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1

Meren field water injection project offshore Nigeria  

SciTech Connect

The Meren Water Injection Project, which is one of the largest in West Africa in terms of injection volume, secondary reserves to be recovered and cost, is located in the Meren field offshore Nigeria. This study presents an updated comprehensive plan to deplete 7 reservoir units in sands that have been producing under solution gas drive and gravity segregation with minimal water influx. The reservoir units contain ca 80% of the original oil-in-place in Meren field. Detailed studies have been undertaken to evaluate the performances of the 7 reservoirs with a view to developing a secondary recovery plan which has been brought into reality. Injection was to start in mid-1982 but was delayed until mid-1983. The effect of the delay and the changing of injector locations on recovery and cost is discussed.

Adetoba, L.A.

1984-04-01

2

INJECTION PROFILE MODIFICATION IN A HOT, DEEP MINNELUSA WATER INJECTION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

As oil fields in the United States age, production enhancements and modifications will be needed to increase production from deeper and hotter oil reservoirs. New techniques and products must be tested in these areas before industry will adapt them as common practice. The Minnelusa fields of northeastern Wyoming are relatively small, deep, hot fields that have been developed in the past ten to twenty years. As part of the development, operators have established waterfloods early in the life of the fields to maximize cumulative oil production. However, channeling between injectors and producers does occur and can lead to excessive water production and bypassed oil left in the reservoir. The project evaluated the use of a recently developed, high-temperature polymer to modify the injection profiles in a waterflood project in a high-temperature reservoir. The field is the Hawk Point field in Campbell County, Wyoming. The field was discovered in 1986 and initially consisted of eight producing wells with an average depth of 11,500 feet and a temperature of 260 F (127 C). The polymer system was designed to plug the higher permeable channels and fractures to provide better conformance, i.e. sweep efficiency, for the waterflood. The project used a multi-well system to evaluate the treatment. Injection profile logging was used to evaluate the injection wells both before and after the polymer treatment. The treatment program was conducted in January 2000 with a treatment of the four injection wells. The treatment sizes varied between 500 bbl and 3,918 bbl at a maximum allowable pressure of 1,700 psig. Injection in three of the wells was conducted as planned. However, the injection in the fourth well was limited to 574 bbl instead of the planned 3,750 bbl because of a rapid increase in injection pressure, even at lower than planned injection rates. Following completion of polymer placement, the injection system was not started for approximately one week to permit the gel to set. The system then returned to operation as before the test with no major change in the fieldwide injection. The injection and production rates for the field were monitored for approximately one year to give the production side of the system time to stabilize. The polymer treatment conducted on the injection wells in Hawk Point is believed to be the largest treatment of a hot, deep reservoir to date. These injection well treatments did produce some change in the injection profile of the injection wells. However, it is very disappointing that there was no significant improvement in the performance of the field. There was no noticeable reduction in the water production, the water-oil ratio (WOR), or an increase in oil production. The cosponsor has determined that the field is currently at its economic limit because of the high cost of this deep operation and the continual downhole problems. A restructuring of the injection-production pattern is presently being done to prolong the life of the field.

Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

2001-09-01

3

HDR PROJECT SOULTZ: HYDRAULIC AND SEISMIC OBSERVATIONS DURING STIMULATION OF THE 3 DEEP WELLS BY MASSIVE WATER INJECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the HDR project Soultz is the geothermal power production based on an artificially created heat exchanger at 5000 m depth. During the years 1999-2004, three wells were drilled down to 5000 m, one injection (GPK3) and two production (GPK2 and GPK4) wells. After drilling, each well was stimulated by massive water injection with volumes up to 30000

T. Tischner; M. Schindler; R. Jung; P. Nami

4

Injection-water quality  

SciTech Connect

Ideally, injection water should enter the reservoir free of suspended solids or oil. It should also be compatible with the reservoir rock and fluids and would be sterile and nonscaling. This paper discusses how the objective of any water-injection operation is to inject water into the reservoir rock without plugging or permeability reduction from particulates, dispersed oil, scale formation, bacterial growth, or clay swelling. In addition, souring of sweet reservoirs by sulfate-reducing bacteria should be prevented if possible.

Patton, C.C. (C.C. Patton and Associates, Inc. (US))

1990-10-01

5

Corrosion control in water injection systems  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion control in water injection systems encompasses a wide range of technologies, including chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and oxygen scavengers); corrosion-resistant materials (metallic and nonmetallic); internal coatings and linings; mechanical removal of dissolved oxygen; velocity control; and prevention of oxygen entry and galvanic couples. This article reviews the way that these technologies are used in modern water-injection systems (both seawater and produced water) to provide an acceptable service life and high-quality injection water.

Patton, C.C. (C.C. Patton and Associates Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-08-01

6

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students from around the globe will team up to test fresh water. With this collaborative project, students will compare the water quality of their local river, stream, lake or pond with other fresh water sources around the world. The focus of the project is to assess the quality of water based on physical characteristics and chemical substances, and to look for relationships and trends among the data collected by all project participants.

2009-01-01

7

Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

Norum, Thomas D.

2004-01-01

8

Global Water Sampling Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Stevens Institute of Technology's Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education (CIESE) has developed this project for middle school and high school students around the world to team up and test fresh water. Educators may use this project to demonstrate the dynamics of scientific collaboration. Students will be required to identify organisms, assess water quality, and look for larger relationships and trends based on overall global findings. Over the course of the project, participating classes are required to submit a letter of introduction, data, and a final report. The project will run every spring and fall with the next run occurring between March 6 and May 26, 2000.

9

Passive safety injection system using borated water  

DOEpatents

A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

1993-01-01

10

Water development projects map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new map showing major water development projects across the United States has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The map shows the location, size, and ownership of approximately 2800 of the nation's major multipurpose and flood control dams and virtually all of the reservoir storage and flood control capacity of the country. Other features illustrated on the map include U.S. Bureau of Reclamation surface water irrigation projects; watershed protection projects of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service; hydroelectric power facilities, including both federal plants and nonfederal plants leased by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigation and flood damage reduction projects; and the federal systems of wild and scenic rivers. The map also delineates major rivers and the 21 USGS water resources region boundaries so that users of the map can locate development projects with respect to drainage basins.

11

Water vapor - Stratospheric injection by thunderstorms.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Infrared radiometric inference measurements of the mass of water vapor injected into the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere by a number of plains thunderstorms show an average threefold increase over the fair weather background mass of water vapor. These airborne measurements, made from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Convair 990 jet laboratory, extended over a sample size much larger than that possible by balloon and other techniques.

Kuhn, P. M.; Lojko, M. S.; Petersen, E. V.

1971-01-01

12

Lesotho Highlands Water Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Kingdom of Lesotho is a tiny landlocked country, about the size of the state of Maryland, and it is completely surrounded by South Africa. Its most significant natural resource is water, and thus the majority of its economy is based on providing water and electricity to South Africa. The Lesotho Highlands Water Project website is a window into the effects such a large water project can have on a community, arguably some of them negative. For instance, visitors should check out the "FAQs" section to read some of the issues that have come up with the project, including loss of property and livelihood. The "Documents & Reports" link has dozens of documents, including ones about "IFR" (which stands for Instream Flow Requirement), "Hydrology" and "Studies & Special Reports". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Villages of the Dammed Response", under "Studies & Special Reports", which is an excellent letter to the editor at the Globe and Mail that highlights the debate surrounding the Water Project and what it promises.

13

International Water Law Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As clean water has increasingly become a resource subject to scarcity, international politics and law have become involved with the issues of access to and maintenance of water sources. This site provides comprehensive information on the subject, featuring full texts of the major diplomatic documents, including rules on international groundwaters and rivers agreed upon at UN conferences in Helsinki and Seoul, treaty drafts, regional agreements as well as international case law, an extensive bibliography, and links to related sites. The site was conceived and developed by Gabriel Eckstein in conjunction with The World's Water project of the Pacific Institute.

Eckstein, Gabriel.

14

Assessment of Injection Well Construction and Operation for Water Injection Wells and Salt Water Disposal Wells  

E-print Network

practices to determine if factors other than brine extraction (i.e. downward flow of fresh water within such as drilling mud and work- over fluids. These are all shallow wells using injected fresh water to dissolve salt. In a single well system using either a single tubing or dual tubing configuration, fresh water is pumped

15

Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed irregularities. The so-called pumping model provided good estimates of the storage in the hyporheic zone under different stream discharges and stream flow conditions along streams. Evaluations Hobøl River, Norway, and Säva Brook, Sweden, at two occasions in both stream indicate that the relative residence time in the hyporheic zone is linearly proportional to the squared Froude Number. The residence time is scaled with water depth and hydraulic conductivity of the bed. The effect of such transient storage in e.g. the hyporheic zone gives rise to a tailing, but the breakthrough curve become increasingly symmetrical with Damköhler number. Such a symmetrical breakthrough can be erroneously taken as an effect of in-stream dispersion, even though this similarity is merely due to the physical analogy of various advection velocities over the transport cross-section, differential advection.

Wörman, A.

2009-04-01

16

Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

Daggett, David L.

2005-01-01

17

Development of gas turbine steam injection water recovery (SIWR) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and discusses a closed-loop'' steam injection water recovery (SIWR) cycle that was developed for steam-injected gas turbine applications. This process is needed to support gas turbine steam injection especially in areas where water cannot be wasted and complex water treatment is discouraged. The development of the SIWR was initiated by NOVA in an effort to reduce the

H. B. Nguyen; A. den Otter

1994-01-01

18

Suspended solids specifications for water injection from coreflood tests  

SciTech Connect

A method based on the results of laboratory coreflood tests is proposed for predicting the injectivity decline rate of water injectors. The aim of this method is to provide design specifications for water treatment and injection facilities and procedures with which well injectivity behavior can be analyzed. To illustrate the results that can be obtained with the proposed method, data from coreflood tests are used to construct injectivity-decline-rate curves for an arbitrary injection well.

Eylander, J.G.R. (Petroleum Development Oman LLC. (OM))

1988-11-01

19

Modeling of Water Injection into a Vacuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A loosely coupled two-phase vacuum water plume model has been developed. This model consists of a source flow model to describe the expansion of water vapor, and the Lagrangian equations of motion for particle trajectories. Gas/Particle interaction is modeled through the drag force induced by the relative velocities. Particles are assumed traveling along streamlines. The equations of motion are integrated to obtain particle velocity along the streamline. This model has been used to predict the mass flux in a 5 meter radius hemispherical domain resulting from the burst of a water jet of 1.5 mm in diameter, mass flow rate of 24.2 g/s, and stagnation pressure of 21.0 psia, which is the nominal Orbiter water dump condition. The result is compared with an empirical water plume model deduced from a video image of the STS-29 water dump. To further improve the model, work has begun to numerically simulate the bubble formation and bursting present in a liquid stream injected into a vacuum. The technique of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to formulate this simulation. A status and results of the on-going effort are presented and compared to results from the literature.

Alred, John W.; Smith, Nicole L.; Wang, K. C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Fitzgerald, Steven M.

1997-01-01

20

Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification  

SciTech Connect

Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

2003-01-01

21

Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

Lantz, H. B., Jr.

22

Status of NINJA: the Numerical INJection Analysis project  

E-print Network

The 2008 NRDA conference introduced the Numerical INJection Analysis project (NINJA), a new collaborative effort between the numerical relativity community and the data analysis community. NINJA focuses on modeling and searching for gravitational wave signatures from the coalescence of binary system of compact objects. We review the scope of this collaboration and the components of the first NINJA project, where numerical relativity groups shared waveforms and data analysis teams applied various techniques to detect them when embedded in colored Gaussian noise.

Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Laura Cadonati; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterjis; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

2009-05-26

23

Water, Power, and Development in Twenty-First Century China: The Case of the South-North Water Transfer Project.  

E-print Network

??Through a mixed qualitative approach, this dissertation injects politics into an otherwise apolitical discussion of the largest water management project in human history, China's South-North… (more)

Crow-Miller, Brittany Leigh

2013-01-01

24

THE AUSTRALIAN SYNCHROTRON PROJECT STORAGE RING AND INJECTION SYSTEM OVERIVEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will give an overview of the Australian Synchrotron Project (ASP) storage ring and injection system (1). The ASP storage ring is a 3 GeV machine with 14 identical cells and a circumference of 216 m. The unit cell is based on a Double Bend Achromat (DBA) structure. The present design of the magnet lattice and the results of

Betatron Tune

25

Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

1980-01-01

26

SURFACE WATER EMAP PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The surface water component of the EPA Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Western Pilot is a five-year effort to assess the ecological condition of rivers and streams across 12 states in the western United States. EMAP is designed to monitor indicators of poll...

27

Water mist injection in oil shale retorting  

DOEpatents

Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

1980-07-30

28

Water Jet Impingement Flow Characteristics in Direct Vessel Injection System  

SciTech Connect

Water jet impingement is a peculiar phenomenon in the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) in which the safety injection nozzle is located in the outer reactor vessel, not in the cold leg such as in OPR1000 (Optimized Power Reactor 1,000 MWe). Therefore, the injected emergency core coolant (ECC) water spreads with a form of parabolic liquid film in the inner barrel after impinging. It is presently considered that the downcomer flow behavior is strongly governed by the location and geometry of the water injection nozzles. The impingement in the reactor vessel downcomer is one of the unknown important phenomena during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). There is thus a strong need to find how the injected flow strikes the inner downcomer wall and how wide the liquid film spreads by the impingement phenomenon. The liquid film gets in contact with the steam flow in the reactor downcomer such that the interfacial area of liquid film affects the direct bypass according to the nozzle location and geometry. The water jet impingement consists of three rather distinctive flow regions. Albeit the relevant hydrodynamic characteristics are simple and well known in simple geometries, the findings are not readily applicable in the annular reactor downcomer. Analytical and experimental approaches for impingement flow by water injection have yielded detailed flow mechanisms classified in the downcomer. The water injected through three boundaries showed varying behavior according to the injection velocity, injection nozzle diameter, wall curvature, and injection nozzle inclination. As the water injection velocity increases the liquid film spreading width increases, but the spreading width proportional to the injection velocity is tapered due to breakup. Given the injection velocity, a large diameter of injection nozzle increases the film spreading width. Impingement on the flat plate has a larger film spreading width than on the curved plate. Moreover, a larger curvature decreases the film spreading width. The inclined angle of the injection nozzle is a pivotal factor in reducing the film width by increasing the downward velocity. Given the same conditions, the film spreading width lessens as the inclined angle increases. (authors)

Yoon, Sang H. [Seoul National University and PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., San 56-1 Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kune Y. [PHILOSOPHIA, Inc., San 56-1 Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

29

Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

2011-01-01

30

Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processe...

K. Pruess

1995-01-01

31

Water injected fuel cell system compressor  

DOEpatents

A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

Siepierski, James S. (Williamsville, NY); Moore, Barbara S. (Victor, NY); Hoch, Martin Monroe (Webster, NY)

2001-01-01

32

Secondary Water Recovery by Air Injection: 3. Evaluation of Feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical simulation indicated that secondary water recovery by air injection could be technically feasible in aquifers with thick unsaturated zones, confining top layers, high ratio of horizontal-to-vertical permeability, and low intrinsic permeability, and high irreducible air saturations, i.e., clayey textures. Injection at the top of the unsaturated zone, venting the well to the atmosphere immediately after the end of air

George J. Moridis; Donald L. Reddell

1991-01-01

33

Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

2014-01-01

34

Evaluating reservoir production strategies in miscible and immiscible gas-injection projects  

E-print Network

, comprehensive reservoir engineering and project monitoring are necessary for typical miscible flood projects than for other recovery methods. This project evaluated effects of important factors such as injection pressure, vertical-to-horizontal permeability...

Farzad, Iman

2004-11-15

35

Fahud field review: A switch from water to gas injection  

SciTech Connect

The water injection schemes implemented in the Fahud field during the early 1970's led to poor recoveries because the reservoirs were both fractured and oil-wet. On the basis of the results of a thorough performance review, it was decided in 1983 to promote gas/oil gravity drainage fully by drilling rows of downdip producers and switching completely from water to gas injection. This paper investigates the reasons behind each stage of development and reviews recent efforts to evaluate the future production potential through the use of dual-porosity simulators.

O'Neill, N.

1988-05-01

36

Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

Pruess, Karsten

2006-11-06

37

Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

2002-01-01

38

Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

39

Hydrological and chemical monitoring during Fluid Injection Test in Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project drilled two research boreholes (Hole A and B; approximately 40 m of their distance) through the Chelungpu Fault in Da-Keng, which ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake, in 2004. A branched borehole was drilled from Hole B in 2005 (Hole C), and then both Hole A and Hole C were perforated at the depth of the fault zone. The depth of perforation is 1111 m in Hole A and 1137 m in Hole C. Between the two boreholes, Fluid Injection Test (FIT) was performed on from November 2006 to March 2007 to estimate permeability and to understand hydrological and chemical properties along Chelungpu fault. Water was injected four times from Hole C at constant pressure during this FIT (4 MPa on November 2006 and January 2007, 3 and 5 MPa on March 2007). The arrival of injected water was monitored by seismometers, manometers, a Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and chemical sensors at Hole A. In this present, we will report the results of water quality, gas and water pressure monitoring at Hole A. During FIT, tap water was used for injected water, which was characterized by high Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP; 250 mV) and high Dissolved Oxygen (DO; 5.6 mg/L). Because both ORP and DO of the well water at Hole A kept low (ORP; -350 - -150, DO; <0.5 mg/L) before FIT, the arrival of injected water can be found by rise of these values. 1st FIT was performed for approximately 100 hours from 22:00 on 7th to 8:30 on 12th November. As a result, the values of ORP and DO increased on 10th November, which is 3 days after the start of 1st FIT. Then, the flow rate at Hole A suddenly increased 7 days after the first chemical reaction on 10th, that is, 10 days after the start of 1st FIT. This suggests that the permeability is 10-16 m2 assuming that the width of a permeable zone is 1 m by the preliminary estimation of the permeability based on the model of Kitagawa et al. (2002).

Murakami, M.; Tanaka, H.; Kuo, T.; Tsao, C.; Giletycz, S.; Chen, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, C.; Yang, T.; Ma, K.

2007-12-01

40

Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) modeling of a proposed stimulation injection associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths below 3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring from the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11), located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir.

Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Dobson, P.F.

2010-02-01

41

The global water systems project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Water System (GWS) plays a central and integrative role in the dynamics of the Earth system. It is a regulator of biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes, and it is also is essential for sustenance of human societies. The GWS is increasingly modified by humans and through climate effects (facets of it have moved well outside the range of natural variability), without adequate understanding of how the system works. For understanding the changes, feedbacks and potentially critical thresholds within the Earth system, and eventually for better managing the GWS, new synthetic knowledge is required. The Global Water System Project (GWSP) is a new activity being undertaken jointly by the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), International Geophshere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), International Human Dimensions Program (IHP), and Diversitas. It will address the GWS in a comprehensive fashion at the global scale, building upon the emerging new consolidated Earth systems data sets, global monitoring tools, and predictive and coupled modeling capabilities. The central scientific question that motivates the GWSP is: "How are humans changing the global water cycle, the associated biogeochemical cycles, and the biological components of the GWS, and what are the social feedbacks arising from these changes?" GWSP will be structured around three "framing questions": a) What are the relative magnitudes of global-scale changes in the global water system that are attributable to changing human activities, and to environmental factors such as climate variability and change?; b) What are the main mechanisms by which human activities are affecting the global water system; and c) To what extent is the global water system resilient to global change? Examples of issues that might be addressed under each of these questions are provided.

Hoff, H.; Jaeger, C.; Leveque, C.; Lettenmaier, D.; Lins, H.; Meybeck, M.; Niasse, M.; Vorosmarty, C.

2003-04-01

42

Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect

Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

Not Available

1993-05-01

43

Suppression of Tip Vortex Cavitation by Water and Polymer Injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tip vortex cavitation (TVC) is typically the first form of cavitation observed in propellers; therefore a delay of its inception is desirable. In this study, TVC inception was delayed via mass injection from the tip of a modified NACA-66 elliptic plan-form hydrofoil. The injected mass used were water and Polyox WSR 301 solutions with concentrations from 10 to 500 ppm. The free-stream nuclei content was measured using a Cavitation Susceptibility Meter, and the TVC inception event rate was quantified with a light scattering system. The vortical flow field in the region of inception was characterized using Stereo Particle Imaging and Velocimetry (SPIV), with measurements taken from 0.25 to 1 chord length at various concentrations and injection rates. It was observed that TVC inception was delayed with injection by a ?? of 0.03 to 1.8 from a baseline of ? = 3.5. Injection with higher polymer concentrations and higher volume flux led to larger delays. A saturation effect for the TVC suppression was observed for both the polymer concentration (125ppm) and volume flux rate (Qj/Qc = 0.48). These effects are related to the SPIV flow field.

Chang, Natasha; Yakushiji, Ryo; Ceccio, Steven

2008-11-01

44

Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil  

E-print Network

, attempts have been made to inject hot water instead of steam. The results have all been rather poor, the major problem being low sweep efficiency. The hot water just doesn?t enhance oil recovery enough. Adding propane to the steam injected in the reservoir...

Nesse, Thomas

2005-02-17

45

Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects  

E-print Network

Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects A.Keller, S. Hughes, S. Bennett, M, the Metropolitan Water District, the California Urban Water Conservation Council, Santa Clara Valley Water District) as a result of energy and water conservation; ~ Determined total cost of implementing the conservation

Keller, Arturo A.

46

Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project  

E-print Network

Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project September 14, 2004 to June 1, 2005 Progress responding to water quality and conservation issues with educational assistance, technology development and technology transfer programs. #12;2 Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project Annual Report Sept. 15

47

Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project  

E-print Network

1 Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project September 14, 2000 to May 1, 2006 Progress responding to water quality and conservation issues with educational assistance, technology development and technology transfer programs. #12;Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project September 15, 2000

48

CFD Validation of Gas Injection into Stagnant Water  

SciTech Connect

Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant water have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant water. Flow visualization data were obtained with a high-speed camera for the comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. The CFD model is validated with these experimental measurements at different gas flow rates. The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The acoustic signature aspect of this validation is particularly interesting since it has applicability to the injection of gas into liquid mercury, which is opaque.

Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL

2007-01-01

49

Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

2010-01-01

50

LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics  

SciTech Connect

This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

NONE

1996-01-01

51

An experimental study of steam injection into a uniform water flow through porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of steam injection into a porous media was carried out in a 2-dimensional plane porous channel. The steam was injected into a uniform downward water flow in a vertically aligned porous channel. The steam-water interface was carefully observed to understand the underlying physics. Two steam injection rate bounds were found for a given water flow rate and

I. Catton; M. Chung

1992-01-01

52

Fourth SPE comparative solution project: Comparison of steam injection simulators  

SciTech Connect

Three related steam injection problems are presented along with simulation results for them obtained from six organizations. The problems selected for comparison were intended to exercise many of the features of thermal models that are of practical and theoretical interest. The first problem deals with three cycles of cyclic steam injection and the other two problems deal with steam displacement in an inverted nine-spot pattern. The first two problems are of ''black-oil'' type and the third of compositional type. Complete data are presented for these problems. The comparison of solutions indicates good agreement for most of the results of importance in field operations.

Aziz, K.; Ramesh, A.B.; Woo, P.T.

1987-12-01

53

Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-03-01

54

Death by Water: Precautionary Water Submersion for Intravitreal Injection of Retinoblastoma Eyes  

PubMed Central

There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here. PMID:24949111

Francis, Jasmine H; Xu, Xiaoliang L; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P; Brodie, Scott E; Abramson, David H

2014-01-01

55

Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

1996-01-01

56

UK Droughts & Water Scarcity WP Project Title  

E-print Network

UK Droughts & Water Scarcity Lead Grant Reference WP Project Title Research Organisation Grant Holder Excellence Rank NE/L01016X/1 WP1 Analysis of historic drought and water scarcity in the UK 2 NE/L010364/1 WP3 MaRIUS: Managing the Risks, Impacts and Uncertainties of droughts and water

57

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

58

Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

None

1997-11-01

59

Tracing and age-dating injected groundwater of the west basin barrier project, Los Angeles, CA  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary report summarizes results from isotopic data recently generated on water collected for the West Basin Municipal Water District (WBMWD). Samples comprised monitoring and production wells up to 3.5 miles form the injection barrier, in addition to barrier product and blend water.

Davisson, M L; Eaton, Gp; Hudson, G B; Koester, C

1999-03-26

60

Design of beam injection and extraction for HIRFL-CSR project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new national key project HIRFL-CSR [1-3] is an extending project of present HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou) project, which consists of two cooler storage rings (CSR). The beam accumulation, injection and extraction of the rings are described in this paper. For the beam accumulation two schemes will be adopted: multiple multiturn injection scheme and RF stacking scheme. Both fast and slow extraction from the rings will be arranged in the same channels. All the above requirements result in complicated ring structures.

Yuan, Y. J.; Tang, J. Y.; Song, M. T.; Xia, J. W.; Long, J. Y.

2001-12-01

61

Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

Kandula, Max

2008-01-01

62

Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

1951-01-01

63

Efficiency Projects and Water Reuse  

E-print Network

Efficiency In A Small Utility Bill Pannell bill.pannell@cleburne.net City of Cleburne ESL-KT-11-11-36 ?Efficiency In A Small Utility Are We As Efficient As We Can Be?? Reduce Water ?Loss? Thru Better Auditing And Metering Improvements...?? ? Where should you focus your capital and effort? ? Routine, meaningful, audits are the first step in answering these critical questions. ? TWDB program is the best proven method, and best of all ? it is free! ? The ?Assessment Scale scores...

Pannell, B.

2011-01-01

64

Sorbent injection into a slipstream baghouse for mercury control: Project summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project led by the Energy and Environmental Research Center to test and demonstrate sorbent injection as a cost-effective mercury control technology for utilities burning lignites has shown effective mercury capture under a range of operating conditions. Screening, parametric, and long-term tests were carried out at a slipstream facility representing an electrostatic precipitator–activated carbon injection–fabric filter configuration (called a TOXECON™

Jeffrey S. Thompson; John H. Pavlish; Lucinda L. Hamre; Melanie D. Jensen; David Smith; Steve Podwin; Lynn A. Brickett

2009-01-01

65

NO /SUB x/ abatement via water injection in aircraft-derivative turbine engines  

SciTech Connect

The results of analytical and experimental investigations to develop efficient and reliable water injection methods for reducing the nitrogen oxides (NO /SUB x/ ) levels of the LM2500 and LM5000 engines are presented. These aircraft-derivative turbine engines are equipped with compact annular combustors. In these investigations, various methods of injecting water into the combustor primary zone were evaluated in combustor and engine tests to identify methods with minimal water flow requirements for a given degree of NO /SUB x/ abatement. Primary emphasis was focused on the development of methods of injecting liquid water into the engines when operating with distillate fuels. Methods of injecting both liquid water and steam when operating with natural gas were also investigated. The impacts of water injection on combustor and engine performance and operability were additionally assessed. Satisfactory accommodation of water/fuel weight ratios above unity and associated NO /SUB x/ level reductions as high as 90 percent were demonstrated.

Bahr, D.W.; Lyon, T.F.

1984-06-01

66

Technological and economical analysis of water recovery in steam injected gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam injected gas turbines are an interesting technology for co-generation applications. In these gas turbines the heat of the exhaust gases is used to produce steam. This steam is injected in the combustion chamber, resulting in a high specific power and a high thermal efficiency. A major disadvantage of steam injected gas turbines is the large water consumption. Placing a

M. De Paepe; E. Dick

2001-01-01

67

Sodium-water reaction acoustic noise for liquid phase injections. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

Data on liquid and steam injections into sodium were recorded during a series of wastage experiments. These data are analyzed for acoustic power and spectral characteristics, expanding the data base up to 10 gm/sec injection rates from the earlier 0.5 gms/sec. No significant difference in acoustic power was measured between low temperature steam and liquid injections for the same mass flowrates. The bandwidth for steam injections is broader than for liquid injections. Reaction product deposition during water injections appears to cause a decrease in signal strength with test duration.

Callis, K.R.; Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.

1981-02-01

68

Illinois drainage water management demonstration project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Due to naturally high water tables and flat topography, there are approximately 4 million ha (10 million ac) of farmland artificially drained with subsurface (tile) systems in Illinois. Subsurface drainage is practiced to insure trafficable field conditions for farm equipment and to reduce crop stress from excess water within the root zone. Although drainage is essential for economic crop production, there have been some significant environmental costs. Tile drainage systems tend to intercept nutrient (nitrate) rich soil-water and shunt it to surface water. Data from numerous monitoring studies have shown that a significant amount of the total nitrate load in Illinois is being delivered to surface water from tile drainage systems. In Illinois, these drainage systems are typically installed without control mechanisms and allow the soil to drain whenever the water table is above the elevation of the tile outlet. An assessment of water quality in the tile drained areas of Illinois showed that approximately 50 percent of the nitrate load was being delivered through the tile systems during the fallow period when there was no production need for drainage to occur. In 1998, a demonstration project to introduce drainage water management to producers in Illinois was initiated by NRCS4 An initial aspect of the project was to identify producers that were willing to manage their drainage system to create a raised water table during the fallow (November-March) period. Financial assistance from two federal programs was used to assist producers in retrofitting the existing drainage systems with control structures. Growers were also provided guidance on the management of the structures for both water quality and production benefits. Some of the retrofitted systems were monitored to determine the effect of the practice on water quality. This paper provides background on the water quality impacts of tile drainage in Illinois, the status of the demonstration project, preliminary monitoring results, and other observations.

