highly likely to increase during 2020 to 2050. The increasing concurrent drought events will challenge the success of the water diversion project, which is a strategic attempt to resolve the water crisis of North China Plain. The data suggest great urgency in preparing adaptive measures to ensure the long-term sustainable operation of the water diversion project.

  1. Application of Prussian Blue electrodes for amperometric detection of free chlorine in water samples using Flow Injection Analysis.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Pedro; Martn, Miriam; Gonzlez-Mora, Jos Luis; Gonzlez-Elipe, Agustn R

    2016-01-01

    The performance for free chlorine detection of surfactant-modified Prussian Blue screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs/PB-BZT) have been assessed by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. The characterization of SPCEs/PB-BZT by X-ray photoemission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies confirmed the correct electrodeposition of the surfactant-modified PB film. These electrodes were incorporated in a Flow Injection device and the optimal working conditions determined as a function of experimental variables such as detection potential, electrolyte concentration or flow-rate. The sensor presented a linear response in the range 0-3ppm free chlorine, with a sensitivity of 16.2?Appm(-1)cm(-2). The limit of detection (LOD) (S/N=3.3) and the limit of quantification (S/N=10) amounted to 8.25 and 24.6ppb, respectively, adequate for controlling tap and drinking waters. To demonstrate the feasibility of using this free chlorine sensor for real applications possible interferences such as nitrate, nitrite and sulfate ions were successfully tested and discarded. Real free chlorine analysis was carried out in spiked tap water samples and commercial bleaches. PMID:26695283

  2. Modeling of heavy nitrate corrosion in anaerobe aquifer injection water biofilm: a case study in a flow rig.

    PubMed

    Drnen, Karine; Roalkvam, Irene; Beeder, Janiche; Torsvik, Terje; Steen, Ida H; Skauge, Arne; Liengen, Turid

    2014-01-01

    Heavy carbon steel corrosion developed during nitrate mitigation of a flow rig connected to a water injection pipeline flowing anaerobe saline aquifer water. Genera-specific QPCR primers quantified 74% of the microbial biofilm community, and further 87% of the community of the nonamended parallel rig. The nonamended biofilm hosted 6.3 10(6) SRB cells/cm(2) and the S(35)-sulfate-reduction rate was 1.1 ?mol SO4(2-)/cm(2)/day, being congruent with the estimated SRB biomass formation and the sulfate areal flux. Nitrate amendment caused an 18-fold smaller SRB population, but up to 44 times higher sulfate reduction rates. This H2S formation was insufficient to form the observed Fe3S4 layer. Additional H2S was provided by microbial disproportionation of sulfur, also explaining the increased accessibility of sulfate. The reduced nitrate specie nitrite inhibited the dominating H2-scavenging Desulfovibrio population, and sustained the formation of polysulfide and Fe3S4, herby also dissolved sulfur. This terminated the availability of acetate in the inner biofilm and caused cell starvation that initiated growth upon metallic electrons, probably by the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas population. On the basis of these observations we propose a model of heavy nitrate corrosion where three microbiological processes of nitrate reduction, disproportionation of sulfur, and metallic electron growth are nicely woven into each other. PMID:25020005

  3. Instrumentation design and installation for monitoring air injection ground water remediation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, B.L.; Baldwin, C.K.; Lachmar, T.E.; Dupont, R.R.

    2000-03-31

    An in situ instrumentation bundle was designed for inclusion in monitoring wells that were installed at the Wasatch Trailer Sales site in Layton, Utah, to evaluate in situ air sparging (IAS) and in-well aeration (IWA). Sensors for the bundle were selected based on laboratory evaluation of accuracy and precision, as well as consideration of size and cost. SenSym pressure transducers, Campbell Scientific, Inc. (CSI) T-type thermocouples, and dissolved oxygen (DO) probes manufactured by Technalithics Inc. (Waco, Texas), were selected for each of the 27 saturated zone bundles. Each saturated zone bundle also included a stirring blade to mix water near the DO probe. A Figaro oxygen sensor was included in the vadose zone bundle. The monitoring wells were installed by direct push technique to minimize soil disruption and to ensure intimate contact between the 18 inch (46 cm) long screens and the soil. A data acquisition system, comprised of a CSI 21X data logger and four CSI AM416 multiplexers, was used to control the stirring blades and record signals from more than 70 in situ sensors. The instrumentation performed well during evaluation of IAS and IWA at the site. However, the SenSym pressure transducers were not adequately temperature compensated and will need to be replaced.

  4. Research on Water cycle Impact of South-to-North Water Diversion Project to Handan District Using MODCYCLE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chuiyu; Bi, Xue; Qin, Dayong; Wang, Lin

