Science.gov

Sample records for water injection project

  1. INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2001-09-01

    As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to set. The system then returned to operation as before the test with no major change in the fieldwide injection. The injection and production rates for the field were monitored for approximately one year to give the production side of the system time to stabilize. The polymer treatment conducted on the injection wells in Hawk Point is believed to be the largest treatment of a hot, deep reservoir to date. These injection well treatments did produce some change in the injection profile of the injection wells. However, it is very disappointing that there was no significant improvement in the performance of the field. There was no noticeable reduction in the water production, the water-oil ratio (WOR), or an increase in oil production. The cosponsor has determined that the field is currently at its economic limit because of the high cost of this deep operation and the continual downhole problems. A restructuring of the injection-production pattern is presently being done to prolong the life of the field.

  2. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  3. Corrosion control in water injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1993-08-01

    Corrosion control in water injection systems encompasses a wide range of technologies, including chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and oxygen scavengers); corrosion-resistant materials (metallic and nonmetallic); internal coatings and linings; mechanical removal of dissolved oxygen; velocity control; and prevention of oxygen entry and galvanic couples. This article reviews the way that these technologies are used in modern water-injection systems (both seawater and produced water) to provide an acceptable service life and high-quality injection water.

  4. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  5. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.

  6. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  7. Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

  8. GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    John K. Godwin

    2005-12-01

    Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

  9. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers -- and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems. LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes. LIFAC's overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO[sub 2] removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product. LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

  10. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    DOEpatents

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  11. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  12. Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

  13. Modeling of Water Injection into a Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alred, John W.; Smith, Nicole L.; Wang, K. C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Fitzgerald, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    A loosely coupled two-phase vacuum water plume model has been developed. This model consists of a source flow model to describe the expansion of water vapor, and the Lagrangian equations of motion for particle trajectories. Gas/Particle interaction is modeled through the drag force induced by the relative velocities. Particles are assumed traveling along streamlines. The equations of motion are integrated to obtain particle velocity along the streamline. This model has been used to predict the mass flux in a 5 meter radius hemispherical domain resulting from the burst of a water jet of 1.5 mm in diameter, mass flow rate of 24.2 g/s, and stagnation pressure of 21.0 psia, which is the nominal Orbiter water dump condition. The result is compared with an empirical water plume model deduced from a video image of the STS-29 water dump. To further improve the model, work has begun to numerically simulate the bubble formation and bursting present in a liquid stream injected into a vacuum. The technique of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to formulate this simulation. A status and results of the on-going effort are presented and compared to results from the literature.

  14. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  15. Can Earthquakes Induced by Deep Fluid Injection Projects Be Controlled or Limited?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.; Williams, C. F.; Hickman, S.; Oppenheimer, D. H.

    2011-12-01

    Projects that involve the injection of high-pressure fluids at depth include Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration and liquid waste disposal. We consider some case histories to address the question of the extent to which earthquakes induced by fluid injection can be controlled or limited. For instance, can induced earthquakes be controlled in ways that don't compromise the effectiveness of a given injection project? It is difficult to answer this question definitively because, to our knowledge, only one successful experiment in earthquake control has been performed (Raleigh et al., Science, v. 191, pp. 1230-1237, 1976). Moreover, for numerous injection projects, the induced earthquakes of maximum magnitude have been post shut-in, e.g., the Rocky Mountain Arsenal well, a liquid waste disposal project for which the three largest induced earthquakes occurred more than a year after injection had been terminated. For EGS operations requiring the injection of liquid into rock of low permeability, estimations of maximum magnitudes based on the volume of injected fluid have been moderately successful. For a typical magnitude distribution of induced earthquakes, it can be shown that the largest event accounts for about half of the total induced seismic moment, which is given by the volume of injected liquid multiplied by the modulus of rigidity (McGarr, J. Geophys. Res., v. 81, p. 1487, 1976). The Basel Deep Heat Mining project, an EGS injection of 11,500 cubic meters of water into low-permeability rock at a depth of five km, induced earthquakes with magnitudes that exceeded the safety threshold and so injection was discontinued (Deichmann and Giardini, Seismol. Res. Letters, v. 80, p. 784, 2009). Approximately half a day after shut-in, however, an earthquake of magnitude 3.4 occurred, the largest event of the sequence. It is worth noting that the magnitude of this earthquake is quite close to what could have been estimated based on the volume of injected water. An EGS project in the Cooper Basin, Australia, provides another recent example for which the maximum magnitude agrees with that estimated on the basis of the volume of water injected into low-permeability rock. In this case, the injection of 20,000 cubic meters of water resulted in a maximum magnitude of 3.7. Thus, for EGS projects, maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes seem to be limited according to the volume of injected liquid. Among the issues that are, as yet, unresolved is the possibility that a small-scale fluid injection project may trigger a much larger earthquake on a pre-existing fault that is in a state close to failure.

  16. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  17. Geomechanics of subsurface water withdrawal and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Land subsidence and uplift, ground ruptures, and induced seismicity are the principal geomechanic effects of groundwater withdrawal and injection. The major environmental consequence of groundwater pumping is anthropogenic land subsidence. The first observation concerning land settlement linked to subsurface processes was made in 1926 by the American geologists Pratt and Johnson, who wrote that "the cause of subsidence is to be found in the extensive extraction of fluid from beneath the affected area." Since then, impressive progress has been made in terms of: (a) recognizing the basic hydrologic and geomechanic principles underlying the occurrence; (b) measuring aquifer compaction and ground displacements, both vertical and horizontal; (c) modeling and predicting the past and future event; and (d) mitigating environmental impact through aquifer recharge and/or surface water injection. The first milestone in the theory of pumped aquifer consolidation was reached in 1923 by Terzaghi, who introduced the principle of "effective intergranular stress." In the early 1970s, the emerging computer technology facilitated development of the first mathematical model of the subsidence of Venice, made by Gambolati and Freeze. Since then, the comprehension, measuring, and simulation of the occurrence have improved dramatically. More challenging today are the issues of ground ruptures and induced/triggered seismicity, which call for a shift from the classical continuum approach to discontinuous mechanics. Although well known for decades, anthropogenic land subsidence is still threatening large urban centers and deltaic areas worldwide, such as Bangkok, Jakarta, and Mexico City, at rates in the order of 10 cm/yr.

  18. Application for Underground Injection Control Permit for the PUNA Geothermal Venture Project

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-01

    Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) plans to construct and operate the 25 MW Puna Geothermal Venture Project in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii. The project will drill geothermal wells within a dedicated 500-acre project area, use the produced geothermal fluid to generate electricity for sale to the Hawaii Electric Light Company for use on the Island of Hawaii, and inject all the produced geothermal fluids back into the geothermal reservoir. Since the project will use injection wells, it will require an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit from the Drinking Water Section of the State of Hawaii Department of Health. The PGV Project is consistent with the State and County of Hawaii's stated objectives of providing energy self-sufficiency and diversifying Hawaii's economic base. The project will develop a new alternate energy source as well as provide additional information about the nature of the geothermal resource.

  19. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  20. [Recognition of water-injected meat based on visible/near-infrared spectrum and sparse representation].

    PubMed

    Hao, Dong-mei; Zhou, Ya-nan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yi-min; Lin, Ling; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiu-li

    2015-01-01

    The present paper proposed a new nondestructive method based on visible/near infrared spectrum (Vis/NIRS) and sparse representation to rapidly and accurately discriminate between raw meat and water-injected meat. Water-injected meat model was built by injecting water into non-destructed meat samples comprising pigskin, fat layer and muscle layer. Vis/NIRS data were collected from raw meat and six scales of water-injected meat with spectrometers. To reduce the redundant information in the spectrum and improve the difference between the samples,. some preprocessing steps were performed for the spectral data, including light modulation and normalization. Effective spectral bands were extracted from the preprocessed spectral data. The meat samples were classified as raw meat and water-injected meat, and further, water-injected meat with different water injection rates. All the training samples were used to compose an atom dictionary, and test samples were represented by the sparsest linear combinations of these atoms via l1-minimization. Projection errors of test samples with respect to each category were calculated. A test sample was classified to the category with the minimum projection error, and leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted. The recognition performance from sparse representation was compared with that from support vector machine (SVM).. Experimental results showed that the overall recognition accuracy of sparse representation for raw meat and water-injected meat was more than 90%, which was higher than that of SVM. For water-injected meat samples with different water injection rates, the recognition accuracy presented a positive correlation with the water injection rate difference. Spare representation-based classifier eliminates the need for the training and feature extraction steps required by conventional pattern recognition models, and is suitable for processing data of high dimensionality and small sample size. Furthermore, it has a low computational cost. In this paper, spare representation is employed for the first time to identify water-injected meat based on Vis/NIRS, with a promising recognition accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can be effectively used for discriminating water-injected meat from raw meat. PMID:25993827

  1. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  2. Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

  3. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  4. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  5. Water Jet Impingement Flow Characteristics in Direct Vessel Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sang H.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    Water jet impingement is a peculiar phenomenon in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) in which the safety injection nozzle is located in the outer reactor vessel, not in the cold leg such as in OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1,000 MWe). Therefore, the injected emergency core coolant (ECC) water spreads with a form of parabolic liquid film in the inner barrel after impinging. It is presently considered that the downcomer flow behavior is strongly governed by the location and geometry of the water injection nozzles. The impingement in the reactor vessel downcomer is one of the unknown important phenomena during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). There is thus a strong need to find how the injected flow strikes the inner downcomer wall and how wide the liquid film spreads by the impingement phenomenon. The liquid film gets in contact with the steam flow in the reactor downcomer such that the interfacial area of liquid film affects the direct bypass according to the nozzle location and geometry. The water jet impingement consists of three rather distinctive flow regions. Albeit the relevant hydrodynamic characteristics are simple and well known in simple geometries, the findings are not readily applicable in the annular reactor downcomer. Analytical and experimental approaches for impingement flow by water injection have yielded detailed flow mechanisms classified in the downcomer. The water injected through three boundaries showed varying behavior according to the injection velocity, injection nozzle diameter, wall curvature, and injection nozzle inclination. As the water injection velocity increases the liquid film spreading width increases, but the spreading width proportional to the injection velocity is tapered due to breakup. Given the injection velocity, a large diameter of injection nozzle increases the film spreading width. Impingement on the flat plate has a larger film spreading width than on the curved plate. Moreover, a larger curvature decreases the film spreading width. The inclined angle of the injection nozzle is a pivotal factor in reducing the film width by increasing the downward velocity. Given the same conditions, the film spreading width lessens as the inclined angle increases. (authors)

  6. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  7. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  8. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  9. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  10. Seismic modeling of CO2-injection based EGR (project CLEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houpt, L.; Buske, S.

    2009-04-01

    The joint research project CLEAN (CO2 Largescale EGR in the Altmark Natural-gas field) is a scientific program accompanying the Enhanced-Gas-Recovery (EGR) project within the second largest natural gas field in Europe - the Altmark gas field. Within this program a set of active and passive seismic surveys are planned in order to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution as well as the related processes of CO2 injection into the reservoir. These experiments comprise time-lapse 3D-VSP/MSP (vertical/moving-source-profiling) surveys as well as the installation of a borehole seismometer network for monitoring and analysis of injection induced seismicity. For both configurations we have performed elastic finite-difference simulations of the seismic wavefield based on a given subsurface model and for a range of injection-induced variations of seismic parameters. We will show the results and discuss the findings in terms of survey design, the estimation of expected changes in the seismic wavefield (reflectivity, traveltime, etc.), the repeatability of the measurements and the understanding of the limits for a rock-physical interpretation of the observed effects.

  11. SURFACE WATER EMAP PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface water component of the EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot is a five-year effort to assess the ecological condition of rivers and streams across 12 states in the western United States. EMAP is designed to monitor indicators of poll...

  12. Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula Basalt Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Continental flood basalts represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood basalt lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-saturated supercritical CO2 show that mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood basalt being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with basalt-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood basalts in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in regions of these countries where conventional storage options are limited.

  13. Injection and Monitoring at the Wallula Basalt Pilot Project

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McGrail, B. Peter; Spane, Frank A.; Amonette, James E.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Continental flood basalts represent one of the largest geologic structures on earth but have received comparatively little attention for geologic storage of CO2. Flood basalt lava flows have flow tops that are porous, permeable, and have large potential capacity for storage of CO2. In appropriate geologic settings, interbedded sediment layers and dense low-permeability basalt rock flow interior sections may act as effective seals allowing time for mineralization reactions to occur. Previous laboratory experiments showed the relatively rapid chemical reaction of CO2-saturated pore water with basalts to form stable carbonate minerals. However, recent laboratory tests with water-saturated supercritical CO2 show thatmore » mineralization reactions occur in this phase as well, providing a second and potentially more important mineralization pathway than was previously understood. Field testing of these concepts is proceeding with drilling of the world’s first supercritical CO2 injection well in flood basalt being completed in May 2009 near the township of Wallula in Washington State and corresponding CO2 injection permit granted by the State of Washington in March 2011. Injection of a nominal 1000 MT of CO2 was completed in August 2013 and site monitoring is in progress. Well logging conducted immediately after injection termination confirmed the presence of CO2 predominantly within the upper flow top region, and showed no evidence of vertical CO2 migration outside the well casing. Shallow soil gas samples collected around the injection well show no evidence of leakage and fluid and gas samples collected from the injection zone show strongly elevated concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, and Fe and 13C/18O isotopic shifts that are consistent with basalt-water chemical reactions. If proven viable by this field test and others that are in progress or being planned, major flood basalts in the U.S., India, and perhaps Australia would provide significant additional CO2 storage capacity and additional geologic sequestration options in regions of these countries where conventional storage options are limited.« less

  14. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  15. Development of gas turbine steam injection water recovery (SIWR) system

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.B.; Otter, A. den )

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses a closed-loop'' steam injection water recovery (SIWR) cycle that was developed for steam-injected gas turbine applications. This process is needed to support gas turbine steam injection especially in areas where water cannot be wasted and complex water treatment is discouraged. The development of the SIWR was initiated by NOVA in an effort to reduce the environmental impact of operating gas turbines and to find suitable solution for its expanding gas transmission system to meet further air emission restrictions. While turbine steam injection provides many benefits, it has not been considered for remote, less supported environments such as gas transmission applications due to its high water consumption. The SIWR process can alleviate this problem regardless of the amount of injection required. The paper also covers conceptual designs of a prototype SIWR system on a small gas turbine unit. However, because of relatively high costs, it is generally believed that the system is more attractive to larger size turbines and especially when it is used in conjunction with cogeneration or combined cycle applications.

  16. Project W.A.T.E.R.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EnviroTeach, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Introduces networking projects for studying rivers and water quality. Describes two projects in South Africa (Project W.A.T.E.R and SWAP) associated with the international network, Global Rivers Environmental Education Network. Discusses water test kits and educational material developed through Project W.A.T.E.R. (Water Awareness through…

  17. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-11-06

    Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

  18. Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

  19. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  20. Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  1. Pecos River Water Management Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, J. D.; James, S. C.

    2003-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is providing technical assistance to farmer members of the Carlsbad Irrigation District (CID) to better plan the storage, delivery, and application of water to the Carlsbad Project. The surface waters along the Pecos River are allocated by the State of New Mexico to three major entities: 1) The State of Texas - each year a percentage of water from the natural river flow must be delivered to Texas as governed by the Interstate Streams Commission; 2) CID farmer members - a fixed portion of water must be delivered to the farming members of the CID; and 3) wildlife - an amount of water must be allocated to support the wildlife habitat in the Pecos River, most notably, the endangered Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow. The Pecos Bluntnose Shiner Minnow habitat preference is under investigation by other state and national agencies and preliminary work has established that water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity (dunes, ripples, etc.) are the key parameters influencing minnow habitat preference. The amount of water (river flow rate) necessary to maintain a preferable habitat to support this species has yet to be determined. With a limited amount of water in the Pecos River and its reservoirs, it is critical to allocate water efficiently such that habitat is maintained, the farmers of the CID are supported, and New Mexico meets its commitments to the State of Texas. This study investigates the relationship between flow rate in the river and water depth, water velocity, and sediment activity. The goal is to establish a predictive tool that supports informed decisions about water management practices along the Pecos River that will maximize water available for agriculture and the State of Texas while maintaining the aquatic habitat.

  2. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

    2015-06-01

    Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  3. Cfd Modelling of Water Injection for Turbine Blade Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, J.; Yao, Y.; Mason, P. J.; Zhang, T.; Heyes, F. J. G.; Roach, P. E.

    CFD modeling of water injection for turbine blade cleaning has been carried out to predict the water coverage on a stationary blade row, which will enable a better understanding on the interactions between hot-air flow and cold-water droplets. A generic configuration was used in a priori in-house experiment, which provides test data for CFD validation. The two-phase flow CFD model adopts the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, in which the air-flow was treated as the continuous phase and water droplets as the dispersed phase. CFD predictions are found in fairly good agreement with test results, particularly the water coverage on the downstream blade row. Moreover, CFD modeling provides further details, including the trajectory of water droplets, which are difficult to be obtained by experiments, and yet extremely useful for understanding the flow physics.

  4. Seawater injection barrier recharge with advanced reclaimed water at Llobregat delta aquifer (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ortuño, F; Molinero, J; Garrido, T; Custodio, E

    2012-01-01

    The main aquifer of the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) has been affected by seawater intrusion since the 1960s. The Catalan Water Agency (ACA) has sponsored the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the progress of seawater intrusion advance due to the intensive aquifer development. The hydraulic barrier consists of 15 wells into which highly treated reclaimed water from the waste water treatment plant of the Baix Llobregat is injected. Water is subjected, prior to the distribution to the injection wells, to secondary and tertiary treatments, and later to ultrafiltration, UV disinfection without chlorination, and salinity reduction through reverse osmosis. A preliminary pilot phase of the project was started in late 2007, with highly positive results, and the second phase started in mid 2010. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical monitoring data indicate an efficient performance and aquifer improvement. The evaluation of such efficiency and operational costs has been analyzed and discussed. PMID:22949237

  5. Evaluation of centrifugal compressor performance with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beede, William L; Hamrick, Joseph T; Withee, Joseph R , Jr

    1951-01-01

    The effects of water injection on a compressor are presented. To determine the effects of varying water-air ratio, the compressor was operated at a constant equivalent impeller speed over a range of water-air ratios and weight flows. Operation over a range of weight flows at one water-air ratio and two inlet air temperatures was carried out to obtain an indication of the effects of varying inlet air temperature. Beyond a water-air ratio of 0.03 there was no increase in maximum air-weight flow, a negligible rise in peak total-pressure ratio, and a decrease in peak adiabatic efficiency. An increase in inlet air temperature resulted in an increase in the magnitude of evaporation. An analysis of data indicated that the magnitude of evaporation within the compressor impeller was small.

  6. Hydrological and chemical monitoring during Fluid Injection Test in Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, M.; Tanaka, H.; Kuo, T.; Tsao, C.; Giletycz, S.; Chen, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, T.; Ma, K.

    2007-12-01

    Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project drilled two research boreholes (Hole A and B; approximately 40 m of their distance) through the Chelungpu Fault in Da-Keng, which ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, in 2004. A branched borehole was drilled from Hole B in 2005 (Hole C), and then both Hole A and Hole C were perforated at the depth of the fault zone. The depth of perforation is 1111 m in Hole A and 1137 m in Hole C. Between the two boreholes, Fluid Injection Test (FIT) was performed on from November 2006 to March 2007 to estimate permeability and to understand hydrological and chemical properties along Chelungpu fault. Water was injected four times from Hole C at constant pressure during this FIT (4 MPa on November 2006 and January 2007, 3 and 5 MPa on March 2007). The arrival of injected water was monitored by seismometers, manometers, a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and chemical sensors at Hole A. In this present, we will report the results of water quality, gas and water pressure monitoring at Hole A. During FIT, tap water was used for injected water, which was characterized by high Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP; 250 mV) and high Dissolved Oxygen (DO; 5.6 mg/L). Because both ORP and DO of the well water at Hole A kept low (ORP; -350 - -150, DO; <0.5 mg/L) before FIT, the arrival of injected water can be found by rise of these values. 1st FIT was performed for approximately 100 hours from 22:00 on 7th to 8:30 on 12th November. As a result, the values of ORP and DO increased on 10th November, which is 3 days after the start of 1st FIT. Then, the flow rate at Hole A suddenly increased 7 days after the first chemical reaction on 10th, that is, 10 days after the start of 1st FIT. This suggests that the permeability is 10-16 m2 assuming that the width of a permeable zone is 1 m by the preliminary estimation of the permeability based on the model of Kitagawa et al. (2002).

  7. Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Dobson, P.F.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) modeling of a proposed stimulation injection associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths below 3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring from the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11), located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir.

  8. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  9. Simulation of altering residual water saturation near wellbore for CO2 injectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Lee, T.; Lee, S.; Park, K.

    2014-12-01

    Volumetric CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers is one of the most important factor for large scale CCS projects. The maximum sustainable injection rate or the injectivity is another important criterion which is dependent on many reservoir specific properties including permeability, porosity, formation thickness, areal extent, pressure and relative permeability. Among those parameters, we focused on the residual wetting phase saturation expressed in relative permeability curve. From previous experiments, residual brine saturation is typically between 0.4 and 0.6. Higher displacement efficiency cannot be expected with those values because the displacement efficiency is inversely proportional to the residual oil saturation. Also, it is natural that the end-point relative permeability for CO2 should be low. The reason is that the high CO2-brine interfacial tension disturbs CO2 invasion into small pores. In this study, chemical flooding was assumed with surfactants or intermediate fluid which is miscible with both water and CO2 to reduce the interfacial tension. We didn't use the chemicals to improve the displacement efficiency all over the field but intend to improve the injectivity at least near the wellbore region swept by the chemicals. Once lower residual brine saturation was achieved, the higher CO2 saturation could be maintained and the better CO2 injectivity was shown. Injection tests using a commercial model showed that the increase of the injectivity was not very high but the enhancement was meaningful.

  10. HYDERAULIC/CHEMICAL CHANGES DURING GROUND-WATER RECHARGE BY INJECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-water recharge by injection of reclaimed water is a feasible method of improving ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer system in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Franciso Bay. Ground water was initially more saline than sea water. Reclaimed water was injected at a rate of 10 gallons per minute from June 5, 1980, to July 1, 1980. At the completion of injection, water from an observation well 31 feet from the injection well was 98 percent injected water - in essence, fresh water. An abrupt rise in the water level in the injection well of about 1. 5 feet during the initial injection test was the result of a 3. 5 percent density difference between injected fresh water and saline ground water. The arrival of injected water at observation wells showed the same effect, allowing monitoring of chemical and hydraulic changes entirely through water-level data. Prior to injection the saline ground water was super-saturated withn calcite. Dilution, as injection proceeded, eventually produced an undersaturation of calcite. An increase in well specific capacity indicates that calcite dissolved from the aquifer matrix, improving hydraulic conductivity.

  11. Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

  12. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.; Ehrlich, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.

  13. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  14. Death by water: precautionary water submersion for intravitreal injection of retinoblastoma eyes.

    PubMed

    Francis, Jasmine H; Xu, Xiaoliang L; Gobin, Y Pierre; Marr, Brian P; Brodie, Scott E; Abramson, David H

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here. PMID:24949111

  15. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  16. Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

  17. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  18. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type of simulation studies can be applied to Hot Dry Rock systems to investigate the effects of dissolution/precipitation of solid salt, if present in the system, on the feasibility of the project.

  19. Poroelastic modeling to assess the effect of water injection for land subsidence mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichi, M.; Tokunaga, T.

    2015-11-01

    The possible effect of water injection to mitigate land subsidence was studied through numerical simulations based on the theory of poroelasticity. The Kujukuri Plain, Japan, was chosen as a study area. The effect of past injection was evaluated by comparing a model with injection and the one without injection. The calculated results suggested that the past injection played a significant role to reduce land subsidence. For achieving more effective mitigation practices in the future, we proposed to install injection wells in shallower formations. The effect of proposed injection method to mitigate land subsidence from 2014 to 2030 was also investigated. The calculated results show that the proposed method can work similarly by lesser water injection than the past method. The results also indicate that the upper limit of injection rate should be carefully determined to control the pore pressure build-up in the formation to be small enough to avoid formation failure.

  20. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  1. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  2. On spurious water flow during numerical simulation of steam injection into water-saturated soil.

    PubMed

    Gudbjerg, J; Trötschler, O; Färber, A; Sonnenborg, T O; Jensen, K H

    2004-12-01

    Numerical simulation of steam injection into a water-saturated porous medium may be hindered by unphysical behavior causing the model to slow down. We show how spurious water flow may arise on the boundary between a steam zone and a saturated zone, giving rise to dramatic pressure drops. This is caused by the discretization of the temperature gradient coupled with the direct relation between pressure and temperature in the steam zone. The problem may be a severe limitation to numerical modeling. A solution is presented where the spurious water flow is blocked and this widely enhances the performance of the model. This new method is applied to a previously reported example exhibiting numerical problems. Furthermore, it is applied to the simulation of 2-D sandbox experiments where LNAPL is remediated from a smearing zone by steam injection. These experiments would have been difficult to analyze numerically without the adjustment to prevent spurious flow. PMID:15610904

  3. The shift of microbial population composition accompanying the injected water flowing in the water-flooding petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

    2014-12-01

    In water-flooding petroleum reservoir, microbial populations in injected water are expected to migrate into oil-bearing strata and reach production wells. To demonstrate this, we firstly investigated microbial compositions in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir. The results indicated that the injected water harbored more microbial cells than produced water, and the shared populations and their abundance accounted for a minor fraction in injected water, while dominated in produced water, suggesting that most populations in injected water did hardly reach production wells in this reservoir. We further investigated microbial communities in water samples collected from wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells in a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir. The results indicated that, except for the community reconstruction mainly resulted from dissolved oxygen, most populations were simultaneously detected in the wellhead and downhole of injection wells and production wells, suggesting that most microbial populations in injected water reached the production wells. This study suggest that microbial populations in injected water can pass through reservoir strata and reach production wells, but the reservoir heterogeneity, interwell spacing, sieve effect of strata and dissolved oxygen exert significant influence on microbial migration and distribution in reservoirs.

  4. Sodium-water reaction acoustic noise for liquid phase injections. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, K.R.; Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.

    1981-02-01

    Data on liquid and steam injections into sodium were recorded during a series of wastage experiments. These data are analyzed for acoustic power and spectral characteristics, expanding the data base up to 10 gm/sec injection rates from the earlier 0.5 gms/sec. No significant difference in acoustic power was measured between low temperature steam and liquid injections for the same mass flowrates. The bandwidth for steam injections is broader than for liquid injections. Reaction product deposition during water injections appears to cause a decrease in signal strength with test duration.

  5. Long-term experiments of waste water injection in the Otake geothermal field, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Itoi, R.; Fukuda, M. ); Jinno, K. ); Hirowatari, K. ); Shinohara, N. ); Tomita, T. )

    1989-01-01

    The Otake geothermal water has been injected into two injection wells for up to 656 days. The injection and two other observation wells range in depth from 365 to 450 m. The average silica concentration in the water was in a range from 541 to 587 mg/1. The water was injected at 80, 60, and 50{sup 0}C to change the degree of supersaturation with silica. Both the falloff test and the maximum injectivity test were repeated to examine the decrease of injectivity. A tracer test, caliper log, and borehole televiewer survey were also conducted. The permeability-thickness product (kh) of Injection Well R-2 has reduced from 91 darcy-m down to 4 darcy-m after injecting 5.49 x 10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ water. In the case of Well R-1, its injectivity was nearly eliminated after injecting a total of 4.59x10/sup 5/ m/sup 3/ water; its kh value of 224 darcy-m decreased to 0.79 darcy-m, and the water level rose up over the wellhead.

  6. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  7. H2S Injection and Sequestration into Basalt - The SulFix Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudbrandsson, S.; Moola, P.; Stefansson, A.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric H2S emissions are among major environmental concern associated with geothermal energy utilization. It is therefore of great importance for the geothermal power sector to reduce H2S emissions. Known solutions for H2S neutralization are both expensive and include production of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid that needs to be disposed of. Icelandic energy companies that utilize geothermal power for electricity production have decided to try to find an environmentally friendly and economically feasible solution to reduce the H2S emission, in a joint venture called SulFix. The aim of SulFix project is to explore the possibilities of injecting H2S dissolved in water into basaltic formations in close proximity to the power plants for permanent fixation as sulfides. The formation of sulfides is a natural process in geothermal systems. Due to basalt being rich in iron and dissolving readily at acidic conditions, it is feasible to re-inject the H2S dissolved in water, into basaltic formations to form pyrite. To estimate the mineralization rates of H2S, in the basaltic formation, flow through experiments in columns were conducted at various H2S concentrations, temperatures (100 - 240°C) and both fresh and altered basaltic glass. The results indicate that pyrite rapidly forms during injection into fresh basalt but the precipiation in altered basalt is slower. Three different alteration stages, as a function of distance from inlet, can be observed in the column with fresh basaltic glass; (1) dissolution features along with precipitation, (2) precipitation increases, both sulfides and other secondary minerals and (3) the basalt looks to be unaltered and little if any precipitation is observed. The sulfur has precipitated in the first half of the column and thereafter the solution is possibly close to be supersaturated with respect to the rock. These results indicate that the H2S sequestration into basalt is possible under geothermal conditions. The rate limiting step is the availability of iron released from the dissolving rock. The rapid precipitation of secondary phases in the column suggests the possibility of decreased porosity in the vicinity of the injection well.

  8. Pitfalls and considerations in obtaining state commission approval for injection projects

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, T.W. )

    1993-08-01

    Attractive economics and technological advances have helped stimulate interest in enhanced-recovery projects. In most Rocky Mountain states, underground fluid-injection projects must be approved by an oil and gas commission or board in accordance with statutes or administrative regulations. Frequently, petroleum geologists and reservoir engineers present the factual basis supporting the injection project by testifying as expert witnesses during administrative proceedings. Many injection projects are operated by independents who may have limited experience in preparing for such hearings. Obtaining proper jurisdiction and establishing an adequate factual record is critical. Failure to do so may preclude obtaining approval from the commission or subject such approval to attack on appeal. Faulty legal compliance may jeopardize such projects. Accordingly, legal counsel should be consulted during the preparation of the application, testimony, and exhibits. Formal rules often are replaced during administrative proceedings and improper objections to projects are relatively common. Whereas some objections may be raised by competitors, many improper objections to projects are raised by surface landowners who attempt to use their objections as a negotiating tactic to obtain favorable surface-access agreements from operators. Although oil and gas commissions typically lack legal authority to resolve surface-access disputes, nevertheless, in the interest of furthering the appearance of fairness, they commonly permit surface landowners to state their objections during hearings. Operators should be prepared to protect their interests on the record and not allow such objections to sidetrack their efforts to obtain approval of their injection projects.

  9. Approximate solutions for Forchheimer flow during water injection and water production in an unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Moutsopoulos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the hydraulics around injection and production wells in unconfined aquifers associated with rainwater and reclaimed water aquifer storage schemes is an issue of increasing importance. Much work has been done previously to understand the mathematics associated with Darcy's law in this context. However, groundwater flow velocities around injection and production wells are likely to be sufficiently large such as to induce significant non-Darcy effects. This article presents a mathematical analysis to look at Forchheimer's equation in the context of water injection and water production in unconfined aquifers. Three different approximate solutions are derived using quasi-steady-state assumptions and the method of matched asymptotic expansion. The resulting approximate solutions are shown to be accurate for a wide range of practical scenarios by comparison with a finite difference solution to the full problem of concern. The approximate solutions have led to an improved understanding of the flow dynamics. They can also be used as verification tools for future numerical models in this context.

  10. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A.

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

  11. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  12. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  13. Ultrastructural changes of synaptic glomeruli following intrathecal injection of distilled water to rats.

    PubMed

    Inomata, K; Taxi, J

    1988-12-01

    We attempted to identify synaptic glomeruli in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of rats by injecting distilled water into the subarachnoid space. The altered synaptic glomeruli were visualized when injecting 1.0 ml of distilled water, though the incidence of degenerative synaptic glomeruli was rare in the case of an injection of 0.5 ml or less. We assume that when the distilled water is injected, there is a sudden change in homeostatic balance in cerebrospinal fluid, following inhibition of nerve impulses in the dorsal root and the altered synaptic glomeruli. Ultrastructurally, the injection of distilled water led to a preferential degeneration of synaptic glomeruli derived from the C-fibers. PMID:3252168

  14. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 4, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ``LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.`` The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.

  15. Deep injection of waste water in the Western Canada sedimentary basin.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Injection of wastes into the deep subsurface has become a contentious issue, particularly in emerging regions of oil and gas production. Experience in other regions suggests that injection is an effective waste management practice and that widespread environmental damage is unlikely. Over the past several decades, 23 km(3) of water has been injected into the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The oil and gas industry has injected most of this water but large amounts of injection are associated with mining activities. The amount of water injected into this basin during the past century is 2 to 3 orders magnitude greater than natural recharge to deep formations in the WCSB. Despite this large-scale disturbance to the hydrogeological system, there have been few documented cases of environmental problems related to injection wells. Deep injection of waste appears to be a low risk activity based on this experience but monitoring efforts are insufficient to make definitive statements. Serious uncharacterized legacy issues could be present. Initiating more comprehensive monitoring and research programs on the effects of injection in the WCSB could provide insight into the risks associated with injection in less developed sedimentary basins. PMID:24841226

  16. Drag reducing chemical enables increased sea water injection without increasing the oxygen corrosion rate

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, A.J.; Smith, P.S.; Lee, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Water soluble drag reducer chemicals have enabled significant increases in flow rates in many oilfield water injection systems. In some cases there is concern that this could lead to increased oxygen corrosion whenever the dissolved oxygen concentration strays above a typical injection target such as 20 ppb O{sub 2}. The effect of a chemical drag reducer on oxygen corrosion of carbon steel was examined in a large scale flow loop simulating a sea water injection line. Drag reduction (up to 48%) matched corrosion reduction (up to 39%). This means that drag reducer has a self compensating effect on oxygen corrosion: it permits higher flow rates without increasing the oxygen corrosion rate.

  17. GROUND WATER ISSUE: STEAM INJECTION FOR SOIL AND AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  18. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  19. Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

    1982-06-22

    The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

  20. Illinois drainage water management demonstration project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary monitoring results, and other observations.

  1. Reducing Water/Hull Drag By Injecting Air Into Grooves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Jason C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.; Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed technique for reduction of friction drag on hydrodynamic body involves use of grooves and combinations of surfactants to control motion of layer on surface of such body. Surface contains many rows of side-by-side, evenly spaced, longitudinal grooves. Dimensions of grooves and sharpnesses of tips in specific case depends on conditions of flow about vessel. Requires much less air than does microbubble-injection method.