Pitts, D.J.; Cooke, R.; Terrio, P.J.

2004-01-01

69

Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

1995-10-01

70

Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

Becker, Arthur

2006-01-01

71

75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North...National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA...for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS...National Environmental Policy Act assessment for the...Cumulative impacts of water withdrawals on Lake...

2010-08-13

72

75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North...National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA...for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS...National Environmental Policy Act assessment for the...Cumulative impacts of water withdrawals on Lake...

2010-08-12

73

Logical approach yields correct injection water quality. [North sea oil wells  

SciTech Connect

North Sea oil fields need water injection to maintain reservoir pressure. Sea water thus directly injected contains suspended solids of 0.2 to 0.8 mg/l, composed mostly of plankton. To prevent plugging of tubulars, filters of sand, dual media, diatomaceous earth, or cartridge construction may be used. In the end, the nature of the reservoir will determine the degree of filtration needed. Other treatments of the injection water may be called for to minimize corrosion and to inhibit bacterial growth. 6 refs.

King, P.J.; Robinson, K.

1981-10-01

74

Pressure-Transient Testing of Water-Injection Wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an interpretation method for injectivity and falloff testing in a single-layer oil reservoir that is under waterflooding and develops analytical solutions for pressure and saturation distributions. The effects of relative permeability, wellbore storage, and skin are considered in these solutions. New field-dependent type curves for falloff tests, which exhibit features that do not appear in the currently

Maghsood Abbaszadeh; Medhat Kamal

1989-01-01

75

Thermal signature reduction through liquid nitrogen and water injection  

E-print Network

. The research efforts investigated two approaches to shield the thermal signature of the Noel Penny Type 401 turbojet at the Texas A&M University Propulsion Lab Test Cell. First, liquid nitrogen was injected through a manifold at a flow rate equivalent...

Guarnieri, Jason Antonio

2005-02-17

76

CARBONATED WATER INJECTION FOR OIL RECOVERY AND CO2 STORAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 injection is increasingly considered as having potential applications as a possible enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process for oil reservoirs. Storage potential of these reservoirs to store CO2 for a long period of time also provides an opportunity to develop sustainable solutions in response to the challenge of continued use of fossil fuels, climate-change and compliance with national and international

M. Sohrabi; M. Riazi; M. Jamiolahmady; S. Ireland; C. Brown

77

A compact flow injection analysis system for surface mapping of phosphate in marine waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design, construction and validation of a compact, portable flow injection analysis (FIA) instrument for underway analysis of phosphate in marine waters is described. This portable system employs gas pressure for reagent propulsion and computer controlled miniature solenoid valves for precise injection of multiple reagents into a flowing stream of filtered sample. A multi-reflection flow cell with a solid state

Amanda J Lyddy-Meaney; Peter S Ellis; Paul J Worsfold; Edward C. V Butler; Ian D McKelvie

2002-01-01

78

Enhanced particle fluxes in Bay of Bengal induced by injection of fresh water  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE melting of ice sheets during deglaciation results in the injection of large amounts of fresh water into the oceans1. To investigate how such injections might influence particle fluxes in the ocean, and hence the uptake of atmospheric CO2, we deployed three sediment-trap moorings (two traps in each mooring) in the northern, central and southern parts of the Bay of

V. Ittekkot; R. R. Nair; S. Honjo; V. Ramaswamy; M. Bartsch; S. Manganini; B. N. Desai

1991-01-01

79

Control of water coning in gas reservoirs by injecting gas into the aquifer  

E-print Network

of water in the producing well. fiost research on water coning has been directed toward minimizing water production by reduced well penetration or production rate con- tro1. An alternative method for gas wells with water coning problems, is to inject.... This gives high water cuts in the early stages of the succeeding production, when gas is injected deep in the aquifer. This was not a significant problem for the high permeability ratio. When the well is put on production, the established cone overrides...

Haugen, Sigurd Arild

2012-06-07

80

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

Not Available

1994-06-01

81

BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

Unknown

1999-10-01

82

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the US Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I -- design; Phase II -- construction; and Phase III -- operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. A 100% construction review meeting was held in December and attended by representatives of DOE, Fluor Daniel and Bethlehem Steel. The coal preparation mills were started up in December, 1994, and the first coal was injected into ``D`` blast furnace on December 19, 1994. Near the end of the year, the grinding mills and injection facility were being prepared for performance testing during the first quarter of 1995. The demonstration test program (phase III) will start in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-07-01

83

Modeling and Analysis of Reservoir Response to Stimulation by Water Injection  

E-print Network

The distributions of pore pressure and stresses around a fracture are of interest in conventional hydraulic fracturing operations, fracturing during water-flooding of petroleum reservoirs, shale gas, and injection/extraction operations in a...

Ge, Jun

2011-02-22

84

Shipboard flow injection determination of sea water pH with spectrophotometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a flow injection system with spectrophotometric detection for the measurement of sea water pH is described. The acid-base absorption properties of phenol red injected into a sea water stream are measured. The performance of the technique in a shipboard environment is evaluated and shown to have a working precision of ±0.005 pH units with a sampling frequency

Richard G. J. Bellerby; David R. Turner; Geoffrey E. Millward; Paul J. Worsfold

1995-01-01

85

Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury's Cranfield, Mississippi, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood. Injection was started in July 2008 and has now achieved injection rates greater than 1.2 million tons/year though 23 wells, with cumulative mass injected as of August, 2010 of 2.2 million metric tons. Injection is into coarse grained fluvial deposits of the Cretaceous lower Tuscaloosa Formation in a gentle anticline at depths of 3300 m. A team of researchers from 10 institutions has collected data from five study areas, each with a different goal and different spatial and temporal scale. The Phase 2 study began at the start of injection and has been using pressure and temperature as a tool for assessing permanence mostly in the oil productive interval. Real-time read-out shows high sensitivity to distant changes in injection rate and confirms the geologic model of reservoir compartmentalization. Above-zone pressure monitoring ???120 m above the injection interval is used to test the sensitivity of this approach for documentation of integrity of the confining system in an area of numerous well completions as pressure increase is induced in the reservoir by more than 70 bar. Monitoring of the High Volume Injection Test (HiVIT) area includes repeat measurements of aqueous geochemistry in the injection zone. Rock-water-CO 2 interactions in the reservoir as CO2 dissolves are minimized by mineral "armoring" by abundant chlorite cement in high permeability reservoir sandstone. Geochemical monitoring of confined freshwater aquifers at depths of 70-100 m is underway. Groundwater analysis focuses on assessment of the sensitivity of this method to detect leakage above background variability. A repeat seismic survey of the HiVIT is planned for late 2010 to assess saturation change especially in downdip brine-only areas. A study focused on feasibility of monitoring the shallow subsurface to separate leakage from normal complex surface fluxes is underway at an monitoring array installed in October 2009 to assess the interactions of recharge, soil gas, and shallow groundwater aquifers. Recent well re-entry and tracer injection will provide further information to interpret observed elevated deep-sourced methane. The Detailed Area Study (DAS) is collecting dense time-lapse data from closely-spaced three well array of an injector and two observation wells. The observation wells were completed with fiberglass casing to facilitate electrical resistance tomography (ERT) measurements, and a diverse array of instrumentation was both cemented behind casing and suspended on tubing. Injection started at the DAS December 1, 2009. We have measured pulsed neutron and resistivity via wireline, downhole and above-zone pressure, distributed temperature, and fluid chemistry including introduced pulses of perfluorocarbons, noble gases, and SF6 as tracers. Between wells, time-lapse crosswell seismic and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) are used to measure saturation change. The goals are to measure changes as fluids evolve from single phase (brine) to two phase (CO2-brine) in order to document linkages between pressure and sweep efficiency. A time-lapse VSP survey bridges the vertical resolution and areal coverage between cross-well and surface seismic. The repeat surveys for many tools are scheduled for September, 2010. Reservoir characterization based on cores, historic and new wireline log data, production history, hydrologic tests, fluid analysis, and a three-D seismic survey have been used in multiple numerical models to predict reservoir response in order to design effective monitoring strategies and optimize deployment. History matching of observed respons

Hovorka, S. D.; Meckel, T. A.; Trevino, R. H.; Lu, J.; Nicot, J. -P.; Choi, J. -W.; Freeman, D.; Cook, P.; Daley, T. M.; Ajo-Franklin, J. B.; Freifeild, B. M.; Doughty, C.; Carrigan, C. R.; La-Brecque, D.; Kharaka, Y. K.; Thordsen, J. J.; Phelps, T. J.; Yang, C.; Romanak, K. D.; Zhang, T.; Holt, R. M.; Lindler, J. S.; Butsch, R. J.

2011-01-01

86

Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport  

SciTech Connect

Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

M.A. Plummer

2013-09-01

87

Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

Sung, Meagan

88

Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Projection. Annual Report, Jan 1 - Dec 31, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This 1997 annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at the Burns Harbor Plant of Bethlehem Steel Corporation. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to use British Steel technology1*2 that uses granular coal to provide a portion of the fuel requirements of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical and economic issues associated with the use of coal for injection into blast furnaces. To achieve the progmm objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at the Burns Harbor Plant (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

None

1998-04-01

89

Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection System Demonstration Project public design report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

The public design report describes the Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection (BFGCI) project under construction at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. The project is the first installation in the United States for the British Steel technology using granular coal in blast furnaces. The objective is to demonstrate that granular coal is an economic and reliable fuel which can successfully be applied to large North American blast furnaces. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: Phase I-Design; Phase II-Procurement & Construction; and Phase III-Operation. Preliminary design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in April 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began August 1993. Construction is expected to be complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by a demonstration test program (Phase III).

NONE

1995-03-01

90

The Effect of Temperature, Pressure, and Mixing Ratio of the Injection Water With Formation Water on Strontium Sulfate Scale Formation in the Siri Oilfield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhanced oil recovery methods are used to recover the percents of oil that are not naturally recoverable from reservoirs. Water injection as a secondary recovery is used to maintain the pressure in water-drive reservoirs. An important point for having a successful injection is the compatibility of injection and formation waters. OLI ScaleChem software predicts mineral scaling potentials of 54 solids

M. Amiri; J. Moghadasi; M. Pordel

2012-01-01

91

Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

2012-05-01

92

Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of

M. G. Ortiz; L. S. Ghan

1991-01-01

93

Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of

M. G. Ortiz; L. S. Ghan

1991-01-01

94

Comparing strategies: State funding of capital projects versus water conservation  

E-print Network

10 tx H2O Winter 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director COMPARING STRATEGIES State funding of capital projects versus water conservation The Texas Legislature seems intent on helping local water...-cost capital projects, such as reservoirs and recycling systems, versus conservation projects, such as high- e#16;ciency toilet distribution, industrial water-saving technology, elimination of water loss due to poor infrastructure and incentives...

Finch, Dr. Calvin

2013-01-01

95

The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote regional collaboration,  

E-print Network

The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote current and emerging water quality and quantity problems. Products emphasize seven major water resource of successful state programs, biennial water quality training for Extension agents, and a regional water quality

96

Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and West Charlotte counties, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and water-quality characteristics, construction of single-zone wells would eliminate cross-contamination and borehole interflow. Such a program, when combined with the plugging of shallow-cased wells having long open-hole intervals connecting multiple zones, would safeguard ground-water resources in the study area. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 feet below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The first well began injecting reverse-osmosis wastewater in 1984, and since then, other wells have been drilled and permitted for injection of treated sewage. A numerical model was used to evaluate injection-well design and potential for movement of injected wastewater within the hydrogeologic framework. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gallons per day for 10 years. In this simulation, a convection cell developed around the injection well with the buoyant fresh injectant rising to form a lens within the injection zone below the lower Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit. Around an ideal, fully penetrating well cased 50 feet into the injection zone and open from a depth of 1,150 feet to 2,050 feet, simulations show that the injectant moves upward to a depth of 940 feet, forms a lens about 600 feet thick, and spreads radially outward to a distance of about 2,300 feet after 10 years. Comparison simulations of injection through wells having open depth intervals of 1,150 to 1,400 feet and 1,450 to 2,050 feet demonstrate that such changes in well construction have little effect on the areal spread of the injectant lens or the rate of upward movement. Simulations also indicate that reverse-osmosis wastewater injected beneath a supply well field, where water levels above the semiconfining unit are lowered 20 feet by pumping, would move upward after 10 years to a de

Hutchinson, C. B.

1992-01-01

97

Determination of colloid silver in drinking water by flow injection analysis with TLS spectrometric UV detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work flow injection analysis coupled to collinear dual beam thermal lens spectrometric UV detection was used for determination of silver in water. The detection is based on the increase in absorbance resulting from the formation of colloidal elemental silver due to reduction of Ag+ after reaction with BH4-. The optimal performance of the experimental setup was achieved with 500 ?L sample injection loops or larger and the flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The estimated limit of detection (LOD) for silver in water was 0.01 mg/L what compares favorably with the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for silver in drinking water.

Korte Kobylinska, D.; Bruzzoniti, M. C.; Sarzanini, C.; Franko, Mladen

2010-03-01

98

Secondary Water Recovery by Air Injection: 2. The Implicit Simultaneous Solution Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite difference equations of air and water flow in air-driven secondary water recovery define a multidimensional strongly nonlinear system with sharp pressure and saturation fronts, large differences in the magnitude of flow coefficients, physical and mathematical discontinuities, sudden flow reversals, and high injection rates. The implicit simultaneous solution (SS) method, which solves simultaneously for the unknown pressures and saturation

George J. Moridis; Donald L. Reddell

1991-01-01

99

Secondary Water Recovery by Air Injection 2. The Implicit Simultaneous Solution Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The finite difference equations of air and water flow in air-driven secondary water recovery define a multidimensional strongly nonlinear system with sharp pressure and saturation fronts, large differences in the magnitude of flow coefficients, physical and mathematical discontinuities, sudden flow reversals, and high injection rates. The implicit simultaneous solution (SS) method, which solves simultaneously for the unknown pressures and saturation

George J. Moridis; Donald L. Reddell

1991-01-01

100

2. INVESTIGATION OF CO2 GRAVITY DRAINAGE AFTER WATER INJECTION IN FRACTURED SYSTEMS  

E-print Network

- 60 - 2. INVESTIGATION OF CO2 GRAVITY DRAINAGE AFTER WATER INJECTION IN FRACTURED SYSTEMS 2 imbibition followed by CO2 gravity drainage in the Spraberrry Trend Area. Various experiments were conducted the process of CO2 gravity drainage after water imbibition. One of the main goals was to estimate

Schechter, David S.

101

Relative survival of striatal projection neurons and interneurons after intrastriatal injection of quinolinic acid in rats.  

PubMed

An excitotoxic process mediated by the NMDA type glutamate receptor may be involved in striatal neuron death in Huntington's disease (HD). To explore this possibility, we have injected an NMDA-receptor-specific excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QA), into the striatum in adult rats and 2-4 months postlesion explored the relative patterns of survival for the various different types of striatal projection neurons and interneurons and for the striatal efferent fibers in the different striatal projection areas. The perikarya of specific types of striatal neurons were identified by neurotransmitter immunohistochemical labeling or by retrograde labeling from striatal target areas, while the striatal efferent fiber plexuses were identified by neurotransmitter immunohistochemical labeling. The pattern of survival for the perikarya of each neuron type as a function of distance from the center of the injection site was determined, and the relative survival of each type was compared. For the fibers in target areas, computer-assisted image analysis was used to determine the degree of fiber loss for each projection target. In the study of perikaryal vulnerability, we found that the somatostatin-neuropeptide Y (SS/NPY) interneurons were the most vulnerable to QA and the cholinergic neurons were invulnerable to QA. The perikarya of all projection neuron types (striatopallidal, striatonigral, and striato-entopeduncular) were less vulnerable than the SS/NPY interneurons and more vulnerable than the cholinergic interneurons. Among projection neuron perikarya, there was evidence of differential vulnerability, with striatonigral neurons appearing to be the most vulnerable. Examination of immunolabeled striatal fibers in the striatal target areas indicated that striato-entopeduncular fibers better survived intrastriatal QA than did striatopallidal or striatonigral fibers. The apparent order of vulnerability observed in this study among projection neurons and/or their efferent fiber plexuses and the invulnerability observed in this study of cholinergic interneurons is similar to that observed in HD. The vulnerability of the SS/NPY interneurons to QA is, however, in stark contrast to their invulnerability in HD. The results thus suggest that although the excitotoxin hypothesis of striatal neuron death in HD has merit, QA injections into adult rat striatum do not strictly mimic the outcome in HD. This suggests that either adult rats are not a completely suitable subject for mimicking HD or the HD excitotoxic process does not involve a freely circulating excitotoxin such as QA. PMID:7925841

Figueredo-Cardenas, G; Anderson, K D; Chen, Q; Veenman, C L; Reiner, A

1994-09-01

102

Oil recovery process involving the injection of thickened water  

SciTech Connect

Waterflood oil recovery process involving the use of an amphoteric polyelectrolyte as a thickening agent for mobility control. The amphoteric polyelectrolyte is a copolymer of a quaternary vinyl pyridinium sulfonate and a water-insoluble alpha olefin or hydrogenated diene. Specifically disclosed are vinyl pyridinium sulfonate-styrene block copolymers. The amphoteric polyelectrolytes are stable in high temperature and high brine environments.

Byham, D.E.; Chen, C.S.; Sheppard, E.W.

1980-09-16

103

Multiscale Island Injection Genetic Algorithm for Ground Water Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithms have been shown to be powerful tools for solving a wide variety of water resources optimization problems. Applying these approaches to complex, large-scale applications, which is usually where these methods are most needed, can be difficult due to computational limitations. Large grid sizes are often needed for solving field-scale groundwater remediation design problems. Fine grids usually improve the

Eva Sinha; Barbara Minsker; Meghna Babbar

104

Turbine Inlet Analysis of Injected Water Droplet Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature at which it operates at peak capacity. In order to attain this temperature in the hotter months various cooling methods are used such as refrigeration inlet cooling systems, evaporative methods, and thermal energy storage systems. One of the more widely used is the evaporative systems because it is one of the safest and easiest to utilize method. However, the behavior of water droplets within the inlet to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets behave within the inlet so that water droplets above a critical diameter will not enter the compressor and cause damage to the compressor blades. In order to do this a FLUENT simulation was constructed in order to determine the behavior of the water droplets and if any droplets remain at the exit of the inlet, along with their size. In order to do this several engineering drawings were obtained from SRP and studies in order to obtain the correct dimensions. Then the simulation was set up using data obtained from SRP and Parker-Hannifin, the maker of the spray nozzles. Then several sets of simulations were run in order to see how the water droplets behaved under various conditions. These results were then analyzed and quantified so that they could be easily understood. The results showed that the possible damage to the compressor increased with increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. This is due in part to the fact that in order to keep a constant relative humidity at varying temperatures the mass fraction of water vapor in the air must be changed. As temperature increases the water vapor mass fraction must increase in order to maintain a constant relative humidity. This in turn makes it slightly increases the evaporation time of the water droplets. This will then lead to more droplets exiting the inlet and at larger diameters.

Hargrave, Kevin

105

Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

Somsel, James P.

1998-01-01

106

Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.  

PubMed

This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. PMID:24668583

Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

2014-09-01

107

Relative Permeability Studies of Gas-Water Flow Following Solvent Injection in Carbonate Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow studies were conducted of 19 preserved cores from four oil-wet carbonate reservoirs to provide data for evaluating the water-rich, gas-injection improved recovery process. Results indicate that these cores were water repellent following displacement of oil by a solvent similar to the reservoir solvent. Restored-state tests of some of the same cores following cleaning by a polar solvent yielded water-wet

F. N. Schneider; W. W. Owens

1976-01-01

108

Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

Perkins, H. C.

1974-01-01

109

Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 ?m should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

2004-01-01

110

Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

NONE

1995-05-01

111

Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

2011-01-01

112

Effect of water saturation on oil recovery by near-miscible gas injection  

SciTech Connect

During gas injection, bypassing of oil is common due to gravitational, viscous, and/or heterogeneity effects. The oil in the bypassed regions can be recovered through enhanced flow and mass transfer between the bypassed region and the injectant gas. Previously, experiments in our laboratory have been carried out to evaluate the effects of phase behavior and capillary crossflow in near-miscible gasfloods, however these studies were conducted in the absence of water. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of water saturation on oil bypassing and the rate of mass transfer from the bypassed zones. Injectant gases are first-contact miscible (FCM), multicontact miscible (MCM), or near-miscible with the bypassed oil. Gasfloods are conducted in different orientations with different levels of water saturation. Mass transfer experiments are carried out at to isolate and investigate mass transfer mechanisms. Results indicate that oil recovery from vertical, near-miscible gasfloods is not influenced by water saturation level. Horizontal gasfloods showed evidence of less gravity override in the presence of water. The mass transfer experiments showed that recovery increases with enrichment and is reduced by the presence of water. Effective diffusion coefficients are estimated as a function of water saturation and enrichment.

Wylie, P.; Mohanty, K.K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

113

Influence of water sorption on mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. This study investigated the influence of water sorption on certain mechanical properties of injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins. Materials and methods. Six thermoplastic resins (two polyamides, two polyesters, one polycarbonate, one polymethylmethacrylate) and a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) conventional heat-polymerized denture-based polymer, selected as a control, were tested. Specimens of each denture base material were fabricated according to ISO 1567 specifications and were either dry or water-immersed for 30 days (n = 10). The ultimate flexural strength, the flexural strength at the proportional limit and the elastic modulus of the denture base materials were calculated. Results. Water sorption significantly decreased the ultimate flexural strength, the flexural strength at the proportional limit and the elastic modulus of one of the polyamides and the PMMAs. It also significantly increased the ultimate flexural strength of the polycarbonate. Conclusion. The mechanical properties of some injection-molded thermoplastic denture base resins changed after water sorption. PMID:24850507

Hamanaka, Ippei; Iwamoto, Misa; Lassila, Lippo; Vallittu, Pekka; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Yutaka

2014-11-01

114

Stimulation of Water Injection Wells in the Los Angeles Basin By Using Sodium Hypochlorite and Mineral Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stimulation program was developed to improve injectivity and vertical coverage of water injection wells in the East Beverly Hills and San Vicente fields. Damage materials were removed by stimulating the wells with bleach and acid using a variety of tools and techniques. Two- to three-fold injectivity improvements were common, and vertical distribution was typically improved from an initial coverage

David Clementz; David Patterson; Richard Aseltine; Roger Young

1982-01-01

115

Gas exsolution and flow during supersaturated water injection in porous media: I. Pore network modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degassing and in situ development of a mobile gas saturation take place when an aqueous phase saturated with gas at a pressure higher than the subsurface pressure is injected in water-saturated porous media. In the first part of this work, a pore network model is used to study the key physical aspects of this novel and hitherto unexplored way of

Weishu Zhao; Marios A. Ioannidis

2011-01-01

116

Computer program calculates peripheral water injection cooling of axisymmetric subsonic diffuser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital computer program calculates the cooling effectiveness and flow characteristics resulting from the mixing of a cool liquid injectant /water/ with a hot sonic or subsonic gas stream /hydrogen/. The output of the program provides pressure, temperature, velocity, density, composition, and Mach number profiles at any location in the mixing duct.

Grey, J.

1968-01-01

117

Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

1978-01-01

118

Relative permeability studies of gas-water flow following solvent injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow studies were conducted on 19 preserved cores from 4 oil-wet carbonate reservoirs to provide data applicable to the evaluation of the water-rich gas injection improved recovery process. Results obtained indicate that these cores were water repellent following displacement of oil by a solvent similar to the reservoir solvent. Restored-state tests on some of the same cones following cleaning by

F. N. Schneider; W. W. owens

1975-01-01

119

Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

2008-01-01

120

78 FR 11947 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission...receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval...Harvey Drilling Pad, ABR- 201212015, Lemon Township, Wyoming County, Pa.;...

2013-02-20

121

78 FR 15402 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission...receiving approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's approval...Resources--Appalachia, LLC, Pad ID: Grays Run 6H-10H, ABR- 201301008,...

2013-03-11

122

The Relationship Analysis between Water Injection and Microfacies of SHA1 Reservoir of Liao He Basin, China  

PubMed Central

SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

2014-01-01

123

Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water sampling and numerical modeling were used to estimate ground-water nutrient fluxes in the Kihei area of Maui, where growth of macroalgae (seaweed) on coral reefs raises ecologic concerns and accumulation on beaches has caused odor and removal problems. Fluxes and model results are highly approximate, first-order estimates because very few wells were sampled and there are few field data to constrain model calibration. Ground-water recharge was estimated to be 22.6 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) within a 73-square-mile area having a coastline length of 8 miles or 13 km (kilometers). Nearly all of the recharge discharges at the coast because ground-water withdrawals are small. Another 3.0 Mgal/d of tertiary-treated wastewater effluent is injected into the regional aquifer at a County treatment plant midway along the coast and about a mile from shore. The injection plume is 0.93 miles wide (1.5 km) at the shore, as estimated from a three-dimensional numerical ground-water model. Wastewater injected beneath the brackish ground-water lens rises buoyantly and spreads out at the top of the lens, diverting and mixing with ambient ground water. Ground water discharging from the core of the injection plume is less than 5 years old and is about 60 percent effluent at the shore, according to the model. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in treated effluent were 7.33 and 1.72 milligrams per liter, roughly 6 and 26 times background concentrations at an upgradient well. Background nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes carried by ground water are 7.7 and 0.44 kg/d-km (kilograms per day per kilometer of coast). Injected wastewater fluxes distributed across the plume width are 55 and 13 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly 7 and 30 times background flux. However, not all of the injected load reaches coastal waters because nutrients are naturally attenuated in the oxygen-depleted effluent plume. Water from a downgradient well reflects this attenuation and provides a more conservative estimate of injection flux approaching the shore: 27 and 1.5 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly one-half and one-ninth the injection-source estimates, and 3.5 and 3.4 times background flux. Effluent has 8 O and 2 H stable-isotope signatures that are distinct from local ground water, as well as 15 N and 11 B signatures diagnostic of domestic waste and laundry detergents, respectively. Pharmaceuticals and organic wastewater compounds also were present in effluent and the downgradient well. These isotopes and chemicals served as wastewater tracers in Kihei ground water and may be useful tracers in nearshore marine waters and aquifers elsewhere in Hawaii.

Hunt, Charles D., Jr.

2007-01-01

124

Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project number S61268-583  

E-print Network

of hydrologic data, a shortage of skilled water resources specialists, and inadequate institutional capacityCaribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project number S61268-583 McGill University Caribbean CARICOM ­ Caribbean Commonwealth CARIWAND ­ Caribbean Water and Gender Network CARIWIN ­ Caribbean Water

Barthelat, Francois

125

Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

2006-01-01

126

76 FR 18780 - Integrated Water Resource Management Plan, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, Benton...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...Washington State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA). DATES...the Yakima River Basin Water Storage Feasibility Study...National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process...the Yakima basin's water supply problems,...

2011-04-05

127

Recent history provides sustainable African water quality project insight.  

PubMed

Small-scale projects to provide clean drinking water undertaken in the developing world can contribute to significantly improving the livelihood of rural communities. There has been a historical tendency to poorly plan such projects leading to an unsustainable future. Recent history indicates three simple steps to ensuring successful and enduring clean water projects. First, identification of need by the indigenous community provides ownership in the project. Second, a partnership between key individuals in the indigenous community with the donor provides for ambassadors on both sides of the project. Finally, an exit strategy by the donors for the indigenous communities ensures local sustainability for the future. The study site is the village of Geisha in northern Malawi, Africa. Sustainable implementation approaches are discussed in this case study as well as the various lessons learned. Improved project processes ensure sustainable small-scale water quality projects by donor organizations in developing countries. PMID:22070428

Holm, Rochelle H

2012-01-01

128

Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

1973-01-01

129

Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

2004-01-01

130

Visualization of Gas Jet in Water: A New Approach for Gaseous Fuel Injection Measurement  

E-print Network

Abstract — This paper presents the development of a new approach to visualize gas jet from an automotive fuel injector. This method of visualizing gas jet in water can be used to investigate the gas jet structure, development and interaction with the environment where injection takes place. The fuel injector used is called Spark Plug Fuel Injector (SPFI). SPFI is a low cost conversion device for conversion to compressed natural gas direct injection (CNGDI) in spark ignition engine. The experiment was carried out to measure the gas jet of SPFI by using pure gaseous nitrogen as compressed natural gas substitute for safety proposes. Nitrogen was injected at 40, 50 and 60 bar with different length of SPFI’s fuel path. The images of the gas bubbles which formed at the nozzle of the SPFI for different time after the start of injection (SOI) from a direct fuel injector were captured using a digital camera where exposure times were adjusted accordingly. The fuel injection was synchronized with a flash light using MOSFET-controlled circuit and two pulse generators. Two sets of SPFI with different fuel path length were used. Results showed that the SPFI with shorter fuel path achieved shorter fuel delivery time and less pressure loss. The gas jets of the longer SPFI were 11.70 % and 2.5 % shorter and narrower than that of gas jet of shorter SPFI. The results also showed that higher injection pressure increased both gas jet length and width of SPFI and the shape of the gas jet were in agreement with the vortex ball model [1] but with different degree of penetration compared to gas jet in air environment. This investigation of gas jet structure must be further elaborated with different water pressure in order to reach governing equations and ultimately correlated to the vortex ball model for a possible low cost gaseous flow visualization technique. Index Terms—compressed natural gas, flow visualization, gas jet, spark plug fuel injector. I.

