Sample records for water injection project

  1. Experimental comparison of hot water/propane injection to steam/propane injection for recovery of heavy oil

    E-print Network

    Nesse, Thomas

    2005-02-17

    Generating enough heat to convert water into steam is a major expense for projects that inject steam into reservoirs to enhance hydrocarbon recovery. If the temperature of the injected fluid is lowered this expense would be reduced. In the past...

  2. Handling of produced salt water for injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bilhartz

    1965-01-01

    The discussion demonstrates by illustration the application of a standardized data package in defining water injection system performance. A water injection system is divided into complexity points and basic data collected at each point so that performance can be determined by chemical material balance calculations. To withstand the technical demands of this plan, precise sampling and testing techniques must be

  3. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.

  4. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  5. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) in the flue gas. The work performed during this period (July--September 1992) was consistent with the revised Statement of Work (Scope Increase) and the approved schedule change contained in the Cooperative Agreement. During this period, emphasis was placed on startup and commissioning activities and baseline testing. Work was conducted under the three tasks comprising the Operations Phase. Summary of the work performed under these tasks is given.

  6. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E. (Allegheny, PA); Schulz, Terry L. (Westmoreland, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  7. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The LIFAC technology has similarities to other sorbent injection technologies using humidification, but employs a unique patented vertical reaction chamber located down-stream of the boiler to facilitate and control the sulfur capture and other chemical reactions. This chamber improves the overall reaction efficiency enough to allow the use of pulverized limestone rather than more expensive reagents such as lime which are often used to increase the efficiency of other sorbent injection processes. Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers - and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is successful, LIFAC will offer these important advantages over wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems; LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes; LIFAC's overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton S0{sub 2} removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product; and LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

  8. Assessment of Injection Well Construction and Operation for Water Injection Wells and Salt Water Disposal Wells

    E-print Network

    Assessment of Injection Well Construction and Operation for Water Injection Wells and Salt Water Disposal Wells in the Nine Township Area ­ 2009 September 2009 Prepared by Delaware Basin Drilling from EPA to DOE dated 7/16/2009) 1 Solution Mining Practices 1 Recent Well Failures 2 The Mechanism

  9. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers -- and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems. LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes. LIFAC's overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO[sub 2] removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product. LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

  10. Injection water viscosifier for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, K.F.

    1986-06-03

    A method is described for recovering petroleum from a subterranean petroleum bearing deposit which comprises injecting viscous water into the area of the deposit through at least one input well, thereby causing the petroleum to flow from the area for collection through at least one output well. The improvement described here comprises injecting the viscous water containing a water soluble polymer with chain linkages derived from a major amount of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and at least one member selected from the group consisting of N-methylolacrylamide and sodium styrene sulfonate into the area of the deposit, wherein the water soluble polymer has a molecular weight in excess of 1,000,000 and wherein the water soluble polymer has between about 0.1 and about 5 percent by weight of its chain linkages being derived from members selected from the group consisting of N-methylolacrylamide and sodium styrene sulfonate.

  11. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed irregularities. The so-called pumping model provided good estimates of the storage in the hyporheic zone under different stream discharges and stream flow conditions along streams. Evaluations Hobøl River, Norway, and Säva Brook, Sweden, at two occasions in both stream indicate that the relative residence time in the hyporheic zone is linearly proportional to the squared Froude Number. The residence time is scaled with water depth and hydraulic conductivity of the bed. The effect of such transient storage in e.g. the hyporheic zone gives rise to a tailing, but the breakthrough curve become increasingly symmetrical with Damköhler number. Such a symmetrical breakthrough can be erroneously taken as an effect of in-stream dispersion, even though this similarity is merely due to the physical analogy of various advection velocities over the transport cross-section, differential advection.

  12. Water development projects map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A new map showing major water development projects across the United States has been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The map shows the location, size, and ownership of approximately 2800 of the nation's major multipurpose and flood control dams and virtually all of the reservoir storage and flood control capacity of the country. Other features illustrated on the map include U.S. Bureau of Reclamation surface water irrigation projects; watershed protection projects of the U.S. Soil Conservation Service; hydroelectric power facilities, including both federal plants and nonfederal plants leased by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers navigation and flood damage reduction projects; and the federal systems of wild and scenic rivers. The map also delineates major rivers and the 21 USGS water resources region boundaries so that users of the map can locate development projects with respect to drainage basins.

  13. Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

  14. Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project, phase 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Younker; J. Hanson; E. Didwall; P. Kasameyer; A. Smith; J. Hearst; W. Daley; N. Crown; J. Younker; W. Murray

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using remote geophysical techniques to monitor the movement of injected brine has been evaluated. It was established that no single approach is likely to be identified that can be used to accurately monitor the precise location of the injected fluid. Several approaches have been considered in parallel because they add new dimensions to the existing monitoring capabilities,

  15. Flow characteristics and injectivity behavior of water-soluble polymers: Final report. [144 references

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.

    1987-04-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the key properties of water-soluble polymers that affect injectivity of polymer solutions used in enhanced recovery processes. The project consisted of performing a thorough literature survey on this subject, followed by laboratory tests to assess various properties of polymer solutions. In the literature survey, laboratory and field projects were reviewed. Information from the literature survey on field projects and from experiments performed as part of this study points out that water quality is very important in the injectivity of polymer solutions. Specifically, if iron is introduced as a corrosion byproduct, the polymers can be crosslinked which can lead to severe plugging when the polymer solution is injected. For some polymers, procedures used for mixing solutions can be important. Higher solution viscosities may be obtained if emulsion polymers are inverted in a very fresh water prior to mixing with a brine water. Filterability and injectivity of some emulsion polymers are better when the polymers are dissolved in a fresher water. As expected, injectivity of xanthan gum polymers was better than for polyacrylamide polymers. For polyacrylamides, adsorption was higher on dolomite than on sandstone, but the adsorption on either media was not affected greatly by anionic charge of the polymers. Injectivity of polymer solutions may be improved by pretreatment with certain solvents or chemicals. After a loss of injectivity caused by plugging from a polymer solution, selected chemicals can provide improvement in injectivity. 155 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Lesotho Highlands Water Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Kingdom of Lesotho is a tiny landlocked country, about the size of the state of Maryland, and it is completely surrounded by South Africa. Its most significant natural resource is water, and thus the majority of its economy is based on providing water and electricity to South Africa. The Lesotho Highlands Water Project website is a window into the effects such a large water project can have on a community, arguably some of them negative. For instance, visitors should check out the "FAQs" section to read some of the issues that have come up with the project, including loss of property and livelihood. The "Documents & Reports" link has dozens of documents, including ones about "IFR" (which stands for Instream Flow Requirement), "Hydrology" and "Studies & Special Reports". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Villages of the Dammed Response", under "Studies & Special Reports", which is an excellent letter to the editor at the Globe and Mail that highlights the debate surrounding the Water Project and what it promises.

  17. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman; (U of Wyoming)

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  18. Gel injection successfully shuts off excess water

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Unocal applied a high-temperature organic polymer gel in Feather field Well H-43 in the UK North Sea to reduce water production in them more-permeable upper perforated section of the Brent Sand. The operation and technical details of the polymer system developed by Unocal, and how it was applied, are described in paper SPE 30426, ``Water shut off in the North Sea; Testing a new polymer system in the Heather field, UKCS Block 2/5.`` The authors concluded that the new gel system successfully isolated the Upper Brent water production, increasing oil production and decreasing water production. Lower perforations were successfully isolated using sized calcium carbonate suspended in an HEC polymer--a technique difficult to monitor in the deviated well. Batch mixing provided ``excellent`` quality gel, closely matching lab measured performance. And the gel required no pre-cooling in the near-wellbore area. Some 1,100 bbl were injected without excessive wellhead pressure, at 1 bpm. A summary of the paper`s highlights is presented here.

  19. Alteration of permeability by fine particle movement -- A water injectivity problem

    SciTech Connect

    Asghari, K.; Kharrat, R.; Vossoughi, S.

    1995-11-01

    Siri field is located off shore of Iran in the Persian Gulf and is producing from the Mishrif Formation, which is common between Iran and United Arab Emirates. Existence of an active aquifer and other appropriate conditions led to the decision of a water injection program. Sea water from the Persian Gulf was found to be compatible with the formation water and was directly injected into the formation after passing through 10 micron filters. Water injectivity was drastically decreased from an initial injection rate of 9,100 bbl/day to 2,200 bbl/day within six years. Because of the severe injectivity loss, the water injection was stopped. An experimental investigation was undertaken to look into the possible causes of the injectivity loss. Two sets of experimental investigations were undertaken with different objectives in mind. In the first part glass bead packs were used to test the experimental set up and to observe the general behavior of fine particle movement in porous media. In the second part a core plug from the field and sea water were used to determine the possible cause of injectivity loss in the field. The experiments were conducted with injection rates of 0.9 cm{sup 3}/s to 3.1 cm{sup 3}/s. Particles of bentonite were suspended in the injected water to simulate fine particles migration in porous media. The particles were injected at concentrations ranged from 20 g/l to 40 g/l. It was observed that the build up in flow resistance was mostly due to the frontal face plugging. Particles of bentonite and alumina were added to the glass beads to study the effect of particles initially present in the glass beads pack medium. Field and laboratory data clearly indicate the importance of the water quality in a waterflood project. Experimental data suggest that a smaller size filter should have been implemented to avoid the injectivity loss.

  20. [Recognition of water-injected meat based on visible/near-infrared spectrum and sparse representation].

    PubMed

    Hao, Dong-mei; Zhou, Ya-nan; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Song; Yang, Yi-min; Lin, Ling; Li, Gang; Wang, Xiu-li

    2015-01-01

    The present paper proposed a new nondestructive method based on visible/near infrared spectrum (Vis/NIRS) and sparse representation to rapidly and accurately discriminate between raw meat and water-injected meat. Water-injected meat model was built by injecting water into non-destructed meat samples comprising pigskin, fat layer and muscle layer. Vis/NIRS data were collected from raw meat and six scales of water-injected meat with spectrometers. To reduce the redundant information in the spectrum and improve the difference between the samples,. some preprocessing steps were performed for the spectral data, including light modulation and normalization. Effective spectral bands were extracted from the preprocessed spectral data. The meat samples were classified as raw meat and water-injected meat, and further, water-injected meat with different water injection rates. All the training samples were used to compose an atom dictionary, and test samples were represented by the sparsest linear combinations of these atoms via l1-minimization. Projection errors of test samples with respect to each category were calculated. A test sample was classified to the category with the minimum projection error, and leave-one-out cross-validation was conducted. The recognition performance from sparse representation was compared with that from support vector machine (SVM).. Experimental results showed that the overall recognition accuracy of sparse representation for raw meat and water-injected meat was more than 90%, which was higher than that of SVM. For water-injected meat samples with different water injection rates, the recognition accuracy presented a positive correlation with the water injection rate difference. Spare representation-based classifier eliminates the need for the training and feature extraction steps required by conventional pattern recognition models, and is suitable for processing data of high dimensionality and small sample size. Furthermore, it has a low computational cost. In this paper, spare representation is employed for the first time to identify water-injected meat based on Vis/NIRS, with a promising recognition accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can be effectively used for discriminating water-injected meat from raw meat. PMID:25993827

