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1

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

Adetoba, L.A.

1984-04-01

2

El Furrial field miscible gas and water injection enhanced oil recovery project  

SciTech Connect

El Furrial field in the North of Monagas state was discovered in 1987, and originally contained approximately 6.9 million stock tank barrels of off in place. The principal operator, Lagoven S.A., has devoted intensive engineering studies to define the optimum exploitation strategy and maximize final recovery. As a result of these studies, production mechanisms were early identified and a reservoir pressure maintenance program was defined to increase the recovery factor and maintain production rates. Simultaneously with the implementation of a 450,000 barrels of water per day waterflood project, engineering studies were continued to determine the feasibility of a gas injection alternative to complement the water injection program. Those studies demonstrated that a highly efficient miscible displacement could be attained by injecting dry gas at current operational reservoir conditions (6500 psi and 280{degrees}F). Consequently, extensive laboratory work, geostatistical and deterministic reservoir description, and black oil miscible and compositional simulation were performed to define a miscible gas injection implementation plan. As a result it was concluded that major increase in reserves could be obtained by injection of all the produced gas in the field plus some make up gas, together with an expansion of the waterflood. In this paper the methodology, procedures and results of this interdisciplinary effort will be described.

Herbas, P.J.; Diamond, L.; Pedroza, T. [and others

1996-08-01

3

Water Injected Turbomachinery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

4

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

Progress is described on the Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project in Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flux gas. This report describes activities associated with management, equipment design, and environmental monitoring.

Not Available

1991-01-01

5

Water Injection Effects on Compressor Stage Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, experimental work concerning the effect of water injection on a compressor stage is presented. The effect on compressor stage performance and stability is examined for water injection up to 2%. The behaviour of the air flow in the blade rows is examined through aerodynamic measurements. The results indicate that although the water injection appears to not

I. Roumeliotis; K. Mathioudakis

2007-01-01

6

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.

Not Available

1992-03-06

7

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students from around the globe will team up to test fresh water. With this collaborative project, students will compare the water quality of their local river, stream, lake or pond with other fresh water sources around the world. The focus of the project is to assess the quality of water based on physical characteristics and chemical substances, and to look for relationships and trends among the data collected by all project participants.

2009-01-01

8

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the US DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the first Technical Progress Report covering the period from project execution through the end of December 1990. Due to the power plant's planned outage schedule, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1991-01-01

9

Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

1989-01-01

10

Tunisia: CARE Water Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report evaluates a series of projects conducted by Cooperative for American Relief Everywhere, with partial funding by AID and assistance from the Peace Corps, in which 600 existing Tunisian water sources were renovated. To control water contaminatio...

R. E. Bigelow L. Chiles C. S. Ayad B. Cavanagh K. Manzer

1980-01-01

11

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) in the flue gas. The work performed during this period (July--September 1992) was consistent with the revised Statement of Work (Scope Increase) and the approved schedule change contained in the Cooperative Agreement. During this period, emphasis was placed on startup and commissioning activities and baseline testing. Work was conducted under the three tasks comprising the Operations Phase. Summary of the work performed under these tasks is given.

Not Available

1992-01-01

12

Mechanism of hydrocyclone separation with water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In hydrocyclones, the particle separation efficiency is limited by the suspended fine particles, which are discharged with the coarse product in the underflow. It is well known that injecting water in the conical part of the cyclone reduces the fine particle fraction in the underflow.This paper presents a mathematical model that simulates the water injection in the conical component. The

J. Dueck; E. Pikushchak; L. Minkov; M. Farghaly; Th. Neesse

2010-01-01

13

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

The LIFAC technology has similarities to other sorbent injection technologies using humidification, but employs a unique patented vertical reaction chamber located down-stream of the boiler to facilitate and control the sulfur capture and other chemical reactions. This chamber improves the overall reaction efficiency enough to allow the use of pulverized limestone rather than more expensive reagents such as lime which are often used to increase the efficiency of other sorbent injection processes. Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers - and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is successful, LIFAC will offer these important advantages over wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems; LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes; LIFAC's overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton S0{sub 2} removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product; and LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

Not Available

1992-01-01

14

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers -- and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems. LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes. LIFAC's overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO[sub 2] removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product. LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

Not Available

1992-01-01

15

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stevens Institute of Technology's Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) has developed this project for middle school and high school students around the world to team up and test fresh water. Educators may use this project to demonstrate the dynamics of scientific collaboration. Students will be required to identify organisms, assess water quality, and look for larger relationships and trends based on overall global findings. Over the course of the project, participating classes are required to submit a letter of introduction, data, and a final report. The project will run every spring and fall with the next run occurring between March 6 and May 26, 2000.

16

Recovery of cellar oil by water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of operating and reservoir parameters on cellar flooding were evaluated using a commercially available reservoir simulator. The parameters were representative of Miocene reservoirs and operating conditions in S. Louisiana. Cellar flooding is a one well injection\\/production process which utilizes the density difference between injected water and in-place crude to recover oil from the cellar of a steeply dipping

Horne

1981-01-01

17

Field Production of Water for Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The requirement exist within the field Army for on-site production of United States Pharmacopeia water for injection USP WFI without pretreatment, Chloride ion, e.g, is not adequately rejected, even with relatively tight membranes. Furthermore, RO membran...

J. B. Duncan

1984-01-01

18

Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

Pierazzo, E.

2005-01-01

19

Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

Norum, Thomas D.

2004-01-01

20

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post- furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the US DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the fifth Technical Progress Report covering the period October 1, 1991 through the end of December 1991. Due to the power plant's planned outage schedule, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1991-01-01

21

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

SciTech Connect

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01

22

Recovery of Cellar Oil By Water Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of operating and reservoir parameters on cellar flooding were evaluated by use of a commercially available reservoir simulator. The parameters were representative of Miocene reservoirs and operating conditions in south Louisiana. Cellar flooding is a one-well injection\\/production process that exploits the density difference between injected water and in-place crude to recover oil from the ''cellar'' of a steeply

Jerrold Horne

1982-01-01

23

Lesotho Highlands Water Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kingdom of Lesotho is a tiny landlocked country, about the size of the state of Maryland, and it is completely surrounded by South Africa. Its most significant natural resource is water, and thus the majority of its economy is based on providing water and electricity to South Africa. The Lesotho Highlands Water Project website is a window into the effects such a large water project can have on a community, arguably some of them negative. For instance, visitors should check out the "FAQs" section to read some of the issues that have come up with the project, including loss of property and livelihood. The "Documents & Reports" link has dozens of documents, including ones about "IFR" (which stands for Instream Flow Requirement), "Hydrology" and "Studies & Special Reports". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Villages of the Dammed Response", under "Studies & Special Reports", which is an excellent letter to the editor at the Globe and Mail that highlights the debate surrounding the Water Project and what it promises.

24

International Water Law Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As clean water has increasingly become a resource subject to scarcity, international politics and law have become involved with the issues of access to and maintenance of water sources. This site provides comprehensive information on the subject, featuring full texts of the major diplomatic documents, including rules on international groundwaters and rivers agreed upon at UN conferences in Helsinki and Seoul, treaty drafts, regional agreements as well as international case law, an extensive bibliography, and links to related sites. The site was conceived and developed by Gabriel Eckstein in conjunction with The World's Water project of the Pacific Institute.

Eckstein, Gabriel.

25

Injection water viscosifier for enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for recovering petroleum from a subterranean petroleum bearing deposit which comprises injecting viscous water into the area of the deposit through at least one input well, thereby causing the petroleum to flow from the area for collection through at least one output well. The improvement described here comprises injecting the viscous water containing a water soluble polymer with chain linkages derived from a major amount of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and at least one member selected from the group consisting of N-methylolacrylamide and sodium styrene sulfonate into the area of the deposit, wherein the water soluble polymer has a molecular weight in excess of 1,000,000 and wherein the water soluble polymer has between about 0.1 and about 5 percent by weight of its chain linkages being derived from members selected from the group consisting of N-methylolacrylamide and sodium styrene sulfonate.

Castner, K.F.

1986-06-03

26

Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed irregularities. The so-called pumping model provided good estimates of the storage in the hyporheic zone under different stream discharges and stream flow conditions along streams. Evaluations Hobøl River, Norway, and Säva Brook, Sweden, at two occasions in both stream indicate that the relative residence time in the hyporheic zone is linearly proportional to the squared Froude Number. The residence time is scaled with water depth and hydraulic conductivity of the bed. The effect of such transient storage in e.g. the hyporheic zone gives rise to a tailing, but the breakthrough curve become increasingly symmetrical with Damköhler number. Such a symmetrical breakthrough can be erroneously taken as an effect of in-stream dispersion, even though this similarity is merely due to the physical analogy of various advection velocities over the transport cross-section, differential advection.

Wörman, A.

2009-04-01

27

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project  

SciTech Connect

LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

Not Available

1991-01-01

28

Development of gas turbine steam injection water recovery (SIWR) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and discusses a closed-loop'' steam injection water recovery (SIWR) cycle that was developed for steam-injected gas turbine applications. This process is needed to support gas turbine steam injection especially in areas where water cannot be wasted and complex water treatment is discouraged. The development of the SIWR was initiated by NOVA in an effort to reduce the

H. B. Nguyen; A. den Otter

1994-01-01

29

Status of NINJA: the Numerical INJection Analysis project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2008 NRDA conference introduced the Numerical INJection Analysis project (NINJA), a new collaborative effort between the numerical relativity community and the data analysis community. NINJA focuses on modeling and searching for gravitational wave signatures from the coalescence of binary system of compact objects. We review the scope of this collaboration and the components of the first NINJA project, where

Laura Cadonati; Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterji; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

2009-01-01

30

Improved simulation for interpreting temperature logs in water injection wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved simulation for temperature logs (TL) in water injection wells, is described. Improvements, based on the reduction of assumptions used by previous investigators, are demonstrated by comparison of field data and simulator results showing excellent agreement of TL profiles over the entire well depth. The utility of short period hot water injection just preceding shut-in, as an injection profile

J. Fagley; H. S. Fogler; C. B. Davenport; R. S. Millhone

1981-01-01

31

After fogging process in water injected gas turbine systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In gas turbine system with after fogging, water droplets are injected after compressor. After fogging could have more significant potential for enhancement of specific power production compared to inlet fogging alone, since a larger water injection rate is possible. Transient analysis of after fogging process is carried out by using a heat and mass transfer modeling on water droplet evaporation. Transient variables such as droplet diameter and air temperature are evaluated as the droplet evaporation proceeds for different values of initial droplet diameter, pressure ratio of compressor, and water injection ratio. The evaporation time for injected droplets are also estimated. Present results show that the evaporation time decreases sensitively with increasing pressure ratio or initial droplet diameter. However, the effect of water injection ratio on evaporation time is relatively insignificant unless water injection ratio is near the critical ratio.

Kim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Kyoungjin

2013-12-01

32

Status of NINJA: the Numerical INJection Analysis project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 NRDA conference introduced the Numerical INJection Analysis project (NINJA), a new collaborative effort between the numerical relativity community and the data analysis community. NINJA focuses on modeling and searching for gravitational wave signatures from the coalescence of binary system of compact objects. We review the scope of this collaboration and the components of the first NINJA project, where numerical relativity groups, shared waveforms and data analysis teams applied various techniques to detect them when embedded in colored Gaussian noise.

Cadonati, Laura; Aylott, Benjamin; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Boyle, Michael; Brady, Patrick R.; Brown, Duncan A.; Brügmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Camp, Jordan; Campanelli, Manuela; Centrella, Joan; Chatterji, Shourov; Christensen, Nelson; Chu, Tony; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Nils; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Faber, Joshua; Fairhurst, Stephen; Farr, Benjamin; Fischetti, Sebastian; Guidi, Gianluca; Goggin, Lisa M.; Hannam, Mark; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Kalogera, Vicky; Keppel, Drew; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Krishnan, Badri; Laguna, Pablo; Lousto, Carlos O.; Mandel, Ilya; Marronetti, Pedro; Matzner, Richard; McWilliams, Sean T.; Matthews, Keith D.; Mercer, R. Adam; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R. P.; Mroué, Abdul H.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ochsner, Evan; Pan, Yi; Pekowsky, Larne; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Pollney, Denis; Pretorius, Frans; Raymond, Vivien; Reisswig, Christian; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rinne, Oliver; Robinson, Craig; Röver, Christian; Santamaría, Lucía; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore; Scheel, Mark A.; Schnetter, Erik; Seiler, Jennifer; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Sperhake, Ulrich; Stroeer, Alexander; Sturani, Riccardo; Tichy, Wolfgang; Liu, Yuk Tung; van der Sluys, Marc; van Meter, James R.; Vaulin, Ruslan; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John; Viceré, Andrea; Whelan, John T.; Zlochower, Yosef

2009-06-01

33

Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important

K. Pruess

1995-01-01

34

Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

1980-01-01

35

Reductions in Multicomponent Jet Noise by Water Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and

Thomas D Norum

36

Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

2013-01-01

37

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOEpatents

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30

38

Control of water injection into a layered formation  

SciTech Connect

In previously published work, we have analyzed transient injection of water from a growing vertical hydrofracture into a low-permeability compressible rock of uniform properties, filled with a fluid of identical mobility. Here we extend the prior analysis1 to water injection into a layered rock initially filled with a fluid of different mobility. We then develop a new control model of water injection from a growing hydrofracture into a layered formation. Based on the new model, we design an optimal injection controller that manages the rate of water injection in accordance with the hydrofracture growth and the formation properties. As we have already demonstrated, maintaining the rate of water injection into low-permeability rock above a reasonable minimum inevitably leads to hydrofracture growth if flow in a uniform formation is transient. The same conclusion holds true for transient flow in layered formation. Analysis of field water injection rates and wellhead injection pressures leads us to conclude that direct links between injectors and producers can be established at early stages of waterflood, especially if injection policy is aggressive. On one hand, injection into a low-permeability rock is slow and there is a temptation to increase injection pressure. On the other hand, such an increase may lead to irrecoverable reservoir damage: fracturing of the formation and water channeling from the injectors to the producers. Such channeling may be caused by thin highly permeable reservoir layers, which may conduct a substantial part of injected water. Considering these field observations, we expand our earlier model. Specifically, we consider a vertical hydrofracture in contact with a multilayered reservoir where some layers have high permeability and they, therefore, quickly establish steady state flow from an injector to a neighboring producer. The main part of this paper is devoted to the development of an optimal injection controller for purely transient flow and for mixed transient/steady-state flow into a layered formation. The objective of the controller is to maintain the prescribed injection rate in the presence of hydrofracture growth. Such a controller will be essential in our proposed automated system of field-wide waterflood surveillance and control. We design optimal injection controllers using methods of optimal control theory. The history of injection pressure and cumulative injection, along with estimates of the hydrofracture size are the controller input data. By analyzing these inputs, the controller outputs an optimal injection pressure for each injector. When designing the controller, we keep in mind that it can be used either off-line as a smart advisor, or on-line in a fully automated regime. We demonstrate that the optimal injection pressure depends not only on the instantaneous measurements, but it is determined by the whole history of injection and growth of the hydrofracture. Because our controller is process-based, the dynamics of the actual injection rate and the pressure can be used to estimate an effective area of the hydrofracture. The latter can be passed to the controller as one of the input parameters. Finally, a comparison of the estimated fracture area with independent measurements leads to an estimate of the fraction of injected water that flows directly to the neighboring producers due to channeling or thief-layers.

Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.

2000-02-02

39

Seismic modeling of CO2-injection based EGR (project CLEAN)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint research project CLEAN (CO2 Largescale EGR in the Altmark Natural-gas field) is a scientific program accompanying the Enhanced-Gas-Recovery (EGR) project within the second largest natural gas field in Europe - the Altmark gas field. Within this program a set of active and passive seismic surveys are planned in order to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution as well as the related processes of CO2 injection into the reservoir. These experiments comprise time-lapse 3D-VSP/MSP (vertical/moving-source-profiling) surveys as well as the installation of a borehole seismometer network for monitoring and analysis of injection induced seismicity. For both configurations we have performed elastic finite-difference simulations of the seismic wavefield based on a given subsurface model and for a range of injection-induced variations of seismic parameters. We will show the results and discuss the findings in terms of survey design, the estimation of expected changes in the seismic wavefield (reflectivity, traveltime, etc.), the repeatability of the measurements and the understanding of the limits for a rock-physical interpretation of the observed effects.

Houpt, L.; Buske, S.

2009-04-01

40

Transient pressure testing of fractured water injection wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of pressure falloff tests in fractured water injection wells to determine fracture lengths and fracture opening pressures. An improved method of calculating fracture lengths from pressure falloff test data is presented. This method is based on a linear flow model which simulates conditions present during the early time period after shutting in an injection well.

1967-01-01

41

Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

2014-01-01

42

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

43

DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

44

Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation,...

B. T. Vu N. Bachchan O. Peroomian V. Akdag

2013-01-01

45

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOEpatents

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01

46

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface

Pruess; Karsten

2006-01-01

47

Cfd Modelling of Water Injection for Turbine Blade Cleaning  

Microsoft Academic Search

CFD modeling of water injection for turbine blade cleaning has been carried out to predict the water coverage on a stationary blade row, which will enable a better understanding on the interactions between hot-air flow and cold-water droplets. A generic configuration was used in a priori in-house experiment, which provides test data for CFD validation. The two-phase flow CFD model

J. Yao; Y. Yao; P. J. Mason; T. Zhang; F. J. G. Heyes; P. E. Roach

2009-01-01

48

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is an international, interdisciplinary, water education program for formal and informal educators of students ages 5 to 18. This project site provides opportunities to order high quality educational material, samples of Project WET activities, information on Make a Splash Festivals, education standards, information on events, Project Wet reports and water related links. There is also a link to all of the state coordinators for this project.

49

Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

50

NOx Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

2002-01-01

51

Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection  

DOEpatents

A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

2012-10-23

52

Central Arizona Project, (Irrigation Water and Water Supplies).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The statement concerns a project to furnish irrigation water and municipal water supplies to the water-deficient areas of Arizona (particularly Yuma, Maricopa, Pinal, Pima, and Cochise Counties) and western New Mexico (particularly Grant County) through d...

1971-01-01

53

Long-term experiments of waste water injection in the Otake geothermal field, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Otake geothermal water has been injected into two injection wells for up to 656 days. The injection and two other observation wells range in depth from 365 to 450 m. The average silica concentration in the water was in a range from 541 to 587 mg\\/1. The water was injected at 80, 60, and 50°C to change the degree

R. Itoi; M. Fukuda; K. Jinno; K. Hirowatari; N. Shinohara; T. Tomita

1989-01-01

54

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 2, January--March 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is described on the Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project in Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The technology uses upper-furnac...

1991-01-01

55

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics  

SciTech Connect

This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

NONE

1996-01-01

56

CFD Validation of Gas Injection into Stagnant Water  

SciTech Connect

Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant water have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant water. Flow visualization data were obtained with a high-speed camera for the comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. The CFD model is validated with these experimental measurements at different gas flow rates. The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The acoustic signature aspect of this validation is particularly interesting since it has applicability to the injection of gas into liquid mercury, which is opaque.

Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

2007-01-01

57

Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.

Hickey, J. J.; Ehrlich, G. G.

1984-01-01

58

The research of numerical simulation in Wuliwan oilfield water injection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studied the efficiency of the oilfield water injection system by using the water injection system theory, fluid mechanics theory, and graph theory and optimization design technology. According to the actual conditions, the paper established the mathematical model of Wuliwan oilfield pipe network. Based on the actual data of production, energy distribution of oilfield water injection system was analyzed.

Guoqiang Feng; Yanlai Li; Xinghua Zhang; Guoyong Feng

2011-01-01

59

Fourth SPE comparative solution project: Comparison of steam injection simulators  

SciTech Connect

Three related steam injection problems are presented along with simulation results for them obtained from six organizations. The problems selected for comparison were intended to exercise many of the features of thermal models that are of practical and theoretical interest. The first problem deals with three cycles of cyclic steam injection and the other two problems deal with steam displacement in an inverted nine-spot pattern. The first two problems are of ''black-oil'' type and the third of compositional type. Complete data are presented for these problems. The comparison of solutions indicates good agreement for most of the results of importance in field operations.

Aziz, K.; Ramesh, A.B.; Woo, P.T.

1987-12-01

60

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-03-01

61

GEWEX Water Vapor Project (GVaP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Water Vapor Project (GVaP) is to improve the understanding of water vapor in meteorological, hydrological, and climatological processes through improving knowledge of water vapor and its variability on all scales. This goal clearly requires a multiscale observing strategy. A pilot project was deemed the most appropriate first step toward achieving this goal. An implementation plan was developed for this pilot phase. The four research components of the pilot phase are presented here.

Starr, David

1993-01-01

62

Global Warming and Water Management: Water Allocation and Project Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the sensitivity of the benefits of alternative water allocation schemes and of project evaluation to global warming. If global warming shifts the mean of annual water supplies, there could be large impacts on the expected values of alternative water allocation schemes. The first section of the paper explores how well alternative schemes (such as market mechanisms, prior

Robert Mendelsohn; Lynne L. Bennett

1997-01-01

63

Death by Water: Precautionary Water Submersion for Intravitreal Injection of Retinoblastoma Eyes  

PubMed Central

There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here.

Francis, Jasmine H; Xu, Xiaoliang L; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P; Brodie, Scott E; Abramson, David H

2014-01-01

64

Death by water: precautionary water submersion for intravitreal injection of retinoblastoma eyes.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here. PMID:24949111

Francis, Jasmine H; Xu, Xiaoliang L; Gobin, Y Pierre; Marr, Brian P; Brodie, Scott E; Abramson, David H

2014-01-01

65

Tracing and age-dating recycled waste water recharged for potable reuse in a seawater injection barrier, southern California, USA  

SciTech Connect

In this report we outline an investigative approach that combines isotopic tracers and tritium-helium-3 (3H-3He) dating to directly measure groundwater mixing and ages. These data can be used to test regulatory compliance in potable water reuse projects (Davisson et al., 1998). We provide an example from a seawater injection barrier located in Orange County, California, which has been injecting advanced- treated waste water into a coastal aquifer for the past 25 years to prevent seawater intrusion. Treatment comprises lime coagulation of secondary waste effluents, followed by re-carbonation, sand filtration, and reverse osmosis. The finished water has a very low TDS (-100 mg/L), which is blended -50% with a low TDS (288 mg/L) native groundwater, making an injection water of -200 mg/L.

Davisson, M L; Esser, B K; Herndon, R L; Hudson, G B

1998-12-02

66

WELL IMPAIRMENT UPSCALING APPLIED TO WATER INJECTION ABOVE FRACTURE PRESSURE SIMULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water injection into reservoirs is used to increase oil recovery and to maintain reservoir pressure above the bubble point. In spite of the water injection advantages, there is a technical problem: well impairment or injectivity loss associated to this recovery method. Well impairment results from deposition of different types of particles as solid rock fines; insoluble carbonates from seawater, oil

Juan Manuel Montoya Moreno; Eduin Orlando Muñoz Mazo; Eliana Luci Ligero; Denis José Schiozer

67

Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

1996-01-01

68

75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-13

69

75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

2010-08-12

70

Peru: CARE OPG Water Health Services Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Where piped water is a local priority, A.I.D. should be willing to authorize projects aimed solely at improving the accessibility, quantity, and quality of water to the exclusion of other health interventions. This and other lessons found in this report w...

J. Haratani A. M. Viveros-Long A. M. B. M. de Gonzales

1981-01-01

71

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

72

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

73

Illinois drainage water management demonstration project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary monitoring results, and other observations.

Pitts, D. J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P. J.

2004-01-01

74

Laboratory study of the effect of water injection rate on oil recovery in fractured reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of water injection into a fracture- matrix type reservoir to increase ultimate oil recovery, oil displacement by water imbibition normally plays a dominant role. This dissertation is a report of a laboratory investigation of the effect of the rate of water injection on imbibition rate in the case of a simulated fracture-matrix type reservoir. The type of

Mannon

1972-01-01

75

Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

1951-01-01

76

Sorbent injection into a slipstream baghouse for mercury control: Project summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project led by the Energy and Environmental Research Center to test and demonstrate sorbent injection as a cost-effective mercury control technology for utilities burning lignites has shown effective mercury capture under a range of operating conditions. Screening, parametric, and long-term tests were carried out at a slipstream facility representing an electrostatic precipitator–activated carbon injection–fabric filter configuration (called a TOXECON™

Jeffrey S. Thompson; John H. Pavlish; Lucinda L. Hamre; Melanie D. Jensen; David Smith; Steve Podwin; Lynn A. Brickett

2009-01-01

77

On spurious water flow during numerical simulation of steam injection into water-saturated soil.  

PubMed

Numerical simulation of steam injection into a water-saturated porous medium may be hindered by unphysical behavior causing the model to slow down. We show how spurious water flow may arise on the boundary between a steam zone and a saturated zone, giving rise to dramatic pressure drops. This is caused by the discretization of the temperature gradient coupled with the direct relation between pressure and temperature in the steam zone. The problem may be a severe limitation to numerical modeling. A solution is presented where the spurious water flow is blocked and this widely enhances the performance of the model. This new method is applied to a previously reported example exhibiting numerical problems. Furthermore, it is applied to the simulation of 2-D sandbox experiments where LNAPL is remediated from a smearing zone by steam injection. These experiments would have been difficult to analyze numerically without the adjustment to prevent spurious flow. PMID:15610904

Gudbjerg, J; Trötschler, O; Färber, A; Sonnenborg, T O; Jensen, K H

2004-12-01

78

On spurious water flow during numerical simulation of steam injection into water-saturated soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulation of steam injection into a water-saturated porous medium may be hindered by unphysical behavior causing the model to slow down. We show how spurious water flow may arise on the boundary between a steam zone and a saturated zone, giving rise to dramatic pressure drops. This is caused by the discretization of the temperature gradient coupled with the direct relation between pressure and temperature in the steam zone. The problem may be a severe limitation to numerical modeling. A solution is presented where the spurious water flow is blocked and this widely enhances the performance of the model. This new method is applied to a previously reported example exhibiting numerical problems. Furthermore, it is applied to the simulation of 2-D sandbox experiments where LNAPL is remediated from a smearing zone by steam injection. These experiments would have been difficult to analyze numerically without the adjustment to prevent spurious flow.

Gudbjerg, J.; Trötschler, O.; Färber, A.; Sonnenborg, T. O.; Jensen, K. H.

2004-12-01

79

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 4, July--September 1991  

SciTech Connect

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ``LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.`` The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.