Taib Isk; Ar Mohamad; How Heoy Geok

131

Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone and identify and map a series of Facies Defined Waterflood Units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas WAG injection utilizing carbon dioxide. The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Part 1 of the project focuses on the development of a computer generated geological model that will be used to select sites for the demonstration in Part 2. Included in Part 1 of the project is the drilling of an infill well, coring 100{prime} of the Cypress Sand, and various injectivity testing to gather information used to update the model. Part 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for this quarter are presented.

Baroni, M.R.

1993-09-30

132

Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones  

SciTech Connect

Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

1995-01-01

133

The Model of Lake Operation in Water Transfer Projects Based on the Theory of Water- right  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

the lake operation is a very important content in Water Transfer Projects. The previous studies have not any related to water-right and water- price previous. In this paper, water right is divided into three parts, one is initialization waterright, another is by investment, and the third is government's water- right re-distribution. The water-right distribution model is also build. After analyzing the cost in water transfer project, a model and computation method for the capacity price as well as quantity price is proposed. The model of lake operation in water transfer projects base on the theory of water- right is also build. The simulation regulation for the lake was carried out by using historical data and Genetic Algorithms. Water supply and impoundment control line of the lake was proposed. The result can be used by south to north water transfer projects.

Bi-peng, Yan; Chao, Liu; Fang-ping, Tang

134

Water governance within Kenya's Upper Ewaso Ng'iro Basin: Assessing the performance of water projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate change processes are projected to change the availability and seasonality of streamflow with dramatic implications for irrigated agricultural systems. Within mountain environments, this alteration in water availability may be quite pronounced over a relatively short distance as upstream users with first access to river water directly impact the availability of water to downstream users. Livelihood systems that directly depend on river water for both domestic consumption and practices such as irrigated agriculture are particularly vulnerable. The Mount Kenya region is an exemplary case of a semi-arid upstream-downstream system in which water availability rapidly decreases and directly impacts the livelihoods of river water users existing across this steep environmental gradient. To effectively manage river water within these water-scarce environs, water projects have been established along the major rivers of the Mount Kenya region. These water projects are responsible for managing water within discrete sub-catchments of the region. While water projects develop rules that encourage the responsible use of water and maintenance of the project itself, the efficiency of water allocation to the projects' members remains unclear. This research analyzes water projects from five sub-catchments on the northwest slopes of Mount Kenya. It utilizes data from household surveys and water project management surveys as well as stream gauge data and flow measurements within individual water projects to assess the governance structure and performance of water projects. The performance of water projects is measured through a variety of household level metrics including: farm-level water flow and volume over time, mean and variability in maize yield, per capita crop productivity, household-level satisfaction with water availability, number of days where water volume was insufficient for irrigation, and quantity harvested compared with expected quantity harvested. We present results demonstrating the heterogeneity of these individual measures and discuss the influence of topography, network design, household behaviors and water governance on the overall performance of these water projects. This work is the foundation for an agent-based model of these water projects that investigates the impact of climate change and population pressure on sustained agricultural production in the region. Additionally, the study highlights the utility of pairing distinct fields of scholarship by utilizing both survey responses and hydrological data to study complex social-ecological systems. This pairing allows for insights regarding governance structures that are effectively managing river water in the present and helps to understand the structures that may be suitable for future water management.

McCord, P. F.; Evans, T. P.; Dell'Angelo, J.; Gower, D.; McBride, L.; Caylor, K. K.

2013-12-01

135

On the parameterization of Injection Height and the use of the MISR plume height project data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parameterization of fire injection height in global chemistry transport model is currently a subject of debate in the atmospheric community. The approach usually proposed in the literature is based on relationships linking injection height and remote sensing products like the Fire Radiative Power (FRP) or the brightness temperature which can measure active fire properties. In this work we present an approach based on the plume rise model (PRM) originally developed by Saulo Freitas, so that effects of atmospheric stability and latent heat are also taken into account. The original plume rise model is modified: (i) the input data of convective heat flux and the Active Fire area are directly force from FRP data derived from a modified version of the Dozier algorithm applied to the MOD12 product, (ii) and the dynamical core of the plume model is modified with a new entrainment scheme inspired from latest results in shallow convection parameterization. An original aspect of this work is to present an optimization of the new version of the Freitas PRM based on (i) fire plume characteristics of single fire events extracted from the official MISR plume height project and (ii) atmospheric profile derived from the ECMWF analysis. The selection of the fire events out of the MISR data set represents the main task of this work. In particular, it is shown that the only information extracted from Terra overpass is not enough to guaranty that the injection height of the plume is linked to the FRP measured at the same time. The plume is a dynamical system, and a time delay (related to the atmospheric state) is necessary to adjust change in FRP to the plume behaviour. Therefore, here multiple overpasses of the same fire from Terra and Aqua are used to determine fire and plume behaviours and system in a steady state at the time of MISR (central scan of Terra) overpass are selected for the optimization procedure. Results show that in the case of some fire event, the PRM is able to predict the formation of a pyroconvective cloud where observation from Aqua overpass show massive change in plume behaviour.

Paugam, Ronan; Wooster, Martin; Atherton, Jonathan; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Freitas, Saulo

2013-04-01

136

Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

1987-01-01

137

The Taweelah A2 independent water and power project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taweelah A2 is the first independent water and power project in Abu Dhabi under the government privatization policy. In response to the Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) request for proposals, CMS Energy prepared and submitted their offer in April 1998. Following clarifications, the Power and Water Purchase Agreement was signed on 3 October 1998. CMS appointed Mott MacDonald

Neil Wade; John Willis; Jim McSorley

1999-01-01

138

The Karjat Drinking Water Project GISE (CSE)-CTARA  

E-print Network

2000-3000mm rainfall, frequent and severe drinking water shortage in many wadis. This year, about 25The Karjat Drinking Water Project GISE (CSE)-CTARA Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni () May% literacy. 175 hamlets, 49 gram-panchayats, 3 towns. () May 24, 2010 2 / 11 #12;Drinking water Though about

Sohoni, Milind

139

Water Research Foundation Project 4090 Decision Support System  

E-print Network

on the provision of water to cities > Utilities currently have major challenges identifying the "most appropriate;Consumer influence > Consumer demand management focused on water conservation > Influence variousWater Research Foundation Project 4090 Decision Support System for Sustainable Energy Management

Keller, Arturo A.

140

Centre Stage Project No. 1 GLISTENING WATERS STORYTELLING FESTIVAL  

E-print Network

Centre Stage Project No. 1 GLISTENING WATERS STORYTELLING FESTIVAL Small Cultural Festivals Waters Storytelling Festival Page 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY · This research was conducted at the Glistening Waters Storytelling Festival, held in Masterton between the 24th and 26th of October, 1998 · Two surveys

141

URANIUM PROJECT WATER-SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES IN KVANEFJELD LUJAVRITE  

E-print Network

URANIUM PROJECT WATER-SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES IN KVANEFJELD LUJAVRITE NOVEMBER 1982 Emil S0rensen #12;I Water-soluble substances in Kvanefield lujavrite Introduction In the first description the water extractable material. During storage some of the cores grew whiskers of an alkaline substance

142

Using sequential injection analysis for fast determination of phosphate in coastal waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential injection analysis system (SIA) is described which is suited for the fast determination of filterable molybdate reactive phosphate (FRP, 0.2?m) in coastal waters. It processes up to 270 samples per hour with a detection limit (3?) of 0.05?M and is used for surface mapping of phosphate in areas with steep concentration gradients like the Wadden Sea. The determination

Carsten Frank; Friedhelm Schroeder; Ralf Ebinghaus; Wolfgang Ruck

2006-01-01

143

INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report  

SciTech Connect

Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

Not Available

2009-06-01

144

Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The

Antonia Concetta Elia; Alessia Fanetti; Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr; Maria I. Taticchi

2008-01-01

145

The Water Project: A Multi-Week Laboratory Project for Undergraduate Analytical Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A five-week water project has been incorporated into a quantitative analysis course to increase student interest, independence, and critical thinking skills. Each of nine students in the class analyzed water samples for a particular chemical species using two different methods. Students chose to use spectrophotometric, atomic absorption, titration, or ion-selective electrode methods for their analyses. Results were reported in writing and through a presentation to a public forum. Based on student-survey results, the water project was overwhelmingly popular with students while challenging them to think critically and work independently. Students agreed that the seven prior laboratory assignments in the course helped prepare them for the water project.

Arnold, Randy J.

2003-01-01

146

Characterization of coal water slurry sprays from a positive displacement fuel injection system  

E-print Network

pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until... the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using fuel line pressures. Results from these two different procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions the break-up time was about 0...

Kumar Seshadri, Ajoy

2012-06-07

147

Water management in the arid west: the Cheyenne Water Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effect of energy-related growth in Wyoming has been increased competition for water. The 1982 Wyoming State Legislature authorized a large-scale water-development program using funds obtained through mineral severance taxes. A primary focus of the water-development program has been the Colorado River Basin, where Wyoming has an undeveloped water entitlement. An attitude evolved that Wyoming should hasten to develop this

Beiswenger

1983-01-01

148

Artificial recharge of ground water by well injection for storage and recovery, Cape May County, New Jersey, 1958-92  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Artificial recharge is used for storage and recovery of ground water in the estuarine sand and Cohansey aquifers in southern Cape May County and in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in northern Cape May County, New Jersey. Wildwood Water Utility has injected ground water for public-supply storage since 1967 and in 1992 had four injection wells. The storage and recovery program began as a way to ensure an adequate supply of water for the summer tourist season. From 1967 through 1992 about 3.8 billion gallons was injected and about 3.3 billion gallons (about 85 percent of the injected water) was recovered. An electric company in Cape May County has used ground water for industrial-supply storage since 1965 and in 1992 had one injection well. The purpose of the storage and recovery program is to prevent saltwater encroachment and to ensure sufficient supply during times of peak demand. From 1967 through 1988 the company injected 100.0 million gallons and withdrew 60.6 million gallons, or about 61 percent of the injected water.

Lacombe, P. J.

1996-01-01

149

Experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit characteristics at superheated water injection into a compressor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results from experimentally studying TV3-117 gas-turbine unit (GTU) characteristics at injection of cold and superheated (metastable) water to the inlet of the GTU compressor are presented. In the latter case, the finer water atomization is obtained. The water injection makes it possible to considerably increase the unit power. At a constant temperature of the working fluid downstream of the turbine combustion chamber, water injection in an amount of 1% of the air flow rate provides an increase in the turbine power by approximately 12% and expands GTU controlling potentialities. The use of the metastable superheated water atomization enables one to more reliably implement the technology of water injection into a compressor, especially into intermediate compressor stages. However, it requires accounting for operational conditions of particular installation. Due to small water droplet residence time in the compressor flow path, even with fine water atomization, in aircraft engine derivative power turbines, about 15-20% of moisture injected have no time to completely evaporate within the compressor. When injecting cold water, this figure is from 5 to 10% larger.

Favorskii, O. N.; Alekseev, V. B.; Zalkind, V. I.; Zeigarnik, Yu. A.; Ivanov, P. P.; Marinichev, D. V.; Nizovskii, V. L.; Nizovskii, L. V.

2014-05-01

150

Sustainability of global water use: past reconstruction and future projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Overuse of surface water and an increasing reliance on nonrenewable groundwater resources have been reported over various regions of the world, casting significant doubt on the sustainable water supply and food production met by irrigation. To assess the limitations of global water resources, numerous indicators have been developed, but they rarely consider nonrenewable water use. In addition, surface water over-abstraction is rarely assessed in the context of human and environmental water needs. Here, we perform a transient assessment of global water use over the historical period 1960–2010 as well as the future projections of 2011–2099, using a newly developed indicator: the blue water sustainability index (BlWSI). The BlWSI incorporates both nonrenewable groundwater use and nonsustainable water use that compromises environmental flow requirements. Our results reveal an increasing trend of water consumed from nonsustainable surface water and groundwater resources over the historical period (∼30%), and this increase is projected to continue further towards the end of this century (∼40%). The global amount of nonsustainable water consumption has been increasing especially since the late 1990s, despite a wetter climate and increasing water availability during this period. The BlWSI is the first tool suitable for consistently evaluating the renewability and degradation of surface water and groundwater resources as a result of human water over-abstraction.

Wada, Yoshihide; Bierkens, Marc F. P.

2014-10-01

151

Robustness and uncertainties in global water scarcity projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water scarcity is both a natural and human-made phenomenon and defined as the condition where there are insufficient water resources to satisfy long-term average requirements. Many regions of the world are affected by this chronic imbalance between renewable water resources and water demand leading to depletion of surface water and groundwater stocks. Total freshwater abstraction today amounts to 3856 km³ of which 70% are withdrawn by the agricultural sector, followed by the industry (19%) and domestic sectors (11%) (FAO 2010). Population growth and consumption change have led to threefold increase in total water withdrawals in the last 60 years through a rising demand for electricity, industrial and agricultural products, and thus for water (Flörke et al. 2013). The newly developed "Shared Socio-Economic Pathways" (SSPs) project global population to increase up to 7.2 or even 14 billion people by 2100 (O'Neill et al. 2012); and meeting future water demand in sufficient quantity and quality is seen as one of the key challenges of the 21st century. So far, the assessment of regional and global water-scarcity patterns mostly focused on climate change impacts by driving global hydrological models with climate projections from different GCMs while little emphasis has been put on the water demand side. Changes in future water scarcity, however, are found to be mainly driven by changes in water withdrawals (Alcamo et al. 2007, Hanasaki et al. 2012), i.e. sensitivity to climate change outweighs exposure. Likewise, uncertainties have mainly been assessed in relation to the spread among climate scenarios and from global hydrological models (GHMs) (Haddeland et al. 2011, 2013; Schewe et al. 2013, Wada et al. 2013) while the contribution of water use modelling related to total uncertainty remains largely unstudied. The main objective of this study is to address the main uncertainties related to both climate and socio-economic impacts on global and regional water scarcity, and to provide robust and consistent conclusions to be used for decision making. The analysis is based on an ensemble of hydrological and water demand projections for the 21st century as simulated by three state-of-the-art global hydrological and water use models forced by climate projections of five global circulation models and socio-economic drivers corresponding to SSP2. The GHM-ensemble shows reasonable agreement in projected domestic and irrigation water withdrawals whilst there is a large discrepancy between the projections of industrial water withdrawals which translates into considerable uncertainty in temporal and spatial water-scarcity patterns. Consequently, impact assessments need to consider water demand as an additional dimension of uncertainty to assess both exposure and sensitivity to climate change.

Floerke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide

2014-05-01

152

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects was written for non-economists working in the planning, implementation, and management of water supplies. Created by the Asian Development Bank, the handbook is a resource guide to help staff of government agencies, financing institutions, and water utilities understand the principles of economic analysis of water supply projects. Written in easy-to-understand language, the handbook consists of nine chapters, each with separate tables of contents, with titles such as "Least Cost Analysis," "Demand Analysis and Forecasting," and "Sensitivity and Risk Analysis." Each chapter is available only in .pdf format and must be downloaded separately. Also included are an appendix and glossary.

1999-01-01

153

The Arid West Water Quality Research Project (WQRP)  

SciTech Connect

The Arid West Water Quality Research Project (WQRP) was created to address concerns that the water quality criteria and standards developed under the Clean Water Act (CWA) by the states and the regional US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory agencies, were not always appropriate for use in arid and semiarid areas of the western US. The WQRP will define and administer research projects intended to provide the technical basis to propose more appropriate water quality criteria and standards to protect the unique habitats, aquatic and wildlife populations, and suitable designated uses in these areas.

Eigel, J.A.

1998-07-01

154

Economic analysis of condensers for water recovery in steam injected gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

Steam injection cycles are interesting for small power ranges because of the high efficiency and the relatively low investment costs. A big disadvantage is the consumption of water by the cycle. Water recovery is seldom realized in industrial practice. In this paper an analysis of the technical and economical possibilities of water recovery by condensation of water out of the exhaust gases is made. Three gas turbines are considered : the Kawasaki M1A-13CC (2.3 MWe), the Allison 501KH (6.8 MWe) and the General Electric LM1600 (17 MWe). For every gas turbine two types of condensers are designed. In the water cooled condenser finned tubes are used to cool the exhaust gases, flowing at the outside of the tubes. The water itself flows at the inside of the tubes and is cooled by a water to air cooler. In the air cooled condenser the exhaust gases flow at the inside of the tubes and the cooling air at the outside. The investment costs of the condensers is compared to the costs of the total installation. The investment costs are relatively smaller if the produced power goes up. The water cooled condenser with water to air cooler is cheaper than the air cooled condenser. Using a condenser results in higher exploitation costs due to the fans and pumps. It is shown that the air cooled condenser has lower exploitation costs than the water cooled one. Pay back time of the total installation does not significantly vary compared to the installation without recovery. Water prices are determined for which water recovery is profitable. For the water cooled condenser the turning point lies at 2.2 Euro/m; for the air cooled condenser this is 0.6 Euro/m.

De Paepe, M.; Huvenne, P.; Dick, E.

1998-07-01

155

Thermodynamic analysis of injected water recovery systems for the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle  

SciTech Connect

The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) cycle is an inter-cooled gas turbine cycle, having an air-water mixing evaporator before the combustion chamber, and a heat recovering system for the exhaust gases. The considerable amount of water consumed in the mixing evaporator (about 1,200--2,400 m{sup 3} daily for a 100 MW unit), represents a significant drawback to the use of the HAT cycle as well as of other steam injected gas turbines. In fact, this means high operational costs for water treatment, and eventual legislative restrictions limiting the use of water, not to mention the environmental impact of the depletion of water resources. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the changes in the performance of the HAT cycle when a water recovery system is added in the exhaust gases, and to determine the heat exchangers conditions for maximum water and heat recovery. Finally, the size of a surface condenser for water recovery is determined for a given HAT cycle power output. The results show the possibility to recover up to 85% of the consumed water and up to 30% of input heat from the condensation of the water contained in the exhaust gas. The paper also examines all the thermodynamic processes in each cycle component from the viewpoint of recovering water from the exhaust gas. Since part of the water contained in the exhaust gas is due to the inlet air humidity and the combustion process, the relative amount of water and their contributions to the overall heat recovery are also calculated.

Bidini, G.; Desideri, U.; Di Maria, F. [Univ. di Perugia (Italy). Ist. di Energetica

1996-12-31

156

Performance of J-33-A-21 and J-33-A-23 Compressors with and without Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In an investigation of the J-33-A-21 and the J-33-A-23 compressors with and without water injection, it was discovered that the compressors reacted differently to water injection although they were physically similar. An analysis of the effect of water injection on compressor performance and the consequent effect on matching of the compressor and turbine components in the turbojet engine was made. The analysis of component matching is based on a turbine flow function defined as the product of the equivalent weight flow and the reciprocal of the compressor pressure ratio.

Beede, William L.

1948-01-01

157

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

61. VIEW OF SALT RIVER PROJECT WELL DISCHARGING WATER INTO THE ARIZONA CANAL NEAR 47TH AVENUE, LOOKING SOUTH Photographer: James Eastwood, July 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

158

Our Water World 4-H Marine Science Discovery Project  

E-print Network

Our Water World 4-H Marine Science Discovery Project Leader Guide OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY EXTENSION Catch 36 Amazing Marine Mammal Trivia 39 Vanishing Habitat 44 A Voyage Through Your Home and Supermarket

Tullos, Desiree

159

Impact on Caesarean section rates following injections of sterile water (ICARIS): a multicentre randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Sterile water injections have been used as an effective intervention for the management of back pain during labour. The objective of the current research is to determine if sterile water injections, as an intervention for back pain in labour, will reduce the intrapartum caesarean section rate. Methods/design Design: A double blind randomised placebo controlled trial Setting: Maternity hospitals in Australia Participants: 1866 women in labour, ?18 years of age who have a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in a cephalic presentation at term (between 37 + 0 and 41 + 6 weeks gestation), who assess their back pain as equal to or greater than seven on a visual analogue scale when requesting analgesia and able to provide informed consent. Intervention: Participants will be randomised to receive either 0.1 to 0.3 millilitres of sterile water or a normal saline placebo via four intradermal injections into four anatomical points surrounding the Michaelis’ rhomboid over the sacral area. Two injections will be administered over the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and the remaining two at two centimetres posterior, and one centimetre medial to the PSIS respectively. Main outcome measure:Proportion of women who have a caesarean section in labour. Randomisation: Permuted blocks stratified by research site. Blinding (masking):Double-blind trial in which participants, clinicians and research staff blinded to group assignment. Funding:Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council Trial registration:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (No ACTRN12611000221954). Discussion Sterile water injections, which may have a positive effect on reducing the CS rate, have been shown to be a safe and simple analgesic suitable for most maternity settings. A procedure that could reduce intervention rates without adversely affecting safety for mother and baby would benefit Australian families and taxpayers and would reduce requirements for maternal operating theatre time. Results will have external validity, as the technique may be easily applied to maternity populations outside Australia. In summary, the results of this trial will contribute High level evidence on the impact of SWI on intrapartum CS rates and provide evidence of the analgesic effect of SWI on back pain. PMID:23642147

2013-01-01

160

Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well injection at Grand Junction, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Grand Junction ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site; modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

Not Available

1994-07-18

161

Properties of seismic wave scattering around water injection well at Fenton Hill hot dry rock geothermal site  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the scattering properties of microcracks created by water injection in hot dry rock a method for analyzing trajectory ellipsoids of semismic particle motions has been applied. Lengths and directions of three principal axes of trajectory ellipsoids were calculated, and a distribution of the shape of these ellipsoids suggests existence of a strong scattering region around the injection point.

O. Nishizawa; C. Pearson; J. Albright

1983-01-01

162

The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

1973-01-01

163

Models for water and power scheduling for the California State Water project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large-scale simulation\\/optimization model provides schedules for operation of water and power for the California State Water Project (SWP). The SWP consists of a series of reservoirs linked by rivers, pumping plants, canals, tunnels, and generating plants and is operated by the California Department of Water Resources. The Department provides water to municipal and agricultural users, and manages its electrical

M. Hossein Sabet; James Q. Coe

1986-01-01

164

Influence of the South-North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River.  

PubMed

Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD) and a water quality model (ECOLab) was applied to investigate the impact of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project on the Han River and the effectiveness of the 2 proposed mitigation projects, the 22 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project. The study concludes that business as usual will lead to a continuing rapid deterioration of the water quality of the Han River. Implementation of the Middle Route of the South-North Water Diversion Project in 2010 will bring disastrous consequence in the form of the remarkably elevated pollution level and high risk of algae bloom in the middle and lower reaches. The proposed WWTPs will merely lower the pollution level in the reach by around 10%, while the Yangtze-Han Water Diversion Project can significantly improve the water quality in the downstream 200-km reach. The results reveal that serious water quality problem will emerge in the middle reach between Xiangfan and Qianjiang in the future. Implementation of the South-North Water Diversion Project (phase II) in 2030 will further exacerbate the problem. In order to effectively improve the water quality of the Han River, it is suggested that nutrient removal processes should be adopted in the proposed WWTPs, and the pollution load from the non-point sources, especially the load from the upstream Henan Province, should be effectively controlled. PMID:18799199

Zhu, Y P; Zhang, H P; Chen, L; Zhao, J F

2008-11-15

165

Paso del Norte Watershed Council Coordinated Water Resources Database Project  

E-print Network

cooperative database project that would provide streamlined access to a range of water resource data in the Paso del Norte region. In August of 2002, the El Paso Water Utilities provided initial funding to the Paso del Norte Watershed Council to develop a...

Brown, Christopher; Sheng, Zhuping; Rich, Matt

166

Benchmarking in water project analysis Ronald C. Griffin1  

E-print Network

Benchmarking in water project analysis Ronald C. Griffin1 Received 25 January 2008; revised 23 July-benefit analysis is examined for the possible bias that it brings to water resource planning. Theory and examples detract from economic welfare and can fail to promote efficient policy, improvement opportunities

Griffin, Ronald

167

Native Waters: An American Indian Water Resource Education Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This community education initiative supports the efforts of Native American tribal leaders, educators, and students to develop contemporary, scientifically accurate, and culturally sensitive water education resources, programs, and networking opportunities. A traveling exhibit provides a Native American point of view on protection and conservation of water resources. A teachers' guide is provided to accompany the exhibit. Other materials include learning opportunities for students and educators, news articles, publications, scholarship information, and links to related information.

2004-01-01

168

A practical method for estimating non-isothermal and formation damage skin factors for cold water injection wells  

E-print Network

A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING NON ISOTHERMAL AND FORMATION DAMAGE SKIN FACTORS FOR COLD WATER INJECTION WELLS A Thesis by ARILD WARLAND Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Petroleum Bhgineering A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING NON-ISOTHERMAL AND FORMATION DAMAGE SKIN FACTORS FOR COLD WATER INJECTION WELLS A Thesis by ARILD WARLAND Approved as to style...

Warland, Arild

2012-06-07

169

An analytical investigation of the effects of water injection on combustion products and detonation in spark ignition engines  

E-print Network

AN ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WATER INJECTION ON COMBUSTION PRODUCTS AND DETONATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES A Thesis by WILIIAM CHARLES BROWN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ANNI University in partial fulfillment... CHARLES BROWN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Department) (Member) (Member) (Member) August I979 ABS TRACT An Analytical Investigation of the Effects of' Water Injection on Combustion Products and Detonation...

Brown, William Charles

2012-06-07

170

Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

2005-01-01

171

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1996-02-01

172

Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection  

SciTech Connect

Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

1991-12-01

173

Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection  

SciTech Connect

Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

1991-01-01

174

Analytical solutions for transient temperature distribution in a geothermal reservoir due to cold water injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical solution to describe the transient temperature distribution in a geothermal reservoir in response to injection of cold water is presented. The reservoir is composed of a confined aquifer, sandwiched between rocks of different thermo-geological properties. The heat transport processes considered are advection, longitudinal conduction in the geothermal aquifer, and the conductive heat transfer to the underlying and overlying rocks of different geological properties. The one-dimensional heat transfer equation has been solved using the Laplace transform with the assumption of constant density and thermal properties of both rock and fluid. Two simple solutions are derived afterwards, first neglecting the longitudinal conductive heat transport and then heat transport to confining rocks. Results show that heat loss to the confining rock layers plays a vital role in slowing down the cooling of the reservoir. The influence of some parameters, e.g. the volumetric injection rate, the longitudinal thermal conductivity and the porosity of the porous media, on the transient heat transport phenomenon is judged by observing the variation of the transient temperature distribution with different values of the parameters. The effects of injection rate and thermal conductivity have been found to be profound on the results.

Ganguly, Sayantan; Mohan Kumar, M. S.

2014-03-01

175

Pressure-transient behavior during cold water injection into geothermal wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

During injection testing, the pressures in geothermal wells used for reinjection sometimes initially increase but then decline as injection continues. Injection tests carried out at the Yutsubo geothermal field in Kyushu, Japan, exhibit this peculiar behavior. During injection testing of Yutsubo well YT-2, the observed downhole pressures eventually began to decline despite sustained injection rates. We have carried out numerical

Shinsuke Nakao; Tsuneo Ishido

1998-01-01

176

Characterizing near-surface CO2 conditions before injection - Perspectives from a CCS project in the Illinois Basin, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is conducting a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) project in Decatur, Illinois, USA to demonstrate the ability of a deep saline formation to store one million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from an ethanol facility. Beginning in early 2011, CO2 will be injected at a rate of 1,000 tonnes/day for three years into the Mount Simon Sandstone at a depth of approximately 2,100 meters. An extensive Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program has been undertaken for the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) and is focused on the 0.65 km2 project site. Goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. MVA efforts are being conducted pre-, during, and post- CO2 injection. Soil and net CO2 flux monitoring has been conducted for more than one year to characterize near-surface CO2 conditions. More than 2,200 soil CO2 flux measurements have been manually collected from a network of 118 soil rings since June 2009. Three ring types have been evaluated to determine which type may be the most effective in detecting potential CO 2 leakage. Bare soil, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm into the ground and were prepared to minimize surface vegetation in and near the rings. Bare soil, deep-depth rings were prepared similarly, but were driven 46 cm. Natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm and are most representative of typical vegetation conditions. Bare-soil, shallow-depth rings had the smallest observed mean flux (1.78 ??mol m-2 s-1) versus natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings (3.38 ??mol m-2 s-1). Current data suggest bare ring types would be more sensitive to small CO2 leak signatures than natural ring types because of higher signal to noise ratios. An eddy covariance (EC) system has been in use since June 2009. Baseline data from EC monitoring is being used to characterize pre-injection conditions, and may then be used to detect changes in net exchange CO2 fluxes (Fc) that could be the result of CO2 leakage into the near-surface environment during or following injection. When injection at IBDP begins, soil and net CO2 monitoring efforts will have established a baseline of near-surface conditions that will be important to help demonstrate the effectiveness of storage activities. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Locke, II, R. A.; Krapac, I. G.; Lewicki, J. L.; Curtis-Robinson, E.