  1. Status of NINJA: the Numerical INJection Analysis project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Cadonati; Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterji; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NRDA conference introduced the Numerical INJection Analysis project (NINJA), a new collaborative effort between the numerical relativity community and the data analysis community. NINJA focuses on modeling and searching for gravitational wave signatures from the coalescence of binary system of compact objects. We review the scope of this collaboration and the components of the first NINJA project, where

  2. Control of Water Injection into a Layered Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitriy B. Silin; Tad W. Patzek

    2000-01-01

    In previously published work, we have analyzed transient injection of water from a growing vertical hydrofracture into a low-permeability compressible rock of uniform properties, filled with a fluid of identical mobility. Here we extend the prior analysis1 to water injection into a layered rock initially filled with a fluid of different mobility. We then develop a new control model of

  3. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  4. Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

  5. Status of NINJA: the Numerical INJection Analysis project

    E-print Network

    Aylott, Benjamin; Boggs, William D; Boyle, Michael; Brady, Patrick R; Brown, Duncan A; Brügmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T; Buonanno, Alessandra; Cadonati, Laura; Camp, Jordan; Campanelli, Manuela; Centrella, Joan; Chatterjis, Shourov; Christensen, Nelson; Chu, Tony; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Nils; Etienne, Zachariah B; Faber, Joshua; Fairhurst, Stephen; Farr, Benjamin; Fischetti, Sebastian; Guidi, Gianluca; Goggin, Lisa M; Hannam, Mark; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Kalogera, Vicky; Keppel, Drew; Kidder, Lawrence E; Kelly, Bernard J; Krishnan, Badri; Laguna, Pablo; Lousto, Carlos O; Mandel, Ilya; Marronetti, Pedro; Matzner, Richard; McWilliams, Sean T; Matthews, Keith D; Mercer, R Adam; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R P; Mroué, Abdul H; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ochsner, Evan; Pan, Yi; Pekowsky, Larne; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Pollney, Denis; Pretorius, Frans; Raymond, Vivien; Reisswig, Christian; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rinne, Oliver; Robinson, Craig; Röver, Christian; Santamaría, Lucía; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore; Scheel, Mark A; Schnetter, Erik; Seiler, Jennifer; Shapiro, Stuart L; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Sperhake, Ulrich; Stroeer, Alexander; Sturani, Riccardo; Tichy, Wolfgang; Liu, Yuk Tung; van der Sluys, Marc; van Meter, James R; Vaulin, Ruslan; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John; Viceré, Andrea; Whelan, John T; Zlochower, Yosef; 10.1088/0264-9381/26/11/114008

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 NRDA conference introduced the Numerical INJection Analysis project (NINJA), a new collaborative effort between the numerical relativity community and the data analysis community. NINJA focuses on modeling and searching for gravitational wave signatures from the coalescence of binary system of compact objects. We review the scope of this collaboration and the components of the first NINJA project, where numerical relativity groups shared waveforms and data analysis teams applied various techniques to detect them when embedded in colored Gaussian noise.

  6. Status of NINJA: the Numerical INJection Analysis project

    E-print Network

    Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Laura Cadonati; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterjis; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

    2009-05-26

    The 2008 NRDA conference introduced the Numerical INJection Analysis project (NINJA), a new collaborative effort between the numerical relativity community and the data analysis community. NINJA focuses on modeling and searching for gravitational wave signatures from the coalescence of binary system of compact objects. We review the scope of this collaboration and the components of the first NINJA project, where numerical relativity groups shared waveforms and data analysis teams applied various techniques to detect them when embedded in colored Gaussian noise.

  7. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  8. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

  9. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. he external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water th...

  10. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  11. Mahaweli Water Resources Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. De S. Hewavisenthi

    1992-01-01

    The Mahaweli Ganga is the most important river in Sri Lanka with a basin area equivalent to fifteen per cent of the country's land and carries the largest volume of discharge. A Master Plan for a comprehensive water resources development of the Mahaweli Basin was drawn up in 1968, and the work on a compressed but accelerated version of this

  12. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-11-06

    Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

  13. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    DOEpatents

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  14. Water injection may spark Po River Delta's dissolved gas play

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Borgia; G. Brighenti; D. Vitali

    1983-01-01

    The high price of gas may trigger resumption of dissolved gas production from the Po River Delta, stopped in the early 1960s because of excessive subsidence. A contributing factor leading to a reexamination of the problem is the Japanese experience with dissolved gas production in which the injection of produced water separated from the gas overcame the subsidence problem. Additional

  15. Seawater injection barrier recharge with advanced reclaimed water at Llobregat delta aquifer (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ortuño, F; Molinero, J; Garrido, T; Custodio, E

    2012-01-01

    The main aquifer of the Llobregat delta (Barcelona, Spain) has been affected by seawater intrusion since the 1960s. The Catalan Water Agency (ACA) has sponsored the construction of a positive hydraulic barrier in order to stop the progress of seawater intrusion advance due to the intensive aquifer development. The hydraulic barrier consists of 15 wells into which highly treated reclaimed water from the waste water treatment plant of the Baix Llobregat is injected. Water is subjected, prior to the distribution to the injection wells, to secondary and tertiary treatments, and later to ultrafiltration, UV disinfection without chlorination, and salinity reduction through reverse osmosis. A preliminary pilot phase of the project was started in late 2007, with highly positive results, and the second phase started in mid 2010. Hydrogeological and hydrochemical monitoring data indicate an efficient performance and aquifer improvement. The evaluation of such efficiency and operational costs has been analyzed and discussed. PMID:22949237

  16. Steam injection project M-6: effect of the irregular permeability distribution on the behavior of the production-injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diaz

    1980-01-01

    This study evaluates, theoretically, the criterion utilized in locating production and injection wells in the continuous steam drive M-6 project in East Tia Juana field. The conceptual approach of the study consisted of evaluating the injection-production behavior of 2 contrasting permeability patterns, utilizing the TRS\\/3 intercomp thermal simulator. The results demonstrate that higher production rates, higher overall recovery, and better

  17. Differences in microbial community composition between injection and production water samples of water flooding petroleum reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P. K.; Li, G. Q.; Tian, H. M.; Wang, Y. S.; Sun, H. W.; Ma, T.

    2015-06-01

    Microbial communities in injected water are expected to have significant influence on those of reservoir strata in long-term water flooding petroleum reservoirs. To investigate the similarities and differences in microbial communities in injected water and reservoir strata, high-throughput sequencing of microbial partial 16S rRNA of the water samples collected from the wellhead and downhole of injection wells, and from production wells in a homogeneous sandstone reservoir and a heterogeneous conglomerate reservoir were performed. The results indicate that a small number of microbial populations are shared between the water samples from the injection and production wells in the sandstone reservoir, whereas a large number of microbial populations are shared in the conglomerate reservoir. The bacterial and archaeal communities in the reservoir strata have high concentrations, which are similar to those in the injected water. However, microbial population abundance exhibited large differences between the water samples from the injection and production wells. The number of shared populations reflects the influence of microbial communities in injected water on those in reservoir strata to some extent, and show strong association with the unique variation of reservoir environments.

  18. Evaluating the performance of open-hole, perforated and fractured water injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, S.; Sharma, M.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The performance, i.e., the half-life of water injectors, is very important to the economics of water injection projects. A simulator is presented to predict the decline in injectivity of water injection wells. Equations are presented that allow one to model open-hole and perforated completions as well as fractured wells. The mechanism of injectivity decline can be determined by comparing core flow test data with one of four type curves. The transition time is used to determine when external filtration becomes dominant so that the appropriate models can be used for early and late time. The simulator can be used whether or not core flow data is available. Empirical equations are provided to estimate the filtration parameters if core flow test data is not available. The simulator is easy to use, has interactive input and output and is available for PCs and Unix workstations. Examples are provided to show how the simulator can be used to predict the performance of injectors in a variety of cases. The simulator predictions are compared with experimental data. The simulation results are then used to suggest the optimum water quality that will minimize the total cost of water treatment and periodic well stimulation.

  19. Evaluating reservoir production strategies in miscible and immiscible gas-injection projects 

    E-print Network

    Farzad, Iman

    2004-11-15

    Miscible gas injection processes could be among the most widely used enhanced oil recovery processes. Successful design and implementation of a miscible gas injection project depends upon the accurate determination of the minimum miscibility...

  20. Flow injection photoinduced chemiluminescence determination of imazalil in water samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Meseguer-Lloret; S. Torres-Cartas; M. C. Gómez-Benito

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a fast, simple and economic method is proposed for the determination of imazalil in water samples by flow injection\\u000a photoinduced chemiluminescence. In this method, imazalil degrades in basic media through the use of a photoreactor, and the\\u000a resulting photofragments react with ferricyanide and generate the direct chemiluminescence signal. To the authors’ knowledge,\\u000a this is the first time

  1. Predicting the spatial extent of injection-induced zones of enhanced permeability at the Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Dobson, P.F.

    2010-02-01

    We present the results of coupled thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical (THM) modeling of a proposed stimulation injection associated with an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) demonstration project at the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field, California. The project aims at creating an EGS by directly and systematically injecting cool water at relatively low pressure into a known High Temperature (about 280 to 350 C) Zone (HTZ) located under the conventional (240 C) steam reservoir at depths below 3 km. Accurate micro-earthquake monitoring from the start of the injection will be used as a tool for tracking the development of the EGS. We first analyzed historic injection and micro-earthquake data from an injection well (Aidlin 11), located about 3 miles to the west of the new EGS demonstration area. Thereafter, we used the same modeling approach to predict the likely extent of the zone of enhanced permeability for a proposed initial injection in two wells (Prati State 31 and Prati 32) at the new EGS demonstration area. Our modeling indicates that the proposed injection scheme will provide additional steam production in the area by creating a zone of permeability enhancement extending about 0.5 km from each injection well which will connect to the overlying conventional steam reservoir.

  2. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.; Ehrlich, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.

  3. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  4. High-pressure water injection injury: emergency presentation and management.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Rathan M; Clearwater, Gary M

    2002-09-01

    Presentations of high-pressure water blaster injuries to the emergency department are varied. Though these injuries are sometimes described as a 'benign variant' of high-pressure injection injuries, external appearances can be deceptive. These injuries can produce an unexpected pattern of severe internal injury and infectious complications. Such injuries are surgical emergencies and must be evaluated quickly and thoroughly in the emergency department. We review the current literature of these injuries and present the first reported case involving a forearm injury. PMID:12487051

  5. Water injection may spark Po River Delta's dissolved gas play

    SciTech Connect

    Borgia, G.C.; Brighenti, G.; Vitali, D.

    1983-06-01

    The high price of gas may trigger resumption of dissolved gas production from the Po River Delta, stopped in the early 1960s because of excessive subsidence. A contributing factor leading to a reexamination of the problem is the Japanese experience with dissolved gas production in which the injection of produced water separated from the gas overcame the subsidence problem. Additional impetus comes from the present Italian tendency to exploit marginal resources. This is particularly true of natural gas because an increasing percentage of the Italian energy requirement is being satisfied by gas, and the forecast is that this trend will continue.