Not Available

1992-03-06

80

Pressure-transient behavior during cold water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

During injection testing, pressures in geothermal;\\u000awells sometimes decline after an initial period of;\\u000aincrease despite continued injection. The injection;\\u000atests carried out at the Yutsubo geothermal field in;\\u000aKyushu, Japan exhibit this peculiar behavior.;\\u000aDuring injection testing of Yatsubo well YT-2,;\\u000aobserved downhole pressures eventually began to;\\u000adecline despite sustained injection rates. We have;\\u000acarried out numerical simulation studies

Shinsuke Nakao; Tsuneo Ishido

1996-01-01

81

What's your water-injection problem. Part 1. Stimulating injection wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The best treatment for reduced injection-well capacity is one designed around a laboratory analysis of the plugging material. If this material is not available for analysis, the treatment should be designed to reveal as much as possible about the plugging problem while improving injectivity. A 4-step procedure (slug, soak, acidize, or fracture) with the proper tools and chemicals can improve

S. Shryock; J. Knox

1965-01-01

82

Technological and economical analysis of water recovery in steam injected gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam injected gas turbines are an interesting technology for co-generation applications. In these gas turbines the heat of the exhaust gases is used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the combustion chamber, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. A major disadvantage of steam injected gas turbines is the large water consumption. Placing a

M. De Paepe; E. Dick

2001-01-01

83

Sodium-water reaction acoustic noise for liquid phase injections. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Data on liquid and steam injections into sodium were recorded during a series of wastage experiments. These data are analyzed for acoustic power and spectral characteristics, expanding the data base up to 10 gm/sec injection rates from the earlier 0.5 gms/sec. No significant difference in acoustic power was measured between low temperature steam and liquid injections for the same mass flowrates. The bandwidth for steam injections is broader than for liquid injections. Reaction product deposition during water injections appears to cause a decrease in signal strength with test duration.

Callis, K.R.; Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.

1981-02-01

84

Sequential injection methodology for carbon speciation in bathing waters.  

PubMed

A sequential injection method (SIA) for carbon speciation in inland bathing waters was developed comprising, in a single manifold, the determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), free dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), total carbon (TC), dissolved organic carbon and alkalinity. The determination of DIC, CO2 and TC was based on colour change of bromothymol blue (660 nm) after CO2 diffusion through a hydrophobic membrane placed in a gas diffusion unit (GDU). For the DIC determination, an in-line acidification prior to the GDU was performed and, for the TC determination, an in-line UV photo-oxidation of the sample prior to GDU ensured the conversion of all carbon forms into CO2. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was determined by subtracting the obtained DIC value from the TC obtained value. The determination of alkalinity was based on the spectrophotometric measurement of bromocresol green colour change (611 nm) after reaction with acetic acid. The developed SIA method enabled the determination of DIC (0.24-3.5 mg C L(-1)), CO2 (1.0-10 mg C L(-1)), TC (0.50-4.0 mg C L(-1)) and alkalinity (1.2-4.7 mg C L(-1) and 4.7-19 mg C L(-1)) with limits of detection of: 9.5 ?g C L(-1), 20 ?g C L(-1), 0.21 mg C L(-1), 0.32 mg C L(-1), respectively. The SIA system was effectively applied to inland bathing waters and the results showed good agreement with reference procedures. PMID:23639397

Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

2013-05-17

85

The Cedar Project: risk factors for transition to injection drug use among young, urban Aboriginal people  

PubMed Central

Background: Studies suggest that Aboriginal people in Canada are over-represented among people using injection drugs. The factors associated with transitioning to the use of injection drugs among young Aboriginal people in Canada are not well understood. Methods: The Cedar Project is a prospective cohort study (2003–2007) involving young Aboriginal people in Vancouver and Prince George, British Columbia, who use illicit drugs. Participants’ venous blood samples were tested for antibodies to HIV and the hepatitis C virus, and drug use was confirmed using saliva screens. The primary outcomes were use of injection drugs at baseline and tranisition to injection drug use in the six months before each follow-up interview. Results: Of 605 participants, 335 (55.4%) reported using injection drugs at baseline. Young people who used injection drugs tended to be older than those who did not, female and in a relationship. Participants who injected drugs were also more likely than those who did not to have been denied shelter because of their drug use, to have been incarcerated, to have a mental illness and to have been involved in sex work. Transition to injection drug use occurred among 39 (14.4%) participants, yielding a crude incidence rate of 19.8% and an incidence density of 11.5 participants per 100 person-years. In unadjusted analysis, transition to injection drug use was associated with being female (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–3.72), involved in sex work (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.75–6.40), having a history of sexually transmitted infection (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.07–3.78) and using drugs with sex-work clients (OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.19–5.32). In adjusted analysis, transition to injection drug use remained associated with involvement in sex work (adjusted OR 3.94, 95% CI 1.45–10.71). Interpretation: The initiation rate for injection drug use of 11.5 participants per 100 person-years among participants in the Cedar Project is distressing. Young Aboriginal women in our study were twice as likely to inject drugs as men, and participants who injected drugs at baseline were more than twice as likely as those who did not to be involved in sex work.

Miller, Cari L.; Pearce, Margo E.; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Thomas, Vicky; Christian, Chief Wayne; Schechter, Martin T.; Spittal, Patricia M.

2011-01-01

86

Experiments on Effect of Water Injection Rate on Imbibition Rate in Fractured Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relationship has been established in the laboratory between rate of water injection into a simulated fracture- matrix type reservoir model and rate of imbibition. In a series of experiments involving linear countercurrent flow, it was discovered that the higher the water injection rate, the higher the imbibition rate and the greater the indicated ultimate oil recovery. Repeated runs, made

Robert Mannon; George Chilingar

1972-01-01

87

EFFECT OF OIL TYPE ON SWEEP EFFICIENCY OF WATER INJECTION UNDER FRACTURING CONDITIONS PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water injection performance depends on the oil and petrophysical reservoir properties and fluid-flow characteristics. When water is injected into the re servoir at pressures above formation fracturing pre ssure, the effects of these properties over the reservoir model perfor mance, and specially, on waterflooding sweep effici ency, become critical. Quantification of these effects, using parameters such as the Recovery Factor

Eduin Orlando Muñoz Mazo; Juan Manuel Montoya Moreno; Denis José Schiozer

88

In Situ Development of Gas Saturation by Supersaturated Water Injection in Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas saturation can develop in situ within initially water-saturated porous media by injecting a gas- supersaturated aqueous phase. Supersaturated water injection (SWI) is a novel technology with several potential applications to groundwater and soil remediation. These include supply of reactive gases for in situ bioremediation and recovery of immobile non-aqueous phase liquids trapped in the form of ganglia within the

M. Ioannidis; W. Zhao; M. Li; R. Enouy; A. Unger

2009-01-01

89

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report number 17, October--December 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-...

1995-01-01

90

Fluoride transport due to injection of reject water from RO process into the ground water through downstream bore well.  

PubMed

Fluoride removal using Reverse Osmosis has appreciable amount of fluorine in the reject stream. Disposal of reject water to surface water further contaminates the water body. It is required to dispose of this reject into the environment with minimal pollution. So a study on disposal of fluoride contaminated reject inside the ground water through bore well is done through theoretical modelling using COMSOL multiphysics software. It has been established that the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water due to injection of fluoride contaminated reject through bore well depends on the injection rate of reject inside the bore well and not on the initial background concentration of fluoride in the ground water. It has been found that for reject injection rate of 30 m3/day the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water with respect to initial background concentration of fluoride is less than 10% at a distance above 600m from the injection source after 100 years. PMID:23505817

Babu, C Anand; Agarwal, Sourabh; Sujish, D; Rajan, K K

2011-10-01

91

Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

Becker, Arthur

2006-01-01

92

Stimulation of water injection wells in the Los Angeles basin using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive stimulation program was developed to improve the injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills Hills and San Vicente Fields. In recent years the wells had low to zero injectivity and very limited vertical distribution of injected water as a result of formation damage, sand face plugging, and perforation blockage. A stimulaiton strategy was developed which sequentially removed this damage. It began with redesigning the central water plant to provide clean injection brine. The casing was mechanically cleaned. Near-wellbore solids were dissolved or loosened using hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hypochlorite (bleach); then, removed from the well by reverse circulating and suction washing. Remaining damage was treated with hydrochloric/hydrofluoric acid and bleach using circulation wash and selective squeeze techniques. Two- to three-fold improvements in injectivity after stimulation were common. Vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial 0-30% coverage to 85-95% after stimulation. 10 refs.

Clementz, D.M.; Patterson, D.E.; Aseltine, R.J.; Young, R.E.

1982-01-01

93

Detecting Water Flow Behind Pipe in Injection Wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground s...

J. T. Thornhill B. G. Benefield

1992-01-01

94

Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces.  

PubMed

The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate. PMID:24056998

Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

2013-11-01

95

Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate.The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02867d

Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

2013-10-01

96

Aquifers as Processing Plants for the Modification of Injected Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gulf Coast (Baton Rouge) Region aquifer systems offer potential for infested water storage and water composition modification. Study of natural processes on groundwater chemistry provides information on processes potentially influencing water composition ...

J. S. Hanor

1980-01-01

97

Water Injection into a Low-Permeability Rock - 1: Hydrofracture Growth  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we model water injection through a growing vertical hydrofracture penetrating a low-permeability reservoir. The results are useful in oilfield waterflood applications and in liquid waste disposal through reinjection. Using Duhamel's principle, we extend the Gordeyev and Entov (1997) self-similar 2D solution of pressure diffusion from a growing fracture to the case of variable injection pressure. The flow of water injected into a low-permeability rock is almost perpendicular to the fracture for a time sufficiently long to be of practical interest. We revisit Carter's model of 1D fluid injection (Howard and Fast, 1957) and extend it to the case of variable injection pressure. We express the cumulative injection through the injection pressure and effective fracture area. Maintaining fluid injection above a reasonable minimal value leads inevitably to fracture growth regardless of the injector design and the injection policy. The average rate of fracture growth can be predicted from early injection. A smart injection controller that can prevent rapid fracture growth is needed.

Patzek, Tad W.; Silin, Dmitriy B.

1999-07-27

98

Water Quality Evaluation of the Grand Mesa Project Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An evaluation of the Bureau of Reclamation's proposed Grand Mesa Project indicates that with adequate treatment municipal, industrial and other domestic waste loadings should not significantly affect water quality for present and projected water uses in t...

1971-01-01

99

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 15, April--June 1994  

SciTech Connect

In December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled {open_quotes}LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project{close_quotes}. The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the U.S. DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the fifteenth Technical Progress Report covering the period April 1, 1994 through the end of June 1994. Due to the power plant`s planned outage in March 1991, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1995-01-01

100

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly Report No. 16, July-September 1994  

SciTech Connect

In December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled {open_quotes}LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project{close_quotes}. The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the U.S. DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the sixteenth Technical Progress Report covering the period July 1, 1994 through the end of September 1994. Due to the power plant`s planned outage in March 1991, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1995-01-01

101

Effect of Pressure Gradient and Initial Water Saturation on Water Injection in Water-Wet and Mixed-Wet Fractured Porous Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A systematic study of the effect of wettability and initial water sat- uration on water injection and imbibition is made in Kansas out- crop chalk samples. (Kansas outcrop chalk is very similar to the rock matrix of the North Sea fractured chalk reservoirs.) Water- injection tests were conducted at different pressure gradients to simulate the effect of gravity (that

Guo-Qing Tang; Abbas Firoozabadi

2001-01-01

102

Evaluation of the effects of water agitation by air injection and water recirculation on the heat transfer coefficients in immersion cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most industrial food cooling is performed by air blast, water spraying and immersion cooling. Immersion cooling is simple, with low operational cost and leads to food quick cooling. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of water agitation method (water injection, air injection and water injection coupled to a Venturi ejector) on the average heat transfer coefficient

J. B. Laurindo; B. A. M. Carciofi; R. R. Silva; C. E. Dannenhauer; H. Hense

2010-01-01

103

Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells  

SciTech Connect

The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

1999-07-01

104

Temperature distributions and heating efficiency of oil recovery by hot water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made to investigate the temperature behavior and the controlling physical mechanisms, during hot-water injection into and through a porous medium. Both experimental and mathematical studies have been made for flow in the axial direction in a cylindrical core with the heat losses into and through a surrounding medium in a radial direction. Experiments were made by injecting

Ersoy

1969-01-01

105

Theoretical investigation of pore-scale mechanisms of carbonated water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 injection is a well-established method for enhanced oil recovery and numerous studies have been dedicated to studying this process at the pore level. An attractive enhanced oil recovery method with much better sweep efficiency, which has received less attention, is carbonated water injection. In this work, a mathematical model was developed, which simulates, at pore level, the dynamic process

Masoud Riazi; Mahmoud Jamiolahmady; Mehran Sohrabi

2011-01-01

106

Numerical simulator looks at cold-water injection and skin factor in damage assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation damage in water injection wells can create major operational problems. A pressure-falloff test is a common method to detect and evaluate damage in wells. During injection, the bottom hole pressure is higher than reservoir pressure. After the well has been shut in, the bottom hole pressure decreases. By recording and analyzing bottom hole pressure behavior, the amount of damage

F. Linge; R. A. Startzman; C. H. Wu

1985-01-01

107

Modeling Studies of Cold Water Injection into Fluid-Depleted, Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reinjection experiments in the strongly fluid-depleted reservoir of Larderello have revealed the possibility of increasing production rates and overall heat extraction by injection into high permeability, low pressure zones of the reservoir (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Cappetti et al., 1983; Bertrami et al., 1985). A large fraction (over 80%) of the injected water was recovered as steam in the most

C. Calore; K. Pruess; R. Celati

1986-01-01

108

Practical considerations in the design of oil field water injection systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recommendations for design and operation of petroleum well water injection systems are made with respect to size and geometry of components, pressures, and velocities, exclusion of oxygen, temperature effects, influence of crevices, erosion-corrosion, chemical injection, monitoring and testing, and cathodic protection. Guidelines are given concerning selection of pipe size, effects of pressure, and pressure changes, oxygen exclusion for pumps, tanks,

Patton

1977-01-01

109

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report number 14, January--March, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The host site for the $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. During this report period (January--March 1994), long-term testing was initiated. The variable frequency drive was placed back in service, but failed again after only a few days of operation. The Unit No. 2 induced draft (ID) fan motor operates at maximum amperage during peak (65 MW) boiler load. LIFAC increases system pressure drop approximately 4.5 inches of water, causing additional loading on the fan motor. A variable frequency drive (VFD) was installed as a major component of the LIFAC system. The VFD interfaces with the ID fan motor by varying motor current as the pressure drop and flue gas volume change, making the fan more efficient and decreasing the stress on the motor. The VFD has failed several times causing boiler Unit No. 2 to trip. Since the VFD has become unreliable, the LIFAC team decided to perform a test on the ID fan motor with the bypass damper fully closed and the VFD disengaged. The objective of long-term testing is to evaluate the performance and operability of the LIFAC process over a long, continuous operation period. There were a total of two test periods during this quarter. Results are presented.

Not Available

1994-11-01

110

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 8, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ``LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.`` The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. The work performed during this period (July--September 1992) was consistent with the revised Statement of Work (Scope Increase) and the approved schedule change contained in the Cooperative Agreement. During this period, emphasis was placed on startup and commissioning activities and baseline testing. Work was conducted under the three tasks comprising the Operations Phase. Summary of the work performed under these tasks is given.

Not Available

1992-12-31

111

Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consis...

A. Brankovic R. C. Ryder R. C. Hendricks N. S. Liu D. T. Shouse W. M. Roquemore

2005-01-01

112

4D Seismic Monitoring of Complex CO2 Injection Effects for Carbon Sequestration Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4D seismic monitoring is the science of repeatedly imaging the subsurface in time-lapse mode to detect and quantify dynamic changes in the earth related to space and time-variant physical properties such as fluid content, pore pressure, temperature, stress, and strain. Applications include monitoring of subsurface fluid flow, water injection, hydrocarbon production, and CO2 sequestration among others. The ability to accurately image and monitor the CO2 sequestration process, vital for quantitative measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) of carbon storage programs, depends on high-quality seismic data repeatability, and the rock and fluid physics of the CO2 in each specific storage reservoir. CO2 is injected at depths, pressures and temperatures that typically place it in the supercritical portion of its phase diagram. Additionally, CO2 flow is not inert; it reacts geochemically with the rock and fluids in pore space over time. These special features of CO2 injection create some fascinating and challenging research problems in terms of monitoring CO2 and quantifying the injection effects at depth. I present math and physics concepts that relate seismic wave propagation to the effects of CO2 injection in terms of rock and fluid properties, geomechanical deformation and geochemical reactions, and show lab and field data examples of these phenomena from around the world.

Lumley, D. E.

2011-12-01

113

Water injection experiments and discharge changes at the Nojima Fault in Awaji Island, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three boreholes (500, 800, and 1800 m) were drilled near the Nojima Fault, which is one of the Hyogoken-Nanbu Earthquake faults. Water injection experiments were conducted from the 1800-m borehole over three periods (1997\\/2\\/9-11, 2\\/12-13, 3\\/16-25). Groundwater discharge increased at the 800-m borehole during the water injections. The discharge started to increase at between one-half to one full day after

Yuuichi Kitagawa; Naoji Koizumi; Kenji Notsu; George Igarashi

1999-01-01

114

Improvement of gas-turbine-engine performance by water injection into turbine cooling air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods of reducing the temperature of the cooling air in a high-pressure turbine, one involving injection of water and the other the use of a heat exchanger, are analyzed. It is shown that even for moderate relative cooling depths of the blades (0.4-0.5), the injection of water into the cooling system makes it possible to substantially reduce the specific

G. M. Gorelov; V. P. Danilchenko; V. Y. Reznik

1985-01-01

115

Rapid quenching by supersonic expansion and injection of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaseous components or gasborne particles in flows are often sensitive to mid range temperatures, whereby unintended side products or aggregated particles develop during cooling processes. Supersonic quenching combines high gasdynamic cooling rates of dT\\/dtinjected liquid. In this manner the residence time at critical temperatures is minimized. Up to now there

T. Rakel; K. Schaber

2011-01-01

116

Theoretical investigation of the injection and evaporation of water in a hydrogen/oxygen steam generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is injected into the gas stream for the purpose of cooling the reaction products resulting from the stochiometric combustion of hydrogen with oxygen. The penetration of the jet decisively influences the temperature profile across the flow cross section in the water vapor. The penetration of the water jet into the stream is calculated using the jet shedding model and compared with the garden hose model. Models for the evaporation of water droplets in superheated steam are developed for calculating the evaporation paths. The parameters which influence the injection and evaporation process are subjected to variation and their effects in the evaporation paths are analyzed.

Beer, Stefan

1991-07-01

117

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

NONE

1995-03-01

118

Melt quenching and coolability by water injection from below: Co-injection of water and non-condensable gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of our work is

Dae H. Cho; Richard J. Page; Sherif H. Abdulla; Mark H. Anderson; Helge B. Klockow; Michael L. Corradini

2006-01-01

119

The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design  

SciTech Connect

The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

Boni, Roberto; /INFN, Rome; Guiducci, Susanna; /INFN, Rome; Preger, Miro; /INFN, Rome; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Chance, Antoine; /Saclay; Dadoun, Olivier; /Orsay, LAL; Poirier, Freddy; /Orsay, LAL; Variola, Alessandro; /Orsay, LAL; Seeman, John; /SLAC

2012-07-05

120

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 6, January--March 1992  

SciTech Connect

The LIFAC technology has similarities to other sorbent injection technologies using humidification, but employs a unique patented vertical reaction chamber located down-stream of the boiler to facilitate and control the sulfur capture and other chemical reactions. This chamber improves the overall reaction efficiency enough to allow the use of pulverized limestone rather than more expensive reagents such as lime which are often used to increase the efficiency of other sorbent injection processes. Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers - and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is successful, LIFAC will offer these important advantages over wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems; LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes; LIFAC`s overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton S0{sub 2} removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product; and LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

Not Available

1992-09-01

121

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report number 17, October--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide in the flue gas. To demonstrate the technical viability of the LIFAC process to economically reduce sulfur emissions from the Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, LIFAC NA is conducting a three-phase project: design; long lead procurement and construction; and operations. Reporting efforts and data analysis were the main focus of the project team during this reporting period. The LIFAC system has been purged and preserved and the process was not operated during the Quarter. However, results from earlier testing were received and are contained in this report.

NONE

1995-11-01

122

Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

2012-05-01

123

Water injection into a Low-Permeability Rock - 2: Control Model  

SciTech Connect

In Part 1, we have demonstrated the inevitable growth of the fluid injection hydrofractures in low-permeability rocks. Thus, a smart controller that manages fluid injection in the presence of hydrofracture extension is highly desirable. Such a controller will be an essential part of automated waterflood project surveillance and control. Here we design an optimal injection controller using methods of optimal control theory. The controller inputs are the history of the injection pressure and the cumulative injection, along with the fracture size. The output parameter is the injection pressure and the control objective is the injection rate. We demonstrate that the optimal injection pressure depends not only on the instantaneous measurements, but it is determined by the whole history of the injection and of the fracture area growth. We show the controller robustness when the inputs are delayed and noisy and when the fracture undergoes abrupt extensions. Finally, we propose a procedure that allows estimation of the hydrofracture size at no additional cost.

Silin, Dmitriy B.; Patzek, Tad W.

1999-06-01

124

Elimination of the Schlieren effect in the determination of reactive phosphorus in estuarine waters by flow-injection analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional flow-injection manifolds with sample injection for the determination of reactive phosphorus in estuarine waters are limited by the Schlieren or refractive index (RI) effect which can cause major errors in quantification. A simple flow-injection (FI) manifold which obviates this RI error in reactive phosphorus measurement is reported. It involves the injection of acidic molybdophosphate reagent into a carrier stream

Ian D. McKelvie; Darren M. W. Peat; G. Peter Matthews; Paul J. Worsfold

1997-01-01

125

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 9, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers -- and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems. LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes. LIFAC`s overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO{sub 2} removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product. LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

Not Available

1992-12-31

126

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 10, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. in comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide -- 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is successful, LIFAC will offer these important advantages over wet scrubbing systems: Relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems; less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes; overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO{sub 2} removed basis are less; produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product; and is relatively simple to operate. The site for the LIFAC demonstration is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley 2 pulverized coal-fired power station (60 MW), located in Richmond, Indiana.

Not Available

1993-09-01

127

Linear Transient Flow Solution for Primary Oil Recovery with Infill and Conversion to Water Injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the effects of primary production, producer infills and repressurization by water injection in a low-permeability, compressible, layered reservoir filled with oil, water and gas. The sample calculations are for the California Diatomites, but the equations apply to other tight rock systems. Primary oil recovery from rows of hydrofractured wells is described by linear transient flow

Eric Zwahlen; Tad W. Patzek

1997-01-01

128

Simulation of the Effect of Water Injection on Volcanic Conduit Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on the eruption process of water or steam injection into a volcanic conduit from an adjacent water-saturated stratum is studied. Both steady-state and unsteady processes are considered. The physical characteristics of these eruptions are identified. A mathematical model of such an eruption is proposed for the first time.

A. A. Barmin; O. E. Mel'nik; A. B. Starostin

2003-01-01

129

Disposal of produced waters: Undergrown injection option in the Black Warrior Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of large volumes of water produced simultaneously with coal-bed methane is a costly, environmentally sensitive problem. Underground injection into deeper, naturally fractured, low-porosity formations is feasible provided that the total dissolved solids level of these formation waters comply with Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. Greater fracture density in proximity to structures formed by Appalachian and Ouachita tectonism, along with

I. Ortiz; T. F. Weller; R. V. Anthony; D. Dziewulski; J. Lorenzen; J. H. Jr. Frantz

1993-01-01

130

Relative survival of striatal projection neurons and interneurons after intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid in rats.  

PubMed

An excitotoxic process mediated by the NMDA type glutamate receptor may be involved in striatal neuron death in Huntington's disease (HD). To explore this possibility, we have injected an NMDA-receptor-specific excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QA), into the striatum in adult rats and 2-4 months postlesion explored the relative patterns of survival for the various different types of striatal projection neurons and interneurons and for the striatal efferent fibers in the different striatal projection areas. The perikarya of specific types of striatal neurons were identified by neurotransmitter immunohistochemical labeling or by retrograde labeling from striatal target areas, while the striatal efferent fiber plexuses were identified by neurotransmitter immunohistochemical labeling. The pattern of survival for the perikarya of each neuron type as a function of distance from the center of the injection site was determined, and the relative survival of each type was compared. For the fibers in target areas, computer-assisted image analysis was used to determine the degree of fiber loss for each projection target. In the study of perikaryal vulnerability, we found that the somatostatin-neuropeptide Y (SS/NPY) interneurons were the most vulnerable to QA and the cholinergic neurons were invulnerable to QA. The perikarya of all projection neuron types (striatopallidal, striatonigral, and striato-entopeduncular) were less vulnerable than the SS/NPY interneurons and more vulnerable than the cholinergic interneurons. Among projection neuron perikarya, there was evidence of differential vulnerability, with striatonigral neurons appearing to be the most vulnerable. Examination of immunolabeled striatal fibers in the striatal target areas indicated that striato-entopeduncular fibers better survived intrastriatal QA than did striatopallidal or striatonigral fibers. The apparent order of vulnerability observed in this study among projection neurons and/or their efferent fiber plexuses and the invulnerability observed in this study of cholinergic interneurons is similar to that observed in HD. The vulnerability of the SS/NPY interneurons to QA is, however, in stark contrast to their invulnerability in HD. The results thus suggest that although the excitotoxin hypothesis of striatal neuron death in HD has merit, QA injections into adult rat striatum do not strictly mimic the outcome in HD. This suggests that either adult rats are not a completely suitable subject for mimicking HD or the HD excitotoxic process does not involve a freely circulating excitotoxin such as QA. PMID:7925841

Figueredo-Cardenas, G; Anderson, K D; Chen, Q; Veenman, C L; Reiner, A

1994-09-01

131

Oil recovery process involving the injection of thickened water  

SciTech Connect

Waterflood oil recovery process involving the use of an amphoteric polyelectrolyte as a thickening agent for mobility control. The amphoteric polyelectrolyte is a copolymer of a quaternary vinyl pyridinium sulfonate and a water-insoluble alpha olefin or hydrogenated diene. Specifically disclosed are vinyl pyridinium sulfonate-styrene block copolymers. The amphoteric polyelectrolytes are stable in high temperature and high brine environments.

Byham, D.E.; Chen, C.S.; Sheppard, E.W.