    2010-05-01

    South-to-North Water Diversion Project is a huge interbasin water transfer project which is being constructed in China. The purpose of the project is to solve water scarcity crisis in North China. What is the water cycle response of local water cycle system to transferred water is an important topic which needs in-depth research. For this purpose, the article selected Handan district as the representative area of North China, and use MODCYCLE model as the simulating tool to do the study. MODCYCLE model is a half-distributed basin scale hydrologic / water cycle model developed by IWHR, its main simulating theory is similar to the world widely used SWAT model. MODCYCLE is developed by Object Oriented Programming method in C++ language and its input and output is based on database. A remarkable character of the model is that it supports parallel computing. Under multicore environment, the model's computing efficient will be dramatically enhanced. Furthermore, some important water cycle processes such as water surface-ponding on soil top, is considered in the model. Firstly during the study, the research simulated the water cycle process of Handan district in present situation by a 10 years dataset from 1998 to 2007. In this process the model's main parameters were being calibrated. Then based on the calibrated model and correspond to the water demand development predictions in the future, three different scenarios were simulated. These scenarios were set on different water use assumptions and strategies. By compare the scenario's forecast results, acknowledge of the role played by transferred water in the whole water cycle system of Handan district were figured out, as well as the water cycle evolution trends under different scenarios. The research indicated that the allocated transfer water of 0.47 billion m3 to Handan district during the coming first-stage water transfer plan of the project can only relieve the degradation rate of the water cycle system, mainly reflected in reduction of groundwater overdrawn, but is insufficient for the water cycle system to recover. The solution of water shortage problem in Handan district in the future will depend on both the suppression of local water consume and increased allocated water in the second-stage water transfer plan of South-to-North Water Diversion Project.

  5. Blast furnace coal injection: North American market, PCI system design project overview -- Edison Energy/Great Lakes Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Wagner, E.D.

    1996-12-31

    The paper gives the background on the coal injection market for North America outlining the number of furnaces which are currently utilizing coal injection and those planning to implement facilities in the near term. The current highly developed state of coal injection technology emphasizes the reliable economic benefits which can be obtained from the leading technology and system vendors. Key elements for providing successful coal grinding and coal injection technology are: Safe, reliable preparation of coal at constant moisture content; consistent and controllable injection rates; minimum consumption of utility gases and electrical power; reliable long-term operation; minimum and scheduled maintenance; and low labor requirements for maintenance. In today`s operating environment, unless a system fulfills the above requirements, it has very little chance of successful commercial application in the steel industry. Various PCI systems are commercially available. Within this arena, the BMH/KST/Claudius Peters system has been very successfully received and commands a 65% share of the world market.

  6. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ...The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Del Puerto Water District. Chowchilla Water District. Orange Cove Irrigation District. James Irrigation District. Tranquility Irrigation District. Kaweah Delta Water Conservation District. To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 (CVPIA) and......

  7. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  8. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  9. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  10. Effects of interbasin water transfer on regional climate: A case study of the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Z. H.; Chen, F.

    2009-04-01

    Large-scale interbasin water transfer, which changes basins by creating new hydrological cycles, has the potential to affect local and regional climate. In this paper, the effects of interbasin water transfer on regional climate are studied based on numerical simulations with the regional climate model RegCM3. The Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRSNWTP) in China is chosen as a case study to investigate the climatic responses under the three water transfer schemes with the intensities of 74.99, 85.31, and 118.16 billion m3/year (named Scheme 1, Scheme 2, and Scheme 3, respectively) based on the simplifications of the project programming. Four ten-year simulations are performed, which are the control run (MCTL) without water transfer, and three water transfer runs MWT1, MWT2, and MWT3 related to the Schemes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For the three Schemes compared to the case without water transfer, we find increases of 1.47, 1.71, and 2.32 mm in top-layer soil moisture, and increases of 5.57, 6.40, and 8.99W/m2 in latent heat flux, respectively, as a directly influence for injecting water into the intake area. The increases in latent heat fluxes and those in evaporation are accompanied with the decreases of 4.30, 5.05, and 7.12W/m2 in sensible heat flux, the decreases of 0.11, 0.14, and 0.18 in mean air temperature, and the increases of 8.54, 7.89, and 18.2 mm in precipitation in the intake grid cells and even their adjacent ones. The intensity of climatic influences positively relates to the transferred water quantity, has strong seasonal variability, and takes a greater effect in spring and autumn than that in summer and winter. Further analysis shows that the transferred water can reduce both the seasonal temperature range and the diurnal temperature range; the temperature decreasing can diffuse over almost the whole Huabei Plain below 700 hPa, and hence weaken the wind velocity of the easterly breeze. It follows from the analyses on vertical profile of water vapor content and the atmospheric moisture budgets that the transferred water can affect the local and regional climate by changing the local and regional water vapour transports, and especially influence the precipitation mainly by changing the convective precipitation over the intake area and the large-scale precipitation over the other adjacent region.

  11. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

  12. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunju; Sun, Seung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC) in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge). The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection) and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal) groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal. PMID:26392912

  13. Prediction and Detection of Land Surface Deformation Associated with CO2 Injection at the FutureGen 2.0 Carbon Capture and Storage Project Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, C. E.; Spane, F.; Bonneville, A.; Murray, C. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Vermeul, V. R.; Gilmore, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The FutureGen 2.0 Project will inject 22 MMT of supercritical CO2 into the Mt Simon sandstone reservoir utilizing four deep-injection wells and a comprehensive monitoring program, which includes surface deformation monitoring. Analytical and numerical modeling analysis were both performed to predict potential vertical elevation changes based on simulated pressure changes and geomechanical properties for the targeted injection zone. Pressure changes due to continuous CO2 injection of 1.1 MMT of CO2/year over 20 years were obtained using the STOMP-CO2 numerical simulator. Injection zone elastic properties were calculated primarily from wireline geomechanical survey results that were obtained from the initial FutureGen 2.0 stratigraphic borehole. The continuous wireline geomechanical log elastic property results were utilized to estimate model layer thickness and rock compressibility for the various injection zone/model layers and were compared with hydrologic characterization results. Compressibility estimates obtained both from hydrologically based, in-situ tests, together with limited laboratory core samples provided similarly low compressibility results (1.0510-7 to 4.9210-7 psi-1) to those derived from the geomechanical wireline surveys. The predicted surface deformation was then estimated using two parallel modelling approaches. First, an analytical Biot-based, poro-elastic model was used to calculate an equivalent vertical displacement at land surface from the expected pore pressure increase and predicted injection zone model layer rock compressibility. The second method utilized a fully 3-D geomechanical modelling analysis to calculate the expected deformation at the surface using a STOMP-CO2/ABAQUS® sequentially coupled simulator. The predicted surface uplift after 20-years of continuous injection for both methods indicated a maximum deformation of approximately 20-25 mm, with most of the deformation occurring during the first 2 years. Surface deformation monitoring will be performed using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) along with ground-based data from permanent tilt and GPS stations and annual DGPS surveys. These methods have sub-centimeter accuracies and will be able to detect the expected deformation.