  2. Experimental and numerical study on the fracture of rocks during injection of CO2-saturated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Wu, Zhishen; Lei, Xing-Lin; Murakami, Yutaka; Satoh, Takashi

    2007-02-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 into depleted hydrocarbon reserviors or saline aquifers presents the enormous potential to reduce greenhouse gas emission from fossil fuels. However, it may give rise to a complicated coupling physical and chemical process. One of the processes is the hydro-mechanical impact of CO2 injection. During the injection project, the increase of pore pressures of storing formations can induce the instability, which finally results in a catastrophic failure of disposal sites. This paper focuses mainly on the role of CO2-saturated water in the fracturing behavior of rocks. To investigate how much the dissolved CO2 can influence the pore pressure change of rocks, acoustic emission (AE) experiments were performed on sandstone and granite samples under triaxial conditions. The main innovation of this paper is to propose a time dependent porosity method to simulate the abrupt failure process, which is observed in the laboratory and induced by the pore pressure change due to the volume dilatancy of rocks, using a finite element scheme associated with two-phase characteristics. The results successfully explained the phenomena obtained in the physical experiments.

  3. Geohydrology and water quality in northern Portage County, Ohio, in relation to deep-well brine injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Geohydrology and water quality of the principal freshwater aquifers near oilfield and gasfield brine-injection wells in northern Portage County, Ohio, were evaluated. Since 1975, 13 wells in this part of the Country have been used to dispose of more than 4.5 million barrels of brine by injection into Silurian carbonate and sandstone rocks that generally are greater than 3,500 feet below land surface. More than 3,000 feet of interbedded shales, sandstones, carbonates, and evaporites separate the freshwater aquifers from these brine-injection zones. The shallowest brine-injection zone is greater than 2,200 feet below sea level. Native fluids in the injection zones have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 125,000 milligrams per liter and are hydraulically isolated from the freshwater aquifers. No known faults or fracture systems are present in northern Portage County, although abandoned oil and gas wells could exist and serve as conduits for migration of injected brine. Pennsylvanian clastic units are freshwater bearing in northern Portage County, and two bedrock aquifers generally are recognized. The shallower bedrock aquifer (Connoquenessing Sandstone Member of the Pottsville Formation) principally consists of sandstone; this aquifer is separated from a deeper sandstone and conglomerate aquifer in the lower part of the Sharon Member (Pottsville Formation) by shale in the upper part of the Sharon Member that acts as a confining unit. The upper sandstone aquifer is the surficial aquifer where overlying glacial deposits are unsaturated in the uplands; glacial deposits comprise the surficial aquifer in buried valleys where the sandstone is absent. These two surficial aquifers are hydraulically connected and act as a single unit. The lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer is the most areally extensive aquifer within the project area. From November 1987 through August 1988, ground-water levels remained at least 60 feet higher in the upper sandstone aquifer than in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer at a topographically high recharge area. Water levels in the surficial aquifers and the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer were nearly the same along the Cuyahoga River. Ground water in the upper sandstone aquifer flows radially from topographically high recharge areas into the glacial deposits in the buried valleys. Much of the ground water in these surficial aquifers discharges into the Cuyahoga River. Most ground water in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer flows toward discharge areas near the Cuyahoga River and Eagle Creek. In June 1988, the Cuyahoga River gained 15.8 cubic feet per second of water from the aquifers between the northern edge of Portage County and State Route 303. Ground water may have discharged into the upstream end of Lake Rockwell but did not discharge into the downstream end of the Lake during most of the period from October 1987 through September 1988. Measurements of the specific conductance of ground water sampled from areas near the 13 brine-injection wells and along the Cuyahoga River indicate no widespread ground-water contamination related to brine injection. Chemical analysis of water from 25 wells indicates that most ground waters are a calcium bicarbonate type. Water analyses show that four wells sampled contain water with chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter. Sodium concentrations in water from these four wells ranged from 67 to 190 milligrams per liter. A mixing diagram constructed from bromide and chloride data was used to distinguish between the sources of elevated chloride concentrations in these four wells. Waters from two of the wells have been mixed with oilfield and gasfield brine, and waters from the other two wells have been mixed with a salt-solution brine such as that derived from diluted highway-deicing salts.

  4. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  5. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  6. Grid orientation effects in the simulation of cold water injection into depleted vapor zones

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1991-01-01

    A considerable body of field experience with injection has been accumulated at Larderello, Italy and The Geysers, California; the results have been mixed. There are well documented cases where injection has increased flow rates of nearby wells. Return of injected fluid as steam from production wells has been observed directly through chemical and isotopic changes of produced fluids (Giovannoni et al., 1981; Nuti et al., 1981). In other cases injection has caused thermal interference and has degraded the temperature and pressure of production wells. Water injection into depleted vapor zones gives rise to complex two-phase fluid flow and heat transfer processes with phase change. These are further complicated by the fractured-porous nature of the reservoir rocks. An optimization of injection design and operating practice is desirable; this requires realistic and robust mathematical modeling capabilities.

  7. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  8. State policies concerning the use of injectants for in situ ground water remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    This report is based on information about State policies and regulatory programs affecting demonstrations or use of injectants for the remediation of contaminated ground water. This report focuses on identifying specific State regulatory and policy barriers to the use of techniques that enhance in situ ground water treatment technologies through the use of injecting surfactants, co-solvents, and nutrients. The goal of the study was to identify institutional barriers that may inhibit the use of injectants. The study briefly describes experience and policies of each state and provides a contact person who can provide additional information.

  9. Simultaneous water and gas injection pilot at the Kuparek River Field, surface line impact

    SciTech Connect

    Stoisits, R.F.; Krist, G.J.; Rugen, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    Immiscible writer alternating gas (IWAG) injection has effectively managed produced gas at the Kuparuk River Field: increasing field oil rate and recovery. Although IWAG economics are very favorable, this pilot study was undertaken to ascertain whether separate water and gas injection lines to the drill sites and on-pad distribution systems can be eliminated by simultaneously injecting water and gas in waterflood lines. A significant problem in simultaneous water and gas injection is the phase separation which occurs at branches in the injection pipe network. The higher density phase, because of its greater momentum, will tend to flow in the straight or least deviated pipe branch, while the lower density phase will tend to flow into the most deviated branch of pipe. Studies conducted at ARCO`s Exploration and Production Technology Research Center in Plano, Texas; indicated that static mixers positioned at the pipe branches could achieve equal distribution of the phases to both runs of the pipe branch. In the pilot study gas was injected into all 8 inches waterflood line which supplied two drill sites. A static mixer was placed at the function for the two drill sites. Static mixers were also placed in the 4 inches injection manifold of one of the drill sites, the other drill site had no mixers in the injection manifold. Gas was distributed to both drill sites. At the drill site with static mixers in the injection manifold. gas was distributed to the wells on the injection manifold; while at the drill site without static mixers, phase separation occurred and only one well on the injection manifold received gas.

  10. Integrated hydraulic and organophosphate pesticide injection simulations for enhancing event detection in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Rafi; Lahav, Ori; Ostfeld, Avi

    2014-10-15

    As a complementary step towards solving the general event detection problem of water distribution systems, injection of the organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CP) and parathion (PA), were simulated at various locations within example networks and hydraulic parameters were calculated over 24-h duration. The uniqueness of this study is that the chemical reactions and byproducts of the contaminants' oxidation were also simulated, as well as other indicative water quality parameters such as alkalinity, acidity, pH and the total concentration of free chlorine species. The information on the change in water quality parameters induced by the contaminant injection may facilitate on-line detection of an actual event involving this specific substance and pave the way to development of a generic methodology for detecting events involving introduction of pesticides into water distribution systems. Simulation of the contaminant injection was performed at several nodes within two different networks. For each injection, concentrations of the relevant contaminants' mother and daughter species, free chlorine species and water quality parameters, were simulated at nodes downstream of the injection location. The results indicate that injection of these substances can be detected at certain conditions by a very rapid drop in Cl2, functioning as the indicative parameter, as well as a drop in alkalinity concentration and a small decrease in pH, both functioning as supporting parameters, whose usage may reduce false positive alarms. PMID:25016300

  11. Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

    2012-05-01

    Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

  12. Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and West Charlotte counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and water-quality characteristics, construction of single-zone wells would eliminate cross-contamination and borehole interflow. Such a program, when combined with the plugging of shallow-cased wells having long open-hole intervals connecting multiple zones, would safeguard ground-water resources in the study area. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 feet below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The first well began injecting reverse-osmosis wastewater in 1984, and since then, other wells have been drilled and permitted for injection of treated sewage. A numerical model was used to evaluate injection-well design and potential for movement of injected wastewater within the hydrogeologic framework. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gallons per day for 10 years. In this simulation, a convection cell developed around the injection well with the buoyant fresh injectant rising to form a lens within the injection zone below the lower Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit. Around an ideal, fully penetrating well cased 50 feet into the injection zone and open from a depth of 1,150 feet to 2,050 feet, simulations show that the injectant moves upward to a depth of 940 feet, forms a lens about 600 feet thick, and spreads radially outward to a distance of about 2,300 feet after 10 years. Comparison simulations of injection through wells having open depth intervals of 1,150 to 1,400 feet and 1,450 to 2,050 feet demonstrate that such changes in well construction have little effect on the areal spread of the injectant lens or the rate of upward movement. Simulations also indicate that reverse-osmosis wastewater injected beneath a supply well field, where water levels above the semiconfining unit are lowered 20 feet by pumping, would move upward after 10 years to a de

  13. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  14. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

  15. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  16. Oil recovery process involving the injection of thickened water

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D.E.; Chen, C.S.; Sheppard, E.W.

    1980-09-16

    Waterflood oil recovery process involving the use of an amphoteric polyelectrolyte as a thickening agent for mobility control. The amphoteric polyelectrolyte is a copolymer of a quaternary vinyl pyridinium sulfonate and a water-insoluble alpha olefin or hydrogenated diene. Specifically disclosed are vinyl pyridinium sulfonate-styrene block copolymers. The amphoteric polyelectrolytes are stable in high temperature and high brine environments.

  17. Turbine Inlet Analysis of Injected Water Droplet Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, Kevin

    Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature at which it operates at peak capacity. In order to attain this temperature in the hotter months various cooling methods are used such as refrigeration inlet cooling systems, evaporative methods, and thermal energy storage systems. One of the more widely used is the evaporative systems because it is one of the safest and easiest to utilize method. However, the behavior of water droplets within the inlet to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets behave within the inlet so that water droplets above a critical diameter will not enter the compressor and cause damage to the compressor blades. In order to do this a FLUENT simulation was constructed in order to determine the behavior of the water droplets and if any droplets remain at the exit of the inlet, along with their size. In order to do this several engineering drawings were obtained from SRP and studies in order to obtain the correct dimensions. Then the simulation was set up using data obtained from SRP and Parker-Hannifin, the maker of the spray nozzles. Then several sets of simulations were run in order to see how the water droplets behaved under various conditions. These results were then analyzed and quantified so that they could be easily understood. The results showed that the possible damage to the compressor increased with increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. This is due in part to the fact that in order to keep a constant relative humidity at varying temperatures the mass fraction of water vapor in the air must be changed. As temperature increases the water vapor mass fraction must increase in order to maintain a constant relative humidity. This in turn makes it slightly increases the evaporation time of the water droplets. This will then lead to more droplets exiting the inlet and at larger diameters.

  18. Geysers injection modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1994-04-01

    Our research is concerned with mathematical modeling techniques for engineering design and optimization of water injection in vapor-dominated systems. The emphasis in the project has been on the understanding of physical processes and mechanisms during injection, applications to field problems, and on transfer of numerical simulation capabilities to the geothermal community. This overview summarizes recent work on modeling injection interference in the Southeast Geysers, and on improving the description of two-phase flow processes in heterogeneous media.

  19. Micronized-coal-water slurry sprays from a diesel engine positive displacement fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D.; Seshadri, A.K.; Zicterman, G.

    1991-12-31

    Experiments have been conducted to characterize the sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system for a diesel engine. Diesel fuel water and three concentrations of micronized-coal-water slurry were used in these experiments. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal slurry fuel from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and still photographs of the sprays were obtained. In addition, instaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. Data were acquired as a function of fluid, nozzle orifice diameter, rack setting and chamber conditions. The high speed movies were used to determine spray penetration and spray growth.

  20. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.

    2016-04-01

    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  1. Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury's Cranfield, Mississippi, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hovorka, S.D.; Meckel, T.A.; Trevino, R.H.; Lu, J.; Nicot, J.-P.; Choi, J.-W.; Freeman, D.; Cook, P.; Daley, T.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J. B.; Freifeild, B.M.; Doughty, C.; Carrigan, C.R.; La-Brecque, D.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Phelps, T.J.; Yang, C.; Romanak, K.D.; Zhang, T.; Holt, R.M.; Lindler, J.S.; Butsch, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood. Injection was started in July 2008 and has now achieved injection rates greater than 1.2 million tons/year though 23 wells, with cumulative mass injected as of August, 2010 of 2.2 million metric tons. Injection is into coarse grained fluvial deposits of the Cretaceous lower Tuscaloosa Formation in a gentle anticline at depths of 3300 m. A team of researchers from 10 institutions has collected data from five study areas, each with a different goal and different spatial and temporal scale. The Phase 2 study began at the start of injection and has been using pressure and temperature as a tool for assessing permanence mostly in the oil productive interval. Real-time read-out shows high sensitivity to distant changes in injection rate and confirms the geologic model of reservoir compartmentalization. Above-zone pressure monitoring ???120 m above the injection interval is used to test the sensitivity of this approach for documentation of integrity of the confining system in an area of numerous well completions as pressure increase is induced in the reservoir by more than 70 bar. Monitoring of the High Volume Injection Test (HiVIT) area includes repeat measurements of aqueous geochemistry in the injection zone. Rock-water-CO 2 interactions in the reservoir as CO2 dissolves are minimized by mineral "armoring" by abundant chlorite cement in high permeability reservoir sandstone. Geochemical monitoring of confined freshwater aquifers at depths of 70-100 m is underway. Groundwater analysis focuses on assessment of the sensitivity of this method to detect leakage above background variability. A repeat seismic survey of the HiVIT is planned for late 2010 to assess saturation change especially in downdip brine-only areas. A study focused on feasibility of monitoring the shallow subsurface to separate leakage from normal complex surface fluxes is underway at an monitoring array installed in October 2009 to assess the interactions of recharge, soil gas, and shallow groundwater aquifers. Recent well re-entry and tracer injection will provide further information to interpret observed elevated deep-sourced methane. The Detailed Area Study (DAS) is collecting dense time-lapse data from closely-spaced three well array of an injector and two observation wells. The observation wells were completed with fiberglass casing to facilitate electrical resistance tomography (ERT) measurements, and a diverse array of instrumentation was both cemented behind casing and suspended on tubing. Injection started at the DAS December 1, 2009. We have measured pulsed neutron and resistivity via wireline, downhole and above-zone pressure, distributed temperature, and fluid chemistry including introduced pulses of perfluorocarbons, noble gases, and SF6 as tracers. Between wells, time-lapse crosswell seismic and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) are used to measure saturation change. The goals are to measure changes as fluids evolve from single phase (brine) to two phase (CO2-brine) in order to document linkages between pressure and sweep efficiency. A time-lapse VSP survey bridges the vertical resolution and areal coverage between cross-well and surface seismic. The repeat surveys for many tools are scheduled for September, 2010. Reservoir characterization based on cores, historic and new wireline log data, production history, hydrologic tests, fluid analysis, and a three-D seismic survey have been used in multiple numerical models to predict reservoir response in order to design effective monitoring strategies and optimize deployment. History matching of observed respons

  2. Radiative shielding by water mist : comparisons between downward, upward and impacting injection of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechêne, S.; Acem, Z.; Parent, G.; Collin, A.; Boulet, P.

    2012-06-01

    Radiative shielding with water curtain has been studied numerically, investigating three different possibilities of droplet injection : downward, upward and impacting on a wall to be protected. The efficiency has been evaluated based on radiation attenuation predicted considering a given incident flux attenuated when crossing the area where water is injected. For upward and downward injection, a simple water curtain is considered. For the impacting spray case, a water film streaming on the wall is considered in addition to the spray (an idealized film with constant and fixed thickness for the moment). The dynamics has been imported from an Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation and radiative transfer has been addressed with a Monte Carlo method. Results show that the upward injection performs better than the downward injection due to a favoring dynamics that increases the residence time of droplets. The impacting spray could be even more efficient owing to the possible high attenuation efficiency of films, but present results still make use of simplifications on the water film falling on the wall and present promising observations require further verification.

  3. Geochemical Differentiation of Injected Freshwater Vertical and Horizontal Flow Through Deep Saline Water Karst Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virginia, W.; Price, R.

    2008-05-01

    Geochemical data at two deep well injection sites of freshwater into deep saline karst aquifers in south Florida indicate chemically distinct vertical and horizontal flow pathways once the freshwater is introduced into the aquifers. Ammonium contained in the injected water is higher than native aquifer water background levels, and exhibits a high seasonal variability in response to the wet and dry climatic conditions in south Florida. Geochemical data indicate that the injected ammonium behaves conservatively when mixed with native water, and thus can be used to distinguish flowpaths of injected water. Ammonium data in conjunction with major ion chemistry and stable isotope data were used to identify source and pathways of the freshwater injectate. Data indicate multiple pathways that are distinct depending on their pathway to the aquifer, and suggest vertical migration a result of either natural or well construction-induced fractures. Once introduced into the overlying aquifer, horizontal migration appears to be the result of natural advection/diffusion through a highly heterogeneous carbonate aquifer with little mixing of native waters.

  4. Joint management of water and electricity in State Water Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between California's water and electrical power is important for improving the management and planning of these two vital resources to the state's economy development and people's well-being. It is often unclear for consumers, managers and decision-makers that water and electricity in California are inextricably connected. In the past, insufficient considerations of electricity production, consumption and cost in the State Water Project (SWP) - the world's largest publicly built and operated water and power development and conveyance system-has led to significant water rate and electricity rate increase. An innovative concept of this proposed study is developing new technology capable of managing and planning water and power jointly in SWP to promote its operation efficiency, sustainability and resilience to potential water shortage caused by climate change and population increase. To achieve this goal, a nonlinear, two-fold network model describing water delivery in company with power consumption and generation will be constructed, and a multi-objective optimization scheme is to be used to resolve this complex nonlinear network problem.

  5. High-pressure water-gun injection injuries to the extremities. A report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Weltmer, J B; Pack, L L

    1988-09-01

    High-pressure water-gun injection injuries are different from injection injuries that are caused by other agents, in that they are associated with extensive subcutaneous emphysema but only slight soft-tissue inflammation or destruction. The cases of six patients who had such an injury were reviewed. It was found that local irrigation and débridement, together with a short course of penicillin or a broad-spectrum cephalosporin, resulted in complete recovery from this relatively benign variant of high-pressure injection injury. PMID:2901420

  6. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  7. Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

  8. Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 μm should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

  9. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef. PMID:26213059

  10. A probabilistic assessment of waste water injection induced seismicity in central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Hauksson, E.; Ampuero, J. P.; Aminzadeh, F.; Cappa, F.; Saleeby, J.

    2014-12-01

    The recent, large increase in seismic activity within the central and eastern U.S. may be connected to an increase in fluid injection activity since ~2001. Anomalous seismic sequences can easily be identified in regions with low background seismicity rates. Here, we analyze seismicity in plate boundary regions where tectonically-driven earthquake sequences are common, potentially masking injection-induced events. We show results from a comprehensive analysis of waste water disposal wells in Kern county, the largest oil-producing county in California. We focus on spatial-temporal correlations between seismic and injection activity and seismicity-density changes due to injection. We perform a probabilistic assessment of induced vs. tectonic earthquakes, which can be applied to different regions independent of background rates and may provide insights into the probability of inducing earthquakes as a function of injection parameters and local geological conditions. Our results show that most earthquakes are caused by tectonic forcing, however, waste water injection contributes to seismic activity in four different regions with several events above M4. The seismicity shows different migration characteristics relative to the injection sites, including linear and non-linear trends. The latter is indicative of diffusive processes which take advantage of reservoir properties and fault structures and can induce earthquakes at distances of up to 10 km. Our results suggest that injection-related triggering processes are complex, possibly involving creep, and delayed triggering. Pore-pressure diffusion may be more extensive in the presence of active faults and high-permeability damage zones thus altering the local seismic hazard in a non-linear fashion. As a consequence, generic "best-practices" for fluid injections like a maximum distance from the nearest active fault may not be sufficient to mitigate a potential seismic hazard increase.

  11. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 12, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    In December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled {open_quotes}LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.{close_quotes} The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75-85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The three project phases are: (1) Design; (2A) Long Lead Procurement; (2B) Construction; and (3) Operations. The design phase began on August 8, 1990 and was scheduled to last six months. Phase 2A, long lead procurement, overlaps the design phase and was expected to require about four months to complete. The construction phase was then to continue for another seven months, while the operations phase was scheduled to last about twenty-six months. In November 1990, after a ten (10) month negotiation period, LIFAC NA and the U.S. DOE entered into a Cooperative Agreement for the design, construction, and demonstration of the LIFAC system. This report is the twelfth Technical Progress Report covering the period July 1, 1993 through the end of September 1993. Due to the power plant`s planned outage in March 1991, and the time needed for engineering, design and procurement of critical equipment, DOE and LIFAC NA agreed to execute the Design Phase of the project in August 1990, with DOE funding contingent upon final signing of the Cooperative Agreement.

  12. Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Projection. Annual Report, Jan 1 - Dec 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This 1997 annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to use British Steel technology1*2 that uses granular coal to provide a portion of the fuel requirements of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical and economic issues associated with the use of coal for injection into blast furnaces. To achieve the progmm objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at the Burns Harbor Plant (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  13. Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

  14. The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, Roberto; Guiducci, Susanna; Preger, Miro; Raimondi, Pantaleo; Chance, Antoine; Dadoun, Olivier; Poirier, Freddy; Variola, Alessandro; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

  15. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 9, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers -- and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems. LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes. LIFAC`s overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO{sub 2} removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product. LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

  16. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  17. Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy breeder material

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W. ); Savatteri, C. )

    1990-10-01

    A fusion safety experiment was conducted to determine the consequences of water injection into high-temperature lithium-lead alloy under postulated reactor accident conditions. The temperature and pressure response, fraction of water reacted, quantity of hydrogen produced, and behavior of radioactive species associated with the use of this alloy as a breeder material were determined. The reaction products were identified and the aerosol was characterized for particle size, chemical composition, and deposition rate. The water injection was shown to be self limiting for a blanket module designed to withstand the pressure of the water coolant. Radioactive doses associated with the aerosol release from a high-temperature alloy breeder module were determined to be several orders of magnitude below the dose limit for acute health effects. The results were compared to previous experiments and recommendations were made. 5 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  20. Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

  1. Is There Evidence of Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the Lowermost Stratosphere Over Boulder, Colorado?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10.1002/grl.50421.

  2. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  3. The Relationship Analysis between Water Injection and Microfacies of SHA1 Reservoir of Liao He Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  4. The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  5. Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Water sampling and numerical modeling were used to estimate ground-water nutrient fluxes in the Kihei area of Maui, where growth of macroalgae (seaweed) on coral reefs raises ecologic concerns and accumulation on beaches has caused odor and removal problems. Fluxes and model results are highly approximate, first-order estimates because very few wells were sampled and there are few field data to constrain model calibration. Ground-water recharge was estimated to be 22.6 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) within a 73-square-mile area having a coastline length of 8 miles or 13 km (kilometers). Nearly all of the recharge discharges at the coast because ground-water withdrawals are small. Another 3.0 Mgal/d of tertiary-treated wastewater effluent is injected into the regional aquifer at a County treatment plant midway along the coast and about a mile from shore. The injection plume is 0.93 miles wide (1.5 km) at the shore, as estimated from a three-dimensional numerical ground-water model. Wastewater injected beneath the brackish ground-water lens rises buoyantly and spreads out at the top of the lens, diverting and mixing with ambient ground water. Ground water discharging from the core of the injection plume is less than 5 years old and is about 60 percent effluent at the shore, according to the model. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in treated effluent were 7.33 and 1.72 milligrams per liter, roughly 6 and 26 times background concentrations at an upgradient well. Background nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes carried by ground water are 7.7 and 0.44 kg/d-km (kilograms per day per kilometer of coast). Injected wastewater fluxes distributed across the plume width are 55 and 13 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly 7 and 30 times background flux. However, not all of the injected load reaches coastal waters because nutrients are naturally attenuated in the oxygen-depleted effluent plume. Water from a downgradient well reflects this attenuation and provides a more conservative estimate of injection flux approaching the shore: 27 and 1.5 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly one-half and one-ninth the injection-source estimates, and 3.5 and 3.4 times background flux. Effluent has 8 O and 2 H stable-isotope signatures that are distinct from local ground water, as well as 15 N and 11 B signatures diagnostic of domestic waste and laundry detergents, respectively. Pharmaceuticals and organic wastewater compounds also were present in effluent and the downgradient well. These isotopes and chemicals served as wastewater tracers in Kihei ground water and may be useful tracers in nearshore marine waters and aquifers elsewhere in Hawaii.

  6. Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.

    PubMed

    Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. PMID:24668583

  7. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  8. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  9. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project: A project proposed by: LIFAC North America, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report describes a project proposed by LIFAC North America, Inc., (LIFAC NA). The host site will be a coal-fired powerplant of Richmond Power Light in Indiana. LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In the LIFAC process, limestone is injected into the upper part of the furnace where the temperatures are sufficiently high to calcine the calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) to lime (CaO), which reacts with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas to form calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), some of which oxidizes to form calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). The flue gas leaving the boiler then enters LIFAC's unique humidification chamber which increases the water content of the flue gas and activates the lime to enhance SO{sub 2} removal. Reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions are approximately 75--80%. Spent sorbent is then removed, along with the fly ash by an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. UV dosage levels in summer: increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James G; Wilmouth, David M; Smith, Jessica B; Sayres, David S

    2012-08-17

    The observed presence of water vapor convectively injected deep into the stratosphere over the United States can fundamentally change the catalytic chlorine/bromine free-radical chemistry of the lower stratosphere by shifting total available inorganic chlorine into the catalytically active free-radical form, ClO. This chemical shift markedly affects total ozone loss rates and makes the catalytic system extraordinarily sensitive to convective injection into the mid-latitude lower stratosphere in summer. Were the intensity and frequency of convective injection to increase as a result of climate forcing by the continued addition of CO(2) and CH(4) to the atmosphere, increased risk of ozone loss and associated increases in ultraviolet dosage would follow. PMID:22837384

  11. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  12. Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

  13. Understanding and Quantifying Controls of Arsenic Mobility during Deepwell Re-injection of CSG Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Rathi, B.; Prommer, H.; Donn, M.; Siade, A. J.; Berg, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Australia, the injection of reverse-osmosis treated production water from coal seams into the surrounding, deep aquifers may provide the most viable method to dispose of large quantities of production water. The geochemical disequilibrium between the injectant water composition and the target aquifer can potentially drive a range of water-sediment interactions that must be clearly understood and quantified in order to anticipate and manage future water quality changes at both the local and regional scale. In this study, we use a multi-scale geochemical characterisation of a proposed reinjection site in combination with geochemical/reactive transport modeling to understand and predict the long-term fate of arsenic; and explore means for suitably mitigating an undesired increase of naturally occurring arsenic concentrations. We use a series of arsenic sorption experiments with the aquifer material from an injection trial site in Queensland, Australia to quantify As sorption/desorption from mineral surfaces in response to changes in site-specific geochemical conditions. Batch experiments with arsenite were performed under anoxic conditions to replicate the highly reducing in-situ conditions. The results showed significant arsenic mobility at pH >8. Competitive sorption effects with phosphate and the impact of varying temperatures were also tested in batch mode. A site-specific general composite (GC) surface complexation model (SCM) was derived through inverse geochemical modeling, i.e., selection of appropriate surface complexation reactions and optimization of sorption constants. The SCM was subsequently tested and further improved during the interpretation of data from column flow-through experiments and from a field injection trial. Eventually the uncertainty associated with estimates of sorption constants was addressed and the effects of this uncertainty on field-scale model predictions were analyzed.

  14. PACTEL experiments for the investigation of passive safety injection systems of advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tuunanen, J.; Munther, R.; Vihavainen, J.

    1996-07-01

    An important aspect of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) decay heat removal concerns the plant response under Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. In ALWRs, e.g. Westinghouse AP600, pump driven Emergency Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) are replaced by passive safety injection systems, which are gravity driven. It is therefore important that in such accidents, the ALWR coolant system pressure can be controlled to allow gravity fed injection to take place. The safety issue here is whether undesirable system responses could occur in any circumstances. Additionally, it is necessary to prove that the plant always depressurizes sufficiently for the ECCS to operate efficiently. Two experimental series have been carried out with the PACTEL integral test facility on the simulation of passive safety injection systems of ALWRs in accidental conditions. The safety system investigated was a passive core make-up tank (CMT), which was connected to the downcomer of the test facility. This paper starts with a short description of the PACTEL test facility and a summary of the results of the passive safety injection tests on PACTEL. Also included is a summary of the results of the computer simulations of the tests. The second part of the paper consists of a description of the planned third passive safety injection test series and the results of the pre-test simulations of the planned tests.

  15. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  16. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  17. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017,...

  18. The 2013 seismic sequence close to gas injection platform of the Castor project, offshore Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, Simone; Grigoli, Francesco; Heimann, Sebastian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Buforn, Elisa; Maghsoudi, Samira; Blanch, Estefania; Dahm, Torsten

    2014-05-01

    A spatially localized seismic sequence has originated few tens of kilometres offshore the Mediterranean coast of Spain, starting on September 5, 2013, and lasting at least until October 2013. The sequence culminated in a maximal moment magnitude Mw 4.3 earthquake, on October 1, 2013. The epicentral region is located near the offshore platform of the Castor project, where gas is conducted through a pipeline from mainland and where it was recently injected in a depleted oil reservoir, at about 2 km depth. We analyse the temporal evolution of the seismic sequence and use full waveform techniques to derive absolute and relative locations, estimate depths and focal mechanisms for the largest events in the sequence (with magnitude mbLg larger than 3), and compare them to a previous event (April 8, 2012, mbLg 3.3) taking place in the same region prior to the gas injection. Moment tensor inversion results show that the overall seismicity in this sequence is characterized by oblique mechanisms with a normal fault component, with a 30° low-dip angle plane oriented NNE-SSW and a sub- vertical plane oriented NW-SE. The combined analysis of hypocentral location and focal mechanisms could indicate that the seismic sequence corresponds to rupture processes along sub- horizontal shallow surfaces, which could have been triggered by the gas injection in the reservoir,. An alternative scenario includes the iterated triggering of a system of steep faults oriented NW-SE, which were identified by prior marine seismics investigations. The most relevant seismogenic feature in the area is the Fosa de Amposta fault system, which includes different strands mapped at different distances to the coast, with a general NE-SW orientation, roughly parallel to the coastline. No significant known historical seismicity has involved this fault in the past. Our both scenarios exclude its activation, as its known orientation is inconsistent with focal mechanism results.

  19. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.; Berger, Brett

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  20. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  1. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  2. Numerical Studies of High-Intensity Injection Painting for Project X

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Vorobiev, L.G.; Johnson, D.E.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Injection phase space painting enables the mitigation of space charge and stability issues, and will be indispensable for the Project-X at Fermilab [1], delivering high-intensity proton beams to HEP experiments. Numerical simulations of multi-turn phase space painting have been performed for the FNAL Recycler Ring, including a self-consistent space charge model. The goal of our studies was to study the injection painting with inclusion of 3D space charge, using the ORBIT tracking code. In a current scenario the painting lasts for 110 turns, twice faster, than we considered in this paper. The optimal wave-forms for painting kickers, which ensure the flatter phase distributions, should be found. So far we used a simplified model for painting kicker strength (implemented as the 'ideal bump' in ORBIT). We will include a more realistic field map for the chicane magnets. Additional stripping simulations will be combined. We developed a block for longitudinal painting, which works with arbitrary notches in incoming micro-bunch buckets. The appropriate choice of the amplitude of the second harmonic of RF field will help to flatten the RF-bucket contours, as was demonstrated in 1D simulations. Non-linear lattice issue will be also addressed.

  3. Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

    2003-12-15

    A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water. PMID:14717185

  4. Rapid Adiabatic Preparation of Injective Projected Entangled Pair States and Gibbs States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yimin; Molnár, András; Cirac, J. Ignacio

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum algorithm for many-body state preparation. It is especially suited for injective projected entangled pair states and thermal states of local commuting Hamiltonians on a lattice. We show that for a uniform gap and sufficiently smooth paths, an adiabatic runtime and circuit depth of O (polylog N ) can be achieved for O (N ) spins. This is an almost exponential improvement over previous bounds. The total number of elementary gates scales as O (N p o l y l o g N ) . This is also faster than the best known upper bound of O (N2) on the mixing times of Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithms for sampling classical systems in thermal equilibrium.

  5. Projecting Sexual and Injecting HIV Risks into Future Outcomes with Agent-Based Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobashev, Georgiy V.; Morris, Robert J.; Zule, William A.

    Longitudinal studies of health outcomes for HIV could be very costly cumbersome and not representative of the risk population. Conversely, cross-sectional approaches could be representative but rely on the retrospective information to estimate prevalence and incidence. We present an Agent-based Modeling (ABM) approach where we use behavioral data from a cross-sectional representative study and project the behavior into the future so that the risks of acquiring HIV could be studied in a dynamical/temporal sense. We show how the blend of behavior and contact network factors (sexual, injecting) play the role in the risk of future HIV acquisition and time till obtaining HIV. We show which subjects are the most likely persons to get HIV in the next year, and whom they are likely to infect. We examine how different behaviors are related to the increase or decrease of HIV risks and how to estimate the quantifiable risk measures such as survival HIV free.

  6. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.R.

    1993-09-30

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated geological model that will be used to select sites for the demonstration in Part 2. Included in Part 1 of the project is the drilling of an infill well, coring 100{prime} of the Cypress Sand, and various injectivity testing to gather information used to update the model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented.

  7. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  8. Properties of injectable ready-to-use calcium phosphate cement based on water-immiscible liquid.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, S; Rössler, S; Lemm, M; Ruhnow, M; Nies, B

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are highly valuable materials for filling bone defects and bone augmentation by minimal invasive application via percutaneous injection. In the present study some key features were significantly improved by developing a novel injectable ready-to-use calcium phosphate cement based on water-immiscible carrier liquids. A combination of two surfactants was identified to facilitate the targeted discontinuous exchange of the liquid for water after contact with aqueous solutions, enabling the setting reaction to take place at distinct ratios of cement components to water. This prolonged the shelf life of the pre-mixed paste and enhanced reproducibility during application and setting reactions. The developed paste technology is applicable for different CPC formulations. Evaluations were performed for the formulation of an α-TCP-based CPC as a representative example for the preparation of injectable pastes with a powder-to-carrier liquid ratio of up to 85:15. We demonstrate that the resulting material retains the desirable properties of conventional CPC counterparts for fast setting, mechanical strength and biocompatibility, shows improved cohesion and will most probably show a similar degree of resorbability due to identical mineral structure of the set products. PMID:23261920

  9. Effects of Water Injection into Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs: A Summary of Experience Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, Roland N.