1980-09-16

132

Turbine Inlet Analysis of Injected Water Droplet Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature at which it operates at peak capacity. In order to attain this temperature in the hotter months various cooling methods are used such as refrigeration inlet cooling systems, evaporative methods, and thermal energy storage systems. One of the more widely used is the evaporative systems because it is one of the safest and easiest to utilize method. However, the behavior of water droplets within the inlet to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets behave within the inlet so that water droplets above a critical diameter will not enter the compressor and cause damage to the compressor blades. In order to do this a FLUENT simulation was constructed in order to determine the behavior of the water droplets and if any droplets remain at the exit of the inlet, along with their size. In order to do this several engineering drawings were obtained from SRP and studies in order to obtain the correct dimensions. Then the simulation was set up using data obtained from SRP and Parker-Hannifin, the maker of the spray nozzles. Then several sets of simulations were run in order to see how the water droplets behaved under various conditions. These results were then analyzed and quantified so that they could be easily understood. The results showed that the possible damage to the compressor increased with increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. This is due in part to the fact that in order to keep a constant relative humidity at varying temperatures the mass fraction of water vapor in the air must be changed. As temperature increases the water vapor mass fraction must increase in order to maintain a constant relative humidity. This in turn makes it slightly increases the evaporation time of the water droplets. This will then lead to more droplets exiting the inlet and at larger diameters.

Hargrave, Kevin

133

An Improved Simulation for Interpreting Temperature Logs in Water Injection Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors present an improved injection-well temperature simulator of the digital computer variety. This simulator offers an advantage over previous simulators in that wellbore-water heat transfer is modeled both before and after shut-in of the well. This capability allowed them to investigate possible solutions to the problem of lost profile definition in mature injection wells. They have

John Fagley; H. Fogler; R. S. Millhone

1982-01-01

134

Cold Water Injection Into Single and Two-Phase Geothermal Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximate analytical solutions are derived for cold water injection into single- and two-phase ``porous medium'' geothermal reservoirs. A numerical geothermal reservoir simulator is used to verify the applicability of the analytical solutions for pressure transient analysis. In accordance with these numerical results the analytical solutions indicate that the pressure buildup behavior during injection into either a single-phase liquid or two-phase

S. K. Garg; J. W. Pritchett

1990-01-01

135

Cold water injection into single- and two-phase geothermal reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximate analytical solutions are derived for cold water injection into single- and two-phase “porous medium” geothermal reservoirs. A numerical geothermal reservoir simulator is used to verify the applicability of the analytical solutions for pressure transient analysis. In accordance with these numerical results the analytical solutions indicate that the pressure buildup behavior during injection into either a single-phase liquid or two-phase

S. K. Garg; J. W. Pritchett

1990-01-01

136

Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

Somsel, James P.

1998-01-01

137

Investigation of the distribution and entrainment of the ECC water injected into the Upper Plenum. [PWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns related to the effectiveness of the injected water in the Westinghouse two-loop reactors during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident are addressed. Interaction of saturated water and steam in the presence of upper plenum internal structures is simulated on laboratory scale experimental apparatus using air and water as the working media. The tests were designed to explore primarily the hydrodynamic interactions.

D. Barathan; H. J. Richter; G. B. Wallis; A. Akuffo

1980-01-01

138

Biological Assessment on the Continued Long-term Operations of the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) propose to operate the Central Valley Project (CVP) and State Water Project (SWP) to divert, store, re-divert, and convey CVP and SWP (Project) water consistent...

2008-01-01

139

Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

Perkins, H. C.

1974-01-01

140

Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 ?m should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

2004-01-01

141

Injection Profile Modification in a Hot, Deep Minnelusa Water Injection Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as com...

2001-01-01

142

INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the

Lyle A. Johnson Jr

2001-01-01

143

40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60...compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection...consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine when burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection...

2010-07-01

144

Liquid nitrogen injection into water: Pressure build-up and heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned about the expansion of a small amount of liquid nitrogen injected into a relatively large pool of water and the heat transfer behaviour during the process. Both the transient pressure and temperature profiles are experimentally measured and analysed. The results show that the pressure and the rate of pressure rise increase approximately linearly with increasing injection pressure and reach, respectively, to 284 kPa and 500 kPa/s at a liquid nitrogen injection velocity of ˜0.85 m/s. The temperature varies little during the injection process due to relatively small amount of liquid nitrogen injected. A comparison of the experimental results with related work on surface boiling of cryogen suggests that the heat transfer of direct mixing be much stronger than boiling on smooth surfaces and flow boiling through smooth pipes, but comparable to the boiling on very rough surfaces and flow boiling in pipes with porous inserts. A comparison with the results generated by injecting a small amount of water into liquid cryogens shows that a higher pressure increase rate could be achieved if operating conditions are optimised to induce fragmentation. Implications of the results to cryogenic engine work output and ways to improve the performance of cryogenic engines are also discussed.

Wen, D. S.; Chen, H. S.; Ding, Y. L.; Dearman, P.

2006-10-01

145

Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

2011-01-01

146

The 2013 seismic sequence close to gas injection platform of the Castor project, offshore Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatially localized seismic sequence has originated few tens of kilometres offshore the Mediterranean coast of Spain, starting on September 5, 2013, and lasting at least until October 2013. The sequence culminated in a maximal moment magnitude Mw 4.3 earthquake, on October 1, 2013. The epicentral region is located near the offshore platform of the Castor project, where gas is conducted through a pipeline from mainland and where it was recently injected in a depleted oil reservoir, at about 2 km depth. We analyse the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and use full waveform techniques to derive absolute and relative locations, estimate depths and focal mechanisms for the largest events in the sequence (with magnitude mbLg larger than 3), and compare them to a previous event (April 8, 2012, mbLg 3.3) taking place in the same region prior to the gas injection. Moment tensor inversion results show that the overall seismicity in this sequence is characterized by oblique mechanisms with a normal fault component, with a 30° low-dip angle plane oriented NNE-SSW and a sub- vertical plane oriented NW-SE. The combined analysis of hypocentral location and focal mechanisms could indicate that the seismic sequence corresponds to rupture processes along sub- horizontal shallow surfaces, which could have been triggered by the gas injection in the reservoir,. An alternative scenario includes the iterated triggering of a system of steep faults oriented NW-SE, which were identified by prior marine seismics investigations. The most relevant seismogenic feature in the area is the Fosa de Amposta fault system, which includes different strands mapped at different distances to the coast, with a general NE-SW orientation, roughly parallel to the coastline. No significant known historical seismicity has involved this fault in the past. Our both scenarios exclude its activation, as its known orientation is inconsistent with focal mechanism results.

Cesca, Simone; Grigoli, Francesco; Heimann, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Buforn, Elisa; Maghsoudi, Samira; Blanch, Estefania; Dahm, Torsten

2014-05-01

147

Numerical Studies of High-Intensity Injection Painting for Project X  

SciTech Connect

Injection phase space painting enables the mitigation of space charge and stability issues, and will be indispensable for the Project-X at Fermilab [1], delivering high-intensity proton beams to HEP experiments. Numerical simulations of multi-turn phase space painting have been performed for the FNAL Recycler Ring, including a self-consistent space charge model. The goal of our studies was to study the injection painting with inclusion of 3D space charge, using the ORBIT tracking code. In a current scenario the painting lasts for 110 turns, twice faster, than we considered in this paper. The optimal wave-forms for painting kickers, which ensure the flatter phase distributions, should be found. So far we used a simplified model for painting kicker strength (implemented as the 'ideal bump' in ORBIT). We will include a more realistic field map for the chicane magnets. Additional stripping simulations will be combined. We developed a block for longitudinal painting, which works with arbitrary notches in incoming micro-bunch buckets. The appropriate choice of the amplitude of the second harmonic of RF field will help to flatten the RF-bucket contours, as was demonstrated in 1D simulations. Non-linear lattice issue will be also addressed.

Drozhdin, A.I.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

2009-05-01

148

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 5, October--December 1991  

SciTech Connect

LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post- furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the US DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the fifth Technical Progress Report covering the period October 1, 1991 through the end of December 1991. Due to the power plant`s planned outage schedule, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

Not Available

1991-12-31

149

Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

2008-01-01

150

Turbulence and noise suppression of a high-speed jet by water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation has been carried out on a supersonic jet of air issuing from an M=1.44 converging diverging rectangular nozzle of aspect ratio 4. Particle image velocimetry measurements of the flow field along with near field acoustic measurements were made. The effect of injection of a small amount of water (˜ 5 % of the mass flow rate of

A. Krothapalli; L. Venkatakrishnan; L. Lourenco; B. Greska; R. Elavarasan

2003-01-01

151

Diagnosis of combustion with water injection using high-speed visualization and CFDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct water injection (DWI) was newly introduced as a promising NOx reduction method for ma- rine diesel engines thanks for its easy installation requiring no major engine modification. Its true potential, however, remains uncertain for lack of both numerical and experimental investigations. In this study, the ef- fect of DWI on decreasing flame temperature was objectively examined by two simulation

H. Tajima; Koji Takasaki; L. Goldsworthy; T. Takaishi; A. Strøm; R. Masuda

152

Numerical simulation of experimental carbonated water injection (CWI) for improved oil recovery and CO 2 storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonated water injection (CWI) is a CO2-augmented waterflooding technique for improving oil recovery and CO2 storage. The oil recovery and CO2 storage benefits of CWI as compared to plain (conventional) waterflood in secondary and tertiary recovery modes were investigated experimentally and numerically through a series of coreflood experiments and detailed compositional simulation. A reservoir core, stock tank crude oil and

Nor Idah Kechut; Mahmoud Jamiolahmady; Mehran Sohrabi

2011-01-01

153

Pressure build-up and fall-off analysis of water injection tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytic solution is presented for the pressure response during nonisothermal water injection testing of an oil reservoir. The validity of the method is demonstrated by comparison with results of numeric simulation studies and its application is illustrated by means of field examples. The method allows reservoir characteristics (including transmissivity, mobility ratio, and skin factor) to be determined from short-term

D. K. Woodward; R. K. M. Thambynayagam

1983-01-01

154

Influence of capillary forces on water injection into hot rock, saturated with superheated vapour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a theoretical study and numerical analysis of the role of capillary pressure of cold water injection into depleted geothermal reservoirs are presented. A simplified 1-D mathematical model is developed, that describes the motion of a sharp vaporization front. Some asymptotic estimates for a wide range of parameters are given and a similarity solution is derived. Analytical results

G. G. Tsypkin; C. Calore

2007-01-01

155

The Simulation of Water-Injection Performance for a Well With a Propagating Fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Idd el Shargi Shuaiba reservoir, offshore Qatar, is a low permeability (generally less than 5 md) chalky limestone which currently is being produced under natural depletion. Consideration is being given to developing the field as a pattern flood and, as part of the data collection program, a water injection test was conducted in well No. IS-35. The fracture propagation

C. W. Cottrell; Al S. A

1983-01-01

156

Grid orientation and capillary pressure effects in the simulation of water injection into depleted vapor zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spatial orientation of finite difference computational grids can strongly influence numerical simulations of water injection into vapor zones. Robust numerical behavior is seen in two-dimensional areal models, while extreme sensitivity to grid orientation is found in vertical sections. Mathematical analysis of finite difference approximations provides insight into the nature and strength of grid effects and leads to the concept

K PRUESS

1991-01-01

157

Using Ultraviolet Radiation for Controlling Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Injection Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and field experiments have shown that ultraviolet light may be as effective a treatment for microbial control in injection waters as many biocides. In many cases, the use of ultraviolet light is less expensive. The ultraviolet unit must be properly designed and constructed, and the effectiveness of the unit must be determined by a bioassay rather than by physical

J. B. Clark; J. C. Luppens; P. T. Tucker

1984-01-01

158

Laboratory measurements of elastic properties of carbonate rocks during injection of reactive CO2-saturated water  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the coupled physical and chemical effects of injecting CO2-rich water into carbonate rock samples, we monitor the elastic and transport properties of six carbonate rocks, along with the calcium content and pH of the pore fluid under constant confining pressure. Carbonate samples range from calcite limestones containing dolomite to pure calcite mudstones, which allow us to study how

Stéphanie Vialle; Tiziana Vanorio

2011-01-01

159

Analysis of boron injection transients in pressurized water reactors at natural circulation conditions  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this paper is to analyze boron injection transients at natural circulation conditions in anticipation of preoperational testing in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The results of the analysis are expected to aid in identifying important phenomena affecting the mixing process and to help to define the measurements needed to assess the results of such tests.

Perkins, K.R.; Bari, R.A.; Cazzoli, E.G.

1981-01-01

160

Influence of Cold Water Injection on Residual Oil Saturation of Multilayered Oil Reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study contains information on the results of some calculations describing the influence of cold-water injection on oil output from a multilayered oil reservoir. It is shown that there exists a real possibility of a complete or almost complete loss in productivity of a low-permeable sublayer adjacent to a highly permeable one, due to the filtration resistance's redistribution under the

L. Rubinstein

1975-01-01

161

Attic oil reservoir recovery method. [includes inspection of water excluding agent into well bore viscinity after its gas injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a conventional attic oil reservoir recovery program wherein gas is injected through a well into an attic reservoir, the gas then migrating updip and displacing oil downward to the producing interval in the well wherefrom the oil is then produced, the improvement is added wherein at the completion of the gas injection step, a water excluding agent is injected

Clauset

1980-01-01

162

Study on Using the Water Alternating Gas Injection Technologic to Improve the Ultra Low Permeability Reservoir Recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

To rationally develop low permeability reservoir, enhanced oil recovery, Changqing Oilfield launched a special low permeability oil field development studies. Based Changqing oilfield Yanhewan block this typical ultra-low permeability reservoir, use the numerical simulation method simulate the instability of water injection and gas injection alternating different effects of the development. The simulation results show that injection cycle in the early

Zhang Yi; Zhang Ning-sheng; Li Jun-gang; Shi Hai-xia; Tong Xiao-hua

2010-01-01

163

Water governance within Kenya's Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin: Assessing the performance of water projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change processes are projected to change the availability and seasonality of streamflow with dramatic implications for irrigated agricultural systems. Within mountain environments, this alteration in water availability may be quite pronounced over a relatively short distance as upstream users with first access to river water directly impact the availability of water to downstream users. Livelihood systems that directly depend on river water for both domestic consumption and practices such as irrigated agriculture are particularly vulnerable. The Mount Kenya region is an exemplary case of a semi-arid upstream-downstream system in which water availability rapidly decreases and directly impacts the livelihoods of river water users existing across this steep environmental gradient. To effectively manage river water within these water-scarce environs, water projects have been established along the major rivers of the Mount Kenya region. These water projects are responsible for managing water within discrete sub-catchments of the region. While water projects develop rules that encourage the responsible use of water and maintenance of the project itself, the efficiency of water allocation to the projects' members remains unclear. This research analyzes water projects from five sub-catchments on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya. It utilizes data from household surveys and water project management surveys as well as stream gauge data and flow measurements within individual water projects to assess the governance structure and performance of water projects. The performance of water projects is measured through a variety of household level metrics including: farm-level water flow and volume over time, mean and variability in maize yield, per capita crop productivity, household-level satisfaction with water availability, number of days where water volume was insufficient for irrigation, and quantity harvested compared with expected quantity harvested. We present results demonstrating the heterogeneity of these individual measures and discuss the influence of topography, network design, household behaviors and water governance on the overall performance of these water projects. This work is the foundation for an agent-based model of these water projects that investigates the impact of climate change and population pressure on sustained agricultural production in the region. Additionally, the study highlights the utility of pairing distinct fields of scholarship by utilizing both survey responses and hydrological data to study complex social-ecological systems. This pairing allows for insights regarding governance structures that are effectively managing river water in the present and helps to understand the structures that may be suitable for future water management.

McCord, P. F.; Evans, T. P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Gower, D.; McBride, L.; Caylor, K. K.

2013-12-01

164

Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water sampling and numerical modeling were used to estimate ground-water nutrient fluxes in the Kihei area of Maui, where growth of macroalgae (seaweed) on coral reefs raises ecologic concerns and accumulation on beaches has caused odor and removal problems. Fluxes and model results are highly approximate, first-order estimates because very few wells were sampled and there are few field data to constrain model calibration. Ground-water recharge was estimated to be 22.6 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) within a 73-square-mile area having a coastline length of 8 miles or 13 km (kilometers). Nearly all of the recharge discharges at the coast because ground-water withdrawals are small. Another 3.0 Mgal/d of tertiary-treated wastewater effluent is injected into the regional aquifer at a County treatment plant midway along the coast and about a mile from shore. The injection plume is 0.93 miles wide (1.5 km) at the shore, as estimated from a three-dimensional numerical ground-water model. Wastewater injected beneath the brackish ground-water lens rises buoyantly and spreads out at the top of the lens, diverting and mixing with ambient ground water. Ground water discharging from the core of the injection plume is less than 5 years old and is about 60 percent effluent at the shore, according to the model. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in treated effluent were 7.33 and 1.72 milligrams per liter, roughly 6 and 26 times background concentrations at an upgradient well. Background nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes carried by ground water are 7.7 and 0.44 kg/d-km (kilograms per day per kilometer of coast). Injected wastewater fluxes distributed across the plume width are 55 and 13 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly 7 and 30 times background flux. However, not all of the injected load reaches coastal waters because nutrients are naturally attenuated in the oxygen-depleted effluent plume. Water from a downgradient well reflects this attenuation and provides a more conservative estimate of injection flux approaching the shore: 27 and 1.5 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly one-half and one-ninth the injection-source estimates, and 3.5 and 3.4 times background flux. Effluent has 8 O and 2 H stable-isotope signatures that are distinct from local ground water, as well as 15 N and 11 B signatures diagnostic of domestic waste and laundry detergents, respectively. Pharmaceuticals and organic wastewater compounds also were present in effluent and the downgradient well. These isotopes and chemicals served as wastewater tracers in Kihei ground water and may be useful tracers in nearshore marine waters and aquifers elsewhere in Hawaii.

Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

2007-01-01

165

The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.  

PubMed

SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

2014-01-01

166

The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships

P. R. Houser; W. Lapenta; R. Schiffer

2008-01-01

167

14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

168

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

169

Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

Smith, R. L.; Baumgartner, L. K.; Miller, D. N.; Repert, D. A.; Bohlke, J. K.

2006-01-01

170

Water Quality Demonstration Project, Allen County, Ohio.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project demonstrated to farmers throughout the county, on a voluntary basis, the effects and economics of conservation tillage. An intense educational program was provided, no-till equipment made available and technical assistance was also provided to...

B. A. Seibert D. M. Vigh

1986-01-01

171

INJECTION ACCELERATION AND EXTRACTION OF HIGH INTENSITY PROTON BEAM FOR THE NEUTRINO FACILITY PROJECT AT BNL.  

SciTech Connect

The proposed ''neutrino-production'' project [1.2] to be built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) requires that the neutrino-production target be bombarded by a high intensity proton beam-pulse of {approx} 90 x 10{sup 12} protons of 28 GeV in energy and at a rate of 2.5 Hz, resulting in a 1 MW power of proton beam deposited on the target for the production of the neutrinos. In this paper we investigate the possibility of producing this high intensity proton beam, using as the main accelerator the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The following aspects of the project are reported in this paper: (a) The beam injection into the AGS synchrotron of 1.2 GeV H{sup -} beam produced by a super-conducting LINAC[3]; (b) The effect of the eddy currents induced on the vacuum chamber of the circulating beam during the ''ramping'' of the main magnets of the AGS; (c) The method of the beam extraction from the AGS and the optics of the 28 GeV beam extracted from the AGS.

Tsoupas, N; Barton, D; Ganetis, G; Jain, A; Lee, Y; Marneris, I; Meng, W; Raparia, D; Roser, T; Ruggiero, A; Tuozzolo, J; Wanderer, P

2003-05-12

172

Microbial fouling and clean-up operations in water injection wells  

SciTech Connect

During secondary oil recovery water injection may introduce bacteria into the formation. The microorganisms adhere to the rock surfaces, produce slimes and plug the formation halting oil recovery. The fouling generally is composed of a combination of bacteria (organic matter) and trapped inorganic particles. The authors have investigated effective clean-up operations of microbially fouled surfaces using sequences of acids and bleaches. The bleach must be injected first to dissolve the bacteria and release the inorganic component for acid treatment. The strategy was not successful if reversed. Bleach concentrations as low as 1% effectively removed bacterial fouling.

Cusack, F.; Lappin-Scott, H.M.; Costerton, J.W.; Brown, D.R.; Clementz, D.M.

1988-05-01

173

Hydrologic data for 1994-96 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents data on precipitation, water levels, and water quality that have been collected or compiled for water years 1994 through 1996 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program, under the guidance of the Bureau of Reclamation. This is the second report for the project. The first report (Carter, 1995) presented data collected through water year 1993. The purpose of the Huron Project is to demonstrate the artificial recharge potential of glacial aquifers in eastern South Dakota. High flows from the James River during spring runoff were used as a source of supplemental recharge for the Warren aquifer, which is a buried, glacial aquifer. In 1990, 70 observation wells were installed by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) specifically for this study, and 15 existing DENR observation wells were incorporated into the study. In 1993, the recharge well was installed. After a trial injection of recharge water in April 1994, continuous injection began in June 1994. Many sites were monitored to obtain information before, during, and after recharging the aquifer. This report presents data that were collected during the three phases of recharge. Precipitation data are collected at two sites within the study area. A site description and daily precipitation for water years 1994-95 are presented for one precipitation site. Water-level hydrographs are presented for the 85 observation wells and the recharge well. Hydrographs are shown for the period from October 1, 1993, through November 29, 1995. Recharge water was injected from June 2, 1994, through July 29, 1994, and from June 14, 1995, through September 13, 1995. The cumulative volume of injected water and the injection rates into the aquifer are presented for the periods of recharge. Water-quality data were collected from screening, detailed, and plume-monitoring sampling programs. Screening water-quality data for six observation wells are presented. These data include primarily field parameters and common ions. The four detailed sampling sites represent the quality of untreated water, treated water, and ground water from the Warren aquifer. Data presented for the detailed sampling program include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, total organic carbon, herbicides, insecticides, and volatile organic compounds. Water-quality data for the plume-monitoring sampling program were collected from 25 sites during injection of recharge water into the Warren aquifer in 1994 and 1995. The data for the plume-monitoring program include primarily field parameters and common ions. Data for quality-assurance samples also are presented.

Carter, J. M.

1996-01-01

174

Gas exsolution and flow during supersaturated water injection in porous media: II. Column experiments and continuum modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degassing and in situ development of a mobile gas phase takes place when an aqueous phase equilibrated with a gas at a pressure higher than the subsurface pressure is injected in water-saturated porous media. This process, which has been termed supersaturated water injection (SWI), is a novel and hitherto unexplored means of introducing a gas phase in the subsurface. We

R. Enouy; M. Li; M. A. Ioannidis; A. J. A. Unger

2011-01-01

175

ICPP water inventory study project summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Water inventory Study was initiated in September 1993 with the formation of a joint working group consisting of representatives from DOE-ID, State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, US Geological Survey, and INEL employees to investigate three issues that had been identified by the INEL Oversight Program at ICPP: (1) the water inventory imbalance at ICPP, (2) the source of water infiltrating into the Tank Farm vault sumps, and (3) the source of water providing potential recharge to perched water bodies underlying ICPP. These issues suggested that water was being lost from the ICPP distribution system. The INEL Oversight Program was concerned that the unaccounted for water at ICPP could be spreading contaminants that have been released over the past 40 years of operations of ICPP, possibly to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This report summarizes the findings of each of the component investigations that were undertaken to resolve each of the three issues. Concerns about the risk of spreading contaminants will be resolved as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study being undertaken at ICPP in compliance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order between DOE-H), EPA, and the State of Idaho. This report will be a key input to that study.

Richards, B.T.

1994-01-01

176

Proton magnetic resonance imaging of flow motion of heavy water injected into a hollow fiber dialyzer filled with saline.  

PubMed

Observations using MRI were performed for the motion of heavy water injected into a hollow fiber dialyzer. A cylindrical dialyzer houses a bundle of 10,000 hollow fibers. Because blood components permeate through the hollow fiber membrane from the interior to the exterior of the hollow fiber, which is the dialysate flow path, uniformity of dialysate flow is required. The dialyzer was initially filled with saline and heavy water was injected into the inlet port of the dialysate flow path. MRI tuned for protons could distinguish the injected heavy water from the already present saline. Due to the specific gravity difference, MRI could observe the sedimentation of the injected heavy water flowing beneath the already present saline. The uniformity of the dialysate flow was supported by the finding that the injected heavy water brought about uniform sedimentation and distributed the already present saline uniformly throughout the entire volume of the dialyzer. PMID:15062937

Osuga, T; Obata, T; Ikehira, H

2004-04-01

177

Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

1973-01-01

178

Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water to meet all domestic demands. Domestic water supply must be accompanied by appropriate sanitation and hygienic education.

Peter, Graciana

179

Robustness and uncertainties in global water scarcity projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity is both a natural and human-made phenomenon and defined as the condition where there are insufficient water resources to satisfy long-term average requirements. Many regions of the world are affected by this chronic imbalance between renewable water resources and water demand leading to depletion of surface water and groundwater stocks. Total freshwater abstraction today amounts to 3856 km³ of which 70% are withdrawn by the agricultural sector, followed by the industry (19%) and domestic sectors (11%) (FAO 2010). Population growth and consumption change have led to threefold increase in total water withdrawals in the last 60 years through a rising demand for electricity, industrial and agricultural products, and thus for water (Flörke et al. 2013). The newly developed "Shared Socio-Economic Pathways" (SSPs) project global population to increase up to 7.2 or even 14 billion people by 2100 (O'Neill et al. 2012); and meeting future water demand in sufficient quantity and quality is seen as one of the key challenges of the 21st century. So far, the assessment of regional and global water-scarcity patterns mostly focused on climate change impacts by driving global hydrological models with climate projections from different GCMs while little emphasis has been put on the water demand side. Changes in future water scarcity, however, are found to be mainly driven by changes in water withdrawals (Alcamo et al. 2007, Hanasaki et al. 2012), i.e. sensitivity to climate change outweighs exposure. Likewise, uncertainties have mainly been assessed in relation to the spread among climate scenarios and from global hydrological models (GHMs) (Haddeland et al. 2011, 2013; Schewe et al. 2013, Wada et al. 2013) while the contribution of water use modelling related to total uncertainty remains largely unstudied. The main objective of this study is to address the main uncertainties related to both climate and socio-economic impacts on global and regional water scarcity, and to provide robust and consistent conclusions to be used for decision making. The analysis is based on an ensemble of hydrological and water demand projections for the 21st century as simulated by three state-of-the-art global hydrological and water use models forced by climate projections of five global circulation models and socio-economic drivers corresponding to SSP2. The GHM-ensemble shows reasonable agreement in projected domestic and irrigation water withdrawals whilst there is a large discrepancy between the projections of industrial water withdrawals which translates into considerable uncertainty in temporal and spatial water-scarcity patterns. Consequently, impact assessments need to consider water demand as an additional dimension of uncertainty to assess both exposure and sensitivity to climate change.

Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide

2014-05-01

180

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects was written for non-economists working in the planning, implementation, and management of water supplies. Created by the Asian Development Bank, the handbook is a resource guide to help staff of government agencies, financing institutions, and water utilities understand the principles of economic analysis of water supply projects. Written in easy-to-understand language, the handbook consists of nine chapters, each with separate tables of contents, with titles such as "Least Cost Analysis," "Demand Analysis and Forecasting," and "Sensitivity and Risk Analysis." Each chapter is available only in .pdf format and must be downloaded separately. Also included are an appendix and glossary.

1999-01-01

181

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

182

Construction Quality Control System of Key Water-Control Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of key water-control project is important to the improvement of national prosperity, stability and economic development. The quality control in the construction of the key water-control project is much a difficult work. So this paper tries to form a construction quality control system. It mainly contains construction quality pre-control system, construction quality process control system, optimization of the

Wang Qin; He Yabo

2010-01-01

183

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site.

Not Available

1994-02-01

184

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) describes planned water sampling activities and provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water sampling in 1994 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Maybell, Colorado. The WSAP identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies at the site. The ground water data will be used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for the ground water and surface water monitoring activities is derived from the EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993) and the proposed EPA standards of 1987 (52 FR 36000). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. This WSAP also includes a summary and the results of water sampling activities from 1989 through 1992 (no sampling was performed in 1993).

Not Available

1994-06-01

185

ICPP injection well alternative project, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) portion of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been obtaining water needed for its operations from the Snake River aquifer, which occupies the entire region underlying the site. Most of this water has been used for cooling operating equipment, while a small portion has found various process uses. After passing through the ICPP process area, these waters are then returned to the aquifer. A small portion (about 1%) of the returned stream contains measurable amounts of radioactivity derived from the miscellaneous process users. This report and the recommendations contained herein are based upon stream flows projected for 1985 as supplied by DOE for the ICPP. 26 different alternatives for handling cooling water, chemical, and low level radioactive water disposal are examined. These cases are considered from technical, environmental, safety, and economic points of view. The level of detail is sufficient to eliminate non-viable cases, and to identify those which offer improvements over present practice. The Environmental/Safety Risk Factors were evaluated on a qualitative comparison basis only. Before a recommended improvement is incorporated into the waste disposal system, a conceptual design study should be made which would evaluate all those secondary effects and environmental factors that, by the very nature of the screening process, this study has not provided. Certain synergistic combinations have been noted and are discussed. This report does note whether the operations considered are in regulatory compliance, or are likely to be capable of providing lasting improvement to the waste water system. Qualitative comparisons were made between the various alternatives to confirm their relationship with applicable standards.

Not Available

1980-10-01

186

Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones  

SciTech Connect

Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

1995-01-01

187

A collaborative design appraisal system for water treatment engineering projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water treatment projects usually involve large capital investment. Design appraisal is crucial to ensure project quality and cost effectiveness. The aim of design appraisal is to give the design team an opportunity to evaluate a proposed solution at the design stage when the benefits for change are high and cost is low. Design appraisal is a collaborative decision-making process that

M Sun; N Bakis; G Aouad

2003-01-01

188

Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

Tillman, Gus

189

Lessons Learned from a Third World Water and Sanitation Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The seven-step project cycle used in a water sanitation project in Belize from 1986-89 is described. The direct involvement of community organizations, village councils, family gatherings, parent-teacher organizations, political groups, Village Health Committees, and volunteer organizations is emphasized. (CW)

Jenkins-McLean, Terri

1991-01-01

190

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m(exp 3), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6 degrees. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

Caton, J. A.; Payne, S. E.; Terracina, D. P.; Kihm, K. D.

191

Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31

192

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project: A project proposed by: LIFAC North America, Inc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a project proposed by LIFAC North America, Inc., (LIFAC NA). The host site will be a coal-fired powerplant of Richmond Power & Light in Indiana. LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of ...

1990-01-01

193

Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA

Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Laura Cadonati; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterji; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; H. arald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

2009-01-01

194

TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project  

SciTech Connect

This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

1991-06-01

195

Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

1992-01-01

196

Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.; Berger, Brett

1987-01-01

197

Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The

Antonia Concetta Elia; Alessia Fanetti; Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr; Maria I. Taticchi

2008-01-01

198

Geochemical consequences of treated waste water injection at The Geysers, USA geothermal field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of treated waste water (SRWW) from the City of Santa Rosa, CA, was considered as a means to increase liquid reserves in The Geysers, a vapor-dominated geothermal field in Northern California. The authors conducted a study to evaluate the geochemical effects of this process. Computer modelling using EQ3\\/6 permitted comparison of mineral preciptiation\\/dissolution effects between SRWW and two current

H. R. Crecraft; B. A. Koenig

1989-01-01

199

Simulation of water injection in an oil rim reservoir of the barrier bar type in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-dimensional model study was performed on a typical Niger Delta reservoir in a low-relief rollover structure associated with growth faulting. Detailed description of sedimentological characteristics and subsequent reservoir subdivision were essential for successful well-by-well history matching, accounting for cusping and coning of gas and water. Predictions led to an optimum injection policy by which ultimate recovery may be almost

K. J. Weber; P. H. Klootwyk; J. Konieczek; W. R. vander Vlugt

1977-01-01

200

Technical and economic evaluation of diesel engine with oxygen enrichment and water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical and economic feasibility of diesel engines for stationary cogeneration applications using oxygen-enriched combustion air, water injection, and low-grade fuels was examined. The effects of these modifications on the diesel engine were studied with a computer simulation: results are presented in a companion paper. Four methods of oxygen enrichment, purchases LOX, cryogenic separation, pressure-swing adsorption (PSA), and membrane enrichment (ME)

R. L. Cole; R. R. Sekar; T. J. Marciniak; F. Stodolsky

1990-01-01

201

Using ultraviolet radiation for controlling sulfate-reducing bacteria in injection water  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and field experiments have shown that ultraviolet light may be as effective a treatment for microbial control in injection waters as many biocides. In many cases, the use of ultraviolet light is less expensive. The ultraviolet unit must be properly designed and constructed, and the effectiveness of the unit must be determined by a bioassay rather than by physical measurements. Experimental results are presented and recommendations for design and use of ultraviolet units are given.

Clark, J.B.; Luppens, J.C.; Tucker, P.T.

1984-09-01

202

Automatic Sampler Coupled with Flow Injection-Chemiluminescence Detection to Monitor Particle\\/Natural Water Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic sampler for natural waters under LabVIEW control is described. The sampler was integrated with an incubation system and coupled with a flow injection?chemiluminescence detection system to study the dissolution of aerosol iron in seawater at environmentally relevant concentrations. Automated sampling of seawater was achieved using a peristaltic pump and a 10?way distribution valve. The software allows full control

Marie J. M. Séguret; Simon J. Ussher; Paul J. Worsfold; Malcolm Nimmo; John W. Wood

2008-01-01

203

N /SUB a/ N-dimethylacrylamide copolymer injection water viscosifier for enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

High molecular weight N,N-dimethylacrylamide copolymers and terpolymers were synthesized. These polymers offer outstanding advantages as injection water viscosifiers in enhanced oil recovery processes including chemical, miscible, and steam or in processes requiring profile improvement through adsorption and/or gelation. They are very valuable in applications where high salinity is a problem since they are relatively insensitive to metal salts (such as those containing polyvalent ions, such as Ca/sup + +/ and Mg/sup + +/).

Castner, K. F.

1985-07-02

204

Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

Andrews, W. J.

1994-01-01

205

Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.  

PubMed

Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled. PMID:18799199

Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

2008-11-15

206

Effects of Water Injection into Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs: A Summary of Experience Worldwide  

SciTech Connect

Reinjection of water into fractured geothermal reservoirs holds potential both for improvement and degradation of total energy recovery. The replacement of reservoir fluid can mean support of placement of reservoir pressures and also more efficient thermal energy recovery, but at the same time the premature invasion of reinjected water back into production wells through high permeability fractures can reduce discharge enthalpy and hence deliverability and useful energy output. Increases in reservoir pressure and maintenance of field output have been observed in operating fields, but unfortunately so too have premature thermal breakthroughs. The design of reinjection schemes, therefore, requires careful investigation into the likely effects, using field experimentation. This paper summarizes field experience with reinjection around the world, with the intention of elucidating characteristics of possible problems. The results summarized in this paper fall into three categories of interest: permeability changes dye to injection (both increases and decreases); the path followed by injected water (as indicated by tracer tests); and the thermal and hydraulic influences of injection on the reinjection well itself and on surrounding producers. [DJE-2005

Horne, Roland N.

1982-06-01

207

Assessment of TRAC-PF1 Condensation Heat Transfer Model for Analysis of ECC Water Injection Transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct contact condensation of vapor occurs after injection of emergency core cooling (ECC) water during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a light water reactor (LWR). Despite that vapor condensation may have large influences on system thermal-hydraulic responses, it is difficult to predict the condensation rate accurately during ECC water injection. This difficulty sometimes results in considerable discrepancy between predicted and

Hideaki ASAKA; Yoshio MURAO; Yutaka KUKITA

1989-01-01

208

Analysis of Direct Contact Condensation of Flowing Steam onto Injected Water with Multifluid Model of Two-Phase Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

When subcooled water in accumulator tanks is injected during a loss-of-coolant accident of a pressurized water reactor, violent condensation takes place in cold legs because of direct contact of steam with water. A flow model based on the multifluid model of the two-phase flow has been developed to formulate the condensation and mixing processes in the injection region. The measured

Hajime AKIMOTO; Yoshiyuki KOZAWA; Akira INOUE; Shigebumi AOKI

1983-01-01

209

Native Waters: An American Indian Water Resource Education Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This community education initiative supports the efforts of Native American tribal leaders, educators, and students to develop contemporary, scientifically accurate, and culturally sensitive water education resources, programs, and networking opportunities. A traveling exhibit provides a Native American point of view on protection and conservation of water resources. A teachers' guide is provided to accompany the exhibit. Other materials include learning opportunities for students and educators, news articles, publications, scholarship information, and links to related information.

2004-01-01

210

Evaluation of water-injection impacts for gas-turbine NOx control at compressor stations. Topical report, June-September 1989  

SciTech Connect

Acurex reviewed and analyzed data on operational impacts of water injection to control NOx emissions from gas turbines used in gas compression service and developed cost estimates. At a water/fuel (W/F) ratio of 1.0, weight basis, NOx from gas turbines can be reduced by as much as 70 to 80 percent. The performance is accompanied by a thermal efficiency loss of 2 to 3 percent and an increase in CO and hydrocarbon emissions. Although water injection is a mature technology that has been in use for about 15 years on numerous utility and cogeneration installations, operational experience and cost data for application on gas transmission engines are lacking. Costs published to date for water injection have not sufficiently addressed the incremental cost of increased turbine maintenance. Additionally, the cost to secure large quantities of water at remote locations, where many existing compressor station turbines operate, can significantly impact the economics of retrofit project. The life-cycle costs for such retrofit were estimated in the $8,000 to $12,000 per ton of NOx removed, influenced by site-specific factors such as water availability and quality, size of engine, degree of NOx control, and increased maintenance.

Castaldini, C.

1990-06-01

211

Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

Lacombe, P. J.

1996-01-01

212

Experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit characteristics at superheated water injection into a compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results from experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit (GTU) characteristics at injection of cold and superheated (metastable) water to the inlet of the GTU compressor are presented. In the latter case, the finer water atomization is obtained. The water injection makes it possible to considerably increase the unit power. At a constant temperature of the working fluid downstream of the turbine combustion chamber, water injection in an amount of 1% of the air flow rate provides an increase in the turbine power by approximately 12% and expands GTU controlling potentialities. The use of the metastable superheated water atomization enables one to more reliably implement the technology of water injection into a compressor, especially into intermediate compressor stages. However, it requires accounting for operational conditions of particular installation. Due to small water droplet residence time in the compressor flow path, even with fine water atomization, in aircraft engine derivative power turbines, about 15-20% of moisture injected have no time to completely evaporate within the compressor. When injecting cold water, this figure is from 5 to 10% larger.

Favorskii, O. N.; Alekseev, V. B.; Zalkind, V. I.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Ivanov, P. P.; Marinichev, D. V.; Nizovskii, V. L.; Nizovskii, L. V.

2014-05-01

213

Air Sparging Versus Gas Saturated Water Injection for Remediation of Volatile LNAPL in the Borden Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the shallow, rather homogeneous, unconfined Borden sand aquifer, field trials of air sparging (Tomlinson et al., 2003) and pulsed air sparging (Lambert et al., 2009) have been conducted, the latter to remediate a residual gasoline source emplaced below the water table. As well, a supersaturated (with CO2) water injection (SWI) technology, using the inVentures inFusion system, has been trialed in two phases: 1. in the uncontaminated sand aquifer to evaluate the radius of influence, extent of lateral gas movement and gas saturation below the water table, and 2. in a sheet pile cell in the Borden aquifer to evaluate the recovery of volatile hydrocarbon components (pentane and hexane) of an LNAPL emplaced below the water table (Nelson et al., 2008). The SWI injects water supersaturated with CO2. The supersaturated injected water moves laterally away from the sparge point, releasing CO2 over a wider area than does gas sparging from a single well screen. This presentation compares these two techniques in terms of their potential for remediating volatile NAPL components occurring below the water table in a rather homogeneous sand aquifer. Air sparging created a significantly greater air saturation in the vicinity of the sparge well than did the CO2 system (60 percent versus 16 percent) in the uncontaminated Borden aquifer. However, SWI pushed water, still supersaturated with CO2, up to about 2.5 m from the injection well. This would seem to provide a considerable advantage over air sparging from a point, in that gas bubbles are generated at a much larger radius from the point of injection with SWI and so should involve additional gas pathways through a residual NAPL. Overall, air sparging created a greater area of influence, defined by measurable air saturation in the aquifer, but air sparging also injected about 12 times more gas than was injected in the SWI trials. The pulsed air sparging at Borden (Lambert et al.) removed about 20 percent (4.6 kg) of gasoline hydrocarbons, mainly pentane and hexane, from the residual gasoline via sparging. A similar mass was estimated to have been removed by aerobic biodegradation. The extent of volatile recovery needs to be better defined and so post-sparging coring and analysis of residual LNAPL is underway. Impressively, the second SWI trial recovered more than 60 percent of the pentane-hexane from the NAPL. In both field experiments there was potential for minor additional recovery if the system had been operated longer. Comparison of efficiency of the pulsed air sparging and SWI systems is difficult in that the initial LNAPL residuals have different chemistry, but similar distribution, different volumes of gas were used, and biodegradation accounted for a significant removal of hydrocarbons only in the air sparging system. The SWI trial recovered an impressive portion of the volatile LNAPL, while using considerably less gas than the air sparging system, but the SWI delivery system was both more complex and more expensive than the air sparging system. Additional trials are underway in more complex aquifers to further assess the performance of the SWI technology, including costs and practical limitations.

Barker, J.; Nelson, L.; Doughty, C.; Thomson, N.; Lambert, J.

2009-05-01

214

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1996-02-01

215

BELTWAY 8 WETLAND WATER QUALITY PROJECT: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR STORM WATER POLISHING AND WETLAND MITIGATION BANKING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Harris County Flood Control District is implementing a wetland mitigation bank project that includes highway runoff as a significant water source. Part of this project is being implemented in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation through funding from the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act for water quality improvement. This collaborative effort includes treatment and final polishing of storm

Robert Knight; Robert Adams; C OBRIEN; Eduardo Davis

1998-01-01

216

Performance of J-33-A-21 and J-33-A-23 Compressors with and without Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an investigation of the J-33-A-21 and the J-33-A-23 compressors with and without water injection, it was discovered that the compressors reacted differently to water injection although they were physically similar. An analysis of the effect of water injection on compressor performance and the consequent effect on matching of the compressor and turbine components in the turbojet engine was made. The analysis of component matching is based on a turbine flow function defined as the product of the equivalent weight flow and the reciprocal of the compressor pressure ratio.

Beede, William L.

1948-01-01

217

LARGE-SCALE PHYSICAL MODELING OF WATER INJECTION INTO GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIRS AND CORRELATION TO SELF POTENTIAL MEASUREMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory measurements of electric self potentials resulting from water injection through a known flow path in a 260 mm cube of Nugget sandstone are used to calibrate a new large-scale testing device that simulates the in-situ conditions at an injection point in a geothermal reservoir. Modeled in-situ temperatures were 20 ?C and 150?C, while injection pressures were varied from 1

Jeffrey R. Moore; Steven D. Glaser; H. Frank Morrison

218

Stimulation of water injection wells, in the Los Angeles basin by using sodium hypochlorite and mineral acids  

SciTech Connect

A stimulation program was developed to improve injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills and San Vicente fields. Damage materials were removed by stimulating the wells with bleach and acid using a variety of tools and techniques. Two- to three-fold injectivity improvements were common, and vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial coverage of 0 to 30% to 85 to 95% after stimulation.

Clementz, D.M.; Aseltine, R.J.; Patterson, D.E.; Young, R.E.

1982-09-01

219

Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of \\

Karsten Pruess; Nicolas Spycher; Timothy J. Kneafsey

2007-01-01

220

The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

1973-01-01

221

40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection...Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60...NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to...emission limit for the turbine, you may...

2013-07-01

222

40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection...Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60...NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to...emission limit for the turbine, you may...

2010-07-01

223

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters.

Not Available

1994-04-01

224

Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y\\/SUB\\/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record

Field

2007-01-01

225

Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.  

PubMed

More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management. PMID:18157611

Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

2008-11-01

226

Water development projects and marital violence: experiences from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the implications of a groundwater development project on women's workload and their experience of marital violence in a Bangladesh village. We believe that the project facilitated irrigation water but also that it resulted in seasonal domestic water shortages. Men used deep motorized pumps for irrigation, and women used shallow handpumps for domestic purposes. Many handpumps dried out, so women had to walk to distant wells. This increased their workload and challenged their possibilities of fulfilling household obligations, thereby increasing the risk of normative marital male violence against women as a punishment for their failure. PMID:22325022

Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Resurreccion, Bernadette P; Wamala, Sarah

2012-01-01

227

APPLICATION OF TOUGH2\\/EWASG TO THE MODELLING OF SALT WATER INJECTION INTO A DEPLETED GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TOUGH2\\/EWASG code is being applied to a numerical study of salt water injection into depleted vapour-dominated geothermal reservoirs. Our study investigates whether the injection of water with a sodium chloride content of 3.3% by weight (similar to that of seawater) for periods of 30 years would lead to conditions of permanent reduction of reservoir permeability, with the consequent negative

Claudio Calore; Alfredo Battistelli

2003-01-01

228

Antimicrobial use through feed, water, and injection in 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an emerging animal welfare and public health issue linked to antimicrobial use (AMU) in livestock. This study was conducted in 2004 on 20 swine farms in Alberta and Saskatchewan. On-farm records and questionnaires were used to retrospectively describe the antimicrobial exposures of pigs through feed, water, and injection. Antimicrobial use in all production categories was described over 12 months. On-farm records and questionnaires provided sufficient data to describe antimicrobial exposure rates through feed and water. In contrast, on-farm records did not supply sufficient data to describe parenteral antimicrobial exposure rates. Records lacked data on the number of exposures per treatment, therefore parenteral AMU was described as an exposure incidence. Parenteral exposure records were often unavailable for pigs less than 22 kg, in which case questionnaires were used. The incidence of parenteral AMU was significantly higher in herds reporting exposure by questionnaire compared with existing records, suggesting that on-farm records did not reliably describe parenteral AMU. However, because antimicrobial exposures in feed and water were markedly more common than through injection, it was concluded that existing on-farm data would be a valuable resource for investigating AMU and AMR in pigs.

Rosengren, Leigh B.; Waldner, Cheryl L.; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Harding, John C.S.; Gow, Sheryl P.; Wilkins, Wendy L.

2008-01-01

229

Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

230

Stable isotope reactive transport modeling in water-rock interactions during CO2 injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC [2]. HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) [1]. References [1] N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009. [2] Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.

Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre

2010-05-01

231

Video- Water Injected Into Bubble Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Dr. Pettit demonstrates using a syringe to inject water into a bubble. The result amazed Dr. Pettit and his crew mates. They observed that the droplets may bounce around for 5 or 6 collisions within the bubble, and then may partially or all at once exchange masses with the bubble. Dr. Pettit speculates the dynamics as a possible interplay between tension forces of kinetic energy and momentum, and possibly even charged forces.

2003-01-01

232

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 5, October--December 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post- furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom...

1991-01-01

233

Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)  

SciTech Connect

Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

2008-12-31

234

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 11, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

The LIFAC technology has similarities to other sorbent injection technologies using humidification, but employs a unique patented vertical reaction chamber located down-stream of the boiler to facilitate and a 220 MW coal-fired boiler located at Kristiinankaupunki. At this facility, a slipstream (5000 SCFM) containing the calcined limestone was used to test a small-scale activation reactor (2.5 MW) in which the gas was humidified. Reactor residence times of 3 to 12 seconds resulted in SO{sub 2} removal rates up to 84%. Additional LIFAC pilot-scale tests were conducted at the 8 MW (thermal) level at the Neste Kulloo combustion laboratory to develop the relationships between the important operating and design parameters. Polish low-sulfur coal was burned to achieve 84% S0{sub 2} removal. In 1986, full-scale testing of LIFAC was conducted at Imatran Voima`s Inkoo power plant on a 250 MW utility boiler. An activation chamber was built to treat a flue gas stream representing about 70 MW. Even though the boiler was 250 MW, the 70 MW stream represented about one-half of the flue gas feeding one of the plant`s two ESP`s (i.e., each ESP receives a 125 MW gas stream). This boiler used a 1.5% sulfur coal and sulfur removal was initially 61%. By late 1987, SO{sub 2} removal rates had improved to 76%. In 1988, a LIFAC activation reactor was added to treat an additional 125 MW -- i.e., an entire flue gas/ESP stream-worth of flue gas from this same boiler. This newer activation reactor is achieving 7580% SO{sub 2} removal with Ca:S ratios between 2:1 and 2.5:1. In 1988, the first tests using high-sulfur US coals were run at the pilot scale at the Neste Kulloo Research Center, using a Pittsburgh No. 8 coal containing 3% sulfur. SO{sub 2} removal rates of 77% were achieved at a Ca:S ratio of 2:1. This LIFAC demonstration project will be conducted on a 60 MW boiler burning high-sulfur US coals to demonstrate the commercial application of the LIFAC process to US utilities.

Not Available

1993-12-01

235

Analytical solutions for transient temperature distribution in a geothermal reservoir due to cold water injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical solution to describe the transient temperature distribution in a geothermal reservoir in response to injection of cold water is presented. The reservoir is composed of a confined aquifer, sandwiched between rocks of different thermo-geological properties. The heat transport processes considered are advection, longitudinal conduction in the geothermal aquifer, and the conductive heat transfer to the underlying and overlying rocks of different geological properties. The one-dimensional heat transfer equation has been solved using the Laplace transform with the assumption of constant density and thermal properties of both rock and fluid. Two simple solutions are derived afterwards, first neglecting the longitudinal conductive heat transport and then heat transport to confining rocks. Results show that heat loss to the confining rock layers plays a vital role in slowing down the cooling of the reservoir. The influence of some parameters, e.g. the volumetric injection rate, the longitudinal thermal conductivity and the porosity of the porous media, on the transient heat transport phenomenon is judged by observing the variation of the transient temperature distribution with different values of the parameters. The effects of injection rate and thermal conductivity have been found to be profound on the results.

Ganguly, Sayantan; Mohan Kumar, M. S.

2014-03-01

236

Microbial analysis of backflowed injection water from a nitrate-treated North Sea oil reservoir.  

PubMed

Reservoir souring in offshore oil fields is caused by hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), most often as a consequence of sea water injection. Biocide treatment is commonly used to inhibit SRB, but has now been replaced by nitrate treatment on several North Sea oil fields. At the Statfjord field, injection wells from one nitrate-treated reservoir and one biocide-treated reservoir were reversed (backflowed) and sampled for microbial analysis. The two reservoirs have similar properties and share the same pre-nitrate treatment history. A 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis (PCR-DGGE) combined with enrichment culture studies showed that, after 6 months of nitrate injection (0.25 mM NO(3) (-)), heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) formed major populations in the nitrate-treated reservoir. The NRB community was able to utilize the same substrates as the SRB community. Compared to the biocide-treated reservoir, the microbial community in the nitrate-treated reservoir was more phylogenetically diverse and able to grow on a wider range of substrates. Enrichment culture studies showed that SRB were present in both reservoirs, but the nitrate-treated reservoir had the least diverse SRB community. Isolation and characterisation of one of the dominant populations observed during nitrate treatment (strain STF-07) showed that heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria affiliated to Terasakiella probably contributed significantly to the inhibition of SRB. PMID:19137339

Bødtker, Gunhild; Lysnes, Kristine; Torsvik, Terje; Bjørnestad, Eva Ø; Sunde, Egil

2009-03-01

237

Quenching of a highly superheated porous medium by injection of water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding of two-phase flow through porous medium with intense phase change is of interest in many situations, including nuclear, chemical or geophysical applications. Intense boiling occurs when the liquid is injected into a highly superheated medium. Under such conditions, the heat flux extracted by the fluid from the porous medium is mainly governed by the nucleation of bubbles and by the evaporation of thin liquid films. Both configurations are possible, depending on local flow conditions and on the ratio of bubble size to pore size. The present study is motivated by the safety evaluation of light water nuclear reactors in case of a severe accident scenario, such as the one that happened in Fukushima Dai-ichi plant in March, 2011. If water sources are not available for a long period of time, the reactor core heats up due to the residual power and eventually becomes significantly damaged due to intense oxidation of metals and fragmentation of fuel rods resulting in the formation of a porous medium where the particles have a characteristic length-scale of 1 to 5 mm. The coolability of the porous medium will depend on the water flow rate which can enter the medium under the available driving head and on the geometrical features of the porous matrix (average pore size, porosity). Therefore, it is of high interest to evaluate the conditions for which the injection of water in such porous medium is likely to stop the progression of the accident. The present paper addresses the issue of modelling two-phase flow and heat transfers in a porous medium initially dry, where water is injected. The medium is initially at a temperature well above the saturation temperature of water. In a first part, a summary of existing knowledge is provided, showing the scarcity of models and experimental data. In a second part, new experimental results obtained in an IRSN facility are analysed. The experiment consists in a bed of steel particles that are heated up to 700°Cbefore injecting water. The facility is briefly described. The velocity of the "quench front" (location where particles are quickly cooled down) and the total pressure drop across the medium are estimated. The dependencies of those quantities with respect to the inlet water flow rate, the initial temperature of the medium and the diameter of particles are obtained. In a third part, a model is proposed, based on a previously developed model which is improved in order to take into account intense boiling regimes (in particular nucleate boiling). The model includes a function that takes into account the contact area between water and the particles which depends on the temperature of particles and on the void fraction. That function affects the local intensity of phase change. The model involves a few parameters which cannot be evaluated analytically. Those parameters are bounded, following the analysis of experimental data. Finally, the model is assessed by comparison of calculations with those new experimental data. The satisfactory agreement shows that the model is almost predictive in the range of parameters studied. The experimental results also show that the quench front becomes unstable under certain conditions. This is also analysed and compared with the predictions of the model.