  14. 75 FR 38591 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...: May 3, 2010. 4. Stone Energy Corporation, Pad ID: Loomis Well No. 2H, ABR- 20100504, Rush Township... COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  15. 78 FR 16490 - Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On February 23, 2011, the Placer County Water Agency, licensee for the Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project, filed...

  16. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... securely moored at mooring facilities and at locations permitted by the District Engineer. Seaplanes may be temporarily moored on project waters and lands, except in areas prohibited by the District Engineer,...

  17. 75 FR 51155 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  18. 75 FR 52049 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  19. 75 FR 31508 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  20. 76 FR 50536 - Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... projects, described below, receiving approval or rescission for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  1. 75 FR 4901 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water...

  2. 75 FR 23837 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  3. 76 FR 33019 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  4. A study of large-volume on-column injection GC-ECD for the ultratrace analysis of organochlorine pesticides in water.

    PubMed

    Concha-Graa, E; Fernndez-Martnez, G; Fernndez-Villarrenaga, V; Turnes-Carou, M I; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; Lpez-Maha, P; Prada-Rodrguez, D

    2009-05-15

    In this work, a large-volume on-column injection method for the analysis of 21 organochlorine pesticides, including HCH isomers, DDT derivatives and cyclodiene derivatives, was optimized. The solvent selected to carry out the study was ethyl acetate and the injection volume was 100 microl. Some factors were introduced in a Plackett-Burman design to determine their influence in the vaporization efficiency. The significant factors were then studied by a univariate procedure and sorted according to their importance on the response. The effect of the injection conditions on the peak resolution was also noted. The conditions selected according to sensitivity and resolution were: initial oven temperature 75 degrees C, injection speed 20 microl s(-1), solvent vapor exit (SVE) valve closure time 60 s, initial pressure 100 kPa and isothermal oven time 1 min. Analytical characteristics expressed in terms of precision, linear range, and limit of detection have been determined and compared with those obtained by splitless injection. The degradation of endrin and p,p'-DDT thermolabile pesticides was evaluated for both injection techniques. Finally the developed method was successfully applied to the ultratrace analysis of pesticides in natural waters. With this purpose a micro liquid-liquid extraction method using 2 ml of ethyl acetate to extract 10 ml of water sample was proposed. Recoveries between 69 and 107% were obtained with a very good precision (0.2-1.3%) for the studied pesticides, except for p,p'-DDD. Detection limits between 0.3 and 25 ng l(-1), which fulfill the limits established by the new water directive 2008/105/EC, were achieved. The MLLE method was compared with the SPE method by the analysis of some water samples using both procedures, and good concordance was obtained. PMID:19269426

  5. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass

  6. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  7. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  8. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  9. Research on evaluating water resource resilience based on projection pursuit classification model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Zhao, Dan; Liang, Xu; Wu, Qiuchen

    2016-03-01

    Water is a fundamental natural resource while agriculture water guarantees the grain output, which shows that the utilization and management of water resource have a significant practical meaning. Regional agricultural water resource system features with unpredictable, self-organization, and non-linear which lays a certain difficulty on the evaluation of regional agriculture water resource resilience. The current research on water resource resilience remains to focus on qualitative analysis and the quantitative analysis is still in the primary stage, thus, according to the above issues, projection pursuit classification model is brought forward. With the help of artificial fish-swarm algorithm (AFSA), it optimizes the projection index function, seeks for the optimal projection direction, and improves AFSA with the application of self-adaptive artificial fish step and crowding factor. Taking Hongxinglong Administration of Heilongjiang as the research base and on the basis of improving AFSA, it established the evaluation of projection pursuit classification model to agriculture water resource system resilience besides the proceeding analysis of projection pursuit classification model on accelerating genetic algorithm. The research shows that the water resource resilience of Hongxinglong is the best than Raohe Farm, and the last 597 Farm. And the further analysis shows that the key driving factors influencing agricultural water resource resilience are precipitation and agriculture water consumption. The research result reveals the restoring situation of the local water resource system, providing foundation for agriculture water resource management.

  10. The secondary recovery project at Ogharefe Field, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Aron, D.; Ashbourne, T.J.; Oloketuyi, D.O.

    1984-04-01

    A secondary recovery project involving water injection and gas-lift facilities was installed in the Ogharefe field in 1979 following detailed reservoir simulation studies. Two years' operation provides the opportunity to discuss the progress of the project so far.