    1982-06-01

    Reinjection of water into fractured geothermal reservoirs holds potential both for improvement and degradation of total energy recovery. The replacement of reservoir fluid can mean support of placement of reservoir pressures and also more efficient thermal energy recovery, but at the same time the premature invasion of reinjected water back into production wells through high permeability fractures can reduce discharge enthalpy and hence deliverability and useful energy output. Increases in reservoir pressure and maintenance of field output have been observed in operating fields, but unfortunately so too have premature thermal breakthroughs. The design of reinjection schemes, therefore, requires careful investigation into the likely effects, using field experimentation. This paper summarizes field experience with reinjection around the world, with the intention of elucidating characteristics of possible problems. The results summarized in this paper fall into three categories of interest: permeability changes dye to injection (both increases and decreases); the path followed by injected water (as indicated by tracer tests); and the thermal and hydraulic influences of injection on the reinjection well itself and on surrounding producers. [DJE-2005

  10. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  11. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-04-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity (T) and storativity (S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  12. Seismicity Induced by Water Injection for Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation 5 km Below the City of Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deichmann, N.; Mai, M.; Bethmann, F.; Ernst, J.; Evans, K.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.; Häring, M.; Husen, S.; Kästli, P.; Bachmann, C.; Ripperger, J.; Schanz, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2007-12-01

    To stimulate the reservoir for a proposed "hot dry rock" geothermal project in the city of Basel, approximately 11500 m3 of water were injected between December 2nd and 8th, 2006, at high pressures into a 5 km deep well. A six-sensor borehole array, installed at depths between 300 and 2700 meters around the well to monitor the induced seismicity, recorded more than 10500 events during the injection phase. Events with magnitudes as low as ML 0.7 were also recorded by regional networks in Switzerland, Germany and France, as well as by up to 30 strong-motion stations installed in the epicentral area. Due to excessive seismic activity, that included an ML 2.7 event, injection had already been stopped when a few hours later an ML 3.4 event jolted the city of Basel. A large amount of (non-structural) damage, corresponding to an intensity of V (EMS98), has been claimed by home owners. The unusual number of damage claims compared to past events in this magnitude range observed in Switzerland is partly due to the shallow hypocenter (5 km) beneath a densely populated city. In addition, ground-motion modelling shows that the radiation pattern of the earthquake source was oriented unfavourably for the city of Basel and that in numerous locations shaking was amplified significantly by local site conditions. After bleed-off, about one third of the injected water volume flowed back out of the well. Although seismic activity declined rapidly thereafter, three additional ML>3 events occurred over the following two months. From a statistical analysis it is expected that it may take on the order of a decade for the activity to decrease to the regional background level scaled to the size of the source region. The hypocenters of the located events (about 3500 to date) are restricted to a NW-SE oriented lens-shaped cloud, about 1 km in diameter and 200 m wide, with a single offsetting branch to the ESE. The orientation of the cloud and the focal mechanisms determined so far match the stress field derived from observations of borehole breakouts and natural seismicity. Due to the premature abortion of the stimulation process, the size of the stimulated volume is insufficient for a commercially viable exploitation of geothermal energy. At present the project is on hold, pending a comprehensive assessment of the seismic risk associated with a continuation.

  13. Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lacombe, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

  14. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    PubMed

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water. PMID:26452844

  15. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  16. Experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit characteristics at superheated water injection into a compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favorskii, O. N.; Alekseev, V. B.; Zalkind, V. I.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Ivanov, P. P.; Marinichev, D. V.; Nizovskii, V. L.; Nizovskii, L. V.

    2014-05-01

    The results from experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit (GTU) characteristics at injection of cold and superheated (metastable) water to the inlet of the GTU compressor are presented. In the latter case, the finer water atomization is obtained. The water injection makes it possible to considerably increase the unit power. At a constant temperature of the working fluid downstream of the turbine combustion chamber, water injection in an amount of 1% of the air flow rate provides an increase in the turbine power by approximately 12% and expands GTU controlling potentialities. The use of the metastable superheated water atomization enables one to more reliably implement the technology of water injection into a compressor, especially into intermediate compressor stages. However, it requires accounting for operational conditions of particular installation. Due to small water droplet residence time in the compressor flow path, even with fine water atomization, in aircraft engine derivative power turbines, about 15-20% of moisture injected have no time to completely evaporate within the compressor. When injecting cold water, this figure is from 5 to 10% larger.

  17. Performance of J-33-A-21 and J-33-A-23 Compressors with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beede, William L.

    1948-01-01

    In an investigation of the J-33-A-21 and the J-33-A-23 compressors with and without water injection, it was discovered that the compressors reacted differently to water injection although they were physically similar. An analysis of the effect of water injection on compressor performance and the consequent effect on matching of the compressor and turbine components in the turbojet engine was made. The analysis of component matching is based on a turbine flow function defined as the product of the equivalent weight flow and the reciprocal of the compressor pressure ratio.

  18. Impact on Caesarean section rates following injections of sterile water (ICARIS): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterile water injections have been used as an effective intervention for the management of back pain during labour. The objective of the current research is to determine if sterile water injections, as an intervention for back pain in labour, will reduce the intrapartum caesarean section rate. Methods/design Design: A double blind randomised placebo controlled trial Setting: Maternity hospitals in Australia Participants: 1866 women in labour, ≥18 years of age who have a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in a cephalic presentation at term (between 37 + 0 and 41 + 6 weeks gestation), who assess their back pain as equal to or greater than seven on a visual analogue scale when requesting analgesia and able to provide informed consent. Intervention: Participants will be randomised to receive either 0.1 to 0.3 millilitres of sterile water or a normal saline placebo via four intradermal injections into four anatomical points surrounding the Michaelis’ rhomboid over the sacral area. Two injections will be administered over the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and the remaining two at two centimetres posterior, and one centimetre medial to the PSIS respectively. Main outcome measure:Proportion of women who have a caesarean section in labour. Randomisation: Permuted blocks stratified by research site. Blinding (masking):Double-blind trial in which participants, clinicians and research staff blinded to group assignment. Funding:Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council Trial registration:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (No ACTRN12611000221954). Discussion Sterile water injections, which may have a positive effect on reducing the CS rate, have been shown to be a safe and simple analgesic suitable for most maternity settings. A procedure that could reduce intervention rates without adversely affecting safety for mother and baby would benefit Australian families and taxpayers and would reduce requirements for maternal operating theatre time. Results will have external validity, as the technique may be easily applied to maternity populations outside Australia. In summary, the results of this trial will contribute High level evidence on the impact of SWI on intrapartum CS rates and provide evidence of the analgesic effect of SWI on back pain. PMID:23642147

  19. Simulation of water-injection performance for a well with a propagating fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, C.W.; Al Baker, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Idd el Shargi Shuaiba reservoir, offshore Qatar, is a low permeability (generally less than 5 md) chalky limestone which currently is being produced under natural depletion. Consideration is being given to developing the field as a pattern flood and, as part of the data collection program, a water injection test was conducted in well No. IS-35. The fracture propagation is modeled by adjusting the well completion to include grid blocks laterally displaced from the center of the well. Different model grids appropriate to the different injection regimes have been applied. For the initial (pre-frac) period a 2-dimensional radial model has been used. For the subsequent (post-frac) period a 3-dimensional model with a curvilinear areal grid, with the fracture explicitly included in the grid description, was used.

  20. Thermal coupling may control mechanical stability of geothermal reservoirs during cold water injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Silvia; Vilarrasa, Victor; Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Meier, Peter

    Hydraulic stimulation and geothermal reservoir operation may compromise the rock mechanical stability and trigger microseismic events. The mechanisms leading to this induced seismicity are still not completely understood. It is clear that injection causes an overpressure that reduces the effective stress, bringing the system closer to failure conditions. However, rock instability may not result only from hydraulic effects, but also from thermal effects. In fact, hydro-mechanical (i.e., isothermal) models often fail to reproduce field observations because the injection of cold water into a hot reservoir induces thermal stresses due to rock contraction. Thus, rock instability is likely to result from the superposition of hydraulic and thermal effects. Here, we perform coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical and hydro-mechanical simulations to investigate the effects of cold water injection in a fracture zone-intact rock system. Results show that thermal effects induce a significant perturbation on the stress in the intact rock affected by the temperature drop. This perturbation is likely to trigger induced seismicity in the surroundings of critically oriented fractures near the injection well. Hydro-mechanical simulations show that the behavior depends on the orientation of the faults and on the initial stress tensor. In the direction of the fractures, where the strains are more constrained, total stress increases with increasing pressure; thus, deviatoric stress increases or decreases depending on the initial stress state. The comparison between hydraulic and thermal effects shows that, when the largest confining stress acts perpendicular to the fractures, thermoelastic effects dominate and could trigger induced seismicity.

  1. Water Resources Research Grant Program Project Descriptions: Fiscal Year 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lew, Melvin, (compiler); McCoy, Beverly M.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains information on the 38 new projects funded by the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Research Grant Program in fiscal year 1988 and on 11 projects completed during the year. For the new projects, the report gives the grant number, project title, performing organization, principal investigator(s), project duration, and a project description that includes: (1) identification of water-related problems and problem-solution approach, (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, and (4) approach. The 38 projects include 14 in the area of ground-water quality problems, 10 in the science and technology of water-quality management, 4 in climate variability and the hydrologic cycle, 7 in institutional change in water-resources management, and 3 in miscellaneous water-resources management problems. For the 11 completed projects, the report gives the grant number, project title, performing organization, principal investigator(s), starting date, date of receipt of final report, and an abstract of the final report. Each project description provides the information needed to obtain a copy of the final report. The report also contains tables showing (1) proposals received according to area of research interest, (2) grant awards and funding according to area of research interest, (3) proposals received according to type of submitting organization, and (4) awards and funding according to type of organization.

  2. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  3. Subsurface brine injection: Proactive approach to close the produced water loop in the western desert of Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, E.E.; Nour, M.H.

    1996-11-01

    In 1988 a major onshore production facility was producing oil from eight formations in six oil fields located in the western desert of Egypt. Two of these formations include active water drive reservoirs, in addition; three reservoirs at that date were receiving water injection to enhance oil recovery. To handle the increasing volumes of the produced water (which is contaminated with oil, production chemicals and other pollutants), three alternatives were investigated: (1) Injection into disposal wells. (2) Dumping in surface disposal pits. (3) Re-injection to waterflood some oil reservoirs. The investigation revealed that the first two options are technically unfavorable, also they are conventional Waste Management Technologies (WMT) which provide short-term remedial solution. In contrast, Produced Water Re-Injection (PWRI) is an Environmental Control Technology (ECT) which minimize the environmental impact through process improvements. A state -of-the-art re-injection process was utilized using chemical treatment, gas liberation, settling, filtration and injection. This process represents a combination of two (ECT) methods: Reuse (for water flooding) and Recycling (when brine is redisposed underground). This process reduce the overall volumes of produced water to be disposed, increase the oil reserves, reservoir pressure and oil production and converse the underground water reserve.

  4. The Model of Lake Operation in Water Transfer Projects Based on the Theory of Water- right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi-peng, Yan; Chao, Liu; Fang-ping, Tang

    the lake operation is a very important content in Water Transfer Projects. The previous studies have not any related to water-right and water- price previous. In this paper, water right is divided into three parts, one is initialization waterright, another is by investment, and the third is government's water- right re-distribution. The water-right distribution model is also build. After analyzing the cost in water transfer project, a model and computation method for the capacity price as well as quantity price is proposed. The model of lake operation in water transfer projects base on the theory of water- right is also build. The simulation regulation for the lake was carried out by using historical data and Genetic Algorithms. Water supply and impoundment control line of the lake was proposed. The result can be used by south to north water transfer projects.

  5. Water governance within Kenya's Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin: Assessing the performance of water projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, P. F.; Evans, T. P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Gower, D.; McBride, L.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change processes are projected to change the availability and seasonality of streamflow with dramatic implications for irrigated agricultural systems. Within mountain environments, this alteration in water availability may be quite pronounced over a relatively short distance as upstream users with first access to river water directly impact the availability of water to downstream users. Livelihood systems that directly depend on river water for both domestic consumption and practices such as irrigated agriculture are particularly vulnerable. The Mount Kenya region is an exemplary case of a semi-arid upstream-downstream system in which water availability rapidly decreases and directly impacts the livelihoods of river water users existing across this steep environmental gradient. To effectively manage river water within these water-scarce environs, water projects have been established along the major rivers of the Mount Kenya region. These water projects are responsible for managing water within discrete sub-catchments of the region. While water projects develop rules that encourage the responsible use of water and maintenance of the project itself, the efficiency of water allocation to the projects' members remains unclear. This research analyzes water projects from five sub-catchments on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya. It utilizes data from household surveys and water project management surveys as well as stream gauge data and flow measurements within individual water projects to assess the governance structure and performance of water projects. The performance of water projects is measured through a variety of household level metrics including: farm-level water flow and volume over time, mean and variability in maize yield, per capita crop productivity, household-level satisfaction with water availability, number of days where water volume was insufficient for irrigation, and quantity harvested compared with expected quantity harvested. We present results demonstrating the heterogeneity of these individual measures and discuss the influence of topography, network design, household behaviors and water governance on the overall performance of these water projects. This work is the foundation for an agent-based model of these water projects that investigates the impact of climate change and population pressure on sustained agricultural production in the region. Additionally, the study highlights the utility of pairing distinct fields of scholarship by utilizing both survey responses and hydrological data to study complex social-ecological systems. This pairing allows for insights regarding governance structures that are effectively managing river water in the present and helps to understand the structures that may be suitable for future water management.

  6. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of....4340 How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? (a) If you are not using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions, you must perform...

  7. Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

  8. ICPP injection well alternative project, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) portion of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been obtaining water needed for its operations from the Snake River aquifer, which occupies the entire region underlying the site. Most of this water has been used for cooling operating equipment, while a small portion has found various process uses. After passing through the ICPP process area, these waters are then returned to the aquifer. A small portion (about 1%) of the returned stream contains measurable amounts of radioactivity derived from the miscellaneous process users. This report and the recommendations contained herein are based upon stream flows projected for 1985 as supplied by DOE for the ICPP. 26 different alternatives for handling cooling water, chemical, and low level radioactive water disposal are examined. These cases are considered from technical, environmental, safety, and economic points of view. The level of detail is sufficient to eliminate non-viable cases, and to identify those which offer improvements over present practice. The Environmental/Safety Risk Factors were evaluated on a qualitative comparison basis only. Before a recommended improvement is incorporated into the waste disposal system, a conceptual design study should be made which would evaluate all those secondary effects and environmental factors that, by the very nature of the screening process, this study has not provided. Certain synergistic combinations have been noted and are discussed. This report does note whether the operations considered are in regulatory compliance, or are likely to be capable of providing lasting improvement to the waste water system. Qualitative comparisons were made between the various alternatives to confirm their relationship with applicable standards.

  9. Video- Water Injected Into Bubble Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Dr. Pettit demonstrates using a syringe to inject water into a bubble. The result amazed Dr. Pettit and his crew mates. They observed that the droplets may bounce around for 5 or 6 collisions within the bubble, and then may partially or all at once exchange masses with the bubble. Dr. Pettit speculates the dynamics as a possible interplay between tension forces of kinetic energy and momentum, and possibly even charged forces.

  10. Hydrologic data for 1994-96 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents data on precipitation, water levels, and water quality that have been collected or compiled for water years 1994 through 1996 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program, under the guidance of the Bureau of Reclamation. This is the second report for the project. The first report (Carter, 1995) presented data collected through water year 1993. The purpose of the Huron Project is to demonstrate the artificial recharge potential of glacial aquifers in eastern South Dakota. High flows from the James River during spring runoff were used as a source of supplemental recharge for the Warren aquifer, which is a buried, glacial aquifer. In 1990, 70 observation wells were installed by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) specifically for this study, and 15 existing DENR observation wells were incorporated into the study. In 1993, the recharge well was installed. After a trial injection of recharge water in April 1994, continuous injection began in June 1994. Many sites were monitored to obtain information before, during, and after recharging the aquifer. This report presents data that were collected during the three phases of recharge. Precipitation data are collected at two sites within the study area. A site description and daily precipitation for water years 1994-95 are presented for one precipitation site. Water-level hydrographs are presented for the 85 observation wells and the recharge well. Hydrographs are shown for the period from October 1, 1993, through November 29, 1995. Recharge water was injected from June 2, 1994, through July 29, 1994, and from June 14, 1995, through September 13, 1995. The cumulative volume of injected water and the injection rates into the aquifer are presented for the periods of recharge. Water-quality data were collected from screening, detailed, and plume-monitoring sampling programs. Screening water-quality data for six observation wells are presented. These data include primarily field parameters and common ions. The four detailed sampling sites represent the quality of untreated water, treated water, and ground water from the Warren aquifer. Data presented for the detailed sampling program include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, total organic carbon, herbicides, insecticides, and volatile organic compounds. Water-quality data for the plume-monitoring sampling program were collected from 25 sites during injection of recharge water into the Warren aquifer in 1994 and 1995. The data for the plume-monitoring program include primarily field parameters and common ions. Data for quality-assurance samples also are presented.

  11. Improvement of the high-speed logD assay using an injection marker for the water plug aspiration/injection method.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ikuko; Hirano, Atsushi; Yamashita, Taro; Fukami, Takehiro

    2009-04-10

    An improved method for the high-speed assay for logD (HSLogD) employing an injection marker is described. The critical process of HSLogD is automated sampling of the water phase, which prevents contamination from the octanol phase. However, deployment of HSLogD sometimes produces incorrect and inaccurate values compared with data from closely related methods due to low solubility of compounds or instrument problems. Therefore, careful manual inspection of data is needed to confirm the results obtained by this method. To solve this problem, compounds were screened for suitability as injection markers and 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-4,8-dimethylquinoline was the most suitable compound examined. Introduction of the injection marker into the process successfully eliminated the need for the tedious and time-consuming manual inspection process. PMID:19237161

  12. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  13. Detecting total toxicity in water using a mediated biosensor system with flow injection.

    PubMed

    Yong, Daming; Liu, Changyu; Zhu, Chengzhou; Yu, Dengbin; Liu, Ling; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-11-01

    A novel total toxicity detection method based on a mediated biosensor system with flow injection (MB-FI) was developed to rapidly and reliably detect respiration inhibitors (i.e., As2O3, KCN, salicylic acid (SA), 2,4-dintirophenol (DNP)) in water. The mediated biosensor toxicity assessment using microorganisms immobilized in calcium alginate filaments can greatly simplify the testing process and save time. In the MB-FI system, ferricyanide together with a respiration inhibitor was injected into the bioreactor, inhibiting the respiration of the immobilized microorganisms. The degree of inhibition was measured by determining the ferrocyanide generated in the effluent, expressed as the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50). The IC50 values for the four respiration inhibitors obtained using this method were comparable to those obtained using the classic method, confirming that this approach is an alternative alert method. More importantly, this constructed biosensor system with flow injection will facilitate the application and commercialization of this toxicity monitoring technology. PMID:26071865

  14. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Aquifer pressure buildup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg has been testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. Treated sweage that had a mean chloride concentration of 170 milligrams per liter (mg/l) was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4. 7 multiplied by 10**5 cubic feet per day (ft**3/d). The volume of water injected during the year was 1. 7 multiplied by 10**8 cubic feet. Pressure buildup at the end of one year ranged from less than 0. 1 to as much as 2. 4 pounds per square inch (lb/in**2) in observation wells at the site. Pressure buildup in wells open to the upper part of the injection zone was related to buoyant lift acting on the mixed water in the injection zone in addition to subsurface injection through the injection well. Calculations of the vertical component of pore velocity in the semiconfining bed underlying the shallowest permeable zone of the Floridan aquifer indicate upward movement of native water.

  15. Quenching of a highly superheated porous medium by injection of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichot, F.; Bachrata, A.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J.; Quintard, M.

    2012-11-01

    Understanding of two-phase flow through porous medium with intense phase change is of interest in many situations, including nuclear, chemical or geophysical applications. Intense boiling occurs when the liquid is injected into a highly superheated medium. Under such conditions, the heat flux extracted by the fluid from the porous medium is mainly governed by the nucleation of bubbles and by the evaporation of thin liquid films. Both configurations are possible, depending on local flow conditions and on the ratio of bubble size to pore size. The present study is motivated by the safety evaluation of light water nuclear reactors in case of a severe accident scenario, such as the one that happened in Fukushima Dai-ichi plant in March, 2011. If water sources are not available for a long period of time, the reactor core heats up due to the residual power and eventually becomes significantly damaged due to intense oxidation of metals and fragmentation of fuel rods resulting in the formation of a porous medium where the particles have a characteristic length-scale of 1 to 5 mm. The coolability of the porous medium will depend on the water flow rate which can enter the medium under the available driving head and on the geometrical features of the porous matrix (average pore size, porosity). Therefore, it is of high interest to evaluate the conditions for which the injection of water in such porous medium is likely to stop the progression of the accident. The present paper addresses the issue of modelling two-phase flow and heat transfers in a porous medium initially dry, where water is injected. The medium is initially at a temperature well above the saturation temperature of water. In a first part, a summary of existing knowledge is provided, showing the scarcity of models and experimental data. In a second part, new experimental results obtained in an IRSN facility are analysed. The experiment consists in a bed of steel particles that are heated up to 700°Cbefore injecting water. The facility is briefly described. The velocity of the "quench front" (location where particles are quickly cooled down) and the total pressure drop across the medium are estimated. The dependencies of those quantities with respect to the inlet water flow rate, the initial temperature of the medium and the diameter of particles are obtained. In a third part, a model is proposed, based on a previously developed model which is improved in order to take into account intense boiling regimes (in particular nucleate boiling). The model includes a function that takes into account the contact area between water and the particles which depends on the temperature of particles and on the void fraction. That function affects the local intensity of phase change. The model involves a few parameters which cannot be evaluated analytically. Those parameters are bounded, following the analysis of experimental data. Finally, the model is assessed by comparison of calculations with those new experimental data. The satisfactory agreement shows that the model is almost predictive in the range of parameters studied. The experimental results also show that the quench front becomes unstable under certain conditions. This is also analysed and compared with the predictions of the model.

  16. 14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

  18. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1987-01-01

    This report contains information on the 34 new projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Research Grant Program in fiscal year 1987 and on 3 projects completed during the year. For the new projects, the report gives the grant number, project title, performing organization, principal investigator(s), and a project description that includes: (1) identification of water related problems and problem-solution approach (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, and (4) approach. The 34 projects include 12 in the area of groundwater quality problems, 12 in the science and technology of water quality management, 1 in climate variability and the hydrologic cycle, 4 in institutional change in water resources management, and 5 in surface water management. For the three completed projects, the report furnishes the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investor(s); starting data; data of receipt of final report; and an abstract of the final report. Each project description provides the information needed to obtain a copy of the final report. The report contains tables showing: (1) proposals received according to area of research interest, (2) grant awards and funding according to area of research interest, (3) proposals received according to type of submitting organization, and (4) awards and funding according to type of organization. (Author 's abstract)

  19. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  20. Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina; Vakh, Christina; Shishov, Andrey; Zubakina, Ekaterina; Moskvin, Aleksey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The simple and easy performed automated method for the IR determination of petroleum products (PP) in water using extraction-chromatographic cartridges has been developed. The method assumes two stages: on-site extraction of PP during a sampling by using extraction-chromatographic cartridges and subsequent determination of the extracted PP using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with IR detection. The appropriate experimental conditions for extraction of the dissolved in water PP and for automated SIA procedure were investigated. The calibration plot constructed using the developed procedure was linear in the range of 3-200 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD), calculated from a blank test based on 3σ was 1 µg L(-1). The sample volume was 1L. The system throughput was found to be 12 h(-1). PMID:26653498

  1. Low-cost real-time infrared scene generation for image projection and signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; King, David E.; Bowden, Mark H.

    1998-07-01

    As cost becomes an increasingly important factor in the development and testing of Infrared sensors and flight computer/processors, the need for accurate hardware-in-the- loop (HWIL) simulations is critical. In the past, expensive and complex dedicated scene generation hardware was needed to attain the fidelity necessary for accurate testing. Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost-effective replacements for dedicated scene generators. These new scene generators are mainly constructed from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components. At the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (MRDEC), researchers have developed such a dynamic IR scene generator (IRSG) built around COTS hardware and software. The IRSG is used to provide dynamic inputs to an IR scene projector for in-band seeker testing and for direct signal injection into the seeker or processor electronics. AMCOM MRDEC has developed a second generation IRSG, namely IRSG2, using the latest Silicon Graphics Incorporated (SGI) Onyx2 with Infinite Reality graphics. As reported in previous papers, the SGI Onyx Reality Engine 2 is the platform of the original IRSG that is now referred to as IRSG1. IRSG1 has been in operation and used daily for the past three years on several IR projection and signal injection HWIL programs. Using this second generation IRSG, frame rates have increased from 120 Hz to 400 Hz and intensity resolution from 12 bits to 16 bits. The key features of the IRSGs are real time missile frame rates and frame sizes, dynamic missile-to-target(s) viewpoint updated each frame in real-time by a six-degree-of- freedom (6DOF) system under test (SUT) simulation, multiple dynamic objects (e.g. targets, terrain/background, countermeasures, and atmospheric effects), latency compensation, point-to-extended source anti-aliased targets, and sensor modeling effects. This paper provides a comparison between the IRSG1 and IRSG2 systems and focuses on the IRSG software, real time features, and database development tools.

  2. In Situ Development of Gas Saturation by Supersaturated Water Injection in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidis, M.; Zhao, W.; Li, M.; Enouy, R.; Unger, A.

    2009-05-01

    Gas saturation can develop in situ within initially water-saturated porous media by injecting a gas- supersaturated aqueous phase. Supersaturated water injection (SWI) is a novel technology with several potential applications to groundwater and soil remediation. These include supply of reactive gases for in situ bioremediation and recovery of immobile non-aqueous phase liquids trapped in the form of ganglia within the pore space. In this presentation we provide insight into the fundamental physics of gas cluster growth and mobilization using pore-scale simulation. We employ a 2D pore network model which idealizes the pore space as a lattice of cubic chambers connected by tubes of square cross-section. Following heterogeneous nucleation, growth of gas phase clusters is driven by convective diffusion of solute from the bulk aqueous phase and is characterized by a ramified pattern controlled by capillary and buoyancy forces. Gas cluster coalescence, mobilization under the action of buoyancy forces and fragmentation resulting from capillary instabilities are accounted for in the model. Novel results on gas-phase cluster growth pattern and mobilization dynamics, relative permeability and macroscopic mass transfer rate coefficient are obtained. Modeling of the SWI process at the macroscopic (Darcy) scale is subsequently addressed using a multiphase, multi- component continuum model. This model is calibrated against experimental data obtained from columns packed with sand to obtain the dependence of gas relative permeability on gas saturation.

  3. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lew, Melvin, (compiler); Murray, Pamela D.

    1990-01-01

    Information on the 36 new projects funded by the US Geological Survey 's (USGS) Water Resources Research Grant Program in fiscal year 1989 and on 27 projects completed during the year, is presented. For the new projects, the report gives the grant number, project title, performing organization, principal investigator(s), project duration, and a project description that includes: (1) identification of water-related problems and problem-solution approach; (2) contribution to problem solution; (3) objectives; and (4) approach. The 36 projects include 6 in groundwater transport and flow, 4 in the water quality treatment processes, 5 in water quality processes, 5 in biology, 9 in economics and management, and 7 in climate and hydrology. For the 27 completed projects, the report gives the grant number, project title, performing organization, principal investigator(s), starting date, date of receipt of final report, and an abstract of the final report. Each project description provides the information needed to obtain a copy of the final report. The report also contains tables showing: (1) proposals received according to area of research interest; (2) grant awards and funding according to area of research interest; (3) proposals received according to type of submitting organization; and (4) awards and funding according to type of organization. (Lantz-PTT)

  4. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

  5. The Virginia Pipeline: Australia's largest water recycling project.

    PubMed

    Kracman, B; Martin, R; Sztajnbok, P

    2001-01-01

    The need to conserve, reuse and recycle water is becoming increasingly important for both environmental and economic reasons. The Virginia Pipeline is Australia's largest water recycling project. More than half the output from (the capital of South Australia) Adelaide's largest wastewater treatment plant is further treated to achieve a product water quality fit for irrigation of vegetable crops with minimal public health restrictions. The project partners have a vision to achieve total reuse. To achieve this vision, recycled water will need to be stored during cool weather periods when the demand for water is low. Temporary storage of this water in poor quality aquifers is the subject of a major research project. PMID:11436801

  6. ICPP water inventory study project summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, B.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Water inventory Study was initiated in September 1993 with the formation of a joint working group consisting of representatives from DOE-ID, State of Idaho INEL Oversight Program, US Geological Survey, and INEL employees to investigate three issues that had been identified by the INEL Oversight Program at ICPP: (1) the water inventory imbalance at ICPP, (2) the source of water infiltrating into the Tank Farm vault sumps, and (3) the source of water providing potential recharge to perched water bodies underlying ICPP. These issues suggested that water was being lost from the ICPP distribution system. The INEL Oversight Program was concerned that the unaccounted for water at ICPP could be spreading contaminants that have been released over the past 40 years of operations of ICPP, possibly to the Snake River Plain Aquifer. This report summarizes the findings of each of the component investigations that were undertaken to resolve each of the three issues. Concerns about the risk of spreading contaminants will be resolved as part of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study being undertaken at ICPP in compliance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order between DOE-H), EPA, and the State of Idaho. This report will be a key input to that study.

  7. Classification of breast lesions pre-contrast injection using water resonance lineshape analysis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Abbie M; Medved, Milica; Bacchus, Ian D; Al-Hallaq, Hania A; Shimauchi, Akiko; Newstead, Gillian M; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Venkataraman, Srirama S; Ivancevic, Marko K; Karczmar, Greg S

    2013-05-01

    Inhomogeneously broadened, non-Lorentzian water resonances have been observed in small image voxels of breast tissue. The non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance are probably produced by bulk magnetic susceptibility shifts caused by dense, deoxygenated tumor blood vessels (the 'blood oxygenation level-dependent' effect), but can also be produced by other characteristics of local anatomy and physiology, including calcifications and interfaces between different types of tissue. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the detection of non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MRI allows the classification of breast lesions without the need to inject contrast agent. Eighteen malignant lesions and nine benign lesions were imaged with HiSS MRI at 1.5 T. A new algorithm was developed to detect non-Lorentzian (or off-peak) components of the water resonance. After a Lorentzian fit had been subtracted from the data, the largest peak in the residual spectrum in each voxel was identified as the major off-peak component of the water resonance. The difference in frequency between these off-peak components and the main water peaks, and their amplitudes, were measured in malignant lesions, benign lesions and breast fibroglandular tissue. Off-peak component frequencies were significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of HiSS off-peak component analysis compared with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI parameters. The areas under the ROC curves for the 'DCE rapid uptake fraction', 'DCE washout fraction', 'off-peak component amplitude' and 'off-peak component frequency' were 0.75, 0.83, 0.50 and 0.86, respectively. These results suggest that water resonance lineshape analysis performs well in the classification of breast lesions without contrast injection and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of clinical breast MR examinations. In addition, this approach may provide an alternative to DCE MRI in women who are at risk for adverse reactions to contrast media. PMID:23165988

  8. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  9. Sustainability of global water use: past reconstruction and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

    2014-10-01

    Overuse of surface water and an increasing reliance on nonrenewable groundwater resources have been reported over various regions of the world, casting significant doubt on the sustainable water supply and food production met by irrigation. To assess the limitations of global water resources, numerous indicators have been developed, but they rarely consider nonrenewable water use. In addition, surface water over-abstraction is rarely assessed in the context of human and environmental water needs. Here, we perform a transient assessment of global water use over the historical period 1960-2010 as well as the future projections of 2011-2099, using a newly developed indicator: the blue water sustainability index (BlWSI). The BlWSI incorporates both nonrenewable groundwater use and nonsustainable water use that compromises environmental flow requirements. Our results reveal an increasing trend of water consumed from nonsustainable surface water and groundwater resources over the historical period (˜30%), and this increase is projected to continue further towards the end of this century (˜40%). The global amount of nonsustainable water consumption has been increasing especially since the late 1990s, despite a wetter climate and increasing water availability during this period. The BlWSI is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the renewability and degradation of surface water and groundwater resources as a result of human water over-abstraction.

  10. Injection and Subsequent Evolution of a Water Sill in an Ice Shell: Application to Europa's Lenticulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, M.; Michaut, C.

    2014-12-01

    We study the injection and subsequent evolution of a water sill into an ice shell overlying an ocean and examine the resulting successive surface deformations. We assume that water spreads within the elastic part of the ice shell and show that the mechanical properties of ice exert a strong control on the lateral extent of the sill. At shallow depths, water makes room for itself by lifting the overlying ice layer and water weight promotes lateral spreading of the sill. In contrast, a deep sill bends the underlying elastic layer and its weight does not affect its spreading. As a result, the sill lateral extent is limited to about a few to a few tens of kilometers by the fracture toughness of ice. In that case, the sill can thicken substantially, until the feeder dyke closes, since downward flexure of the lower elastic layer provides a way of keeping the pressure high in the water source. Pits, domes, and small chaos on Europa's surface are quasi-circular features a few to a few tens of kilometers in diameter whose morphology could be explained by the subsequent evolution of such a thick sill. Indeed, cooling of the sill after emplacement warms the surrounding ice and thins the overlying elastic ice layer. As a result, preexisting stresses in the elastic part of the ice shell increase locally to the point that they may disrupt the ice above the sill (small chaos). Furthermore, disruption of the surface also allows for partial isostatic compensation of water weight, leading to a topographic depression at the surface (pit), of the order of ~102 m. Finally, complete water solidification causes expansion of the initial sill volume and results in an uplifted topography (dome) of ~102 m.

  11. Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana

    In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water to meet all domestic demands. Domestic water supply must be accompanied by appropriate sanitation and hygienic education.

  12. Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for observation wells in the Mount Pleasant area. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 2 are between 2 and 106 feet lower for production wells and observation wells and between 11 and 27 feet higher for the injection wells in the Mount Pleasant area. Water budgets for the model area immediately surrounding the Mount Pleasant area were calculated for 2011 and for 2050. The largest flow component for the 2050 water budget in the Mount Pleasant area is discharge through wells at rates between 7.1 and 10.9 million gallons of water per day. This groundwater is replaced predominantly by between 6.0 and 7.8 million gallons per day of lateral groundwater flow within the Middendorf aquifer for the Base Case and two scenarios and through reclaimed-water injection of 3 million gallons per day for Scenarios 1 and 2. In addition, between 175,000 and 319,000 gallons of groundwater are removed from this area per day because of the regional hydraulic gradient. Additional sources of water to this area are groundwater storage releases at rates between 86,800 and 116,000 gallons per day and vertical flow from over- and underlying confining units at rates between 69,100 and 150,000 gallons per day. Reclaimed water injected into the Middendorf aquifer at three hypothetical injection wells moved to the Mount Pleasant Waterworks production wells in 18 to 256 years as indicated by particle-tracking simulations. Time of travel varied from 18 to 179 years for simulated conditions of 20 percent uniform aquifer porosity and between 25 to 256 years for 30 percent uniform aquifer porosity.