Fichot, F.; Bachrata, A.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J.; Quintard, M.

2012-11-01

238

Water Demand Projection and Distribution Methodology of the St. Johns River Water Management District for the 2008 District Water Supply Assessment and the 2010 District Water Supply Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) developed water demand projections to satisfy the need to determine existing legal uses,anticipated future needs, and existing and reasonably anticipated sources of water and conservation efforts. Thi...

2009-01-01

239

Record of Decision: Madera Irrigation District Water Supply Enhancement Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Madera Irrigation District (MID) approved a Water Supply Enhancement Project (WSEP) located on the property known as Madera Ranch, west of the city of Madera, in Madera County, California in September 2005. MID adopted a Notice of Determination based on t...

2011-01-01

240

Computing the Water Quality Index: The Hudson River Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a science project at Booker T. Washington Middle School #54 (New York City) where seventh and eighth graders computed the Hudson River's water quality using ClarisWorks spreadsheets and MicroWorlds software. Students gained technology skills and public recognition, as well as scientific and environmental information. Includes sample…

Mihich, Orlando

1996-01-01

241

76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Enhancement Project. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) will be a joint lead agency with Reclamation in the...uncertainties have been addressed. In 2003, Reclamation and Ecology initiated the Yakima River Basin Water Storage...

2011-04-05

242

A numerical study of water injection on transonic compressor rotor performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, numerical simulations of two-phase flow in a transonic compressor rotor (NASA rotor 37) were performed. Both flow and droplets' governing equations were formulated and solved in the reference frame of the rotating blades. An Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used for the continuous and discrete phases with a two-way interaction model to simulate the mass-, momentum- and energy exchange between the different phases. Water particles were injected at the inlet with uniform particle mass flux, fully evaporating inside the rotating blade row. The phase change was most intense in areas adjacent to shock waves, where the slip velocity of the droplets was the highest. Results show decreased circumferentially averaged total temperature ratio of the air-vapor mixture across the span, which is the direct result of inter-phase energy coupling. An entropy based approach to calculate the isentropic efficiency of a wet compression process in a transonic compressor rotor was also presented. Under the proposed method, the viscous dissipation function was calculated everywhere in the domain in the post-processing phase of the numerical simulation and integrated to the wall, with special treatment in the nearwall regions where high rates of entropy generation occur. For a water to air mass flow ratio of 1% results show increased entropy production across the span, resulting in a 5% drop in compressor isentropic efficiency. Analytical integration of wall functions and numerical integration of the viscous dissipation function allows for reasonable results even with relatively coarse grids and can also be applied for single-phase flows. A parametric study of the effect of initial particle parameters on the wet compression process was also performed. Several speedlines have been computed with different amounts of water, especially near the tip. Results show that numerical stall can be delayed with injection of water near the tip, due to the increase of the axial momentum of the fluid in the endwall region, which is the direct result of phase change.

Szabo, Istvan

243

Injectable polyanhydride granules provide controlled release of water-soluble drugs with a reduced initial burst.  

PubMed

A method for preparing polyanhydride granules of an injectable size was developed. The resulting granules permitted a nearly constant release of low-molecular-weight, water-soluble drugs without an initial burst. The polyanhydrides used were poly(fatty acid dimer), poly(sebacic acid), and their copolymers. The dyes acid orange 63 and p-nitroaniline were used as model compounds for drugs. Polymer degradation and drug release for disks and variously sized granules of copolymers containing drugs, prepared by a water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion method, were compared with those for devices prepared by the usual compression method. In the W/O emulsion method, a mixture of aqueous drug solution and polymer-chloroform solution was emulsified by probe sonication to prepare a very fine W/O emulsion. The powder obtained by freeze-drying of the W/O emulsion was pressed into circular disks. In the compression method, the drug was mechanically mixed with the polymer, and the mixture was compressed into circular disks. The resulting disks were ground to prepare granules of different sizes. The granules encapsulated more than 95% of the drug, irrespective of the preparation method. Both methods were effective in preparing polymer disks capable of controlled drug release without any initial burst. However, as the granule size decreased to an injectable size (diameter, < 150 microns), a large difference in the drug release profile was observed between the two preparation methods. The injectable granules obtained by the W/O emulsion method showed nearly constant drug release without any large initial burst, in contrast to those prepared by the compression method, irrespective of the drug type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8138910

Tabata, Y; Domb, A; Langer, R

1994-01-01

244

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 8, July--September 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ''LIFAC Sorbent I...

1992-01-01

245

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 4, July--September 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ''LIFAC Sorbent I...

1992-01-01

246

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No.1 October-December 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ''LIFAC Sorbent Inj...

1991-01-01

247

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 12, July--September 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled (open quotes)LI...

1993-01-01

248

LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 13, October 1993--December 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Dec 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled (open quotes)LIFAC S...

1994-01-01

249

Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project. Phase I status report, April 1981-April 1982  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using remote geophysical techniques to monitor the movement of injected brine has been evaluated. It was established that no single approach is likely to be identified that can be used to accurately monitor the precise location of the injected fluid. Several approaches have been considered in parallel because they add new dimensions to the existing monitoring capabilities, and are likely to cover a range of applications at a variety of geothermal sites. These include: microseismicity - a seismic net is used to record small magnitude events associated with injection; streaming potential - self potential anomalies produced by a moving fluid identify fluid flow direction; cross borehole geotomography - two-dimensional image of flow pathways is constructed using electromagnetic waves; and well pressure response to solid earth tide - changes in pore pressures are used to discriminate fracture/pore porosity and estimate fracture orientations.

Younker, L.; Hanson, J.; Didwall, E.; Kasameyer, P.; Smith, A.; Hearst, J.; Daily, W.; Crow, N.; Younker, J.; Murray, W.

1982-08-13

250

Fourth SPE comparative solution project: a comparison of steam injection simulators  

SciTech Connect

Three related steam injection problems are presented along with simulation results for them obtained from six organizations. The problems selected for comparison were intended to exercise many of the features of thermal models that are of practical and theoretical interest. The first problem deals with three cycles of cyclic steam injection, and the other two problems deal with steam displacement in an inverted nine-spot pattern. The first two problems are of ''black-oil'' type and the third of compositional type. Complete data are presented for these problems. The comparison of solutions indicates good agreement for most of the results of importance in field operations.

Aziz, K.; Ramesh, B.; Woo, P.T.

1985-02-01

251

Evaluation and Comparison of Red Fork Sand Waterflood Projects in Oklahoma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on oil and water production, volume of water injected, core analyses, and well completion data was collected on 28 Red Fork sand waterflood projects for comparison and evaluation of results. An average water injection efficiency of 35 percent,...

K. H. Johnston

1970-01-01

252

Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for observation wells in the Mount Pleasant area. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 2 are between 2 and 106 feet lower for production wells and observation wells and between 11 and 27 feet higher for the injection wells in the Mount Pleasant area. Water budgets for the model area immediately surrounding the Mount Pleasant area were calculated for 2011 and for 2050. The largest flow component for the 2050 water budget in the Mount Pleasant area is discharge through wells at rates between 7.1 and 10.9 million gallons of water per day. This groundwater is replaced predominantly by between 6.0 and 7.8 million gallons per day of lateral groundwater flow within the Middendorf aquifer for the Base Case and two scenarios and through reclaimed-water injection of 3 million gallons per day for Scenarios 1 and 2. In addition, between 175,000 and 319,000 gallons of groundwater are removed from this area per day because of the regional hydraulic gradient. Additional sources of water to this area are groundwater storage releases at rates between 86,800 and 116,000 gallons per day and vertical flow from over- and underlying confining units at rates between 69,100 and 150,000 gallons per day. Reclaimed water injected into the Middendorf aquifer at three hypothetical injection wells moved to the Mount Pleasant Waterworks production wells in 18 to 256 years as indicated by particle-tracking simulations. Time of travel varied from 18 to 179 years for simulated conditions of 20 percent uniform aquifer porosity and between 25 to 256 years for 30 percent uniform aquifer porosity.

Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

2009-01-01

253

Drug-related harm among people who inject drugs in Thailand: summary findings from the Mitsampan Community Research Project  

PubMed Central

Background For decades, Thailand has experienced high rates of illicit drug use and related harms. In response, the Thai government has relied on drug law enforcement to address this problem. Despite these efforts, high rates of drug use persist, and Thailand has been contending with an enduring epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among people who inject drugs (IDU). Methods In response to concerns regarding drug-related harm in Thailand and a lack of research focused on the experiences and needs of Thai IDU, the Mitsampan Community Research Project was launched in 2008. The project involved administering surveys capturing a range of behavioral and other data to community-recruited IDU in Bangkok in 2008 and 2009. Results In total, 468 IDU in Bangkok were enrolled in the project. Results revealed high rates of midazolam injection, non-fatal overdose and incarceration. Syringe sharing remained widespread among this population, driven primarily by problems with access to syringes and methamphetamine injection. As well, reports of police abuse were common and found to be associated with high-risk behavior. Problems with access to evidence-based drug treatment and HIV prevention programs were also documented. Although compulsory drug detention centers are widely used in Thailand, data suggested that these centers have little impact on drug use behaviors among IDU in Bangkok. Conclusions The findings from this project highlight many ongoing health and social problems related to illicit drug use and drug policies in Bangkok. They also suggest that the emphasis on criminal justice approaches has resulted in human rights violations at the hands of police, and harms associated with compulsory drug detention and incarceration. Collectively, the findings indicate the urgent need for the implementation of evidence-based policies and programs in this setting.

2013-01-01

254

A Novel Injectable Water-Soluble Amphotericin B-Arabinogalactan Conjugate  

PubMed Central

New, stable, highly water-soluble, nontoxic polysaccharide conjugates of amphotericin B (AmB) are described. AmB was conjugated by a Schiff-base reaction with oxidized arabinogalactan (AG). AG is a highly branched natural polysaccharide with unusual water solubility (70% in water). A high yield of active AmB was obtained with the conjugates which were similarly highly water soluble and which could be appropriately formulated for injection. They showed comparable MICs for Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs, 0.1 to 0.2 ?g/ml). The reduced AmB conjugate, which was synthesized at pH 11 for 48 h at 37°C, was nonhemolytic and was much safer than conventional micellar AmB-deoxycholate. It was the least toxic AmB-AG conjugate among those tested with mice (maximal tolerated dose, 50 mg/kg of body weight), and histopathology indicated no damage to the liver or kidneys. This conjugate, similarly to the liposomal formulation (AmBisome), was more effective than AmB-deoxycholate in prolonging survival. It was more effective than both the liposomal and the deoxycholate formulations in eradicating yeast cells from target organs. The overall results suggest that after further development of the AmB-AG conjugate, it may be a potent agent in the treatment of fungal infections.

Falk, Rama; Domb, Abraham J.; Polacheck, Itzhack

1999-01-01

255

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the

X. L. Huang; C. H. Yang; J. J. Liu; X. He; J. Xiong

2008-01-01

256

Uniform and non-uniform inlet temperature of a vertical hot water jet injected into a rectangular tank  

Microsoft Academic Search

In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet

M. F. El-Amin; S. Sun

2010-01-01

257

40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

emissions, you must install, calibrate, maintain and operate a continuous monitoring system to monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine when burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection for...

2013-07-01

258

Pore-scale interfacial dynamics during gas-supersaturated water injection in porous media - on nucleation, growth and advection of disconnected fluid phases (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degassing and in situ development of a mobile gas bubbles occur when injecting supersaturated aqueous phase into water-saturated porous media. Supersaturated water injection (SWI) has potentially significant applications in remediation of soils contaminated by non-aqueous phase liquids and in enhanced oil recovery. Pore network simulations indicate the formation of a region near the injection boundary where gas phase nuclei are

D. Or; M. Ioannidis

2010-01-01

259

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action will be completed at the Falls City, Texas, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in the spring of 1994. Results of water sampling activity from 1989 to 1993 indicate that ground water contamination occurs primarily in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer (the uppermost aquifer) and that the contamination migrates along four distinct contaminant plumes. Contaminated ground water from some wells in these regions has significantly elevated levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, sulfate, and uranium. Contamination in the Dilworth aquifer was identified in monitor well 977 and in monitor well 833 at the southern edge of former tailings pile 4. There is no evidence that surface water quality in Tordilla and Scared Dog Creeks is impacted by tailings seepage. The following water sampling activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (1) Ground water sampling from 15 monitor wells to monitor the migration of the four major contaminant plumes within the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer. (2) Ground water sampling from five monitor wells to monitor contaminated and background ground water quality conditions in the Dilworth aquifer. Because of disposal cell construction activities, all plume monitor wells screened in the Dilworth aquifer were abandoned. No surface water locations are proposed for sampling. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer downgradient of the disposal cell. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents currently related to uranium processing activities and natural uranium mineralization. Water sampling is normally conducted biannually in late summer and midwinter.

Not Available

1994-02-01

260

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 3, April--June 1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom ...

1991-01-01

261

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 3, April--June 1991  

SciTech Connect

LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

Not Available

1991-12-31

262

Time Resolved Contrast-Enhanced MR Projection Imaging of the Coronary Arteries with Intravenous Contrast Injection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In a method and apparatus for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography of the right coronary artery of a patient, a bolus of MR contrast agent is selected to have a size that will cause the bolus, after injection into the patient, to wash out...

D. Li J. D. Green

2004-01-01

263

Neutron Radiography Flow Visualization of Liquid Metal Injected into an Empty Vessel and a Vessel Containing Saturated Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutron radiography was used to observe the behavior of molten lead-bismuth alloy injected into a thin (10-mm) semicircular vessel, which was empty or contained saturated water. The fluid velocity distribution for the melt injected into the empty vessel was successfully measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The numerical analysis for this case using the FLOW-3D code revealed that the wall

Yasuteru Sibamoto; Hideo Nakamura; Yoshinari Anoda

2001-01-01

264

Flow structures of gaseous jets injected into water for underwater propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gaseous jets injected into water are typically found in underwater propulsion, and the flow is essentially unsteady and turbulent. Additionally, the high water-to-gas density ratio can result in complicated flow structures; hence measuring the flow structures numerically and experimentally remains a challenge. To investigate the performance of the underwater propulsion, this paper uses detailed Navier-Stokes flow computations to elucidate the gas-water interactions under the framework of the volume of fluid (VOF) model. Furthermore, these computations take the fluid compressibility, viscosity, and energy transfer into consideration. This paper compares the numerical results and experimental data, showing that phenomena including expansion, bulge, necking/breaking, and back-attack are highlighted in the jet process. The resulting analysis indicates that the pressure difference on the rear and front surfaces of the propulsion system can generate an additional thrust. The strong and oscillatory thrust of the underwater propulsion system is caused by the intermittent pulses of the back pressure and the nozzle exit pressure. As a result, the total thrust in underwater propulsion is not only determined by the nozzle geometry but also by the flow structures and associated pressure distributions.

Tang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Ning-Fei; Shyy, Wei

2011-08-01

265

Determination of acrylamide in drinking water by large-volume direct injection and ion-exclusion chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrylamide, a known neurotoxin and putative human carcinogen, has been included among the substances to be monitored in drinking water according to the European Union Directive 98\\/83 on potable water. This paper reports a new method based on the combination of ion-exclusion chromatographic separation and MS detection. Samples of drinking water have been directly injected in the microbore ICE-AS1 column

S Cavalli; S Polesello; G Saccani

2004-01-01

266

UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document  

SciTech Connect

A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

NONE

1996-03-01

267

Groundwater thermal-effective injection systems in shallow aquifers: possible alternatives to vertical water wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urbanized areas have environmental features that may influence the development of low-enthalpy geothermal systems and the choice of the most suitable among the available (roughly earth-coupled closed-loop and groundwater open-loop type). In particular, if compared to less anthropized areas, some characteristic urban elements require particular attention: underground extensive use, contamination of groundwater, interference between the systems, authorization procedures and planning restrictions, the competition with cogeneration systems and the impact on emissions of pollutants. In this general context, the increasing implementation in several areas of the world of the open-loop groundwater heat pumps technology which discharge into the aquifer for cooling and heating buildings, could potentially cause, even in the short term, a significant environmental impact associated with thermal interference with groundwater, particularly in the shallow aquifers. The discharge of water at different temperatures compared to baseline (warmer in summer and colder in winter) poses a number of problems in relation to the potential functionality of many existing situations of use of the groundwater (drinking water wells, agricultural, industrial, etc.). In addition, there may be cases of interference between systems, especially in the more densely urbanized areas. Appropriate hydrogeological investigations should be performed for the characterization of the main hydrogeological parameters of the subsoil at the considered site in order to minimize the environmental impact of discharges into aquifers. The current Italian legislation related to withdrawals and discharges into aquifers designs a framework suitable for the protection of groundwater and induce deciding the best configuration of the plant with a case by case approach. An increased contact area between the dispersant system and the ground makes it possible to affect a greater volume of aquifer and, consequently, reduce the areal extent of the thermal plume that develops around the area of injection minimizing the time and the space needed for the disappearance of the thermal plume and the restoration of undisturbed temperature conditions. The reduction in plan and temporal extension of the thermal plume would have several benefits, minimizing the use of large areas around the buildings involved by the thermal perturbation, with direct implementation benefits. In order to investigate alternatives to traditional drilled water well for the re-injection and dispersion of water in aquifer downstream of the heat pump, we modeled with FEFLOW the possible reverse use of commercial draining gabions in various types of ground configuration, geometry and interconnection with systems of pre-fabricated vertical drains on a possible reliable test-site. The results highlighted that they can represent a good and efficient alternative for the groundwater dispersion in the aquifers.

Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

2014-05-01

268

Hydrologic data through 1993 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report presents data on precipitation, geologic logs, water levels, and water quality that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1993, for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program, under the guidance of the Bureau of Reclamation. The purpose of the Huron Project is to demonstrate the artificial recharge potential of glacial aquifers in eastern South Dakota. High flows from the James River during spring runoff are used as a source of supplemental recharge for the Warren aquifer, which is a buried, glacial aquifer. Prior to the injection of recharge water, which began in April 1994, many sites were monitored to obtain background information. This report presents data that were collected prior to the initiation of recharge. Precipitation data are collected at two sites within the study area. A site description and daily precipitation for water years 1991-93 are presented for one precipitation site. In 1990, 76 test holes were drilled and observation wells were installed at 70 sites. Well information and geologic logs collected during the drilling program for the Huron Project are presented. In addition to the 70 new Huron Project wells, 15 existing observation wells owned by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources were incorporated into the study. Water- level hydrographs are presented for the 85 observation wells. The period of record shown for the hydrographs is from the earliest available record through September 1993. Water-quality data were collected from both screening and detailed sampling programs. Screening water-quality data for 32 observation wells are presented. These data include primarily field parameters and common ions. The eight detailed sampling sites represent the quality of untreated water, treated water, an intermittent stream, and ground water from the Warren aquifer. Data presented for the detailed sampling program include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, total organic carbon, herbicides, insecticides, and volatile organic compounds.

Carter, Janet M.

1995-01-01

269

Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

1993-01-01

270

The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

2008-01-01

271

Integrated water research in the GLOWA Volta Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Volta Basin covers 400,000 km2 of the West African savanna. The river feeds Lake Volta, that provides over 95% of the electricity in Ghana and has the largest surface of any man-made lake in the world. The rural population (per capita income US600/year) increasingly turns to small scale irrigation development to improve the returns on their agricultural activities and reduce dependence on the highly variable rainfall. The irrigation development stands in direct competition with the hydropower generation that drives development in the more urbanized South. The GLOWA Volta Projects seeks to develop a Decision Support System (DSS) for the management of water resources in the basin under changing global and regional conditions. The DSS is built upon a scientific analysis of all factors that affect water supply and demand. To understand all aspects of the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin one needs to take physical (atmosphere, land, water) as well as social aspects (population, economic development, institutions) into account. The major scientific challenge of the GLOWA Volta Project is the integrated analysis of the bio- physical and socio-economic factors that affect the hydrological cycle in the Volta Basin. The presentation introduces the GLOWA Volta Project, focusing on activities that integrate different disciplines. Specifically, we present three sets of activities: (1) the coupling between meteorology and hydrology, (2) development of a Common Sampling Frame for the collection of socio-economic and bio-physical data, and (3) a water use optimization model that incorporates economy, hydrology, and institutional analysis. Finally, we look at recent initiatives in the basin that link science, stakeholders, and policy makers.

van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Berger, T.; Iskandarani, M.; Kunstmann, H.; Park, S.; Vlek, P.

2003-04-01

272

Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

Noel Duckwitz

2011-06-01

273

Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

2012-12-01

274

Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable body of field experience with injection has been accumulated at Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California; the results have been mixed. There are well documented cases where injection has increased flow rates of nearby wells. Return of injected fluid as steam from production wells has been observed directly through chemical and isotopic changes of produced fluids (Giovannoni et

Pruess

1991-01-01

275

Science in an Integrated Primary School Project on Water: Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes water-related activities in an elementary school science project. These activities focus on electric generators, rainfall, erosion, floating, water conservation, and other areas. Brief comments on developing such a project are included. (JN)

Ward, Alan

1984-01-01

276

Project Zoom IN, Citizen Perspectives on Climate and Water Resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspective on climate and water resources can come from the top, scientists sharing invaluable data and findings about how climate dynamics function or quantifications of systems in flux. However, citizens are endowed with an equally as powerful tool for insight: ground zero experience. Project Zoom In is a nascent project undertaken by Global Media Forge to empower youth, educators and scientists with tools to reach the media with locale-specific imagery and perspective of climate dynamics and evidence of anecdotal resource management of liquid gold: fresh water. Zoom In is taking root in Colorado but is designed for national/international scaling. This effort has three limbs: (1) student, scientist and educator workshops teaching invaluable video production skills (2) engaging Colorado school systems to stimulate submission of clips to full video productions to our database, and (3) embedding the findings on a taxonomic GIS interface on-line. The website will be invaluable in classrooms and link network media to individuals with firsthand viewpoints on change.; Climate and Water Resources

Glaser, J. P.

2012-12-01

277

Water banks and environmental water demands: Case of the Klamath Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand for water for environmental uses, such as to provide critical habitat for endangered species, has increased competition for agricultural water supplies. In the western United States, a significant portion of these water demands is to increase in-stream flows. Given that Endangered Species Act (ESA) requirements supersede prior appropriation rights, ESA water demands have the potential to reduce agricultural diversions, particularly in times of drought. This situation occurred in 2001 in the Klamath Basin of southern Oregon and northern California: an ESA-related judicial ruling on the needs of several endangered fish species resulted in a major reduction in water diversions to the Klamath Reclamation Project. Using the Klamath Basin as an empirical backdrop, this study examines the potential benefits and challenges of water banks to mitigate damages to appropriative water rights holders and to provide water for environmental purposes. Results from this case study indicate that water banks are a potentially cost effective way to meet environmental needs. This study, however, illustrated several of the challenges of implementing a water bank given that modifications to the proposed bank are needed to achieve cost efficiency. Specifically, expanded trading is needed, both intraproject and interproject, to achieve the objectives of providing environmental water at minimum cost to society.

Burke, Susan M.; Adams, Richard M.; Wallender, Wesley W.

2004-09-01

278

Florida River Project: Measuring discharge, sediment, and water chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the data collection portion of a semester-long project. Before this lab, students will have graphed discharge data for one previous water year, graphed similar data collected by classes during a previous year, written one-page explanations of the techniques that they will be using, and speculated about the results they expect to get. After this lab, their data will be shared with other lab sections, which will have collected similar data at other sites along the same river. Each research group will present their preliminary data to the class during a later lab meeting, and the class will discuss how the different types of data relate to one another. The project culminates in a final paper (one per research group).

Hannula, Kim

279

Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well  

PubMed Central

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1?7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images

McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

1988-01-01

280

Model and numerical simulation for the evolution of residual wall thickness in Water-Assisted Injection Molding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The motion of water-melt interface confined in horizontal circular tubes during Water-Assisted Injection Molding (WAIM) has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Of particular interest is the determination of residual melt film thickness on the walls. The reduced governing equations for viscous compressible non-Newtonian polymer melt during the second penetration in WAIM were established using dimensionless method. A formula used

Qian Li; Wei Cao; Shixun Zhang; Changyu Shen

2010-01-01

281

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-12-01

282

Analysis of compaction phenomena due to water injection in reservoirs with a three-phase geomechanical model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In coastal regions, land subsidence that results from industrial pumping of underground fluids, such as methane, is documented by in situ surveys. Laboratory characterization of gas bearing formations has also been published, which complements knowledge of reservoir compaction due to variation of fluid pressures. Gas withdrawal is reproduced in the laboratory by injecting water under a constant uniaxial or hydrostatic

Mathieu Nuth; Lyesse Laloui; Bernhard A. Schrefler

2010-01-01

283

A field trial to assess the performance of CO 2-supersaturated water injection for residual volatile LNAPL recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot scale field trial was conducted to evaluate the recovery of volatile, light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) using a novel remediation method termed supersaturated water injection (SWI). SWI uses a patented technology to efficiently dissolve high concentrations of CO 2 into water at elevated pressures. This water is injected into the subsurface resulting in the nucleation of CO 2 bubbles at and away from the injection point. The nucleating bubbles coalesce, rise and volatilize residual LNAPL ganglia. In this study, an LNAPL composed of 103 kg of volatile pentane and hexane, and 30 kg of non-volatile Soltrol was emplaced below the water table at residual saturation. The SWI technology removed 78% of the pentane and 50% of the less volatile hexane. Contaminant mass was still being removed when the system was shut down for practical reasons. The mass removed is comparable to that expected for air sparging but a much smaller volume of gas was injected using the SWI system.

Nelson, Leif; Barker, James; Li, Tom; Thomson, Neil; Ioannidis, Mario; Chatzis, John

2009-10-01

284

ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

285

Stability of Five Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Sterile Water for Injection and Stored in Plastic Syringes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intermittent intravenous administration of antibiotics by the syringe-infusion pump system is currently being promoted. To use this system, a dose of medication is prepared in 10-20ml of sterile water for injection and stored in plastic disposable syr...