2011-01-01

177

Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

2007-01-01

178

Classification of breast lesions pre-contrast injection using water resonance lineshape analysis  

PubMed Central

Inhomogeneously broadened, non-Lorentzian water resonances have been observed in small image voxels of breast tissue. The non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance are likely produced by bulk magnetic susceptibility shifts caused by dense, deoxygenated tumor blood vessels (the ‘BOLD’ effect), but can also be produced by other characteristics of local anatomy and physiology, including calcifications and interfaces between different types of tissue. Here, we tested the hypothesis that detection of non-Lorentzian components of the water resonance with high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging allows classification of breast lesions without the need to inject contrast agent. Eighteen malignant lesions and nine benign lesions were imaged with HiSS MRI at 1.5T. A new algorithm was developed to detect non-Lorentzian (or off-peak) components of the water resonance. After a Lorentzian fit was subtracted from the data, the largest peak in the residual spectrum in each voxel was identified as the major off-peak component of the water resonance. The difference in frequency between these off-peak components and the main water peaks, and their amplitudes were measured in malignant lesions, benign lesions, and breast fibroglandular tissue. Off-peak component frequencies were significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of HiSS off-peak component analysis compared to dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI parameters. The areas under the ROC curves for ‘DCE rapid uptake fraction’, ‘DCE washout fraction’, ‘off-peak component amplitude’, and ‘off-peak component frequency’ were 0.75, 0.83, 0.50, and 0.86, respectively. These results suggest that water resonance lineshape analysis performs well in the classification of breast lesions without contrast injection and could improve diagnostic accuracy of clinical breast MR exams. In addition, this approach may provide an alternative to DCEMRI in women who are at risk for adverse reactions to contrast media. PMID:23165988

Wood, Abbie M.; Medved, Milica; Bacchus, Ian D.; Al-Hallaq, Hania A.; Shimauchi, Akiko; Newstead, Gillian M.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Venkataraman, Srirama S.; Ivancevic, Marko K.; Karczmar, Greg S.

2014-01-01

179

Water development projects and marital violence: experiences from rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

In this study, we explored the implications of a groundwater development project on women's workload and their experience of marital violence in a Bangladesh village. We believe that the project facilitated irrigation water but also that it resulted in seasonal domestic water shortages. Men used deep motorized pumps for irrigation, and women used shallow handpumps for domestic purposes. Many handpumps dried out, so women had to walk to distant wells. This increased their workload and challenged their possibilities of fulfilling household obligations, thereby increasing the risk of normative marital male violence against women as a punishment for their failure. PMID:22325022

Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Resurreccion, Bernadette P; Wamala, Sarah

2012-01-01

180

Your P.O. #: 41914 Your Project #: LEAD-WATER  

E-print Network

BY ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY (WATER) Maxxam ID GK4221 GK4222 GK4223 GK4224 GK4225 Sampling Date 2010/07/07 2010) Maxxam ID GK4226 GK4227 GK4228 GK4229 GK4230 GK4231 Sampling Date 2010/07/07 2010/07/07 2010/07/07 2010/07/08 Project name: VARIOUS BLDGS Your P.O. #: 41914 ELEMENTS BY ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY (WATER) Maxxam ID GK4232 GK

Thompson, Michael

181

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Spook, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action is complete at the Spook Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Wyoming. Based on an evaluation of site characterization data, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, US Department of Energy, and state of Wyoming have concurred in the determination that a program to monitor ground water is not required because ground water in the uppermost aquifer is Class 3 (limited use) (40 CFR 192.21(g)(1993)).

Not Available

1994-03-01

182

Deformation, seismicity, and fluids: Results of the 2004\\/2005 water injection experiment at the KTB\\/Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past decades, the research into fluid-controlled geodynamic processes in the upper crust of the Earth is put foreward regarding the stress accumulation, deformation, and seismicity. In a large-scale injection experiment at the deep borehole site KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland) in Germany, more than 84.000 m3 fresh water was injected in 4000 m depth over 10 months,

T. Jahr; G. Jentzsch; A. Gebauer; T. Lau

2008-01-01

183

Bead-injection determination of total mercury in river water samples.  

PubMed

A bead-injection system is proposed for total mercury determination in river-water samples. The procedure is based on the introduction of a defined quantity of a resin suspension in the flow system. The selected beads are packed inside of a flow cell and the formed resin mini-column constitutes the optical path. The sample volume is then selected, and its passage by the mini-column allows retention of the mercury ions on the surfaces of the beads. The introduction of a spectrophotometric reagent in the flow system leads to the formation of a colored Hg-dithizone complex on the surface of the bead, which is spectrophotometricaly monitored. The spent beads are directed to waste, allowing the system to become ready to process another sample. The proposed system handles about 20 measurements per hour, consuming 1000 microl of the sample, 1 mg of Chelex 100 resin and 1.25 microg of Dithizone per determination. When 1000 microl of the sample is injected, a linear analytical curve is obtained (A = 0.0052[Hg] + 0.1028, from 0 up to 30 microg l(-1), R2 = 0.995); the detection limit is estimated to be 0.9 microg l(-1). The results are precise, r.s.d. < 9%; spiked sample recoveries within 91.2 and 109% are found. PMID:14696931

Sartini, Raquel P; Vidotti, Eliane C; Oliveira, Cláudio C

2003-12-01

184

Computing the Water Quality Index: The Hudson River Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a science project at Booker T. Washington Middle School #54 (New York City) where seventh and eighth graders computed the Hudson River's water quality using ClarisWorks spreadsheets and MicroWorlds software. Students gained technology skills and public recognition, as well as scientific and environmental information. Includes sample…

Mihich, Orlando

1996-01-01

185

WATER TREATMENT PROJECT: OBSERVATIONS ON USE OF GAC IN PRACTICE  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine if granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption beds applied in water treatment practice slough-off organic materials during the spring warm-up and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of the dilute or low-level COD procedure for the...

186

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action has been completed at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Durango, Colorado. Contaminated soil and debris have been removed from the former processing site and placed in the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. Ground water at the former uranium mill/tailings site and raffinate pond area has been contaminated by the former milling operations. The ground water at the disposal site was not impacted by the former milling operations at the time of the cell`s construction. Activities for fiscal 1994 involve ground water sampling and site characterization of the disposal site.

Not Available

1994-01-01

187

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah  

SciTech Connect

The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters.

Not Available

1994-04-01

188

Impact of water control projects on fisheries resources in Bangladesh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges—Brahmaputra—Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15 20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required.

Mirza, Monirul Qader; Ericksen, Neil J.

1996-07-01

189

Impact of Water Control Projects on Fisheries Resources in Bangladesh  

PubMed

Bangladesh is a very flat delta built up by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna/Barak river systems. Because of its geographical location, floods cause huge destruction of lives and properties almost every year. Water control programs have been undertaken to enhance development through mitigating the threat of disasters. This structural approach to flood hazard has severely affected floodplain fisheries that supply the major share of protein to rural Bangladesh, as exemplified by the Chandpur Irrigation Project. Although the regulated environment of the Chandpur project has become favorable for closed-water cultured fish farming, the natural open-water fishery loss has been substantial. Results from research show that fish yields were better under preproject conditions. Under project conditions per capita fish consumption has dropped significantly, and the price of fish has risen beyond the means of the poor people, so that fish protein in the diet of poor people is gradually declining. Bangladesh is planning to expand water control facilities to the remaining flood-prone areas in the next 15-20 years. This will cause further loss of floodplain fisheries. If prices for closed-water fish remain beyond the buying power of the poor, alternative sources of cheap protein will be required. PMID:8661619

Mirza; Ericksen

1996-07-01

190

Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir  

PubMed Central

Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

2011-01-01

191

CO2FieldLab project. Near-surface downhole electrical resistivity monitoring for CO2 shallow injection at the Svelvik ridge (Norway).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CO2FieldLab shallow injection experiment is a collaborative effort aimed at developing, verifying, and evaluating near-surface monitoring techniques for geological sequestration of CO2. The objective is to create a downhole leakage of CO2 in order to demonstrate whether existing monitoring techniques have the ability to detect and quantify the CO2 loss. The CO2FieldLab project associates collaboration from several research groups and organizations (SINTEF, NGI, BRGM, BGS, CNRS, imaGeau and Schlumberger). For this, the field Laboratory for monitoring CO2 migration and leakage was established in Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, located in the Drammensfjord 50 km south of Oslo (Norway). It is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the last deglaciation. The depth to the bedrock is located between 300 and 400 m. The central part of the ridge is aerially exposed up to 70 m above sea level, constituting a phreatic aquifer. The characterization phase and associated modelling suggest that the site is suitable for studying both gas migration and leakage at shallow depths. The shallow aquifer (down to 50 m) consists in a relatively homogeneous sand body with a depositional dip of about 10° to the North. The shallow injection experiment took place in September of 2011 and consisted in an injection of CO2 at a depth of 20 m from a 45° inclined well. The purpose of this phase was to simulate a point source leakage, which could possibly occur due to failure of a deep well completion. A total mass of 1.67 ton of CO2 was injected over a period of 6 days. The water table was located at 60 cm depth during the experiment and a transition from fresh to salt pore water was found below 12 m depth. An integrated set of surface and downhole strategies was deployed across a 64 m2 square monitoring area: cross-hole radar, water and gas phases physico-chemical parameters (BRGM); multi-hole electrical ALERT system (BGS), CO2 concentration in soils and gas flux measurements (BGS); WestBay completion for pressure monitoring and fluid sampling (Schlumberger); permanent downhole electrical resistivity observatory (imaGeau); time-lapse downhole induction and sonic logging (CNRS) All monitoring holes were drilled and equipped down to 20 m depth. The data recorded by CNRS and imaGeau are presented here. Downhole electrical resistivity monitoring identified a couple of conductive clouds due to CO2 dissolving into pore water. A first one appeared few hours after injection below 9 m, and a second one appeared later at about 6 m suggesting progressive upward migration of the injected CO2. Near the base of the monitoring hole and to the opposite, an increase in resistivity was obtained over time from repeated induction logging. This gradual conductivity decrease is coherent with progressive CO2 dissolution within the pore fluid in a zone of transition to sea water found from 12 m depth. The formation fluid sampling is next to confirm this hypothesis.

Denchik, N.; Pezard, P.; Paris, J.; Geeraert, M.; Henry, G.; Baqué, L.; Barry, S.; Neyens, D.

2012-04-01

192

Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

1993-01-01

193

Scale issues in the governance of water storage projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of global change, which is characterized by growing water demands and increasingly variable water supplies, the equitable sharing of water and the drought proofing of rural livelihoods will require an increasing physical capacity to store water. This is especially true for the semiarid and dry subhumid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. This paper addresses the following question: What criteria should policymakers apply in choosing between centralized storage capacity in the form of conventional large reservoirs and large interbasin water transfer schemes and decentralized and distributed storage systems in the farmers' fields and in microwatersheds and villages (tanks, microdams, and aquifers)? This exploratory paper uses an interdisciplinary framework encompassing the natural and social sciences to develop four indicators that are considered critical for understanding the biochemical, physical, economic, and sociopolitical dimensions of the scale issues underlying the research question. These are the residence time of water in a reservoir, the water provision capacity, the cost effectiveness of providing reliable access to water per beneficiary, and the equity dimension: maximizing the number of beneficiaries and compensating the losers. The procedural governance challenges associated with each indicator are dealt with separately. It is concluded that water storage and the institutional capacity to effectively administer it are recursively linked. This implies that if the scale of new storage projects gradually increases, a society can progressively learn and adapt to the increasing institutional complexity.

van der Zaag, Pieter; Gupta, Joyeeta

2008-10-01

194

Water use trends and demand projections in the Northwest Florida Water Management District  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Northwest Florida Water Management District is located in the western panhandle of Florida and encompasses about 11,200 square miles. In 1995, the District had an estimated population of 1.13 million, an increase of about 47 percent from the 1975 population of 0.77 million. Over 50 percent of the resident population lives within 10 miles of the coast. In addition, hundreds of thousands of visitors come to the coastal areas of the panhandle during the summer months for recreation or vacation purposes. Water withdrawn to meet demands for public supply, domestic self-supplied, commercial-industrial, agricultural irrigation, and recreational irrigation purposes in the District increased 18 percent (52 million gallons per day) between 1970 and 1995. The greatest increases were for public supply and domestic self-supplied (99 percent increase) and for agricultural irrigation (60 percent increase) between 1970 and 1995. In 1995, approximately 70 percent of the water withdrawn was from ground-water sources, with the majority of this from the Floridan aquifer system. The increasing water demands have affected water levels in the Floridan aquifer system, especially along the coastal areas. The Northwest Florida Water Management District is mandated under the Florida Statutes (Chapter 373) to protect and manage the water resources in this area of the State. The mandate requires that current and future water demands be met, while water resources and water-dependent natural systems are sustained. For this project, curve fitting and extrapolation were used to project most of the variables (population, population served by public supply, and water use) to the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020. This mathematical method involves fitting a curve to historical population or water-use data and then extending this curve to arrive at future values. The population within the region is projected to reach 1,596,888 by the year 2020, an increase of 41 percent between 1995 and 2020. Most of the population in this region will continue to reside in the urban areas of Pensacola and Tallahassee, and along the coastal areas. The population served by public water supply is projected to reach 1,353,836 by the year 2020, an increase of nearly 46 percent between 1995 and 2020. Total water demand for the Northwest Florida Water Management District is projected to reach 940.2 million gallons per day in 2000, 1,003.1 million gallons per day in 2010, and 1,059.1 million gallons per day in 2020. Excluding water withdrawn for power generation from these totals, water demands will increase 34 percent between 1995 and 2020, and 58 percent between 1970 and 2020. Specifically, public supply demands are projected to increase 74.1 million gallons per day (53 percent) and domestic self-supplied and small public supply systems demands are projected to increase 9.1 million gallons per day (28 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Commercial- industrial self-supplied demands are projected to increase about 16.9 million gallons per day (13 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Agricultural and recreational irrigation demands combined are projected to increase 16.8 million gallons per day (48 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Water demands for power generation are projected to increase about 53.9 million gallons per day (10 percent) between 1995 and 2020. Although power generation water use shows a projected increase during this time, plant capacities are not expected to change dramatically.

Marella, R.L.; Mokray, M.F.; Hallock-Solomon, Michael

1998-01-01

195

The effect on recovery of the injection of alternating slugs of gas and water at pressures above the bubble point  

E-print Network

TW EFFECT ON RECOVERY OF THE INJECTION OF ALTERNATING SLUGS OF GAS AND WATER AT PRESSURES ABOVE THE BUBBLE POINT A Thesis by James Wilson Givens Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the d egree of MASTERS OF SCIENCE August, l96t Major Subject; Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT ON RECOVERY OF THE INJECTION OF ALTERNATING Sj UGS OF GAS AND WATER AT PRESSURES ABOVE THE BUBBLE POINT A Thesis...

Givens, James Wilson

2012-06-07

196

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Falls City, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Surface remedial action will be completed at the Falls City, Texas, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in the spring of 1994. Results of water sampling activity from 1989 to 1993 indicate that ground water contamination occurs primarily in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer (the uppermost aquifer) and that the contamination migrates along four distinct contaminant plumes. Contaminated ground water from some wells in these regions has significantly elevated levels of aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, manganese, molybdenum, selenium, sulfate, and uranium. Contamination in the Dilworth aquifer was identified in monitor well 977 and in monitor well 833 at the southern edge of former tailings pile 4. There is no evidence that surface water quality in Tordilla and Scared Dog Creeks is impacted by tailings seepage. The following water sampling activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (1) Ground water sampling from 15 monitor wells to monitor the migration of the four major contaminant plumes within the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer. (2) Ground water sampling from five monitor wells to monitor contaminated and background ground water quality conditions in the Dilworth aquifer. Because of disposal cell construction activities, all plume monitor wells screened in the Dilworth aquifer were abandoned. No surface water locations are proposed for sampling. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the Deweesville/Conquista aquifer downgradient of the disposal cell. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents currently related to uranium processing activities and natural uranium mineralization. Water sampling is normally conducted biannually in late summer and midwinter.

Not Available

1994-02-01

197

Hydraulic Communication Between Coalbeds and Overlying Sands in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Implications for Re-injection of Coalbed Methane Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coalbed methane (CBM) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is associated with the production of large volumes of CBM water. CBM water from the PRB has high saline and sodium contents, making it unsuitable for agriculture and environmentally damaging. One option for the disposal of CBM water is re-injection into aquifers, but for injection to be feasible the porosity

H. E. Ross; M. D. Zoback

2006-01-01

198

Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-print Network

) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

2012-06-07

199

Experimental study on turbulent natural convection heat transfer in water with sub-millimeter-bubble injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using thermocouples and a particle tracking velocimetry technique, temperature and velocity measurements are conducted to investigate flow and heat transfer characteristics of turbulent natural convection from a vertical heated plate in water with sub-millimeter-bubble injection. Hydrogen-bubbles generated by the electrolysis of water are used as the sub-millimeter-bubbles. In the turbulent region, the heat transfer deterioration occurs for a bubble flow rate Q = 33 mm3/s, while the heat transfer enhancement occurs for Q = 56 mm3/s. Temperature and velocity measurements suggest that the former is caused by a delay of the transition due to the bubble-induced upward flow. On the other hand, the latter is mainly due to two factors: one is the enhancement of the rotation of eddies in the outer layer, and the other is the increase in the gradient of the streamwise liquid velocity at the heated wall. These are caused by bubbles, which are located in the inner layer, rising at high speed.

Kitagawa, Atsuhide; Kitada, Kenji; Hagiwara, Yoshimichi

2010-09-01

200

Tacrolimus Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... the U.S.); cisplatin (Platinol); danazol (Danocrine); certain diuretics ('water pills'); ganciclovir (Cytovene); hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, inserts, or injections); HIV protease inhibitors such as indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir ( ...

201

Quality of water recovered from a municipal effluent injection well in the Floridan aquifer system, Pompano Beach, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Approximately 69 million gallons of backflow from an injection well used for the disposal of secondary treated municipal effluent in the Floridan aquifer system near Pompano Beach, Florida, was periodically sampled for inorganic quality from March 1975 through March 1977. Analyses of the backflow effluent showed a concomitant increase in dissolved solids and a change in ionic composition as a function of cumulative volume of backflow. Both the increase in dissolved solids and the change in major ionic composition were directly related to an estimated 6 to 7 percent mixing of the moderately saline water in the Florida aquifer system with the injected system with the injected effluent. Although an estimated 3.5 billion gallons of effluent was injected into the aquifer system during the 16-year operation of the Collier Manor treatment plant, only 65 to 70 million gallons was backflowed before the chloride concentration approached 250 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

1984-01-01

202

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT  

E-print Network

STORM WATER POLLUTION PREVENTION PLAN FOR: BUILDING B51 AND BEVATRON DEMOLITION PROJECT PROJECT NO;Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Building B51 and Bevatron Demolition Project Lawrence............................................................................................300-3 300.4 Project Schedule/Water Pollution Control Schedule

203

[Impact of water pollution risk in water transfer project based on fault tree analysis].  

PubMed

The methods to assess water pollution risk for medium water transfer are gradually being explored. The event-nature-proportion method was developed to evaluate the probability of the single event. Fault tree analysis on the basis of calculation on single event was employed to evaluate the extent of whole water pollution risk for the channel water body. The result indicates, that the risk of pollutants from towns and villages along the line of water transfer project to the channel water body is at high level with the probability of 0.373, which will increase pollution to the channel water body at the rate of 64.53 mg/L COD, 4.57 mg/L NH4(+) -N and 0.066 mg/L volatilization hydroxybenzene, respectively. The measurement of fault probability on the basis of proportion method is proved to be useful in assessing water pollution risk under much uncertainty. PMID:19927799

Liu, Jian-Chang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Li-Min; Li, Dai-Qing; Fan, Xiu-Ying; Deng, Hong-Bing

2009-09-15

204

Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well  

PubMed Central

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1?7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images PMID:16347649

McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

1988-01-01

205

Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well.  

PubMed

Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. PMID:16347649

McKinley, V L; Costerton, J W; White, D C

1988-06-01

206

ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

207

Stability of Five Beta-Lactam Antibiotics in Sterile Water for Injection and Stored in Plastic Syringes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intermittent intravenous administration of antibiotics by the syringe-infusion pump system is currently being promoted. To use this system, a dose of medication is prepared in 10-20ml of sterile water for injection and stored in plastic disposable syr...

D. L. Borst

1984-01-01

208

Field test of a cross-injection scheme for stimulating in situ denitrification near a municipal water supply well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pilot-scale test of an in situ denitrification scheme was undertaken to assess an adaptation of the nutrient injection wall (NIW) technology for treating a deep (30-40 m) nitrate contamination problem (N-NO 3- ˜ 10-12 mg/L). The adaptation is called the Cross-Injection Scheme (CIS). It duplicates the NIW method without a wall; wells are installed and operated directly in the aquifer and high-flux zones of the aquifer are preferentially targeted for treatment. The test was conducted on the site of a municipal water supply well field, with the supply well pumping between 15-80 m 3/h. Acetate was periodically injected into the aquifer between an injection-extraction well pair positioned across the normal direction of flow. The injected pulses were then permitted to move with the water toward the municipal wells, providing a carbon supply to drive the desired denitrification. The fate of nitrate, nitrite, acetate and sulphate were monitored at multilevel wells located between the injection location and the municipal wells. The acetate pulsing interval was approximately weekly (9 h injections), so that the system was operating passively 95% of the time. Previous work on the site has established that the highest solute fluxes were associated with a 1-3 m thick zone about 35 m below surface. This zone was found to respond to the acetate additions as a function of the municipal pumping rate and the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (i.e., determined by the injected acetate concentration). Initially, acetate was injected just below the theoretical stoichiometric requirement for complete denitrification and nitrate disappearance was accompanied by nitrite production. Increasing the C:N ratio (doubling the acetate injection concentration) increased the removal of nitrate and diminished the occurrence of nitrite. Slowing the municipal pumping rate, with a C:N ratio of 1.2-1.6, resulted in complete nitrate attenuation with no nitrite production and no sulfate reduction. The experiment demonstrated that the CIS injection scheme is a viable option for the treatment of nitrate contamination in situ near high-capacity wells.

Gierczak, R.; Devlin, J. F.; Rudolph, D. L.

2007-01-01

209

INITIAL TEST RESULTS OF THE LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER (LIMB) DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses SO2 removal efficiency and low-NOx burner performance obtained during short term tests, as well as the impact of LIMB ash on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) performance at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. Project goals are to demonstrate 50% or more SO2 remov...

210

Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2007-01-08

211

Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota; analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degree Celsius) in the deep Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer (180 to 240 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. High-temperature water from the University's steam-generation facilities supplied heated water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal- Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection/withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through another well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection, and withdrawal. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.7 to 18.4 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, noniso- thermal ground-water flow and thermal-energy- transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to (1) field-recorded temperatures at selected locations, in four observation wells; (2) field- recorded temperatures at the production well; and (3) calculated aquifer-thermal efficiences. Model- computed withdrawal-water temperaturs were within an average of about 3 percent of measured values and model-computed aquifer-thermal efficiencies were within an average of about 5 percent of calculated values for the short-term test cycles. These data indicate that the model accurately simulated thermal-energy storage.

Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G. N.

1994-01-01

212

Helicopter payload gains utilizing water injection for hot day power augmentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analytical investigation was undertaken to assess the gains in helicopter mission payload through the use of water injection to produce power augmentation in an altitude-hot day environment. Substantial gains are shown for two representative helicopters, the UH-lH and CH-47B. The UH-lH payload increased 86.7 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission involving two out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover take-offs of 2 minutes each at 5000 ft. (1525 m) 35 C ambient conditions. The CH-47B payload increased 49.5 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission with sling loaded cargo as the outbound payload and a 3000 lb. (1360 kg) internal cargo on the return leg. The mission included two 4 min. OGE hovers at 6000 ft. (1830 m) 35 C. An improvement in take off performance and maximum performance climb also resulted as a consequence of the OGE hover capability and higher maximum power available.

Stroub, R. H.

1972-01-01

213

2007-2008 Special Projects Turner: Water Ripples Interactive Youth Games  

E-print Network

and conservation. Smolen: Water Policy Primer, Water Rights in Arkansas through New Mexico In follow up to the 42007-2008 Special Projects Turner: Water Ripples Interactive Youth Games The Water Ripples project proposes to develop youth water education materials designed for interactive `fun-time' learning

214

Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

Glasser, Philip W

1950-01-01

215

Performance of J33-A-21 and J33-A-23 Turbojet-Engine Compressors with Water Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the performance investigation of compressors for the J33 turbojet engine, the A-21 model and the A-23 model with a 17- and a 34-blade impeller were operated with water injection at their respective design equivalent speeds of 11,500 and 11,750 rpm. Inlet conditions of pressure of 14 inches of mercury absolute and of ambient temperature correspond to those of the investigation of these models without water injection. The water-air ratio by weight ranged from 0.05 to 0.06. By the use of water injection, the peak pressure ratio of the A-21 compressor and the A-23 compressor with a 34-blade impeller increased approximately 0.38, whereas that of the A-23 compressor with a 17-blade impeller increased only 0.14. The decrease in maximum efficiency for the three compressors ranged from 0.12 to 0.14. The highest increase in maximum equivalent weight flow of air plus weight flow of water was 10.90 pounds per second obtained with the A-21 compressor. The increase in air weight flow alone was approximately 5.70 pounds per second for the A-21 compressor end the A-23, 17-blade compressor, which exceeded the increase of 3.15 pounds per second for the A-23; 34-blade compressor.

Beede, William L.; Withee, Joseph R., Jr.

1949-01-01

216

Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: Results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project  

E-print Network

The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA analysis which focused on gravitational waveforms from binary black hole coalescence. Ten numerical relativity groups contributed numerical data which were used to generate a set of gravitational-wave signals. These signals were injected into a simulated data set, designed to mimic the response of the Initial LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Nine groups analysed this data using search and parameter-estimation pipelines. Matched filter algorithms, un-modelled-burst searches and Bayesian parameter-estimation and model-selection algorithms were applied to the data. We report the efficiency of these search methods in detecting the numerical waveforms and measuring their parameters. We describe preliminary comparisons between the different search methods and suggest improvements for future NINJA analyses.

Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Laura Cadonati; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterji; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

2009-01-28

217

Science in an Integrated Primary School Project on Water: Part 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes water-related activities in an elementary school science project. These activities focus on electric generators, rainfall, erosion, floating, water conservation, and other areas. Brief comments on developing such a project are included. (JN)

Ward, Alan

1984-01-01

218

Energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)  

SciTech Connect

This article gives an overview of energy and water potential of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP) in Turkey. This integrated socioeconomic development project is one of the largest of its kind in the world. The GAP region is rich in water and soil resources. The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers represent over 28% of the nation's water supply by rivers, and the economically irrigatable areas in the region make up 20% of those for the entire country. On the other hand, the GAP region is the richest region of the country in terms of its hydroelectric potential as well as its oil and asphalt reserves. The GAP region has a 22% share of the country's total hydroelectric potential, with plans for 22 dams and 19 hydropower plants. Once completed, 27 billion kWh of electricity will be generated. In addition to this hydropower and oil potential, the GAP region is also the richest region of Turkey as far as solar energy production is concerned. In meeting the energy requirements of the developing regions worldwide and in Turkey, solar energy is being taken into account as an important renewable source of energy.

Kaygusuz, K.

1999-12-01

219

Status of the S.E. Geysers effluent pipeline & injection project  

SciTech Connect

A unique public/private partnership of local, state, federal, and corporate stakeholders is constructing the world`s first wastewater-to-electricity system in Lake County, California. A rare example of a genuinely {open_quotes}sustainable{close_quotes} system, three Lake County communities will recycle their treated wastewater effluent through the Geysers geothermal steamfield to produce an estimated 625,000 MWh of electricity annually from six existing geothermal power plants. The concept is shown schematically. Construction was initiated in October 1995, and as of this writing, the system is approximately 85% complete. Operational start-up is expected in October 1997. The key to the project`s success thus far has been its emphasis on cooperative action among affected stakeholders; and a broad, community-based view of solving problems rather than the traditional, narrower view of engineering-driven technical solutions. Special attention has been given to environmentally-responsive engineering design to avoid or minimize adverse environmental impacts.

Dellinger, M. [Lake County Sanitation District, Lakeport, CA (United States)

1997-12-31

220

Transient formation characteristics of temperature stratified flow in a horizontal water pipe with an injection of hot water from a hole of a pipe  

SciTech Connect

Temperature stratified flow was numerically analyzed in a horizontal pipe. Initially cold water is running and developed in a pipe. From a part of a pipe wall, hot water is injected. Subsequent transient velocity and temperature stratification process was numerically analyzed. This process is a model for such transfer phenomena as follows, i.e., blowing of fresh air into a long tunnel, replacing process of hazardous fluids from a pipeline of an industrial plant with safer fluids, ventilation of a large construction house or ducts, transient combustion process in a tunnel or huge duct, transient flow and temperature characteristics in a canal or river with multiple sub channels. These various cases become more complicated and more serious for the larger scale systems. Temperature stratified flow is everywhere established which makes the prediction difficult. This paper presents transient three-dimensional numerical analyses for a horizontal pipe in which laminar cold water runs steadily. Hot water is injected from a lower side corner of a pipe. Model equations consist of fully three-dimensional balance equations in a cylindrical coordinate. Total tube length computed is 10 times of a pipe diameter d{sub 0}. Hot water inlet hole is 0.4d{sub 0} long in an axial direction and {pi}d{sub 0}/8 in a circumferential direction near the entrance of the system. Reynolds number in a pipe is 1000. Reynolds number of the hot water at the injection hole is 447. Grashof number based on the temperature difference is 5 x 10{sup 7} and Pr = 5.41. Transient three-dimensional velocity profiles and isotherms are presented. The instantaneous water temperature represents oscillatory fluctuation depending on the level in a pipe and on the axial distance from the injection hole. For the tube diameter 0.1m, an average temperature arrived a quasi-steady state after 5 minutes with strong temperature stratification even at 1m from an injection hole. Near the injection hole, hot water makes circumferential convection with oscillatory up and down vortex flow in an axial direction. Warmer water makes stratified flow with faster axial velocity near the top of the tube with much slower axial velocity near the bottom of the tube. These fully three-dimensionally complicated flow and temperature stratification characteristics are presented in various ends view and side views of a long pipe. The importance to note the temperature stratified flow is discussed.