  13. The Arid West Water Quality Research Project (WQRP)

    SciTech Connect

    Eigel, J.A.

    1998-07-01

    The Arid West Water Quality Research Project (WQRP) was created to address concerns that the water quality criteria and standards developed under the Clean Water Act (CWA) by the states and the regional US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory agencies, were not always appropriate for use in arid and semiarid areas of the western US. The WQRP will define and administer research projects intended to provide the technical basis to propose more appropriate water quality criteria and standards to protect the unique habitats, aquatic and wildlife populations, and suitable designated uses in these areas.

  14. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented on the 43 projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Grant Program in fiscal year 1986. The report gives the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investigator(s); dates; and a project description which includes (1) identification of the water related problems and problem-solution approach, (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, (4) approach, and (5) result users. The 43 projects include 14 in the area of groundwater management, 6 in surface-water management, 2 in systems-operating/planning, 3 in irrigation management, 8 in desalination/reuse, 6 in economic/institutional studies, and 4 in climate variability. The reports contain tables showing (1) funding according to research topic, (2) projects funded to type of submitting organization, (3) proposals received, research topic, and funding levels, and (4) submitting organization. A comparison is given to fiscal year 1985 in each case. (USGS)

  15. The Water-to-Wire (W2W) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lovelace, Edward C.

    2011-11-01

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which the principal investigator discusses project progress to evaluate & optimize the performance, environment, and cost factors of the Free Flow Power hydrokinetic system for Mississippi River commercial deployment

  16. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site.

  17. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junsang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, Kwangho; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in rats. Methods: All experiments were performed at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Each group contained 10 Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 males and 5 females. GP was prepared in a sterile room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under regulations of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). GP dosages were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL for the experimental groups; normal saline was administered to the control group. The animals general condition was examined daily for 14 days, and the rats were weighed on the starting day and at 3, 7 and 14 days after administration of the pharmacopuncture. Hematological and biochemistry tests and autopsies were done to test the toxicological effect of GP after 14 days. This study was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotextech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test of intramuscular injections of GP, and no significant changes in the general conditions, body weights, hematological and biochemistry tests, and autopsies were observed. The local injection site showed no changes. Based on these results, the lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results suggest that GP is relatively safe. Further studies, including a repeated toxicity test, are needed to provide more concrete evidence for the safety of GP. PMID:26120491

  18. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, M.E.; Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Lessons Learned from a Third World Water and Sanitation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-McLean, Terri

    1991-01-01

    The seven-step project cycle used in a water sanitation project in Belize from 1986-89 is described. The direct involvement of community organizations, village councils, family gatherings, parent-teacher organizations, political groups, Village Health Committees, and volunteer organizations is emphasized. (CW)

  20. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  1. 77 FR 55893 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... INFORMATION: This notice lists the projects, described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of...

  2. 77 FR 59240 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... INFORMATION: This notice lists the projects, described below, being rescinded for the consumptive use of...

  3. Injection of water and polyphosphate into pork to improve juiciness and tenderness after cooking.

    PubMed

    Sheard, P R; Nute, G R; Richardson, R I; Perry, A; Taylor, A A

    1999-04-01

    Two injection levels (5 and 10%) and three concentrations of polyphosphate (0, 3 and 5%) were used in 64 pork loin portions to assess the influence of polyphosphate injection on eating quality of pork steaks cooked by grilling to a centre temperature of 72.5 or 80°C and assessed by a trained ten member sensory panel. Polyphosphate improved water holding, and generally produced more tender and more juicy meat than control steaks, although pork flavour intensity was reduced and abnormal flavour intensity increased. Raising the centre temperature from 72.5 to 80°C increased the cooking loss from 35 to 42%, reduced tenderness, juiciness and abnormal flavours and increased pork flavour intensity. Steaks containing 5% polyphosphate and cooked to 80°C were more tender and as juicy as steaks without polyphosphate cooked to the lower centre temperature. These effects were generally larger than those that can be achieved `naturally' by, for example, changing diets and breeds but whether the technology will be utilised in an increasingly `additive free' climate is debatable. PMID:22062033

  4. WATER SYSTEM OPERATOR TRAINING FOR THE CENTRAL ARIZONA PROJECT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. CAP carries water from Lake Havasu down to Tucson. The CAP canal system is a 336-mile long system of aqueducts, tunnels, pumping pla...

  5. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based technology for prediction of soil erosion by water at hillslope profile, field, and small watershed scales. In particular, WEPP utilizes observed or generated daily climate inputs to drive the surface hydrology processes (infiltrat...

  6. 78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  7. 78 FR 2315 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  8. 77 FR 4859 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's...

  9. 77 FR 34455 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  10. 77 FR 21143 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  11. 77 FR 55891 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  12. 77 FR 55892 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  13. 78 FR 15402 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR Sec. 806.22(e) and...

  14. 78 FR 27470 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  15. 76 FR 53526 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  16. 77 FR 59239 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  17. 78 FR 27471 - Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission... use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(e)...

  18. 76 FR 42159 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule...

  19. 76 FR 66117 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION..., described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's...

  20. 77 FR 25010 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR 806.22(f) for the...

  1. 77 FR 66909 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  2. 78 FR 17281 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  3. 77 FR 16317 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION... consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval by rule process set forth in 18 CFR...

  4. In Situ Evaluation of Water-Rock Reactions during Carbon Dioxide Injection in Basaltic and Metasedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J. M.; Assayag, N.; Goldberg, D.; Takahashi, T.

    2006-12-01

    Large differences between laboratory and field derived mineral reaction rates underscore the importance of evaluating mineral-fluid reactions under in situ conditions in a natural environment. This study investigates the extent of in situ water-rock reactions in basaltic and metasedimentary rocks (rich in Ca, Mg silicates) after the injection of CO2 enriched water, with the objective of providing information pertinent to permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in geologic reservoirs. CO2 injections were conducted using a single-well push-pull testing strategy. CO2 saturated water (pH 3.5) was injected into a hydraulically isolated and permeable aquifer in a 300-m experimental borehole. Water samples were retrieved after the CO2 injection. Mass transfer terms for Ca, Mg, Na, and Si were determined by using the measured ion concentrations. Using the mass balance, the weeks-long incubation time of the injected solution, and geometric estimates of the reactive surface area of the host rocks, in situ bulk rock dissolution rates of aquifer material were estimated. In addition, δ13C data coupled with total CO2 concentration were used as a tracer to quantitatively evaluate processes such as carbonate dissolution and precipitation, oxidation of organic matter and biological activity within the aquifer. Results show that the injected CO2 was neutralized within several days by two processes; mixing with aquifer water, and rock-water reactions. Calculated bulk rock dissolution rates decrease with increasing pH. The pH dependence of the dissolution rate for Ca is twice as large as for Mg, strongly favoring Ca release and possibly suggesting an additional source of Ca besides silicate minerals. Analyses of δ13C on water and rock samples confirm dissolution of calcium carbonates within the aquifer.

  5. A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host rock during deep well injection

    SciTech Connect

    Spycher, Nicolas; Larkin, Randy

    2004-05-14

    A new disposal well was drilled in the vicinity of an injection well that had been in operation for 12 years. The drilling activities provided an opportunity to assess the fate and transport of waste products injected in the nearby well, and the impact, if any, on the host geologic formation. The origin of the fluid collected while drilling the new well and the interaction between injected waste and the formation were investigated using analyses of formation waters, waste, and formation minerals, by applying traditional graphical methods and sophisticated numerical models. This approach can be used to solve a wide range of geochemical problems related to deep well injection of waste. Trilinear Piper diagrams, Stiff diagrams, and correlation plots show that the chemical characteristics of recovered fluid at the new well are similar to those of formation water. The concentrations of most major constituents in the fluid appear diluted when compared to formation water sampled at other locations. This could be explained by mixing with waste, which is less saline than formation water. However, the waste injected near the new well consists primarily of ammonia and sulfate, and these waste constituents are not found at concentrations elevated enough to suggest that significant mixing of formation water with waste has occurred. To determine whether chemical interactions between injected waste and formation could explain the chemistry of fluid recovered from the new well, we simulated the chemical reaction between waste, formation water, and the formation rock by numerical modeling. Initial modeling calculations were done using a multicomponent geochemical reaction-path model to simulate fresh waste reacting with the formation. A more complex simulation coupling flow, transport, and reaction was then run using a multicomponent geochemical reactive transport model. These numerical simulations were carried out to calculate porosity changes and evaluate chemical processes resulting in mineral precipitation and dissolution. The simulations indicate that the waste injected in the vicinity of the new well is mildly reactive with the formation, and that there is a small porosity increase upon injection (approximately one to two percent) in the near-wellbore region. The simulations predict the precipitation of anhydrite, ammonium clay, and ammonium feldspar minerals. However, the precipitation of these minerals is not sufficient to account for the lower-than-expected sulfate and ammonia concentrations away from the injection well. This modeling work is preliminary in nature, and provides an example of the application of sophisticated modeling tools to problems involving deep-well injection of waste.

  6. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado for the upcoming year. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies. The WSAP bridges water quality characterization and data collection objectives for the surface remediation program (Subpart A) and the ground water compliance program (Subpart B) identified in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994).

  7. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 11, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The LIFAC technology has similarities to other sorbent injection technologies using humidification, but employs a unique patented vertical reaction chamber located down-stream of the boiler to facilitate and a 220 MW coal-fired boiler located at Kristiinankaupunki. At this facility, a slipstream (5000 SCFM) containing the calcined limestone was used to test a small-scale activation reactor (2.5 MW) in which the gas was humidified. Reactor residence times of 3 to 12 seconds resulted in SO{sub 2} removal rates up to 84%. Additional LIFAC pilot-scale tests were conducted at the 8 MW (thermal) level at the Neste Kulloo combustion laboratory to develop the relationships between the important operating and design parameters. Polish low-sulfur coal was burned to achieve 84% S0{sub 2} removal. In 1986, full-scale testing of LIFAC was conducted at Imatran Voima`s Inkoo power plant on a 250 MW utility boiler. An activation chamber was built to treat a flue gas stream representing about 70 MW. Even though the boiler was 250 MW, the 70 MW stream represented about one-half of the flue gas feeding one of the plant`s two ESP`s (i.e., each ESP receives a 125 MW gas stream). This boiler used a 1.5% sulfur coal and sulfur removal was initially 61%. By late 1987, SO{sub 2} removal rates had improved to 76%. In 1988, a LIFAC activation reactor was added to treat an additional 125 MW -- i.e., an entire flue gas/ESP stream-worth of flue gas from this same boiler. This newer activation reactor is achieving 7580% SO{sub 2} removal with Ca:S ratios between 2:1 and 2.5:1. In 1988, the first tests using high-sulfur US coals were run at the pilot scale at the Neste Kulloo Research Center, using a Pittsburgh No. 8 coal containing 3% sulfur. SO{sub 2} removal rates of 77% were achieved at a Ca:S ratio of 2:1. This LIFAC demonstration project will be conducted on a 60 MW boiler burning high-sulfur US coals to demonstrate the commercial application of the LIFAC process to US utilities.

  8. Design, testing, and evaluation of a water injection grouting system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The necessity of grouting vertical ground heat exchanger boreholes is well established. The use of chip bentonite was investigated as an alternative to slurry grouting methods for backfilling geothermal bores. Grouting a geothermal bore with chip bentonite has many potential benefits if the bore can be completely grouted from bottom to top. High solids content grouts that are possible with chip bentonite could increase the thermal conductivity of the grout and make it less susceptible to performance reductions associated with drying of the grout. The lower price of chip bentonite compared to powder bentonite grouts would reduce the cost of grouting. Chip bentonites would also have an advantage over powder bentonite grouts by reducing the amount of dust created during the grouting process. The proposed grouting system would use water to transport chip bentonite through a tremie pipe into the bore. The properties of chip bentonite grouts were first examined by pouring chip bentonite into a standing column of water. Chip bentonite grouts had percent solids ranging from 50% to 60% and thermal conductivity from 0.46 to 0.52 Btu/hr ft F. Tests were also performed with a thermal additive mixed with the bentonite chips. Additives tested included pea rock, masonry sand, and crushed quartzite. The additive in the wet grout accumulated in pockets, creating possible avenues for hydraulic movement. Total percent solids of bentonite and additive mixtures ranged from 60% to 80%. Thermal conductivity results were varied, but generally increased with increasing percentages of additive. The feasibility of transporting bentonite chips with water through a tremie pipe was studied with two types of water injection systems. Both systems incorporated a pressurized solids tank to keep water from hydrating the chips prior to entering the water stream. A low pressure system was able to transfer pea rock successfully through a short length of tremie pipe. The use of bentonite chips caused plugging at the feeding point. A higher pressure system was built to handle the higher pressures caused by the transportation of material through longer tremie pipes. An auger was used to transfer chips out of the solids tank and drop them into a cone mixing chamber. Difficulties in trying to balance air and water pressures to keep the water level below the height of the auger proved to be too complex for further experimentation. Neither system is recommended as a model for a practical grouting system.

  9. Characterizing near-surface CO2 conditions before injection - Perspectives from a CCS project in the Illinois Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, R.A., II; Krapac, I.G.; Lewicki, J.L.; Curtis-Robinson, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is conducting a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) project in Decatur, Illinois, USA to demonstrate the ability of a deep saline formation to store one million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from an ethanol facility. Beginning in early 2011, CO2 will be injected at a rate of 1,000 tonnes/day for three years into the Mount Simon Sandstone at a depth of approximately 2,100 meters. An extensive Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program has been undertaken for the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) and is focused on the 0.65 km2 project site. Goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. MVA efforts are being conducted pre-, during, and post- CO2 injection. Soil and net CO2 flux monitoring has been conducted for more than one year to characterize near-surface CO2 conditions. More than 2,200 soil CO2 flux measurements have been manually collected from a network of 118 soil rings since June 2009. Three ring types have been evaluated to determine which type may be the most effective in detecting potential CO 2 leakage. Bare soil, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm into the ground and were prepared to minimize surface vegetation in and near the rings. Bare soil, deep-depth rings were prepared similarly, but were driven 46 cm. Natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm and are most representative of typical vegetation conditions. Bare-soil, shallow-depth rings had the smallest observed mean flux (1.78 ??mol m-2 s-1) versus natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings (3.38 ??mol m-2 s-1). Current data suggest bare ring types would be more sensitive to small CO2 leak signatures than natural ring types because of higher signal to noise ratios. An eddy covariance (EC) system has been in use since June 2009. Baseline data from EC monitoring is being used to characterize pre-injection conditions, and may then be used to detect changes in net exchange CO2 fluxes (Fc) that could be the result of CO2 leakage into the near-surface environment during or following injection. When injection at IBDP begins, soil and net CO2 monitoring efforts will have established a baseline of near-surface conditions that will be important to help demonstrate the effectiveness of storage activities. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Groundwater thermal-effective injection systems in shallow aquifers: possible alternatives to vertical water wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Urbanized areas have environmental features that may influence the development of low-enthalpy geothermal systems and the choice of the most suitable among the available (roughly earth-coupled closed-loop and groundwater open-loop type). In particular, if compared to less anthropized areas, some characteristic urban elements require particular attention: underground extensive use, contamination of groundwater, interference between the systems, authorization procedures and planning restrictions, the competition with cogeneration systems and the impact on emissions of pollutants. In this general context, the increasing implementation in several areas of the world of the open-loop groundwater heat pumps technology which discharge into the aquifer for cooling and heating buildings, could potentially cause, even in the short term, a significant environmental impact associated with thermal interference with groundwater, particularly in the shallow aquifers. The discharge of water at different temperatures compared to baseline (warmer in summer and colder in winter) poses a number of problems in relation to the potential functionality of many existing situations of use of the groundwater (drinking water wells, agricultural, industrial, etc.). In addition, there may be cases of interference between systems, especially in the more densely urbanized areas. Appropriate hydrogeological investigations should be performed for the characterization of the main hydrogeological parameters of the subsoil at the considered site in order to minimize the environmental impact of discharges into aquifers. The current Italian legislation related to withdrawals and discharges into aquifers designs a framework suitable for the protection of groundwater and induce deciding the best configuration of the plant with a case by case approach. An increased contact area between the dispersant system and the ground makes it possible to affect a greater volume of aquifer and, consequently, reduce the areal extent of the thermal plume that develops around the area of injection minimizing the time and the space needed for the disappearance of the thermal plume and the restoration of undisturbed temperature conditions. The reduction in plan and temporal extension of the thermal plume would have several benefits, minimizing the use of large areas around the buildings involved by the thermal perturbation, with direct implementation benefits. In order to investigate alternatives to traditional drilled water well for the re-injection and dispersion of water in aquifer downstream of the heat pump, we modeled with FEFLOW the possible reverse use of commercial draining gabions in various types of ground configuration, geometry and interconnection with systems of pre-fabricated vertical drains on a possible reliable test-site. The results highlighted that they can represent a good and efficient alternative for the groundwater dispersion in the aquifers.

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

  12. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  13. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  14. Assessment of climate change impact on water diversion strategies of Melamchi Water Supply Project in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper analyzes the climate change impact on water diversion plan of Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) in Nepal. The MWSP is an interbasin water transfer project aimed at diverting water from the Melamchi River of the Indrawati River basin to Kathmandu Valley for drinking water purpose. Future temperature and precipitation of the basin were predicted using the outputs of two regional climate models (RCMs) and two general circulation models (GCMs) under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios which were then used as inputs to Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to predict the water availability and evaluate the water diversion strategies in the future. The average temperature of the basin is projected to increase by 2.35 to 4.25 °C under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5, respectively, by 2085s. The average precipitation in the basin is projected to increase by 6-18 % in the future. The annual water availability is projected to increase in the future; however, the variability is observed in monthly water availability in the basin. The water supply and demand scenarios of Kathmandu Valley was also examined by considering the population increase, unaccounted for water and water diversion from MWSP in the future. It is observed that even with the additional supply of water from MWSP and reduction of unaccounted for water, the Kathmandu Valley will be still under water scarcity in the future. The findings of this study can be helpful to formulate water supply and demand management strategies in Kathmandu Valley in the context of climate change in the future.

  15. Geochemical changes in pore water and reservoir rock due to CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, Farhana; Blum, Philipp; Nowak, Marcus; Haderlein, Stefan; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    In response to current global warming, carbon capture and storage has been identified as one of the promising option. Thus, it can be an interim solution that is indeed a bridge to the future renewable energy without altering the present mode of energy consumption. Although large natural CO2 sinks are terrestrial eco-system and oceans, geological media or more specifically large sedimentary basins are now the most feasible options for carbon sequestration. At the study site, a former gas field (Altmark), which is located in the South of the Northeast German Basin, CO2 is planned to be injected into the reservoir with high pressure (> 50 bar) and temperature (125C). Afterwards, CO2 dissolves into the pore water leading to acidification and follow up reactions such as dissolution/precipitation, which potentially change the porosity-permeability of the reservoir and the wetting properties of the mineral surfaces. The Altmark site was chosen due to its large storage capacity, well explored reservoir, high seal integrity due to the presence of massive salt layer (cap rock) and existing infrastructure required for enhanced gas recovery. The main objective of the current study is to quantify the CO2 trapping in aqueous solution under in situ reservoir condition. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the geochemical changes in fluid composition due to dissolution of minerals under controlled laboratory conditions and to quantify the concentrations of complexing agents that might influence the concentration of total dissolved CO2 in aqueous solution over time. To observe these geochemical and hydraulic changes due to the injection of CO2, a closed system (batch system) technique is developed to study the influence of salinity, temperature, pressure and kinetics on mineral reactions. In addition to the closed system, a flow through (open) autoclave system was constructed. Water saturated sedimentary rock cores (e.g. from the Altmark site; 5cm long, 3cm diameter) are going to be flushed by a pre-equilibrated mixture of CO2 and water at a constant rate for several months. Fluid samples will be collected at regular intervals and analyzed by IC and ICP-OES/MS. XRF and SEM analysis will also be performed for the solid phase. The outcome of the laboratory experiments will be used as input parameters for the geochemical modeling in order to provide the parameters to calculate the subsurface volume available for storage of dissolved CO2 ("solubility trapping").

  16. Determination of Trace Nickel in Natural Water by Flow Injection Analysis with Cetrimonium Bromide as Sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. X.; Zhang, C. X.; Li, N.; Zhang, X. S.

    2015-11-01

    2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) is a highly sensitive chromogenic reagent that can react with most of the transition and alkaline earth metals. The Ni(II)-5-Br-PADAP complex is more stable than other metal-5-Br-PADAP complexes. In the presence of seignette salt, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can decompose most of the 5-Br-PADAP complexes with metals except for iron, cobalt, and nickel. Cetrimonium bromide (CTMAB) as a sensitizer for the color reaction forms a ternary complex with nickel and 5-Br-PADAP with maximum absorption wavelength at 561 nm. CTMAB can significantly improve the sensitivity and selectivity of nickel determination, as well as the stability and solubility of compounds. In this study, the determination of trace nickel in natural water samples was performed by flow injection analysis. The calibration lines were established in the range of 0-200 μg/l of nickel (n ≥ 3), and the limit of detection was 0.093 μg/l. The relative standard deviation was 2.55% for the determination of 25 μg/l nickel (n ≥ 20). The recoveries of this method ranged from 91.0 to 101% for environmental water samples. A large amount of aluminum, calcium, cadmium, copper, bicarbonate, magnesium, zinc, and iron, except for cobalt, did not interfere with the determination of nickel.

  17. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  18. Quality of water recovered from a municipal effluent injection well in the Floridan aquifer system, Pompano Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 69 million gallons of backflow from an injection well used for the disposal of secondary treated municipal effluent in the Floridan aquifer system near Pompano Beach, Florida, was periodically sampled for inorganic quality from March 1975 through March 1977. Analyses of the backflow effluent showed a concomitant increase in dissolved solids and a change in ionic composition as a function of cumulative volume of backflow. Both the increase in dissolved solids and the change in major ionic composition were directly related to an estimated 6 to 7 percent mixing of the moderately saline water in the Florida aquifer system with the injected system with the injected effluent. Although an estimated 3.5 billion gallons of effluent was injected into the aquifer system during the 16-year operation of the Collier Manor treatment plant, only 65 to 70 million gallons was backflowed before the chloride concentration approached 250 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a).

  20. Optimal conditions for visualizing water-conducting pathways in a living tree by the dye injection method.

    PubMed

    Umebayashi, Toshihiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Koga, Shinya; Inoue, Susumu; Shiiba, Yasuki; Arakawa, Keita; Matsumura, Junji; Oda, Kazuyuki

    2007-07-01

    To elucidate the water-conducting pathways in living trees by the dye injection method, suitable sample preparation procedures are needed. We evaluated quantitatively the properties and concentrations of three dyes (acid fuchsin, basic fuchsin and safranin) widely used for this purpose, and determined the optimal conditions required to avoid artifacts after dye injection into the sap stream of Pieris japonica D. Don. Among the dyes tested, an aqueous solution of acid fuchsin at a concentration of 0.1% or more was the most useful for delineating water movement. In non-transpiring stem segments, the vertical movement of acid fuchsin by capillarity and diffusion from the dye injection site was limited. However, acid fuchsin moved rapidly in the horizontal direction by capillarity and diffusion, and most xylem cells were stained within 2 h. A delay of more than 2 h between dye injection and examination of the tissues greatly reduces the precision of the method. Use of the dye injection method without appropriate, well-defined experimental procedures may give rise to misleading information about the functional water-conducting pathway in living trees. PMID:17403652

  1. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  2. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 3, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  3. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters.

  4. Detecting potential impacts of deep subsurface CO2 injection on shallow drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, R. C.; Yang, C.; Romanak, K.; Mickler, P. J.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Presented here are results from one aspect of collective research conducted at Gulf Coast Carbon Center, BEG, Jackson School at UT Austin. The biggest hurdle to public acceptance of CCS is to show that drinking water resources will not be impacted. Since late 1990s our group has been supported by US DOE NETL and private industry to research how best to detect potential impacts to shallow (0 to ~0.25 km) subsurface drinking water from deep (~1 to 3.5 km) injection of CO2. Work has and continues to include (1) field sampling and testing, (2) laboratory batch experiments, (3) geochemical modeling. The objective has been to identify the most sensitive geochemical indicators using data from research-level investigations, which can be economically applied on an industrial-scale. The worst-case scenario would be introduction of CO2 directly into drinking water from a leaking wellbore at a brownfield site. This is unlikely for a properly screened and/or maintained site, but needs to be considered. Our results show aquifer matrix (carbonate vs. clastic) to be critical to interpretation of pH and carbonate (DIC, Alkalinity, and δ13C of DIC) parameters because of the influence of water-rock reaction (buffering vs. non-buffering) on aqueous geochemistry. Field groundwater sampling sites to date are Cranfield, MS and SACROC, TX CO2-EOR oilfields. Two major aquifer types are represented, one dominated by silicate (Cranfield) and the other by carbonate (SACROC) water-rock reactions. We tested sensitivity of geochemical indicators (pH, DIC, Alkalinity, and δ13C of DIC) by modeling the effects of increasing pCO2 on aqueous geochemistry, and laboratory batch experiments, both with partial pressure of CO2 gas (pCO2) at 1x105 Pa (1 atm). Aquifer matrix and groundwater data provided constraints for the geochemical models. We used results from modeling and batch experiments to rank geochemical parameter sensitivity to increased pCO2 into weakly, mildly and strongly sensitive categories for both aquifer systems. DIC concentration is strongly sensitive to increased pCO2 for both aquifers; however, CO2 outgassing during sampling complicates direct field measurement of DIC. Interpretation of data from in-situ push-pull aquifer tests is ongoing and will be used to augment results summarized here. We are currently designing groundwater monitoring plans for two additional industrial-scale sites where we will further test the sensitivity and utility of our sampling approach.

  5. Hazard categorization of K Basin water filtration upgrade project

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, K.R.

    1995-10-19

    This supporting document provides the hazards categorization for the K Basin Water Filtration Upgrade Project at K East. All activities associated with the project are less than Hazard Category 3, except for the handling of the ECO-ROK liners containing spent filter cartridges. All activities involving the handling of liners, containing spent cartridges, by monorail, forklift or mobile crane are classified as Hazard Category 3.

  6. Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1ω7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images PMID:16347649

  7. Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well.

    PubMed

    McKinley, V L; Costerton, J W; White, D C

    1988-06-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. PMID:16347649

  8. Blue water transfer versus virtual water transfer in China, with a focus on the South-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Junguo

    2015-04-01

    Alongside its astonishing economic growth during the past decades, there has been increasing water stress in many areas in China. Water diversion has been one of the measures in dealing with the problem. The South-North Water Transfer Project is the largest project as such in the world, which aims to transfer water from the Yangtze River to primarily the North China Plain to alleviate the water stress in the region. Water diversion projects play an important role in supporting the continuous economic growth and safeguarding food production in the country. However, they also bring about many negative impacts concerning the environmental and ecosystem sustainability, as well as socio-economic development, both in the source and destination regions of diversions. One question arising is whether a virtual water transfer, primarily in the form of agricultural products, would be one of the tools economically and environmentally advantageous over transferring massive amounts of water to water deficit regions. This study presents an overview of China's water and land endowments and uses across regions, and the spatial distribution of food production. Based on this, the extent to which the virtual water strategy may be useful in dealing with the water stress in northern China as well as its limitations will be discussed. The focus will be on the South-North Water Transfer Project.

  9. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management. PMID:18157611

  10. Water deprivation activates a glutamatergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the rostral ventrolateral medulla

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Sean D.; Simmons, Johnny R.; Toney, Glenn M.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated sympathetic outflow contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure in water-deprived rats. The neural circuitry underlying this response may involve activation of a pathway from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We sought to determine whether the PVH-RVLM projection activated by water deprivation is glutamatergic and/or contains vasopressin- or oxytocin-neurophysins. Vesicular glutamate transporter2 (VGLUT2) mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the majority of PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with cholera-toxin subunit B (CTB; 85% on average with regional differences). Very few RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were immunoreactive for oxytocin- or vasopressin-associated neurophysin. Injection of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the PVH produced clusters of BDA-positive nerve terminals within the ipsilateral RVLM that were immunoreactive (ir) for the VGLUT2 protein. Some of these terminals made close appositions with tyrosine-hydroxylase-ir dendrites (presumptive C1 cells). In water-deprived rats (n=4), numerous VGLUT2 mRNA-positive PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with CTB were c-Fos-ir (16–40% depending on PVH region). In marked contrast, few glutamatergic, RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were c-Fos-ir in control rats (n=3; 0–3% depending on PVH region). Most (94 ± 4%) RVLM-projecting PVH neurons activated by water deprivation contained VGLUT2 mRNA. In summary, the majority of PVH neurons that innervate the RVLM are glutamatergic and this population includes the neurons that are activated by water deprivation. One mechanism by which water deprivation may increase the sympathetic outflow is the activation of a glutamatergic pathway from the PVH to the RVLM. PMID:16374796

  11. Robustness and uncertainties in global water scarcity projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide

    2014-05-01

    Water scarcity is both a natural and human-made phenomenon and defined as the condition where there are insufficient water resources to satisfy long-term average requirements. Many regions of the world are affected by this chronic imbalance between renewable water resources and water demand leading to depletion of surface water and groundwater stocks. Total freshwater abstraction today amounts to 3856 km³ of which 70% are withdrawn by the agricultural sector, followed by the industry (19%) and domestic sectors (11%) (FAO 2010). Population growth and consumption change have led to threefold increase in total water withdrawals in the last 60 years through a rising demand for electricity, industrial and agricultural products, and thus for water (Flörke et al. 2013). The newly developed "Shared Socio-Economic Pathways" (SSPs) project global population to increase up to 7.2 or even 14 billion people by 2100 (O'Neill et al. 2012); and meeting future water demand in sufficient quantity and quality is seen as one of the key challenges of the 21st century. So far, the assessment of regional and global water-scarcity patterns mostly focused on climate change impacts by driving global hydrological models with climate projections from different GCMs while little emphasis has been put on the water demand side. Changes in future water scarcity, however, are found to be mainly driven by changes in water withdrawals (Alcamo et al. 2007, Hanasaki et al. 2012), i.e. sensitivity to climate change outweighs exposure. Likewise, uncertainties have mainly been assessed in relation to the spread among climate scenarios and from global hydrological models (GHMs) (Haddeland et al. 2011, 2013; Schewe et al. 2013, Wada et al. 2013) while the contribution of water use modelling related to total uncertainty remains largely unstudied. The main objective of this study is to address the main uncertainties related to both climate and socio-economic impacts on global and regional water scarcity, and to provide robust and consistent conclusions to be used for decision making. The analysis is based on an ensemble of hydrological and water demand projections for the 21st century as simulated by three state-of-the-art global hydrological and water use models forced by climate projections of five global circulation models and socio-economic drivers corresponding to SSP2. The GHM-ensemble shows reasonable agreement in projected domestic and irrigation water withdrawals whilst there is a large discrepancy between the projections of industrial water withdrawals which translates into considerable uncertainty in temporal and spatial water-scarcity patterns. Consequently, impact assessments need to consider water demand as an additional dimension of uncertainty to assess both exposure and sensitivity to climate change.

  12. Sensitive enantioanalysis of β-blockers via field-amplified sample injection combined with water removal in microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanhua; Zhang, Huige; Rahman, Zia Ur; Wang, Weifeng; Li, Xi; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an on-line sample preconcentration technique, field-amplified sample injection combined with water removal by electroosmotic flow (EOF) pump, was applied to realize a highly sensitive chiral analysis of β-blocker enantiomers by MEEKC. The introduction of a water plug in capillary before the electrokinetic injection provided the effective preconcentration of chiral compounds. And then the water was moving out of the column from the injection end under the effect of the EOF, which avoided dilution of the stacked β-blocker enantiomers concentration suffering from the presence of water in separation buffer. Moreover, the addition of H3 PO4 and methanol in the sample solution greatly improved the enhancement efficiency further. Under optimized conditions, more than 2700-fold enhancement in sensitivity was obtained for each enantiomer of bupranolol (BU), alprenolol (AL), and propranolol (PRO) via electrokinetic injection. LODs were 0.10, 0.10, 0.12, 0.11, 0.02, and 0.02 ng/mL for S-BU, R-BU, S-AL, R-AL, S-PRO, and R-PRO, respectively. Eventually, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of BU, AL, and PRO in serum samples with good recoveries ranging from 93.4 to 98.2%. PMID:24798241

  13. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  15. Sequential injection system with multi-parameter analysis capability for water quality measurement.

    PubMed

    Kaewwonglom, Natcha; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple sequential injection (SI) system with capability to determine multi-parameter has been developed for the determination of iron, manganese, phosphate and ammonium. A simple and compact colorimeter was fabricated in the laboratory to be employed as a detector. The system was optimized for suitable conditions for determining each parameter by changing software program and without reconfiguration of the hardware. Under the optimum conditions, the methods showed linear ranges of 0.2-10 mg L(-1) for iron and manganese determinations, and 0.3-5.0 mg L(-1) for phosphate and ammonium determinations, with correlation coefficients of 0.9998, 0.9973, 0.9987 and 0.9983, respectively. The system provided detection limits of 0.01, 0.14, 0.004 and 0.02 mg L(-1) for iron, manganese, phosphate and ammonium, respectively. The proposed system has good precision, low chemical consumption and high throughput. It was applied for monitoring water quality of Ping river in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Recoveries of the analysis were obtained in the range of 82-119%. PMID:26452887

  16. Helicopter payload gains utilizing water injection for hot day power augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation was undertaken to assess the gains in helicopter mission payload through the use of water injection to produce power augmentation in an altitude-hot day environment. Substantial gains are shown for two representative helicopters, the UH-lH and CH-47B. The UH-lH payload increased 86.7 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission involving two out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover take-offs of 2 minutes each at 5000 ft. (1525 m) 35 C ambient conditions. The CH-47B payload increased 49.5 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission with sling loaded cargo as the outbound payload and a 3000 lb. (1360 kg) internal cargo on the return leg. The mission included two 4 min. OGE hovers at 6000 ft. (1830 m) 35 C. An improvement in take off performance and maximum performance climb also resulted as a consequence of the OGE hover capability and higher maximum power available.

  17. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GPI 15715 or fospropofol (Aquavan injection) - a water-soluble propofol prodrug.