D. L. Borst

1984-01-01

286

Hydrogeologic and water-quality data from wells near the Hueco Bolson Recharge Project area, El Paso, Texas, 1990 and 1991  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tertiary-treated wastewater currently (1991) is being injected into the Hueco bolson aquifer at a site in northeastern El Paso, Texas, to supplement the quantity of available freshwater. Hydrologic data were compiled and water-quality and bacterial data were collected from existing wells near the Hueco Bolson Recharge Project (HBRP) in August and September 1990 and 1991. Borehole tracer tests indicated upward ground-water flow in nearly all tested intervals of several observation wells. The cumulative volume of injected water was less than the volume produced from wells adjacent to the HBRP area. Water levels in three production wells, located more than 1.5 miles from the injection wells, declined at rates comparable to those observed before injection operations. Water levels in wells located within 0.75 mile of the injection-well pipeline declined at a slower rate after HBRP injection operations had begun. Between 1985 and 1991, water levels in observation wells located within 700 feet of an injection well either did not appreciably decline, or declined at smaller rates than water levels in more distant production wells. Trihalomethane compounds were detected in water from 8 of the 16 observation and production wells sampled in 1990 and in 10 of the 17 wells sampled in 1991. Concentrations trihalomethane compounds in these samples ranged from 0.05 to 1.9 ug/L (microgram per liter) in 1990 and from 0.05 to 1.4 ug/L in 1991. Concentrations of trihalomethane compounds in samples of injected water from two wells were 27.8 and 34.6 ug/L respectively, in 1991. Dibromomethane and dichloromethane were detected in water from injection wells and from observation wells within about 700 feet of the injection wells. Aerobic bacteria were determined to be the only bacteria type present in ground water except for samples from two wells, which also contained denitrifying bacteria. The populations of aerobic bacteria determined in ground water ranged from 80 to more than 160,000 most probable number of organisms per milliliter of sample.

Brock, Robert D.; Buszka, Paul M.; Godsy, Edward M.

1994-01-01

287

Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

2013-12-01

288

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GPI 15715 or fospropofol (Aquavan injection) - a water-soluble propofol prodrug.  

PubMed

Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is inadequably soluble in water and is therefore formulated as a lipid emulsion. This may have disadvantages when propofol is used to provide total intravenous anaesthesia or especially during long-term sedation. There has been considerable interest in the development of new propofol formulations or propofol prodrugs. GPI 15715 or fospropofol (Aquavan injection; Guilford Pharmaceutical, Baltimore, MD) is the first water-soluble prodrug that has been thoroughly studied in human volunteers and patients. GPI 15751 or fospropofol is cleaved by alkaline phosphatase to phosphate, formaldehyde and propofol. Formaldehyde is rapidly metabolised to formate. Although a formate accumulation is the principal pathomechanism responsible for the toxicity of methanol ingestion, so far there has been no report of toxicity due to the administration of fospropofol or other phosphate ester prodrugs, such as fosphenytoin. Fosphenytoin has been successfully introduced into the market for the treatment of status epilepticus in 1996. The main side-effects were a feeling of paraesthesia after rapid i.v. administration of GPI 15715 or fospropofol, which has also been described for fosphenytoin. The pharmacokinetics of GPI 15715 or fospropofol could be described by a combined pharmacokinetic model with a submodel of two compartments for GPI 15715 and of three compartments for propofol(G). The liberated propofol(G) compared to lipid-formulated propofol showed unexpected pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences. We found a significantly greater V(c), V(dss), significantly shorter alpha- and beta-half-life and a longer MRT (mean residence time) for propofol(G). The pharmacodynamic potency of propofol(G) appears to be higher than propofol when measured by EEG and clinical signs of hypnosis. In summary, GPI 15715 or fospropofol was well suited to provide anaesthesia or conscious sedation. PMID:18175095

Fechner, J; Schwilden, H; Schüttler, J

2008-01-01

289

Helicopter payload gains utilizing water injection for hot day power augmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical investigation was undertaken to assess the gains in helicopter mission payload through the use of water injection to produce power augmentation in an altitude-hot day environment. Substantial gains are shown for two representative helicopters, the UH-lH and CH-47B. The UH-lH payload increased 86.7 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission involving two out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover take-offs of 2 minutes each at 5000 ft. (1525 m) 35 C ambient conditions. The CH-47B payload increased 49.5 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission with sling loaded cargo as the outbound payload and a 3000 lb. (1360 kg) internal cargo on the return leg. The mission included two 4 min. OGE hovers at 6000 ft. (1830 m) 35 C. An improvement in take off performance and maximum performance climb also resulted as a consequence of the OGE hover capability and higher maximum power available.

Stroub, R. H.

1972-01-01

290

Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2007-01-08

291

Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States)]|[Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

1996-11-01

292

Projected changes in water availability in the United Kingdom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is evidence for a change in the seasonality of UK rainfall consistent with projections from climate models, which could have a significant impact on water availability. This paper describes an analysis of seasonal mean runoff in the UK calculated directly within an ensemble of regional climate models. Both surface and subsurface runoff have been analyzed, and the times at which a climate change signal in the runoff could be detected have also been calculated. Runoff is projected to increase in winter in all regions of the UK, by 5-25% by the 2080s, but remain the same or decrease in the other seasons. We find that a climate change signal could be detected in runoff in winter in western parts of the UK as early as the 2020s, but much later in eastern areas of England. In summer, detection times (2040-2060 s) are generally later than those in winter (2020-2040 s). Our results imply water resources in the southeast of the UK could be reduced during the twenty-first century, and adaptation may be needed long before a formal detection of a climate change signal is made.

Sanderson, Michael G.; Wiltshire, Andrew J.; Betts, Richard A.

2012-08-01

293

Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA analysis which focused on gravitational waveforms from binary black hole coalescence. Ten numerical relativity groups contributed numerical data which were used to generate a set of gravitational-wave signals. These signals were injected into a simulated data set, designed to mimic the response of the initial LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Nine groups analysed this data using search and parameter-estimation pipelines. Matched filter algorithms, un-modelled-burst searches and Bayesian parameter estimation and model-selection algorithms were applied to the data. We report the efficiency of these search methods in detecting the numerical waveforms and measuring their parameters. We describe preliminary comparisons between the different search methods and suggest improvements for future NINJA analyses.

Aylott, Benjamin; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Boyle, Michael; Brady, Patrick R.; Brown, Duncan A.; Brügmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Cadonati, Laura; Camp, Jordan; Campanelli, Manuela; Centrella, Joan; Chatterji, Shourov; Christensen, Nelson; Chu, Tony; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Nils; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Faber, Joshua; Fairhurst, Stephen; Farr, Benjamin; Fischetti, Sebastian; Guidi, Gianluca; Goggin, Lisa M.; Hannam, Mark; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Kalogera, Vicky; Keppel, Drew; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Krishnan, Badri; Laguna, Pablo; Lousto, Carlos O.; Mandel, Ilya; Marronetti, Pedro; Matzner, Richard; McWilliams, Sean T.; Matthews, Keith D.; Mercer, R. Adam; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R. P.; Mroué, Abdul H.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ochsner, Evan; Pan, Yi; Pekowsky, Larne; Pfeiffer, H. arald P.; Pollney, Denis; Pretorius, Frans; Raymond, Vivien; Reisswig, Christian; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rinne, Oliver; Robinson, Craig; Röver, Christian; Santamaría, Lucía; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore; Scheel, Mark A.; Schnetter, Erik; Seiler, Jennifer; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Sperhake, Ulrich; Stroeer, Alexander; Sturani, Riccardo; Tichy, Wolfgang; Liu, Yuk Tung; van der Sluys, Marc; van Meter, James R.; Vaulin, Ruslan; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John; Viceré, Andrea; Whelan, John T.; Zlochower, Yosef

2009-08-01

294

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2012-04-01

295

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2011-04-01

296

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2010-04-01

297

18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

2014-04-01

298

76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2011-03-08

299

75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2010-11-16

300

77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2012-06-05

301

76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...District. Kaweah Delta Water Conservation District. To meet the requirements...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices...

2011-08-31

302

75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2010-07-02

303

77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...are considered the same as Water Conservation Plans. The above entities...office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that...evaluating the adequacy of all water conservation plans developed by...

2012-10-22

304

Performance of J33-A-21 and J33-A-23 Turbojet-Engine Compressors with Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the performance investigation of compressors for the J33 turbojet engine, the A-21 model and the A-23 model with a 17- and a 34-blade impeller were operated with water injection at their respective design equivalent speeds of 11,500 and 11,750 rpm. Inlet conditions of pressure of 14 inches of mercury absolute and of ambient temperature correspond to those of the investigation of these models without water injection. The water-air ratio by weight ranged from 0.05 to 0.06. By the use of water injection, the peak pressure ratio of the A-21 compressor and the A-23 compressor with a 34-blade impeller increased approximately 0.38, whereas that of the A-23 compressor with a 17-blade impeller increased only 0.14. The decrease in maximum efficiency for the three compressors ranged from 0.12 to 0.14. The highest increase in maximum equivalent weight flow of air plus weight flow of water was 10.90 pounds per second obtained with the A-21 compressor. The increase in air weight flow alone was approximately 5.70 pounds per second for the A-21 compressor end the A-23, 17-blade compressor, which exceeded the increase of 3.15 pounds per second for the A-23; 34-blade compressor.

Beede, William L.; Withee, Joseph R., Jr.

1949-01-01

305

Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

Glasser, Philip W

1950-01-01

306

Flow injection on-line hydrophobic sorbent extraction for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium in water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  A flow injection system was developed for on-line sorbent extraction preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometric\\u000a determination of cadmium in natural water samples. The non-charged cadmium complex with diethyl-dithiophosphate (DDPA) was\\u000a formed on-line in 0.1?mol?L?1 HNO3 and retained on the hydrophobic poly-chlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE) sorbent material. The adsorbed complex was eluted with\\u000a isobutyl methylketone (IBMK) and injected directly into the nebulizer

Aristidis N. Anthemidis; Christos-Paraskevas P. Karapatouchas

2008-01-01

307

Gas chromatographic determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes using flame ionization detector in water samples with direct aqueous injection up to 250 ?l  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method of solventless extraction of volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) from aqueous samples was developed. This method allows direct injection of large volume of water sample into a gas chromatograph using the sorption capacity of the sorbent Chromosorb P NAW applied directly in the injection port of gas chromatograph. The system prevent water penetration into

R. Kubinec; J. Adamuš?in; H. Jurdáková; M. Foltin; I. Ostrovský; A. Kraus; L. Soják

2005-01-01

308

Effect of ECC Injection Angle on the Flow Distribution in a Downcomer Annulus During LBLOCA Reflood Phase in the Air-Water Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison tests for the direct ECC bypass fraction were experimentally performed with a typical DVI nozzle and an ECC column nozzle having injection angle to the gravity axis. The ECC column nozzle is newly introduced to make an ECC water column in the downcomer region. The injection angle of the ECC water relative to the gravity axis is varied

T. S. Kwon; B. J. Yun; C. H. Song; K. Y. Choi; H. K. Cho

2002-01-01

309

Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

310

Final Environmental Assessment: Community Water Company of Green Valley Central Arizona Project Water Delivery System Pima County, Arizona  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An initial draft Environmental Assessment (DEA) for the Community Water Company of Green Valleys (CWC) proposed construction and operation of its Central Arizona Project (CAP) Water Delivery System and Recharge Facility was made available for a public rev...

2010-01-01

311

Jordan Water Conservation Education Project Final Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water scarcity is an increasingly serious problem in the desert country of Jordan. Currently, all known sources of water have been tapped. Management of existing water sources and promotion of water rationing programs are vital to ensuring adequate water ...

D. Evans, M. Grieser, O. Hernandez, R. Ledsky, S. Middlestadt, B. Rawlins, J. Sanchack

1996-01-01

312

Determination of acrylamide in drinking water by large-volume direct injection and ion-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Acrylamide, a known neurotoxin and putative human carcinogen, has been included among the substances to be monitored in drinking water according to the European Union Directive 98/83 on potable water. This paper reports a new method based on the combination of ion-exclusion chromatographic separation and MS detection. Samples of drinking water have been directly injected in the microbore ICE-AS1 column and detected in the selected-ion monitoring mode by a single quadrupole system with electrospray ionization. Chromatographic conditions, such as eluent composition and flow rate, have been optimized by a central composite design experiment. Statistical analysis of data showed that the amount of acetonitrile fraction in the eluent mixture, composed by acetonitrile and formic acid solution, is the variable that most influences retention of the acrylamide peak. After optimization of MS detection parameters, this method has been validated for spiked drinking water samples. The effect of large-volume injection (up to 500 microl) has been also explored. Linearity was evaluated from 0.5 to 5 microg l(-1). Repeatability, expressed as R.S.D., was 16 and 12% at 0.5 and 1 microg l(-1) respectively. The limit of detection was 0.20 ppb with 500 microl injection volume. PMID:15250418

Cavalli, S; Polesello, S; Saccani, G

2004-06-11

313

Trace analysis of isothiazolinones in water samples by large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Isothiazolinones are used as preservatives, biocides and disinfectants in a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Some of the isothiazolinones are difficult to isolate from water due their high polarity. A sensitive and selective analytical method was developed and optimized for the determination of sub-microg/L levels of three isothiazolinones in water samples. Three isothiazolinones are described in this paper: 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone, 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone and 4,5-dichloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone. The analytical method involves a robust large-volume direct on-column loop injection of 2 mL on an Aqua ODS HPLC column and tandem MS detection (HPLC-MS/MS). After filtration, samples are directly injected without further pretreatment. Detection limits of the individual target compounds were between 0.03 and 0.1 microg/L employing Multi-Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry. Based on the constant ratio of two selected product-ions together with the retention time, the identification is very selective and quantification is reliable. The method was successfully applied to real samples of membrane flushings, drinking water, surface waters and waste water. Additional investigations showed the instability of the isothiazolinones in river- and waste water. Preservation of river water and waste water samples with sodium azide (NaN(3)) promotes the stability of the isothiazolines in solution. In membrane flushings, waste water, surface waters and drinking water, levels of the three isothiazolinones were all below the limit of detection. In effluents of households containing washings from normal shampoo use, isothiazolinones could be detected. PMID:20591438

Speksnijder, P; van Ravestijn, J; de Voogt, P

2010-08-01

314

Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well  

SciTech Connect

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples than came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1 omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped.

McKinley, V.L.; Costerton, J.W.; White, D.C.

1988-06-01

315

The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are toprovide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.). *The NEWSE Team is: Romanou, Anastasiam, Columbia U.; Brian Soden, U. Miami; William Lapenta, NASA- MSFC; Megan Larko, CREW; Bing Lin, NASA-LaRC; Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA-GSFC; Xiquan Dong, U. North Dakota; Debbie Belvedere, CREW; Mathew Sapiano, U. Maryland; Duane Waliser, NASA-JPL; Eni Njoku, NASA/JPL; Eric Fetzer, NASA-JPL; Eyal Amitai, NASA-GSFC; Xiaogang Gao, U. California, Irvine; George Huffman, NASA-GSFC & SSAI; Jared Entin, NASA; Joseph Santanello, NASA-GSFC; John Roads, UCSD; W. Timothy Liu, NASA-JPL; Lixin Lu, Colorado State U.; Zhengzhao Luo, Colorado State U.; Michael Bosilovich, NASA-GSFC; Michael Jasinski, NASA-GSFC; William Olson, NASA-GSFC & UMBC-GEST; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Phil Arkin, U. Maryland; Paul Houser, CREW & GMU; Ralph Ferraro, NOAA; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Robert Schiffer; UMBC-GEST; Sujay Kumar, NASA-GSFC; Joseph A. Santanello, NASA-GSFC; Tristan L'Ecuyer, Colorado State U.; Wei-Kuo Tao; NASA-GSFC; Xia Feng; George Mason U.

Houser, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

2008-05-01

316

Preliminary Results from a VLBA Circumstellar Water Maser Monitoring Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the first epoch of observations of an ongoing circumstellar water maser monitoring project. The stars included in our program are S Perseus, U Herculis, VY Canis Majoris, VX Sagittarius, RX Bootis, IK Taurus and NML Cygnus. We present the spatial and frequency distributions of the masers. Continued observations are underway. We also present initial models of the spatial distribution of the masing regions and the physical environments in the circumstellar shell. We hope to derive the distance to these stars using the expanding cluster technique. Concurrent observations of the OH and SiO maser distributions are also presented. This work is part of Marvel's dissertation research which will be completed in June 1996.

Marvel, K.; Diamond, P.

1994-12-01

317

Monitoring and detecting CO2 injected into water-saturated sandstone with joint seismic and resistivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of basic studies of monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) storage using electrical and seismic surveys, laboratory experiments have been conducted to measure resistivity and P-wave velocity changes due to the injection of CO2 into water-saturated sandstone. The rock sample used is a cylinder of Berea sandstone. CO2 was injected under supercritical conditions (10MPa, 40°C). The experimental results show that resistivity increases monotonously throughout the injection period, while P-wave velocity and amplitude decrease drastically due to the supercritical CO2 injection. A reconstructed P-wave velocity tomogram clearly images CO2 migration in the sandstone sample. Both resistivity and seismic velocity are useful for monitoring CO2 behaviour. P-wave velocity, however, is less sensitive than resistivity when the CO2 saturation is greater than ~20%. The result indicates that the saturation estimation from resistivity can effectively complement the difficulty of CO2 saturation estimations from seismic velocity variations. By combining resistivity and seismic velocity we were able to estimate CO2 saturation distribution and the injected CO2 behaviour in our sample.

Kim, Jongwook; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Xue, Ziqiu

2011-02-01

318

Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMD's near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 (mu)m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

Kihm, K. D.; Terracina, D. P.; Payne, S. E.; Caton, J. A.

319

Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures, and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% by mass coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m(exp 3)), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time, and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

Caton, J. A.; Payne, S. E.; Terracina, D. P.; Kihm, K. D.

320

Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% (by man) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-12-31

321

A comprehensive model for pilot-ignited, coal-water mixture combustion in a direct-injection diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a combustion model developed for a direct-injected diesel engine fueled with coal-water slurry mixture (CWM) and assisted by diesel pilot injection. The model combines the unique heat and mass transport and chemical kinetic processes of CWM combustion with the normal in-cylinder processes of a diesel engine. It includes a two-stage evaporation submodel for the drying of the CWM droplet, a global kinetic submodel for devolatilization, and a char combustion submodel describing surface gasification by oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The combustion volume is discretized into multiple zones, each of whose individual thermochemistry is determined by in-situ equilibrium calculations. This provides an accurate determination of the boundary conditions for the CWM droplet combustion submodels and the gas phases heat release.

Wahiduzzaman, S.; Blumberg, P.N.; Keribar, R.; Rackmil, C.I. (Ricardo-ITI, Inc., Westmont, IL (US))

1990-07-01

322

The feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is pointed out that in certain emergency situations it may be desirable to obtain power from a helicopter engine at levels greater than the maximum rating. Yost (1976) has reported studies concerning methods of power augmentation in the one engine inoperative (OEI) case. It was found that a combination of water/alcohol injection into the inlet and overtemperature/overspeed could provide adequate emergency power. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a feasibility study which analytically investigated the maximum possible level of augmentation with constant gas generator turbine stress rupture life as a constraint. In the proposed scheme, the increased engine output is obtained by turbine overtemperature, however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water.

Van Fossen, G. J.

1983-01-01

323

Comprehensive health effects testing program for Denver's potable water reuse demonstration project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Comprehensive Health Effects Testing Program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project is designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater compared to Denver's present high?quality drinking water. The 1 million gallon per day (1 mgd) demonstration plant provides water to be evaluated in the studies treating unchlorinated

William C. Lauer; Frank J. Johns; Gary W. Wolfe; Barbara A. Myers; Lyman W. Condie; Joseph F. Borzelleca

1990-01-01

324

Application of the warm water injection method to improve the efficiency of in-core wet sipping for leaker detection. [BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the efficiency of in-core wet sipping leaker detection, a warm water injection method was developed. The method was characterized by pouring warm water into the channel box through the sipper cap and replacing all the water originally present with the poured water. Basic experiments were performed to determine the efficiency of the method. Mockup experiments were undertaken to

S. Uchida; M. Utamura; H. Yusa; H. Maki

1978-01-01

325

Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique

K. D. Kihm; D. P. Terracina; S. E. Payne; J. A. Caton

1993-01-01

326

Effects of temperature and water content on impact properties of injection-molded glass nylon-6 composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instrumented drop-weight impact tests were conducted for injection-molded short glass fiber reinforced nylon-6 thermoplastic composites. The effects of fiber surface treatments, specimen temperatures and water contents on the impact fracture properties were studied. The first peak load P, or the corresponding absorbed energy E1 was found an appropriate parameter to evaluate the first cracking on specimen surfaces and also to

N. Takeda; D. Y. Song; K. Nakata

1996-01-01

327

US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action ground water Project. Revision 1, Version 1: Final project plan  

SciTech Connect

The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy requirements of the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1988). This scope of work will entail the following activities, on a site-specific basis: Development of a compliance strategy based upon modification of the UMTRA Surface Project remedial action plans (RAP) or development of Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC and state or tribal concurrence on the RAP; implementation of the RAP to include establishment of institutional controls, where appropriate; institution of long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate DOE program on or before the Project end date; and preparation of completion reports and final licensing on those sites that will be completed prior to the Project end date.

Not Available

1993-12-21

328

Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.  

PubMed

In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 ?mol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts. PMID:22939148

Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

2012-08-30

329

Water assessment report: Section 13 (c); Great Plains gasification project, Mercer County, ND  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Council is completing a water assessment of synfuels development in the Upper Missouri River Basin. This is being done under Section 13(a) of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act. The assessment area includes the coal deposits in the Mercer County project site. Levels of North Dakota coal gasification development that are several times the production level of the Great Plains gasification project are being examined. This report assesses: (1) the availability of adequate water supplies to meet the water requirements of the project, supporting activities, and other development induced by the project; and (2) the changes in the water resources that will result from the project. Findings of the 13(a) assessment show that water supplies are physically available within the mainstem of the Missouri River in North Dakota to supply the requirements of the gasification facilities and the supporting activities - mining and reclamation, electricity, and project-induced population increases.

None

1980-12-01

330

Model and numerical simulation for the evolution of residual wall thickness in Water-Assisted Injection Molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of water-melt interface confined in horizontal circular tubes during Water-Assisted Injection Molding (WAIM) has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Of particular interest is the determination of residual melt film thickness on the walls. The reduced governing equations for viscous compressible non-Newtonian polymer melt during the second penetration in WAIM were established using dimensionless method. A formula used to calculate the second penetrating velocity was derived based on mathematical inference and mechanical principle. Experiments was conducted to measure the displacement of the water-melt interface as a function of the melt temperature, water pressure. The experimental results indicate the first penetration theory is not accurate in predicting residual wall thickness and the combined first and second penetration theories can improve the accuracy significantly.

Li, Qian; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Shixun; Shen, Changyu

2010-06-01

331

Engineering study of water reinjection for geothermal systems. Section I. Water injection well fundamentals. Section II. The injection well model. Section III. Sources of water contaminants. Section IV. Simulating the down-hole behavior of injectors. Section V. The overall influence of damage near the well bore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information related to the effects of suspended solids and, to some extent, vapor bubbles on injection well performance is presented. The means of evaluating the tolerable amounts of solids in injected water are presented, and all necessary derivations, equations, test procedures and correlations are explicitly described. Methods of determining whether surface filtration of solids, deep bed filtration of solids, or

Jorda

1978-01-01

332

Effect of sodium bisulfite injection on the microbial community composition in a brackish-water-transporting pipeline.  

PubMed

Pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water, used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage, are subject to frequent corrosion failures despite the addition of the oxygen scavenger sodium bisulfite (SBS). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the microbial community composition for planktonic samples of transported water and for sessile samples of pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from pipeline cutouts representing corrosion failures. These were obtained from upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP, collected under rapid-flow and stagnant conditions, respectively) of the SBS injection point. Most transported water samples had a large fraction (1.8% to 97% of pyrosequencing reads) of Pseudomonas not found in sessile pipe samples. The sessile population of PAS-616P had methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) as the main (56%) community component, whereas Deltaproteobacteria of the genera Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa were not detected. In contrast, PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP had lower fractions (41% and 0.6%) of Methanobacteriaceae archaea but increased fractions of sulfate-reducing Desulfomicrobium (18% and 48%) and of bisulfite-disproportionating Desulfocapsa (35% and 22%) bacteria. Hence, SBS injection strongly changed the sessile microbial community populations. X-ray diffraction analysis of pipeline scale indicated that iron carbonate was present both upstream and downstream, whereas iron sulfide and sulfur were found only downstream of the SBS injection point, suggesting a contribution of the bisulfite-disproportionating and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the scale to iron corrosion. Incubation of iron coupons with pipeline waters indicated iron corrosion coupled to the formation of methane. Hence, both methanogenic and sulfidogenic microbial communities contributed to corrosion of pipelines transporting these brackish waters. PMID:21856836

Park, Hyung Soo; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Sensen, Christoph W; Caffrey, Sean M; Jack, Thomas R; Boivin, Joe; Voordouw, Gerrit

2011-10-01

333

Effect of Sodium Bisulfite Injection on the Microbial Community Composition in a Brackish-Water-Transporting Pipeline?†  

PubMed Central

Pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water, used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage, are subject to frequent corrosion failures despite the addition of the oxygen scavenger sodium bisulfite (SBS). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the microbial community composition for planktonic samples of transported water and for sessile samples of pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from pipeline cutouts representing corrosion failures. These were obtained from upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP, collected under rapid-flow and stagnant conditions, respectively) of the SBS injection point. Most transported water samples had a large fraction (1.8% to 97% of pyrosequencing reads) of Pseudomonas not found in sessile pipe samples. The sessile population of PAS-616P had methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) as the main (56%) community component, whereas Deltaproteobacteria of the genera Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa were not detected. In contrast, PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP had lower fractions (41% and 0.6%) of Methanobacteriaceae archaea but increased fractions of sulfate-reducing Desulfomicrobium (18% and 48%) and of bisulfite-disproportionating Desulfocapsa (35% and 22%) bacteria. Hence, SBS injection strongly changed the sessile microbial community populations. X-ray diffraction analysis of pipeline scale indicated that iron carbonate was present both upstream and downstream, whereas iron sulfide and sulfur were found only downstream of the SBS injection point, suggesting a contribution of the bisulfite-disproportionating and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the scale to iron corrosion. Incubation of iron coupons with pipeline waters indicated iron corrosion coupled to the formation of methane. Hence, both methanogenic and sulfidogenic microbial communities contributed to corrosion of pipelines transporting these brackish waters.