  6. Bethlehem Steel Corporation Blast Furnace Granulated Coal Injection Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Construction of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on air quality, noise, and land use at the Burns Harbor Plant area. Operation of the proposed BFGCI system is not expected to have significant impacts on the environment at the Burns Harbor Plant area. An increase of approximately 30 tons/yr for NO{sub x} and approximately 13 tons/yr for particulate matter (from the coal storage area) is expected. These emissions are within the currently permitted levels. Carbon dioxide emissions, which are unregulated, would increase by about 220,000 tons/yr at the Burns Harbor Plant. Water withdrawn and returned to Lake Michigan would increase by 1.3 million gal/d (0.4 percent of existing permitted discharge) for non-contact cooling water. No protected species, floodplains, wetlands, or cultural resources would be affected by operation of the proposed facility. Small economic benefits would occur from the creation of 5 or 6 permanent new jobs during the operation of the proposed demonstration project and subsequent commercial operation. Under the No Action Alternative, the proposed project would not receive cost-shared funding support from DOE.

  7. Potential impacts of water injection dredging on water quality and ecotoxicity in Limehouse Basin, River Thames, SE England, UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Spencer; R. E. Dewhurst; P. Penna

    2006-01-01

    The use of water injection dredging (WID) is increasing in the UK’s inland waterways and marinas. Jets of water are injected under low pressure directly into bottom sediment creating a turbulent water-sediment mixture that flows under the influence of gravity. Many of these sediments are highly contaminated and little is known of the effects of contaminant release on water quality

  8. Tracing and age-dating recycled waste water recharged for potable reuse in a seawater injection barrier, southern California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Esser, B K; Herndon, R L; Hudson, G B

    1998-12-02

    In this report we outline an investigative approach that combines isotopic tracers and tritium-helium-3 (3H-3He) dating to directly measure groundwater mixing and ages. These data can be used to test regulatory compliance in potable water reuse projects (Davisson et al., 1998). We provide an example from a seawater injection barrier located in Orange County, California, which has been injecting advanced- treated waste water into a coastal aquifer for the past 25 years to prevent seawater intrusion. Treatment comprises lime coagulation of secondary waste effluents, followed by re-carbonation, sand filtration, and reverse osmosis. The finished water has a very low TDS (-100 mg/L), which is blended -50% with a low TDS (288 mg/L) native groundwater, making an injection water of -200 mg/L.

  9. Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

  10. Flow injection photoinduced chemiluminescence determination of imazalil in water samples.

    PubMed

    Meseguer-Lloret, S; Torres-Cartas, S; Gómez-Benito, M C

    2010-12-01

    In this work, a fast, simple and economic method is proposed for the determination of imazalil in water samples by flow injection photoinduced chemiluminescence. In this method, imazalil degrades in basic media through the use of a photoreactor, and the resulting photofragments react with ferricyanide and generate the direct chemiluminescence signal. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that a chemiluminescence method has been proposed for the determination of this fungicide. All physical and chemical parameters in the flow injection chemiluminescence system were optimized in the experimental setting. In the absence of preconcentration, the linear dynamic range for imazalil was 0.75-5 mg L(-1) and the detection limit was 0.171 mg L(-1). The application of solid-phase extraction with C18 cartridges allowed the elimination of interference ions, the reduction of the linear dynamic range to 15-100 ?g L(-1), and a detection limit of 3.4 ?g L(-1). This detection limit is below the maximum concentration level established by the Regulations of the Hydraulic Public Domain for pesticide dumping. The sample throughput after solid-phase extraction of the analyte was 12 samples h(-1). The intraday and interday coefficients of variation were below 9.9% in all cases. This method was applied to the analysis of environmental water samples, and recoveries of between 95.7 and 110% were obtained. PMID:20890748

  11. Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Combined Opportunities in Energy & Water Conservation Projects A.Keller, S. Hughes, S. Bennett, M, the Metropolitan Water District, the California Urban Water Conservation Council, Santa Clara Valley Water District) as a result of energy and water conservation; ~ Determined total cost of implementing the conservation

  12. Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project

    E-print Network

    Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project September 14, 2004 to June 1, 2005 Progress responding to water quality and conservation issues with educational assistance, technology development and technology transfer programs. #12;2 Southern Region Water Quality Coordination Project Annual Report Sept. 15

  13. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type of simulation studies can be applied to Hot Dry Rock systems to investigate the effects of dissolution/precipitation of solid salt, if present in the system, on the feasibility of the project.

  14. Frictional drag reduction by injecting bubbly water into turbulent boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, H.; Miyanaga, M.; Haramoto, Y.; Guin, M.M. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Microbubbles, when in the inner zone of a turbulent boundary layer, are known to reduce frictional resistance drastically. Employing a new experimental technique, premixed bubbly water was injected into the boundary layer through a slit on the wall. There are optimum combinations of air- and water-flow rates for maximum reduction in resistance. The local frictional resistance became as low as one fifth of the value without injection at the optimum flow rate. Experiments with microbubble injection through porous plates were also done and compared with bubbly-water injection. Effects of wall orientation and bubble size, as well as energy balance of the injection process were examined.

  15. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Final report, volume II: Project performance and economics

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This publication discusses the demonstration of the LIFAC sorbent injection technology at Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program. LIFAC is a sorbent injection technology capable of removing 75 to 85 percent of a power plant`s SO{sub 2} emissions using limestone at calcium to sulfur molar ratios of between 2 and 2.5 to 1. The site of the demonstration is a coal-fired electric utility power plant located in Richmond, Indiana. The project is being conducted by LIFAC North America (LIFAC NA), a joint venture partnership of Tampella Power Corporation and ICF Kaiser Engineers, in cooperation with DOE, RP&L, and Research Institute (EPRI), the State of Indiana, and Black Beauty Coal Company. The purpose of Public Design Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics is to consolidate, for public use, the technical efficiency and economy of the LIFAC Process. The report has been prepared pursuant to the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC90548 between LIFAC NA and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  17. Case history and appraisal of the Medicine Pole Hills unit air-injection project

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V.K. [Koch Exploration Co., Wichita, KS (United States); Fassihi, M.R. [Amoco Eurasia, Houston, TX (United States); Yannimaras, D.V. [Amoco`s E and P Technology Group, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Medicine Pole Hill (MPHU) EOR project is the deepest air-injection/in-situ-combustion project in the Williston basin. A unit comprising 9,600 acres with 13 producing wells was formed in July 1985, and air-injection operations began in October 1987. Laboratory combustion tests and detailed feasibility studies were completed before starting the full scale project. The combination of light oil (39{degree} API), carbonate formation, hot reservoir (230 F), and low permeability (1 to 30 md) makes this a unique air-injection project. Cumulative air injection as of December 1993 was 12 Bscf. This paper reviews production performance of the MPHU to date. Oil production from the unit has shown a significant increase over its historical decline, and a processing plant has been installed to recover the liquids stripped from the oil by the produced flue gas. Although well workovers, acid fracturing, and pump changes in some producers complicate the determination of the oil response to air injection, production decline-curve analysis was used to estimate the incremental oil recovery due to air injection. The current air/oil ratio (AOR) is 8 Mscf/STB. Also discussed are the changes in air utilization over time, the benefits of the liquids recovery from the produced-gas stream in such a light-oil project, and an estimate of the field burned volume.

  18. Field studies of microbiological corrosion in water injection plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elboujdaini, M.; Sastri, V.S. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Metals Technology Labs.

    1995-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance, weight loss and potentiodyne techniques were used to determine the corrosion rates of carbon steel along with the determination of activities of both sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acid-producing bacteria (APB) in a water injection field test facility. Corrosion rates determined by the potentiodyne technique did not correlate with the bacterial activity. Corrosion rates obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were comparable to the rates obtained by weight loss measurements. The average corrosion rates obtained by EIS paralleled the cumulative SRB activity over 84 days, and the addition of biocide resulted in reduced bacterial activity and corrosion rate. The depression angles in Nyquist plots were high (30{degree}, 29{degree}) for control and biocide lines respectively indicating a fair degree of pitting corrosion. After 42 days, the values were lower, 11{degree} for biocide line compared to 22{degree} for control he showing the decrease in pitting tendency in line to which biocide was added at the end of 28 days.

  19. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trial 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993. Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test orI C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  20. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  1. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

  2. Steam injection project M-6: effect of the irregular permeability distribution on the behavior of the production-injection

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, J.

    1980-07-01

    This study evaluates, theoretically, the criterion utilized in locating production and injection wells in the continuous steam drive M-6 project in East Tia Juana field. The conceptual approach of the study consisted of evaluating the injection-production behavior of 2 contrasting permeability patterns, utilizing the TRS/3 intercomp thermal simulator. The results demonstrate that higher production rates, higher overall recovery, and better process efficiency are obtained if the production wells were situated in zones of good permeability. Thus, it is considered that the criterion used in locating the producers can be substantiated on the basis of the results obtained. In addition to satisfying the principal objective of this work, conclusions can be drawn on the general behavior of the process, particularly, the importance of gravitational forces and the production after breakthrough.

  3. SELECTED WATER DECONTAMINATION RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Federation (WEF), through funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD), will host the first of three regional water sector stakeholder workshops March 15-17, 2005 at the Phoenix Marriot...

  4. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  5. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY...Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal...Dakotas Area Office, Attention: Alicia Waters, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  6. 59 FR- Procedure for Evaluating Water Resource Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-08-16

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Procedure for Evaluating Water Resource Projects AGENCY...on procedures for evaluating water resource projects to meet the...determine whether or not proposed water resource projects are...

  7. Deep injection of waste water in the Western Canada sedimentary basin.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Injection of wastes into the deep subsurface has become a contentious issue, particularly in emerging regions of oil and gas production. Experience in other regions suggests that injection is an effective waste management practice and that widespread environmental damage is unlikely. Over the past several decades, 23?km(3) of water has been injected into the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The oil and gas industry has injected most of this water but large amounts of injection are associated with mining activities. The amount of water injected into this basin during the past century is 2 to 3 orders magnitude greater than natural recharge to deep formations in the WCSB. Despite this large-scale disturbance to the hydrogeological system, there have been few documented cases of environmental problems related to injection wells. Deep injection of waste appears to be a low risk activity based on this experience but monitoring efforts are insufficient to make definitive statements. Serious uncharacterized legacy issues could be present. Initiating more comprehensive monitoring and research programs on the effects of injection in the WCSB could provide insight into the risks associated with injection in less developed sedimentary basins. PMID:24841226

  8. Effects of graphene coating and charge injection on water adsorption of solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yufeng; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-10-01

    The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate.The adhesion and cohesion of water molecules on graphene-coated and bare copper and mica substrates under charge injection have been extensively studied by first-principles calculations. Water adsorption on graphene-coated copper surface is weakened by injecting negative charges into the substrate, while enhanced by positive charges. Both negatively and positively charge injecting on graphene-coated mica strengthen the adsorption between water and the surface. While the adhesive and cohesive energies of water adsorption on charged bare copper and mica exhibit similar trends and much stronger response to charge injection. The charge sensitivity of water adsorbing on positively charged surfaces is significantly weakened by the graphene coating layer, mainly due to lower interfacial charge exchange. Our results suggest a viable way to modify water adsorption on a graphene-coated surface and unveil the role of graphene as a passivation layer for the wetting of a charged substrate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr02867d

  9. Sorbent injection into a slipstream baghouse for mercury control: Project summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Thompson; John H. Pavlish; Lucinda L. Hamre; Melanie D. Jensen; David Smith; Steve Podwin; Lynn A. Brickett

    2009-01-01

    A project led by the Energy and Environmental Research Center to test and demonstrate sorbent injection as a cost-effective mercury control technology for utilities burning lignites has shown effective mercury capture under a range of operating conditions. Screening, parametric, and long-term tests were carried out at a slipstream facility representing an electrostatic precipitator–activated carbon injection–fabric filter configuration (called a TOXECON™

  10. Logical approach yields correct injection water quality. [North sea oil wells

    SciTech Connect

    King, P.J.; Robinson, K.