    PubMed

    Fechner, J; Schwilden, H; Schüttler, J

    2008-01-01

    Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is inadequably soluble in water and is therefore formulated as a lipid emulsion. This may have disadvantages when propofol is used to provide total intravenous anaesthesia or especially during long-term sedation. There has been considerable interest in the development of new propofol formulations or propofol prodrugs. GPI 15715 or fospropofol (Aquavan injection; Guilford Pharmaceutical, Baltimore, MD) is the first water-soluble prodrug that has been thoroughly studied in human volunteers and patients. GPI 15751 or fospropofol is cleaved by alkaline phosphatase to phosphate, formaldehyde and propofol. Formaldehyde is rapidly metabolised to formate. Although a formate accumulation is the principal pathomechanism responsible for the toxicity of methanol ingestion, so far there has been no report of toxicity due to the administration of fospropofol or other phosphate ester prodrugs, such as fosphenytoin. Fosphenytoin has been successfully introduced into the market for the treatment of status epilepticus in 1996. The main side-effects were a feeling of paraesthesia after rapid i.v. administration of GPI 15715 or fospropofol, which has also been described for fosphenytoin. The pharmacokinetics of GPI 15715 or fospropofol could be described by a combined pharmacokinetic model with a submodel of two compartments for GPI 15715 and of three compartments for propofol(G). The liberated propofol(G) compared to lipid-formulated propofol showed unexpected pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences. We found a significantly greater V(c), V(dss), significantly shorter alpha- and beta-half-life and a longer MRT (mean residence time) for propofol(G). The pharmacodynamic potency of propofol(G) appears to be higher than propofol when measured by EEG and clinical signs of hypnosis. In summary, GPI 15715 or fospropofol was well suited to provide anaesthesia or conscious sedation. PMID:18175095

  18. Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2007-01-08

    Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

  19. Earthquakes induced by water injection at ˜3 km depth within the Rongchang gas field, Chongqing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xinglin; Yu, Guozheng; Ma, Shengli; Wen, Xueze; Wang, Qiang

    2008-10-01

    Unwanted water, amounting more than 1 million m3, has been injected intermittently at a pumping pressure of 2.1-2.9 MPa (over hydrostatic) at 2.6-2.9 km depth within the Rongchang gas field, western Chongqing, China, since July 1988. The injections have induced more than 32,000 surface-recorded earthquakes, including 2 of ML ≥ 5, 14 of ML ≥ 4, and more than 100 of ML ≥ 3 up until the end of 2006. We examined the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model and the temporal evolution of several statistics of the earthquake sequence. The random component in the ETAS model can be considered as an indicator of fluid-driven activity, while the rate of Omori-law-type aftershocks indicates stress triggering of the preceding earthquakes. We observed three distinct seismic activity phases that were coincident with different injection periods. Phase I corresponds to initial injections with low injection rate (long time interval) and shows a vast majority of Omori-type events and only 8% externally forced activity. Phase II corresponds to a period of high injection rates and shows intense earthquake activity characterized by a high percentage (45%) of fluid-driven earthquakes. Phase III demonstrates decreasing seismicity as a result of a lowering in the injection rate; more than 70% of earthquakes occurred randomly over time, indicating the dominance of external triggering. The physical mechanism that induced the Rongchang earthquake sequence was a change in Coulomb's failure stress caused by pore pressure diffusion and transformed from seismic slip of preceding earthquakes. A pressure increase of 2.1-2.9 MPa at the injection well is more than sufficient to induce failure within the local formations.

  20. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters.

  1. Applying Water-Level Difference Control to Central Arizona Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) has been supplying Colorado River water to Central Arizona for roughly 25 years. The CAP canal is operated remotely with a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System. Gate position changes are made either manually or through the use of automatic control...

  2. Computing the Water Quality Index: The Hudson River Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihich, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Describes a science project at Booker T. Washington Middle School #54 (New York City) where seventh and eighth graders computed the Hudson River's water quality using ClarisWorks spreadsheets and MicroWorlds software. Students gained technology skills and public recognition, as well as scientific and environmental information. Includes sample…

  3. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillsl...

  4. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

    1985-01-01

    Information on each of the 24 projects funded by the U.S. Geological Survey in FY 1985 under section 105 of Public Law 93-242 (the Water Resources Research Act of 1984) is presented, including the grant number, organization, the period of performance, and a brief description of the work to be carried out. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Social perceptions of the impacts of Colombo water supply projects.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Asit K; Jayatilaka, Ramani; Tortajada, Cecilia

    2005-12-01

    The complexity of development activities, in which the interactions between various forces often mean that outcomes are unpredictable and unanticipated, highlights the importance of objective and comprehensive evaluations. In the specific case of the evaluation of towns east and south of Colombo water supply projects, the findings have major implications for the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals, if the water-related objectives are to be fulfilled. The study found that 30% of the households of these towns that are receiving clean, piped water are not using it for drinking. Instead, they are continuing to drink contaminated well water. Whereas it is considered that the main beneficiaries of water supply projects have been women and people who are sick, elderly, or disabled, the general perception is that the health conditions of the families have not improved with the provision of clean water (in fact, many claim that their health conditions have deteriorated). In spite of the higher cost of the supplied water, people are willing to pay for it as long as the supply is reliable. PMID:16521841

  6. Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasser, Philip W

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

  7. Retinofugal Projections from Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells Revealed by Intraocular Injections of Cre-Dependent Virus.

    PubMed

    Delwig, Anton; Larsen, DeLaine D; Yasumura, Douglas; Yang, Cindy F; Shah, Nirao M; Copenhagen, David R

    2016-01-01

    To understand visual functions mediated by intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), it is important to elucidate axonal projections from these cells into the brain. Initial studies reported that melanopsin is expressed only in retinal ganglion cells within the eye. However, recent studies in Opn4-Cre mice revealed Cre-mediated marker expression in multiple brain areas. These discoveries complicate the use of melanopsin-driven genetic labeling techniques to identify retinofugal projections specifically from mRGCs. To restrict labeling to mRGCs, we developed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying a Cre-dependent reporter (human placental alkaline phosphatase) that was injected into the vitreous of Opn4-Cre mouse eyes. The labeling observed in the brain of these mice was necessarily restricted specifically to retinofugal projections from mRGCs in the injected eye. We found that mRGCs innervate multiple nuclei in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus and midbrain. Midline structures tended to be bilaterally innervated, whereas the lateral structures received mostly contralateral innervation. As validation of our approach, we found projection patterns largely corresponded with previously published results; however, we have also identified a few novel targets. Our discovery of projections to the central amygdala suggests a possible direct neural pathway for aversive responses to light in neonates. In addition, projections to the accessory optic system suggest that mRGCs play a direct role in visual tracking, responses that were previously attributed to other classes of retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, projections to the zona incerta raise the possibility that mRGCs could regulate visceral and sensory functions. However, additional studies are needed to investigate the actual photosensitivity of mRGCs that project to the different brain areas. Also, there is a concern of "overlabeling" with very sensitive reporters that uncover low levels of expression. Light-evoked signaling from these cells must be shown to be of sufficient sensitivity to elicit physiologically relevant responses. PMID:26895233

  8. Retinofugal Projections from Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells Revealed by Intraocular Injections of Cre-Dependent Virus

    PubMed Central

    Delwig, Anton; Larsen, DeLaine D.; Yasumura, Douglas; Yang, Cindy F.; Shah, Nirao M.; Copenhagen, David R.

    2016-01-01

    To understand visual functions mediated by intrinsically photosensitive melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs), it is important to elucidate axonal projections from these cells into the brain. Initial studies reported that melanopsin is expressed only in retinal ganglion cells within the eye. However, recent studies in Opn4-Cre mice revealed Cre-mediated marker expression in multiple brain areas. These discoveries complicate the use of melanopsin-driven genetic labeling techniques to identify retinofugal projections specifically from mRGCs. To restrict labeling to mRGCs, we developed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying a Cre-dependent reporter (human placental alkaline phosphatase) that was injected into the vitreous of Opn4-Cre mouse eyes. The labeling observed in the brain of these mice was necessarily restricted specifically to retinofugal projections from mRGCs in the injected eye. We found that mRGCs innervate multiple nuclei in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus and midbrain. Midline structures tended to be bilaterally innervated, whereas the lateral structures received mostly contralateral innervation. As validation of our approach, we found projection patterns largely corresponded with previously published results; however, we have also identified a few novel targets. Our discovery of projections to the central amygdala suggests a possible direct neural pathway for aversive responses to light in neonates. In addition, projections to the accessory optic system suggest that mRGCs play a direct role in visual tracking, responses that were previously attributed to other classes of retinal ganglion cells. Moreover, projections to the zona incerta raise the possibility that mRGCs could regulate visceral and sensory functions. However, additional studies are needed to investigate the actual photosensitivity of mRGCs that project to the different brain areas. Also, there is a concern of "overlabeling" with very sensitive reporters that uncover low levels of expression. Light-evoked signaling from these cells must be shown to be of sufficient sensitivity to elicit physiologically relevant responses. PMID:26895233

  9. Performance of J33-A-21 and J33-A-23 Turbojet-Engine Compressors with Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beede, William L.; Withee, Joseph R., Jr.

    1949-01-01

    As part of the performance investigation of compressors for the J33 turbojet engine, the A-21 model and the A-23 model with a 17- and a 34-blade impeller were operated with water injection at their respective design equivalent speeds of 11,500 and 11,750 rpm. Inlet conditions of pressure of 14 inches of mercury absolute and of ambient temperature correspond to those of the investigation of these models without water injection. The water-air ratio by weight ranged from 0.05 to 0.06. By the use of water injection, the peak pressure ratio of the A-21 compressor and the A-23 compressor with a 34-blade impeller increased approximately 0.38, whereas that of the A-23 compressor with a 17-blade impeller increased only 0.14. The decrease in maximum efficiency for the three compressors ranged from 0.12 to 0.14. The highest increase in maximum equivalent weight flow of air plus weight flow of water was 10.90 pounds per second obtained with the A-21 compressor. The increase in air weight flow alone was approximately 5.70 pounds per second for the A-21 compressor end the A-23, 17-blade compressor, which exceeded the increase of 3.15 pounds per second for the A-23; 34-blade compressor.

  10. Ensemble approach for projections of return periods of extreme water levels in Estonian waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Pindsoo, Katri; Lagemaa, Priidik

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of various drivers to the water level in the eastern Baltic Sea and the presence of outliers in the time series of observed and hindcast water level lead to large spreading of projections of future extreme water levels. We explore the options for using an ensemble of projections to more reliably evaluate return periods of extreme water levels. An example of such an ensemble is constructed by means of fitting several sets of block maxima (annual maxima and stormy season maxima) with a Generalised Extreme Value, Gumbel and Weibull distribution. The ensemble involves projections based on two data sets (resolution of 6 h and 1 h) hindcast by the Rossby Centre Ocean model (RCO; Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute) and observed data from four representative sites along the Estonian coast. The observed data are transferred into the grid cells of the RCO model using the HIROMB model and a linear regression. For coastal segments where the observations represent the offshore water level well, the overall appearance of the ensembles signals that the errors of single projections are randomly distributed and that the median of the ensemble provides a sensible projection. For locations where the observed water level involves local effects (e.g. wave set-up) the block maxima are split into clearly separated populations. The resulting ensemble consists of two distinct clusters, the difference between which can be interpreted as a measure of the impact of local features on the water level observations.

  11. Water use trends and demand projections in the Northwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, R.L.; Mokray, M.F.; Hallock-Solomon, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The Northwest Florida Water Management District is located in the western panhandle of Florida and encompasses about 11,200 square miles. In 1995, the District had an estimated population of 1.13 million, an increase of about 47 percent from the 1975 population of 0.77 million. Over 50 percent of the resident population lives within 10 miles of the coast. In addition, hundreds of thousands of visitors come to the coastal areas of the panhandle during the summer months for recreation or vacation purposes. Water withdrawn to meet demands for public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial, agricultural irrigation, and recreational irrigation purposes in the District increased 18 percent (52 million gallons per day) between 1970 and 1995. The greatest increases were for public supply and domestic self-supplied (99 percent increase) and for agricultural irrigation (60 percent increase) between 1970 and 1995. In 1995, approximately 70 percent of the water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, with the majority of this from the Floridan aquifer system. The increasing water demands have affected water levels in the Floridan aquifer system, especially along the coastal areas. The Northwest Florida Water Management District is mandated under the Florida Statutes (Chapter 373) to protect and manage the water resources in this area of the State. The mandate requires that current and future water demands be met, while water resources and water-dependent natural systems are sustained. For this project, curve fitting and extrapolation were used to project most of the variables (population, population served by public supply, and water use) to the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. This mathematical method involves fitting a curve to historical population or water-use data and then extending this curve to arrive at future values. The population within the region is projected to reach 1,596,888 by the year 2020, an increase of 41 percent between 1995 and 2020. Most of the population in this region will continue to reside in the urban areas of Pensacola and Tallahassee, and along the coastal areas. The population served by public water supply is projected to reach 1,353,836 by the year 2020, an increase of nearly 46 percent between 1995 and 2020. Total water demand for the Northwest Florida Water Management District is projected to reach 940.2 million gallons per day in 2000, 1,003.1 million gallons per day in 2010, and 1,059.1 million gallons per day in 2020. Excluding water withdrawn for power generation from these totals, water demands will increase 34 percent between 1995 and 2020, and 58 percent between 1970 and 2020. Specifically, public supply demands are projected to increase 74.1 million gallons per day (53 percent) and domestic self-supplied and small public supply systems demands are projected to increase 9.1 million gallons per day (28 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Commercial- industrial self-supplied demands are projected to increase about 16.9 million gallons per day (13 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Agricultural and recreational irrigation demands combined are projected to increase 16.8 million gallons per day (48 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Water demands for power generation are projected to increase about 53.9 million gallons per day (10 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Although power generation water use shows a projected increase during this time, plant capacities are not expected to change dramatically.

  12. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management...

  13. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria...

  14. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall...

  15. Scale issues in the governance of water storage projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Zaag, Pieter; Gupta, Joyeeta

    2008-10-01

    In the face of global change, which is characterized by growing water demands and increasingly variable water supplies, the equitable sharing of water and the drought proofing of rural livelihoods will require an increasing physical capacity to store water. This is especially true for the semiarid and dry subhumid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This paper addresses the following question: What criteria should policymakers apply in choosing between centralized storage capacity in the form of conventional large reservoirs and large interbasin water transfer schemes and decentralized and distributed storage systems in the farmers' fields and in microwatersheds and villages (tanks, microdams, and aquifers)? This exploratory paper uses an interdisciplinary framework encompassing the natural and social sciences to develop four indicators that are considered critical for understanding the biochemical, physical, economic, and sociopolitical dimensions of the scale issues underlying the research question. These are the residence time of water in a reservoir, the water provision capacity, the cost effectiveness of providing reliable access to water per beneficiary, and the equity dimension: maximizing the number of beneficiaries and compensating the losers. The procedural governance challenges associated with each indicator are dealt with separately. It is concluded that water storage and the institutional capacity to effectively administer it are recursively linked. This implies that if the scale of new storage projects gradually increases, a society can progressively learn and adapt to the increasing institutional complexity.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project: Project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA Project processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1987). This scope of work will entail the following activities on a site-specific basis: Develop a compliance strategy based on modification of the UMTRA Surface Project RAPs or develop Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC concurrence on the RAP and full participation of the affected states and tribes. Implement the RAP to include institutional controls, where appropriate, as an interim measure until compliance with the standards is achieved. Institute long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate long-term surveillance program on or before the Project end date. Prepare certification or confirmation reports and modify the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP), where needed, on those sites completed prior to the Project end date.

  17. Transient formation characteristics of temperature stratified flow in a horizontal water pipe with an injection of hot water from a hole of a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Okinotani, Takeshi; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

    1999-07-01

    Temperature stratified flow was numerically analyzed in a horizontal pipe. Initially cold water is running and developed in a pipe. From a part of a pipe wall, hot water is injected. Subsequent transient velocity and temperature stratification process was numerically analyzed. This process is a model for such transfer phenomena as follows, i.e., blowing of fresh air into a long tunnel, replacing process of hazardous fluids from a pipeline of an industrial plant with safer fluids, ventilation of a large construction house or ducts, transient combustion process in a tunnel or huge duct, transient flow and temperature characteristics in a canal or river with multiple sub channels. These various cases become more complicated and more serious for the larger scale systems. Temperature stratified flow is everywhere established which makes the prediction difficult. This paper presents transient three-dimensional numerical analyses for a horizontal pipe in which laminar cold water runs steadily. Hot water is injected from a lower side corner of a pipe. Model equations consist of fully three-dimensional balance equations in a cylindrical coordinate. Total tube length computed is 10 times of a pipe diameter d{sub 0}. Hot water inlet hole is 0.4d{sub 0} long in an axial direction and {pi}d{sub 0}/8 in a circumferential direction near the entrance of the system. Reynolds number in a pipe is 1000. Reynolds number of the hot water at the injection hole is 447. Grashof number based on the temperature difference is 5 x 10{sup 7} and Pr = 5.41. Transient three-dimensional velocity profiles and isotherms are presented. The instantaneous water temperature represents oscillatory fluctuation depending on the level in a pipe and on the axial distance from the injection hole. For the tube diameter 0.1m, an average temperature arrived a quasi-steady state after 5 minutes with strong temperature stratification even at 1m from an injection hole. Near the injection hole, hot water makes circumferential convection with oscillatory up and down vortex flow in an axial direction. Warmer water makes stratified flow with faster axial velocity near the top of the tube with much slower axial velocity near the bottom of the tube. These fully three-dimensionally complicated flow and temperature stratification characteristics are presented in various ends view and side views of a long pipe. The importance to note the temperature stratified flow is discussed.

  18. Ames' mutagenic activity in recycled water from an Israeli water reclamation project

    SciTech Connect

    Neeman, I.; Kroll, R.; Mahler, A.; Rubin, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    Effluent samples taken from a water reclamation project in Israel were analyzed for mutagenicity and toxicity using the Ames assay test. Test results indicate the presence of low levels of mutagens in recycled water taken from the reclamation plant; samples taken from different sites in the plant yielded different levels of mutagenicity. Improved wastewater treatment technology is needed to make water reuse safe. (2 graphs, 15 references, 1 table)

  19. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Piceno, Yvette M.; Reid, Francine C.; Tom, Lauren M.; Conrad, Mark E.; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Graff, Craig J.; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24–27°C), Kuparuk (47–70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80–83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined δD and δ13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

  20. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Falls City, Texas, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in the spring of 1994. Results of water sampling activity from 1989 to 1993 indicate that ground water contamination occurs primarily in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer (the uppermost aquifer) and that the contamination migrates along four distinct contaminant plumes. Contaminated ground water from some wells in these regions has significantly elevated levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, sulfate, and uranium. Contamination in the Dilworth aquifer was identified in monitor well 977 and in monitor well 833 at the southern edge of former tailings pile 4. There is no evidence that surface water quality in Tordilla and Scared Dog Creeks is impacted by tailings seepage. The following water sampling activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (1) Ground water sampling from 15 monitor wells to monitor the migration of the four major contaminant plumes within the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer. (2) Ground water sampling from five monitor wells to monitor contaminated and background ground water quality conditions in the Dilworth aquifer. Because of disposal cell construction activities, all plume monitor wells screened in the Dilworth aquifer were abandoned. No surface water locations are proposed for sampling. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer downgradient of the disposal cell. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents currently related to uranium processing activities and natural uranium mineralization. Water sampling is normally conducted biannually in late summer and midwinter.

  1. Safety Design Strategy for the Advanced Test Reactor Emergency Firewater Injection System Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Noel Duckwitz

    2011-06-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3B, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3B and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Advanced Test Reactor Reliability Sustainment Project. While this project does not introduce new hazards to the ATR, it has the potential for significant impacts to safety-related systems, structures, and components that are credited in the ATR safety basis and are being replaced. Thus the project has been determined to meet the definition of a major modification and is being managed accordingly.

  2. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  3. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships’ ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  4. Synchronized droplet size measurements for coal-water-slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  5. Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

    2009-07-01

    According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

  6. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lenchi, Nesrine; İnceoğlu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already been reported as degraders of complex organic molecules and pollutants. Nevertheless, a large number of unclassified bacterial and archaeal sequences were found in the analyzed samples, indicating that subsurface waters in oilfields could harbor new and still-non-described microbial species. PMID:23805243

  7. Preliminary report on isotope abundance measurements in groundwater samples from the Talbert Injection Barrier Area, Orange County Water District

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, G.B.; Davisson, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Niemeyer, S.; Esser, B.; Beiriger, J.

    1995-02-01

    This report discusses isotope abundance measurements made on a collection of groundwater samples from the Orange County Water District. The water samples were collected in May, 1994 as part of a preliminary study conducted by LLNL to assess the feasibility of tracing and dating reclaimed water used in the Talbert Injection Barrier. A set of samples were collected both near to and far from the barrier and also at different depths in available monitoring wells. A variety of elements were selected for isotopic analysis; hydrogen (tritium), helium, neon, carbon, chlorine and strontium. The tritium abundance combined with the {sup 3}He and {sup 20}Ne abundance provides a method for age dating young (< 40 yr.) groundwater. The abundance of {sup 14}C provides an age dating technique for older (1,000--50,000 yr.) groundwater. The concentrations of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr give information on sea water mixing and water-rock chemical interactions.

  8. The feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in certain emergency situations it may be desirable to obtain power from a helicopter engine at levels greater than the maximum rating. Yost (1976) has reported studies concerning methods of power augmentation in the one engine inoperative (OEI) case. It was found that a combination of water/alcohol injection into the inlet and overtemperature/overspeed could provide adequate emergency power. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a feasibility study which analytically investigated the maximum possible level of augmentation with constant gas generator turbine stress rupture life as a constraint. In the proposed scheme, the increased engine output is obtained by turbine overtemperature, however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water.

  9. Coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically controlled accumulator fuel injection system: Break-up distances and times

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions (50% (by man) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}), the break-up time was 0.30 ms. An empirical correlation for spray tip penetration, break-up time and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  10. Incorporating water consumption into crop water footprint: A case study of China's South-North Water Diversion Project.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhang; Tang, Deshan; Ding, Yifan; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy

    2016-03-01

    The crop water footprint (WF) indicates the consumption of water for a crop during the planting period, mainly through evapotranspiration. However, as irrigated agriculture accounts for nearly 25% of the global agriculture water usage, evaluation of WF during transportation becomes essential to improve the efficiency of irrigated agriculture. This study aims at building an improved WF model to understand how much WF is produced due to water diversion and how much crop WF increases during the transfer. The proposed model is then used to calculate the WF of four major crops in five provinces along China's South-North Water Transfer Project in two steps. First, the WF of the water transfer project (WFeng) is assessed in a supply chain analysis method. Second, a WF allocation model is built to distribute the project WF for each crop/province. The results show that the evaporation and seepage are the main sources of WFeng. Out of five provinces, two namely Tianjin and Hebei present higher WFblue and WF increase. A positive correlation between water diversion distance and crop WF increase is noted. Among the four crops, cotton presents higher WFblue and WF increase. The crops with higher WFblue tend to be more strongly influenced by the water diversion project, due to high irrigation water dependency. This analysis may expand the WF concept from an evaporation-related term to a term reflecting crop biological processes and water consumption by artificial irrigation projects. Thus, it may serve as an indicator for optimizing future objectives and strategies associated to water resource planning in China and elsewhere. PMID:26760279

  11. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs

    PubMed Central

    Charton, Antoine; Péronnet, François; Doutreleau, Stephane; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Klein, Alexis; Jimenez, Liliana; Geny, Bernard; Diemunsch, Pierre; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2) supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach). Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2), skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2) were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in the three groups, but when compared to the control group, the values remained significantly higher in animals that received the water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. Conclusions In this protocol, water enriched in O2 by electrolysis lessened the decline of peripheral tissue oxygenation. This observation is compatible with the claim that the electrolytic process generates water clathrates which trap O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along pressure gradients. Potential applications of O2-enriched water include an alternate method of oxygen supply. PMID:25210438

  12. Projections of Water-Cycle Change: Uncertainty and Utility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowski, W. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate models have proven to be invaluable tools to developing scenarios of possible future water resources. However, hydrologic simulation involves complex interactions among many processes, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, infiltration, freezing, and thawing, among others. Furthermore, the modeling of these processes and their interactions remains imperfect. Nonetheless, despite these challenges, some broad features of future water availability have emerged consistently across generations of climate models and future scenarios. One can understand these features on the basis of some fairly simple physical principles, but is this understanding useful? Is the climate community producing the information needed to address future water needs by a growing population? This talk will present perspectives on global and regional water cycles seen in ensemble simulation programs such as the Coupled Model Intercomparison Program (CMIP) for global models and the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) for regional models. The talk will consider global and regional models as sources of consistency and differences in their projections of climate change, through their representation of physical processes in the water cycle. The talk will also consider how water utilities previously have used climate information and what requirements this imposes on climate simulation. Finally, the talk will explore the question of how well typical diagnoses evaluate climate simulations on the basis of water resource needs, especially those for formulating management, planning and policy decisions.

  13. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts of the project, water from domestic use is obtained chiefly from the sandstone beds of the Wind River formation although some is obtained from the alluvium underlying the bottom land and from the unconsolidated deposits underlying the lower terraces along the Wind River. Although adequate quantities if water for domestic use are available from the Wind River formation, there quantities are not considered to be large enough to warrant pumping of ground water for irrigation. Only a few wells are in the nonirrigated part of the area. When this new land is irrigated, a body of ground water will gradually form in the terrace deposits and the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits. Eventually, the terrace deposits may yield adequate quantities of water for domestic and stock use, but only locally are the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits likely to become suitable aquifers. In the Riverton irrigation project area, ground water occurs under water-table conditions near the surface and under artesian conditions in certain strata at both shallow and greater depths. Irrigation is the principal source of recharge to the shallow aquifers; the water level in wells that tap these aquifers fluctuates with irrigation. The depth to water in the shallow wells ranges from less than 1 foot to about 30 feet below the land surface, depending on the season of the year and on the length of time the land has been irrigated. The water level in the wells that tap the deep confined aquifers , which receive recharge indirectly from surface sources, fluctuates only slightly because the recharge and discharge are more constant. In most places the depth to water in wells penetrating the deep confined aquifers is mush greater than that in shallow wells. but in certain low areas water from the deep aquifers flows at the surface from wells. Ground water moves from the area of recharge in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and is discharges either by evapotranspiration; by inflow into streams, drains, or lakes; by pumping or flow of wells; or by flow of springs. Waterlogging and the associated development of saline soils are common in parts of the Riverton irrigation project and adjacent irrigated land. The waterlogging is in part the result of the infiltration of irrigation water in excess of the capacity of the aquifers to store and transmit this added recharge. The solution of the drainage problems involves the consideration of a number of factors, some of which are inadequately known in some parts of the area and require further investigation before fully effective drainage measures can be designed. The results of an aquifer test to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the Wind River formation at Riverton indicate a transmissibility of 10,000 gallons per day per foot (10,000 gpd per ft) and a storage coefficient of 2 x 10-4. The results of the test provide a part of the necessary foundation for the solution of present and future water-supply problems at Riverton and throughout the project area. Water from shallow aquifers in irrigated tracts in the Riverton irrigation project area generally contains large amounts of dissolved solids that were leached from the soil and rocks by infiltrating irrigation water. However, wells tapping beds that receive considerable recharge from influent canal and drain seepage yield water of relatively low mineralizatoin. Dilute water is obtained also from some shallow wells in the alluvial bottom lands and on low stream terraces that border the Wind Rover. Water from deep aquifers generally is more dilute than that from shallow aquifers. However, ground water from the deep aquifers, unmixed with irrigation water, generally has a percent sodium greater than 80. Analyses of salt crusts on the ground surface in low areas that are affected by effluent seepage and a high water table show predominance of sodium sulfate salinity, and from determinations of the water-soluble and acid-soluble substances in several samples of soil and shale it is apparent that harmful concentrations of salts are being deposited in poorly drained area. Although most of the soul in the Midvale irrigation district is of the normal arid type, analyses of soil samples show that saline, nonsaline alkaline, and saline alkaline types also are present.

  14. Hydrologic data through 1993 for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents data on precipitation, geologic logs, water levels, and water quality that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1993, for the Huron Project of the High Plains Ground-Water Demonstration Program, under the guidance of the Bureau of Reclamation. The purpose of the Huron Project is to demonstrate the artificial recharge potential of glacial aquifers in eastern South Dakota. High flows from the James River during spring runoff are used as a source of supplemental recharge for the Warren aquifer, which is a buried, glacial aquifer. Prior to the injection of recharge water, which began in April 1994, many sites were monitored to obtain background information. This report presents data that were collected prior to the initiation of recharge. Precipitation data are collected at two sites within the study area. A site description and daily precipitation for water years 1991-93 are presented for one precipitation site. In 1990, 76 test holes were drilled and observation wells were installed at 70 sites. Well information and geologic logs collected during the drilling program for the Huron Project are presented. In addition to the 70 new Huron Project wells, 15 existing observation wells owned by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources were incorporated into the study. Water- level hydrographs are presented for the 85 observation wells. The period of record shown for the hydrographs is from the earliest available record through September 1993. Water-quality data were collected from both screening and detailed sampling programs. Screening water-quality data for 32 observation wells are presented. These data include primarily field parameters and common ions. The eight detailed sampling sites represent the quality of untreated water, treated water, an intermittent stream, and ground water from the Warren aquifer. Data presented for the detailed sampling program include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, total organic carbon, herbicides, insecticides, and volatile organic compounds.

  15. Megacity project: Liwa, climate and water balance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorro, Alejandro; Bardossy, Andras

    2010-05-01

    Megacity project: Liwa, climate and water balance modeling Peru uses to face different natural phenomena such as El Nino and La Nina phenomena and, like many cities around the word, the climate change effects. Its capital Lima, located in a region where annual precipitation is about 9 mm, has a high hydrological cycle vulnerability which is demonstrated in periods of drought and extreme drought. Accurate and reliable methodology is requiring studying the impact of all these problems in the water supply of Lima. A statistical downscaling scheme (Bardossy, 2002) will be used to generate time series of different local climate scenarios in order to be applied in hydrological models. The conceptual model HBV (Bergström, 1995) is used to simulate water discharges at certain points of the catchments under study, water balance groundwater and for the estimation of storage volume in different reservoirs. As already mentioned, El Nino and La Nina currents influence the hydrological cycle. Previous studies have shown that these phenomena have serious impacts in Peru. In order to quantify these impacts in the area of interest we have analyzed the magnitude of the precipitation in several stations in years in which El Nino occurred, and in years where El Nino did not occurred. The next step is to increase the temporal resolution by incorporating new data. Due to the high vulnerability of the water supply system in Lima, potential new water sources are required. In particular, the catchment of Mantaro (including existing lakes) on the other side of Los Andes Mountains provides potential new alternatives for adding water to the current system. Alternatives for water transportation include using existing long tunnels which connect Mantaro with Rimac, where the majority of the lakes are located. Finally, the global climate models simulations for the coming years, considering different scenarios, will be used as an indicator and to estimate water availability for human use (city water, energy, irrigation).

  16. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including endangered and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How Project water may be used....

  17. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including endangered and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How Project water may be used....

  18. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including endangered and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How Project water may be used....

  19. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including endangered and... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How Project water may be used....

  20. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio. PMID:18457861

  1. Project "WEST" (Water, the Environment, Science and Teaching)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, E.; Ali-Adeeb, J.; Cerling, T.; Chan, M.; Chapman, D.; Cohen, L.; Davis, M.; Chapmandearing, D.; Hill, S.; Hynek, S.; Millward, L.; O'Grady, S.; Richards, L.; Solomon, K.; Sampson, S.; Schafer, J.; Zanno, L.; Zipser, E.

    2004-12-01

    Project WEST (Water, the Environment, Science, and Teaching) is a graduate student fellowship program funded by a GK-12 grant from the National Science Foundation. WEST links the University of Utah, the Utah Museum of Natural History, and the Salt Lake City school district in enhancing inquiry based science teaching in grades 4, 8, and 9 and the interdisciplinary training of university graduate and undergraduate students in the geosciences. The unifying theme of WEST (water and the environment) emerges because of its simplicity and its significance for human survival and livelihood in the arid west. National standards and Utah standards for teaching science in this grade range lend themselves to focusing on the environment and particularly on the role of water. Every resident in the State of Utah is impacted by the local hydrological cycle: our mountain ranges receive ten times the precipitation of valley floors, water runs off in streams or percolates into the ground supporting the many ecosystems found between 12,000 ft and 3,000 ft elevation, water provides for both agriculture and urban consumption, and flows ultimately to the unique ecosystem of the Great Salt Lake. Water affects recreation, the economy, and settlement. By gaining an enhanced understanding of the role of water in the environment, particularly in this time of severe drought, students will contemplate their place in nature. Project WEST is facilitating integrative and inquiry based learning among elementary, middle, and high school students in a manner that fulfills core curriculum requirements and state standards. It provides professional development tools to school teachers in the form of materials, observatories, workshops, and field trips that promote more effective science teaching. The multidisciplinary nature of WEST (geology, geophysics, meteorology, ecology) also provides intellectual stimulation and enhanced learning opportunities for graduate students and undergraduates selected as GK-12 Fellows.

  2. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  3. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  4. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning variables - climate change signal in temporally and spatially integrated variables - has been carefully made with respect their relevance for water resource management. This work proposes a twofold assessment of this selection approach. First, a climate validation allows checking the selection response of more extreme climate variables critical for hydrological impacts as well as spatially distributed ones. Second, a hydrological validation allows checking the selection response of streamflow variables relevant for water resource management. Findings highlight that such validations may critically help preventing misinterpretations and misuses of impact model ensemble outputs for integrated adaptation purposes. This work is part of the GICC R2D2-2050 project (Risk, water Resources and sustainable Development of the Durance catchment in 2050) and the EU FP7 COMPLEX project (Knowledge Based Climate Mitigation Systems for a Low Carbon Economy). Christierson, B. v., Vidal, J.-P., & Wade, S. D. (2012) Using UKCP09 probabilistic climate information for UK water resource planning}. J. Hydrol., {424-425}, 48-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.12.020} Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Terray, L.; Mezghani, A. & Gailhard, J. (2014) Internal variability and model uncertainty components in future hydrometeorological projections: The Alpine Durance basin. Water Resour. Res., {50}, 3317-3341. doi: 10.1002/2013WR014897 Vidal, J.-P. & Hingray, B. (2014) A framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies. EGU2014-7851

  5. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data from wells near the Hueco Bolson Recharge Project area, El Paso, Texas, 1990 and 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Robert D.; Buszka, Paul M.; Godsy, Edward M.