  11. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Johansen

    2011-09-01

    Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

  12. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Cefepime injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney infections. Cefepime injection is used in combination with metronidazole (Flagyl) to treat abdominal (stomach area) infections. Cefepime injection is ...

  13. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  14. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the immune system ... one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications ...

  15. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Humira® Injection ... Adalimumab injection is used alone or with other medications to relieve the symptoms of certain autoimmune disorders (conditions in ... form on some areas of the body). Adalimumab injection is in a class of medications called tumor ...

  16. Fluorouracil Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Adrucil® Injection ... Fluorouracil injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be given intravenously (into a vein) by a doctor or nurse ... you are feeling during your treatment with fluorouracil injection.

  17. Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

  18. Bypass filtration of cooling tower water: a demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    R.J. Industries, Inc. under the DOE Appropriate Technology Program, designed, installed, and monitored a side stream water filtration system on a typical cooling tower arrangement supplying condenser water to refrigerated chilled water units. All of the components utilized in the filter system were readily available. (The actual filter unit was designed to maintain the clarity and overall quality of swimming pool water). R.J. Industries modified the flow characteristics and adapted the hardware for use with a cooling tower system. The application of existing equipment in a new technology proved to be a practical, cost effective approach for maintaining the quality of cooling tower water.

  19. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  20. FP7 project MyWater - Merging hydrologic models and EO data for reliable information on Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Antonio; Chambel, Pedro; Silva, Adlio; Velickov, Slavco; van Andel, Schalk; Toth, Gergely; Almeida, Waldenio; Mako, Andras; Alexandridis, Thomas; Cugala, Domigos

    2013-04-01

    21st century reality already sees 2.5 billion people without adequate access to water, whilst climate changes lead to dramatically changing water resources availability and needs. These changes will influence all citizens, and authorities will need more reliable information to adapt to the new situation. The MyWater project responds to these challenges, implementing a new information platform which integrates data from three scientific research areas - earth observation, catchment modelling and meteorology - to better access hydrological processes. This platform will allow a quasi-automatic service chains which output user tailored results like: drinking water needs (quantity and quality), agriculture water needs, water health related indicators, flood scenarios, etc. Overall, MyWater will provide reliable information on water quantity, quality and usage for appropriate water management, improving knowledge and creating the forecasting capabilities necessary to catchment managers, and at the same time optimizing the ratio cost/benefit of water resources monitoring. The work presented regards to the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  1. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large meander. Measurable concentrations were observed for spring TI-SP as many as 109 days after the dye injection. The direction of a conduit flow path in the Spring Creek area was to the northeast with ground-water velocities that ranged from 770 to 6,500 feet per day. In the Rapid Creek loss zone, a conduit flow path east of the loss zone was not evident from the dye injection.

  2. Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) –Development History, Model Capabilities and Future Enhancements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was initiated in August 1985 to develop new generation water erosion prediction technology for use by federal agencies involved in soil and water conservation and environmental planning and assessment. Developed by USDA-ARS as a replacement for empirically...

  3. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY... Refuge Water Management Plans (Refuge Criteria). Several entities have each developed a Refuge Water... requirements of these Refuge Criteria (see list in Supplementary Information below). Willow Creek Mutual...

  4. Coolant Mixing in a Pressurized Water Reactor: Deboration Transients, Steam-Line Breaks, and Emergency Core Cooling Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Prasser, Horst-Michael; Grunwald, Gerhard; Hoehne, Thomas; Kliem, Soeren; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2003-07-15

    The reactor transient caused by a perturbation of boron concentration or coolant temperature at the inlet of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) depends on the mixing inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Initial steep gradients are partially lessened by turbulent mixing with coolant from the unaffected loops and with the water inventory of the RPV. Nevertheless the assumption of an ideal mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum of the reactor leads to unrealistically small reactivity inserts. The uncertainties between ideal mixing and total absence of mixing are too large to be acceptable for safety analyses. In reality, a partial mixing takes place. For realistic predictions it is necessary to study the mixing within the three-dimensional flow field in the complicated geometry of a PWR. For this purpose a 1:5 scaled model [the Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model (ROCOM) facility] of the German PWR KONVOI was built. Compared to other experiments, the emphasis was put on extensive measuring instrumentation and a maximum of flexibility of the facility to cover as much as possible different test scenarios. The use of special electrode-mesh sensors together with a salt tracer technique provided distributions of the disturbance within downcomer and core entrance with a high resolution in space and time. Especially, the instrumentation of the downcomer gained valuable information about the mixing phenomena in detail. The obtained data were used to support code development and validation. Scenarios investigated are the following: (a) steady-state flow in multiple coolant loops with a temperature or boron concentration perturbation in one of the running loops, (b) transient flow situations with flow rates changing with time in one or more loops, such as pump startup scenarios with deborated slugs in one of the loops or onset of natural circulation after boiling-condenser-mode operation, and (c) gravity-driven flow caused by large density gradients, e.g., mixing of cold emergency core cooling (ECC) water entering the RPV through the ECC injection into the cold leg. The experimental results show an incomplete mixing with typical concentration and temperature distributions at the core inlet, which strongly depend on the boundary conditions. Computational fluid dynamics calculations were found to be in good agreement with the experiments.

  5. Assessment of groundwater potential for conjunctive water use in a large irrigation project in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondhi, S. K.; Rao, N. H.; Sarma, P. B. S.