Okinotani, Takeshi; Ozoe, Hiroyuki

1999-07-01

221

Assessing the impacts of South-to-North Water Transfer Project with decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South to North Water Transfer Project is one of the four largest trans-century projects in China, which is expected to be completed by 2008. The project seeks to promote Northern China's economic growth by relaxing water constraints in a region now facing severe water shortage. In this paper, a decision support system (DSS) for assessing the social–economic impact of

Feng Shan; Ling Xia Li; Zhi Gang Duan; Jinlong Zhang

2007-01-01

222

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

...Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. 328.5 Section 328.5 Parks...REGULATION OF SEAPLANE OPERATIONS AT CIVIL WORKS WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED...Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters. (a) All operations of the...

2014-07-01

223

Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.  

PubMed

In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts. PMID:22883209

Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

2012-12-01

224

A multisyringe flow injection method for the automated determination of sulfide in waters using a miniaturised optical fiber spectrophotometer.  

PubMed

In this paper, a fully software-controlled multisyringe flow injection (MSFIA) spectrophotometric system is proposed for the determination of sulfide in environmental and waste waters. The implementation of ancillary solenoid valves into the flow network allows a multitude of injection modalities to be explored, the selected modality being directly dependent on the aim of the assays. The multicommuted sandwich-type approach is introduced in this work as an efficient means to warrant high sensitivity for the particular assay with excellent repeatabilities and a considerable reagent saving. Moreover, a high injection frequency may be easily attained by carrying out a multiple injection modality during a single forward displacement of the piston driver bar. The interfacing of the robust and versatile multisyringe piston pump with an optical fiber plug-in spectrophotometer furnished with a light emitting diode enables the miniaturization of the flow analyzer, which is thus readily adaptable to in-situ and real-time monitoring schemes. The flow method is based on the coupling Fischer's reaction of sulfide with N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine in the presence of Fe(III) as oxidizing reagent in a 0.7M HCl medium. Careful selection of the physical and chemical variables enabled coefficients of variations better than 1.5% (n = 10) at the 1mgl(-1) level for both injection modalities. Dynamic working ranges of 0.2-2.0 and 0.5-5mgl(-1) sulfide for sandwich and multiple injection techniques, and detection limits of 0.09 and 0.15mgl(-1), respectively, were obtained. Furthermore, the sandwich modality featured an average slope of 0.43 +/- 0.02lmg(-1) calculated from 10 day-to-day calibration plots. This result reveals better sensitivity than other flowing stream methods described in the literature. The multiple injection technique allowed an improvement of the injection throughput up to 80h(-1), although a decrease of sensitivity was concomitantly observed (average slope of 0.17 +/- 0.01lmg(-1)). The multisyringe flow method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfide in different spiked water matrices (namely, mineral, tap, freshwater, seawater and wastewater) with recoveries ranging from 96 to 104%. Good agreement was also found in water samples between the MSFIA results and those of the batch APHA-standard method. PMID:18969720

Ferrer, Laura; de Armas, Graciela; Miró, Manuel; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

2004-12-15

225

Screening and evaluation of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in seawater and effluent water injection systems in Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

Injection water sources in Kuwait range from brackish water (TDS=4000 mg/l) through seawater (TDS = 30,000 mg/l) to high saline brines (TDS = 200,000 mg/l). Some of these water sources are highly sulfide sour and may require treatment to prevent scaling, corrosion or iron sulfide precipitation. Another particular problem in water injection systems is the uncontrolled growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) which leads to increased corrosion of the process plant. Therefore, evaluation schemes were undertaken to study the relative risks of MIC in a range of Kuwait`s water sources, using a combination of field sampling and laboratory biofouling trials. Recirculating biofouling loops were set up with the appropriate site water, and inoculated with the bacteria from the system so that an active biofilm was set up on small studs. These biofouled studs were treated with proprietary biocide inhibitors under various dose rates in order to select the most appropriate control regime for particular water chemistries and process options.

Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Carew, J. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait). Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Materials Div.

1999-11-01

226

Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that the analysis is partially complete, since there if no Assessment of the impact on nonagricultural income and employment, or secondary impacts such as demand for irrigation equipment, services for processing, manufacture and transport services, or investment of new agricultural surpluses. Few empirical studies have been done and the estimates apply only to individual project areas. The results show that inequality is greatest with major (gravity) irrigation, followed by STW, DTW and LLP, FCD (medium to shallow), FCD (deep to shallow), and the most equitable MOSTI. Changes in the absolute income accruing to the rural poor would lead to the rank of major gravity irrigation as raising more above the poverty line, followed by MOSTI, minor irritation (STW, DTW, and LLP), and FCD schemes. PMID:12317341

Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

1991-09-01

227

Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs  

PubMed Central

A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24–27°C), Kuparuk (47–70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80–83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined ?D and ?13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

Piceno, Yvette M.; Reid, Francine C.; Tom, Lauren M.; Conrad, Mark E.; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Graff, Craig J.; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C.; Andersen, Gary L.

2014-01-01

228

Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already been reported as degraders of complex organic molecules and pollutants. Nevertheless, a large number of unclassified bacterial and archaeal sequences were found in the analyzed samples, indicating that subsurface waters in oilfields could harbor new and still-non-described microbial species. PMID:23805243

Lenchi, Nesrine; Inceoglu, Ozgul; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Lliros, Marc; Servais, Pierre; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara

2013-01-01

229

Preliminary report on isotope abundance measurements in groundwater samples from the Talbert Injection Barrier Area, Orange County Water District  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses isotope abundance measurements made on a collection of groundwater samples from the Orange County Water District. The water samples were collected in May, 1994 as part of a preliminary study conducted by LLNL to assess the feasibility of tracing and dating reclaimed water used in the Talbert Injection Barrier. A set of samples were collected both near to and far from the barrier and also at different depths in available monitoring wells. A variety of elements were selected for isotopic analysis; hydrogen (tritium), helium, neon, carbon, chlorine and strontium. The tritium abundance combined with the {sup 3}He and {sup 20}Ne abundance provides a method for age dating young (< 40 yr.) groundwater. The abundance of {sup 14}C provides an age dating technique for older (1,000--50,000 yr.) groundwater. The concentrations of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr give information on sea water mixing and water-rock chemical interactions.

Hudson, G.B.; Davisson, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Niemeyer, S.; Esser, B.; Beiriger, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Isotope Sciences Div.

1995-02-01

230

Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States); [Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

1996-11-01

231

Rise in the intramammary pressure of the ewe after injection of water into the inguinal artery  

E-print Network

injection of a mixture of Nesdonal-sodium pentobarbital and atropine (1), followed by inhalation of nitrous (Specia), 5 mg of 6 p. 100 sodium pentobarbital (Lathevet) and 40 mg of atropine completed by distilled

Boyer, Edmond

232

Experimental and simulation studies of water-alternating-enriched gas injection for San Francisco Field, Colombia  

E-print Network

This thesis presents a complete investigation involving experimental and compositional reservoir simulation studies into enriched gas injection as a method to enhance oil recovery from the San Francisco field in Colombia. In enriched gas floods...

Soto Tavera, Claudia Patricia

2012-06-07

233

Numerical study of the structure flow of the gas-vapor mixture in a channel with injection of water droplets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mathematical modeling algorithm for the numerical analysis of the dynamics and evaporation of the water droplet which is injected into a gas-vapor flow is offered. The algorithm was tested with the help of the problem solution about a viscous fluid flow in a plane channel of constant cross section. It was shown that the proposed mathematical model and implementation algorithm are adequate to the physics of the investigated process. It was shown that the proposed mathematical model and implementation algorithm are adequate to the physics of the investigated process. Results of numerical study of the flow structure of the gas-vapor mixture in the channel with injection of water droplet under varying the initial droplet parameters are given.

Maslov, Eugene; Zharova, Irina; Borisov, Boris; Fedotova, Natalya

2014-08-01

234

A surface water management model for the Integrated Southern Ghor Project, Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the long-term ability of the Integrated Southern Ghor Project (ISGP) to meet the required water demands, assess the resulting energy requirements, pumping costs, water transfers, benefits of the current system with respect to predevelopment conditions and effect of projected water demands increase on the resulting water deficits. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A

Malek Abu Rumman; Mohammad Hiyassat; Bashar Alsmadi; Ahmad Jamrah; Maha Alqam

2009-01-01

235

Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs  

PubMed Central

Background Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2) supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach). Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2), skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2) were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in the three groups, but when compared to the control group, the values remained significantly higher in animals that received the water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. Conclusions In this protocol, water enriched in O2 by electrolysis lessened the decline of peripheral tissue oxygenation. This observation is compatible with the claim that the electrolytic process generates water clathrates which trap O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along pressure gradients. Potential applications of O2-enriched water include an alternate method of oxygen supply. PMID:25210438

Charton, Antoine; Peronnet, Francois; Doutreleau, Stephane; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Klein, Alexis; Jimenez, Liliana; Geny, Bernard; Diemunsch, Pierre; Richard, Ruddy

2014-01-01

236

Induced earthquakes accompanying the water injection experiment at the Nojima fault zone, Japan: Seismicity and its migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu (Kobe) earthquake of M7.2 occurred on January 17, 1995. After the earthquake, a scientific drilling program called the Nojima Fault Zone Probe was carried out at the Nojima fault which ruptured during the mainshock. Water was injected during two periods, February 9-13 and March 16-25, 1997. The pumping pressure at the surface was about 4 MPa.

Keiichi Tadokoro; Masataka Ando; Kin'ya Nishigami

2000-01-01

237

Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol–biodiesel–water micro-emulsions used in a direct injection compression ignition engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims on the efficient use of ethanol–biodiesel–water micro-emulsions in a diesel engine. A single cylinder direct injection diesel engine is tested using neat biodiesel and the micro-emulsions as fuels under variable operating conditions. The results indicate that, compared with biodiesel, the peak cylinder pressure of the micro-emulsions is almost identical, and the peak pressure rise rate and peak

D. H. Qi; H. Chen; R. D. Matthews; Y. Z. H. Bian

2010-01-01

238

36 CFR 328.5 - Guidelines for seaplane use of project waters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...in, on, or affecting project waters, under the management of the Resource Manager, including waters under lease, license or other...and section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (Pub....

2013-07-01

239

Model and numerical simulation for the evolution of residual wall thickness in Water-Assisted Injection Molding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The motion of water-melt interface confined in horizontal circular tubes during Water-Assisted Injection Molding (WAIM) has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. Of particular interest is the determination of residual melt film thickness on the walls. The reduced governing equations for viscous compressible non-Newtonian polymer melt during the second penetration in WAIM were established using dimensionless method. A formula used to calculate the second penetrating velocity was derived based on mathematical inference and mechanical principle. Experiments was conducted to measure the displacement of the water-melt interface as a function of the melt temperature, water pressure. The experimental results indicate the first penetration theory is not accurate in predicting residual wall thickness and the combined first and second penetration theories can improve the accuracy significantly.

Li, Qian; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Shixun; Shen, Changyu

2010-06-01

240

Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997  

SciTech Connect

Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

Cannon, T.J.

1998-10-01

241

Unit Operation Optimization for the Manufacturing of Botanical Injections Using a Design Space Approach: A Case Study of Water Precipitation  

PubMed Central

Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38–0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7–4.9 g/g, and SS of 280–350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability. PMID:25101624

Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

2014-01-01

242

Changes in fluid chemistry during injection, Raft River KGRA  

SciTech Connect

The geochemical aspects of the injection of spent geothermal fluids at the Raft River KGRA are discussed. Spent fluids from the plant are now discharged into holding ponds rather than directly into injection wells. In late October and early November 1981, the entire production-electrical generation-injection system at Raft River was tested. A number of geochemical investigations were made during that test to evaluate the open injection system. Concentrations of suspended solids in water from the power plant remained below detection limits throughout most of the testing period. Actual chemical conditions in the injection water were in general agreement with pre-test predictions, the major difference being that more CO/sub 2/ was lost than initially projected. Measurements made during a two-week injection test indicated that opening the injection system to the atmosphere may add to the quantity of chemical precipitates formed after injection; this is because of the CO/sub 2/ loss. (MJF)

Hull, L.C.

1982-04-01

243

Ground water in the North Side Pumping Division, Minidoka Project, Minidoka County, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

nearby is being developed by private capital. Completion of the Federal reclamation project will more than double the irrigated acreage in the North Side Division of the Minidoka Project. The area to be irrigated with ground water is at the south-central edge of the Snake River Plain adjacent to project lands that have been irrigated for many years with Snake River water.

Crosthwaite, Emerson G.; Scott, R. C.

1956-01-01

244

An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs  

PubMed Central

Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs. PMID:22502598

2012-01-01

245

Fast determination of 40 drugs in water using large volume direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This work describes a rapid analytical method based on direct sample injection of water samples for the simultaneous identification/quantification of 40 emerging compounds, including pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse. The water samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS QqQ). Taking profit of the increasing sensitivity of nowadays tandem mass spectrometers, direct sample injection of large volumes has been an attractive alternative to pre-concentration steps. In this work, the developed methodology has been validated at three concentration levels (10, 100 and 1000ng/L) in 10 different water samples of different types (5 effluent wastewater and 5 surface water samples). The majority of compounds could be satisfactory validated at these concentrations, showing good recoveries and precision. With only few exceptions, the limits of quantification (LOQs), estimated from the sample chromatogram at lowest spiked level tested, were below 3ng/L. The method was applied to the analysis of 10 effluent wastewater and 10 surface water samples. Venlafaxine was the compound most frequently detected (80%) in surface water, followed by acetaminophen (70%). Regarding effluent wastewater, valsartan and 4-acetyl aminoantipyrine were detected in 9 out of 10 samples analyzed. These two compounds together with 4-formyl aminoantipyrine and naproxen showed the highest concentrations (>2000ng/L). In these cases, a dilution step was required for a correct quantification. As an additional evaluation of the method performance, the same water samples were analyzed in another laboratory by a second analytical methodology, based on on-line solid-phase-extraction coupled to LC-MS/MS (QqQ). PMID:25281164

Boix, Clara; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V; Rambla, Javier; Aranda, José L; Ballester, Salomé; Hernández, Félix

2015-01-01

246

75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Conservation Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County...of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969; the Council on...prepared for the Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County...NRCS information related to water supply demand requirements...

2010-05-12

247

Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at the Aidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling of mineral-water-gas Reactions  

E-print Network

the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation resultssimulation program for non- isothermal multiphase reactive geochemical transport in variably saturated geologic media: Applications to geothermalsimulations of the interactions between injectate water and the mineral, gas, and steam phases present in the geothermal

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

2006-01-01

248

The effects of cold water injection and two-phase flow on skin factor and permeability estimates from pressure falloff analysis  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF COLD WATER INJECTION AND TWO-PHASE FLOW ON SKIN FACTOR AND PERMEABILITY ESTIMATES FROM PRESSURE FALLOFF ANALYSIS A Thesis by FRODE LINGE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ABM University in Partial fulfillment... Approved as to style and content by: H. Wu (Chairman of conanittee) ar zman (Member) an ee (Member ) W D, on Gonten (H d of Department) August 1984 ABSTRACT The Effects of Cold Water Injection and Two-Phase Flow on Skin Factor and Permeability...

Linge, Frode

2012-06-07

249

The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system  

SciTech Connect

Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

1992-01-01

250

Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

1999-01-01

251

Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

NONE

1996-03-01

252

An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

Hamlin, S. N.

1985-01-01

253

Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

2011-01-01

254

ISOTOPE HYDROLOGY LABORATORY - RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS (WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT BRANCH, WSWRD, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The mission of NRMRL's Water Supply and Water Resources Division's Isotope Hydrology Laboratory (IHL) is to resolve environmental hydrology problems through research and application of naturally occurring isotopes. Recent research projects undertaken by IHL include (1) Climate ...

255

Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

256

Hydraulic Communication Between Coalbeds and Overlying Sands in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Implications for Re-injection of Coalbed Methane Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coalbed methane (CBM) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is associated with the production of large volumes of CBM water. CBM water from the PRB has high saline and sodium contents, making it unsuitable for agriculture and environmentally damaging. One option for the disposal of CBM water is re-injection into aquifers, but for injection to be feasible the porosity and permeability of the sands needs to be high, the pore pressure needs to be low, and the aquifer cannot be in hydraulic communication with the coalbeds. In order to determine if pore pressures in the aquifers are low enough to allow for significant CBM water re-injection and to determine whether the coals and sands are in hydraulic communication with each other we have calculated pore pressures in 220 wells that monitor water levels in coalbeds and adjacent sands within the PRB. All 220 wells have pore pressures below hydrostatic pressure, implying that re-injection of CBM water should be feasible. However, by analyzing pore pressure changes with time for both the coals and their overlying sands, we find that sands less than 100 ft from coal appear to be in communication with the coalbed. Therefore, re- injection of CBM water should be carried out in sands further than 100 ft from adjacent coalbeds. It also follows that CO2 sequestration in PRB coalbeds should not be carried out in areas where sands and coals are hydraulically connected, as potential leakage pathways for CO2 maybe present.

Ross, H. E.; Zoback, M. D.

2006-12-01

257

Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century  

SciTech Connect

This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

2013-03-06

258

Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. Women in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the traditional water carriers and water managers, third world women are crucial to the success of rural water supply projects whose short term goal is increased water quality and quantity and whose long term goal is improved family health. Change depends on the utilization of local learning systems of the society and women are most often the…

Roark, Paula

259

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sufficient water to meet the vested water rights below Sagouspe Dam as specified in the Alpine decree. These water rights...for this purpose will not be considered in determining Project diversions since the lands to which the water is being delivered are...

2011-10-01

260

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sufficient water to meet the vested water rights below Sagouspe Dam as specified in the Alpine decree. These water rights...for this purpose will not be considered in determining Project diversions since the lands to which the water is being delivered are...

2010-10-01

261

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sufficient water to meet the vested water rights below Sagouspe Dam as specified in the Alpine decree. These water rights...for this purpose will not be considered in determining Project diversions since the lands to which the water is being delivered are...

2012-10-01

262

43 CFR 418.25 - Water use for other than Newlands Project purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sufficient water to meet the vested water rights below Sagouspe Dam as specified in the Alpine decree. These water rights...for this purpose will not be considered in determining Project diversions since the lands to which the water is being delivered are...

2013-10-01

263

Prediction of electron concentration reductions in re-entry flow fields due to electrophilic liquid and water injection.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of an analytical model which leads to predictions of reductions in electron concentrations in reentry flow fields due to the injection of electrophilic liquids and water. The processes incorporated into the model are: penetration and breakup of the liquid jet, droplet acceleration and vaporization, expansion of the liquid spray due to droplet vaporization, electrophilic vapor diffusion, heterogeneous and homogeneous charged species recombination kinetics and homogeneous electron attachment kinetics. Spray boundary calculations are shown to be in good agreement with photographic observations of water and Freon E-3 sprays in wind tunnel tests of a scale model RAM C-III flight vehicle. Fixed-bias electrostatic probe data taken during the RAM C-III flight are interpreted in terms of effective jet penetration distances - which are shown to be consistent with calculations using the present model.

Pergament, H. S.; Mikatarian, R. R.; Kurzius, S. C.

1972-01-01

264

Online/offline injection seeding system with high frequency-stability and low crosstalk for water vapor DIAL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compact and rugged distributed feedback (DFB) laser system has been developed as online-offline injection seeder for the laser transmitter of a ground-based water vapor differential absorption lidar (WV DIAL) near 820 nm. The frequency stability of this injection seeder system shows a standard deviation of only 6.3 MHz and a linewidth of less than 4.6 MHz during continuous operation of more than 14 h. These values by far exceed the requirements for WV DIAL. By use of a novel technique based on an electro-optic deflector (EOD), alternating online-offline wavelength switching is achieved for each shot of the seeded laser with 250 Hz with a response time of less than 10 ?s and very low crosstalk between the channels of only 33 dB. As a result, a spectral purity of 99.95% is reached by the WV DIAL transmitter which again fulfills the requirements for WV DIAL measurements with high accuracy. Because moveable parts are not present in the seeding system, this setup is significantly less sensitive to acoustic vibrations and ambient temperature drifts during field experiments than other seeding systems which use external cavity diode lasers (ECDL) and mechanical switches. By our new seeding system not only the requirements for ground-based water-vapor DIAL are met but also for space-borne WV DIAL applications that pose even higher demands to the frequency stability and spectral purity of the laser transmitters.

Späth, Florian; Metzendorf, Simon; Behrendt, Andreas; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Wagner, Gerd; Wulfmeyer, Volker

2013-11-01

265

The recovery of oil from carbonate reservoirs by fluid injection  

E-print Network

respectively. The productivity index calculated from the permeability of the cores was 1. 0 'barrels per day per psi. The water injeotion project, in Field B consists of seven oil wells and six water injection wells as shown in Figure 3. Pr oduotion is from... respectively. The productivity index calculated from the permeability of the cores was 1. 0 'barrels per day per psi. The water injeotion project, in Field B consists of seven oil wells and six water injection wells as shown in Figure 3. Pr oduotion is from...

Coleman, Dwayne Marvin

2012-06-07

266

Analysis of the steam injection at the Visalia Superfund Project with fully compositional nonisothermal finite difference simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

By injecting steam, over 1.1 million pounds of creosote has been recovered at the Visalia, California Superfund Site from an aquifer 102ft underground. In the first 6 weeks of injection 320,000lb of creosote were recovered or destroyed versus <1lb per day in a pump and treat. The finite difference simulator STARS1Developed, maintained and marketed by Computer Modeling Group Ltd., Calgary,

Myron I. Kuhlman

2002-01-01

267

Effects of interbasin water transfer on regional climate: A case study of the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale interbasin water transfer, which changes basins by creating new hydrological cycles, has the potential to affect local and regional climate. In this paper, the effects of interbasin water transfer on regional climate are studied based on numerical simulations with the regional climate model RegCM3. The Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRSNWTP) in China is chosen as a case study to investigate the climatic responses under the three water transfer schemes with the intensities of 74.99, 85.31, and 118.16 billion m3/year (named Scheme 1, Scheme 2, and Scheme 3, respectively) based on the simplifications of the project programming. Four ten-year simulations are performed, which are the control run (MCTL) without water transfer, and three water transfer runs MWT1, MWT2, and MWT3 related to the Schemes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For the three Schemes compared to the case without water transfer, we find increases of 1.47, 1.71, and 2.32 mm in top-layer soil moisture, and increases of 5.57, 6.40, and 8.99W/m2 in latent heat flux, respectively, as a directly influence for injecting water into the intake area. The increases in latent heat fluxes and those in evaporation are accompanied with the decreases of 4.30, 5.05, and 7.12W/m2 in sensible heat flux, the decreases of 0.11, 0.14, and 0.18 ° in mean air temperature, and the increases of 8.54, 7.89, and 18.2 mm in precipitation in the intake grid cells and even their adjacent ones. The intensity of climatic influences positively relates to the transferred water quantity, has strong seasonal variability, and takes a greater effect in spring and autumn than that in summer and winter. Further analysis shows that the transferred water can reduce both the seasonal temperature range and the diurnal temperature range; the temperature decreasing can diffuse over almost the whole Huabei Plain below 700 hPa, and hence weaken the wind velocity of the easterly breeze. It follows from the analyses on vertical profile of water vapor content and the atmospheric moisture budgets that the transferred water can affect the local and regional climate by changing the local and regional water vapour transports, and especially influence the precipitation mainly by changing the convective precipitation over the intake area and the large-scale precipitation over the other adjacent region.

Xie, Z. H.; Chen, F.

2009-04-01

268

Maintenance of flows downstream from water-development projects in Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

All known water projects in Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming with streamflow agreements and data on streamflows below the project were examined to assess the frequency of discrepancies between agreed-to and actual flows. A total of 73 water development projects were identified, involving 119 locations with minimum streamflow agreements. Of these 61 locations, 54 exhibited flows below those established in streamflow agreements on at least some occasions; 28 locations had flows 25% of the established agreement or less. These data are summarized by State, agency, and type of agreement in the main report. An appendix (bound separately) presents detailed data on each of the water development projects examined.

Raley, C.; Hubert, W.; Anderson, S.

1988-08-01

269

The challenge addressed by this project is water resource sustainability and drought planning in an  

E-print Network

The challenge addressed by this project is water resource sustainability and drought planning the storage and recovery of groundwater credits in the aquifer during prolonged or severe drought 2007 PROJECT GOALS The goals of the project included 1) developing sce- narios of drought conditions

Fay, Noah

270

Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water  

PubMed Central

Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments. PMID:24499878

Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

2014-01-01

271

Flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection for rapid identification of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides in water.  

PubMed

Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments. PMID:24499878

Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

2014-02-01

272

Hydrazine and Hydrogen Co-injection to Mitigate Stress Corrosion Cracking of Structural Materials in Boiling Water Reactors (V) Effects of Hydrazine and Dissolved Oxygen on Flow Accelerated Corrosion of Carbon Steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrazine and hydrogen co-injection into reactor water via the feed water line can mitigate stress corrosion cracking in BWRs. The effects of water quality variation due to hydrazine injection on flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel used in the BWR feed water line should be considered from the viewpoints of radioactive exposure, radioactive waste generation and plant integrity. Optimization

Kazushige ISHIDA; Yoichi WADA; Masahiko TACHIBANA; Motohiro AIZAWA; Motomasa FUSE; Eiichi KADOI; Hideki TAKIGUCHI

2007-01-01

273

Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the project 'Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia', which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev...

J. Aagaard

1998-01-01

274

The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modeling of Water Resources in Central Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Navruz Project engages scientists from nuclear physics research institutes and water science institutions in the Central\\u000a Asia Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and Sandia National Laboratories. The project uses standardized\\u000a methods to monitor basic water quality parameters, radionuclides, and metals in the Syr Darya and Amu Darya rivers. Phase\\u000a I of the project was initiated in 2000

H. D. Passell; V. Solodukhin; S. Khazekhber; V. L. Pozniak; I. A. Vasiliev; V. M. Alekhina; A. Djuraev; R. I. Radyuk; D. Suozzi; D. S. Barber

275

Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota--Analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degrees Celsius) in the Franconia-Ironton Galesville aquifer (183 to 245 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. The University's steam-generation facilities supplied high-temperature water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection-withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through the other well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection and withdrawal ranging from 5.25 to 8.01 days. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.4 to 18.6 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Average injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. Temperature graphs for selected depths at individual observation wells indicate that the Ironton and Galesville Sandstones received and stored more thermal energy than the upper part of the Franconia Formation. Clogging of the Ironton Sandstone was possibly due to precipitation of calcium carbonate or movement of fine-grain material or both. Vertical-profile plots indicate that the effects of buoyancy flow were small within the aquifer. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, ground-water-flow, and thermal-energy-transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The model was used to simulate the entire short-term testing period of approximately 400 days. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities, which, for final calibration, were simulated as 3.3 and 0.33 meters, respectively. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to (1) measured temperatures at selected altitudes in four observation wells, (2) measured temperatures at the production well, and (3) calculated thermal efficiencies of the aquifer. Model-computed withdrawal-water temperatures were within an average of about 3 percent of measured values and model-computed aquifer-thermal efficiencies were within an average of about 5 percent of calculated values for the short-term test cycles. These data indicate that the model accurately simulated thermal-energy storage within the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville aquifer.

Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G. N.

2002-01-01

276

78 FR 2315 - Projects Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Approved for Consumptive Uses of Water AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin...approval for the consumptive use of water pursuant to the Commission's...Drilling Pad, ABR-201210006, Lemon Township, Wyoming County...Drilling Pad, ABR- 201210012, Lemon Township, Wyoming...

2013-01-10

277

Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The International Decade on Drinking Water and Sanitation, 1980-90, designed to bring clear water and sanitation to 1.5 billion people in developing countries, will fail unless community participation, with special emphasis on women, is incorporated into ...

P. Roark

1980-01-01

278

26 CFR 1.43-2 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...recovery methods —(A) Microemulsion flooding. The injection of a surfactant system...producing wells; and (B) Caustic flooding —The injection of water that has been...interest in a property, begins a caustic flooding project with respect to the...

2012-04-01

279

26 CFR 1.43-2 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery project.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...recovery methods —(A) Microemulsion flooding. The injection of a surfactant system...producing wells; and (B) Caustic flooding —The injection of water that has been...interest in a property, begins a caustic flooding project with respect to the...

2013-04-01

280

Shor Lab "Soil Water" Project Undergraduate Research Opportunity  

E-print Network

biofilm EPS level, drying condition and water retention. 5. Use microfluidic devices to systematically the water retention curve for whole soils. Bacteria can produce up to five times their mass in EPS, to characterize the affects of EPS on soil water retention. To achieve that, we need to first understand effect

Shor, Leslie McCabe

281

Multifluid Flows, Interface Capturing and Application to the Simulation of the Water Assisted Injection Molding Process  

E-print Network

to capture the water/polymer interface, that can be obtained used a VOF (Volume of Fluid) or a Level Set of interface capturing techniques: a Volume OF Fluid (VOF) method and a Level Set technique. VOF methods zero, with v the velocity field. 0=+ convectionv t (1) In the case of the VOF method, we consider

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

282

Influence of gas turbine combustor design and operating parameters on effectiveness of NO \\/SUB x\\/ suppression by injected steam or water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steam or water injection has become the state-of-the-art abatement technique for NO \\/SUB x\\/ , with steam strongly preferred for combined-cycle application. In combined-cycle plants, the degradation of the plant efficiency due to steam injection into the gas turbine combustor provides a powerful incentive for minimizing this flow over the entire plant operating map. This paper presents the results of

Touchton

1984-01-01

283

Characterization of Solids Collected from H-Area Injection Wells and Injection Tank Chemistry from both F- and H-Area Water Treatment Units (WTUs)  

SciTech Connect

This study suggests that a strong poitential exists for both chemical and biological fouling of the injection wells at the F- and H Area remediation systems. To further the potential, an evaluation of WTU process chemistry, characterization of the natural groundwater geochemistry, and analysis of microbiological activity should be performed. This report summarizes the results.