    1981-10-01

    North Sea oil fields need water injection to maintain reservoir pressure. Sea water thus directly injected contains suspended solids of 0.2 to 0.8 mg/l, composed mostly of plankton. To prevent plugging of tubulars, filters of sand, dual media, diatomaceous earth, or cartridge construction may be used. In the end, the nature of the reservoir will determine the degree of filtration needed. Other treatments of the injection water may be called for to minimize corrosion and to inhibit bacterial growth. 6 refs.

  11. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 4, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ``LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.`` The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.

  12. An investigation of numerical dispersion in the hot water injection process

    E-print Network

    McVay, Duane Allen

    1982-01-01

    velocity. In cases 8 and 9, both reservoir thickness and injection velocity were increased from the base case to see the combined effect of these parameters. Since dispersion increased with both increasing thickness and injection velocity...AN INVESTIGATION OF NUMERICAL DISPERSION IN THE HOT WATER INJECTION PROCESS A Thesis by DUANE ALLEN MCVAV Subm1tted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulf111ment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  13. Efficiency Projects and Water Reuse 

    E-print Network

    Pannell, B.

    2011-01-01

    ? are extremely important to a successful audit - Be very careful with estimates! ? Reduction in Real Loss of 201,550,239 gallons ? Savings to the Utility of Approx. $765,890.91 ?Reduce Water ?Loss? Thru Better Auditing And Metering Improvements ? A...-Pronged Approach; Better Audits and Better Meters ? Water Saved is Energy Saved ESL-KT-11-11-36 ? Replacement of Coarse Air Diffusers and Blower Improvements at WWTP ?Efficient Aeration At Wastewater Plant Look For The Low Hanging Fruit! ESL-KT-11...

  14. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions,...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions,...

  16. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335...demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to control NOX emissions,...

  17. Control of water coning in gas reservoirs by injecting gas into the aquifer 

    E-print Network

    Haugen, Sigurd Arild

    1980-01-01

    of water in the producing well. fiost research on water coning has been directed toward minimizing water production by reduced well penetration or production rate con- tro1. An alternative method for gas wells with water coning problems, is to inject.... This gives high water cuts in the early stages of the succeeding production, when gas is injected deep in the aquifer. This was not a significant problem for the high permeability ratio. When the well is put on production, the established cone overrides...

  18. Geohydrology and water quality in northern Portage County, Ohio, in relation to deep-well brine injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Geohydrology and water quality of the principal freshwater aquifers near oilfield and gasfield brine-injection wells in northern Portage County, Ohio, were evaluated. Since 1975, 13 wells in this part of the Country have been used to dispose of more than 4.5 million barrels of brine by injection into Silurian carbonate and sandstone rocks that generally are greater than 3,500 feet below land surface. More than 3,000 feet of interbedded shales, sandstones, carbonates, and evaporites separate the freshwater aquifers from these brine-injection zones. The shallowest brine-injection zone is greater than 2,200 feet below sea level. Native fluids in the injection zones have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 125,000 milligrams per liter and are hydraulically isolated from the freshwater aquifers. No known faults or fracture systems are present in northern Portage County, although abandoned oil and gas wells could exist and serve as conduits for migration of injected brine. Pennsylvanian clastic units are freshwater bearing in northern Portage County, and two bedrock aquifers generally are recognized. The shallower bedrock aquifer (Connoquenessing Sandstone Member of the Pottsville Formation) principally consists of sandstone; this aquifer is separated from a deeper sandstone and conglomerate aquifer in the lower part of the Sharon Member (Pottsville Formation) by shale in the upper part of the Sharon Member that acts as a confining unit. The upper sandstone aquifer is the surficial aquifer where overlying glacial deposits are unsaturated in the uplands; glacial deposits comprise the surficial aquifer in buried valleys where the sandstone is absent. These two surficial aquifers are hydraulically connected and act as a single unit. The lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer is the most areally extensive aquifer within the project area. From November 1987 through August 1988, ground-water levels remained at least 60 feet higher in the upper sandstone aquifer than in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer at a topographically high recharge area. Water levels in the surficial aquifers and the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer were nearly the same along the Cuyahoga River. Ground water in the upper sandstone aquifer flows radially from topographically high recharge areas into the glacial deposits in the buried valleys. Much of the ground water in these surficial aquifers discharges into the Cuyahoga River. Most ground water in the lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer flows toward discharge areas near the Cuyahoga River and Eagle Creek. In June 1988, the Cuyahoga River gained 15.8 cubic feet per second of water from the aquifers between the northern edge of Portage County and State Route 303. Ground water may have discharged into the upstream end of Lake Rockwell but did not discharge into the downstream end of the Lake during most of the period from October 1987 through September 1988. Measurements of the specific conductance of ground water sampled from areas near the 13 brine-injection wells and along the Cuyahoga River indicate no widespread ground-water contamination related to brine injection. Chemical analysis of water from 25 wells indicates that most ground waters are a calcium bicarbonate type. Water analyses show that four wells sampled contain water with chloride concentrations greater than 250 milligrams per liter. Sodium concentrations in water from these four wells ranged from 67 to 190 milligrams per liter. A mixing diagram constructed from bromide and chloride data was used to distinguish between the sources of elevated chloride concentrations in these four wells. Waters from two of the wells have been mixed with oilfield and gasfield brine, and waters from the other two wells have been mixed with a salt-solution brine such as that derived from diluted highway-deicing salts.

  19. Modeling and Analysis of Reservoir Response to Stimulation by Water Injection 

    E-print Network

    Ge, Jun

    2011-02-22

    The distributions of pore pressure and stresses around a fracture are of interest in conventional hydraulic fracturing operations, fracturing during water-flooding of petroleum reservoirs, shale gas, and injection/extraction ...

  20. The utility of three-dimensional optical projection tomography in nerve injection injury imaging.

    PubMed

    Cvetko, E; ?apek, M; Damjanovska, M; Reina, M A; Eržen, I; Stopar-Pintari?, T

    2015-08-01

    The examination of nerve microarchitecture has hitherto been limited solely to two-dimensional imaging techniques. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of optical projection tomography to discern the nerve microarchitecture and injection injury in three dimensions. Five piglets were studied, whose median and lingual nerves were unilaterally injected post mortem with preset volumes of local anaesthetic, excised and subsequently made transparent with benzyl alcohol benzyl benzoate. Images were captured in three dimensions. The same contralateral nerves were used as controls. Using optical projection tomography, we observed differences between the internal organisation of the median and the lingual nerves, which potentially explain the variations in their susceptibility to injury. This was demonstrated in three dimensions as a disruption to the fascicles in the lingual nerve, and their displacement in the median nerve. This new technology offers potential for studying nerve microarchitecture topography and its tolerance to injection injury. PMID:25827062

  1. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  2. Theoretical investigation of the injection and evaporation of water in a hydrogen/oxygen steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Stefan

    1991-07-01

    Water is injected into the gas stream for the purpose of cooling the reaction products resulting from the stochiometric combustion of hydrogen with oxygen. The penetration of the jet decisively influences the temperature profile across the flow cross section in the water vapor. The penetration of the water jet into the stream is calculated using the jet shedding model and compared with the garden hose model. Models for the evaporation of water droplets in superheated steam are developed for calculating the evaporation paths. The parameters which influence the injection and evaporation process are subjected to variation and their effects in the evaporation paths are analyzed.

  3. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D. [Little Big Horn Coll., Crow Agency, MT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  4. Geysers injection modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1994-04-01

    Our research is concerned with mathematical modeling techniques for engineering design and optimization of water injection in vapor-dominated systems. The emphasis in the project has been on the understanding of physical processes and mechanisms during injection, applications to field problems, and on transfer of numerical simulation capabilities to the geothermal community. This overview summarizes recent work on modeling injection interference in the Southeast Geysers, and on improving the description of two-phase flow processes in heterogeneous media.

  5. Integrated hydraulic and organophosphate pesticide injection simulations for enhancing event detection in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Rafi; Lahav, Ori; Ostfeld, Avi

    2014-10-15

    As a complementary step towards solving the general event detection problem of water distribution systems, injection of the organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CP) and parathion (PA), were simulated at various locations within example networks and hydraulic parameters were calculated over 24-h duration. The uniqueness of this study is that the chemical reactions and byproducts of the contaminants' oxidation were also simulated, as well as other indicative water quality parameters such as alkalinity, acidity, pH and the total concentration of free chlorine species. The information on the change in water quality parameters induced by the contaminant injection may facilitate on-line detection of an actual event involving this specific substance and pave the way to development of a generic methodology for detecting events involving introduction of pesticides into water distribution systems. Simulation of the contaminant injection was performed at several nodes within two different networks. For each injection, concentrations of the relevant contaminants' mother and daughter species, free chlorine species and water quality parameters, were simulated at nodes downstream of the injection location. The results indicate that injection of these substances can be detected at certain conditions by a very rapid drop in Cl2, functioning as the indicative parameter, as well as a drop in alkalinity concentration and a small decrease in pH, both functioning as supporting parameters, whose usage may reduce false positive alarms. PMID:25016300

  6. Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

    2012-05-01

    Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

  7. Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and West Charlotte counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and water-quality characteristics, construction of single-zone wells would eliminate cross-contamination and borehole interflow. Such a program, when combined with the plugging of shallow-cased wells having long open-hole intervals connecting multiple zones, would safeguard ground-water resources in the study area. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 feet below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The first well began injecting reverse-osmosis wastewater in 1984, and since then, other wells have been drilled and permitted for injection of treated sewage. A numerical model was used to evaluate injection-well design and potential for movement of injected wastewater within the hydrogeologic framework. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gallons per day for 10 years. In this simulation, a convection cell developed around the injection well with the buoyant fresh injectant rising to form a lens within the injection zone below the lower Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit. Around an ideal, fully penetrating well cased 50 feet into the injection zone and open from a depth of 1,150 feet to 2,050 feet, simulations show that the injectant moves upward to a depth of 940 feet, forms a lens about 600 feet thick, and spreads radially outward to a distance of about 2,300 feet after 10 years. Comparison simulations of injection through wells having open depth intervals of 1,150 to 1,400 feet and 1,450 to 2,050 feet demonstrate that such changes in well construction have little effect on the areal spread of the injectant lens or the rate of upward movement. Simulations also indicate that reverse-osmosis wastewater injected beneath a supply well field, where water levels above the semiconfining unit are lowered 20 feet by pumping, would move upward after 10 years to a de

  8. Recent developments in membrane water reuse projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. N. Freeman; O. J. Morin

    1995-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of membrane processing of wastewater for reuse as industrial process water, groundwater recharge, and irrigation. Status reports are presented on six current projects. The 1 mgd San Pasqual, California facility processes municipal effluent for irrigation. The 0.2 mgd Vero Beach, Florida facility processes secondary municipal effluent for reuse as boiler makeup for a

  9. Potable Water Source Implementation Project Location

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    is to install two new well pumps to provide the resi- dents with potable drinking water. We are planning to work the well project is complete, we are hoping to install a drip-irrigation system for agricultural use, build. In May 2012, a larger group is planning to return to Lukodi and the surrounding cities to introduce other

  10. Calculation study of water injection on compressor characteristics of a GT009 gas-turbine installation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. M. Anurov; A. Yu. Peganov; A. V. Skvortsov; A. L. Berkovich; V. G. Polishchuk

    2006-01-01

    Results of a calculation study of motion and evaporation of water in the compressor flow path of a GT-009 gas-turbine installation\\u000a are presented. The effects of water injection on the main characteristics of the compressor operation are analyzed.