    1994-01-01

    Tertiary-treated wastewater currently (1991) is being injected into the Hueco bolson aquifer at a site in northeastern El Paso, Texas, to supplement the quantity of available freshwater. Hydrologic data were compiled and water-quality and bacterial data were collected from existing wells near the Hueco Bolson Recharge Project (HBRP) in August and September 1990 and 1991. Borehole tracer tests indicated upward ground-water flow in nearly all tested intervals of several observation wells. The cumulative volume of injected water was less than the volume produced from wells adjacent to the HBRP area. Water levels in three production wells, located more than 1.5 miles from the injection wells, declined at rates comparable to those observed before injection operations. Water levels in wells located within 0.75 mile of the injection-well pipeline declined at a slower rate after HBRP injection operations had begun. Between 1985 and 1991, water levels in observation wells located within 700 feet of an injection well either did not appreciably decline, or declined at smaller rates than water levels in more distant production wells. Trihalomethane compounds were detected in water from 8 of the 16 observation and production wells sampled in 1990 and in 10 of the 17 wells sampled in 1991. Concentrations trihalomethane compounds in these samples ranged from 0.05 to 1.9 ug/L (microgram per liter) in 1990 and from 0.05 to 1.4 ug/L in 1991. Concentrations of trihalomethane compounds in samples of injected water from two wells were 27.8 and 34.6 ug/L respectively, in 1991. Dibromomethane and dichloromethane were detected in water from injection wells and from observation wells within about 700 feet of the injection wells. Aerobic bacteria were determined to be the only bacteria type present in ground water except for samples from two wells, which also contained denitrifying bacteria. The populations of aerobic bacteria determined in ground water ranged from 80 to more than 160,000 most probable number of organisms per milliliter of sample.

  6. The NASA Energy and Water Cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-01-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to provide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).

  7. Low-cost real-time infrared scene generation for image projection and signal injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, James A., Jr.; King, David E.; Bowden, Mark H.

    1997-07-01

    As cost becomes an increasingly important factor in the development and testing of infrared (IR) sensors and flight computer/processors, the need for accurate hardware-in-the- loop simulations is critical. In the past, expensive and complex dedicated scene generation hardware was needed to attain the fidelity necessary for accurately testing systems under test (SUT). Recent technological advances and innovative applications of established technologies are beginning to allow development of cost effective replacements for dedicated scene generators. These new scene generators are mainly constructed from commercial off-the- shelf (COTS) hardware and software components. At the U.S. Army Missile Command (MICOM) researchers have developed such a dynamic IR scene generator (IRSG) built around COTS hardware and software. The IRSG is being used to provide inputs to an IR scene projector for in-band sensor testing and for direct signal injection into the sensor or processor electronics. Using this `baseline' IRSG, up to 120 frames per second (Hz) of 12-bit intensity images are being generated at 640 by 640 pixel resolution. The IRSG SUT-to- target viewpoint is dynamically updated in real time by a six-degree-of-freedom SUT simulation executing on a facility simulation computer, synchronized with an external signal from the SUT hardware, and compensates for system latency using a special purpose hardware component implemented on a single VME card. Multiple dynamic targets, terrain/backgrounds, countermeasures, and atmospheric effects in real time by the facility simulation computer via a shared memory interface to the IRSG. The `next generation' IRSG is currently under development at MICOM using `next generation' COTS hardware and software. `Next generation' performance specifications are estimated to yield 16-bit intensity, 250 - 300 Hz frame rate, at 1024 X 1024 pixel resolution.

  8. Pharmacological Interventions Including Medical Injections for Neck Pain: An Overview as Part of the ICON§ Project

    PubMed Central

    Peloso, Paul M; Khan, Mahweesh; Gross, Anita R; Carlesso, Lisa; Santaguida, Lina; Lowcock, Janet; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, Dave; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Langevin, Pierre; Shi, Qiyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an overview (review-of-reviews) on pharmacological interventions for neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched from 2006 to 2012. Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) in adults with acute to chronic neck pain reporting effects of pharmacological interventions including injections on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias and extracted data The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel provided critical review. Main Results: We found 26 reviews reporting on 47 RCTs. Most pharmacological interventions had low to very low quality methodologic evidence with three exceptions. For chronic neck pain, there was evidence of: a small immediate benefit for eperison hydrochloride (moderate GRADE, 1 trial, 157 participants);no short-term pain relieving benefit for botulinum toxin-A compared to saline (strong GRADE; 5 trial meta-analysis, 258 participants) nor for subacute/chronic whiplash (moderate GRADE; 4 trial meta-analysis, 183 participants) including reduced pain, disability or global perceived effect; andno long-term benefit for medial branch block of facet joints with steroids (moderate GRADE; 1 trial, 120 participants) over placebo to reduce pain or disability; Reviewers' Conclusions: While in general there is a lack of evidence for most pharmacological interventions, current evidence is against botulinum toxin-A for chronic neck pain or subacute/chronic whiplash; against medial branch block with steroids for chronic facet joint pain; but in favour of the muscle relaxant eperison hydrochloride for chronic neck pain. PMID:24155805

  9. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim; Szybist, James P

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy while not resulting in a decrease in power density.

  10. Model and numerical simulation for the evolution of residual wall thickness in Water-Assisted Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Shixun; Shen, Changyu

    2010-06-01

    The motion of water-melt interface confined in horizontal circular tubes during Water-Assisted Injection Molding (WAIM) has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Of particular interest is the determination of residual melt film thickness on the walls. The reduced governing equations for viscous compressible non-Newtonian polymer melt during the second penetration in WAIM were established using dimensionless method. A formula used to calculate the second penetrating velocity was derived based on mathematical inference and mechanical principle. Experiments was conducted to measure the displacement of the water-melt interface as a function of the melt temperature, water pressure. The experimental results indicate the first penetration theory is not accurate in predicting residual wall thickness and the combined first and second penetration theories can improve the accuracy significantly.

  11. Can Venice be raised by pumping water underground? A pilot project to help decide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletto, N.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Putti, M.; Teatini, P.

    2008-01-01

    Recent field evidence suggests that injecting fluids below the ground surface can induce an anthropogenic land uplift of a few tens of centimeters over a time interval that may range from a few months to a few years. At the same time, new modeling studies using a lot of realistic hydrogeological and geomechanical information from the northern Adriatic basin indicate that pumping seawater into a 600-800 m deep brackish aquifer below the Venice Lagoon might help raise the city uniformly by 25-30 cm over 10 years (a). This could provide Venice with an important innovative defence from and a substantial mitigation to the so-called "acqua alta," i.e., the increasingly frequent floods that plague the city. To test the feasibility of an actual program of anthropogenic Venice uplift, a pilot project is designed with the aim of investigating the occurrence over a limited area selected on purpose within or in the margin of the lagoon where three boreholes down to 800 m are drilled and seawater properly treated for geochemical compatibility is pumped into the selected aquifer during 3 a. Using an improved reconstruction of the geology and lithostratigraphy from a new seismic survey to be carried out in the lagoon subsurface, the pilot project plans the instrumentation of the injection wells and other boreholes for the continuous monitoring and accurate measurement of (1) pore water overpressure; (2) expansion of the injected unit by the radioactive marker technique; (3) compaction, if any, of the upper fresh water aquifer system with the aid of an extensometer; and (4) vertical and horizontal motions of land surface via spirit leveling, GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Preliminary numerical simulations show that a constant saltwater injection rate of 12 × 103 m3 s-1 from each well might provide a maximum 7 cm uplift at the center of the selected site over a 3-a time, namely, a limited amount that is nevertheless accurately measurable and should not raise concerns for the stability of the buildings and the preservation of the infrastructures in the area. A continuous control of the experiment is envisaged based on much refined hydrologic and geomechanical models properly updated and calibrated to the detailed lithostratigraphy resulting from the new seismic campaign, the ad hoc field analyses, and the current field observations of the event. The completion of the pilot project is expected to require 4 a including an initial year needed for the necessary authorizations and the operative implementation of the injection program. The planned cost is in the range of 5 MEuro/a. The present paper addresses the major issues concerned with the design of the pilot project and discusses the results from the experiment simulations with a glance at their prospective application to an actual project of anthropogenic uplift of Venice.

  12. Unit Operation Optimization for the Manufacturing of Botanical Injections Using a Design Space Approach: A Case Study of Water Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38–0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7–4.9 g/g, and SS of 280–350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability. PMID:25101624

  13. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability. PMID:25101624

  14. Twisted injectivity in projected entangled pair states and the classification of quantum phases

    SciTech Connect

    Buerschaper, Oliver

    2014-12-15

    We introduce a class of projected entangled pair states (PEPS) which is based on a group symmetry twisted by a 3-cocycle of the group. This twisted symmetry is expressed as a matrix product operator (MPO) with bond dimension greater than 1 and acts on the virtual boundary of a PEPS tensor. We show that it gives rise to a new standard form for PEPS from which we construct a family of local Hamiltonians which are gapped, frustration-free and include fixed points of the renormalization group flow. Based on this insight, we advance the classification of 2D gapped quantum spin systems by showing how this new standard form for PEPS determines the emergent topological order of these local Hamiltonians. Specifically, we identify their universality class as DIJKGRAAF–WITTEN topological quantum field theory (TQFT). - Highlights: • We introduce a new standard form for projected entangled pair states via a twisted group symmetry which is given by nontrivial matrix product operators. • We construct a large family of gapped, frustration-free Hamiltonians in two dimensions from this new standard form. • We rigorously show how this new standard form for low energy states determines the emergent topological order.

  15. Status of the S.E. Geysers effluent pipeline & injection project

    SciTech Connect

    Dellinger, M.

    1997-12-31

    A unique public/private partnership of local, state, federal, and corporate stakeholders is constructing the world`s first wastewater-to-electricity system in Lake County, California. A rare example of a genuinely {open_quotes}sustainable{close_quotes} system, three Lake County communities will recycle their treated wastewater effluent through the Geysers geothermal steamfield to produce an estimated 625,000 MWh of electricity annually from six existing geothermal power plants. The concept is shown schematically. Construction was initiated in October 1995, and as of this writing, the system is approximately 85% complete. Operational start-up is expected in October 1997. The key to the project`s success thus far has been its emphasis on cooperative action among affected stakeholders; and a broad, community-based view of solving problems rather than the traditional, narrower view of engineering-driven technical solutions. Special attention has been given to environmentally-responsive engineering design to avoid or minimize adverse environmental impacts.

  16. Effect of sodium bisulfite injection on the microbial community composition in a brackish-water-transporting pipeline.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Soo; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Sensen, Christoph W; Caffrey, Sean M; Jack, Thomas R; Boivin, Joe; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2011-10-01

    Pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water, used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage, are subject to frequent corrosion failures despite the addition of the oxygen scavenger sodium bisulfite (SBS). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the microbial community composition for planktonic samples of transported water and for sessile samples of pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from pipeline cutouts representing corrosion failures. These were obtained from upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP, collected under rapid-flow and stagnant conditions, respectively) of the SBS injection point. Most transported water samples had a large fraction (1.8% to 97% of pyrosequencing reads) of Pseudomonas not found in sessile pipe samples. The sessile population of PAS-616P had methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) as the main (56%) community component, whereas Deltaproteobacteria of the genera Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa were not detected. In contrast, PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP had lower fractions (41% and 0.6%) of Methanobacteriaceae archaea but increased fractions of sulfate-reducing Desulfomicrobium (18% and 48%) and of bisulfite-disproportionating Desulfocapsa (35% and 22%) bacteria. Hence, SBS injection strongly changed the sessile microbial community populations. X-ray diffraction analysis of pipeline scale indicated that iron carbonate was present both upstream and downstream, whereas iron sulfide and sulfur were found only downstream of the SBS injection point, suggesting a contribution of the bisulfite-disproportionating and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the scale to iron corrosion. Incubation of iron coupons with pipeline waters indicated iron corrosion coupled to the formation of methane. Hence, both methanogenic and sulfidogenic microbial communities contributed to corrosion of pipelines transporting these brackish waters. PMID:21856836

  17. Effect of Sodium Bisulfite Injection on the Microbial Community Composition in a Brackish-Water-Transporting Pipeline▿†

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Soo; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Sensen, Christoph W.; Caffrey, Sean M.; Jack, Thomas R.; Boivin, Joe; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water, used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage, are subject to frequent corrosion failures despite the addition of the oxygen scavenger sodium bisulfite (SBS). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the microbial community composition for planktonic samples of transported water and for sessile samples of pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from pipeline cutouts representing corrosion failures. These were obtained from upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP, collected under rapid-flow and stagnant conditions, respectively) of the SBS injection point. Most transported water samples had a large fraction (1.8% to 97% of pyrosequencing reads) of Pseudomonas not found in sessile pipe samples. The sessile population of PAS-616P had methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) as the main (56%) community component, whereas Deltaproteobacteria of the genera Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa were not detected. In contrast, PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP had lower fractions (41% and 0.6%) of Methanobacteriaceae archaea but increased fractions of sulfate-reducing Desulfomicrobium (18% and 48%) and of bisulfite-disproportionating Desulfocapsa (35% and 22%) bacteria. Hence, SBS injection strongly changed the sessile microbial community populations. X-ray diffraction analysis of pipeline scale indicated that iron carbonate was present both upstream and downstream, whereas iron sulfide and sulfur were found only downstream of the SBS injection point, suggesting a contribution of the bisulfite-disproportionating and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the scale to iron corrosion. Incubation of iron coupons with pipeline waters indicated iron corrosion coupled to the formation of methane. Hence, both methanogenic and sulfidogenic microbial communities contributed to corrosion of pipelines transporting these brackish waters. PMID:21856836

  18. Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, T.J.

    1998-10-01

    Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

  19. Near-surface monitoring for the ZERT shallow CO2 injection project

    SciTech Connect

    Strazisar BR; Wells AW; Diehl JR

    2009-12-01

    As part of a collaborative effort operated by the Zero Emission Research and Technology Center (ZERT), a series of two shallow releases of CO2 was performed at a test site in Bozeman, MT. The purpose of the experiment was to simulate possible leakage scenarios from a carbon capture and storage operation in order to further develop and verify monitoring technologies used to characterize and quantify the release of CO2. The project included collaboration with several research groups and organizations. Presented here are the results of soilgasmonitoring conducted by researchers from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, including CO2 flux measurement, soilgas analysis, perfluorocarbon tracer monitoring, and soil resistivity measurements. Together, these methods proved to be effective in detecting and characterizing leakage in the near-surface.

  20. Near-surface monitoring for the ZERT shallow CO2 injection project

    SciTech Connect

    Strazisar, Brian R.; Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. Rodney; Hammack, Richard W.; Veloski, Garret A.

    2009-12-01

    As part of a collaborative effort operated by the Zero Emission Research and Technology Center (ZERT), a series of two shallow releases of CO2 Was performed at a test site in Bozeman, MT. The purpose of the experiment was to simulate possible leakage scenarios from a carbon capture and storage operation in order to further develop and verify monitoring technologies used to characterize and quantify the release of CO2. The project included collaboration with several research groups and organizations. Presented here are the results of soil-gas monitoring conducted by researchers from the National Energy Technology Laboratory, including CO2 flux measurement, soil-gas analysis, perfluorocarbon tracer monitoring, and soil resistivity measurements. Together, these methods proved to be effective in detecting and characterizing leakage in the near-surface.

  1. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-04-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  2. Experimental and Numerical Studies on Mudstone's Creep Behavior During Water Injection and Its Effect on Casing Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X. L.; Yang, C. H.; Liu, J. J.; He, X.; Xiong, J.

    2008-07-01

    During the process of water injection production in oilfield, when water cuts into the mudstone, as a result, large numbers of casings are damaged because of mudstone's creep characteristic. In order to analyze this phenomenon, the uniaxial compression experiments and creep experiments of mudstone from Daqing Oil Field under different saturation conditions were done, it was studied that how the mudstone's mechanical parameters and creep characteristic would change with the increment of water contents. The results indicate that the rock strength and elastic modulus are decreased rapidly with the increment of water contents, on the other hand, the creep strain and steady state creep strain rate are increased with the increment of water contents, and also the steady state creep strain rate is enhanced with the increment of deviatoric stress. Through the creep characteristic curves, a nonlinear creeping constitutive equation of mudstone considering the changes of water contents was established. In the deep stratum of the oilfield, the calculation model of casing-cement sheath-mudstone was built, based on the experiment results of mudstone and its creep constitutive equation, mudstone's creep pressure with time under different water contents was simulated. The simulation results show that the increasing water content accelerates the incremental rate of the creep pressure of mudstone, so the time of reaching yield state of casing will descend greatly, which means service time of casing becomes much shorter.

  3. Assessment of Nitrification Potential in Ground Water Using Short Term, Single-Well Injection Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the am...

  4. Modeling of carbon cycling and biogeochemical changes during injection and recovery of reclaimed water at Bolivar, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greskowiak, Janek; Prommer, Henning; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Pavelic, Paul; Dillon, Peter

    2005-10-01

    Managed aquifer recharge is an increasingly popular technique to secure and enhance water supplies. Among a range of recharging techniques, single-well aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is becoming a common option to either augment drinking water supplies or facilitate reuse of reclaimed water. For the present study a conceptual biogeochemical model for reclaimed water ASR was developed and incorporated into an existing reactive multicomponent transport model. The conceptual and numerical model for carbon cycling includes various forms of organic and inorganic carbon and several reactive processes that transfer carbon within and across different phases. The major geochemical processes considered in the model were microbially mediated redox reactions, driven by the mineralization of organic carbon, mineral dissolution/precipitation, and ion exchange. The numerical model was tested and applied for the analysis of observed data collected during an ASR field experiment at Bolivar, South Australia. The model simulation of this experiment provides a consistent interpretation of the observed hydrochemical changes. The results suggest that during the storage phase, dynamic changes in bacterial mass have a significant influence on the local geochemistry in the vicinity of the injection/extraction well. Farther away from the injection/extraction well, breakthrough of cations is shown to be strongly affected by exchange reactions and, in the case of calcium, by calcite dissolution.

  5. Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

  6. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... achievable by project contractors using best available cost-effective technology and best...

  7. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are... project contractors using best available cost- effective technology and best management practices.''...

  8. Fast determination of 40 drugs in water using large volume direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Boix, Clara; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V; Rambla, Javier; Aranda, José L; Ballester, Salomé; Hernández, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a rapid analytical method based on direct sample injection of water samples for the simultaneous identification/quantification of 40 emerging compounds, including pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. The water samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS QqQ). Taking profit of the increasing sensitivity of nowadays tandem mass spectrometers, direct sample injection of large volumes has been an attractive alternative to pre-concentration steps. In this work, the developed methodology has been validated at three concentration levels (10, 100 and 1000 ng/L) in 10 different water samples of different types (5 effluent wastewater and 5 surface water samples). The majority of compounds could be satisfactory validated at these concentrations, showing good recoveries and precision. With only few exceptions, the limits of quantification (LOQs), estimated from the sample chromatogram at lowest spiked level tested, were below 3 ng/L. The method was applied to the analysis of 10 effluent wastewater and 10 surface water samples. Venlafaxine was the compound most frequently detected (80%) in surface water, followed by acetaminophen (70%). Regarding effluent wastewater, valsartan and 4-acetyl aminoantipyrine were detected in 9 out of 10 samples analyzed. These two compounds together with 4-formyl aminoantipyrine and naproxen showed the highest concentrations (>2000 ng/L). In these cases, a dilution step was required for a correct quantification. As an additional evaluation of the method performance, the same water samples were analyzed in another laboratory by a second analytical methodology, based on on-line solid-phase-extraction coupled to LC-MS/MS (QqQ). PMID:25281164

  9. Project Zoom IN, Citizen Perspectives on Climate and Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Perspective on climate and water resources can come from the top, scientists sharing invaluable data and findings about how climate dynamics function or quantifications of systems in flux. However, citizens are endowed with an equally as powerful tool for insight: ground zero experience. Project Zoom In is a nascent project undertaken by Global Media Forge to empower youth, educators and scientists with tools to reach the media with locale-specific imagery and perspective of climate dynamics and evidence of anecdotal resource management of liquid gold: fresh water. Zoom In is taking root in Colorado but is designed for national/international scaling. This effort has three limbs: (1) student, scientist and educator workshops teaching invaluable video production skills (2) engaging Colorado school systems to stimulate submission of clips to full video productions to our database, and (3) embedding the findings on a taxonomic GIS interface on-line. The website will be invaluable in classrooms and link network media to individuals with firsthand viewpoints on change.; Climate and Water Resources

  10. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation. PMID:25024106

  11. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 328.5 Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All... power boats or vessels. (b) Seaplanes on project waters and lands in excess of 24 hours shall...

  12. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 328.5 Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All... power boats or vessels. (b) Seaplanes on project waters and lands in excess of 24 hours shall...

  13. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 328.5 Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All... power boats or vessels. (b) Seaplanes on project waters and lands in excess of 24 hours shall...

  14. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS 328.5 Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All... power boats or vessels. (b) Seaplanes on project waters and lands in excess of 24 hours shall...

  15. Injection of Contaminants into a Simulated Water Distribution System Equipped with Continuous Multi-Parameter Water Monitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Multi-parameter water monitors for distributions systems have been evaluated as such a water security techn...

  16. Flow injection analysis of trace chromium (VI) in drinking water with a liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Byrne, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an acknowledged hazardous material in drinking waters. As such, effective monitoring and assessment of the risks posed by Cr(VI) are important analytical objectives for both human health and environmental science. However, because of the lack of highly sensitive, rapid, and simple procedures, a relatively limited number of studies have been carried out in this field. Here we report a simple and sensitive analytical procedure of flow injection analysis (FIA) for sub-nanomolar Cr(VI) in drinking water samples with a liquid core waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The procedure is based on a highly selective reaction between 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide and Cr(VI) under acidic conditions. The optimized experimental parameters included reagent concentrations, injection volume, length of mixing coil, and flow rate. Measurements at 540 nm, and a 650-nm reference wavelength, produced a 0.12-nM detection limit. Relative standard deviations for 1, 2, and 10 nM samples were 5.6, 3.6, and 0.72 % (n = 9), and the analysis time was <2 min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions, especially Fe(III), were evaluated. Using the FIA-LWCC method, different sources of bottled waters and tap waters were examined. The Cr(VI) concentrations of the bottled waters ranged from the detection limit to ∼20 nM, and tap waters collected from the same community supply had Cr(VI) concentration around 14 nM. PMID:23943244

  17. The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

    1992-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

  18. Fault Slip Induced By Injection of Water and Pore Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Nemoto, Katsumi; Moriya, Hirokazu; Niitsuma, Hiroaki

    2006-05-15

    The model experiments which simulated shear slip induced by injection of pore fluid have been conducted under triaxial compressive stress condition using a roughened bare fault. The objective is to understand characteristics of the induced slip behaviour, especially after the slip initiation obeying Coulomb failure criterion and pore fluid behaviour associated with the induced slip. Experimental results showed that intermittent slip occurred in all the injection-induced slip experiments. Moreover, it was also found that the pore fluid flow into the fault increased instantaneously accompanying with dynamic slip, which represents a part of higher slip velocity (V > 0.05 mm/s, Vmax of 0.4 mm/s) in the intermittent slip. Quantitative estimation on the volume of the inflow of pore fluid during the dynamic slip suggested that a shear dilatancy would cause the instantaneous increase in pore fluid flow that occurred with the slip.

  19. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  20. Optimal water management and conflict resolution: The Middle East Water Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Franklin M.; Arlosoroff, Shaul; Eckstein, Zvi; Haddadin, Munther; Hamati, Salem G.; Huber-Lee, Annette; Jarrar, Ammar; Jayyousi, Anan; Shamir, Uri; Wesseling, Hans

    2002-11-01

    In many situations, actual water markets will not allocate water resources optimally, largely because of the perceived social value of water. It is possible, however, to build optimizing models which, taking account of demand as well as supply considerations, can substitute for actual markets. Such models can assist the formation of water policies, taking into account user-supplied values and constraints. They provide powerful tools for the system-wide cost-benefit analysis of infrastructure; this is illustrated by an analysis of the need for desalination in Israel and the cost and benefits of adding a conveyance line. Further, the use of such models can facilitate cooperation in water, yielding gains that can be considerably greater than the value of the disputed water itself. This can turn what appear to be zero-sum games into win-win situations. The Middle East Water Project has built such a model for the Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian region. We find that the value of the water in dispute in the region is very small and the possible gains from cooperation are relatively large. Analysis of the scarcity value of water is a crucial feature.

  1. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

  2. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D.; Deo, M.D.

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

  3. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Project Review Under Section 3.8 of the Compact § 401.36 Water...

  4. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Project Review Under Section 3.8 of the Compact § 401.36 Water...

  5. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  6. An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

  7. Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project

    SciTech Connect

    Field, S. M.

    2007-04-01

    This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

  8. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: The Westside Irrigation District Maine Prairie Water District Solano...

  9. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  10. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring (Project Number: 70179)

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2002-06-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem requiring monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to the analytical laboratory where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector using automated microfluidics for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field analytical chemistry.

  11. Water, water everywhere - and not a drop to spare. [HUD-sponsored conservation project at NBS

    SciTech Connect

    Heyman, M.

    1980-07-01

    Researchers at the National Bureau of Standards Center for Building Technology (NBC/CBT) are conducting a water-conservation research program under the sponsorship of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). In the words of Dr. Lawrence Galowin, a senior mechanical engineer at NBS/CBT, the program aims to develop test data and provide engineering-design methods and laboratory-based evaluation criteria which can be introduced into the building standards and codes system to encourage water-conserving technologies that will perform reliably and effectively for the consumer. Dr. Stephen F. Weber, an economist with NBS/CBT, is working on a method for selecting the most-economical and effective combination of water-conserving options open to the consumer. There is no single recommended combination of water-saving devices which would be economical all across the country, mostly because of diverse water rates, says Weber. As a first step, he has been reviewing 700 water rate schedules supplied by the American Water Works Association. Although still in the early stages of the project, Weber says, one thing which seems clear is that anytime you will have energy savings associated with a reduction in water use, the money you save on energy can equal the savings on your water bill. Both benefits reinforce each other as rewards for conservation. However, they make analysis of benefits more difficult. As a result, coming up with a definitive method for selecting cost-effective water-conservation alternatives will aid consumers and community water planners.

  12. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  13. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect

    McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

    2010-06-25

    X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

  14. Comprehensive assessment of projected changes in water availability and aridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, Peter; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2015-04-01

    Substantial changes in the hydrological cycle are projected for the 21st century, with potential major impacts, particularly at regional scale. However, the projections are subject to major uncertainties and the metrics generally used to assess such changes do not fully account for the hydroclimatological characteristics of the land surface. In this context, the 'dry gets drier, wet gets wetter' paradigm is often used as a simplifying summary. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of the paradigm both for observations (Greve et al., 2014) and projections (Roderick et al., 2014), especially casting doubt on applying the widely used P-E (precipitation - evapotranspiration) metric over global land surfaces. Here we show in a comprehensive assessment that projected changes in mean annual P-E are generally not significant in most land areas, with the exception of the northern high latitudes where significant changes towards wetter conditions are found. We further show that the combination of decreasing P and increasing atmospheric demand (potential evapotranspiration, Ep) leads to a significant increase in aridity in many subtropical and neighbouring regions, thus confirming the paradigm for some dry regions, but invalidating it for the relative large fraction of the affected area which is currently in a humid or transitional climate regime. Combining both metrics (P-E and P-E_p) we conclude that the 'dry gets drier, wet gets wetter' paradigm is generally not confirmed for projected changes in most land areas (despite notable exceptions in the high latitudes and subtropics), because of a lack of robustness of the projected changes in some regions (tropics) and because humid to transitional regions are shifting to drier conditions, i.e. not following the paradigm. References Greve, P., Orlowsky, B., Mueller, B., Sheffield, J., Reichstein, M., & Seneviratne, S. I. Global assessment of trends in wetting and drying over land. Nature Geosci. 7, 716-721 (2014). Roderick, M. L., Sun, F., Lim, W. H. & Farquhar, G. D. A general framework for understanding the response of the water cycle to global warming over land and ocean. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 18, 1575-1589 (2014).

  15. Design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenic species in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Grady; Fan, Tina K.; Kantor, Melanie; Clark, Keith; Cardenas, Steven; Guillaume, Darrell W.; Khachikian, Crist S.

    2009-01-01

    The design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in natural waters is described. The instrument incorporates solenoid activated self-priming micropumps and electronic switching valves for controlling the fluidics of the system and a miniature charge-coupled device spectrometer operating in a graphical programming environment. The limits of detection were found to be 0.79 and 0.98 ?M for As(III) and As(V), respectively, with linear range of 150 ?M. Spiked ultrapure water samples were analyzed and recoveries were found to be 97%101% for As(III) and 95%99% for As(V), respectively. Future directions in terms of automation, optimization, and field deployment are discussed. PMID:19895074

  16. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  17. The NASA Energy and Water cycle Extreme (NEWSE) Integration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.

    2008-05-01

    Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle extremes (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy extremes, and to make decisive progress in predicting these extremes, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle Extremes (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed extremes which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are toprovide an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.). *The NEWSE Team is: Romanou, Anastasiam, Columbia U.; Brian Soden, U. Miami; William Lapenta, NASA- MSFC; Megan Larko, CREW; Bing Lin, NASA-LaRC; Christa Peters-Lidard, NASA-GSFC; Xiquan Dong, U. North Dakota; Debbie Belvedere, CREW; Mathew Sapiano, U. Maryland; Duane Waliser, NASA-JPL; Eni Njoku, NASA/JPL; Eric Fetzer, NASA-JPL; Eyal Amitai, NASA-GSFC; Xiaogang Gao, U. California, Irvine; George Huffman, NASA-GSFC & SSAI; Jared Entin, NASA; Joseph Santanello, NASA-GSFC; John Roads, UCSD; W. Timothy Liu, NASA-JPL; Lixin Lu, Colorado State U.; Zhengzhao Luo, Colorado State U.; Michael Bosilovich, NASA-GSFC; Michael Jasinski, NASA-GSFC; William Olson, NASA-GSFC & UMBC-GEST; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Phil Arkin, U. Maryland; Paul Houser, CREW & GMU; Ralph Ferraro, NOAA; Pete Robertson, NASA-MSFC; Robert Schiffer; UMBC-GEST; Sujay Kumar, NASA-GSFC; Joseph A. Santanello, NASA-GSFC; Tristan L'Ecuyer, Colorado State U.; Wei-Kuo Tao; NASA-GSFC; Xia Feng; George Mason U.

  18. Study on Mixed Solvency Concept in Formulation Development of Aqueous Injection of Poorly Water Soluble Drug.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Soni, Love Kumar; Maheshwari, Rajesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, mixed-solvency approach has been applied for the enhancement of aqueous solubility of a poorly water- soluble drug, zaltoprofen (selected as a model drug), by making blends (keeping total concentrations 40% w/v, constant) of selected water-soluble substances from among the hydrotropes (urea, sodium benzoate, sodium citrate, nicotinamide); water-soluble solids (PEG-4000, PEG-6000); and co-solvents (propylene glycol, glycerine, PEG-200, PEG-400, PEG-600). Aqueous solubility of drug in case of selected blends (12 blends) ranged from 9.091 ± 0.011 mg/ml-43.055 ± 0.14 mg/ml (as compared to the solubility in distilled water 0.072 ± 0.012 mg/ml). The enhancement in the solubility of drug in a mixed solvent containing 10% sodium citrate, 5% sodium benzoate and 25 % S cosolvent (25% S cosolvent contains PEG200, PEG 400, PEG600, Glycerine and Propylene glycol) was more than 600 fold. This proved a synergistic enhancement in solubility of a poorly water-soluble drug due to mixed cosolvent effect. Each solubilized product was characterized by ultraviolet and infrared techniques. Various properties of solution such as pH, viscosity, specific gravity and surface tension were studied. The developed formulation was studied for physical and chemical stability. This mixed solvency shall prove definitely a boon for pharmaceutical industries for the development of dosage form of poorly water soluble drugs. PMID:26555989

  19. Organic secondary ion mass spectrometry: signal enhancement by water vapor injection.

    PubMed

    Mouhib, Taoufiq; Delcorte, Arnaud; Poleunis, Claude; Bertrand, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    The enhancement of the static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) signals resulting from the injection, closely to the sample surface, of H(2)O vapor at relatively high-pressure, was investigated for a set of organic materials. While the ion signals are generally improved with increasing H(2)O pressure upon 12 keV Ga(+) bombardment, a specific enhancement of the protonated ion intensity is clearly demonstrated in each case. For instance, the presence of H(2)O vapor induces an enhancement by one order of magnitude of the [M + H](+) static SIMS intensity for the antioxidant Irgafos 168 and a ∼1.5-fold increase for polymers such as poly(vinyl pyrrolidone). PMID:20864353

  20. Hot flue gas filtration: Laboratory tests and projected cost of a combined sorbent injection/filtration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Shemwell, B.E.; Atal, A.

    2000-07-01

    This manuscript provides an update on the technology of flue gas filtration at high temperatures. In this technology the synergistic effects of sorbent injection and filtration are exploited. Calcium-based (or sodium-based) sorbents are sprayed in the post-flame zone of a furnace. The sorbent reacts with sulfur and chlorine in the furnace effluent to form stable salts of calcium. The partially-reacted sorbent is then collected in the filter, which is placed downstream of the sorbent injection point. The sorbent continues to react in the filter for a prolonged period of time. The primary advantage of this technique is that both the likelihood of contact and the period of contact between the solid sorbent particles and the gaseous pollutants (such as SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, HCl, etc.) increase, since reaction takes place in the furnace upstream of the filter as well as inside the filter itself. Hence, the sorbent utilization (i.e., the conversion of sorbent CaO to CaSO{sub 4}, CaSO{sub 3}, CaCl{sub 2}, etc.) increases significantly. The filter is cleaned with periodic aerodynamic regeneration (backpulsing). Using this technique, most of the pollutants, such as SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, HCl and particulate (soot, ash and tar) can be removed from the effluent. Any unburned carbon in the ash may be completely oxidized in the filter. Formation of dioxins in the effluent at lower temperatures should be minimized, since their precursors are captured by the filter. Results show That the sorbent/filter method appears to be less expensive than current technologies, on both capital cost ($/kW) and levelized coat ($/ton pollutant removed) bases, if a limestone/coal mixture is used as the sorbent for the fossil fuel plants. Capital costs for the filter/sorbent combination should be under $63/kW for a new plant, while those for a state of the art compounded wet limestone FGD/SCR/fabric filter at $250--400/kW. Since the existing technologies are designed for removing one pollutant at a time both their cost and space requirement are much higher than those of the technique discussed herein. Moreover, the levelized costs are projected to be as low as $103/ton of combined pollutant SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} and particulates removed.

  1. Effect of ECC Injection Angle on the Flow Distribution in a Downcomer Annulus During LBLOCA Reflood Phase in the Air-Water Test

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, T.S.; Yun, B.J.; Song, C.H.; Choi, K.Y.; Cho, H.K.

    2002-07-01

    The comparison tests for the direct ECC bypass fraction were experimentally performed with a typical DVI nozzle and an ECC column nozzle having injection angle to the gravity axis. The ECC column nozzle is newly introduced to make an ECC water column in the downcomer region. The injection angle of the ECC water relative to the gravity axis is varied from 0 to {+-} 90 degrees stepped by 45 degrees. The tests are performed in the air-water separate effect test facility (DIVA), which is 1/7.07 linearly scaled-down of the APR1400 nuclear reactor. The test results show that the direct ECC bypass fraction is affected by the ECC injection angle when the ECC water is injected using an ECC column nozzle as a single water column. The injection angle of an ECC water column relative to the circumferential air jet in the DVI system affects the direct ECC bypass fraction during the reflood phase of a LBLOCA. (authors)

  2. Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water

    PubMed Central

    Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments. PMID:24499878

  3. Ground water in the North Side Pumping Division, Minidoka Project, Minidoka County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, Emerson G.; Scott, R.C.