Serkiz, S.M.

1999-04-15

284

Bulk organic matter and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water during groundwater recharge by enhanced direct injection well.  

PubMed

Water shortages lead to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. A new kind of approach, enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir) consisting of short- and long-term soil treatment, is considered to be suitable for large cities in China. In this paper, EnDir was simulated by soil columns in the laboratory with the secondary effluent as raw water that was ozonated before EnDir. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term part of EnDir can remove 47 to 60% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), convert 5 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen to equivalent nitrate-nitrogen, and offer preferred removal of non-UV-absorbing organics. Soluble microbial byproducts and fulvic-acid-like materials can be ozonated and then partially biodegraded. The residuals of organic matter as a refractory fraction are biodegraded continuously during the long-term part. The DOC value of 1.8 to 2.5 mg/L can be reached, and 40% of organic matter with molecular weight less than 500 Da can be removed after full-term EnDir. PMID:19280901

Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang; Xuzhou, Cheng

2009-01-01

285

The effect of seasonal changes on the selection of biocide inhibitors for Arabian Gulf seawater for water injection purposes  

SciTech Connect

This investigation was carried out to determine the most effective biocide inhibitor for Northern Arabian Gulf Seawater. This seawater will be used for water injection purposes for some oil fields in Kuwait. Arabian Gulf Seawater is known to be very saline during the summer months and less saline during the rainy season of spring. The biocide inhibitors were tested in a rig with six side streams biofouling monitoring tubes (SBMT). Bacterial nutrients were added to the system and carbon steel studs were placed along the tubes of the biocide evaluation test rig (BETR). After a month, a thin, slimy, and black deposit was formed on the carbon steel studs. The deposit contained 107 general aerobic bacteria (GAB), 107 general anaerobic bacteria (GAnB) and 105 sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The most effective biocide inhibitor was found to be a fatty amine aryl quaternary inhibitor at 50% dosage.

Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Al-Muhanna, K.; Al-Bazzaz, W. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

1997-08-01

286

Daily glucose injections facilitate performance of a win-stay water-escape working memory task in mice.  

PubMed

In an experiment that compared 3 versions of a working memory task, male C57BL/6 mice given either 3 (n = 7) or 5 (n = 7) opportunities (test runs) per trial to choose the escape choice section of a maze acquired a win-stay (spatial matching-to-sample) water-escape task. Mice given only 1 test run per trial (n = 6) were unable to perform above chance level. In a 2nd experiment, 14 mice from the 1st experiment were tested for performance on the 3-test-run version of the task. Each mouse was tested for 12 consecutive days with each of 4 doses of glucose (0, 50, 100, & 250 mg/kg ip) given 30 min before testing. The two higher doses increased the percentage of correct test run choices on all 3 daily test runs across the 12 days of testing. Daily glucose injections facilitated the use of trial-dependent information. PMID:1590954

Means, L W; Fernandez, T J

1992-04-01

287

The CTARA-Habitat Center water project Jal-Swarajya Review  

E-print Network

quality measurement Pilot Component Local government incentive fund Ground-water aquifer management pilotThe CTARA-Habitat Center water project Jal-Swarajya Review () April 22, 2008 1 / 22 #12;Jal-Swarajya-Overview Maharashtra-a water profile. Jal-Swarajya, the background and broad objectives Main features-options, choices

Sohoni, Milind

288

Corrosion of low carbon steel by microorganisms from the 'pigging' operation debris in water injection pipelines.  

PubMed

Present in all environments, microorganisms develop biofilms adjacent to the metallic structures creating corrosion conditions which may cause production failures that are of great economic impact to the industry. The most common practice in the oil and gas industry to annihilate these biofilms is the mechanical cleaning known as "pigging". In the present work, microorganisms from the "pigging" operation debris are tested biologically and electrochemically to analyse their effect on the corrosion of carbon steel. Results in the presence of bacteria display the formation of black corrosion products allegedly FeS and a sudden increase (more than 400mV) of the corrosion potential of electrode immersed in artificial seawater or in field water (produced water mixed with aquifer seawater). Impedance tests provided information about the mechanisms of the interface carbon steel/bacteria depending on the medium used: mass transfer limitation in artificial seawater was observed whereas that in field water was only charge transfer phenomenon. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results proved that bacterial diversity decreased when cultivating the debris in the media used and suggested that the bacteria involved in the whole set of results are mainly sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and some other bacteria that make part of the taxonomic order Clostridiales. PMID:24355513

Cote, Claudia; Rosas, Omar; Sztyler, Magdalena; Doma, Jemimah; Beech, Iwona; Basseguy, Régine

2014-06-01

289

Is the Pungwe water supply project a solution to water accessibility and sanitation problems for the households of Sakubva, Zimbabwe?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the severe drought of 1991–92, the City of Mutare embarked upon a concerted search for a secure water supply. This search culminated in the decision to transfer water from the Pungwe River via pipeline to the City of Mutare. This project was heralded as bringing ‘purity, security, and prosperity’ to the people of Mutare. Once again, and as is

Azwidowi Mukheli; Gilbert Mosupye; Larry A Swatuk

2002-01-01

290

Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

1973-01-01

291

Butorphanol Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Butorphanol injection comes as a liquid to be injected into a muscle or vein. When butorphanol injection is used to relieve pain, it is usually given once every 3 to 4 hours as needed. When butorphanol injection is ...

292

Reliability improvement project decision making : water cooling system redesign  

E-print Network

Deciding on which reliability & performance improvement projects to launch or to reject has historically been an extremely challenging responsibility of Teradyne management. Incorrect decisions can lead to major customer ...

Devine, Paul (Paul S.)

2006-01-01

293

Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration, operation, monitoring, and proper abandonment will be presented. - Which critical parameters can be monitored? The chances and limitation of different monitoring technologies will be discoursed for a storage site. - How can public involvement reduce risks? This will be shown for hydraulic fracturing operations. - How can geotechnical operation reduce the risk for the groundwater and environment? Some examples will be given to show, that geotechnical operations have the inherent capability to enhance the security of our drinking water. The presentation will discuss how the use of underlying physical and chemical principles can significantly reduce geotechnical risks during fluid injection.

Schilling, Frank R.

2014-05-01

294

An investigation of numerical dispersion in the hot water injection process  

E-print Network

oil orig original water' permeable sand impermeable surrounding strata ~0t + a a ax ay 47 REFERENCES Garder, A. O. , Jr. , Peaceman, D. W. and Pozzi, A. L. , Jr. : NNumerical Calculat1on of iMult1dimensional Miscible D1splacement... Coning", Master of Science Thesis - Texas A&M University, (1974). 10. Ramey, H. J. , Jr. : "How to Calculate Heat Transmission in Hot 61 14 1 je tto ", ~oet. 6 . (No . , 1664) 116-116. 48 VITA Name: Duane Allen McVay Born: July 5, 1958 Houston...

McVay, Duane Allen

2012-06-07

295

Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation  

SciTech Connect

Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

Not Available

1990-10-01

296

UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water  

SciTech Connect

The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QAIP is subordinate to the latest issue of the UMTRA Project TAC Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). The QAIP addresses technical aspects of the TAC UMTRA Project surface and ground water programs. The QAIP is authorized and approved by the TAC Project Manager and QA manager. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance functions as management tools to ensure that all Project organization activities are carried out in a manner that will protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project and meet or exceed contract requirements.

Not Available

1994-09-01

297

Evaluating Federal Water Projects: A Critique of Proposed Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions the feasibility of, and validity of the concepts behind, some of the new procedures proposed by the Water Resources Council. Concludes that the proposed procedures, if accepted in their present form, will bias water resource management in favor of development and against the preservation of the natural environment. (JR)

Cicchetti, Charles J.; And Others

1973-01-01

298

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

299

Novel flow injection analysis methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water.  

PubMed

This work describes rapid, sensitive and highly precise methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water samples, using batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques. The proposed methods are based on the selective oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) by iron(III). The absorbance of the resultant green solution of radical cation (ABTS(·+)) was monitored spectrophotometrically at ?max=415nm. The reaction is stoichiometric with a ratio of 1:1 (Fe(III):ABTS) as determined by Job?s and molar ratio methods. The proposed methods allow for the determination of Fe(III) in the ranges 0-4.5mgL(-1) (LOD 25.5µgL(-1), %RSD 0.97%, n=7); 0 to 4.5mgL(-1) (LOD 370µgL(-1), %RSD 1.28%, n=7) and 0 to 2.7mgL(-1) (81.6µgL(-1), %RSD 0.76%, n=6) for batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques, respectively. The proposed methods show high selectivity to Fe(III), as indicated by the high tolerance limits for common interfering ions. The nFIA method was applied in total iron assay in camel blood serum, whereas batch and rFIA methods were successful in the determination of total iron in municipal pipeline water and spiked groundwater. Statistical analysis indicated insignificant differences in accuracy and precision between the results obtained by the developed methods and ICP-AES or phenanthroline methods. PMID:25281080

Elsuccary, S A A; Salem, Alaa A

2015-01-01

300

Indirect inductively coupled plasma atomic emission determination of fluoride in water samples by flow injection solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

An indirect determination of fluoride in water by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with flow injection coupled with solvent extraction is reported in this paper. A manifold for rapid determination of fluoride has been designed that uses a single coil for complex formation and extraction. The method involves the formation of lanthanum/alizarin complexone/fluoride complex and its extraction into hexanol containing N,N-diethylaniline. The concentration of fluoride is determined indirectly by introduction of the organic layer into the plasma and measurement of the emission intensity of the La II 333.75-nm line. The optimum experimental conditions for the determination are described. A coiled groove phase separator fitted with a grid and PTFE porous membrane was used in this work. The sampling rate was 36 samples per hour and the calibration graphs were linear from 0.03 to 1.3 {mu}g/mL. The relative standard deviation found was 2.16% for 200 {mu}L of 1 {mu}g/mL of fluoride. The method is selective and has been applied satisfactorily to the determination of fluoride in water samples.

Manzoori, J.L.; Miyazaki, Akira (National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources, Ibaraki (Japan))

1990-11-15

301

Modeling of heavy nitrate corrosion in anaerobe aquifer injection water biofilm: a case study in a flow rig.  

PubMed

Heavy carbon steel corrosion developed during nitrate mitigation of a flow rig connected to a water injection pipeline flowing anaerobe saline aquifer water. Genera-specific QPCR primers quantified 74% of the microbial biofilm community, and further 87% of the community of the nonamended parallel rig. The nonamended biofilm hosted 6.3 × 10(6) SRB cells/cm(2) and the S(35)-sulfate-reduction rate was 1.1 ?mol SO4(2-)/cm(2)/day, being congruent with the estimated SRB biomass formation and the sulfate areal flux. Nitrate amendment caused an 18-fold smaller SRB population, but up to 44 times higher sulfate reduction rates. This H2S formation was insufficient to form the observed Fe3S4 layer. Additional H2S was provided by microbial disproportionation of sulfur, also explaining the increased accessibility of sulfate. The reduced nitrate specie nitrite inhibited the dominating H2-scavenging Desulfovibrio population, and sustained the formation of polysulfide and Fe3S4, herby also dissolved sulfur. This terminated the availability of acetate in the inner biofilm and caused cell starvation that initiated growth upon metallic electrons, probably by the sulfur-reducing Desulfuromonas population. On the basis of these observations we propose a model of heavy nitrate corrosion where three microbiological processes of nitrate reduction, disproportionation of sulfur, and metallic electron growth are nicely woven into each other. PMID:25020005

Drønen, Karine; Roalkvam, Irene; Beeder, Janiche; Torsvik, Terje; Steen, Ida H; Skauge, Arne; Liengen, Turid

2014-08-01

302

DuPage County chilled water storage project  

SciTech Connect

Between 1992 and 1995, the DuPage County Governmental Center in Wheaton, Illinois, commissioned a detailed analysis of its chilled water plant and distribution system, as well as its future needs and options for meeting those needs. The result was a 10,000 ton-hour (35,170 kWh) chilled water storage tank with associated components and controls. This paper describes that process and the system that resulted.

Grumman, D.L. [Grumman/Butkus Associates, Evanston, IL (United States)

1998-10-01

303

Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT) Project  

E-print Network

not be relied on for official purposes. The current version is in PDMS at: https://pdms.jpl JPL D-61923 #12;Initial Release JPL D-61923 04/10/2014 SWOT Science Requirements Document ii Prepared and Issued by SWOT NASA/JPL Project Document Custodian: _______________________ Ernesto Rodr

Waliser, Duane E.

304

Submission : Sydney Water Corporation's Proposed Western Sydney Recycled Initiative: Replacement Flows Project Environmental Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter sets out the comments of OceanWatch Australia Ltd (OWA) in relation to Sydney Water Corporation's (SWC) proposed Western Sydney Recycled Initiative: Replacement Flows Project (the Project). OceanWatch Australia is a national environmental, not-for-profit company that works to achieve sustainability in the Australian seafood industry through protecting and enhancing fish habitats, improving water quality and advancing the sustainability of

Scott Jeffries

305

Assessing Applicability of CMIP5 Climate Projections for Water Resources and Environmental Planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent changes in Federal agency directives and programmatic mandates require Federal managers to consider climate change in water resources and environmental planning. As a result, resource managers are now required to make judgments regarding which aspects of climate projection information are applicable to a given decision, including decisions to modify system operations, invest in new or improved infrastructure, and establish long-term management objectives. Here we present results from an interagency collaboration to evaluate the reliability, relevance, and applicability of CMIP5 climate projections for use in water and environmental resources planning, focusing on a case study of the Central Valley Project and State Water Project systems in California. Reliability of climate projection information is assessed through detailed evaluation of climate model skill in simulating 20th century climate conditions, whereas relevance is assessed by evaluating the sensitivity of water resources system performance to changes in climate. Information on reliability and relevance is then combined into a common framework to assess the applicability of climate projection information to a given water resources or environmental planning context. Outcomes of this collaborative study will inform agency discussions regarding the use of climate projection information in long-term resource planning, including decisions to invest in adaptation measures.

Ferguson, I. M.; Brekke, L. D.; Scott, J.; Alexander, M. A.

2013-12-01

306

SELECTION OF MINE WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE EMALAHLENI (WITBANK) WATER RECLAMATION PROJECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal mining has an impact on the water management of the water scarce Upper Olifants River Catchment. A pre-feasibility study was done by Anglo Coal and Ingwe Collieries Limited to establish the water supply and demand in the catchment. A geo-hydrological model was used for the coalfields to determine the stored water and excess water available. Two distinct collective and

Peter Gunther; Wendy Mey

307

Sustainable Hydro Assessment and Groundwater Recharge Projects (SHARP) in Germany - Water Balance Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SHARP is a European INTERREG IVc Program. It focuses on the exchange of innovative technologies to protect groundwater resources for future generations by considering the climate change and the different geological and geographical conditions. Regions involved are Austria, United Kingdom, Poland, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Greece and Germany. They will exchange practical know-how and also determine know-how demands concerning SHARP’s key contents: general groundwater management tools, artificial groundwater recharge technologies, groundwater monitoring systems, strategic use of groundwater resources for drinking water, irrigation and industry, techniques to save water quality and quantity, drinking water safety plans, risk management tools and water balance models. SHARP Outputs & results will influence the regional policy in the frame of sustainable groundwater management to save and improve the quality and quantity of groundwater reservoirs for future generations. The main focus of the Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Landscape in this project is the enhancement and purposive use of water balance models. Already since 1992 scientists compare different existing water balance models on different scales and coupled with groundwater models. For example in the KLIWEP (Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for the Catchment of River Parthe in Saxony) project the coupled model WaSiM-ETH - PCGEOFIM® has been used to study the impact of climate change on water balance and water supplies. The project KliWES (Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for Catchment Areas in Saxony) still running, comprises studies of fundamental effects of climate change on catchments in Saxony. Project objective is to assess Saxon catchments according to the vulnerability of their water resources towards climate change projections in order to derive region-specific recommendations for management actions. The model comparisons within reference areas showed significant differences in outcome. The values of water balance components calculated with different models partially fluctuate by a multiple of their value. The SHARP project was prepared in several previous projects that were testing suitable water balance models and is now able to assist the knowledge transfer.

Niemand, C.; Kuhn, K.; Schwarze, R.

2010-12-01

308

Income-based projections of water footprint of food consumption in Uzbekistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing future water requirements for feeding the growing population of Central Asia can improve understanding of the projected water supply scenarios in the region. Future water requirements will be partially determined by the dietary habits of the populations, and are thus responsive to significant variation of income levels. Using Uzbekistan as an example, this study projects the water footprints of income driven changes on the population's diet in Central Asia. To reveal the influence of large income changes on dietary habits a Normalized Quadratic-Quadratic Expenditure System was calibrated and applied to data from 2009. The national water footprints of food consumption in Uzbekistan were projected until 2034 by applying the parameterized demand system to estimate the respective water footprint values. The results showed that for Uzbekistan the projected increase in the food consumption water footprint would be primarily linked to income growth rather than population growth. Due to the high water footprint of common food products, the composition of the population's diet, and responsiveness to income, economic growth is expected to put greater pressure on water resources in Uzbekistan unless proper measures are undertaken.

Djanibekov, Nodir; Frohberg, Klaus; Djanibekov, Utkur

2013-11-01

309

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1995-09-01

310

Analytical Review of Research Reports on the Social Impacts of Water Resources Development Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines all available post-audit studies that have found linkages between water development projects and social impacts. It then analyzes and reviews these impacts by the type of study, location, and project. The report is meant to be a refere...

H. H. Hitchcock, R. C. Strobel

1979-01-01

311

Final Technical Report: The Water-to-Wire (W2W) Project  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Free Flow Power (FFP) Water-to-Wire Project (Project) was to evaluate and optimize the performance, environmental compatibility, and cost factors of FFP hydrokinetic turbines through design analyses and deployments in test flumes and riverine locations.

Lissner, Daniel N.; Edward, Lovelace C.

2013-12-24

312

2-D Numerical Simulation of Flooding Effects Caused by South-to-North Water Transfer Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the General Channel designed for the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China has to cross many rivers and streams flowing from west to east, there are potentially serious effects additional flooding on the western side of the project alignment. Therefore, a 2-D numerical model for forecasting basin flood disasters was established and verified using historical flood data. The model

Dong-po SUN; Hai XUE; Peng-tao WANG; Rui-li LU; Xiao-long LIAO

2008-01-01

313

Viability report for the ByWater Lakes project.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from the hydrological, ecological, and renewable energy assessments conducted by Sandia National Laboratories at the ByWater Lakes site in Espanola, New Mexico for ByWater Recreation LLC and Avanyu Energy Services through the New Mexico small business assistance (NMSBA) program. Sandia's role was to assess the viability and provide perspective for enhancing the site to take advantage of renewable energy resources, improve and sustain the natural systems, develop a profitable operation, and provide an asset for the local community. Integral to this work was the identification the pertinent data and data gaps as well as making general observations about the potential issues and concerns that may arise from further developing the site. This report is informational only with no consideration with regards to the business feasibility of the various options that ByWater and Avanyu may be pursuing.

Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Passell, Howard David; Peplinski, William J.

2013-10-01

314

Projecting Continental U.S. Water Stress Based on Global Datasets  

SciTech Connect

Human populations may be adversely impacted by water stress, a situation which is commonly defined as a per capita water availability of less than 1700 cubic meters of freshwater per person per year. Water stress may result from either overuse of available freshwater resources or a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We have developed a simple methodology to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios have been used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes, according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines, have been used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections have then been combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by U.S. watershed. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, including the identification of potentially vulnerable areas in need of more detailed analysis. This high-level analysis also illustrates the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population growth projections.

Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kodra, Evan [Northeastern University; Steinhaeuser, Karsten [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [Northeastern University

2012-01-01

315

A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas  

E-print Network

A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant- and water-injected hydraulic fractures induced during a series of hydraulic fracture completions within the Cotton Valley formation of East Texas controlled by the natural fracture geometry and independent of treatment design. By implication, we expect

316

Synchronized droplet size measurements of intermittent coal-water slurry diesel sprays from an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system  

E-print Network

of multiscattering bias was minimal. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading by mass containing 5gm volume mean diameter coal particles was used. Injection pressures were ranged from 28 to II 0 MPa. Three different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2, 0.4, and 0...

Terracina, Dwayne Paul

2012-06-07

317

Experimental evaluation of in situ CO2-water-rock reactions during CO2 injection in basaltic rocks: Implications for geological CO2 sequestration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep aquifers are potential long-term storage sites for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The retention time and environmental safety of the injected CO2 depend on geologic and physical factors and on the chemical reactions between the CO2, the aquifer water, and the host rocks. The pH buffer capacity of the aquifer water and the acid neutralization potential of the host rocks are

Juerg M. Matter; Taro Takahashi; David Goldberg

2007-01-01

318

Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Determination of Arsenic in Water and Biological Samples from Arsenic-Affected Districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing concern over human exposure to arsenic in West Bengal and Bangladesh has necessitated the development of a rapid method for determination of trace levels of arsenic in water and biological samples. We have developed a simple indigenous flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) system for the determination of arsenic in parts-per-billion levels in water and biological

Gautam Samanta; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Badal K. Mandal; Bhajan K. Biswas; Uttam K. Chowdhury; Gautam K. Basu; Chitta R. Chanda; Dilip Lodh; Dipankar Chakraborti

1999-01-01

319

Vegetative Management Aspects of Flood Control and Water Projects1  

E-print Network

Departments of Water Resources (DWR), Forestry (CDF), Fish and Game (DFG), and Food and Agri- culture (DFA and Fish and Game agreed to develop and demonstrate techniques for coordinating wildlife habitat needs with fuel modification programs. Under this agreement, 12,000 acres of brush were burned. The benefits

Standiford, Richard B.

320

El Dorado County Water Systems Energy Generation Project  

E-print Network

.energy.ca.gov/research/renewable/ May 2011 The Issue The water supply, conveyance, treatment, and hydroelectricity generation industry newer developments, such as variablespeed pumps used as turbine units with regenerative power Program Objectives and Anticipated Benefits for California This study is thought to be unique

321

Demonstration project: wind turbines for municipal water pumping  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, personnel from Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) studied the feasibility of using wind power in the operation of the municipal water system for the City of Canyon, Texas (1). Predicted energy outputs from six different wind turbines were calculated from power curves and long term National Weather Service (NWS) data. The conclusions were that the cheaper wind turbines should

1982-01-01

322

PILOT PLANT PROJECT FOR REMOVING ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report describes research on the European practice of preozonation of water to modify naturally occurring organics, followed by bacteria activated carbon (BAC) adsorption to remove trihalomethane precursors. A 100-gal/min pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to...

323

Advancement of In-Flight Alumina Powder Spheroidization Process with Water Droplet Injection Using a Small Power DC-RF Hybrid Plasma Flow System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The correlation between plasma thermofluid characteristics and alumina powder spheroidization processes with water droplet injection using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system was experimentally clarified. Micro-sized water droplets with a low water flow rate were injected into the tail of thermal plasma flow so as not to disturb the plasma flow directly. Injected water droplets were vaporized in the thermal plasma flow and were transported upstream in the plasma flow to the torch by the backflow. After dissociation of water, the production of hydrogen was detected by the optical emission spectroscopy in the downstream RF plasma flow. The emission area of the DC plasma jet expanded and elongated in the vicinity of the RF coils. Additionally, the emission area of RF plasma flow enlarged and was visible as red emission in the downstream RF plasma flow in the vicinity below the RF coils due to hydrogen production. Therefore, the plasma flow mixed with produced hydrogen increased the plasma enthalpy and the highest spheroidization rate of 97% was obtained at a water flow rate of 15 Sm l/min and an atomizing gas flow rate of 8 S l/min using a small power DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system.

Jang, Juyong; Takana, Hidemasa; Park, Sangkyu; Nishiyama, Hideya

2012-09-01

324

Maintenance of flows downstream from water-development projects in Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming. Appendix A  

SciTech Connect

All known water projects in Colorado, Montana, and Wyoming with streamflow agreements and data on streamflows below the project were examined to assess the frequency of discrepancies between agreed-to and actual flows. A total of 73 water development projects were identified, involving 119 locations with minimum streamflow agreements. Of these 61 locations, 54 exhibited flows below those established in streamflow agreements on at least some occasions; 28 locations had flows 25% of the established agreement or less. These data are summarized by State, agency, and type of agreement in the main report.

Raley, C.; Hubert, W.; Anderson, S.

1988-08-01

325

PROJECTED GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON WATER TEMPERATURE IN FIVE NORTH CENTRAL U.S. STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of projected global climate change due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 on water temperatures in five streams in Minnesota was estimated using a deterministic heat transport model. he model calculates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the water and is driven by ...

326

An Analysis of Cloud Cover and Water Vapor for the ALMA Project  

E-print Network

and water vapor at Chajnantor (Chile), Chalviri (Bolivia) and four sites in Argentina. Since timeAn Analysis of Cloud Cover and Water Vapor for the ALMA Project: A Comparison Between Chajnantor (Chile), Chalviri (Bolivia) and Five Sites in Argentina using Satellite Data and a Verification

327

Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste Management Topic  

E-print Network

Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste with the Symposium on the State of the Science: Animal Manure and Waste Management Attended by: M. Risse (UGA), T) Introduction, review of past minutes Discussion of Southern Region Extension Water Quality Conference, October

328

Water Lamp and Pinwheels: Ambient Projection of Digital Information into Architectural Space  

E-print Network

Water Lamp and Pinwheels: Ambient Projection of Digital Information into Architectural Space Andrew.S.A. {andyd, wiz, ishii}@media.mit.edu ABSTRACT We envision that the architectural spaces we inhabit will be an interface between humans and online digital information. This paper introduces ambient fixtures called Water

Ishii, Hiroshi

329

Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a Solar Hot Water System at a laundry in Fresno, California is described. The system features an integrated wastewater heat recovery subsystem and a solar preheating system designed to supply a part of the hot water requirements. Performance data for a six month period are projected to an annual savings of $18,703.

1980-01-01

330

77 FR 60687 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps Basewide Water Infrastructure Project at Marine...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...S. Marine Corps Basewide Water Infrastructure Project at Marine...of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United...upgrade and improve the Basewide water infrastructure at Marine Corps...Alternative of the Basewide Water Infrastructure...

2012-10-04

331

Optimal water management and conflict resolution: The Middle East Water Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many situations, actual water markets will not allocate water resources optimally, largely because of the perceived social value of water. It is possible, however, to build optimizing models which, taking account of demand as well as supply considerations, can substitute for actual markets. Such models can assist the formation of water policies, taking into account user-supplied values and constraints.

Franklin M. Fisher; Shaul Arlosoroff; Zvi Eckstein; Munther Haddadin; Salem G. Hamati; Annette Huber-Lee; Ammar Jarrar; Anan Jayyousi; Uri Shamir; Hans Wesseling

2002-01-01

332

Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project  

SciTech Connect

It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

Jager, A.R.

1996-03-01

333

Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data  

SciTech Connect

Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1992-03-01

334

Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data  

SciTech Connect

Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

1993-03-01

335

Development of Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in the Chinese Water Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the transformation of urban water services in China since the late 1990s focusing on the interaction between\\u000a the government and private players in the form of public private partnership projects. A lack of fund, outdated technologies\\u000a and management skills, and underpriced water tariffs had deteriorated urban water services in China. Chinese authorities decided\\u000a to adopt private sector

Seungho Lee

2010-01-01

336

Preventing diarrhoea with household ceramic water filters: Assessment of a pilot project in Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to prevent diarrhoea in a rural community in central Bolivia, an international non-governmental organization implemented a pilot project to improve drinking water quality using gravity-fed, household-based, ceramic water filters. We assessed the performance of the filters by conducting a five-month randomized controlled trial among all 60 households in the pilot community. Water filters eliminated thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms

Thomas F. Clasen; Joseph Brown; Simon M. Collin

2006-01-01

337

Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

NONE

1994-12-31

338

Inefficiencies in water project design and operation in the third world: An economic perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water projects in less developed countries (LDCs) frequently are poorly operated and maintained. As a result, project benefits and development impacts fall short of plans. The problems begin in the project identification, design, and construction stages: donor and host country biases lead to inappropriate projects, unsustainable technologies, and shoddy construction. Later operation and maintenance are then difficult or impossible. Causal factors include donor desire to build monuments and sell technology, provision of excessive capital to favored sectors or institutions, and an unwillingness to require a reasonable quid pro quo from the host country. Host country factors include excessive administrative centralization, lack of rewards for good operation and maintenance, and widespread corruption in forms that seriously distort allocative efficiency. Until individual actors on both sides can be motivated to pursue the long-run good of the LDC, Third World water projects will continue to have low or negative net payoffs.

Howe, Charles W.; Dixon, John A.