    1989-05-01

    In many large-surface irrigation projects, the potential for groundwater development has increased significantly. The additional potential can be used to develop conjunctive water management plans for augmenting canal water supplies and increasing agricultural productivity in the project area, if its spatial distribution is also known. A methodology for determining the available additional groundwater potential and its distribution in the Mahi Right Bank Canal Project in Gujarat is presented. The procedure is based on the use of specific empirical constants for estimating groundwater recharge from the water conveyance and distribution system and the annual water balance of the project. The spatial distribution of groundwater potential is determined by "recharge distribution coefficients" derived from a digital simulation model of the groundwater basin of the project area.

  6. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. PMID:26619399

  7. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  8. Application of Tracer-Injection Techniques to Demonstrate Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions Between an Alpine Stream and the North Star Mine, Upper Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Winfield G.; Moore, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Tracer-injection studies were done in Belcher Gulch in the upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado, to determine whether the alpine stream infiltrates into underground mine workings of the North Star Mine and other nearby mines in the area. The tracer-injection studies were designed to determine if and where along Belcher Gulch the stream infiltrates into the mine. Four separate tracer-injec-tion tests were done using lithium bromide (LiBr), optical brightener dye, and sodium chloride (NaCl) as tracer solu-tions. Two of the tracers (LiBr and dye) were injected con-tinuously for 24 hours, one of the NaCl tracers was injected continuously for 12 hours, and one of the NaCl tracers was injected over a period of 1 hour. Concentration increases of tracer constituents were detected in water discharging from the North Star Mine, substantiating a surface-water and ground-water connection between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. Different timing and magnitude of tracer breakthroughs indicated multiple flow paths with different residence times from the stream to the mine. The Pittsburgh and Sultan Mines were thought to physically connect to the North Star Mine, but tracer breakthroughs were inconclusive in water from these mines. From the tracer-injection tests and synoptic measure-ments of streamflow discharge, a conceptual model was devel-oped for surface-water and ground-water interactions between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. This information, combined with previous surface geophysical surveys indicat-ing the presence of subsurface voids, may assist with decision-making process for preventing infiltration and for the remedia-tion of mine drainage from these mines.

  9. [Sustainability of ecological water transfer and rehabilitation project based on participatory survey].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Li-Juan; Yu, Teng-Fei

    2014-01-01

    In the arid inland area of Northwest China, the ecological water transfer and rehabilitation project (EWTRP) is an important measure to restore the deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This research was based on results of the questionnaire from Ejina County's farmer households, which included the farmer households' attitude, livelihood and the efficiency of the water resource usage. The results showed that although the EWTRP had made great achievements in vegetation restoration, but the sustainability of the project was affected by the following factors: the ecologically-motivated relocated/resettled herdsmen mainly relied on the compensation from the project, causing them a hard living, and increasing the risk of maintaining the current achievement; the project didn't have a positive impact on water-saving agriculture, the efficiency of water usage was relatively low and had not yet reached the final goal; the compensation of the project only considered the loss of agriculture, but neglected the externality and publicity of eco-water. We suggest that developing education, offering job opportunity and training programs, improving the efficiency of water usage and establishing reasonable water resources compensation mechanisms are needed to be considered as main domain of environmental recovery as well as ecological water transfer and rehabilitation. PMID:24765863

  10. Evaluating Federal Water Projects: A Critique of Proposed Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Charles J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Questions the feasibility of, and validity of the concepts behind, some of the new procedures proposed by the Water Resources Council. Concludes that the proposed procedures, if accepted in their present form, will bias water resource management in favor of development and against the preservation of the natural environment. (JR)

  11. Geomechanical simulation of the stress tensor rotation caused by injection of cold water in a deep geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, Pierre; Rutqvist, Jonny; Dobson, Patrick F.; Garcia, Julio; Walters, Mark; Hartline, Craig; Borgia, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional thermohydromechanical numerical study of the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal reservoir (in California), including a detailed study of the region around one injection well from 2003 to 2012. Initially, after imposing a normal faulting stress regime, we calculated local changes in the stress regime around injection wells. Our results were compared with previously published studies in which the stress state was inferred from inverting the focal plane mechanism of seismic events. Our main finding is that changes in stress tensor orientation are caused by injection-induced progressive cooling of the reservoir, as well as by the seasonal variations in injection rate. Because of the gravity flow and cooling around a liquid zone formed by the injection, the vertical stress reduction is larger and propagates far below the injection well. At the same time, the horizontal stress increases, mostly because of stress redistribution below and above the cooling area. These two phenomena cause the rotation of the stress tensor and the appearance of a strike-slip regime above, inside, and below the cooling area. The cooling and the associated rotation of the stress regime can play a significant role in the observed long-term deepening of the microseismicity below active injection wells.