  11. Ocean Transform Fault Drilling and Water Injection: An Active Experiment to Trigger a Moderate Earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Mori; Yasuyuki Kano; Jeff McGuire

    We propose an experiment to understand the initiation of large earthquakes by inducing seismic events on a shallow fault with water injection. Increasing the fluid pressure near an active fault will reduce normal pressure on a fault and bring it closer to failure, according to the classic Coulomb failure criterion. A study to monitor the water pressure and subsequent triggered

  12. Theoretical investigation of the injection and evaporation of water in a hydrogen/oxygen steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Stefan

    1990-05-01

    For the cooling of the reaction products resulting from a stoichiometric hydrogen/oxygen combustion, water is injected normal to the gas stream. The penetration of the jet strongly influences the temperature distribution across the streaming water vapor. The penetration of the jet is calculated by using the jet shedding model. The results are compared with the data of the garden hose model. To calculate the lifetime of a water droplet in super heated stream, several models are developed. The parameters of the injection and evaporation process are varied and analyzed.

  13. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of a positive displacement fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, A.K.; Caton, J.A.; Kihm, K.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-12-31

    Experiments have been completed to characterized coal-water slurry sprays from a modified positive displacement fuel injection system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single-hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies and instantaneous fuel line pressures were obtained. For injection pressures of order 30 MPa or higher, the sprays were similar for coal-water slurry, diesel fuel and water. The time until the center core of the spray broke-up (break-up time) was determined from both the movies and from a model using the fuel line pressures. Results from these two independent procedures were in good agreement. For the base conditions, the break-up time was 0.58 and 0.50 ms for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively. The break-up times increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading for coal loadings up to 53%. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as on the time and location of the measurement. For one set of cases studied, the time-averaged cone angle was 15.9{degree} and 16.3{degree} for coal-water slurry and diesel fuel, respectively.

  14. Radiative shielding by water mist : comparisons between downward, upward and impacting injection of droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechêne, S.; Acem, Z.; Parent, G.; Collin, A.; Boulet, P.

    2012-06-01

    Radiative shielding with water curtain has been studied numerically, investigating three different possibilities of droplet injection : downward, upward and impacting on a wall to be protected. The efficiency has been evaluated based on radiation attenuation predicted considering a given incident flux attenuated when crossing the area where water is injected. For upward and downward injection, a simple water curtain is considered. For the impacting spray case, a water film streaming on the wall is considered in addition to the spray (an idealized film with constant and fixed thickness for the moment). The dynamics has been imported from an Eulerian-Lagrangian simulation and radiative transfer has been addressed with a Monte Carlo method. Results show that the upward injection performs better than the downward injection due to a favoring dynamics that increases the residence time of droplets. The impacting spray could be even more efficient owing to the possible high attenuation efficiency of films, but present results still make use of simplifications on the water film falling on the wall and present promising observations require further verification.

  15. Monitoring a large volume CO2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury's Cranfield, Mississippi, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hovorka, S.D.; Meckel, T.A.; Trevino, R.H.; Lu, J.; Nicot, J.-P.; Choi, J.-W.; Freeman, D.; Cook, P.; Daley, T.M.; Ajo-Franklin, J. B.; Freifeild, B.M.; Doughty, C.; Carrigan, C.R.; La-Brecque, D.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Thordsen, J.J.; Phelps, T.J.; Yang, C.; Romanak, K.D.; Zhang, T.; Holt, R.M.; Lindler, J.S.; Butsch, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood. Injection was started in July 2008 and has now achieved injection rates greater than 1.2 million tons/year though 23 wells, with cumulative mass injected as of August, 2010 of 2.2 million metric tons. Injection is into coarse grained fluvial deposits of the Cretaceous lower Tuscaloosa Formation in a gentle anticline at depths of 3300 m. A team of researchers from 10 institutions has collected data from five study areas, each with a different goal and different spatial and temporal scale. The Phase 2 study began at the start of injection and has been using pressure and temperature as a tool for assessing permanence mostly in the oil productive interval. Real-time read-out shows high sensitivity to distant changes in injection rate and confirms the geologic model of reservoir compartmentalization. Above-zone pressure monitoring ???120 m above the injection interval is used to test the sensitivity of this approach for documentation of integrity of the confining system in an area of numerous well completions as pressure increase is induced in the reservoir by more than 70 bar. Monitoring of the High Volume Injection Test (HiVIT) area includes repeat measurements of aqueous geochemistry in the injection zone. Rock-water-CO 2 interactions in the reservoir as CO2 dissolves are minimized by mineral "armoring" by abundant chlorite cement in high permeability reservoir sandstone. Geochemical monitoring of confined freshwater aquifers at depths of 70-100 m is underway. Groundwater analysis focuses on assessment of the sensitivity of this method to detect leakage above background variability. A repeat seismic survey of the HiVIT is planned for late 2010 to assess saturation change especially in downdip brine-only areas. A study focused on feasibility of monitoring the shallow subsurface to separate leakage from normal complex surface fluxes is underway at an monitoring array installed in October 2009 to assess the interactions of recharge, soil gas, and shallow groundwater aquifers. Recent well re-entry and tracer injection will provide further information to interpret observed elevated deep-sourced methane. The Detailed Area Study (DAS) is collecting dense time-lapse data from closely-spaced three well array of an injector and two observation wells. The observation wells were completed with fiberglass casing to facilitate electrical resistance tomography (ERT) measurements, and a diverse array of instrumentation was both cemented behind casing and suspended on tubing. Injection started at the DAS December 1, 2009. We have measured pulsed neutron and resistivity via wireline, downhole and above-zone pressure, distributed temperature, and fluid chemistry including introduced pulses of perfluorocarbons, noble gases, and SF6 as tracers. Between wells, time-lapse crosswell seismic and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) are used to measure saturation change. The goals are to measure changes as fluids evolve from single phase (brine) to two phase (CO2-brine) in order to document linkages between pressure and sweep efficiency. A time-lapse VSP survey bridges the vertical resolution and areal coverage between cross-well and surface seismic. The repeat surveys for many tools are scheduled for September, 2010. Reservoir characterization based on cores, historic and new wireline log data, production history, hydrologic tests, fluid analysis, and a three-D seismic survey have been used in multiple numerical models to predict reservoir response in order to design effective monitoring strategies and optimize deployment. History matching of observed respons

  16. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  17. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This initial annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor, Indiana, plant. This installation will be the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. These include: coal grind size, coal injection rate, coal source (type) and blast furnace conversion method. Preliminary Design (Phase 1) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase 2) began in August 1993. Construction is expected to complete in the first quarter of 1995 which will be followed by the demonstration test program (Phase 3). Progress is described.

  18. Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

  19. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 8, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled ``LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.`` The host site for this $22 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. The work performed during this period (July--September 1992) was consistent with the revised Statement of Work (Scope Increase) and the approved schedule change contained in the Cooperative Agreement. During this period, emphasis was placed on startup and commissioning activities and baseline testing. Work was conducted under the three tasks comprising the Operations Phase. Summary of the work performed under these tasks is given.

  20. Oil recovery process involving the injection of thickened water

    SciTech Connect

    Byham, D.E.; Chen, C.S.; Sheppard, E.W.

    1980-09-16

    Waterflood oil recovery process involving the use of an amphoteric polyelectrolyte as a thickening agent for mobility control. The amphoteric polyelectrolyte is a copolymer of a quaternary vinyl pyridinium sulfonate and a water-insoluble alpha olefin or hydrogenated diene. Specifically disclosed are vinyl pyridinium sulfonate-styrene block copolymers. The amphoteric polyelectrolytes are stable in high temperature and high brine environments.

  1. Turbine Inlet Analysis of Injected Water Droplet Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, Kevin

    Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature at which it operates at peak capacity. In order to attain this temperature in the hotter months various cooling methods are used such as refrigeration inlet cooling systems, evaporative methods, and thermal energy storage systems. One of the more widely used is the evaporative systems because it is one of the safest and easiest to utilize method. However, the behavior of water droplets within the inlet to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets behave within the inlet so that water droplets above a critical diameter will not enter the compressor and cause damage to the compressor blades. In order to do this a FLUENT simulation was constructed in order to determine the behavior of the water droplets and if any droplets remain at the exit of the inlet, along with their size. In order to do this several engineering drawings were obtained from SRP and studies in order to obtain the correct dimensions. Then the simulation was set up using data obtained from SRP and Parker-Hannifin, the maker of the spray nozzles. Then several sets of simulations were run in order to see how the water droplets behaved under various conditions. These results were then analyzed and quantified so that they could be easily understood. The results showed that the possible damage to the compressor increased with increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. This is due in part to the fact that in order to keep a constant relative humidity at varying temperatures the mass fraction of water vapor in the air must be changed. As temperature increases the water vapor mass fraction must increase in order to maintain a constant relative humidity. This in turn makes it slightly increases the evaporation time of the water droplets. This will then lead to more droplets exiting the inlet and at larger diameters.

  2. 67 FR 49287 - Buckman Water Diversion Project; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-07-30

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Buckman Water Diversion Project; Meetings AGENCY: Forest Service...public scoping meetings to discuss the Buckman Water Diversion Project. The Notice of Intent to...

  3. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  4. The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design

    SciTech Connect

    Boni, Roberto; /INFN, Rome; Guiducci, Susanna; /INFN, Rome; Preger, Miro; /INFN, Rome; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Chance, Antoine; /Saclay; Dadoun, Olivier; /Orsay, LAL; Poirier, Freddy; /Orsay, LAL; Variola, Alessandro; /Orsay, LAL; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

  5. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 6, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The LIFAC technology has similarities to other sorbent injection technologies using humidification, but employs a unique patented vertical reaction chamber located down-stream of the boiler to facilitate and control the sulfur capture and other chemical reactions. This chamber improves the overall reaction efficiency enough to allow the use of pulverized limestone rather than more expensive reagents such as lime which are often used to increase the efficiency of other sorbent injection processes. Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers - and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is successful, LIFAC will offer these important advantages over wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems; LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes; LIFAC`s overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton S0{sub 2} removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product; and LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

  6. Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 10, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. in comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide -- 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is successful, LIFAC will offer these important advantages over wet scrubbing systems: Relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems; less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes; overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO{sub 2} removed basis are less; produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product; and is relatively simple to operate. The site for the LIFAC demonstration is Richmond Power and Light`s Whitewater Valley 2 pulverized coal-fired power station (60 MW), located in Richmond, Indiana.