Park, Hyung Soo; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Sensen, Christoph W.; Caffrey, Sean M.; Jack, Thomas R.; Boivin, Joe; Voordouw, Gerrit

2011-01-01

334

Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997  

SciTech Connect

Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

Cannon, T.J.

1998-10-01

335

Results and interpretations of hot and cold water injection experiments on Pauzhetka water-dominated geothermal field in Kamchatka  

Microsoft Academic Search

An early injection experiment has been conducted in;\\u000aattempt to evaluate of possibilities of waste disposal;\\u000aand of influence degree of reinjection on thermo and;\\u000ahydro regime of field.;\\u000aChanging of temperature profiles, fluid enthalpy,;\\u000apressure, wellâs output and chemical test data in more;\\u000athan 30 injection, exploitation and observation wells;\\u000ahas been analyzed and interpreted.;\\u000aResults have allowed to

Pashkevich; Roman I

1996-01-01

336

Benchmarking of municipal waste water treatment plants (an Austrian project).  

PubMed

An Austrian research project focused on the development of process indicators for treatment plants with different process and operation modes. The whole treatment scheme was subdivided into four processes, i.e. mechanical pretreatment (Process 1), mechanical-biological waste water treatment (Process 2), sludge thickening and stabilisation (Process 3) and further sludge treatment and disposal (Process 4). In order to get comparable process indicators it was necessary to subdivide the sample of 76 individual treatment plants all over Austria into five groups according to their mean organic load (COD) in the influent. The specific total yearly costs, the yearly operating costs and the yearly capital costs of the four processes have been related to the yearly average of the measured organic load expressed in COD (110 g COD/pe/d). The specific investment costs for the whole treatment plant and for Process 2 have been related to a calculated standard design capacity of the mechanical-biological part of the treatment plant expressed in COD. The capital costs of processes 1, 3 and 4 have been related to the design capacity of the treatment plant. For each group (related to the size of the plant) a benchmark band has been defined for the total yearly costs, the total yearly operational costs and the total yearly capital costs. For the operational costs of the Processes 1 to 4 one benchmark ([see symbol in text] per pe/year) has been defined for each group. In addition a theoretical cost reduction potential has been calculated. The cost efficiency in regard to water protection and some special sub-processes such as aeration and sludge dewatering has been analysed. PMID:15553485

Lindtner, S; Kroiss, H; Nowak, O

2004-01-01

337

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

2008-07-01

338

ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY - RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WSWRD, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory (IHL) is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes. Recent research projects undertaken by IHL include (1) Climate ...

339

The Evaluation of Water and Related Land Resource Projects: A Procedural Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Water Resources Council has developed a set of procedures to be used in the evaluation of water and related land resource projects. These procedures, presented in 1969, represent a major substantive change in the concept of resource development evalua...

G. W. Reid W. R. Southard

1969-01-01

340

An experimental study on developing air-water two-phase flow along a large vertical pipe: effect of air injection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow structure in a developing air-water two-phase flow was investigated experimentally along a large vertical pipe (inner diameter, Dh: 0.48 m, ratio of length of flow path L to Dh: about 4.2). Two air injection methods (porous sinter injection and nozzle injection) were adopted to realize an extremely different flow structure in the developing region. The flow rate condition

A. Ohnuki; H. Akimoto

1996-01-01

341

Neutron Radiography Flow Visualization of Liquid Metal Injected into an Empty Vessel and a Vessel Containing Saturated Water  

SciTech Connect

Neutron radiography was used to observe the behavior of molten lead-bismuth alloy injected into a thin (10-mm) semicircular vessel, which was empty or contained saturated water. The fluid velocity distribution for the melt injected into the empty vessel was successfully measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The numerical analysis for this case using the FLOW-3D code revealed that the wall heat transfer attenuates the rotational speed of swirls that were formed during the melt injection. The melt-coolant interaction experiment demonstrated several features of molten fuel and coolant interactions in the reactor pressure vessel lower head. The violent vapor expansion occurred at the initial melt impact on the saturated pool water. A one-dimensional model predicted the observed behavior well by assuming the adiabatic expansion immediately after an instantaneous heat transfer during the first melt coolant contact. A crust was formed between the melt and coolant by the heterogeneous distribution of the coolant and pool melt. The convective velocity distribution in the pool melt was measured well by the PIV.

Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Nakamura, Hideo; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Japan)

2001-01-15

342

An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs  

PubMed Central

Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

2012-01-01

343

An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

2012-04-01

344

Development of Ren Qiou fractured carbonate oil pools by water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work gives a brief description on the geologic characteristics of Ren Qiou oil field and its development. Different methods have been used in its reservoir engineering study such as outcrop investigation, fracture and crevice description in tunnels, observation on core samples and their statistical data, thin section observation, casting section, fluorescence section, scanning electron microscope, mercury injection and withdrawal,

Z. Yu; G. Li

1982-01-01

345

Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect

This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

2013-03-06

346

Initial Thermal-Hydraulic Behaviors under Simultaneous ECC Water Injection into Cold Leg and Upper Plenum in a PWR-LOCA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics under the combined injection mode before and just after the beginning of bottom reflood of a PWR-LOCA were experimentally studied by performing three tests in Slab Core Test Facility simulating a full radius slab section of a PWR. Emergency core cooling water was simultaneously injected into the upper plenum and the intact cold leg. The subcooling and

Takamichi IWAMURA; Hiromichi ADACHI

1985-01-01

347

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan: Canonsburg and Burrell, Pennsylvania  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action was completed at the Canonsburg and Burrell UMTRA Project sites in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1985 and 1987, respectively. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at both sites have remained relatively consistent with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) at the Canonsburg site; no MCLs are exceeded in ground water at the Burrell site. Surface water quality shows no evidence of impact from the sites.

Not Available

1994-03-01

348

The Impact of Field Enhancements and Charge Injection on the Pulsed Breakdown Strength of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unique theoretical model of the breakdown mechanism in water has been developed and further tested in both simulation software and experimentation. The conducted experiments test the degree to which electrode material, surface roughness, and surface area impact the dielectric strength of water. Voltage pulses with respective rise times of roughly 200 and 20 ns were applied to a water

David A. Wetz; John J. Mankowski; James C. Dickens; Magne Kristiansen

2006-01-01

349

Experimental study on thermal-hydraulic behaviors of a pressure balanced coolant injection system for a passive safety light water reactor JPSR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A conceptual design study of a passive safety light water reactor JPSR has been performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute JAERI. A pressure balanced coolant injection experiment has been carried out, with an objective to understand thermal-hydra...

T. Satoh H. Watanabe F. Araya K. Nakajima T. Iwamura

1998-01-01

350

A fast screening method for the presence of atrazine and other triazines in water using flow injection with chemiluminescent detection.  

PubMed

Atrazine is a triazine herbicide which contains two secondary aliphatic amine groups. Previous studies have shown that aliphatic amines react with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) to produce chemiluminescence. This paper describes the application of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) to the detection of atrazine and related triazine herbicides in water by flow injection chemiluminescence analysis. The optimised experimental conditions were determined to be: sample and carrier flow rates of 4.6 mL min(-1), sample at pH 9 buffered with 50mM borax, and reagent concentration of 1mM tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) in 20mM H(2)SO(4) (pH 1). Under these conditions, the logarithm of the chemiluminescence intensity versus concentration was linear in the range of 2.15-2150 microg L(-1) for samples in MilliQ water, and the limit of detection of atrazine in water was determined to be 1.3+/-0.1 microg L(-1). Validation of the method was performed using direct injection HPLC. The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) significantly increased the chemiluminescence, masking the signal generated by atrazine. Isolating the target analyte via solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis removed this interference and concentrated the samples, resulting in a greatly improved sensitivity with a detection limit of 14+/-2 ng L(-1). PMID:19203593

Beale, David J; Porter, Nichola A; Roddick, Felicity A

2009-04-30

351

The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system  

SciTech Connect

Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

1992-01-01

352

Suboptimal projective control of a pressurized water reactor  

SciTech Connect

The time- and oxide field-dependencies of interface trap (N{sub it}) formation in MOSFETs have been studied following pulsed ionizing radiation. Results are compared with the two-stage model for Nit formation involving slow drift of radiation-induced H{sup +} ions in the SiO{sub 2}. Detailed data on the gate oxide field dependence during each individual stage are presented and discussed. A model is developed for the production of H{sup +} throughout the oxide. Calculations based on this model correctly predict the complete time dependent N{sub it} formation is at a maximum near zero first stage gate bias. This unexpected behavior apparently arises from the oxide field dependence of the H{sup +} production during the first stage. A suboptimal output feedback approach for control of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) in the H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant is presented. Optimal state feedback linear quadratic regulator (LQR) theory with pole placement capability is extended to obtain a suboptimal projective controller for such cases where the entire state vector is inaccessible for measurement and feedback purposes. The appealing feature of the proposed approach is that it is possible to select the weighting matrices in the quadratic cost functional such that the resulting control law would nearly minimize the cost, and at the same time can assign a subspectrum of the closed-loop system to preassigned desired locations. Additionally, the design algorithm is computationally attractive, since regardless of the dimension of the PWR model the approach mainly involves low-order matrix computations.

Saif, M. (Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC V5A 156 (CA))

1989-12-01

353

Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

1999-01-01

354

Effect of oxygen injection in a reclaimed wastewater pipeline on the microbiological quality of water.  

PubMed

In this work the influence of oxygen injection on the inactivation of microbiological indicators during reclaimed wastewater transportation was studied. Experiments were carried out in a completely filled gravity pipe (62 km long), at two different periods of the year and with three different oxygen doses (7, 15 and 30 mg L(-1)). Microbiological parameters studied were faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and somatic coliphages. As a consequence of the oxygen injection, a significant inactivation of the microbiological parameters was observed during the aerobic stretch of the pipe. Later, once the oxygen had been consumed, inactivation stopped and even a slight regrowth of the microbial population took place. Inactivations were within the range of 0.6-1.0 log10 units, in most cases. No significant differences between inactivations for the different microbiological parameters were found, except for the somatic coliphages. A relationship between the inactivation degree and oxygen dose and organic matter content was observed. The biofilm played an important role in the inactivation process. The injection of oxygen contributes to improving the microbiological quality of reclaimed wastewater during its transport by pipelines, helping to diminish the subsequent on-site disinfection requirements. PMID:22629622

Abreu Acosta, N; Rodríguez Gómez, L E; Alvarez Díaz, M

2012-01-01

355

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

NONE

1996-03-01

356

Effects of interbasin water transfer on regional climate: A case study of the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale interbasin water transfer, which changes basins by creating new hydrological cycles, has the potential to affect local and regional climate. In this paper, the effects of interbasin water transfer on regional climate are studied based on numerical simulations with the regional climate model RegCM3. The Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRSNWTP) in China is chosen as a case study to investigate the climatic responses under the three water transfer schemes with the intensities of 74.99, 85.31, and 118.16 billion m3/year (named Scheme 1, Scheme 2, and Scheme 3, respectively) based on the simplifications of the project programming. Four ten-year simulations are performed, which are the control run (MCTL) without water transfer, and three water transfer runs MWT1, MWT2, and MWT3 related to the Schemes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For the three Schemes compared to the case without water transfer, we find increases of 1.47, 1.71, and 2.32 mm in top-layer soil moisture, and increases of 5.57, 6.40, and 8.99W/m2 in latent heat flux, respectively, as a directly influence for injecting water into the intake area. The increases in latent heat fluxes and those in evaporation are accompanied with the decreases of 4.30, 5.05, and 7.12W/m2 in sensible heat flux, the decreases of 0.11, 0.14, and 0.18 ° in mean air temperature, and the increases of 8.54, 7.89, and 18.2 mm in precipitation in the intake grid cells and even their adjacent ones. The intensity of climatic influences positively relates to the transferred water quantity, has strong seasonal variability, and takes a greater effect in spring and autumn than that in summer and winter. Further analysis shows that the transferred water can reduce both the seasonal temperature range and the diurnal temperature range; the temperature decreasing can diffuse over almost the whole Huabei Plain below 700 hPa, and hence weaken the wind velocity of the easterly breeze. It follows from the analyses on vertical profile of water vapor content and the atmospheric moisture budgets that the transferred water can affect the local and regional climate by changing the local and regional water vapour transports, and especially influence the precipitation mainly by changing the convective precipitation over the intake area and the large-scale precipitation over the other adjacent region.

Xie, Z. H.; Chen, F.

2009-04-01

357

FIVE MILE CREEK WATER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT FEASIBILITY STUDY AND CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS DESIGN PROJECT, BIRMINGHAM, AL  

Microsoft Academic Search

ENTRIX Inc. (ENTRIX) recently conducted a feasibility study looking at water quality and flood reduction projects in the Five Mile Creek watershed, north of Birmingham, Alabama. The property is owned by the Freshwater Land Trust as part of the Jefferson County Greenways Plan. This project was driven by the supplemental projects required by the consent decree on Jefferson County Department

Terrell Gibbs; Aylin Lewallen; Doug Mooney; Wendy Allen-Jackson

358

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

R. Johansen

2011-09-01

359

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GAMBIAN RANGELAND AND WATER DEVELOPMENT PROJECT: LESSONS FOR SOUTHERN AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the conception, design, implementation and monitoring of The Gambian rangeland and water development project based in Niamina Dankunku and Niamina West districts of the country. It attempts to make a management evaluation of the project, gaining an insight into the nature of the development problem and the approach adopted by the project for its solution. It then

O. A. Akinboade

1998-01-01

360

An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

Hamlin, S. N.

1985-01-01

361

The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

362

Southeast Anatolian Project and Middle East Water: Implications for NATO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water shortages are acute in the Middle East due to limited supplies and growing populations, which drive a concomitant demand for water for personal, agricultural, and industrial purposes. One Middle East country, Turkey, a NATO member, has addressed the...

M. W. Temple

1998-01-01

363

Investigating the performance of hot water injection in geostatistically generated permeable media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigates the performance of hot water flooding compared to conventional water flooding in recovering heavy oil from heterogeneous reservoirs through fine-mesh numerical simulations. A total of 16 permeability maps were generated geostatistically to cover a wide range of reservoir heterogeneity. Two measures of heterogeneity were used to characterize the permeability maps: the Dykstra–Parsons coefficient and the spatial correlation

Abdullah F. Alajmi; Ridha Gharbi; Meshal Algharaib

2009-01-01

364

Alternate steam-cold water injection for the recovery of viscous crude  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for improving the thermal efficiency and vertical conformance in a thermal process for petroleum recovery. The method utilizes small, alternate banks of steam and water to more effectively distribute thermal energy throughout the reservoir. A small bank of water following a small bank of steam tends to counteract the effect of steam overriding. A following steam

Spillette

1969-01-01

365

MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

366

Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

McGarr, A.

2014-02-01

367

Online/offline injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact and rugged distributed feedback (DFB) laser system has been developed as online–offline injection seeder for the laser transmitter of a ground-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (WV DIAL) near 820 nm. The frequency stability of this injection seeder system shows a standard deviation of only 6.3 MHz and a linewidth of less than 4.6 MHz during continuous operation of more than 14 h. These values by far exceed the requirements for WV DIAL. By use of a novel technique based on an electro-optic deflector (EOD), alternating online–offline wavelength switching is achieved for each shot of the seeded laser with 250 Hz with a response time of less than 10 µs and very low crosstalk between the channels of only 33 dB. As a result, a spectral purity of 99.95% is reached by the WV DIAL transmitter which again fulfills the requirements for WV DIAL measurements with high accuracy. Because moveable parts are not present in the seeding system, this setup is significantly less sensitive to acoustic vibrations and ambient temperature drifts during field experiments than other seeding systems which use external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) and mechanical switches. By our new seeding system not only the requirements for ground-based water-vapor DIAL are met but also for space-borne WV DIAL applications that pose even higher demands to the frequency stability and spectral purity of the laser transmitters.

Späth, Florian; Metzendorf, Simon; Behrendt, Andreas; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Wagner, Gerd; Wulfmeyer, Volker

2013-11-01

368

Water lamp and pinwheels: ambient projection of digital information into architectural space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will be an interface between humans and online digital information. This paper introduces ambient fixtures called Water Lamp and Pinwheels: a new approach to interfacing people with online digital information. The Water Lamp projects water ripple shadow created by a \\

Andrew Dahley; Craig Wisneski; Hiroshi Ishii

1998-01-01

369

Analysis of a rural water supply project in three communities in Mali: Participation and sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a qualitative assessment of the participatory water management strategies implemented at the community level in rural Mali through a water supply project — The West Africa Water Initiative (WAWI) — coordinated by Wo rld Vision International, a non-governmental and humanitarian organization. Data for the study were generated through a combination of primary and secondary sources in three

Brett A. Gleitsmann; Margaret M. Kroma; Tammo Steenhuis

2007-01-01

370

Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Surface water data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes the surface water sampling program at the Amoco Refinery at Yorktown, Virginia. This was undertaken as a part of the joint project between Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to review pollution prevention alternatives at a petroleum refinery. The surface water data provides a snapshot of surface water pollutant generation and discharge from the

Baloo

1991-01-01

371

Analysis of the steam injection at the Visalia Superfund Project with fully compositional nonisothermal finite difference simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

By injecting steam, over 1.1 million pounds of creosote has been recovered at the Visalia, California Superfund Site from an aquifer 102ft underground. In the first 6 weeks of injection 320,000lb of creosote were recovered or destroyed versus <1lb per day in a pump and treat. The finite difference simulator STARS1Developed, maintained and marketed by Computer Modeling Group Ltd., Calgary,

Myron I. Kuhlman

2002-01-01

372

Final 2008 Annual Adaptive Management Report for the Carlsbad Project Water Operations and Water Supply Conservation Environmental Impact Statement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers the period January 1, 2008 through the end of the calendar year December 31, 2008 as stated in the Carlsbad Project Water Operations and Water Supply Conservation EIS, June 1, 2006. This report describes the actual Adaptive Management P...

2009-01-01

373

Improving oxygen conditions in the deeper parts of bornholm sea by pumped injection of winter water.  

PubMed

Vertical diffusivity and oxygen consumption in the basin water, the water below the sill level at about 59 m depth, have been estimated by applying budget methods to monitoring data from hydrographical stations BY4 and BY5 for periods without water renewal. From the vertical diffusivity, the mean rate of work against the buoyancy forces below 65 m depth is estimated to about 0.10 mW m(-2). This is slightly higher than published values for East Gotland Sea. The horizontally averaged vertical diffusivity ? can be approximated by the expression ? = a 0 N (-1) where N is the buoyancy frequency and a 0 ? 1.25 × 10(-7) m(2) s(-2), which is similar to values for a 0 used for depths below the halocline in Baltic proper circulation models for long-term simulations. The contemporary mean rate of oxygen consumption in the basin water is about 75 g O2 m(-2) year(-1), which corresponds to an oxidation of 28 g C m(-2) year(-1). The oxygen consumption in the Bornholm Basin doubled from the 1970s to the 2000s, which qualitatively explains the observed increasing frequency and vertical extent of anoxia and hypoxia in the basin water in records from the end of the 1950s to present time. A horizontally averaged vertical advection-diffusion model of the basin water is used to calculate the effects on stratification and oxygen concentration by a forced pump-driven vertical convection. It is shown that the residence time of the basin water may be reduced by pumping down and mixing the so-called winter water into the deepwater. With the present rate of oxygen consumption, a pumped flux of about 25 km(3) year(-1) would be sufficient to keep the oxygen concentration in the deepwater above 2 mL O2 L(-1). PMID:23161366

Stigebrandt, Anders; Kalén, Ola

2013-09-01

374

Injection Well Mechanical Integrity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The initial research project examining the question of mechanical injection well integrity, was conducted by the Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory and funded in 1981. The first phase of the project resulted in a separate report entitled, 'M...

J. T. Thornhill B. G. Benefield

1990-01-01

375

The Clean Water Act: Financing Combined Sewer Overflow Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987 Congress expanded the scope of the Clean Water Act to include combined sewer overflows (CSOs) despite continuing to reduce federal assistance for water-pollution abatement and despite the fact that CSO abatement is far more costly than previous water-quality mandates. As a result, many low-income deindustrializing cities are now subject to an additional federal mandate that many of them

Clyde W. Barrow; William Hogan

1996-01-01

376

FP7 project MyWater - Merging hydrologic models and EO data for reliable information on Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

21st century reality already sees 2.5 billion people without adequate access to water, whilst climate changes lead to dramatically changing water resources availability and needs. These changes will influence all citizens, and authorities will need more reliable information to adapt to the new situation. The MyWater project responds to these challenges, implementing a new information platform which integrates data from three scientific research areas - earth observation, catchment modelling and meteorology - to better access hydrological processes. This platform will allow a quasi-automatic service chains which output user tailored results like: drinking water needs (quantity and quality), agriculture water needs, water health related indicators, flood scenarios, etc. Overall, MyWater will provide reliable information on water quantity, quality and usage for appropriate water management, improving knowledge and creating the forecasting capabilities necessary to catchment managers, and at the same time optimizing the ratio cost/benefit of water resources monitoring. The work presented regards to the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

Araujo, Antonio; Chambel, Pedro; Silva, Adélio; Velickov, Slavco; van Andel, Schalk; Toth, Gergely; Almeida, Waldenio; Mako, Andras; Alexandridis, Thomas; Cugala, Domigos

2013-04-01

377

[Sustainability of ecological water transfer and rehabilitation project based on participatory survey].  

PubMed

In the arid inland area of Northwest China, the ecological water transfer and rehabilitation project (EWTRP) is an important measure to restore the deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This research was based on results of the questionnaire from Ejina County's farmer households, which included the farmer households' attitude, livelihood and the efficiency of the water resource usage. The results showed that although the EWTRP had made great achievements in vegetation restoration, but the sustainability of the project was affected by the following factors: the ecologically-motivated relocated/resettled herdsmen mainly relied on the compensation from the project, causing them a hard living, and increasing the risk of maintaining the current achievement; the project didn't have a positive impact on water-saving agriculture, the efficiency of water usage was relatively low and had not yet reached the final goal; the compensation of the project only considered the loss of agriculture, but neglected the externality and publicity of eco-water. We suggest that developing education, offering job opportunity and training programs, improving the efficiency of water usage and establishing reasonable water resources compensation mechanisms are needed to be considered as main domain of environmental recovery as well as ecological water transfer and rehabilitation. PMID:24765863

Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Li-Juan; Yu, Teng-Fei

2014-01-01

378

Enhanced oil recovery - polymer. Gulf injects polymer for better water distribution in Yates sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimentation with several enhanced oil recovery methods in the North Ward-Estes field in Ward and Winkler Counties, Texas, has prompted Gulf Oil Exploration and Production Co. to begin a full-scale polymer flood in the southern portion of that field. Phase I of the multimillion dollar project was well under way in late January. Phase II is tentatively scheduled to begin

Wash

1982-01-01

379

Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water  

PubMed Central

Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments.

Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

2014-01-01

380

Effect of nitrate injection on the bacterial community in a water-oil tank system analyzed by PCR-DGGE.  

PubMed

Sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a major concern for the petroleum industry since it is toxic and corrosive, and causes plugging due to the formation of insoluble iron sulfides (reservoir souring). In this study, PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) using two sets of primers based on the 16S rRNA gene and on the aps gene (adenosine-5-phosphosulfate reductase) was used to track changes in the total bacterial and SRB communities, respectively, present in the water-oil tank system on an offshore platform in Brazil in which nitrate treatment was applied for 2 months (15 nitrate injections). PCR-DGGE analysis of the total bacterial community showed the existence of a dominant population in the water-oil tank, and that the appearance and/or the increase of intensity of some bands in the gels were not permanently affected by the introduction of nitrate. On the other hand, the SRB community was stimulated following nitrate treatment. Moreover, sulfide production did not exceed the permissible exposure limit in the water-oil separation tank studied treated with nitrate. Therefore, controlling sulfide production by treating the produced water tank with nitrate could reduce the quantity of chemical biocides required to control microbial activities. PMID:18180965

Jurelevicius, Diogo; von der Weid, Irene; Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

2008-04-01

381

Detection of s-triazine pesticides in natural waters by modified large-volume direct injection HPLC.  

PubMed

There is a need for simple and inexpensive methods to quantify potentially harmful persistent pesticides often found in our water-ways and water distribution systems. This paper presents a simple, relatively inexpensive method for the detection of a group of commonly used pesticides (atrazine, simazine and hexazinone) in natural waters using large-volume direct injection high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) utilizing a monolithic column and a single wavelength ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) detector. The best results for this system were obtained with a mobile phase made up of acetonitrile and water in a 30:70 ratio, a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), and a detector wavelength of 230 nm. Using this method, we achieved retention times of less than three minutes, and detection limits of 5.7 microg L(-1) for atrazine, 4.7 microg L(-1) for simazine and 4.0 microg L(-1) for hexazinone. The performance of this method was validated with an inter-laboratory trial against a National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA) accredited liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method commonly used in commercial laboratories. PMID:20602952

Beale, David J; Kaserzon, Sarit L; Porter, Nichola A; Roddick, Felicity A; Carpenter, Peter D

2010-07-15

382

Cost Allocation of Multiagency Water Resource Projects: Game Theoretic Approaches and Case Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water resource projects are often jointly carried out by a number of communities and agencies. Participation in a joint project depends on how costs are allocated among the participants and how cost shares compare with the cost of independent projects. Cooperative N-person game theory offers approaches which yield cost allocations that satisfy rationality conditions favoring participation. A new solution concept, the normalized nucleolus, is discussed and applied to a water reuse project in southern California. Results obtained with the normalized nucleolus are compared with those derived with more traditional solution concepts, namely, the nucleolus and the Shapley value.

Lejano, Raul P.; Davos, Climis A.

1995-05-01

383

Cooling-water-dischage research project. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve years of field studies undertaken to determine the effects of once-through power plant cooling systems on surface waters used for cooling system intake and waste heat disposal are described. The water bodies receiving coolants from eleven power plants were used as field sites. Heat exchange and temperature gradients were measured at each site, and the effects of these temperature

J. Geyer; L. D. Jensen

1976-01-01

384

Suppression of formation of dioxins in combustion gas of municipal waste incinerators by spray water injection.  