1993-07-01

339

Theoretical analysis of injecting the compressed air through a defensive well into aquifer aimed to separate between polluted and fresh water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Injecting a compressed air, through a well, located between the sea or a polluted lake and fresh ground water, creates a "hydraulic barrier" that prevents their mixing. Steady influx of air to a saturated soil produces a pressure gradient from the well and replacement of water by air, hence the interface between air and water increases. After the compression process is stopped, the soil pores are filled with air, so that saturated soil becomes unsaturated with a decreased conductivity. Creating such a barrier, first by the air pressure and second by blocking of the pores, is welcomed at the interface sea-fresh water area, for example. It prevents the loss of fresh water to the sea and it decreases sea water movement into the aquifer. Another positive effect of the air injection is the air flow through unsaturated zone, above the ground water, that decreases polluted water down-seepage from the surface thus defending the fresh ground water against pollution. The regular water well or special drilled one will be used as defensive well. The radius of defensive well can be smaller than the one of the water well. The explanation of the defensive well exploitation in the field for one and multi layer aquifers is presented. Analytical evaluations of the pressure loss and shape of the air-water interfaces in saturated soil are presented for: (a) steady air flow for a one layer aquifer and for a three layer one (leaky aquifer case), (b) transient air flow for a one layer aquifer. It is shown that the shape of air-water interfaces is generally an inverted cone, where the decrease of air pressure in the aquifer with the distance from the well is approximately logarithmic. The necessary pressure to create the effective air flow in the aquifer is only about tens percent higher than static water pressure in the well.

Boger, M.; Ravina, I.

2012-12-01

340

UMTRA project technical assistance contractor quality assurance implementation plan for surface and ground water, Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Quality Assurance Implementation Plan (QAIP) for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The QAIP outlines the primary requirements for integrating quality functions for TAC technical activities applied to the surface and ground water phases of the UMTRA Project. The QA program is designed to use monitoring, audit, and surveillance activities as management tools to ensure that UMTRA Project activities are carried out in amanner to protect public health and safety, promote the success of the UMTRA Project, and meet or exceed contract requirements.

NONE

1995-11-01

341

Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Roberts, Barry L.; Passell, Howard D.; Jensen, Daniel; Forsgren, Christopher; Sehlke, Gerald; Cook, Margaret A.; King, Carey W.; Larsen, Sara

2014-05-01

342

Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data  

SciTech Connect

The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

1992-03-01

343

Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large meander. Measurable concentrations were observed for spring TI-SP as many as 109 days after the dye injection. The direction of a conduit flow path in the Spring Creek area was to the northeast with ground-water velocities that ranged from 770 to 6,500 feet per day. In the Rapid Creek loss zone, a conduit flow path east of the loss zone was not evident from the dye injection.

Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

2007-01-01

344

Laboratory Seismic Monitoring and X-ray CT imaging of Supercritical CO2 Injection in Reservoir Sand: WESTCAB King Island Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Valley of California contains promising locations for on-shore geologic CO2 storage. DOE's WESTCARB (West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership) project drilled and cored a borehole (Citizen Green Well) at King Island (near Stockton, CA) to study the CO2 storage capability of saline and gas-bearing formations in the southwestern Sacramento Basin. Potential reservoirs encountered in the borehole include Domengine, Mokelumne River (primary target), and Top Starkey formations. In anticipation of geophysical monitoring of possible CO2 injection into this particular borehole and of the long-term migration of the CO2, we conducted small-scale CO2 injection experiments on three core samples retrieved from the well (Mokelumne River sand A and B) and from a mine outcrop (Domengine sandstone). During the experiment, a jacketed core sample (diameter 1.5 inches, length 4.0-6.0 inches) saturated with brine- (1% NaCl aq.) was confined within a pressure vessel via compressed nitrogen to 3,500-4,000psi, and supercritical CO2 was injected into the core at 2,000-2,500psi and 45-60 degrees C. The CO2 pressure and temperature were adjusted so that the bulk elastic modulus of the CO2 was close to the expected in-situ modulus--which affects the seismic properties most--while keeping the confining stress within our experimental capabilities. After the CO2 broke through the core, fresh brine was re-injected to remove the CO2 by both displacement and dissolution. Throughout the experiment, seismic velocity and attenuation of the core sample were measured using the Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar method (Nakagawa, 2012, Rev. Sci. Instr.) at near 1 kHz (500Hz--1.5 kHz), and the CO2 distribution determined via x-ray CT imaging. In contrast to relatively isotropic Mokelumne sand A, Domengine sandstone and Mokelumne sand B cores exhibited CO2 distributions strongly controlled by the bedding planes. During the CO2 injection, P-wave velocity and attenuation of the layered samples changed irregularly, roughly corresponding to the sequential invasion of the compliant fluid in the sedimentary layers revealed by the CT images. The overall behavior the seismic waves and the final CO2 saturation of the cores, however, were similar for all three cores used in this experiment.

Nakashima, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Harper, E. J.

2013-12-01

345

A simple simultaneous flow injection method based on phosphomolybdenum chemistry for nitrate and nitrite determinations in water and fish samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct spectrophotometric flow injection method for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate has been developed. The method is based on the oxidation of a phosphomolybdenum blue complex by the addition of nitrite and the decrease in absorbance of the blue complex is monitored at 820 nm. The injected sample is split into two segments. One of the streams

L. Monser; S. Sadok; G. M. Greenway; I. Shah; R. F. Uglow

2002-01-01

346

Application of Tracer-Injection Techniques to Demonstrate Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions Between an Alpine Stream and the North Star Mine, Upper Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tracer-injection studies were done in Belcher Gulch in the upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado, to determine whether the alpine stream infiltrates into underground mine workings of the North Star Mine and other nearby mines in the area. The tracer-injection studies were designed to determine if and where along Belcher Gulch the stream infiltrates into the mine. Four separate tracer-injec-tion tests were done using lithium bromide (LiBr), optical brightener dye, and sodium chloride (NaCl) as tracer solu-tions. Two of the tracers (LiBr and dye) were injected con-tinuously for 24 hours, one of the NaCl tracers was injected continuously for 12 hours, and one of the NaCl tracers was injected over a period of 1 hour. Concentration increases of tracer constituents were detected in water discharging from the North Star Mine, substantiating a surface-water and ground-water connection between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. Different timing and magnitude of tracer breakthroughs indicated multiple flow paths with different residence times from the stream to the mine. The Pittsburgh and Sultan Mines were thought to physically connect to the North Star Mine, but tracer breakthroughs were inconclusive in water from these mines. From the tracer-injection tests and synoptic measure-ments of streamflow discharge, a conceptual model was devel-oped for surface-water and ground-water interactions between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. This information, combined with previous surface geophysical surveys indicat-ing the presence of subsurface voids, may assist with decision-making process for preventing infiltration and for the remedia-tion of mine drainage from these mines.

Wright, Winfield G.; Moore, Bryan

2003-01-01

347

ENVXR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER EXPERIMENTAL PROJECTS for Water (W) 25 Feb 2003  

E-print Network

, with biological food chain active from microscopic plankton to large sea creatures and birds. At one end the ocean provides salty, dense water rich with nutiients; at the other, the river water is very buoyant and floats

348

Gender Differences in Perceptions of Water in Arizona: Insights from the Science of Water Art Project  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Perceptions of Water in Arizona: Insights from the Science of Water Art in determining if gender is linked to children's perceptions of how they use water now and in the future the artwork, a coding scheme was developed based on nine different themes that could occur in the artwork

Hall, Sharon J.

349

Comparison of the Wymark CO2 Reservoir with the Midale Beds at the Weyburn CO2 Injection Project  

SciTech Connect

The Devonian carbonates of the Duperow Formation on the western flank of the Williston Basin in southwest Saskatchewan contain natural accumulations of CO{sub 2}, and may have done so for as long as 50 m.y. in the views of some investigations. These carbonate sediments are characterized by a succession of carbonate cycles capped by anhydrite-rich evaporites that are thought to act as seals to fluid migration. The Weyburn CO{sub 2} injection site lies 400 km to the east in a series of Mississippian carbonates that were deposited in a similar depositional environment. That natural CO{sub 2} can be stored long-term within carbonate strata has motivated the investigation of the Duperow rocks as a potential natural analogue to storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} that may ultimately provide additional confidence for CO{sub 2} sequestration in carbonate lithologies. For the Duperow strata to represent a legitimate analog for Midale injection and storage, the similarity in lithofacies, whole rock compositions, mineral compositions and porosity with the Midale Beds must be established. Previous workers have demonstrated the similarity of the lithofacies at both sites. Here we compare the whole rock compositions, mineralogy and mineral compositions. The major mineral phases at both locales are calcite, dolomite and anhydrite. In addition, accessory pyrite, fluorite and celestine are also observed. The distribution of porosity in the Midale Vuggy units is virtually identical to that of the Duperow Formation, but the Marly units of the Midale have significantly higher porosity. The Duperow Formation is topped by the Dinesmore evaporite that is particularly rich in anhydrite, and often contains authigenic K-feldspar. The chemistry of dolomite and calcite from the two localities also overlaps. Silicate minerals are in low abundance within the analyzed Duperow samples, < 3 wt% on a normative basis, with quartz the only phase identifiable in x-ray diffraction patterns. The Midale Beds contain significantly higher silica/silicate concentrations, but the silicate minerals observed, K-feldspar and quartz, are unlikely to participate in carbonate mineral precipitation due to the absence of alkaline earths. Hence, physical and solution trapping are likely to be the primary trapping mechanisms at both sites. Given the similarity of mineral constituents, whole rock and mineral chemistry, reactive transport models developed for the Weyburn site should also be applicable to the Duperow lithologies.

Ryerson, F; Johnson, J

2010-11-22

350

Direct aqueous injection-liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization for determination of N-methylcarbamoyloximes and N-methylcarbamates in finished drinking water: collaborative study.  

PubMed

An interlaboratory method validation study was conducted on EPA Method 531.1, Measurement of N-Methylcarbamoyloximes and N-Methylcarbamates in Water by Direct Aqueous Injection HPLC with Post Column Derivatization, to determine the precision and mean recovery for determination of 10 carbamate pesticide compounds in reagent water and in finished drinking waters. The study design was based on Youden's nonreplicate plan for collaborative tests of analytical methods. The waters were spiked with 10 carbamate pesticides at 6 concentration levels, as 3 Youden pairs. Eight laboratories analyzed the samples by direct aqueous injection, with separation by reverse-phase liquid chromatography and post-column hydrolysis of the carbamates and carbamoyloximes to methylamine, followed by reaction of the methylamine with o-phthalaldehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol using fluorescence detection. Results were analyzed using an EPA computer program, which measured precision and recovery for each of the 10 compounds and compared the performance of the method between water types. The method was acceptable for all analytes tested. After removal of a nonrepresentative data set for aldicarb sulfoxide, no matrix effects were observed; the statistics for the pooled drinking waters were not significantly different from the statistics for the reagent waters. The method has been adopted official first action by AOAC. PMID:2050613

Edgell, K W; Biederman, L A; Longbottom, J E

1991-01-01

351

Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project  

SciTech Connect

Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

Gerald Sehlke

2005-03-01

352

The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.  

PubMed

Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

2008-12-01

353

Application of raman spectroscopy and sequential injection analysis for pH measurements with water dispersion of polyaniline nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A novel method for pH measurements between pH 7.5 and 10.4 is reported in this paper. The method combines Raman spectroscopy and the automated sequential injection analysis system (SIA) and makes use of the acid-base properties of a commercially available water dispersion of polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles with a mean particle size of 46 nm. The useful pH range of the PANI nanoparticles is broader than for conventional acid-base indicators, due to the 1:2 reaction stoichiometry of the proton-ligand complex of the nanoparticles. The pH measurements were conducted with the 633-nm laser excitation wavelength by calculating the difference between the Raman intensities of the primary and reference wavenumbers. In this study, the pH-sensitive CH=CH stretching band at 1422 cm-1 and C-H in-plane bending band of the quinoid form at 1163 cm-1 were chosen as the primary wavenumbers. The presented method is fast and allows pH to be measured with a precision of 0.2 pH unit. The advantage of the proposed method is that the hysteresis effect, which is usually observed for PANI films, can be overcome with the PANI nanoparticles, because a fresh nanoparticle solution is used in each measurement. It should be pointed out, that this work is a fundamental study showing the applicability of Raman spectroscopy in combination with the SIA technique for pH measurements in specific applications, where the conventional glass pH electrode cannot be used. PMID:17222026

Lindfors, Tom; Ivaska, Ari

2007-01-15

354

Microseismic monitoring of CO2 injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery pilot project, Canada: implications for detection of wellbore leakage.  

PubMed

A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection. PMID:24002229

Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bohnhoff, Marco; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Zambrano-Narváez, Gonzalo; Chalaturnyk, Rick

2013-01-01

355

Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilot Project, Canada: Implications for Detection of Wellbore Leakage  

PubMed Central

A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection. PMID:24002229

Martinez-Garzon, Patricia; Bohnhoff, Marco; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Zambrano-Narvaez, Gonzalo; Chalaturnyk, Rick

2013-01-01

356

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Planned, routine ground water sampling activities for calendar year 1995 to 1997 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Naturita, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The following plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, sampling frequency, and specific rationale for each routine monitoring station at the site. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

NONE

1995-09-01

357

Effects of benzodiazepine and GABA antagonists on anticonflict effects of antianxiety drugs injected into the rat amygdala in a water-lick suppression test.  

PubMed

In order to elucidate the role of the amygdala in rat conflict behavior in a water lick suppression test, we examined the effect of lesions of various nuclei of the amygdaloid complex on this behavior. An anticonflict effect was produced by a lesion of the anterior part of central and basolateral amygdala, and lesion to the posterior part of the central amygdala, but not by posterior of the basolateral amygdala or medial amygdala lesions. These results suggest that the amygdala, especially the anterior part of the central and basolateral nuclei, plays an important role in conflicting behavior of rats in the water lick test. In a second experiment, the effects of benzodiazepine- and GABA-antagonists on the anticonflict action of diazepam, zopiclone, and phenobarbital injected into the anterior part of central and basolateral amygdala were examined, also using a water lick suppression test. A dose-dependent anticonflict action was produced by systemic administration as well as by intra-amygdala injection of diazepam, zopiclone, lormetazepam, flurazepam and phenobarbital. The order of potency was lormetazepam greater than zopiclone greater than or equal to diazepam greater than flurazepam greater than or equal to phenobarbital for both routes of injection. The anticonflict effects of diazepam and zopiclone injected into the amygdala were completely reversed by Ro15-1788 and beta-CCM but not by bicuculline, while the anticonflict effect of phenobarbital was reversed by beta-CCM but not by Ro15-1788 or bicuculline. The present results strongly suggest that the anterior nuclei of central and basolateral amygdala are important sites of action of antianxiety drugs, and that an anticonflict action produced by intra-amygdala injection of benzodiazepines or barbiturate is mediated through the different receptor mechanisms. PMID:2567034

Shibata, S; Yamashita, K; Yamamoto, E; Ozaki, T; Ueki, S

1989-01-01

358

Ammonium Concentrations in Produced Waters from a Mesothermic Oil Field Subjected to Nitrate Injection Decrease through Formation of Denitrifying Biomass and Anammox Activity? †  

PubMed Central

Community analysis of a mesothermic oil field, subjected to continuous field-wide injection of nitrate to remove sulfide, with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of heterotrophic and sulfide-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB and soNRB). These reduce nitrate by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (e.g., Sulfurospirillum and Denitrovibrio) or by denitrification (e.g., Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and Thauera). Monitoring of ammonium concentrations in producing wells (PWs) indicated that denitrification was the main pathway for nitrate reduction in the field: breakthrough of nitrate and nitrite in two PWs was not associated with an increase in the ammonium concentration, and no increase in the ammonium concentration was seen in any of 11 producing wells during periods of increased nitrate injection. Instead, ammonium concentrations in produced waters decreased on average from 0.3 to 0.2 mM during 2 years of nitrate injection. Physiological studies with produced water-derived hNRB microcosms indicated increased biomass formation associated with denitrification as a possible cause for decreasing ammonium concentrations. Use of anammox-specific primers and cloning of the resulting PCR product gave clones affiliated with the known anammox genera “Candidatus Brocadia” and “Candidatus Kuenenia,” indicating that the anammox reaction may also contribute to declining ammonium concentrations. Overall, the results indicate the following: (i) that nitrate injected into an oil field to oxidize sulfide is primarily reduced by denitrifying bacteria, of which many genera have been identified by DGGE, and (ii) that perhaps counterintuitively, nitrate injection leads to decreasing ammonium concentrations in produced waters. PMID:20562276

Cornish Shartau, Sabrina L.; Yurkiw, Marcy; Lin, Shiping; Grigoryan, Aleksandr A.; Lambo, Adewale; Park, Hyung-Soo; Lomans, Bart P.; van der Biezen, Erwin; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Voordouw, Gerrit

2010-01-01

359

Evaluation of the Feasibility of Freshwater Injection Wells in Mitigating Ground-Water Quality Degradation at Selected Well Fields in Duval County, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Fernandina permeable zone contains brackish water in parts of Duval County, Florida. Upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone to the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer increases chloride concentrations in ground water in parts of Duval County. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida, were used to (1) estimate the vertical flows between the low-quality water of the Fernandina permeable zone and the high-quality water of the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of Deerwood 3 and Brierwood well fields, based on 2000 ground-water withdrawal rates; (2) determine how such vertical flows change as several scenarios of injection, withdrawal, and intervening rest periods are simulated in the two well fields; and (3) evaluate the effects of changes in less certain hydraulic parameters on the vertical flows between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The ground-water flow system was simulated with a four-layer model using MODFLOW-2000, which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The first layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system with prescribed water levels. The second layer simulates the Upper Floridan aquifer. The third and fourth layers simulate the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Fernandina permeable zone, respectively. Average flow conditions in 2000 were approximated with a steady-state simulation. The changes in upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone due to periods of injections and withdrawals were analyzed with transient simulations. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 250-foot cells, with 400 columns and 400 rows. The active model area encompasses about 360 square miles in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida. Ground-water flow simulation was limited vertically to the bottom of the Fernandina permeable zone. The steady-state ground-water flow model was calibrated using time-averaged 2000 heads at 20 control points. Environmental-water heads in the Fernandina permeable zone were calculated for wells with variable water density. Transmissivity of the Upper Floridan aquifer, the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer, and the Fernandina permeable zone, and the leakance of the intermediate confining unit, the middle semiconfining unit, and the semiconfining unit were obtained from regional ground-water flow models and adjusted until a reasonable fit between simulated and computed heads was obtained. The calibrated hydraulic properties from the steady-state ground-water flow model, and the calibrated storage coefficient from the transient model, were used to simulate hypothetical transient scenarios of injection, withdrawal, and intervening rest periods to assess changes in flow between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. Based on the simulated flows between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the 18 million gallons per day of water available for injection, the reversal of the prevailing upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone was not achieved. However, steady-state and transient simulations indicate that the upward flow of water from the Fernandina permeable zone could be reduced by as much as 64 percent, from 0.11 to 0.04 cubic foot per second, if only injection periods are simulated.

Sepulveda, Nicasio; Spechler, Rick M.

2004-01-01

360

[Problems and improvements of water conservancy projects combined with schistosomiasis control in river beaches].  

PubMed

Water conservancy projects combined with schistosomiasis prevention and control are crucial measures to change the habitats of Oncomelania hupensis and are helpful for schistosomiasis control. In this paper, the epidemic characteristics of O. hupensis in lake regions are elaborately analyzed. Also, the specialty problems and applications of the different projects in lake regions are exhaustively discussed. According to the above analysis, some measures and improvements are propounded to deal with these problems. PMID:23012964

Li, Fei; Min, Feng-Yang; Lu, Jin-You; Wang, Jia-Sheng

2012-06-01

361

Optimal Operation of Variable Speed Pumping System in China's Eastern Route Project of S-to-N Water Diversion Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic planning model for optimizing operation of variable speed pumping system, aiming at minimum power consumption, was proposed to achieve economic operation. The No. 4 Jiangdu Pumping Station, a source pumping station in China's Eastern Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project, is taken as a study case. Since the sump water level of Jiangdu Pumping Station is affected by the tide of Yangtze River, the daily-average heads of the pumping system varies yearly from 3.8m to 7.8m and the tide level difference in one day up to 1.2m. Comparisons of operation electricity cost between optimized variable speed and fixed speed operations of pumping system were made. When the full load operation mode is adopted, whether or not electricity prices in peak-valley periods are considered, the benefits of variable speed operation cannot compensate the energy consumption of the VFD. And when the pumping system operates in part load and the peak-valley electricity prices are considered, the pumping system should cease operation or lower its rotational speed in peak load hours since the electricity price are much higher, and to the contrary the pumping system should raise its rotational speed in valley load hours to pump more water. The computed results show that if the pumping system operates in 80% or 60% loads, the energy consumption cost of specified volume of water will save 14.01% and 26.69% averagely by means of optimal variable speed operation, and the investment on VFD will be paid back in 2 or 3 years. However, if the pumping system operates in 80% or 60% loads and the energy cost is calculated in non peak-valley electricity price, the repayment will be lengthened up to 18 years. In China's S-to-N Water Diversion Project, when the market operation and peak-valley electricity prices are taken into effect to supply water and regulate water levels in regulation reservoirs as Hongzehu Lake, Luomahu Lake, etc. the economic operation of water-diversion pumping stations will be vital, and the adoption of VFDs to achieve optimal operation may be a good choice.

Cheng, Jilin; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Rentian; Gong, Yi; Zhu, Honggeng; Deng, Dongsheng; Feng, Xuesong; Qiu, Jinxian

2010-06-01

362

Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

Steiger, Judy I.

2007-01-01

363

American Water Heater Company: Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at Water Heater Plant  

SciTech Connect

In 2001, American Water Heater Company implemented a system-level improvement project on the compressed air system that serves its manufacturing plant in Johnson City, Tennessee. The plant now operates with less compressor capacity, which has reduced its energy consumption and maintenance needs. The project's total cost was $228,000. The annual compressed air energy savings (2,345,000 kWh) and maintenance savings total $160,000, yielding a simple payback of 17 months. Furthermore, the system now supports the plant's production processes more effectively, which has improved product quality and increased production.

Not Available

2003-11-01

364

43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

Yes. The Administration will review all projects proposed for funding under the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to determine whether the project is consistent with the policies and programs of the...

2012-10-01

365

Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

2014-11-01

366

Long-term monitoring of the temperature profile in a deep borehole: Temperature variations associated with water injection experiments and natural groundwater discharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term temperature monitoring was carried out in a borehole drilled for investigation of the Nojima fault, an active fault in SW Japan, using the distributed optical fiber temperature sensing (DTS) technique. Temperatures in the borehole had been measured every 1m along an optical fiber cable with a resolution of about 0.1K over a period of 6 years. Water injection experiments

Makoto Yamano; Shusaku Goto

2005-01-01

367

Analysis of linear alkylbenzenesulfonates in water samples by large-volume injection-port derivatization and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a modified method to analyze linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LASs) in water samples. The method involves extraction of samples by a graphitized carbon black (GCB) cartridge, and direct derivatization in the GC injection port using a large-volume (10–20 ?l) direct sample introduction (DSI) device with tetraalkylammonium (TAA) salts. The analytes were then identified and quantitated by ion-trap GC–MS. The

Wang-Hsien Ding; Chung-Tsen Chen

1999-01-01

368

Speciation and preconcentration of inorganic antimony in waters by Duolite GT73 microcolumn and determination by segmented flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (SFI-HGAAS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A selective matrix removal\\/separation\\/enrichment method, utilizing a microcolumn of a chelating resin with SH functional groups (Duolite GT-73), was proposed for the determination of Sb(III) in waters by segmented flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (SFI-HGAAS). The resin was selective to Sb(III) at almost all pH and acidity values employed, whereas Sb(V) was not retained at all and could be

Asl? Erdem; Ahmet E. Ero?lu

2005-01-01

369

GnRHa injection accelerates final maturation and ovulation\\/spermiation of sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) in both fresh and salt water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for accelerating final maturation and ovulation\\/spermiation of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) by using gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog (des-Gly10 [D-Ala6] GnRH-ethylamide; GnRHa) was evaluated. GnRHa injection reduced the median number of days to ovulation\\/spermiation from 21 to 11 in fish held in fresh water, from 24 to 10 in fish held in saltwater netpens, and from 30 to 7

Caleb H. Slater; Carl B. Schreck; Donald F. Amend

1995-01-01

370

Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The Ambrosia Lake Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is in McKinley County, New Mexico. As part of UMTRA surface remediation, residual radioactive materials were consolidated on the site in a disposal cell that was completed July 1995. The need for ground water monitoring was evaluated and found not to be necessary beyond the completion of the remedial action because the ground water in the uppermost aquifer is classified as limited use.

NONE

1995-08-01

371

North Pacific Intermediate Water: Progress in SAGE (SubArctic Gyre Experiment) and Related Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey the recent progress in studies of North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) in SAGE (SubArctic Gyre Experiment), including\\u000a important results obtained from related projects. Intensive observations have provided the transport distributions relating\\u000a to NPIW and revealed the existence of the cross-wind-driven gyre Oyashio water transport that flows directly from the subarctic\\u000a to subtropical gyres through the western boundary current

Ichiro Yasuda; Hongo Bunkyo-ku

2004-01-01

372

SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desalination subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, was operated successfully for two years. Water production rates of 180 m³\\/day can be obtained for a period of 24 hours. In addition, once the proper procedures are followed, water production can continue for long periods of time at rates of 135 m³\\/day. Electrical energy costs

J. C. Zimmerman; N. Al-Abbadi

1987-01-01

373

Desiccation of the Yellow River and the South Water Northward Transfer Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desiccation of the Yellow River, the cradle of the Chinese civilization and the second longest river in China since the 1970s, has created serious socioeconomic, environmental, and ecological problems. This paper analyzes the water shortage problem in the Yellow River and evaluates the effects of demand management and the interbasin transfer—South Water Northward Transfer Project—in alleviating the problem. Although China

Chansheng He; Sheng-Kui Cheng; Yi Luo

2005-01-01

374

Projected Economic Returns from Alternative Water Conservation Techniques -- Southern High Plains of Texas. (Abstract)  

E-print Network

9 THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION1 J. E. Miller, Director1 Texas A&M university/ BULLETIN College Station, Texas w B-1153 (Abstr.) June 1975 PROJECTED ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM ALTERNATIVE WATER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES- SOUTHERN HIGH... extensively. Declining groundwater supplies will cause irrigated crop production to decrease until it is replaced by dryland crop production. This changeover will affect area farmers and the regional economy. However, methods of water conservation...

Young, Kenneth B.; Kuehler, Anthony

1975-01-01

375

Digital-model study of ground-water hydrology, Columbia Basin Irrigation Project Area, Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Since 1952 water diverted from the Columbia River at Grand Coulee Dam has been used to irrigate parts of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project area in eastern Washington, and as a result ground-water levels generally have risen in the area. The rapid increases in ground-water inflow, outflow, and storage from irrigation have created a need for a better understanding of the ground-water system before and after the start of irrigation to establish guidelines necessary for management of the area's ground-water resource. Data and information from previous geologic and hydrologic studies were used as a basis for quantitative analyses of ground-water inflow and outflow by means of digital computer models representing three major areas--Quincy Basin, Pasco Basin, and Royal Slope.

Tanaka, H. H.; Hansen, A. J., Jr.; Skrivan, J. A.

1974-01-01

376

How uncertain are climate model projections of water availability indicators across the Middle East?  

PubMed

The projection of robust regional climate changes over the next 50 years presents a considerable challenge for the current generation of climate models. Water cycle changes are particularly difficult to model in this area because major uncertainties exist in the representation of processes such as large-scale and convective rainfall and their feedback with surface conditions. We present climate model projections and uncertainties in water availability indicators (precipitation, run-off and drought index) for the 1961-1990 and 2021-2050 periods. Ensembles from two global climate models (GCMs) and one regional climate model (RCM) are used to examine different elements of uncertainty. Although all three ensembles capture the general distribution of observed annual precipitation across the Middle East, the RCM is consistently wetter than observations, especially over the mountainous areas. All future projections show decreasing precipitation (ensemble median between -5 and -25%) in coastal Turkey and parts of Lebanon, Syria and Israel and consistent run-off and drought index changes. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) GCM ensemble exhibits drying across the north of the region, whereas the Met Office Hadley Centre work Quantifying Uncertainties in Model ProjectionsAtmospheric (QUMP-A) GCM and RCM ensembles show slight drying in the north and significant wetting in the south. RCM projections also show greater sensitivity (both wetter and drier) and a wider uncertainty range than QUMP-A. The nature of these uncertainties suggests that both large-scale circulation patterns, which influence region-wide drying/wetting patterns, and regional-scale processes, which affect localized water availability, are important sources of uncertainty in these projections. To reduce large uncertainties in water availability projections, it is suggested that efforts would be well placed to focus on the understanding and modelling of both large-scale processes and their teleconnections with Middle East climate and localized processes involved in orographic precipitation. PMID:20956364

Hemming, Debbie; Buontempo, Carlo; Burke, Eleanor; Collins, Mat; Kaye, Neil

2010-11-28

377

Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions  

SciTech Connect

A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

2006-06-01

378

Determination of potassium, sodium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete by a simple flow injection flame photometric system.  