  8. LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project. Quarterly report No. 9, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Sorbent injection is a potentially important alternative to conventional wet lime and limestone scrubbing, and this project is another effort to test alternative sorbent injection approaches. In comparison to wet systems, LIFAC, with recirculation of the sorbent, removes less sulfur dioxide - 75--85% relative to 90% or greater for conventional scrubbers -- and requires more reagent material. However, if the demonstration is wet scrubbing systems: LIFAC is relatively easy to retrofit to an existing boiler and requires less area than conventional wet FGD systems. LIFAC is less expensive to install than conventional wet FGD processes. LIFAC`s overall costs measured on a dollar-per-ton SO{sub 2} removed basis are less, an important advantage in a regulatory regime with trading of emission allocations. LIFAC produces a dry, readily disposable waste by-product versus a wet product. LIFAC is relatively simple to operate.

  9. Combined cycle with low-quality heat integration and water injection into the compressed air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos Aronis; Reinhard Leithner

    2004-01-01

    The water injection after the compressor into the combustion air of a gas turbine and its evaporation by low-quality heat was analysed for different types of low-temperature heat sources and water-vapour contents of the pressurised air. To integrate low-quality heat—for example solar heat—into a conventional combined cycle efficiently and economically, the cycle must be changed in such a way that

  10. Is There Evidence of Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the Lowermost Stratosphere Over Boulder, Colorado?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10.1002/grl.50421.

  11. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  12. Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

  13. Annual replenishable ground water potential of India—an estimate based on injected tritium studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rangarajan; R. N. Athavale

    2000-01-01

    Natural recharge is a vital parameter to be known for ground water budgeting, management and modelling. Percolation of a portion of the rainfall, through the vadose zone, is the principal source of natural recharge to the aquifer systems in India. The tritium injection method, based on piston flow model, is particularly suitable for quantifying the downward flux of moisture in

  14. Effect of direct liquid water injection and interdigitated flow field on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    E-print Network

    Wood, D. L.; Yi, Y. S.; Van Nguyen, Trung

    1998-01-01

    Proper water management is vital to ensuring successful performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The effectiveness of the direct liquid water injection scheme and the interdigitated flow field design towards ...

  15. Developing an extra-heavy oil reservoir with active edge and bottom water through steam injection and edge water drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo Xiangjun; Shi Gengxu; Wu Chenglin

    1995-12-31

    The extra-heavy oil reservoir of Shu 175, located in Liaohe rift, is one of the three types of reservoirs in Liaohe oil province which were developed through steam injection. The steam injection pilot started in 1983. The viscosity of the oil in place is high , and the daily oil production by conventional means is lower than 0.2 t, which is of no commercial value, so the development method of steam injection was adopted. After 66 months of huff and puff, the total steam injection was 41.19 x 10{sup 4} t (water equivalent), the cumulative oil production was 54.7387 x 10{sup 4} t, the OSR at the huff and puff stage was up to 1.33, and the recovery percent was as much as 12.08%. Since edge and bottom water in the oil reservoir is strong, the pressure differential between center and edge gradually increased to over 5.0 MPa with development time; consequently, water production increases rapidly, with water cut rising from 40.0% to 56.4%. Huff and puff development results worsened significantly. Adjustments were conducted at the end of 1988. Steam flooding in the center and water drainage from edge were performed at the same time. By the end of December 1993, 11 wells had been converted to steam flooding with huff and puff still performed in some oil wells. In the steam flooding stage, the total steam injection was 147.7 x 10{sup 4} t, including initial injection by huff and puff, and the OSR was 0.387. Daily oil production increased from 278 t, the lowest of the conversion period, to 364 t and remained stable at more than 300 t/d to the present. The reservoir pressure in the center gradually restored from 4.5 MPa and remained stable at about 6.5 MPa. The pressure differential between the center and the edge was controlled below 3.0 MPa, the water cut was controlled below 75%, and the production-injection ratio reached more than 1.2.

  16. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments.

    PubMed

    Smith, R L; Baumgartner, L K; Miller, D N; Repert, D A; Böhlke, J K

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 microM) and ammonium (19 to 625 microM) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with (15)N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 mumol (L aquifer)(-1) h(-1) with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. PMID:16382283

  17. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  18. Biological treatments and uses of geothermal water as alternatives to injection

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Cahn, L.S.; Thurow, T.L.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of using geothermal fluids to support various biological systems prior to, or as an alternative to, direct injection at the DOE's Raft River goethermal site is discussed. Researchers at the Raft River site studied the feasibility of using geothermal fluid for establishign methods and for irrigating trees and agricultural crops. The emphasis of these studies has been on the bioaccumulative potential of the plants, their survivability, production rates, and water-purification potential. The possible adverse impacts associated with not injecting the fluid back into the geothermal reservoir have not been addressed. (MJF)

  19. Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.

    PubMed

    Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. PMID:24668583

  20. Factors affecting the recovery of petroleum in projects involving the injection of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) 

    E-print Network

    Graham, Gerry A

    1961-01-01

    - and ? water saturated uncon- solidated sand packs ranging from l. 9 to 22, 8 feet in length. The different series were run at rates varying from 3 to 120 feet per day. A commercial butane - propane mixture and natural gas were used as the solvent... and displacing gas, respectively. Recoveries obtained after the injection of constant volumes of total fluid were observed to increase with increasing size of LPG slug. It was found that the same percentage of recovery was obtained with a smaller slug...

  1. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project: A project proposed by: LIFAC North America, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    This report describes a project proposed by LIFAC North America, Inc., (LIFAC NA). The host site will be a coal-fired powerplant of Richmond Power Light in Indiana. LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--80% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In the LIFAC process, limestone is injected into the upper part of the furnace where the temperatures are sufficiently high to calcine the calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) to lime (CaO), which reacts with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas to form calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), some of which oxidizes to form calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). The flue gas leaving the boiler then enters LIFAC's unique humidification chamber which increases the water content of the flue gas and activates the lime to enhance SO{sub 2} removal. Reduction of SO{sub 2} emissions are approximately 75--80%. Spent sorbent is then removed, along with the fly ash by an existing electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

  3. Bacterial diversity in water injection systems of Brazilian offshore oil platforms.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Biogenic souring and microbial-influenced corrosion is a common scenario in water-flooded petroleum reservoirs. Water injection systems are continuously treated to control bacterial contamination, but some bacteria that cause souring and corrosion can persist even after different treatments have been applied. Our aim was to increase our knowledge of the bacterial communities that persist in the water injection systems of three offshore oil platforms in Brazil. To achieve this goal, we used a culture-independent molecular approach (16S ribosomal RNA gene clone libraries) to analyze seawater samples that had been subjected to different treatments. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the bacterial communities from the different platforms were taxonomically different. A predominance of bacterial clones affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, mostly belonging to the genus Marinobacter (60.7%), were observed in the platform A samples. Clones from platform B were mainly related to the genera Colwellia (37.9%) and Achromobacter (24.6%), whereas clones obtained from platform C were all related to unclassified bacteria. Canonical correspondence analyses showed that different treatments such as chlorination, deoxygenation, and biocide addition did not significantly influence the bacterial diversity in the platforms studied. Our results demonstrated that the injection water used in secondary oil recovery procedures contained potentially hazardous bacteria, which may ultimately cause souring and corrosion. PMID:19830416

  4. Understanding and Quantifying Controls of Arsenic Mobility during Deepwell Re-injection of CSG Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Rathi, B.; Prommer, H.; Donn, M.; Siade, A. J.; Berg, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Australia, the injection of reverse-osmosis treated production water from coal seams into the surrounding, deep aquifers may provide the most viable method to dispose of large quantities of production water. The geochemical disequilibrium between the injectant water composition and the target aquifer can potentially drive a range of water-sediment interactions that must be clearly understood and quantified in order to anticipate and manage future water quality changes at both the local and regional scale. In this study, we use a multi-scale geochemical characterisation of a proposed reinjection site in combination with geochemical/reactive transport modeling to understand and predict the long-term fate of arsenic; and explore means for suitably mitigating an undesired increase of naturally occurring arsenic concentrations. We use a series of arsenic sorption experiments with the aquifer material from an injection trial site in Queensland, Australia to quantify As sorption/desorption from mineral surfaces in response to changes in site-specific geochemical conditions. Batch experiments with arsenite were performed under anoxic conditions to replicate the highly reducing in-situ conditions. The results showed significant arsenic mobility at pH >8. Competitive sorption effects with phosphate and the impact of varying temperatures were also tested in batch mode. A site-specific general composite (GC) surface complexation model (SCM) was derived through inverse geochemical modeling, i.e., selection of appropriate surface complexation reactions and optimization of sorption constants. The SCM was subsequently tested and further improved during the interpretation of data from column flow-through experiments and from a field injection trial. Eventually the uncertainty associated with estimates of sorption constants was addressed and the effects of this uncertainty on field-scale model predictions were analyzed.

  5. Comparing strategies: State funding of capital projects versus water conservation 

    E-print Network

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01

    for conversion to low water-use landscapes. It is not a simple choice. Capital project advocates say conservation projects do not really create new water as a reservoir does. However, that argument does not seem to ?hold water? to me. In the simplest de#30...

  6. The TAMU Water Project: Critical Environmental Justice as Pedagogy 

    E-print Network

    Munoz, Marissa Isela

    2010-10-12

    The TAMU Water Project is a trans-disciplinary collaborative that works to address the water needs of rural communities along the Texas/Mexico border called colonias. Modeled initially after the work of Potters for Peace, the TAMU Water Project...

  7. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  8. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Concetta Elia; Alessia Fanetti; Ambrosius Josef Martin Dörr; Maria I. Taticchi

    2008-01-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The

  9. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  10. Blast furnace granular coal injection project. Annual report, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This annual report describes the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection project being implemented at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s (BSC) Burns Harbor Plant. The project is receiving cost-sharing from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and is being administrated by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center in accordance with the DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC21-91MC27362. This installation is the first in the United States to employ British Steel technology that uses granular coal to provide part of the fuel requirement of blast furnaces. The project will demonstrate/assess a broad range of technical/economic issues associated with the use of coal for this purpose. To achieve the program objectives, the demonstration project is divided into the following three Phases: (1) Phase I - Design. (2) Phase II - Construction. (3) Phase III - Operation. Preliminary Design (Phase I) began in 1991 with detailed design commencing in 1993. Construction at Burns Harbor (Phase II) began in August 1993 and was completed at the end of 1994. The demonstration test program (Phase III) started in the fourth quarter of 1995.