  12. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bdtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lilleb, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjrnsen, Bente E; Ulven, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

  13. Apparent Km of mitochondria for oxygen computed from Vmax measured in permeabilized muscle fibers is lower in water enriched in oxygen by electrolysis than injection

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Joffrey; Bouitbir, Jamal; Sirvent, Pascal; Klein, Alexis; Charton, Antoine; Jimenez, Liliana; Péronnet, François R; Geny, Bernard; Richard, Ruddy

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that oxygen (O2) diffusion could be favored in water enriched in O2 by a new electrolytic process because of O2 trapping in water superstructures (clathrates), which could reduce the local pressure/content relationships for O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along PO2 gradients. Materials and methods Mitochondrial respiration was compared in situ in saponin-skinned fibers isolated from the soleus muscles of Wistar rats, in solution enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process 1) at an O2 concentration decreasing from 240 µmol/L to 10 µmol/L (132 mmHg to 5 mmHg), with glutamate–malate or N, N, N′, N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD)–ascorbate (with antimycin A) as substrates; and 2) at increasing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentration with glutamate–malate as substrate. Results As expected, maximal respiration decreased with O2 concentration and, when compared to glutamate–malate, the apparent Km O2 of mitochondria for O2 was significantly lower with TMPD–ascorbate with both waters. However, when compared to the water enriched in O2 by injection, the Km O2 was significantly lower with both electron donors in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. This was not associated with any increase in the sensitivity of mitochondria to ADP; no significant difference was observed for the Km ADP between the two waters. Conclusion In this experiment, a higher affinity of the mitochondria for O2 was observed in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis than by injection. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that O2 diffusion can be facilitated in water enriched in O2 by the electrolytic process. PMID:26203225

  14. Dynamic Permeability Increase During Flow of CO2 Saturated Water Through a Siliciclastic Caprock: an Experimental and Analytical Approach into the Geochemical Impact of CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, R. H.; Armitage, P. J.; Faulkner, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Field trials into CO2 sequestration are currently being undertaken at the In Salah gas field, Algeria. As a part of a wider project, we are experimentally investigating the geochemical and geomechanical effects of CO2 sequestration on the lower caprock. These are poorly sorted siltstones, cemented with quartz, illite, siderite and chlorite. CO2 injection into saline aquifers and depleted petroleum reservoirs alters in situ geochemical conditions. CO2-rich aqueous fluids are acidic and have the potential to geochemically interact with caprocks. These changes will affect caprock properties such as strength and fluid flow properties, which in turn may facilitate CO2 migration and escape from the intended storage structure. Evaluation of these effects on samples of well characterised caprocks will be crucial in helping to evaluate the long term integrity of CO2 storage. We present results from direct experimental and analytical evaluation of dynamic permeability evolution for the flow of CO2 saturated water through a sample of the lower caprock from the In Salah CO2 storage site. Permeability of this sample was approximately 10-20 m2. Permeability was found to increase by approximately 1 order of magnitude over 72 hours of continuous flow. Porosity was also found to increase, whilst surface area, and sample weight decreased. SEM, XRD, and FTIR analyses revealed dissolution of chlorite and siderite to be the cause of the increase in permeability. This change in permeability, and dissolution of minerals, may locally lead to decreased strength of the caprock and decreased sealing capacity. However, local re-precipitation processes may serve to reverse these processes.

  15. Optimizations of packed sorbent and inlet temperature for large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography to determine high boiling volatile organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bofan; Song, Yonghui; Han, Lu; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongliang

    2014-08-22

    For the expanded application area, fast trace analysis of certain high boiling point (i.e., 150-250 °C) volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in water, a large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography (LV-DAI-GC) method was optimized for the following parameters: packed sorbent for sample on-line pretreatment, inlet temperature and detectors configuration. Using the composite packed sorbent self-prepared with lithium chloride and a type of diatomite, the method enabled safe injection of an approximately 50-100 μL sample at an inlet temperature of 150 °C in the splitless mode and separated HVOCs from water matrix in 2 min. Coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), an electron capture detector (ECD) and a flame photometric detector (FPD), the method could simultaneously quantify 27 HVOCs that belong to seven subclasses (i.e., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzenes, anilines, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulfides) in 26 min. Injecting a 50 μL sample without any enrichment step, such as cryotrap focusing, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 27 HVOCs was 0.01-3 μg/L. Replicate analyses of the 27 HVOCs spiked source and river water samples exhibited good precision (relative standard deviations ≤ 11.3%) and accuracy (relative errors ≤ 17.6%). The optimized LV-DAI-GC was robust and applicable for fast determination and automated continuous monitoring of HVOCs in surface water. PMID:24997514

  16. Effects of interbasin water transfer on regional climate: A case study of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Xie, Zhenghui

    2010-06-01

    In this study, a water transfer mechanism was implemented into the regional climate model, RegCM3, to represent water to be transferred by increasing the precipitation that reached the surface in intake areas. The effects of interbasin water transfer on local and regional climates were then studied based on numerical simulations conducted using the RegCM3 model. The Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRSNWTP) in China was chosen as a case study to investigate the climatic responses under three different water transfer schemes with three intensities. Four 10-year simulations were conducted, a control run (MCTL) without water transfer, and three water transfer runs (MWT1, MWT2, and MWT3) related to the three schemes. In the three water transfer runs, spatial and temporal water transfer data were derived from the schemes under the assumption that the quantity of water to be transferred into a county in the intake area in a year for each scheme was distributed evenly into each time step. Increases in top-layer soil moisture and latent heat flux were observed when compared to the control, and these increases were found to occur as a direct result of injecting water into the intake area. The increases in latent heat flux and evaporation were accompanied with decreases in sensible heat flux, mean air temperature, and increases in precipitation in the intake area. These differences were generally small and statistically insignificant, indicating that the water transfer plays a small role in influencing regional climate in our simulations. However, the climatic influence intensity of a water transfer scheme was found to be positively related to the quantity of water to be transferred, and to have strong seasonal variability, with larger effect being observed in spring and autumn than in summer and winter. We also conducted a water transfer run, MWT4, using the same configuration as MWT3 but under the assumption that the quantity of water was distributed evenly into each time step of the first half of the year. Comparison of the two runs shows a stronger seasonal variability in the climatic influence when the water was assigned into the first half of the year than when it was assigned into the entire year. Further analysis revealed that the water transfer could reduce both the seasonal and diurnal temperature ranges at the surface and that the decrease in temperature could diffuse over almost the entire Huabei Plain below 700 hPa, thereby weakening the wind velocity of the easterly breeze. It follows from the analyses of the vertical profiles of the water vapor content and the atmospheric moisture budgets that the water transfer can affect the local and regional climates by changing the local water vapor content and the regional water vapor transports, which in turn influences precipitation.