    1956-01-01

    nearby is being developed by private capital. Completion of the Federal reclamation project will more than double the irrigated acreage in the North Side Division of the Minidoka Project. The area to be irrigated with ground water is at the south-central edge of the Snake River Plain adjacent to project lands that have been irrigated for many years with Snake River water.

  4. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How Project water may be used. 418.2 Section 418.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may...

  5. Give Water a Hand. Home Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  6. Give Water a Hand. School Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  7. Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  8. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY... Water Supply Project, Clarke County, Iowa. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard Sims, State... comments by NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements for permitting by the State...

  9. Norway's historical and projected water balance in TWh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Holmqvist, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Hydroelectric power production is closely linked to the water cycle, and variations in power production numbers reflect variations in weather. The expected climate changes will influence electricity supply through changes in annual and seasonal inflow of water to hydropower reservoirs. In Norway, more than 95 percent of the electricity production is from hydroelectric plants, and industry linked to hydropower has been an important part of the society for more than a century. Reliable information on historical and future available water resources is hence of crucial importance both for short and long-term planning and adaptation purposes in the hydropower sector. Traditionally, the Multi-area Power-market Simulator (EMPS) is used for modelling hydropower production in Norway. However, due to the models' high level of details and computational demand, this model is only used for historical analyses and a limited number of climate projections. A method has been developed that transfers water fluxes (mm day-1) and states (mm) into energy units (GWh mm-1), based on hydrological modelling of a limited number of catchments representing reservoir inflow to more than 700 hydropower plants in Norway. The advantages of using the conversion factor method, compared to EMPS, are its simplicity and low computational requirements. The main disadvantages are that it does not take into account flood losses and the time lag between inflow and power production. The method is used operationally for weekly and seasonal energy forecasts, and has proven successful at the range of results obtained for reproducing historical hydropower production numbers. In hydropower energy units, mean annual precipitation for the period 1981-2010 is estimated at 154 TWh year-1. On average, 24 TWh year-1 is lost through evapotranspiration, meaning runoff equals 130 TWh year-1. There are large interannual variations, and runoff available for power production ranges from 91 to 165 TWh year-1. The snow pack on average peaks in the middle of April at 54 TWh, ranging from 33 to 84 TWh. Given its simplicity, the method of using conversion factors is a time and computational efficient way of producing projections of hydropower production potential from an ensemble of climate model simulations. Regional climate model (RCM) projections are obtained from Euro-Cordex, and precipitation and temperature are bias corrected to observation based datasets at 1 km2. Preliminary results, based on an ensemble consisting of 16 members (8 RCMs, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and transient hydrological simulations for the period 1981-2100, indicate an increase in hydroelectric power production of up to 10 percent by the end of the century, given the effect of climate change alone. The expected increase in temperature causes a negative trend for the energy potential stored in the annual maximum snow pack. At the end of the century (2071-2100), the maximum snow pack holds 43 TWh and 30 TWh for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, compared to 54 TWh in 1981-2010. The substantial decrease in the peak snow pack is reflected in the seasonally more even inflow to reservoirs expected in the next decades.

  10. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  11. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cui, J Z; Geng, Z S; Zhang, Y H; Feng, J Y; Zhu, P; Zhang, X B

    2016-03-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  12. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cui, J.Z.; Geng, Z.S.; Zhang, Y.H.; Feng, J.Y.; Zhu, P.; Zhang, X.B.

    2016-01-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  13. Blast furnace coal injection: Engineering aspects of PCI systems, North American market, project overview -- Edison Energy/Great Lakes Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Nolde, H.D.; Wagner, E.D.

    1996-12-31

    The authors give background on the coal injection market for North America outlining the number of furnaces which are currently utilizing coal injection and those planning to implement facilities in the near term. The current highly developed state of coal injection technology emphasizes the reliable economic benefits which can be obtained from the leading technology and system vendors. Key elements for providing successful coal grinding and coal injection technology are: Safe, reliable preparation of coal at constant moisture content; consistent and controllable injection rates; minimum consumption of utility gases and electrical power; reliable long-term operation; minimum and scheduled maintenance; and low labor requirements for maintenance. In today`s operating environment, unless a system fulfills the above requirements, it has very little chance of successful commercial application in the steel industry. Various PCI systems are commercially available. Within this arena, the Dense Phase system has been very successfully received and commands a 65 percent share of the world market.

  14. Hot Microbubble Injection in Thin Liquid Film Layers for Ammonia-Water Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Pratik; Zimmerman, William

    2015-11-01

    140 MT of NH3 produced p.a. barely keeps up with the global usage of this ubiquitously used commodity. NH3 manufacture & later remediation from landfill leachate to lower eco-toxicity makes further demands on the energy utilised for this ``NH3 cycle.'' Moreover, current methods for lowering eco-toxicity destroy NH3 rather than recovering it. Air stripping is a widely employed low energy industrial process used for NH3 recovery but has a long processing time- ≅24h for 60% efficiency & 100h for 95% efficiency. The solution presented herein is based on hot microbubble injection in thin liquid film layers designed to separate NH3 from NH3-H2O solutions. The transport phenomena exhibited by the microbubbles helps them separate volatile liquids effectively with negligible sensible heat transfer. This process is nearly isothermal simply because evaporation by microbubbles is controlled by internal mixing, which is fast relative to sensible heat transfer, when limited to short contact times in thin films. A 1000-3000-fold increase in mass transfer, over conventional stripping, and a 100% separation efficiency achieved in a processing time of 30 minutes is observed, potentially, if persisting with industrial scale up, resulting in a 200-fold reduction in processing time. The authors would like to acknowledge contributions from Michael Turley MEng - University of Sheffield and Richard Robinson from Viridor for their help and support as well as EPSRC Grant Number EP/K001329/1 - ``4CU''.

  15. Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota--Analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degrees Celsius) in the Franconia-Ironton Galesville aquifer (183 to 245 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. The University's steam-generation facilities supplied high-temperature water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection-withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through the other well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection and withdrawal ranging from 5.25 to 8.01 days. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.4 to 18.6 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Average injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. Temperature graphs for selected depths at individual observation wells indicate that the Ironton and Galesville Sandstones received and stored more thermal energy than the upper part of the Franconia Formation. Clogging of the Ironton Sandstone was possibly due to precipitation of calcium carbonate or movement of fine-grain material or both. Vertical-profile plots indicate that the effects of buoyancy flow were small within the aquifer. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, ground-water-flow, and thermal-energy-transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The model was used to simulate the entire short-term testing period of approximately 400 days. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities, which, for final calibration, were simulated as 3.3 and 0.33 meters, respectively. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to (1) measured temperatures at selected altitudes in four observation wells, (2) measured temperatures at the production well, and (3) calculated thermal efficiencies of the aquifer. Model-computed withdrawal-water temperatures were within an average of about 3 percent of measured values and model-computed aquifer-thermal efficiencies were within an average of about 5 percent of calculated values for the short-term test cycles. These data indicate that the model accurately simulated thermal-energy storage within the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer.

  16. Flow-Injection Determination of Thiabendazole Fungicide in Water Samples Using a Diperiodatocuprate(III)-Sulfuric Acid-Chemiluminescence System.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Munawar, Nusrat; Nabi, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) with a flow-injection method is reported for the determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) fungicide based on its enhancement effect on diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC)-sulfuric acid-CL system. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 1 - 2000 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9999, n = 8) with a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.3 μg L(-1). The injection throughput was 160 h(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 4) of 1.1 - 2.9% in the concentration range studied. The experimental variables e.g., reagents concentrations, flow rates, sample volume, and PMT voltage were optimized, and the potential interferences were investigated individually. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TBZ in water samples showing good agreement and recovery in the range of 92 ± 2.2 - 108 ± 3% (n = 3) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME). The possible CL reaction mechanism for DPC-sulfuric acid-TBZ is also discussed. PMID:26960615

  17. Water injection scheme in E2. 0 sand of Nigerian Kolo Creek field - optimization through geological modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Osai, L.N.

    1983-03-01

    The Kolo Creek field is a 5 x 10 km size, faulted, rollover structure with the E2.0 reservoir as the main oil-bearing sand. The reservoir is a 200-ft thick, complex, deltaic sandstone package with a 1.9-tcf size gas cap underlain by a 200-ft thick oil rim containing ca 440 x 106 bbl STOIIP. The sand is penetrated by 34 wells, 25 of which are completed as producers. To date a 16% drop in pressure has occurred. A reservoir engineering study, based on the early pressure decline, led to the implementation of water injection scheme. Immediately prior to the initial phase of the scheme, cores were taken in 2 wells. These cores, side wall samples from other wells, and the detailed correlation made possible by a denser well pattern have resulted in a realistic geologic model. This model will influence the optimal location of future injection and production wells based on the structural and sedimentologic characteristics of the reservoir

  18. Water assessment report: Section 13 (c); Great Plains gasification project, Mercer County, ND

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    The Water Resources Council is completing a water assessment of synfuels development in the Upper Missouri River Basin. This is being done under Section 13(a) of the Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act. The assessment area includes the coal deposits in the Mercer County project site. Levels of North Dakota coal gasification development that are several times the production level of the Great Plains gasification project are being examined. This report assesses: (1) the availability of adequate water supplies to meet the water requirements of the project, supporting activities, and other development induced by the project; and (2) the changes in the water resources that will result from the project. Findings of the 13(a) assessment show that water supplies are physically available within the mainstem of the Missouri River in North Dakota to supply the requirements of the gasification facilities and the supporting activities - mining and reclamation, electricity, and project-induced population increases.

  19. 75 FR 71177 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... notice lists the projects, described ] below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of...

  20. US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action ground water Project. Revision 1, Version 1: Final project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-21

    The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy requirements of the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1988). This scope of work will entail the following activities, on a site-specific basis: Development of a compliance strategy based upon modification of the UMTRA Surface Project remedial action plans (RAP) or development of Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC and state or tribal concurrence on the RAP; implementation of the RAP to include establishment of institutional controls, where appropriate; institution of long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate DOE program on or before the Project end date; and preparation of completion reports and final licensing on those sites that will be completed prior to the Project end date.

  1. Bulk organic matter and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water during groundwater recharge by enhanced direct injection well.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang; Xuzhou, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Water shortages lead to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. A new kind of approach, enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir) consisting of short- and long-term soil treatment, is considered to be suitable for large cities in China. In this paper, EnDir was simulated by soil columns in the laboratory with the secondary effluent as raw water that was ozonated before EnDir. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term part of EnDir can remove 47 to 60% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), convert 5 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen to equivalent nitrate-nitrogen, and offer preferred removal of non-UV-absorbing organics. Soluble microbial byproducts and fulvic-acid-like materials can be ozonated and then partially biodegraded. The residuals of organic matter as a refractory fraction are biodegraded continuously during the long-term part. The DOC value of 1.8 to 2.5 mg/L can be reached, and 40% of organic matter with molecular weight less than 500 Da can be removed after full-term EnDir. PMID:19280901

  2. Iron speciation in natural waters by sequential injection analysis with a hexadentate 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelator as chromogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Joana L A; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Nunes, Ana; Rangel, Maria; Rangel, António O S S

    2016-02-01

    A sequential injection method for iron speciation in various types of natural waters was developed using a synthesised hexadentate 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelator (CP256). The denticity of the ligand that allow formation of the corresponding iron(III) complex in a 1:1 stoichiometry proved to be highly advantageous, in comparison with parent bidentate, hydroxy-4-piridinone chelators, with a two fold increase of reaction sensitivity and over 65% decrease of the LOD. A solid phase extraction approach was employed to attain matrix elimination, facilitating iron(III) determination and application to high salinity waters. The combination with the total iron determination obtained by the direct reaction of the ligand resulted in iron speciation. Two detection spectrophotometric cells were tested, a conventional flow cell (CFC) and a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The dynamic concentration ranges were 0.1-2mg/L with the CFC detection and 0.005-0.1mg/L with the LWCC, with limit of detection of 30µg/L and 6µg/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to a variety of natural waters. PMID:26653494

  3. Feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    A system which would allow a substantially increased output from a turboshaft engine for brief periods in emergency situations with little or no loss of turbine stress rupture life is proposed and studied analytically. The increased engine output is obtained by overtemperaturing the turbine; however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water. This decrease in cooling air temperature can offset the effect of increased gas temperature and increased shaft speed and thus keep turbine blade stress rupture life constant. The analysis utilized the NASA-Navy-Engine-Program or NNEP computer code to model the turboshaft engine in both design and off-design modes. This report is concerned with the effect of the proposed method of power augmentation on the engine cycle and turbine components. A simple cycle turboshaft engine with a 16:1 pressure ratio and a 1533 K (2760 R) turbine inlet temperature operating at sea level static conditions was studied to determine the possible power increase and the effect on turbine stress rupture life that could be expected using the proposed emergency cooling scheme. The analysis showed a 54 percent increse in output power can be achieved with no loss in gas generator turbine stress rupture life. A 231 K (415 F) rise in turbine inlet temperature is required for this level of augmentation. The required water flow rate was found to be .0109 kg water per kg of engine air flow.

  4. Determination of sulphate in water and biodiesel samples by a sequential injection analysis--multivariate curve resolution method.

    PubMed

    del Río, Vanessa; Larrechi, M Soledad; Callao, M Pilar

    2010-08-31

    A spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis (SIA-DAD) method linked to multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) has been developed for sulphate determination. This method involves the reaction, inside the tubes of the SIA system, of sulphate with barium-dimethylsulphonazo (III) complex, Ba-DMSA (III), displacing Ba(2+) from the complex and forming DMSA (III). When the reaction products reach the detector a data matrix is obtained, which allows a second-order calibration to be developed. The experimental conditions (concentration and sample and reagent volumes) to obtain the highest sensitivity have been chosen applying a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design. The proposed sequential flow procedure permits up to 15 mg SO(4)(2-) L(-1) to be determined with a limit of detection of 1.42 mg L(-1) and it is able to monitor sulphate in samples at a frequency of 15 samples per hour. The method was applied to determine sulphate in natural and residual waters and in biodiesel. The reliability of the method was established for water samples by parallel determination using a standard turbidimetric method for sulphate in natural and residual water samples with results within statistical variation. For biodiesel samples, the method was validated comparing the concentration of some spiked samples with the expected concentration using a test-t. PMID:20800738

  5. Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

  6. Surfactant injection for ground-water remediation: State regulators` perspectives and experiences

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is based on a series of interviews with State regulators involved in the review and approval of applications for demonstrations or applications of surfactant technologies for the remediation of contaminated ground water. This report focuses on identifying specific technical issues, non-technical problems, training, and technical or policy needs that would contribute to improving the use of in situ surfactant enhancements. The goal of the study was to identify barriers and describe success in gaining State regulatory approval, in order to promote understanding among the various stakeholders vital to developing this important technology.

  7. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  8. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration, operation, monitoring, and proper abandonment will be presented. - Which critical parameters can be monitored? The chances and limitation of different monitoring technologies will be discoursed for a storage site. - How can public involvement reduce risks? This will be shown for hydraulic fracturing operations. - How can geotechnical operation reduce the risk for the groundwater and environment? Some examples will be given to show, that geotechnical operations have the inherent capability to enhance the security of our drinking water. The presentation will discuss how the use of underlying physical and chemical principles can significantly reduce geotechnical risks during fluid injection.

  9. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydromorphone injection is used to relieve pain. Hydromorphone injection is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. ... Hydromorphone injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin, into a vein, or into a muscle. ...

  10. A model of reaction field in gas-injected arc-in-water method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns: Influence of water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonjarernsilp, Chantamanee; Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2009-11-01

    The method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) using gas-injected arc in water (GI-AIW) has been experimentally studied. GI-AIW is known as one of the cost-effective methods to obtain SWCNHs. It was revealed that the yield of SWCNHs significantly decreases with the increase in water temperature although the purity of SWCNHs is not dependent on the temperature change. Then the model of relevant reactions in the GI-AIW system was proposed by accounting the emission of carbon vapor, formation of SWCNHs, and diffusion of water vapor in three zones inside the cathode hole (arc plasma zone, quenching zone, and downstream zone). The side reaction between H2O and C produces H2 gas and consumes a certain amount of carbon vapor, resulting in the hindered SWCNH formation. Moreover the observation of the optical spectra emitting from the arc plasma zone strongly supported that the H2 generating reaction does not occur at arc plasma zone since N2 flow can purge H2O out. The model proposed in this study can precisely explain the correlation between H2 gas production and water temperature.

  11. A model of reaction field in gas-injected arc-in-water method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns: Influence of water temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Poonjarernsilp, Chantamanee; Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2009-11-15

    The method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) using gas-injected arc in water (GI-AIW) has been experimentally studied. GI-AIW is known as one of the cost-effective methods to obtain SWCNHs. It was revealed that the yield of SWCNHs significantly decreases with the increase in water temperature although the purity of SWCNHs is not dependent on the temperature change. Then the model of relevant reactions in the GI-AIW system was proposed by accounting the emission of carbon vapor, formation of SWCNHs, and diffusion of water vapor in three zones inside the cathode hole (arc plasma zone, quenching zone, and downstream zone). The side reaction between H{sub 2}O and C produces H{sub 2} gas and consumes a certain amount of carbon vapor, resulting in the hindered SWCNH formation. Moreover the observation of the optical spectra emitting from the arc plasma zone strongly supported that the H{sub 2} generating reaction does not occur at arc plasma zone since N{sub 2} flow can purge H{sub 2}O out. The model proposed in this study can precisely explain the correlation between H{sub 2} gas production and water temperature.

  12. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  13. Direct injection analysis of fatty and resin acids in papermaking process waters by HPLC/MS.

    PubMed

    Valto, Piia; Knuutinen, Juha; Alén, Raimo

    2011-04-01

    A novel HPLC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/MS (HPLC-APCI/MS) method was developed for the rapid analysis of selected fatty and resin acids typically present in papermaking process waters. A mixture of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, and dehydroabietic acids was separated by a commercial HPLC column (a modified stationary C(18) phase) using gradient elution with methanol/0.15% formic acid (pH 2.5) as a mobile phase. The internal standard (myristic acid) method was used to calculate the correlation coefficients and in the quantitation of the results. In the thorough quality parameters measurement, a mixture of these model acids in aqueous media as well as in six different paper machine process waters was quantitatively determined. The measured quality parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, and accuracy, clearly indicated that, compared with traditional gas chromatographic techniques, the simple method developed provided a faster chromatographic analysis with almost real-time monitoring of these acids. PMID:21360668

  14. The determination of trace lead in drinking water by flow injection spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shijun; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Yang, Yujie

    2010-01-01

    Lead is the non-essential trace element in the human body, and it has been confirmed that drinking water is one of the sources of lead in human body. In the research, based on the sensitive colour reaction of lead with I --EV +-PVA, a simple, sensitive, accurate and portable method for the determination of trace lead in drinking waters was proposed. Chemicals and physicals had been optimized in detail. The apparent molar absorption coefficient was up to 7.4 10 5 mol L -1 cm -1. The developed method provided a linearity range over 5-80 ?g L -1. The regression deviation was between 0.71% and 2.33%. The 3 ? detection limit was 0.9 ?g L -1. Close to the quantitation limit for the analyte the relative standard deviation was 1.10% ( n = 10) at 40 ?g L -1. The method developed here for analysis of lead yielded results that were comparable with those of the GFAAS.

  15. 75 FR 15453 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Repayment Contract. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation will be initiating negotiations with the Westlands Water District...

  16. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge Criteria) are now available for...

  17. ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY - RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WSWRD, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory (IHL) is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes.Recent research projects undertaken by IHL include (1) Climate ...

  18. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  19. Investigation of the probability of concurrent drought events between the water source and destination regions of China's water diversion project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomang; Luo, Yuzhou; Yang, Tiantian; Liang, Kang; Zhang, Minghua; Liu, Changming

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate the concurrent drought probability between the water source and destination regions of the central route of China's South to North Water Diversion Project. We find that both regions have been drying from 1960 to 2013. The estimated return period of concurrent drought events in both regions is 11 years. However, since 1997, these regions have experienced 5 years of simultaneous drought. The projection results of global climate models show that the probability of concurrent drought events is highly likely to increase during 2020 to 2050. The increasing concurrent drought events will challenge the success of the water diversion project, which is a strategic attempt to resolve the water crisis of North China Plain. The data suggest great urgency in preparing adaptive measures to ensure the long-term sustainable operation of the water diversion project.

  20. Spray tip penetration and cone angles for coal-water slurry using a modified medium-speed diesel engine injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.a.; Seshadri, A.K.; Kihm, K.D.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a medium-speed diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, instantaneous fuel line pressures and needle lifts were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a correlations using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base case conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For the cases studied, the time-averaged cone angles ranged between 10.2 and 17.0{degree}.

  1. Injection of treated wastewater for ground-water recharge in the Palo Alto Baylands, California, hydraulic and chemical interactions; preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    An injection-extraction well network in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Francisco Bay, California, was designed to flush the shallow aquifer system of saline water and prevent further inland saline contamination. Clogging processes and solution migration in the vicinity of one injection well were studied. Cyclic evaporative concentration of bay water and infiltration have generated a concentrated ground-water brine. Montmorillonite and illite are the primary clay minerals present in the shallow aquifer system. X-ray diffraction analysis of these clays showed a marked increase in the d-spacing of the crystal lattice when native hypersaline pure water was replaced by injection water. Chloride:magnesium and chloride:potassium ratios in the aquifer system changed during injection, most likely due to ionic exchange reaction. Similar variations in chloride:boron, chloride:iron, and chloride:manganese ratios probably resulted from reduction-oxidation reactions. Ground-water quality appears to have been chiefly affected by the processes of dilution and dispersion. Extraction pump test data yielded a transmissivity value of 960 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0005. Vertical permeability of the upper confining layer is 0.08 feet per day. (USGS)

  2. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Alexoff, David

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  3. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  4. A multisyringe sequential injection method for monitoring water in the energy cogeneration system of a municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    de Mirabó, F M Bauzá; Forteza, R; Cerdà, V

    2009-09-15

    Leading-edge urban solid waste ashing plants use burning heat energy to obtain electrical power. Water fed to their boilers for conversion into steam should be highly pure in order to minimize corrosion, scaling and similar phenomena, which can lead to malfunctioning and a reduced useful life but can be avoided by proper management and control of the water supply. In this work, we developed a multiparameter monitor based on multisyringe sequential injection for the sequential determination of up to eight important parameters, namely: pH, specific and acid conductivity, hydrazine, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and total iron. Acid conductivity was determined by passing the sample through a cation-exchange resin in order to retain ammonium ion and release protons. This parameter was deemed the most accurate indicator of dissolved solids in boiler water. Chemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically: hydrazine by reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, ammonium by the modified Berthelot reaction, iron with o-phenanthroline, and phosphate and silica by formation of a molybdoheteropoly blue dye in the presence of ascorbic acid as reductant. Use of the optimum chemical and physical operating conditions provided 3s(blank) detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) N(2)H(4), 0.13 mg l(-1) NH(4)(+), 0.04 mg l(-1) Fe, 0.03 mg l(-1) SiO2 and 0.05 mg l(-1) PO(4)(3-), and relative standard deviations not greater than 2.5%. The methods integrated in the proposed monitor were successfully applied to real samples from the water-steam cycle at the Son Reus ashing plant in Palma de Mallorca (Spain). PMID:19615501

  5. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site.

  6. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  7. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  8. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the...

  9. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Paula

    As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

  10. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ...The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Orland-Artois Water District Kern Tulare Water District To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 (CVPIA) and the Reclamation Reform Act of 1982, the Bureau of Reclamation developed and published the Criteria for Evaluating Water Management Plans (Criteria). For the purpose of......

  11. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan: Canonsburg and Burrell, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Canonsburg and Burrell UMTRA Project sites in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1985 and 1987, respectively. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at both sites have remained relatively consistent with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limit (MCL) at the Canonsburg site; no MCLs are exceeded in ground water at the Burrell site. Surface water quality shows no evidence of impact from the sites.

  12. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

  13. Application of Prussian Blue electrodes for amperometric detection of free chlorine in water samples using Flow Injection Analysis.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Pedro; Martín, Miriam; González-Mora, José Luis; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2016-01-01

    The performance for free chlorine detection of surfactant-modified Prussian Blue screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs/PB-BZT) have been assessed by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. The characterization of SPCEs/PB-BZT by X-ray photoemission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies confirmed the correct electrodeposition of the surfactant-modified PB film. These electrodes were incorporated in a Flow Injection device and the optimal working conditions determined as a function of experimental variables such as detection potential, electrolyte concentration or flow-rate. The sensor presented a linear response in the range 0-3ppm free chlorine, with a sensitivity of 16.2μAppm(-1)cm(-2). The limit of detection (LOD) (S/N=3.3) and the limit of quantification (S/N=10) amounted to 8.25 and 24.6ppb, respectively, adequate for controlling tap and drinking waters. To demonstrate the feasibility of using this free chlorine sensor for real applications possible interferences such as nitrate, nitrite and sulfate ions were successfully tested and discarded. Real free chlorine analysis was carried out in spiked tap water samples and commercial bleaches. PMID:26695283

  14. Performance comparison of several response surface surrogate models and ensemble methods for water injection optimization under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Masoud; Pan, Indranil

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we defined a relatively complex reservoir engineering optimization problem of maximizing the net present value of the hydrocarbon production in a water flooding process by controlling the water injection rates in multiple control periods. We assessed the performance of a number of response surface surrogate models and their ensembles which are combined by Dempster-Shafer theory and Weighted Averaged Surrogates as found in contemporary literature works. Most of these ensemble methods are based on the philosophy that multiple weak learners can be leveraged to obtain one strong learner which is better than the individual weak ones. Even though these techniques have been shown to work well for test bench functions, we found them not offering a considerable improvement compared to an individually used cubic radial basis function surrogate model. Our simulations on two and three dimensional cases, with varying number of optimization variables suggest that cubic radial basis functions-based surrogate model is reliable, outperforms Kriging surrogates and multivariate adaptive regression splines, and if it does not outperform, it is rarely outperformed by the ensemble surrogate models.

  15. Modeling of heavy nitrate corrosion in anaerobe aquifer injection water biofilm: a case study in a flow rig.

    PubMed

    Drnen, Karine; Roalkvam, Irene; Beeder, Janiche; Torsvik, Terje; Steen, Ida H; Skauge, Arne; Liengen, Turid

    2014-01-01

    Heavy carbon steel corrosion developed during nitrate mitigation of a flow rig connected to a water injection pipeline flowing anaerobe saline aquifer water. Genera-specific QPCR primers quantified 74% of the microbial biofilm community, and further 87% of the community of the nonamended parallel rig. The nonamended biofilm hosted 6.3 10(6) SRB cells/cm(2) and the S(35)-sulfate-reduction rate was 1.1 ?mol SO4(2-)/cm(2)/day, being congruent with the estimated SRB biomass formation and the sulfate areal flux. Nitrate amendment caused an 18-fold smaller SRB population, but up to 44 times higher sulfate reduction rates. This H2S formation was insufficient to form the observed Fe3S4 layer. Additional H2S was provided by microbial disproportionation of sulfur, also explaining the increased accessibility of sulfate. The reduced nitrate specie nitrite inhibited the dominating H2-scavenging Desulfovibrio population, and sustained the formation of polysulfide and Fe3S4, herby also dissolved sulfur. This terminated the availability of acetate in the inner biofilm and caused cell starvation that initiated growth upon metallic electrons, probably by the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas population. On the basis of these observations we propose a model of heavy nitrate corrosion where three microbiological processes of nitrate reduction, disproportionation of sulfur, and metallic electron growth are nicely woven into each other. PMID:25020005

  16. Blast furnace coal injection: North American market, PCI system design project overview -- Edison Energy/Great Lakes Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Wagner, E.D.

    1996-12-31

    The paper gives the background on the coal injection market for North America outlining the number of furnaces which are currently utilizing coal injection and those planning to implement facilities in the near term. The current highly developed state of coal injection technology emphasizes the reliable economic benefits which can be obtained from the leading technology and system vendors. Key elements for providing successful coal grinding and coal injection technology are: Safe, reliable preparation of coal at constant moisture content; consistent and controllable injection rates; minimum consumption of utility gases and electrical power; reliable long-term operation; minimum and scheduled maintenance; and low labor requirements for maintenance. In today`s operating environment, unless a system fulfills the above requirements, it has very little chance of successful commercial application in the steel industry. Various PCI systems are commercially available. Within this arena, the BMH/KST/Claudius Peters system has been very successfully received and commands a 65% share of the world market.

  17. 36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS... securely moored at mooring facilities and at locations permitted by the District Engineer. Seaplanes may be temporarily moored on project waters and lands, except in areas prohibited by the District Engineer,...

  18. 78 FR 16490 - Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On February 23, 2011, the Placer County Water Agency, licensee for the Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project, filed...

  19. 75 FR 4901 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water...

  20. 76 FR 33019 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  1. 76 FR 50536 - Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... projects, described below, receiving approval or rescission for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  2. 75 FR 23837 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  3. 75 FR 51155 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the.... Chesapeake Appalachia, LLC; Pad ID: Black Creek, ABR-20100686, Forks Township, Sullivan County,...

  4. 75 FR 38591 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  5. 75 FR 31508 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to...

  6. 75 FR 22172 - Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... notice lists the projects, described below, receiving approval for the consumptive use of water...

  7. 76 FR 20802 - Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin... projects, described below, receiving approval or rescission for the consumptive use of water pursuant...

  8. Research on evaluating water resource resilience based on projection pursuit classification model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Zhao, Dan; Liang, Xu; Wu, Qiuchen

    2016-03-01

    Water is a fundamental natural resource while agriculture water guarantees the grain output, which shows that the utilization and management of water resource have a significant practical meaning. Regional agricultural water resource system features with unpredictable, self-organization, and non-linear which lays a certain difficulty on the evaluation of regional agriculture water resource resilience. The current research on water resource resilience remains to focus on qualitative analysis and the quantitative analysis is still in the primary stage, thus, according to the above issues, projection pursuit classification model is brought forward. With the help of artificial fish-swarm algorithm (AFSA), it optimizes the projection index function, seeks for the optimal projection direction, and improves AFSA with the application of self-adaptive artificial fish step and crowding factor. Taking Hongxinglong Administration of Heilongjiang as the research base and on the basis of improving AFSA, it established the evaluation of projection pursuit classification model to agriculture water resource system resilience besides the proceeding analysis of projection pursuit classification model on accelerating genetic algorithm. The research shows that the water resource resilience of Hongxinglong is the best than Raohe Farm, and the last 597 Farm. And the further analysis shows that the key driving factors influencing agricultural water resource resilience are precipitation and agriculture water consumption. The research result reveals the restoring situation of the local water resource system, providing foundation for agriculture water resource management.

  9. Single-dose Intramuscular-injection Toxicology Test of Water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum Pharmacopuncture in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunju; Sun, Seung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study is to investigate both the single-dose intramuscular injection toxicity and the approximate lethal dose of water-soluble Carthami-flos and Cervi cornu parvum pharmacopuncture (WCFC) in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: The study was conducted at Biotoxtech Co. according to the Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulation and the toxicity test guidelines of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) after approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Dosages for the control, high dose, middle dose and low dose groups were 0.5 mL/animal of saline and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 mL/animal of WCFC, respectively. WCFC was injected into the muscle of the left femoral region by using a disposable syringe (1 mL, 26 gauge). The general symptoms and mortality were observed 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after the first injection and then daily for 14 days after the injection. The body weights of the SD rats were measured on the day of the injection (before injection) and on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days after the injection. Serum biochemical and hematologic tests, necropsy examinations, and histopathologic examinations at the injection site were performed after the observation period. Results: No deaths, abnormal clinical symptoms, or significant weight changes were observed in either male or female SD rats in the control or the test (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 mL/animal) groups during the observation period. No significant differences in hematology and serum biochemistry and no macroscopic abnormalities at necropsy were found. No abnormal reactions at injection sites were noted on the topical tolerance tests. Conclusion: The results of this single-dose toxicity study show that WCFC is safe, its lethal doses in male and female SD rats being estimated to be higher than 0.5 mL/animal. PMID:26392912

  10. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Johansen

    2011-09-01

    Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

  11. Prediction and Detection of Land Surface Deformation Associated with CO2 Injection at the FutureGen 2.0 Carbon Capture and Storage Project Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, C. E.; Spane, F.; Bonneville, A.; Murray, C. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Vermeul, V. R.; Gilmore, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The FutureGen 2.0 Project will inject 22 MMT of supercritical CO2 into the Mt Simon sandstone reservoir utilizing four deep-injection wells and a comprehensive monitoring program, which includes surface deformation monitoring. Analytical and numerical modeling analysis were both performed to predict potential vertical elevation changes based on simulated pressure changes and geomechanical properties for the targeted injection zone. Pressure changes due to continuous CO2 injection of 1.1 MMT of CO2/year over 20 years were obtained using the STOMP-CO2 numerical simulator. Injection zone elastic properties were calculated primarily from wireline geomechanical survey results that were obtained from the initial FutureGen 2.0 stratigraphic borehole. The continuous wireline geomechanical log elastic property results were utilized to estimate model layer thickness and rock compressibility for the various injection zone/model layers and were compared with hydrologic characterization results. Compressibility estimates obtained both from hydrologically based, in-situ tests, together with limited laboratory core samples provided similarly low compressibility results (1.0510-7 to 4.9210-7 psi-1) to those derived from the geomechanical wireline surveys. The predicted surface deformation was then estimated using two parallel modelling approaches. First, an analytical Biot-based, poro-elastic model was used to calculate an equivalent vertical displacement at land surface from the expected pore pressure increase and predicted injection zone model layer rock compressibility. The second method utilized a fully 3-D geomechanical modelling analysis to calculate the expected deformation at the surface using a STOMP-CO2/ABAQUS® sequentially coupled simulator. The predicted surface uplift after 20-years of continuous injection for both methods indicated a maximum deformation of approximately 20-25 mm, with most of the deformation occurring during the first 2 years. Surface deformation monitoring will be performed using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) along with ground-based data from permanent tilt and GPS stations and annual DGPS surveys. These methods have sub-centimeter accuracies and will be able to detect the expected deformation.

  12. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  13. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass

  14. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  15. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  16. The secondary recovery project at Ogharefe Field, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Aron, D.; Ashbourne, T.J.; Oloketuyi, D.O.

    1984-04-01

    A secondary recovery project involving water injection and gas-lift facilities was installed in the Ogharefe field in 1979 following detailed reservoir simulation studies. Two years' operation provides the opportunity to discuss the progress of the project so far.