PubMed

A simple flow injection with flame photometric detection has been developed for determination of sodium, potassium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete. A liquid sample or a digest of solid sample was injected into a water carrier stream which flowed to a flame photometer. A change in emission intensity at a selected wavelength was recorded as a peak. An amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the flame photometer. Calibration graphs in the range of 0.05-1.0?mg?L(-1) and 1.0-20.0?mg?L(-1) were obtained with a detection limit of 0.02?mg?L(-1), for both potassium and sodium determination. Relative standard deviations for 11 replicates of injecting of 10?mg?L(-1) potassium and sodium solutions were 1.69 and 1.79%, respectively. Sample throughput of 120?h(-1) was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water samples validated by the ASTM standard method and certified reference materials of portland cement. PMID:21747733

Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

2011-01-01

379

Determination of Potassium, Sodium, and Total Alkalies in Portland Cement, Fly Ash, Admixtures, and Water of Concrete by a Simple Flow Injection Flame Photometric System  

PubMed Central

A simple flow injection with flame photometric detection has been developed for determination of sodium, potassium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete. A liquid sample or a digest of solid sample was injected into a water carrier stream which flowed to a flame photometer. A change in emission intensity at a selected wavelength was recorded as a peak. An amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the flame photometer. Calibration graphs in the range of 0.05–1.0?mg?L?1 and 1.0–20.0?mg?L?1 were obtained with a detection limit of 0.02?mg?L?1, for both potassium and sodium determination. Relative standard deviations for 11 replicates of injecting of 10?mg?L?1 potassium and sodium solutions were 1.69 and 1.79%, respectively. Sample throughput of 120?h?1 was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water samples validated by the ASTM standard method and certified reference materials of portland cement. PMID:21747733

Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

2011-01-01

380

Solvent injection-lyophilization of tert-butyl alcohol/water cosolvent systems for the preparation of drug-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.  

PubMed

A simple procedure involving solvent injection-lyophilization (SIL) was used to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). A tert-butyl alcohol (t-BA) solution containing lipids was injected into a stirred aqueous solution containing lyoprotectants to form SLNs dispersed in a t-BA/water cosolvent system. The t-BA/water cosolvent SLN dispersion was subsequently lyophilized to obtain a dry product which, upon rehydration, formed an aqueous dispersion of spherical SLNs with a size under 200 nm. A lipophilic drug, cinnarizine, was dissolved in t-BA at a drug-to-lipid mass ratio of 1:20 and almost 100% of the drug was entrapped in the formed SLNs following the SIL process. Likewise, hydrophilic 5-fluorouracil, after being solubilized in t-BA through forming anhydrous reverse micelles, could be entrapped in SLNs with an encapsulation efficiency up to 15.6%. Differential scanning calorimetry and small angle X-ray scattering analysis proved that the lipids in the formed SLNs were in a stable beta-form, and there was no recrystallization expulsion of drugs during storage. In contrast to the conventional solvent injection method, the SIL procedure was not time-consuming and no relatively high-temperature evaporation was needed to remove organic solvents. Moreover, the efficiency of the lyophilization was markedly enhanced due to use of the t-BA/water cosolvent system. Thus, the SIL procedure was found to be an efficient method for preparing stable drug-loaded SLNs. PMID:20447810

Wang, Ting; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Yingying; Shen, Wancui; Gao, Xingmei; Li, Tiefu

2010-08-01

381

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation.

Not Available

1994-11-01

382

Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.  

SciTech Connect

As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO] [National Renewable Energy Laboratory Golden, CO

2013-07-01

383

Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori. The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the current water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations and assumptions of 2009 urban water demand and land use. Water supplied directly from precipitation, and indirectly from reuse, captured local runoff, and groundwater is necessary but inadequate to satisfy agricultural demand without coastal and regional storage depletion that facilitates seawater intrusion. These facilities reduce potential seawater intrusion by about 45% with groundwater levels in the four regions served by the CDS projected to recover to levels a few feet above sea level. The projected recoveries are not high enough to prevent additional seawater intrusion during dry-year periods or in the deeper aquifers where pumpage is greater. While these facilities could reduce coastal pumpage by about 55% of the historical 2000-2009 pumpage for these regions, and some of the water is delivered in excess of demand, other coastal regions continue to create demands on coastal pumpage that will need to be replaced to reduce seawater intrusion. In addition, inland urban and agricultural demands continue to sustain water levels below sea level causing regional landward gradients that also drive seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion is reduced by about 45% but it supplies about 55% of the recovery of groundwater levels in the coastal regions served by the CDS. If economically feasible, water from summer agricultural runoff and tile-drain returnflows could be another potential local source of water that, if captured and reused, could offset the imbalance between supply and demand as well as reducing discharge of agricultural runoff into the National Marine Sanctuary of Monterey Bay. A BMP update (2012) identifies projects and programs that will fund a conservation program and will provide additional, alternative water sources to reduce or replace coastal and inland pumpage, and to replenish the aquifers with managed aquifer recharge in an inland portion of the Pajaro Valley.

Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B.; Schmid, Wolfgang

2014-11-01

384

Experimental investigation of water injection in subsonic diffuser of a conical inlet operation at free-stream Mach number of 2.5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spike-type nose inlet with sharp-lip cowl was investigated at a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 with water injection in its 16-inch diameter, 11-foot-long subsonic diffuser section. Inlet total temperature of exit with liquid-air ratios of about 0.04 with no apparent change in the critical pressure recovery. The observed temperature drops were less than the theoretically predicted values, and the amount of water evaporated was 35 to 50 percent less than that theoretically possible.

Beke, Andrew

1957-01-01

385

Orexin-1 receptor mediates the increased food and water intake induced by intracerebroventricular injection of the stable somatostatin pan-agonist, ODT8-SST in rats.  

PubMed

Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of the stable somatostatin pan-agonist, ODT8-SST induces a somatostatin 2 receptor (sst2) mediated robust feeding response that involves neuropeptide Y and opioid systems in rats. We investigated whether the orexigenic system driven by orexin also plays a role. Food and water intake after icv injection was measured concomitantly in non-fasted and non-water deprived rats during the light phase. In vehicle treated rats (100% DMSO, icv), ODT8-SST (1?g/rat, icv) significantly increased the 2-h food and water intake compared to icv vehicle plus saline (5.1±1.0g vs. 1.2±0.4g and 11.3±1.9mL vs. 2.5±1.2mL, respectively). The orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867 (16?g/rat, icv) completely inhibited the 2-h food and water intake induced by icv ODT8-SST. In contrast, the icv pretreatment with the selective somatostatin sst2 antagonist, S-406-028, established to block the orexigenic effect of icv ODT8-SST, did not modify the increased food and water intake induced by icv orexin-A (10.7?g/rat). These data indicate that orexin-1 receptor signaling system is part of the brain neurocircuitry contributing to the orexigenic and dipsogenic responses induced by icv ODT8-SST and that orexin-A stimulates food intake independently from brain sst2 activation. PMID:24915296

Karasawa, Hiroshi; Yakabi, Seiichi; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

2014-07-25

386

ENVIR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER PERSPECTIVES ON EXPERIMENTAL PROJECTS for Water (W)  

E-print Network

with the basic questions from the first hand-out (25 Feb 2003..on the class web-page), please pose some of your-water' and `deep-water' waves. This shallow and deep is measured in comparison to the wavelength. The wavespeed that the fastest gravity waves in the deep ocean can move at (9.8 x 4000) or 200 m/sec (450 m.p.h.). When

387

Comparisons of Simulated Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Projected Demands in 2046, Pueblo Reservoir, Southeastern Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pueblo Reservoir is one of southeastern Colorado's most valuable water resources. The reservoir provides irrigation, municipal, and industrial water to various entities throughout the region. The reservoir also provides flood control, recreational activities, sport fishing, and wildlife enhancement to the region. The Bureau of Reclamation is working to meet its goal to issue a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Southern Delivery System project (SDS). SDS is a regional water-delivery project that has been proposed to provide a safe, reliable, and sustainable water supply through the foreseeable future (2046) for Colorado Springs, Fountain, Security, and Pueblo West. Discussions with the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey led to a cooperative agreement to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality of Pueblo Reservoir. This work has been completed and described in a previously published report, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5056. Additionally, there was a need to make comparisons of simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands associated with the various EIS alternatives and plans by Pueblo West to discharge treated water into the reservoir. Plans by Pueblo West are fully independent of the SDS project. This report compares simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands in Pueblo Reservoir resulting from changes in inflow and water quality entering the reservoir, and from changes to withdrawals from the reservoir as projected for the year 2046. Four of the seven EIS alternatives were selected for scenario simulations. The four U.S. Geological Survey simulation scenarios were the No Action scenario (EIS Alternative 1), the Downstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 2), the Upstream Return-Flow scenario (EIS Alternative 4), and the Upstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 7). Additionally, the results of an Existing Conditions scenario (water years 2000 through 2002) were compared to the No Action scenario (projected demands in 2046) to assess changes in water quality over time. All scenario modeling used an external nutrient-decay model to simulate degradation and assimilation of nutrients along the riverine reach upstream from Pueblo Reservoir. Reservoir modeling was conducted using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CE-QUAL-W2 two-dimensional water-quality model. Lake hydrodynamics, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, dissolved ammonia, dissolved nitrate, total phosphorus, algal biomass, and total iron were simulated. Two reservoir site locations were selected for comparison. Results of simulations at site 3B were characteristic of a riverine environment in the reservoir while results at site 7B (near the dam) were characteristic of the main body of the reservoir. Simulation results for the epilimnion and hypolimnion at these two sites also were evaluated and compared. The simulation results in the hypolimnion at site 7B were indicative of the water quality leaving the reservoir. Comparisons of the different scenario results were conducted to assess if substantial differences were observed between selected scenarios. Each of the scenarios was simulated for three contiguous years representing a wet, average, and dry annual hydrologic cycle (water years 2000 through 2002). Additionally, each selected simulation scenario was evaluated for differences in direct- and cumulative-effects on a particular scenario. Direct effects are intended to isolate the future effects of the scenarios. Cumulative effects are intended to evaluate the effects of the scenarios in conjunction with all reasonably foreseeable future activities in the study area. Comparisons between the direct- and cumulative-effects analyses indicated that there were not large differences in the results between most of the simulation scenarios and, as such, the focus of this report was on results for the direct-effects analysis. Addi

Ortiz, Roderick F.; Galloway, Joel M.; Miller, Lisa D.; Mau, David P.

2008-01-01

388

The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand uniformity on wood production  

E-print Network

m Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil Forest Ecology and Management 259 (2010) 1684The Brazil Eucalyptus Potential Productivity Project: Influence of water, nutrients and stand Forest Service, 240 W. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA d Affiliate Faculty, Graduate Degree Program

Binkley, Dan

389

Get Your Feet Wet--Scientifically: A Guide to Water Testing as a School Science Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project involving students in hands-on scientific experiment to locate and identify areas of water pollution, based on Delta Laboratories Adopt-A-Stream Program. Describes getting started, working cooperatively, community support, recording and using data. Includes data sheet, checklist, and photographs of students at study site. (TES)

Sattler, Edward D.; Zalkin, Larry

1989-01-01

390

Great Lakes Beach Recreational Water-Quality Decisionmaking Nearshore Health and Watershed Protection Projects  

E-print Network

Great Lakes Beach Recreational Water-Quality Decisionmaking Nearshore Health and Watershed Protection Projects for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Research by USGS scientists has been of the 500 beaches along 11,000 miles of coastline in the Great Lakes. As they broaden the understanding

391

High temperature water pit storage projects for the seasonal storage of solar energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage (CSHPSS) are capable of covering more than 75% of the annual heat demand of housing areas if appropriate storage technologies are available. The maximum design temperature should be 90–95° and the long term cost goal is 100 DM m?3 for a storage volume larger than 10 000 m3 water equivalent. Three pilot projects

R. Kübler; N. Fisch; E. Hahne

1997-01-01

392

DELIVERING TIMELY WATER QUALITY INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY. THE LAKE ACCESS-MINNEAPOLIS PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a summary of the near-real-time water quality-monitoring project conducted by a consortium of interested parties in the greater Minneapolis area. It was funded by an EPA program known as EMPACT (Environmental Monitoring, Public Access, and Community Tracking). In 1...

393

Project EARTH-13-SHELLJC1: Polygonal faults and de-watering of mudrocks during early burial  

E-print Network

Project EARTH-13-SHELLJC1: Polygonal faults and de-watering of mudrocks during early burial Shell Polygonal faults are widely regarded as a response to dewatering during the earliest stages of burial that polygonal fault genesis is related to dewatering during the first few hundred metres of burial, what is less

Henderson, Gideon

394

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. FLASH EVAPORATOR, CONDENSER (PROJECT FROM EVAPORATOR), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. FLASH EVAPORATOR, CONDENSER (PROJECT FROM EVAPORATOR), AND STEAM EJECTOR (ALONG REAR WALL). INL NEGATIVE NO. 4377. M.H. Bartz, Photographer, 3/5/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

395

SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but

Maximo Peviani; Julio Alterach; Andrea Danelli

2010-01-01

396

Evaluation of Tropospheric Water Vapor Simulations from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulations of humidity from 28 general circulation models for the period 1979-88 from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project are compared with observations from radiosondes over North America and the globe and with satellite microwave observations over the Pacific basin. The simulations of decadal mean values of precipitable water (W) integrated over each of these regions tend to be less moist

Dian J. Gaffen; Richard D. Rosen; David A. Salstein; James S. Boyle

1997-01-01

397

Supplement to the UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Riverton, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) supplement supports the regulatory and technical basis for water sampling at the Riverton, Wyoming, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, as defined in the 1994 WSAP document for Riverton (DOE, 1994). Further, the supplement serves to confirm the Project`s present understanding of the site relative to the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution as well as the intent to continue to use the sampling strategy as presented in the 1994 WSAP document for Riverton. Ground water and surface water monitoring activities are derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 and 60 FR 2854. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. Additional site-specific documents relevant to the Riverton site are the Riverton Baseline Risk Assessment (BLRA) (DOE, 1995a) and the Riverton Site Observational Work Plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995b).

NONE

1995-09-01

398

Surface water-quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin, Kentucky; project description  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began the National Water Quality Assessment Program, which at present (1987) is in a pilot phase in which assessment concepts and approaches are being tested and modified to prepare for full implementation of the program in the future. Seven pilot projects (four surface water projects and three groundwater projects) have been started. The preliminary plans for the surface water quality assessment of the Kentucky River basin pilot project are described. The Kentucky River basin drains an area of approximately 7,000 sq mi in east central Kentucky and is underlain by rocks that range in composition from limestone to sandstone and shale. Because greater than 95% of the basin population relies on surface water, surface water quality is of great concern. Land use practices that affect the surface water quality in the basin include agriculture, forestry, oil and gas production, coal mining, and urbanization. Water quality concerns resulting from the various land uses include the effects of: oil and gas field brine discharges; agricultural chemicals; sedimentation caused by coal mining; and trace element impacts from industrial and urban environments. Assessment activity is designed to occur over a 9-year period of time. During the first 3-year period of the cycle, concentrated data acquisition and interpretation will occur. For the next 6 years, sample collection will occur at a much lower level of intensity to document the occurrence of any gross changes in water quality. This 9-year cycle will then be repeated. Historical data will be evaluated to provide, to the extent possible, a description of existing and past trends in water quality conditions and to develop conceptual models that relate the observed conditions to the sources and causes, both natural and human-controlled. New data will be collected to verify the water quality conditions documented by historic data, to track long-term trends in water quality, to intensify temporal and spatial sampling densities, and to improve the understanding of the relations between water quality conditions and causative factors. (Lantz-PTT)

White, K. D.; Smoot, J. L.; Jackson, J. K.; Choquette, A. F.

1987-01-01

399

Water cycle research associated with the CaPE hydrometeorology project (CHymP  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One outgrowth of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment that took place in central Florida during July and August 1991 was the creation of the CaPE Hydrometeorology Project (CHymP). The principal goal of this project is to investigate the daily water cycle of the CaPE experimental area by analyzing the numerous land and atmosphere in situ and remotely sensed data sets that were generated during the 40-days of observations. The water cycle comprises the atmospheric branch. In turn, the atmospheric branch comprises precipitation leaving the base of the atmospheric volume under study, evaporation and transpiration entering the base, the net horizontal fluxes of water vapor and cloud water through the volume and the conversion of water vapor to cloud water and vice-versa. The sum of these components results in a time rate of change in the water and liquid water (or ice) content of the atmospheric volume. The components of the land branch are precipitation input to and evaporation and transpiration output from the surface, net horizontal fluxes of surface and subsurface water, the sum of which results in a time rate of change in surface and subsurface water mass. The objective of CHymP is to estimate these components in order to determine the daily water budget for a selected area within the CaPE domain. This work began in earnest in the summer of 1992 and continues. Even estimating all the budget components for one day is a complex and time consuming task. The discussions below provides a short summary of the rainfall quality assessment procedures followed by a plan for estimating the horizontal moisture flux.

Duchon, Claude E.

1993-01-01

400

Degarelix Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

401

Fondaparinux Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Fondaparinux injection is used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT; a blood clot, usually in the leg), ... warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications called ...

402

Estrogen Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

403

Adalimumab Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... has not improved when treated with other medications, ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... using adalimumab injection to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

404

Cabazitaxel Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Cabazitaxel injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has already been treated with other medications. Cabazitaxel injection is in ...

405

Meeting the challenge of policy-relevant science: lessons from a water resource project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resource scientists face complex tasks in evaluating aspects of water projects, but relatively few assessment procedures have been applied and accepted as standard applications. Decision-makers often rely on environmental assessments to evaluate the value and operation of projects. There is often confusion about scientists' role in policy decisions. The scientist can affect policy-making as an expert withess, an advocate or a surrogate. By understanding the policy process, scientists can make their work more “policy relevant.” Using the Terror Lake hydro project in Alaska as a guide, three lessons are discussed: (1) not all problems are able to be solved with technology; (2) policy-relevant technology is rarely imposed on a problem; and (3) the scientist need not just react to the policy process, but can have an impact on how that process unfolds.

Lamb, Berton L.

1986-01-01

406

A flow injection analysis system for monitoring silver (I) ion and iodine residuals in recycled water from recovery systems used for spaceflight.  

PubMed

A laboratory-built flow injection analyzer is reported for monitoring the drinking water disinfectants silver (I) ion and iodine in water produced from NASA's water recovery system. This analyzer uses spectrophotometric detection with a custom made 10cm optical flow cell. Optimization and interference studies are discussed for the silver (I) ion configuration. Subsequent results using the silver (I) configuration with minor modifications and alternative reagents gave promising results for iodine determinations as well. The estimated MDL values for Ag(+) and I2 are 52?g L(-1) Ag(+) and 2?g L(-1) I2; the mean percent recoveries were 104% and 96.2% for Ag(+) and I2 respectfully; and percent relative standard deviations were estimated at 1.4% for Ag(+) and 5.7% for I2. The agreement of this potentially multifunctional analyzer to reference methods for each respective water disinfectant is measured using Bland-Altman analysis as well as more traditional estimates. PMID:23910970

Williamson, Jill P; Emmert, Gary L

2013-08-20

407

Quantitative analysis on the ecological impact of large-scale water transfer project on water resource area in a changing environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interbasin long-distance water transfer project is a key support for the reasonable allocation of water resources in a large-scale area, which can optimize the spatiotemporal change of water resources to reinforce the guarantee of the access of water resources. And large-scale water transfer projects have a deep influence on ecosystems; besides, global climate change causes the uncertainty and additive effect of the ecological impact of water transfer projects. Therefore, how to assess the ecological and environmental impact of large-scale water transfer projects in both construction and operation has triggered a lot of attention. The water-output area of the western route of China's South-North Water Transfer Project was taken as the study area of the present article. According to relevant evaluation principles and on the basis of background analysis on the eco-environment of the study area, the influence factors were identified and evaluation indexes were established. The climate-hydrology-ecology coupled simulation model was used to imitate the laws of ecological and environmental change of the water resource area in a changing climate. The emphasis of influence analysis and quantitative evaluation was placed on the reservoir construction and operation scheduling, representative river corridors and wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites. In the end, an overall influence evaluation of the impact of the project on the water circulation and ecological evolution of the water resource area was conducted. The research results were as follows: the environmental impacts of the western route project in the water resource area were concentrated on two aspects, i.e. the permanent destruction of vegetation during the phase of dam construction and river impoundment, and the significant influence on the hydrological situation of natural river corridor after the implementation of water transfer. Its impact on local climate, vegetation ecology, typical wetlands, natural reserves and the water environment of river basins below the dam sites was small.

Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Li, H. H.; Wang, G.; Qin, T. L.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, L. H.

2011-11-01

408

Injection of fixated scrubber sludge into abandoned coal mines  

SciTech Connect

Fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) was injected into an abandoned underground coal mine in southwestern Indiana. The project was undertaken to evaluate using FSS to control mine subsidence and reduce acid mine drainage. Preinjection laboratory testing included characterization and analysis of the effects that the mine environment has on the FSS. Bench scale testing determined the composition for optimum flow, minimization of free water, and physical characteristics. A total of 16,351 cubic yards of FSS was injected over an eight-week period in late 1994. This resulted in filling about five acres of the mine. The injected FSS was sampled at six and at nine months after injection. Unconfirmed compressive strengths were generally from 100 to 200 psi. The hydrogeologic environment surrounding the mine was monitored by sampling ground water over a six month period prior to injection and then quarterly for one year after injection. There were some changes in the concentration of chemical parameters in the mine pool water, particularly in close proximity to injected FSS, but no significant changes in ground water chemistry surrounding the mine.

Gray, R.E.; Turka, R.J. [GAI Consultants, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Meiers, R.J. [Indianapolis Power and Light Co., IN (United States); Golden, D.M. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

409

Effect of the ecological water conveyance project on environment in the Lower Tarim River, Xinjiang, China.  

PubMed

The dynamic response of groundwater level is examined in traverse and lengthways directions. Take the Yinsu section for an example, we have simulated groundwater levels before and after water-conveyance every time and calculated the incidence of groundwater on the both sides of the river. It is noted that the effect keeps growing with the water-delivery times increasing, from 570 m after the first times to 3,334 m after the eighth times. In addition, this paper involves the temporal response of the natural vegetation to water conveyance, vegetation coverage, planted-species number, dominant position and species diversity from 2002 to 2006. The findings indicate that the positive influence of ecological water conveyance project (EWCP) on the ecosystem in the Lower Tarim River is a long-term process. In this paper, we try to calculate water required for recovery of damaged ecosystem by using data available. This project is likely the base of research on water demand and the reference of measures for research on ecological water conveyance effect. PMID:18274873

Ye, Zhaoxia; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Yan, Yan

2009-02-01

410

-OGP 04 (1) -Predicting Injectivity Decline  

E-print Network

- OGP 04 (1) - Predicting Injectivity Decline in Water Injection Wells by Upscaling On-Site Core, resulting in injectivity decline of injection wells. Particles such as biomass, corrosion products, silt on permeability. These data were then processed, upscaled to model injection wells and, finally, history matched

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

411

Refining the Resolution of Future Energy-Water Projection through High Performance Computing (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advance of high performance computing and more abundant historic observation, the resolution and accuracy of hydro-climate projection can now be efficiently improved. Based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections, a series of hydro-climatic models and datasets, including Regional Climate Models, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, historic runoff-generation relationships and a national hydropower dataset, are jointly utilized to project the future hydropower production at various U.S. regions. To refine spatial resolution and reduce modeling uncertainty, particular efforts were focused on calibrating the VIC hydrologic model at 4-Km spatial resolution. Driven by 1980-2008 DAYMET meteorological observation (biased adjusted by PRISM dataset), the simulated VIC total runoff (baseflow + surface runoff) was calibrated to U.S. Geological Survey WaterWatch monthly runoff observation at 2107 hydrologic Subbasins (HUC8s) in the Conterminous U.S. Each HUC8 was subdivided into 16, 32, or 48 computation units for parallel computing. The simulation was conducted using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Titan supercomputer, a Cray XK7 system with 18,688 computational nodes, each equipped with four quad-core CPUs and two GPU cards. To date, ~2.5 million CPU-hours (i.e., the number of CPUs multiplied by the average hours used by each CPU) have been used to improve the modeling performance for most of the HUC8s. Using the calibrated model, hydro-climate projections will be produced for various dynamically-downscaled CMIP5 simulations, and will be utilized to project seasonal and monthly hydropower production for various U.S. regions. It is expected that with reduced modeling uncertainty, the regional water budget can be more accurately estimated and it will eventually lead to better simulation and allocation of limited water resources under climate, energy, and water nexus.

Kao, S.; Naz, B.; Ashfaq, M.; Mei, R.

2013-12-01

412

Improving Climate Projections Through the Assessment of Model Uncertainty and Bias in the Global Water Cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The implications of a changing climate have a profound impact on human life, society, and policy making. The need for accurate climate prediction becomes increasingly important as we better understand these implications. Currently, the most widely used climate prediction relies on the synthesis of climate model simulations organized by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP); these simulations are ensemble-averaged to construct projections for the 21st century climate. However, a significant degree of bias and variability in the model simulations for the 20th century climate is well-known at both global and regional scales. Based on that insight, this study provides an alternative approach for constructing climate projections that incorporates knowledge of model bias. This approach is demonstrated to be a viable alternative which can be easily implemented by water resource managers for potentially more accurate projections. Tests of the new approach are provided on a global scale with an emphasis on semiarid regional studies for their particular vulnerability to water resource changes, using both the former CMIP Phase 3 (CMIP3) and current Phase 5 (CMIP5) model archives. This investigation is accompanied by a detailed analysis of the dynamical processes and water budget to understand the behaviors and sources of model biases. Sensitivity studies of selected CMIP5 models are also performed with an atmospheric component model by testing the relationship between climate change forcings and model simulated response. The information derived from each study is used to determine the progressive quality of coupled climate models in simulating the global water cycle by rigorously investigating sources of model bias related to the moisture budget. As such, the conclusions of this project are highly relevant to model development and potentially may be used to further improve climate projections.

Baker, Noel C.

413

Albiglutide Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use albiglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using albiglutide injection without talking ...

414

Romiplostim Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... you to stop taking these medications if romiplostim injection works well for you.Romiplostim injection does not work for ... it. Continue to keep appointments to receive romiplostim injection even if you feel well.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

415

Liraglutide Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Liraglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use liraglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using liraglutide injection without talking ...

416

Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers  

SciTech Connect

Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

Elders, W.A.

1986-07-01

417

The impact of uncertainty in climate change scenarios on projections of future water supply from the Asian water towers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water towers of Asia, referred to also as the Third Pole for their importance in terms of cryospheric processes and magnitude of water resources from snow and ice, provide water resources to sustain the lives of nearly two billion people and the source of water for ten major river basins. Assessment of future changes in the water resources from this area is crucial because of the importance of these water sources for population needs and because of the already existing pressure on water availability and increasing water scarcity. Quantifying the response of such catchments to current and future changes in climate is complicated by two main factors: i) the scarcity of ground data, especially those on the cryosphere, which hinders both proper understanding of processes and calibration of models; ii) difficulty in capturing the large variability in climate over short horizontal distances. In addition most predictions of changes in water resources in the region are based on a few GCM scenarios used to force hydrological models. Given the complexity of the climatic mechanisms in the region, and of the monsoon in particular, it is essential that impact studies examine the entire range of expected changes in future climate scenarios. In this study we therefore examine the full range of CMIP3 GCMs to assess the robustness of projected trends in precipitation, air temperature and other variables relevant for cryospheric processes. We do this analysis for the upstream(defined as all area higher than 2000 meter), and downstream areas of the 10 large river basins in Asia that originate in the Himalayas, adjacent mountain ranges and the Tibetan plateau. Secondly, we investigate how this uncertainty in GCM projections translates into the hydrological response of the Hunza catchment in the Karakoram mountains in Pakistan. A physically-based and distributed hydrological model is set-up and calibrated based on observed discharges and MODIS snow cover maps and subsequently forced with the full range of (downscaled) CMIP3 GCMs. Downscaling is carried out using a stochastic approach that permits to establish a range of statistically probable future scenarios and provides information about the local uncertainty in the final result. In this way, we quantify uncertainty in discharge, stream flow composition, glacier evolution and snow cover which is associated with both the range of future GCMs predictions and downscaling technique. Results show that forcing hydrological impact models with only a selection of GCMS can lead to misleading predictions of changes in water resources, and errors can be as large as those associated with the uncertainty in model parameters.

Immerzeel, W. W.; Pellicciotti, F.; Gobiet, A.; Ragettli, S.

2011-12-01

418

Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

Silva, M.K.

1996-08-01

419

Combining water budgets and IFIM results for analyzing operation alternatives at peaking projects  

SciTech Connect

Licensing of hydropower projects often involves evaluating and comparing several different alternatives for project operation. Projects with peaking capabilities, in particular, are frequently required to compare peaking operation with substantially different alternatives, such as continuous run-of-the-river flows. Instream flow studies are used to assess the environmental impacts of hydropower operation by modeling the amount of aquatic habitat available at various flows. It can be difficult, however, to apply instream flow models downstream of peaking operations, or to present habitat model results in a way that clearly compares operation alternatives. This paper presents a two-stage analysis that was used in the successful negotiation of a licensing settlement for Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation`s Salmon River Project in upstate New York. A water budget model based on project configuration was used to compile flow-duration curves for the project under several alternative operating rules. A spreadsheet model was developed that combines the results of instream flow habitat models with flow-duration statistics. This approach provides a clear, quantitative comparison of the effect of alternative project operations on downstream aquatic habitat.

Conners, M.E.; Homa, J. Jr. [Ichthyological Associates, Inc., Lansing, NY (United States); Carrington, G. [Northrup, Devine, and Tarbell, Inc., Vancouver, WA (United States)

1995-12-31

420

WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...