  17. Sustainability of global groundwater and surface water use: past reconstruction and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Overuse of surface water and an increasing reliance on nonrenewable groundwater resources have been reported over various regions of the world, casting significant doubt on the sustainable water supply and food production met by irrigation. To assess the limitations of global water resources, numerous indicators have been developed, but they rarely consider nonrenewable water use. In addition, surface water over-abstraction is rarely assessed in the context of human and environmental water needs. Here, we perform a transient assessment of global groundwater and surface water use over the historical period 1960-2010 as well as the future projections of 2011-2099, using a newly developed indicator: the Blue Water Sustainability Index (BlWSI). The BlWSI incorporates both nonrenewable groundwater use and nonsustainable water use that compromises environmental flow requirements. Our results reveal an increasing trend of water consumed from nonsustainable surface water and groundwater resources over the historical period (~30%), and this increase is projected to continue further towards the end of this century (~40%). The global amount of nonsustainable water consumption has been increasing especially since the late 1990s, despite a wetter climate and increasing water availability during this period. The BlWSI is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the renewability and degradation of surface water and groundwater resources as a result of human water over-abstraction.

  18. Ammonium Concentrations in Produced Waters from a Mesothermic Oil Field Subjected to Nitrate Injection Decrease through Formation of Denitrifying Biomass and Anammox Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Cornish Shartau, Sabrina L.; Yurkiw, Marcy; Lin, Shiping; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Lambo, Adewale; Park, Hyung-Soo; Lomans, Bart P.; van der Biezen, Erwin; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Community analysis of a mesothermic oil field, subjected to continuous field-wide injection of nitrate to remove sulfide, with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of heterotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB and soNRB). These reduce nitrate by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (e.g., Sulfurospirillum and Denitrovibrio) or by denitrification (e.g., Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and Thauera). Monitoring of ammonium concentrations in producing wells (PWs) indicated that denitrification was the main pathway for nitrate reduction in the field: breakthrough of nitrate and nitrite in two PWs was not associated with an increase in the ammonium concentration, and no increase in the ammonium concentration was seen in any of 11 producing wells during periods of increased nitrate injection. Instead, ammonium concentrations in produced waters decreased on average from 0.3 to 0.2 mM during 2 years of nitrate injection. Physiological studies with produced water-derived hNRB microcosms indicated increased biomass formation associated with denitrification as a possible cause for decreasing ammonium concentrations. Use of anammox-specific primers and cloning of the resulting PCR product gave clones affiliated with the known anammox genera Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia, indicating that the anammox reaction may also contribute to declining ammonium concentrations. Overall, the results indicate the following: (i) that nitrate injected into an oil field to oxidize sulfide is primarily reduced by denitrifying bacteria, of which many genera have been identified by DGGE, and (ii) that perhaps counterintuitively, nitrate injection leads to decreasing ammonium concentrations in produced waters. PMID:20562276

  19. Collaborative Project. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dufour, Carolina; Rodgers, Keith B.

    2015-12-16

    The focus of this grant was on diagnosing the physical mechanisms controlling upper ocean water mass formation and carbon distribution in Earth System Models (ESMs), with the goal of improving the physics that controls their formation.

  20. The EPRI state-of-the-art cooling water treatment research project: A tailored collaboration program

    SciTech Connect

    Zammitt, K.; Selby, K.A.; Brice, T.

    1996-08-01

    The EPRI Tailored Collaboration State-of-the-Art Cooling Water Treatment Research Program has been initiated with several electric utility participants. Started in January 1995, the program provides O&M cost reduction through improved cooling water system reliability and operation,. This effort is discussed along with the objectives and goals, the participants and project timetable. The program will provide three (3) main results to the participating utilities: cost effective optimization of cooling water treatment, production of a new Cooling Water Treatment Manual and updating of two (2) EPRI software products - SEQUIL and COOLADD. A review of the specific objectives, project timetable and results to date will be presented. 1 tab.

  1. Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, Judy I.

    2007-01-01

    The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

  2. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

  3. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Chunyan; Geng, Shu; Jin, Ye; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), protocatechuic aldehyde (PA), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB) concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value. PMID:26839549

  4. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-06-16

    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  5. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  6. Potential use of the tiebout hypothesis in water resource project evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmon, E.B.; Hite, J.C.; McLean, E.L.; Lilley, S.C.; Lovingood, P.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    A major problem in water resource planning and project evaluation is lack of a common denominator for use in summarizing the various accounts, especially national economic development and environmental quality accounts, required by Principles and Standards promulgated in 1973. The Tiebout hypothesis, which relates an individuals' choice of residence with Quality of Life (QOL) factors, was extended empirically by evaluating tradeoffs between QOL factors to determine the practicability in using this as an approach to overcome the problem in water resource project evaluation.