PubMed

Dioxins in the combustion gas of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are resynthesized when the combustion gas passes from the outlet exaust gas boiler to the outlet gas duct. The objective of the study was to estimate if the suppression of the formation of dioxins depends on the inlet gas temperature and diameter and/or temperature of droplet spray water using an actual incinerator operation data. The dioxin formation and/or the quenching temperature is revealed using the Altwicker theory equation with the information of inlet gas temperature and droplet spray water. The evaporation rate of a spray water droplet also can be estimated using the Mizutani theory. The highest dioxin formation was found at 350 degrees C; thereafter, it decreased quickly. When an area of 500 microm for droplet-formed dioxins is defined as 100%, the values of formed dioxins for 400, 300, 200 and 100 microm droplet areas are estimated as 71, 41, 25 and 18%, respectively. It is revealed that the smaller size of droplet spray water and lower inlet gas temperature enable the decrease in dioxin formation. The decreased dioxin formation and/or the lower quenching temperature is revealed using the Altwicker theory equation with the information of inlet gas temperature and droplet spray water size. PMID:18382417

Kubota, Eiji; Shigechi, Toru; Takemasa, Takehiro; Momoki, Satoru; Arizono, Koji

2007-01-01

385

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

386

Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents results of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) water sampling and modeling study at Kihei, on the island of Maui. The study was done in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), with funding supplied by ...

C. D. Hunt

2006-01-01

387

What's your water-injection problem. Pt. 3. Maybe corrosion-resistant alloys provide the answer  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way of controlling corrosion is by the use of corrosion-resistant materials. These are generally used in troublesome areas, such as pumps, valves, meters, and pump columns in waterflood projects where impingement, cavitation-erosion, abrasion, and wear are the principal factors involved. Such materials as D-2 Ni-Resist, Type 316 stainless steel, and various bronzes including aluminum bronze and nickel-aluminum bronze are

J. F. Jr

1965-01-01

388

Sequential injection analysis of chloride and nitrate in waters with improved accuracy using potentiometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate simultaneous analysis of different anionic species using ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) can be achieved even for non-specific sensors by resorting to an ordinary least squares multiple regression in the vicinity of the predicted concentrations. In this work the potentialities of this approach are evidenced by the determination of nitrate and chloride in synthetic and real water samples in which chloride

Em??lia Santos; M. Conceição B. S. M. Montenegro; Cristina Couto; Alberto N. Araújo; M. Fernanda Pimentel; Valdinete Lins da Silva

2004-01-01

389

Theoretical and experimental study of particle movement and deposition in porous media during water injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow of particulate suspensions and brines in porous media is encountered in a wide range of industrial situations such as oil production, soil erosion, and ground water pollution and in the operation of filter beds. Three major classes of such problems are addressed in this paper, namely particle movement, deposition and filtration. Particle movement and deposition are known to

J. Moghadasi; H. Müller-Steinhagen; M. Jamialahmadi; A. Sharif

2004-01-01

390

A simulation study on the enhancement of the shift reaction by water injection into a gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although coal gasification is a clean and efficient use of coal, a reduction of CO2 emissions is needed to mitigate global warming. The aim of this study was to improve the thermal efficiency of fuel production and electricity generation by dry coal feed gasification. The primary cause of thermal efficiency loss is steam use in a water-gas shift reactor. The

F. Kiso; M. Matsuo

2011-01-01

391

Application of transfer functions to model water injection in hydrocarbon reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water flooding is one of the most economical methods to increase oil recovery. In order to improve the ultimate oil recovery during waterflooding, it is essential to provide an accurate forecast of reservoir performance. Hence, various methods have been utilized to simulate reservoirs. Although grid-based simulation is the most common and accurate method, time-consuming computation and the demand for large

Mohammad Sayyafzadeh; Peyman Pourafshary; Manouchehr Haghighi; Fariborz Rashidi

2011-01-01

392

Review of Contaminant Occurrence in Public Water Systems Related to Class V Injection Wells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to provide an assessment of the occurrence on contaminants associated with Class V inudstrial and automotive waste disposal wells in public water systems. This evaluation is in support of on-going efforts to revise regulation...

1999-01-01

393

Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water  

SciTech Connect

Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

Song Jin

2007-05-31

394

77 FR 76512 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Water Delivery for the Operation of Irrigation Projects  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Water Delivery for the Operation of Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs...owns, operates, and maintains 15 irrigation projects that provide a service to the...information in its regulations governing its irrigation projects (25 CFR part 171)....

2012-12-28

395

Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Annual progress report for 1987  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress during 1987 of five Hanford Site ground water monitoring projects. Four of these projects are being conducted according to regulations based on the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the state Hazardous Waste Management Act. The fifth project is being conducted according to regulations based on the state Solid Waste Management Act. The five projects discussed herein are: 300 Area Process Trenches; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins; 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds; Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill; Solid Waste Landfill. For each of the projects, there are included, as applicable, discussions of monitoring well installations, water-table measurements, background and/or downgradient water quality and results of chemical analysis, and extent and rate of movement of contaminant plumes. 14 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

Hall, S.H.

1988-09-01

396

Initiation of an in-situ combustion project in a thin oil column underlain by water  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ combustion project was initiated in the Caddo Pine Island field in a thin oil column underlain by a water zone. An inverted five-spot well pattern was selected for the project, and the formation was ignited in Sept. 1980 to evaluate the potential of enhanced oil recovery by a combustion process. This paper presents engineering and laboratory procedures used in evaluating the reservoir for in-situ combustion. The program used to monitor the project performance, including both surface and subsurface measurements, is discussed. The paper reviews the design and installation procedures for the project wells and surface facilities, and presents project results.

Horne, J.S.; Bousaid, I.; Dore, T.L.; Smith, L.B.

1982-10-01

397

Madera Irrigation District Water Supply Enhancement Project: Final Environmental Impact Statement. Madera County, California.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), prepared this Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Madera Irrigation District Water Supply Enhancement Project (MID WSEP). The MID WSEP Proposed Action is to ...

2011-01-01

398

77 FR 47058 - Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...American River Hydroelectric Project Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Draft Environmental Impact Statement; Public Meetings a. Date and Time...written comments on the draft environmental impact statement for the Middle Fork American...

2012-08-07

399

Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Annual Report 1999-2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: History of SICCWRP (The Southern California Coastal Water Research Project - 30 years of environmental research in the Southern California Bight); Sources (Characteristics of effluents from large municipal wastewater treatment facilities...

D. Elmore S. B. Weisberg

2001-01-01

400

Direction of Heavy Water Projects. Summary of Activities 1950-1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summary of the activities performed by the Heavy Water Projects Direction of the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission from 1950 to 1983. It covers: historical data; industrial plant (based on ammonia-hydrogen isotopic exchange); experimental plant (utilizin...

1984-01-01

401

Central Valley Project Municipal and Industrial Water Shortage Policy Scoping Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the Central Valley Project (CVP) Municipal and Industrial (M&I) Water Shortage Policy (WSP) scoping activities. The Bureau of Reclamation, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) lead agency, plans to prepare an Environmental Im...

2011-01-01

402

Modelling transient temperature distribution for injecting hot water through a well to an aquifer thermal energy storage system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat storage systems are usually used to store waste heat and solar energy. In this study, a mathematical model is developed to predict both the steady-state and transient temperature distributions of an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system after hot water is injected through a well into a confined aquifer. The ATES has a confined aquifer bounded by aquicludes with different thermomechanical properties and geothermal gradients along the depth. Consider that the heat is transferred by conduction and forced convection within the aquifer and by conduction within the aquicludes. The dimensionless semi-analytical solutions of temperature distributions of the ATES system are developed using Laplace and Fourier transforms and their corresponding time-domain results are evaluated numerically by the modified Crump method. The steady-state solution is obtained from the transient solution through the final-value theorem. The effect of the heat transfer coefficient on aquiclude temperature distribution is appreciable only near the outer boundaries of the aquicludes. The present solutions are useful for estimating the temperature distribution of heat injection and the aquifer thermal capacity of ATES systems.

Yang, Shaw-Yang; Yeh, Hund-Der; Li, Kuang-Yi

2010-10-01

403

Integrated Information Management and Exchange for Water Treatment Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration is the key to the performance improvement for the fragmented construction industry. Research in recent years has resulted in some rapid maturing integration technologies, such as data modelling, integrated project database, data management and data exchange, integration with third party application software, etc. This paper describes a research prototype that aims at applying these technologies in the design and

Ming Sun; Ghassan Aouad; Nick Bakis; Stuart Birchall; William Swan

404

Determination of sulphate in water and biodiesel samples by a sequential injection analysis--multivariate curve resolution method.  

PubMed

A spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis (SIA-DAD) method linked to multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) has been developed for sulphate determination. This method involves the reaction, inside the tubes of the SIA system, of sulphate with barium-dimethylsulphonazo (III) complex, Ba-DMSA (III), displacing Ba(2+) from the complex and forming DMSA (III). When the reaction products reach the detector a data matrix is obtained, which allows a second-order calibration to be developed. The experimental conditions (concentration and sample and reagent volumes) to obtain the highest sensitivity have been chosen applying a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design. The proposed sequential flow procedure permits up to 15 mg SO(4)(2-) L(-1) to be determined with a limit of detection of 1.42 mg L(-1) and it is able to monitor sulphate in samples at a frequency of 15 samples per hour. The method was applied to determine sulphate in natural and residual waters and in biodiesel. The reliability of the method was established for water samples by parallel determination using a standard turbidimetric method for sulphate in natural and residual water samples with results within statistical variation. For biodiesel samples, the method was validated comparing the concentration of some spiked samples with the expected concentration using a test-t. PMID:20800738

del Río, Vanessa; Larrechi, M Soledad; Callao, M Pilar

2010-08-31

405

Feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system which would allow a substantially increased output from a turboshaft engine for brief periods in emergency situations with little or no loss of turbine stress rupture life is proposed and studied analytically. The increased engine output is obtained by overtemperaturing the turbine; however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water. This decrease in cooling air temperature can offset the effect of increased gas temperature and increased shaft speed and thus keep turbine blade stress rupture life constant. The analysis utilized the NASA-Navy-Engine-Program or NNEP computer code to model the turboshaft engine in both design and off-design modes. This report is concerned with the effect of the proposed method of power augmentation on the engine cycle and turbine components. A simple cycle turboshaft engine with a 16:1 pressure ratio and a 1533 K (2760 R) turbine inlet temperature operating at sea level static conditions was studied to determine the possible power increase and the effect on turbine stress rupture life that could be expected using the proposed emergency cooling scheme. The analysis showed a 54 percent increse in output power can be achieved with no loss in gas generator turbine stress rupture life. A 231 K (415 F) rise in turbine inlet temperature is required for this level of augmentation. The required water flow rate was found to be .0109 kg water per kg of engine air flow.

Vanfossen, G. J.

1983-01-01

406

Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs such as Larderello, Italy, and The Geysers, California, are fundamentally water-short systems. This is apparent from the relatively low pressures in the natural state, typically about 35 bars at 1000 m depth, which is much below hydrostatic pressures. It is also apparent from the high heat content of the produced fluids, typically superheated steam. Large-scale production from

Pruess; Karsten

1991-01-01

407

Water-quality assessment of the Carson River ground-water basin, Nevada and California; project description  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This program, called the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. The program is in its early stages and consists of four surface water and three groundwater pilot projects. The objectives of the Carson River basin NAWQA project are described in the context of the national program, the study area and its associated water quality issues, and a proposed study approach. The objectives of the Carson River basin NAWQA project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality; (2) describe relations of groundwater quality to land use, geohydrology, and other pertinent factors; (3) provide a general description of the location, nature and possible causes of selected widespread water quality problems in the project area; and (4) develop new techniques for characterizing regional groundwater quality, especially in arid alluvial basins. There are to be three major phases of the Carson River basin project. The first will consist of compilation and analysis of existing data. The second phase will consist of a regional water quality survey that will produce a consistent set of data that can be used to: (1) define regional quality of groundwater within the Carson River basin; and (2) compare that water quality with other aquifers in the Nation. The third phase will include topical studies that will define groundwater quality in the Carson River basin with respect to certain constituents, either basin wide or within specific areas of concern. (Lantz-PTT)

Welch, A. H.; Plume, R. W.

1987-01-01

408

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

Not Available

1990-10-01

409

Income-based projections of water footprint of food consumption in Uzbekistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing future water requirements for feeding the growing population of Central Asia can improve understanding of the projected water supply scenarios in the region. Future water requirements will be partially determined by the dietary habits of the populations, and are thus responsive to significant variation of income levels. Using Uzbekistan as an example, this study projects the water footprints of income driven changes on the population's diet in Central Asia. To reveal the influence of large income changes on dietary habits a Normalized Quadratic-Quadratic Expenditure System was calibrated and applied to data from 2009. The national water footprints of food consumption in Uzbekistan were projected until 2034 by applying the parameterized demand system to estimate the respective water footprint values. The results showed that for Uzbekistan the projected increase in the food consumption water footprint would be primarily linked to income growth rather than population growth. Due to the high water footprint of common food products, the composition of the population's diet, and responsiveness to income, economic growth is expected to put greater pressure on water resources in Uzbekistan unless proper measures are undertaken.

Djanibekov, Nodir; Frohberg, Klaus; Djanibekov, Utkur

2013-11-01

410

Sustainable Hydro Assessment and Groundwater Recharge Projects (SHARP) in Germany - Water Balance Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHARP is a European INTERREG IVc Program. It focuses on the exchange of innovative technologies to protect groundwater resources for future generations by considering the climate change and the different geological and geographical conditions. Regions involved are Austria, United Kingdom, Poland, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Greece and Germany. They will exchange practical know-how and also determine know-how demands concerning SHARP’s key contents: general groundwater management tools, artificial groundwater recharge technologies, groundwater monitoring systems, strategic use of groundwater resources for drinking water, irrigation and industry, techniques to save water quality and quantity, drinking water safety plans, risk management tools and water balance models. SHARP Outputs & results will influence the regional policy in the frame of sustainable groundwater management to save and improve the quality and quantity of groundwater reservoirs for future generations. The main focus of the Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Landscape in this project is the enhancement and purposive use of water balance models. Already since 1992 scientists compare different existing water balance models on different scales and coupled with groundwater models. For example in the KLIWEP (Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for the Catchment of River Parthe in Saxony) project the coupled model WaSiM-ETH - PCGEOFIM® has been used to study the impact of climate change on water balance and water supplies. The project KliWES (Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for Catchment Areas in Saxony) still running, comprises studies of fundamental effects of climate change on catchments in Saxony. Project objective is to assess Saxon catchments according to the vulnerability of their water resources towards climate change projections in order to derive region-specific recommendations for management actions. The model comparisons within reference areas showed significant differences in outcome. The values of water balance components calculated with different models partially fluctuate by a multiple of their value. The SHARP project was prepared in several previous projects that were testing suitable water balance models and is now able to assist the knowledge transfer.

Niemand, C.; Kuhn, K.; Schwarze, R.

2010-12-01

411

Assessing Applicability of CMIP5 Climate Projections for Water Resources and Environmental Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent changes in Federal agency directives and programmatic mandates require Federal managers to consider climate change in water resources and environmental planning. As a result, resource managers are now required to make judgments regarding which aspects of climate projection information are applicable to a given decision, including decisions to modify system operations, invest in new or improved infrastructure, and establish long-term management objectives. Here we present results from an interagency collaboration to evaluate the reliability, relevance, and applicability of CMIP5 climate projections for use in water and environmental resources planning, focusing on a case study of the Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems in California. Reliability of climate projection information is assessed through detailed evaluation of climate model skill in simulating 20th century climate conditions, whereas relevance is assessed by evaluating the sensitivity of water resources system performance to changes in climate. Information on reliability and relevance is then combined into a common framework to assess the applicability of climate projection information to a given water resources or environmental planning context. Outcomes of this collaborative study will inform agency discussions regarding the use of climate projection information in long-term resource planning, including decisions to invest in adaptation measures.

Ferguson, I. M.; Brekke, L. D.; Scott, J.; Alexander, M. A.

2013-12-01

412

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1995-09-01

413

Characterization of Solids Collected from H-Area Injection Wells and Injection Tank Chemistry from both F- and H-Area Water Treatment Units (WTUs)  

SciTech Connect

This study suggests that a strong poitential exists for both chemical and biological fouling of the injection wells at the F- and H Area remediation systems. To further the potential, an evaluation of WTU process chemistry, characterization of the natural groundwater geochemistry, and analysis of microbiological activity should be performed. This report summarizes the results.

Serkiz, S.M.

1999-04-15

414

Soil and Water Conservation Project in Two Sites in Somalia: Seventeen Years Later.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the early 1960s, the Agency for International Development (AID) and the Somalia Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry carried out a soil and water conservation project, the bunding of a cultivated watershed in the northwest. The project was inte...

J. W. McCarthy C. Clapp-Wincek S. Londner A. Thomas

1985-01-01

415

Initiation of an In-Situ Combustion Project in a Thin Oil Column Underlain by Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-situ combustion project was initiated in the Caddo Pine Island field in a thin oil column underlain by a water zone. An inverted five-spot well pattern was selected for the project, and the formation was ignited in Sept. 1980 to evaluate the potential of enhanced oil recovery by a combustion process. This paper presents engineering and laboratory procedures used

Jerrold Horne; Issam Bousaid; Timothy Dore; Luther Smith

1982-01-01

416

Effects of interbasin water transfer on regional climate: A case study of the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a water transfer mechanism was implemented into the regional climate model, RegCM3, to represent water to be transferred by increasing the precipitation that reached the surface in intake areas. The effects of interbasin water transfer on local and regional climates were then studied based on numerical simulations conducted using the RegCM3 model. The Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRSNWTP) in China was chosen as a case study to investigate the climatic responses under three different water transfer schemes with three intensities. Four 10-year simulations were conducted, a control run (MCTL) without water transfer, and three water transfer runs (MWT1, MWT2, and MWT3) related to the three schemes. In the three water transfer runs, spatial and temporal water transfer data were derived from the schemes under the assumption that the quantity of water to be transferred into a county in the intake area in a year for each scheme was distributed evenly into each time step. Increases in top-layer soil moisture and latent heat flux were observed when compared to the control, and these increases were found to occur as a direct result of injecting water into the intake area. The increases in latent heat flux and evaporation were accompanied with decreases in sensible heat flux, mean air temperature, and increases in precipitation in the intake area. These differences were generally small and statistically insignificant, indicating that the water transfer plays a small role in influencing regional climate in our simulations. However, the climatic influence intensity of a water transfer scheme was found to be positively related to the quantity of water to be transferred, and to have strong seasonal variability, with larger effect being observed in spring and autumn than in summer and winter. We also conducted a water transfer run, MWT4, using the same configuration as MWT3 but under the assumption that the quantity of water was distributed evenly into each time step of the first half of the year. Comparison of the two runs shows a stronger seasonal variability in the climatic influence when the water was assigned into the first half of the year than when it was assigned into the entire year. Further analysis revealed that the water transfer could reduce both the seasonal and diurnal temperature ranges at the surface and that the decrease in temperature could diffuse over almost the entire Huabei Plain below 700 hPa, thereby weakening the wind velocity of the easterly breeze. It follows from the analyses of the vertical profiles of the water vapor content and the atmospheric moisture budgets that the water transfer can affect the local and regional climates by changing the local water vapor content and the regional water vapor transports, which in turn influences precipitation.

Chen, Feng; Xie, Zhenghui

2010-06-01

417

Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

1973-01-01

418

Projecting Continental U.S. Water Stress Based on Global Datasets  

SciTech Connect

Human populations may be adversely impacted by water stress, a situation which is commonly defined as a per capita water availability of less than 1700 cubic meters of freshwater per person per year. Water stress may result from either overuse of available freshwater resources or a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We have developed a simple methodology to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios have been used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes, according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines, have been used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections have then been combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by U.S. watershed. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, including the identification of potentially vulnerable areas in need of more detailed analysis. This high-level analysis also illustrates the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population growth projections.

Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kodra, Evan [Northeastern University; Steinhaeuser, Karsten [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [Northeastern University

2012-01-01

419

Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration, operation, monitoring, and proper abandonment will be presented. - Which critical parameters can be monitored? The chances and limitation of different monitoring technologies will be discoursed for a storage site. - How can public involvement reduce risks? This will be shown for hydraulic fracturing operations. - How can geotechnical operation reduce the risk for the groundwater and environment? Some examples will be given to show, that geotechnical operations have the inherent capability to enhance the security of our drinking water. The presentation will discuss how the use of underlying physical and chemical principles can significantly reduce geotechnical risks during fluid injection.

Schilling, Frank R.

2014-05-01

420

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOEpatents

A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

1996-01-09

421

Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography  

DOEpatents

A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Alexoff, David (Westhampton, NY)

1996-01-09

422

Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study

Graciana Peter

2010-01-01

423

Indiana Water Quality Recreation Project, Geist Reservoir, Indianapolis, Indiana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A limnological study was made of 1,800-acre Geist Reservoir, near Indianapolis, IN., during 1963 and 1964. Objectives of the study were to evaluate possible deterioration in water quality that results from use of a watershed or reservoir for recreational ...

1966-01-01

424

HOt Water SavEr (HOWSE) Project. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dishwasher effluent is pumped into the flue of the exchange tank by the normal dishwasher pump (or auxiliary pump). The effluent is stored in this tank until next operation of the dishwasher. Thus, thermal equilibrium can be reached between the tank and the effluent, promoting high efficiency. The output from the exchange tank feeds the household normal hot water

1981-01-01

425

BIPM Project: Intercomparison of Water Triple-Point Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents the results of an intercomparison between 3 triple point of water cells circulated by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures (BIPM), and a cell which is one of those used as a reference cell at the National Physical Laboratory (...

M. V. Chattle J. Butler

1994-01-01

426

PILOT PLANT PROJECT FOR REMOVING ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes research on the European practice of preozonation of water to modify naturally occurring organics, followed by bacteria activated carbon (BAC) adsorption to remove trihalomethane precursors. A 100-gal/min pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to...

427

Demonstration project: wind turbines for municipal water pumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, personnel from Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) studied the feasibility of using wind power in the operation of the municipal water system for the City of Canyon, Texas (1). Predicted energy outputs from six different wind turbines were calculated from power curves and long term National Weather Service (NWS) data. The conclusions were that the cheaper wind turbines should

1982-01-01

428

Community attitudes toward HIV prevention for injection drug users: findings from a cross-border project in southern China and northern Vietnam.  

PubMed

Success of HIV prevention projects for injection drug users (IDUs) depends on the support of the communities in which they are implemented. This article presents data from cross-sectional community surveys of HIV knowledge and attitudes toward peer-based HIV prevention interventions for injection drug users in a border area of Lang Son Province, Vietnam and Ning Ming County, Guangxi Province, China. Analysis of these surveys at baseline and 18 months reveals generally high or improving levels of HIV knowledge and positive attitudes toward the interventions in both Vietnam and China. Levels of knowledge and positive attitudes tended to be higher in Vietnam than in China. Interviews with staff and peer educators suggest that the project's community education efforts have increased support for the interventions and contributed to their smooth implementation. However, the community surveys also reveal some continuing deficits in HIV knowledge and understanding of the interventions, including perceptions that provision of new needles/syringes will result in increased drug use. Additional education, including dissemination of countervailing project data, is necessary to address these deficits and further increase community support for the interventions. PMID:16107438

Hammett, Theodore M; Norton, Giulia D; Kling, Ryan; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Ngu, Doan; Binh, Kieu Thanh; Dong, Ha Viet; Des Jarlais, Don C

2005-09-01

429

A multisyringe sequential injection method for monitoring water in the energy cogeneration system of a municipal waste incinerator.  

PubMed

Leading-edge urban solid waste ashing plants use burning heat energy to obtain electrical power. Water fed to their boilers for conversion into steam should be highly pure in order to minimize corrosion, scaling and similar phenomena, which can lead to malfunctioning and a reduced useful life but can be avoided by proper management and control of the water supply. In this work, we developed a multiparameter monitor based on multisyringe sequential injection for the sequential determination of up to eight important parameters, namely: pH, specific and acid conductivity, hydrazine, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and total iron. Acid conductivity was determined by passing the sample through a cation-exchange resin in order to retain ammonium ion and release protons. This parameter was deemed the most accurate indicator of dissolved solids in boiler water. Chemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically: hydrazine by reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, ammonium by the modified Berthelot reaction, iron with o-phenanthroline, and phosphate and silica by formation of a molybdoheteropoly blue dye in the presence of ascorbic acid as reductant. Use of the optimum chemical and physical operating conditions provided 3s(blank) detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) N(2)H(4), 0.13 mg l(-1) NH(4)(+), 0.04 mg l(-1) Fe, 0.03 mg l(-1) SiO2 and 0.05 mg l(-1) PO(4)(3-), and relative standard deviations not greater than 2.5%. The methods integrated in the proposed monitor were successfully applied to real samples from the water-steam cycle at the Son Reus ashing plant in Palma de Mallorca (Spain). PMID:19615501

de Mirabó, F M Bauzá; Forteza, R; Cerdà, V

2009-09-15

430

Water-Level Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents the water-level monitoring plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Water-level monitoring of the groundwater system beneath the Hanford Site is performed to fulfill the requirements of various state and federal regulations, orders, and agreements. The primary objective of this monitoring is to determine groundwater flow rates and directions.

John P. McDonald; Michele A. Chamness; Darrell R. Newcomer

1999-01-01

431

Publications Related to Water Resources Research Center Projects, 1967-71. Abstracts--Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the period 1965-71, the Water Resources Research Center, University of Minnesota through the Office of Water Resources Research, U.S. Department of the Interior has funded 38 research projects. Fifty-four technical reports, papers and theses have b...

1971-01-01

432

Summary of engineering-scale experiments for the Solar Detoxification of Water project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report contains a summary of large-scale experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories under the Solar Detoxification of Water project. The objectives of the work performed were to determine the potential of using solar radiation to destroy organic contaminants in water by photocatalysis and to develop the process and improve its performance. For these experiments, we used parabolic troughs to

J. E. Pacheco; L. Yellowhorse

1992-01-01

433

PROJECTED GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON WATER TEMPERATURE IN FIVE NORTH CENTRAL U.S. STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of projected global climate change due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 on water temperatures in five streams in Minnesota was estimated using a deterministic heat transport model. he model calculates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the water and is driven by ...

434

Water-Soluble Progesterone Analogues Are Effective, Injectable Treatments in Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

After more than 30 years of research and 30 failed clinical trials with as many different treatments, progesterone is the first agent to demonstrate robust clinical efficacy as a treatment for traumatic brain injuries. It is currently being investigated in two, independent phase III clinical trials in hospital settings; however, it presents a formidable solubility challenge that has so far prevented the identification of a formulation that would be suitable for emergency field response use or battlefield situations. Accordingly, we have designed and tested a novel series of water-soluble analogues that address this critical need. We report here the synthesis of C-20 oxime conjugates of progesterone as therapeutic agents for traumatic brain injuries with comparable efficacy in animal models of traumatic brain injury and improved solubility and pharmacokinetic profiles. Pharmacodynamic analysis reveals that a nonprogesterone steroidal analogue may be primarily responsible for the observed activity.