  11. Picogram determination of estrogens in water using large volume injection gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruikang Hu; Lifeng Zhang; Zhaoguang Yang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a simple and efficient large volume injection gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, via a programmable-temperature\\u000a vaporizer (PTV) inlet, has been developed and applied in the determination of estrogens in environmental water samples without\\u000a a prior derivatization process. Three commonly used estrogens estrone, 17 ?-estradiol and 17 ?-ethynylestradiol were selected\\u000a as target compounds for this study. It has been demonstrated

  12. Direct injection GC method for measuring light hydrocarbon emissions from cooling-tower water.

    PubMed

    Lee, Max M; Logan, Tim D; Sun, Kefu; Hurley, N Spencer; Swatloski, Robert A; Gluck, Steve J

    2003-12-15

    A Direct Injection GC method for quantifying low levels of light hydrocarbons (C6 and below) in cooling water has been developed. It is intended to overcome the limitations of the currently available technology. The principle of this method is to use a stripper column in a GC to strip waterfrom the hydrocarbons prior to entering the separation column. No sample preparation is required since the water sample is introduced directly into the GC. Method validation indicates that the Direct Injection GC method offers approximately 15 min analysis time with excellent precision and recovery. The calibration studies with ethylene and propylene show that both liquid and gas standards are suitable for routine calibration and calibration verification. The sampling method using zero headspace traditional VOA (Volatile Organic Analysis) vials and a sample chiller has also been validated. It is apparent that the sampling method is sufficient to minimize the potential for losses of light hydrocarbons, and samples can be held at 4 degrees C for up to 7 days with more than 93% recovery. The Direct Injection GC method also offers <1 ppb (w/v) level method detection limits for ethylene, propylene, and benzene. It is superior to the existing El Paso stripper method. In addition to lower detection limits for ethylene and propylene, the Direct Injection GC method quantifies individual light hydrocarbons in cooling water, provides better recoveries, and requires less maintenance and setup costs. Since the instrumentation and supplies are readily available, this technique could easily be established as a standard or alternative method for routine emission monitoring and leak detection of light hydrocarbons in cooling-tower water. PMID:14717185

  13. N /SUB a/ N-dimethylacrylamide copolymer injection water viscosifier for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, K. F.

    1985-07-02

    High molecular weight N,N-dimethylacrylamide copolymers and terpolymers were synthesized. These polymers offer outstanding advantages as injection water viscosifiers in enhanced oil recovery processes including chemical, miscible, and steam or in processes requiring profile improvement through adsorption and/or gelation. They are very valuable in applications where high salinity is a problem since they are relatively insensitive to metal salts (such as those containing polyvalent ions, such as Ca/sup + +/ and Mg/sup + +/).

  14. Water Research Foundation Project 4090 Decision Support System

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    Water Research Foundation Project 4090 Decision Support System for Sustainable Energy Management Steve Conrad, Principal Investigator Director, Sustainable Systems - Junxion Strategy Inc. PhD Candidate;Presentation Outline > Provide Project Background > Discuss Decision Support > Present Scope of Decision

  15. Effects of Water Injection into Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs: A Summary of Experience Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, Roland N.

    1982-06-01

    Reinjection of water into fractured geothermal reservoirs holds potential both for improvement and degradation of total energy recovery. The replacement of reservoir fluid can mean support of placement of reservoir pressures and also more efficient thermal energy recovery, but at the same time the premature invasion of reinjected water back into production wells through high permeability fractures can reduce discharge enthalpy and hence deliverability and useful energy output. Increases in reservoir pressure and maintenance of field output have been observed in operating fields, but unfortunately so too have premature thermal breakthroughs. The design of reinjection schemes, therefore, requires careful investigation into the likely effects, using field experimentation. This paper summarizes field experience with reinjection around the world, with the intention of elucidating characteristics of possible problems. The results summarized in this paper fall into three categories of interest: permeability changes dye to injection (both increases and decreases); the path followed by injected water (as indicated by tracer tests); and the thermal and hydraulic influences of injection on the reinjection well itself and on surrounding producers. [DJE-2005

  16. Properties of injectable ready-to-use calcium phosphate cement based on water-immiscible liquid.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, S; Rössler, S; Lemm, M; Ruhnow, M; Nies, B

    2013-04-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are highly valuable materials for filling bone defects and bone augmentation by minimal invasive application via percutaneous injection. In the present study some key features were significantly improved by developing a novel injectable ready-to-use calcium phosphate cement based on water-immiscible carrier liquids. A combination of two surfactants was identified to facilitate the targeted discontinuous exchange of the liquid for water after contact with aqueous solutions, enabling the setting reaction to take place at distinct ratios of cement components to water. This prolonged the shelf life of the pre-mixed paste and enhanced reproducibility during application and setting reactions. The developed paste technology is applicable for different CPC formulations. Evaluations were performed for the formulation of an ?-TCP-based CPC as a representative example for the preparation of injectable pastes with a powder-to-carrier liquid ratio of up to 85:15. We demonstrate that the resulting material retains the desirable properties of conventional CPC counterparts for fast setting, mechanical strength and biocompatibility, shows improved cohesion and will most probably show a similar degree of resorbability due to identical mineral structure of the set products. PMID:23261920

  17. Seismicity Induced by Water Injection for Geothermal Reservoir Stimulation 5 km Below the City of Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deichmann, N.; Mai, M.; Bethmann, F.; Ernst, J.; Evans, K.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.; Häring, M.; Husen, S.; Kästli, P.; Bachmann, C.; Ripperger, J.; Schanz, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2007-12-01

    To stimulate the reservoir for a proposed "hot dry rock" geothermal project in the city of Basel, approximately 11500 m3 of water were injected between December 2nd and 8th, 2006, at high pressures into a 5 km deep well. A six-sensor borehole array, installed at depths between 300 and 2700 meters around the well to monitor the induced seismicity, recorded more than 10500 events during the injection phase. Events with magnitudes as low as ML 0.7 were also recorded by regional networks in Switzerland, Germany and France, as well as by up to 30 strong-motion stations installed in the epicentral area. Due to excessive seismic activity, that included an ML 2.7 event, injection had already been stopped when a few hours later an ML 3.4 event jolted the city of Basel. A large amount of (non-structural) damage, corresponding to an intensity of V (EMS98), has been claimed by home owners. The unusual number of damage claims compared to past events in this magnitude range observed in Switzerland is partly due to the shallow hypocenter (5 km) beneath a densely populated city. In addition, ground-motion modelling shows that the radiation pattern of the earthquake source was oriented unfavourably for the city of Basel and that in numerous locations shaking was amplified significantly by local site conditions. After bleed-off, about one third of the injected water volume flowed back out of the well. Although seismic activity declined rapidly thereafter, three additional ML>3 events occurred over the following two months. From a statistical analysis it is expected that it may take on the order of a decade for the activity to decrease to the regional background level scaled to the size of the source region. The hypocenters of the located events (about 3500 to date) are restricted to a NW-SE oriented lens-shaped cloud, about 1 km in diameter and 200 m wide, with a single offsetting branch to the ESE. The orientation of the cloud and the focal mechanisms determined so far match the stress field derived from observations of borehole breakouts and natural seismicity. Due to the premature abortion of the stimulation process, the size of the stimulated volume is insufficient for a commercially viable exploitation of geothermal energy. At present the project is on hold, pending a comprehensive assessment of the seismic risk associated with a continuation.

  18. Shor Lab "Soil Water" Project Undergraduate Research Opportunity

    E-print Network

    Shor, Leslie McCabe

    Shor Lab ­ "Soil Water" Project Undergraduate Research Opportunity Primary Graduate Student: Jinzi altering soil hydraulic conductivity. The Shor and Gage labs have received a USDA grant to investigate

  19. Conservation Project Shows Substantial Reduction in Home Water Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, William E.; Smith, Donald

    1978-01-01

    Describes a water use study-conservation project conducted by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission in Maryland. Results show a significant decrease in the amount of water used by home customers over a ten-year period. (Author/MA)

  20. Air Sparging Versus Gas Saturated Water Injection for Remediation of Volatile LNAPL in the Borden Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, J.; Nelson, L.; Doughty, C.; Thomson, N.; Lambert, J.

    2009-05-01

    In the shallow, rather homogeneous, unconfined Borden sand aquifer, field trials of air sparging (Tomlinson et al., 2003) and pulsed air sparging (Lambert et al., 2009) have been conducted, the latter to remediate a residual gasoline source emplaced below the water table. As well, a supersaturated (with CO2) water injection (SWI) technology, using the inVentures inFusion system, has been trialed in two phases: 1. in the uncontaminated sand aquifer to evaluate the radius of influence, extent of lateral gas movement and gas saturation below the water table, and 2. in a sheet pile cell in the Borden aquifer to evaluate the recovery of volatile hydrocarbon components (pentane and hexane) of an LNAPL emplaced below the water table (Nelson et al., 2008). The SWI injects water supersaturated with CO2. The supersaturated injected water moves laterally away from the sparge point, releasing CO2 over a wider area than does gas sparging from a single well screen. This presentation compares these two techniques in terms of their potential for remediating volatile NAPL components occurring below the water table in a rather homogeneous sand aquifer. Air sparging created a significantly greater air saturation in the vicinity of the sparge well than did the CO2 system (60 percent versus 16 percent) in the uncontaminated Borden aquifer. However, SWI pushed water, still supersaturated with CO2, up to about 2.5 m from the injection well. This would seem to provide a considerable advantage over air sparging from a point, in that gas bubbles are generated at a much larger radius from the point of injection with SWI and so should involve additional gas pathways through a residual NAPL. Overall, air sparging created a greater area of influence, defined by measurable air saturation in the aquifer, but air sparging also injected about 12 times more gas than was injected in the SWI trials. The pulsed air sparging at Borden (Lambert et al.) removed about 20 percent (4.6 kg) of gasoline hydrocarbons, mainly pentane and hexane, from the residual gasoline via sparging. A similar mass was estimated to have been removed by aerobic biodegradation. The extent of volatile recovery needs to be better defined and so post-sparging coring and analysis of residual LNAPL is underway. Impressively, the second SWI trial recovered more than 60 percent of the pentane-hexane from the NAPL. In both field experiments there was potential for minor additional recovery if the system had been operated longer. Comparison of efficiency of the pulsed air sparging and SWI systems is difficult in that the initial LNAPL residuals have different chemistry, but similar distribution, different volumes of gas were used, and biodegradation accounted for a significant removal of hydrocarbons only in the air sparging system. The SWI trial recovered an impressive portion of the volatile LNAPL, while using considerably less gas than the air sparging system, but the SWI delivery system was both more complex and more expensive than the air sparging system. Additional trials are underway in more complex aquifers to further assess the performance of the SWI technology, including costs and practical limitations.

  1. Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project number S61268-583

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project number S61268-583 McGill University Caribbean CARICOM ­ Caribbean Commonwealth CARIWAND ­ Caribbean Water and Gender Network CARIWIN ­ Caribbean Water of Meteorology and Hydrology CWS ­ Community Water Strategies DCETO ­ Developing Country Educational and Training

  2. Phase II Final Project Report Paso del Norte Watershed Council Coordinated Water Resources Database and GIS Project

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher; Sheng, Zhuping; Bourdon, Marc

    The Coordinated Water Resources Database and GIS Project (Project) was developed to provide improved access to regional water resources data in the Paso del Norte region for regional water stakeholders to make timely decisions in water operations...

  3. Modeling studies of cold water injection into fluid-depleted, vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Calore, C.; Pruess, K.; Celati, R.

    1986-01-01

    The physical processes involved in cold water injection into a ''superheated'' fractured reservoir are not yet fully understood, and this insufficient knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms limits the possibility of forecasting future resevoir behavior and optimizing the heat extraction process. Numerical simulation can be a very effective tool in the study of the complex phenomena involved, allowing a rapid examination of different situations and conditions, a systematic investigation of the effects of various parameters on reservoir performance, and some insight into long term behavior. We have performed simulation experiments on simple one-dimensional, porous and fractured reservoir models in order to study the migration of injected water, thermodynamic conditions in the boiling zone, heat extraction, and vapor generation. A two-dimensional radial porous medium model, with some characteristics typical of the high productivity zones of Larderello, has also been applied for studying the evolution of the shape and the thermodynamic conditions of the injection plume in the presence of gravity, reservoir heterogeneities and anisotropy.