  7. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  8. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  9. Water Resources Data, Ohio, Water Year 2001, Volume 1. Ohio River Basin Excluding Project Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    2002-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2001 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 130 gaging stations and 65 partial-record sites; water levels at 160 observation wells and 25 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 25 gaging stations, 31 observation wells, and 9 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

  10. Water Resources Data, Ohio, Water Year 1999, Volume 1. Ohio River Basin Excluding Project Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    2000-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1999 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 120 gaging stations and 69 partial-record sites; water levels at 187 observation wells and 26 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 34 gaging stations, 337 observation wells, and 3 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

  11. Water Resources Data, Ohio, Water Year 2000, Volume 1. Ohio River Basin Excluding Project Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    2001-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2000 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 122 gaging stations and 65 partial-record sites; water levels at 65 observation wells and 23 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 36 gaging stations, 69 observation wells, and 35 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

  12. Water resources data, Ohio, water year 2003 : Volume 1. Ohio River basin excluding project data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Frum, S.R.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 138 gaging stations and various partial-record sites; water levels at 217 observation wells and 35 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 30 gaging stations, 34 observation wells, and no partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

  13. Water Resources Data, Ohio, Water Year 1998, Volume 1. Ohio River Basin Excluding Project Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shindel, H.L.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1999-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 1998 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 127 gaging stations and 65 partial-record sites; water levels at 348 observation wells and 24 crest-stage gages; and water quality at 25 gaging stations, 317 observation wells, and 26 partial-record sites. Also included are data from miscellaneous and synoptic sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Information System collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating Federal, State, and local agencies in Ohio.

  14. Sustainable Hydro Assessment and Groundwater Recharge Projects (SHARP) in Germany - Water Balance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemand, C.; Kuhn, K.; Schwarze, R.

    2010-12-01

    SHARP is a European INTERREG IVc Program. It focuses on the exchange of innovative technologies to protect groundwater resources for future generations by considering the climate change and the different geological and geographical conditions. Regions involved are Austria, United Kingdom, Poland, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Greece and Germany. They will exchange practical know-how and also determine know-how demands concerning SHARPs key contents: general groundwater management tools, artificial groundwater recharge technologies, groundwater monitoring systems, strategic use of groundwater resources for drinking water, irrigation and industry, techniques to save water quality and quantity, drinking water safety plans, risk management tools and water balance models. SHARP Outputs & results will influence the regional policy in the frame of sustainable groundwater management to save and improve the quality and quantity of groundwater reservoirs for future generations. The main focus of the Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Landscape in this project is the enhancement and purposive use of water balance models. Already since 1992 scientists compare different existing water balance models on different scales and coupled with groundwater models. For example in the KLIWEP (Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for the Catchment of River Parthe in Saxony) project the coupled model WaSiM-ETH - PCGEOFIM has been used to study the impact of climate change on water balance and water supplies. The project KliWES (Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for Catchment Areas in Saxony) still running, comprises studies of fundamental effects of climate change on catchments in Saxony. Project objective is to assess Saxon catchments according to the vulnerability of their water resources towards climate change projections in order to derive region-specific recommendations for management actions. The model comparisons within reference areas showed significant differences in outcome. The values of water balance components calculated with different models partially fluctuate by a multiple of their value. The SHARP project was prepared in several previous projects that were testing suitable water balance models and is now able to assist the knowledge transfer.

  15. Water Use Optimization Toolset Project: Development and Demonstration Phase Draft Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, John R.; Veselka, Thomas D.; Mahalik, Matthew R.; Hayse, John W.; Saha, Samrat; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Voisin, Nathalie; Rakowski, Cynthia; Coleman, Andre; Lowry, Thomas S.

    2014-05-19

    This report summarizes the results of the development and demonstration phase of the Water Use Optimization Toolset (WUOT) project. It identifies the objective and goals that guided the project, as well as demonstrating potential benefits that could be obtained by applying the WUOT in different geo-hydrologic systems across the United States. A major challenge facing conventional hydropower plants is to operate more efficiently while dealing with an increasingly uncertain water-constrained environment and complex electricity markets. The goal of this 3-year WUOT project, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is to improve water management, resulting in more energy, revenues, and grid services from available water, and to enhance environmental benefits from improved hydropower operations and planning while maintaining institutional water delivery requirements. The long-term goal is for the WUOT to be used by environmental analysts and deployed by hydropower schedulers and operators to assist in market, dispatch, and operational decisions.

  16. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

  17. Final Technical Report: The Water-to-Wire (W2W) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lissner, Daniel N.; Edward, Lovelace C.

    2013-12-24

    The purpose of the Free Flow Power (FFP) Water-to-Wire Project (Project) was to evaluate and optimize the performance, environmental compatibility, and cost factors of FFP hydrokinetic turbines through design analyses and deployments in test flumes and riverine locations.

  18. The Self-Help Handbook for Small Town Water and Wastewater Projects. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schautz, Jane W.; Conway, Christopher M.

    This handbook describes a set of tools small communities can use to reduce the cost of drinking water and wastewater projects. It is intended as a desktop reference for two primary audiences: (1) local residents (elected officials, plant operators, and concerned citizens) for whom the book provides detailed advice on how to do conduct a project at

  19. 43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. 418.25 Section 418.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management...

  20. Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

    2006-06-01

    A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.