  17. Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

  18. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Haibo; Freudenberg, Norman; Nie, Man; van de Krol, Roel; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger) exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  19. FP7 project MyWater - Merging hydrologic models and EO data for reliable information on Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Antonio; Chambel, Pedro; Silva, Adélio; Velickov, Slavco; van Andel, Schalk; Toth, Gergely; Almeida, Waldenio; Mako, Andras; Alexandridis, Thomas; Cugala, Domigos

    2013-04-01

    21st century reality already sees 2.5 billion people without adequate access to water, whilst climate changes lead to dramatically changing water resources availability and needs. These changes will influence all citizens, and authorities will need more reliable information to adapt to the new situation. The MyWater project responds to these challenges, implementing a new information platform which integrates data from three scientific research areas - earth observation, catchment modelling and meteorology - to better access hydrological processes. This platform will allow a quasi-automatic service chains which output user tailored results like: drinking water needs (quantity and quality), agriculture water needs, water health related indicators, flood scenarios, etc. Overall, MyWater will provide reliable information on water quantity, quality and usage for appropriate water management, improving knowledge and creating the forecasting capabilities necessary to catchment managers, and at the same time optimizing the ratio cost/benefit of water resources monitoring. The work presented regards to the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  20. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the immune system ... one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications ...

  1. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  2. Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) –Development History, Model Capabilities and Future Enhancements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was initiated in August 1985 to develop new generation water erosion prediction technology for use by federal agencies involved in soil and water conservation and environmental planning and assessment. Developed by USDA-ARS as a replacement for empirically...

  3. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY... Refuge Water Management Plans (Refuge Criteria). Several entities have each developed a Refuge Water... requirements of these Refuge Criteria (see list in Supplementary Information below). Willow Creek Mutual...

  4. 77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Contra Costa Water District. City of Santa Barbara. Tulare Irrigation District. Pacheco Irrigation District. City of Tracy. Citrus Heights. Water District. To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 (CVPIA) and the Reclamation Reform......

  5. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  6. Theoretical analysis of injecting the compressed air through a defensive well into aquifer aimed to separate between polluted and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, M.; Ravina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Injecting a compressed air, through a well, located between the sea or a polluted lake and fresh ground water, creates a "hydraulic barrier" that prevents their mixing. Steady influx of air to a saturated soil produces a pressure gradient from the well and replacement of water by air, hence the interface between air and water increases. After the compression process is stopped, the soil pores are filled with air, so that saturated soil becomes unsaturated with a decreased conductivity. Creating such a barrier, first by the air pressure and second by blocking of the pores, is welcomed at the interface sea-fresh water area, for example. It prevents the loss of fresh water to the sea and it decreases sea water movement into the aquifer. Another positive effect of the air injection is the air flow through unsaturated zone, above the ground water, that decreases polluted water down-seepage from the surface thus defending the fresh ground water against pollution. The regular water well or special drilled one will be used as defensive well. The radius of defensive well can be smaller than the one of the water well. The explanation of the defensive well exploitation in the field for one and multi layer aquifers is presented. Analytical evaluations of the pressure loss and shape of the air-water interfaces in saturated soil are presented for: (a) steady air flow for a one layer aquifer and for a three layer one (leaky aquifer case), (b) transient air flow for a one layer aquifer. It is shown that the shape of air-water interfaces is generally an inverted cone, where the decrease of air pressure in the aquifer with the distance from the well is approximately logarithmic. The necessary pressure to create the effective air flow in the aquifer is only about tens percent higher than static water pressure in the well.

  7. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. PMID:26619399

  8. Coolant Mixing in a Pressurized Water Reactor: Deboration Transients, Steam-Line Breaks, and Emergency Core Cooling Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Prasser, Horst-Michael; Grunwald, Gerhard; Hoehne, Thomas; Kliem, Soeren; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter

    2003-07-15

    The reactor transient caused by a perturbation of boron concentration or coolant temperature at the inlet of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) depends on the mixing inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Initial steep gradients are partially lessened by turbulent mixing with coolant from the unaffected loops and with the water inventory of the RPV. Nevertheless the assumption of an ideal mixing in the downcomer and the lower plenum of the reactor leads to unrealistically small reactivity inserts. The uncertainties between ideal mixing and total absence of mixing are too large to be acceptable for safety analyses. In reality, a partial mixing takes place. For realistic predictions it is necessary to study the mixing within the three-dimensional flow field in the complicated geometry of a PWR. For this purpose a 1:5 scaled model [the Rossendorf Coolant Mixing Model (ROCOM) facility] of the German PWR KONVOI was built. Compared to other experiments, the emphasis was put on extensive measuring instrumentation and a maximum of flexibility of the facility to cover as much as possible different test scenarios. The use of special electrode-mesh sensors together with a salt tracer technique provided distributions of the disturbance within downcomer and core entrance with a high resolution in space and time. Especially, the instrumentation of the downcomer gained valuable information about the mixing phenomena in detail. The obtained data were used to support code development and validation. Scenarios investigated are the following: (a) steady-state flow in multiple coolant loops with a temperature or boron concentration perturbation in one of the running loops, (b) transient flow situations with flow rates changing with time in one or more loops, such as pump startup scenarios with deborated slugs in one of the loops or onset of natural circulation after boiling-condenser-mode operation, and (c) gravity-driven flow caused by large density gradients, e.g., mixing of cold emergency core cooling (ECC) water entering the RPV through the ECC injection into the cold leg. The experimental results show an incomplete mixing with typical concentration and temperature distributions at the core inlet, which strongly depend on the boundary conditions. Computational fluid dynamics calculations were found to be in good agreement with the experiments.

  9. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large meander. Measurable concentrations were observed for spring TI-SP as many as 109 days after the dye injection. The direction of a conduit flow path in the Spring Creek area was to the northeast with ground-water velocities that ranged from 770 to 6,500 feet per day. In the Rapid Creek loss zone, a conduit flow path east of the loss zone was not evident from the dye injection.

  10. UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements.

  11. Application of Tracer-Injection Techniques to Demonstrate Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions Between an Alpine Stream and the North Star Mine, Upper Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Winfield G.; Moore, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Tracer-injection studies were done in Belcher Gulch in the upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado, to determine whether the alpine stream infiltrates into underground mine workings of the North Star Mine and other nearby mines in the area. The tracer-injection studies were designed to determine if and where along Belcher Gulch the stream infiltrates into the mine. Four separate tracer-injec-tion tests were done using lithium bromide (LiBr), optical brightener dye, and sodium chloride (NaCl) as tracer solu-tions. Two of the tracers (LiBr and dye) were injected con-tinuously for 24 hours, one of the NaCl tracers was injected continuously for 12 hours, and one of the NaCl tracers was injected over a period of 1 hour. Concentration increases of tracer constituents were detected in water discharging from the North Star Mine, substantiating a surface-water and ground-water connection between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. Different timing and magnitude of tracer breakthroughs indicated multiple flow paths with different residence times from the stream to the mine. The Pittsburgh and Sultan Mines were thought to physically connect to the North Star Mine, but tracer breakthroughs were inconclusive in water from these mines. From the tracer-injection tests and synoptic measure-ments of streamflow discharge, a conceptual model was devel-oped for surface-water and ground-water interactions between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. This information, combined with previous surface geophysical surveys indicat-ing the presence of subsurface voids, may assist with decision-making process for preventing infiltration and for the remedia-tion of mine drainage from these mines.

  12. Advanced Water Purification System for In Situ Resource Utilization Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    A main goal in the field of In Situ Resource Utilization is to develop technologies that produce oxygen from regolith to provide consumables to an extratrrestrial outpost. The processes developed reduce metal oxides in the regolith to produce water, which is then electrolyzed to produce oxygen. Hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids are byproducts of the reduction processes, which must be removed to meet electrolysis purity standards. We previously characterized Nation, a highly water selective polymeric proton-exchange membrane, as a filtrtion material to recover pure water from the contaminated solution. While the membranes successfully removed both acid contaminants, the removal efficiency of and water flow rate through the membranes were not sufficient to produce large volumes of electrolysis-grade water. In the present study, we investigated electrodialysis as a potential acid removable technique. Our studies have show a rapid and significant reduction in chloride and fluoride concentrations in the feed solution, while generating a relatively small volume of concentrated waste water. Electrodialysis has shown significant promise as the primary separation technique in ISRU water purification processes.

  13. Sustainability of global groundwater and surface water use: past reconstruction and future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Overuse of surface water and an increasing reliance on nonrenewable groundwater resources have been reported over various regions of the world, casting significant doubt on the sustainable water supply and food production met by irrigation. To assess the limitations of global water resources, numerous indicators have been developed, but they rarely consider nonrenewable water use. In addition, surface water over-abstraction is rarely assessed in the context of human and environmental water needs. Here, we perform a transient assessment of global groundwater and surface water use over the historical period 1960-2010 as well as the future projections of 2011-2099, using a newly developed indicator: the Blue Water Sustainability Index (BlWSI). The BlWSI incorporates both nonrenewable groundwater use and nonsustainable water use that compromises environmental flow requirements. Our results reveal an increasing trend of water consumed from nonsustainable surface water and groundwater resources over the historical period (~30%), and this increase is projected to continue further towards the end of this century (~40%). The global amount of nonsustainable water consumption has been increasing especially since the late 1990s, despite a wetter climate and increasing water availability during this period. The BlWSI is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the renewability and degradation of surface water and groundwater resources as a result of human water over-abstraction.

  14. Collaborative Project. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Dufour, Carolina; Rodgers, Keith B.

    2015-12-16

    The focus of this grant was on diagnosing the physical mechanisms controlling upper ocean water mass formation and carbon distribution in Earth System Models (ESMs), with the goal of improving the physics that controls their formation.

  15. Apparent Km of mitochondria for oxygen computed from Vmax measured in permeabilized muscle fibers is lower in water enriched in oxygen by electrolysis than injection

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Joffrey; Bouitbir, Jamal; Sirvent, Pascal; Klein, Alexis; Charton, Antoine; Jimenez, Liliana; Péronnet, François R; Geny, Bernard; Richard, Ruddy

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that oxygen (O2) diffusion could be favored in water enriched in O2 by a new electrolytic process because of O2 trapping in water superstructures (clathrates), which could reduce the local pressure/content relationships for O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along PO2 gradients. Materials and methods Mitochondrial respiration was compared in situ in saponin-skinned fibers isolated from the soleus muscles of Wistar rats, in solution enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process 1) at an O2 concentration decreasing from 240 µmol/L to 10 µmol/L (132 mmHg to 5 mmHg), with glutamate–malate or N, N, N′, N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD)–ascorbate (with antimycin A) as substrates; and 2) at increasing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentration with glutamate–malate as substrate. Results As expected, maximal respiration decreased with O2 concentration and, when compared to glutamate–malate, the apparent Km O2 of mitochondria for O2 was significantly lower with TMPD–ascorbate with both waters. However, when compared to the water enriched in O2 by injection, the Km O2 was significantly lower with both electron donors in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. This was not associated with any increase in the sensitivity of mitochondria to ADP; no significant difference was observed for the Km ADP between the two waters. Conclusion In this experiment, a higher affinity of the mitochondria for O2 was observed in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis than by injection. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that O2 diffusion can be facilitated in water enriched in O2 by the electrolytic process. PMID:26203225

  16. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  17. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

  18. Water-quality assessment of the Carson River ground-water basin, Nevada and California; project description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welch, A.H.; Plume, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the nation 's surface water and groundwater resources. This program, called the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a wide range of water quality issues. The program is in its early stages and consists of four surface water and three groundwater pilot projects. The objectives of the Carson River basin NAWQA project are described in the context of the national program, the study area and its associated water quality issues, and a proposed study approach. The objectives of the Carson River basin NAWQA project are to: (1) investigate regional groundwater quality; (2) describe relations of groundwater quality to land use, geohydrology, and other pertinent factors; (3) provide a general description of the location, nature and possible causes of selected widespread water quality problems in the project area; and (4) develop new techniques for characterizing regional groundwater quality, especially in arid alluvial basins. There are to be three major phases of the Carson River basin project. The first will consist of compilation and analysis of existing data. The second phase will consist of a regional water quality survey that will produce a consistent set of data that can be used to: (1) define regional quality of groundwater within the Carson River basin; and (2) compare that water quality with other aquifers in the Nation. The third phase will include topical studies that will define groundwater quality in the Carson River basin with respect to certain constituents, either basin wide or within specific areas of concern. (Lantz-PTT)

  19. Geomechanical simulation of the stress tensor rotation caused by injection of cold water in a deep geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, Pierre; Rutqvist, Jonny; Dobson, Patrick F.; Garcia, Julio; Walters, Mark; Hartline, Craig; Borgia, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional thermohydromechanical numerical study of the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal reservoir (in California), including a detailed study of the region around one injection well from 2003 to 2012. Initially, after imposing a normal faulting stress regime, we calculated local changes in the stress regime around injection wells. Our results were compared with previously published studies in which the stress state was inferred from inverting the focal plane mechanism of seismic events. Our main finding is that changes in stress tensor orientation are caused by injection-induced progressive cooling of the reservoir, as well as by the seasonal variations in injection rate. Because of the gravity flow and cooling around a liquid zone formed by the injection, the vertical stress reduction is larger and propagates far below the injection well. At the same time, the horizontal stress increases, mostly because of stress redistribution below and above the cooling area. These two phenomena cause the rotation of the stress tensor and the appearance of a strike-slip regime above, inside, and below the cooling area. The cooling and the associated rotation of the stress regime can play a significant role in the observed long-term deepening of the microseismicity below active injection wells.

  20. The EPRI state-of-the-art cooling water treatment research project: A tailored collaboration program

    SciTech Connect

    Zammitt, K.; Selby, K.A.; Brice, T.

    1996-08-01

    The EPRI Tailored Collaboration State-of-the-Art Cooling Water Treatment Research Program has been initiated with several electric utility participants. Started in January 1995, the program provides O&M cost reduction through improved cooling water system reliability and operation,. This effort is discussed along with the objectives and goals, the participants and project timetable. The program will provide three (3) main results to the participating utilities: cost effective optimization of cooling water treatment, production of a new Cooling Water Treatment Manual and updating of two (2) EPRI software products - SEQUIL and COOLADD. A review of the specific objectives, project timetable and results to date will be presented. 1 tab.

  1. Dynamic Permeability Increase During Flow of CO2 Saturated Water Through a Siliciclastic Caprock: an Experimental and Analytical Approach into the Geochemical Impact of CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, R. H.; Armitage, P. J.; Faulkner, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Field trials into CO2 sequestration are currently being undertaken at the In Salah gas field, Algeria. As a part of a wider project, we are experimentally investigating the geochemical and geomechanical effects of CO2 sequestration on the lower caprock. These are poorly sorted siltstones, cemented with quartz, illite, siderite and chlorite. CO2 injection into saline aquifers and depleted petroleum reservoirs alters in situ geochemical conditions. CO2-rich aqueous fluids are acidic and have the potential to geochemically interact with caprocks. These changes will affect caprock properties such as strength and fluid flow properties, which in turn may facilitate CO2 migration and escape from the intended storage structure. Evaluation of these effects on samples of well characterised caprocks will be crucial in helping to evaluate the long term integrity of CO2 storage. We present results from direct experimental and analytical evaluation of dynamic permeability evolution for the flow of CO2 saturated water through a sample of the lower caprock from the In Salah CO2 storage site. Permeability of this sample was approximately 10-20 m2. Permeability was found to increase by approximately 1 order of magnitude over 72 hours of continuous flow. Porosity was also found to increase, whilst surface area, and sample weight decreased. SEM, XRD, and FTIR analyses revealed dissolution of chlorite and siderite to be the cause of the increase in permeability. This change in permeability, and dissolution of minerals, may locally lead to decreased strength of the caprock and decreased sealing capacity. However, local re-precipitation processes may serve to reverse these processes.

  2. Optimizations of packed sorbent and inlet temperature for large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography to determine high boiling volatile organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bofan; Song, Yonghui; Han, Lu; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongliang

    2014-08-22

    For the expanded application area, fast trace analysis of certain high boiling point (i.e., 150-250 °C) volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in water, a large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography (LV-DAI-GC) method was optimized for the following parameters: packed sorbent for sample on-line pretreatment, inlet temperature and detectors configuration. Using the composite packed sorbent self-prepared with lithium chloride and a type of diatomite, the method enabled safe injection of an approximately 50-100 μL sample at an inlet temperature of 150 °C in the splitless mode and separated HVOCs from water matrix in 2 min. Coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), an electron capture detector (ECD) and a flame photometric detector (FPD), the method could simultaneously quantify 27 HVOCs that belong to seven subclasses (i.e., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzenes, anilines, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulfides) in 26 min. Injecting a 50 μL sample without any enrichment step, such as cryotrap focusing, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 27 HVOCs was 0.01-3 μg/L. Replicate analyses of the 27 HVOCs spiked source and river water samples exhibited good precision (relative standard deviations ≤ 11.3%) and accuracy (relative errors ≤ 17.6%). The optimized LV-DAI-GC was robust and applicable for fast determination and automated continuous monitoring of HVOCs in surface water. PMID:24997514

  3. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

  4. Evaluation of the Feasibility of Freshwater Injection Wells in Mitigating Ground-Water Quality Degradation at Selected Well Fields in Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Spechler, Rick M.

    2004-01-01

    The Fernandina permeable zone contains brackish water in parts of Duval County, Florida. Upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone to the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer increases chloride concentrations in ground water in parts of Duval County. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida, were used to (1) estimate the vertical flows between the low-quality water of the Fernandina permeable zone and the high-quality water of the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of Deerwood 3 and Brierwood well fields, based on 2000 ground-water withdrawal rates; (2) determine how such vertical flows change as several scenarios of injection, withdrawal, and intervening rest periods are simulated in the two well fields; and (3) evaluate the effects of changes in less certain hydraulic parameters on the vertical flows between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The ground-water flow system was simulated with a four-layer model using MODFLOW-2000, which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The first layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system with prescribed water levels. The second layer simulates the Upper Floridan aquifer. The third and fourth layers simulate the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Fernandina permeable zone, respectively. Average flow conditions in 2000 were approximated with a steady-state simulation. The changes in upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone due to periods of injections and withdrawals were analyzed with transient simulations. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 250-foot cells, with 400 columns and 400 rows. The active model area encompasses about 360 square miles in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida. Ground-water flow simulation was limited vertically to the bottom of the Fernandina permeable zone. The steady-state ground-water flow model was calibrated using time-averaged 2000 heads at 20 control points. Environmental-water heads in the Fernandina permeable zone were calculated for wells with variable water density. Transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer, the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the Fernandina permeable zone, and the leakance of the intermediate confining unit, the middle semiconfining unit, and the semiconfining unit were obtained from regional ground-water flow models and adjusted until a reasonable fit between simulated and computed heads was obtained. The calibrated hydraulic properties from the steady-state ground-water flow model, and the calibrated storage coefficient from the transient model, were used to simulate hypothetical transient scenarios of injection, withdrawal, and intervening rest periods to assess changes in flow between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. Based on the simulated flows between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the 18 million gallons per day of water available for injection, the reversal of the prevailing upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone was not achieved. However, steady-state and transient simulations indicate that the upward flow of water from the Fernandina permeable zone could be reduced by as much as 64 percent, from 0.11 to 0.04 cubic foot per second, if only injection periods are simulated.

  5. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  6. Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, Judy I.

    2007-01-01

    The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

  7. Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

  8. Water Use Optimization Toolset Project: Development and Demonstration Phase Draft Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, John R.; Veselka, Thomas D.; Mahalik, Matthew R.; Hayse, John W.; Saha, Samrat; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Voisin, Nathalie; Rakowski, Cynthia; Coleman, Andre; Lowry, Thomas S.

    2014-05-19

    This report summarizes the results of the development and demonstration phase of the Water Use Optimization Toolset (WUOT) project. It identifies the objective and goals that guided the project, as well as demonstrating potential benefits that could be obtained by applying the WUOT in different geo-hydrologic systems across the United States. A major challenge facing conventional hydropower plants is to operate more efficiently while dealing with an increasingly uncertain water-constrained environment and complex electricity markets. The goal of this 3-year WUOT project, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is to improve water management, resulting in more energy, revenues, and grid services from available water, and to enhance environmental benefits from improved hydropower operations and planning while maintaining institutional water delivery requirements. The long-term goal is for the WUOT to be used by environmental analysts and deployed by hydropower schedulers and operators to assist in market, dispatch, and operational decisions.

  9. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

  10. INVENTORY OF ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION PROJECTS - PUBLISHED ON THE OFFICE OF WATER WEB PAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory working jointly with the Office of Water, has developed an Internet-accessible database of ecosystem restoration projects within the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment (MAIA) region. This article informs project owners of the i...

  11. 76 FR 21092 - Notice of Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Projects Approved or Rescinded for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River... projects approved or rescinded by rule by the Susquehanna River Basin Commission during the period...

  12. Final Technical Report: The Water-to-Wire (W2W) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lissner, Daniel N.; Edward, Lovelace C.

    2013-12-24

    The purpose of the Free Flow Power (FFP) Water-to-Wire Project (Project) was to evaluate and optimize the performance, environmental compatibility, and cost factors of FFP hydrokinetic turbines through design analyses and deployments in test flumes and riverine locations.

  13. The Self-Help Handbook for Small Town Water and Wastewater Projects. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schautz, Jane W.; Conway, Christopher M.

    This handbook describes a set of tools small communities can use to reduce the cost of drinking water and wastewater projects. It is intended as a desktop reference for two primary audiences: (1) local residents (elected officials, plant operators, and concerned citizens) for whom the book provides detailed advice on how to do conduct a project at…

  14. 43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes. 418.25 Section 418.25 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA Operations and Management...

  15. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Chunyan; Geng, Shu; Jin, Ye; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), protocatechuic aldehyde (PA), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB) concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value. PMID:26839549

  16. Projecting Continental U.S. Water Stress Based on Global Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Esther S; Kodra, Evan; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Ganguly, Auroop R

    2012-01-01

    Human populations may be adversely impacted by water stress, a situation which is commonly defined as a per capita water availability of less than 1700 cubic meters of freshwater per person per year. Water stress may result from either overuse of available freshwater resources or a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We have developed a simple methodology to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios have been used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes, according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines, have been used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections have then been combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by U.S. watershed. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, including the identification of potentially vulnerable areas in need of more detailed analysis. This high-level analysis also illustrates the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population growth projections.

  17. PILOT PLANT PROJECT FOR REMOVING ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research on the European practice of preozonation of water to modify naturally occurring organics, followed by bacteria activated carbon (BAC) adsorption to remove trihalomethane precursors. A 100-gal/min pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to...

  18. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  19. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  20. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  1. Extraction-chromatographic preconcentration with chromatomembrane separation of extract from aqueous phase for luminescence determination of oil products and phenols in natural water by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Moskvin, A L; Moskvin, L N; Moszhuchin, A V; Fomin, V V

    1999-08-23

    The new method of preconcentration by extraction for flow injection analysis (FIA) with luminescence and photometric detection is proposed. Preconcentration is carried out on extraction-chromatographic column, extract is eluted by extragent with the following separation of extract from aqueous phase in chromatomembrane cell. Possibilities of the proposed method are illustrated in the examples of FIA with luminescence determination of oil products and phenols in natural water. PMID:18967701

  2. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  3. Laterally injected light-emitting diode and laser diode

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Mary A.; Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-06-16

    A p-type superlattice is used to laterally inject holes into an III-nitride multiple quantum well active layer, enabling efficient light extraction from the active area. Laterally-injected light-emitting diodes and laser diodes can enable brighter, more efficient devices that impact a wide range of wavelengths and applications. For UV wavelengths, applications include fluorescence-based biological sensing, epoxy curing, and water purification. For visible devices, applications include solid state lighting and projection systems.

  4. Development of Chengdu and sustainable utilization of the ancient Dujiangyan Water-Conservancy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; You, J.; Yang, P.; Chai, X.

    2015-05-01

    The Dujiangyan Water-Conservancy Project is a great water irrigation works in Chinese cultural history, which led the Min River water to the vast Chengdu Plain, and created fertile and pretty "land of abundance". Now Chengdu is facing increased water demand stress due mainly to rapid urbanization. This paper first analyses the available water resources of Chengdu based on historical hydrological data from 1964 to 2008. The results show that the average annual water resources were 8.9 billion m3 in 1986 and 7.9 billion m3 in 2008 under various environmental conditions. The future tendency of water demand in city development planning is predicted by the Policy Dialogue Model (PODIUM). Finally, the strategies for water resources exploitation accompanying the sustainable development pattern are studied. The result illustrates that rational and careful management are required to balance the gap between water supply and demand

  5. Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

    2006-06-01

    A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

  6. Determination of Potassium, Sodium, and Total Alkalies in Portland Cement, Fly Ash, Admixtures, and Water of Concrete by a Simple Flow Injection Flame Photometric System

    PubMed Central

    Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-01-01

    A simple flow injection with flame photometric detection has been developed for determination of sodium, potassium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete. A liquid sample or a digest of solid sample was injected into a water carrier stream which flowed to a flame photometer. A change in emission intensity at a selected wavelength was recorded as a peak. An amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the flame photometer. Calibration graphs in the range of 0.05–1.0 mg L−1 and 1.0–20.0 mg L−1 were obtained with a detection limit of 0.02 mg L−1, for both potassium and sodium determination. Relative standard deviations for 11 replicates of injecting of 10 mg L−1 potassium and sodium solutions were 1.69 and 1.79%, respectively. Sample throughput of 120 h−1 was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water samples validated by the ASTM standard method and certified reference materials of portland cement. PMID:21747733

  7. Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The performance of a Solar Hot Water System at a laundry in Fresno, California is described. The system features an integrated wastewater heat recovery subsystem and a solar preheating system designed to supply a part of the hot water requirements. Performance data for a six month period are projected to an annual savings of $18,703.

  8. Demonstration of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) internet interface and services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based FORTRAN computer simulation program for prediction of runoff and soil erosion by water at hillslope profile, field, and small watershed scales. To effectively run the WEPP model and interpret results additional software has been de...

  9. Improving frost-simulation subroutines of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erosion models play an important role in assessing the influence of human activities on the environment. For cold areas, adequate frost simulation is crucial for predicting surface runoff and water erosion. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, physically-based erosion-prediction softwa...

  10. PROJECTED GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON WATER TEMPERATURE IN FIVE NORTH CENTRAL U.S. STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of projected global climate change due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 on water temperatures in five streams in Minnesota was estimated using a deterministic heat transport model. he model calculates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the water and is driven by ...

  11. Implementation of Channel-Routing Routines in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based, continuous-simulation, watershed hydrology and erosion model. It is an important tool for water erosion simulation owing to its unique functionality in representing diverse landuse and management conditions. Its applicability is l...

  12. Laboratory Seismic Monitoring and X-ray CT imaging of Supercritical CO2 Injection in Reservoir Sand: WESTCAB King Island Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Harper, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Valley of California contains promising locations for on-shore geologic CO2 storage. DOE's WESTCARB (West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership) project drilled and cored a borehole (Citizen Green Well) at King Island (near Stockton, CA) to study the CO2 storage capability of saline and gas-bearing formations in the southwestern Sacramento Basin. Potential reservoirs encountered in the borehole include Domengine, Mokelumne River (primary target), and Top Starkey formations. In anticipation of geophysical monitoring of possible CO2 injection into this particular borehole and of the long-term migration of the CO2, we conducted small-scale CO2 injection experiments on three core samples retrieved from the well (Mokelumne River sand A and B) and from a mine outcrop (Domengine sandstone). During the experiment, a jacketed core sample (diameter 1.5 inches, length 4.0-6.0 inches) saturated with brine- (1% NaCl aq.) was confined within a pressure vessel via compressed nitrogen to 3,500-4,000psi, and supercritical CO2 was injected into the core at 2,000-2,500psi and 45-60 degrees C. The CO2 pressure and temperature were adjusted so that the bulk elastic modulus of the CO2 was close to the expected in-situ modulus--which affects the seismic properties most--while keeping the confining stress within our experimental capabilities. After the CO2 broke through the core, fresh brine was re-injected to remove the CO2 by both displacement and dissolution. Throughout the experiment, seismic velocity and attenuation of the core sample were measured using the Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar method (Nakagawa, 2012, Rev. Sci. Instr.) at near 1 kHz (500Hz--1.5 kHz), and the CO2 distribution determined via x-ray CT imaging. In contrast to relatively isotropic Mokelumne sand A, Domengine sandstone and Mokelumne sand B cores exhibited CO2 distributions strongly controlled by the bedding planes. During the CO2 injection, P-wave velocity and attenuation of the layered samples changed irregularly, roughly corresponding to the sequential invasion of the compliant fluid in the sedimentary layers revealed by the CT images. The overall behavior the seismic waves and the final CO2 saturation of the cores, however, were similar for all three cores used in this experiment.

  13. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    SciTech Connect

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  14. Effects of present and projected ground-water withdrawals on the Twin Cities aquifer system, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Projected changes in population and industrial development suggest that future ground-water withdrawals may increase from those for the 1970's. Steady-state model results indicate that the potentiometric surface of the Mount Simon-Hinckley aquifer would be lowered as much as 400 feet if pumpage from that aquifer were increased by 125 percent above 1980 ground-water withdrawal rates of about 200 million gallons per day. The potentiometric surface of the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer also would be lowered as much as 400 feet if pumpage from that aquifer were increased by 200 percent above 1980 ground-water withdrawals of 160 million gallons per day. Given the projected distribution of future ground-water development, and the limitations inherent in simulating ground-water flow, the model results indicate that an approximate limit of ground-water availability in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, is from about 500 to 800 million gallons per day.

  15. An evaluation of the sustainability of a rural water rehabilitation project in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoko, Zvikomborero; Hertle, Jochen

    An estimated 70% of the national population lives in rural areas in Zimbabwe. Previous studies suggest that groundwater is consumed predominantly without treatment. This study evaluated the sustainability of a rural water point rehabilitation project that was carried out in Mwenezi (Masvingo Province), and Gwanda, Bulilima and Mangwe (Matabeleland South Province) districts by a local NGO. The study was carried out a year after the rehabilitation project. Sustainability indicators considered in the study included the reliability of the system, human capacity development, institutional arrangements, and the impact of the project on rural livelihoods. A combination of field inspections of the water points and interviews with villagers were used as study tools. It was found out that 14% of the water points were broken down in Mwenezi, 17% (Gwanda), 13% (Bulilima) and 25% (Mangwe). Water quality was satisfactory for taste for over 90% and for 62-95% of respondents for soap consumption in all districts. Trained repair personnel were available in over 50% of the cases. Awareness of the training workshops for operation and maintenance in all districts was above 75%. Water point committees existed and functioned in all districts for 50-83% of water points. For 84-93% of the responses financial contributions were made only in the event of a breakdown. The walking distance to a water point was reduced after the project according to 83-100% of respondents in all districts. Health and hygiene knowledge was deemed to have improved due to the project in 46-78% of cases. It was concluded that opportunities for sustainable water supply are there if active community involvement is enhanced, training is lengthened and water point committees strengthened. There is also need to raise the awareness of ordinary villagers. Future rehabilitation projects should consider stricter supervision and equipping the trained personnel with tools.

  16. Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

  17. Is the Pungwe water supply project a solution to water accessibility and sanitation problems for the households of Sakubva, Zimbabwe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukheli, Azwidowi; Mosupye, Gilbert; Swatuk, Larry A.

    Following the severe drought of 1991-92, the City of Mutare embarked upon a concerted search for a secure water supply. This search culminated in the decision to transfer water from the Pungwe River via pipeline to the City of Mutare. This project was heralded as bringing ‘purity, security, and prosperity’ to the people of Mutare. Once again, and as is typical of Southern Africa today, a new ‘supply’ was presented as the ‘solution’ to the city’s water problems. In this paper, we challenge this claim by presenting the case of Sakubva, a low income, and high-density suburb of Mutare, Zimbabwe. Residents of Sakubva face many problems relating to water supply and sanitation. Has the Pungwe-Mutare Water Project ‘solved’ these problems? In short, we argue that while the Pungwe project has ensured a steady supply of clean water to Sakubva, this water inadvertently worsens many of Sakubva’s extant water and sanitation problems. In the absence of appropriate water demand management measures, supply alone is as much burden as it is blessing. In terms of methodology, between July 2000 and July 2001, members of the research team made several visits to the study area. This included a two-week home stay for two of the researchers--one in a private home in New Dangare, one in a shack in Muchena. Aside from direct participation and informal observation, a variety of methods were used: formal, semi-/structured interviews with key informants; informal, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with a cross-section of residents in Sakubva; transect walks where interviews were carried out both on formal and informal bases. Two peer educators from the Voices of Concerned Youth, City Health Department, Mutare assisted researchers. In addition, primary and secondary data were consulted.

  18. Experimental investigation of water injection in subsonic diffuser of a conical inlet operation at free-stream Mach number of 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beke, Andrew

    1957-01-01

    A spike-type nose inlet with sharp-lip cowl was investigated at a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 with water injection in its 16-inch diameter, 11-foot-long subsonic diffuser section. Inlet total temperature of exit with liquid-air ratios of about 0.04 with no apparent change in the critical pressure recovery. The observed temperature drops were less than the theoretically predicted values, and the amount of water evaporated was 35 to 50 percent less than that theoretically possible.

  19. Reanalysis Study of the North American Monsoon and its Effect on Convective Injection of Water Vapor from the Troposphere to the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of elevated stratospheric water vapor concentrations poses significant consequences for stratospheric ozone. With high concentrations of water vapor at low temperatures, inorganic chlorine can enter a heterogeneous chemical regime in which it becomes processed into the chlorine radical. The chlorine radical drives the catalytic destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. Historically the intersection of low temperatures and high water vapor concentrations has been isolated to the polar vortexes. However, convection over the mid-latitude United States has been observed in isotopic data to inject water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere (Hanisco et al. 2007). The consequent elevated levels of stratospheric water vapor may lead to catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone in the mid-latitudes thereupon resulting in increased UV exposure at the Earth's surface and increased risk to public health (Anderson et al. 2012). It is therefore critical to identify the climatology of the stratosphere that may exacerbate or mitigate the elevated water vapor conditions. Specifically we investigate the North American monsoon and its effect on perpetuating conditions of high water vapor concentrations. An analysis of relative vorticity from the ERA-interim and MERRA reanalyses over the United States from 2000 to 2013 reveal the consistent formation of the monsoon during the months of July and August and frequently June. An examination of circulation during the same time period allows us to estimate the monsoon's stability. Furthermore, using potential vorticity as a tracer we see further evidence of the monsoon's effect on keeping moist air masses over the United States. Finally, the analyzed dynamics of the North American Monsoon may explain the fact that NEXRAD observations of convective injection of water occur most strongly in the Spring months while the EOS MLS instrument detects the majority of high water vapor observations during the Summer months.

  20. Project for the reduction in water consumption and minimization of refinery wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanna, A.; Ricci, G.; Dasiari, C.; Mazzani, G.

    1995-12-01

    Water conservation, waste reduction, and safeguarding the environment are major necessities for the development and protection of the world. An Agip Petroli Refinery in northern Italy, though situated in an industrial area where water supplies are not a problem, has launched a project to optimize water reuse and minimize the plant`s wastes. This paper describes the six-year program focusing on the reduction of water consumption and discharge, reduction in sludge volume, and the performance results of the cooling water system.