  4. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  5. Impact on Caesarean section rates following injections of sterile water (ICARIS): a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sterile water injections have been used as an effective intervention for the management of back pain during labour. The objective of the current research is to determine if sterile water injections, as an intervention for back pain in labour, will reduce the intrapartum caesarean section rate. Methods/design Design: A double blind randomised placebo controlled trial Setting: Maternity hospitals in Australia Participants: 1866 women in labour, ?18 years of age who have a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in a cephalic presentation at term (between 37 + 0 and 41 + 6 weeks gestation), who assess their back pain as equal to or greater than seven on a visual analogue scale when requesting analgesia and able to provide informed consent. Intervention: Participants will be randomised to receive either 0.1 to 0.3 millilitres of sterile water or a normal saline placebo via four intradermal injections into four anatomical points surrounding the Michaelis’ rhomboid over the sacral area. Two injections will be administered over the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and the remaining two at two centimetres posterior, and one centimetre medial to the PSIS respectively. Main outcome measure:Proportion of women who have a caesarean section in labour. Randomisation: Permuted blocks stratified by research site. Blinding (masking):Double-blind trial in which participants, clinicians and research staff blinded to group assignment. Funding:Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council Trial registration:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (No ACTRN12611000221954). Discussion Sterile water injections, which may have a positive effect on reducing the CS rate, have been shown to be a safe and simple analgesic suitable for most maternity settings. A procedure that could reduce intervention rates without adversely affecting safety for mother and baby would benefit Australian families and taxpayers and would reduce requirements for maternal operating theatre time. Results will have external validity, as the technique may be easily applied to maternity populations outside Australia. In summary, the results of this trial will contribute High level evidence on the impact of SWI on intrapartum CS rates and provide evidence of the analgesic effect of SWI on back pain. PMID:23642147

  6. The Model of Lake Operation in Water Transfer Projects Based on the Theory of Water- right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi-peng, Yan; Chao, Liu; Fang-ping, Tang

    the lake operation is a very important content in Water Transfer Projects. The previous studies have not any related to water-right and water- price previous. In this paper, water right is divided into three parts, one is initialization waterright, another is by investment, and the third is government's water- right re-distribution. The water-right distribution model is also build. After analyzing the cost in water transfer project, a model and computation method for the capacity price as well as quantity price is proposed. The model of lake operation in water transfer projects base on the theory of water- right is also build. The simulation regulation for the lake was carried out by using historical data and Genetic Algorithms. Water supply and impoundment control line of the lake was proposed. The result can be used by south to north water transfer projects.

  7. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project, cyclic water injection tests using high as well as low salinity were also conducted on several representative ANS core samples. These results indicate that less pore volume of water is required to recover the same amount of oil as compared with continuous water injection. Additionally, in cyclic water injection, oil is produced even during the idle time of water injection. It is understood that the injected brine front spreads/smears through the pores and displaces oil out uniformly rather than viscous fingering. The overall benefits of this project include increased oil production from existing Alaskan reservoirs. This conclusion is based on the performed experiments and results obtained on low-salinity water injection (including ANS lake water), vis-a-vis slightly altering the wetting conditions. Similarly, encouraging cyclic water-injection test results indicate that this method can help achieve residual oil saturation earlier than continuous water injection. If proved in field, this would be of great use, as more oil can be recovered through cyclic water injection for the same amount of water injected.

  8. Oil Recovery by Low Salinity Water Injection into a Reservoir: A New Study of Tertiary Oil Recovery Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Li

    Low salinity water injections for oil recovery have shown seemingly promising results in the case of clay-bearing sandstones\\u000a saturated with asphaltic crude oil. Reported data showed that low salinity water injection could provide up to 20% pore volume\\u000a (PV) of additional oil recovery for core samples and up to 25% PV for reservoirs in near wellbore regions, compared with brine

  9. Investigation of bioequivalence and tolerability of intramuscular ceftriaxone injections by using 1% lidocaine, buffered lidocaine, and sterile water diluents.

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, C J; Nafziger, A N; Kohlhepp, S J; Bertino, J S

    1996-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and tolerability of 1-g doses of ceftriaxone diluted in sterile water, 1% lidocaine, or buffered lidocaine were investigated. No difference in bioequivalence was noted between the three treatments. No difference in peak creatine kinase values was seen. By use of a quantitative pain scale, injection of ceftriaxone with the water diluent was significantly more painful than that with either of the other two diluents. No difference in injection pain was noted for lidocaine or buffered lidocaine. PMID:8834905

  10. A practical method for estimating non-isothermal and formation damage skin factors for cold water injection wells

    E-print Network

    Warland, Arild

    1986-01-01

    A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING NON ISOTHERMAL AND FORMATION DAMAGE SKIN FACTORS FOR COLD WATER INJECTION WELLS A Thesis by ARILD WARLAND Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Petroleum Bhgineering A PRACTICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING NON-ISOTHERMAL AND FORMATION DAMAGE SKIN FACTORS FOR COLD WATER INJECTION WELLS A Thesis by ARILD WARLAND Approved as to style...

  11. An analytical investigation of the effects of water injection on combustion products and detonation in spark ignition engines 

    E-print Network

    Brown, William Charles

    1979-01-01

    AN ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WATER INJECTION ON COMBUSTION PRODUCTS AND DETONATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES A Thesis by WILIIAM CHARLES BROWN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ANNI University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering AN ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION Ol' THE El'FECTS OF WATER INJECTION ON COMBUSTION PRODUCTS AND DETONATION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES A Thesis by WILLIAM...

  12. Development Project of Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kataoka; S. Shiga; K. Moriya; Y. Oka; S. Yoshida; H. Takahashi

    2002-01-01

    A Supercritical-water Cooled Power Reactor (SCPR) development project (Feb. 2001- Mar. 2005) is being performed by a joint team consisting of Japanese universities and nuclear venders with a national fund. The main objective of this project is to provide technical information essential to demonstration of SCPR technologies through concentrating three sub-themes: 'plant conceptual design', 'thermohydraulics', and 'material and water chemistry'.

  13. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  14. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  15. Recent history provides sustainable African water quality project insight.

    PubMed

    Holm, Rochelle H

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale projects to provide clean drinking water undertaken in the developing world can contribute to significantly improving the livelihood of rural communities. There has been a historical tendency to poorly plan such projects leading to an unsustainable future. Recent history indicates three simple steps to ensuring successful and enduring clean water projects. First, identification of need by the indigenous community provides ownership in the project. Second, a partnership between key individuals in the indigenous community with the donor provides for ambassadors on both sides of the project. Finally, an exit strategy by the donors for the indigenous communities ensures local sustainability for the future. The study site is the village of Geisha in northern Malawi, Africa. Sustainable implementation approaches are discussed in this case study as well as the various lessons learned. Improved project processes ensure sustainable small-scale water quality projects by donor organizations in developing countries. PMID:22070428

  16. Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

  17. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Aquifer pressure buildup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg has been testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. Treated sweage that had a mean chloride concentration of 170 milligrams per liter (mg/l) was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4. 7 multiplied by 10**5 cubic feet per day (ft**3/d). The volume of water injected during the year was 1. 7 multiplied by 10**8 cubic feet. Pressure buildup at the end of one year ranged from less than 0. 1 to as much as 2. 4 pounds per square inch (lb/in**2) in observation wells at the site. Pressure buildup in wells open to the upper part of the injection zone was related to buoyant lift acting on the mixed water in the injection zone in addition to subsurface injection through the injection well. Calculations of the vertical component of pore velocity in the semiconfining bed underlying the shallowest permeable zone of the Floridan aquifer indicate upward movement of native water.

  18. Monitoring a large volume CO 2 injection: Year two results from SECARB project at Denbury’s Cranfield, Mississippi, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan D. Hovorka; Timothy A. Meckel; Ramon H. Trevino; Jiemin Lu; Jean-Philippe Nicot; Jong-Won Choi; David Freeman; Paul Cook; Thomas M. Daley; Jonathan B. Ajo-Franklin; Barry M. Freifeild; Christine Doughty; Charles R. Carrigan; Doug La Brecque; Yousif K. Kharaka; James J. Thordsen; Tommy J. Phelps; Changbing Yang; Katherine D. Romanak; Tongwei Zhang; Robert M. Holt; Jeffery S. Lindler; Robert J. Butsch

    2011-01-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) early project in western Mississippi has been testing monitoring tools and approaches to document storage efficiency and storage permanence under conditions of CO2 EOR as well as downdip injection into brine. Denbury Onshore LLC is host for the study and has brought a depleted oil and gas reservoir, Cranfield Field, under CO2 flood.

  19. Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Laura Cadonati; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterji; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; H. arald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

    2009-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA

  20. Video- Water Injected Into Bubble Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Dr. Pettit demonstrates using a syringe to inject water into a bubble. The result amazed Dr. Pettit and his crew mates. They observed that the droplets may bounce around for 5 or 6 collisions within the bubble, and then may partially or all at once exchange masses with the bubble. Dr. Pettit speculates the dynamics as a possible interplay between tension forces of kinetic energy and momentum, and possibly even charged forces.

  1. 14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Project Water Monitoring System

    E-print Network

    Andrews, Peter B.

    1 Hamerschlag Hall Green Roof Project Water Monitoring System Plans and Specifications Created By Carothers Water Monitoring, Flume, and Curbing Specifications · The connection between the curbing of the green roof. #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 #12;6 #12;7 #12;8 Appendix A Water Flow Monitoring Equipment Specification

  3. POTENTIAL EFFECTS OF PROJECT CHARIOT ON LOCAL WATER SUPPLIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1961-01-01

    An order-of-magnitude appraisal of the concentrations of radioactive ; nuclides that might be introduced into local water supplies by execution of ; Project Chariot near Cape Thompson, Alaska is presented. Summaires are given of ; the following environmental characteristics of the area: wind movement, air ; temperature and permafrost, precipitation, stream flow, evapo-transpiration and ; soil water, ground-water movement, sediment

  4. Microbial analysis of backflowed injection water from a nitrate-treated North Sea oil reservoir.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Lysnes, Kristine; Torsvik, Terje; Bjørnestad, Eva Ø; Sunde, Egil

    2009-03-01

    Reservoir souring in offshore oil fields is caused by hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), most often as a consequence of sea water injection. Biocide treatment is commonly used to inhibit SRB, but has now been replaced by nitrate treatment on several North Sea oil fields. At the Statfjord field, injection wells from one nitrate-treated reservoir and one biocide-treated reservoir were reversed (backflowed) and sampled for microbial analysis. The two reservoirs have similar properties and share the same pre-nitrate treatment history. A 16S rRNA gene-based community analysis (PCR-DGGE) combined with enrichment culture studies showed that, after 6 months of nitrate injection (0.25 mM NO(3) (-)), heterotrophic and chemolithotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) formed major populations in the nitrate-treated reservoir. The NRB community was able to utilize the same substrates as the SRB community. Compared to the biocide-treated reservoir, the microbial community in the nitrate-treated reservoir was more phylogenetically diverse and able to grow on a wider range of substrates. Enrichment culture studies showed that SRB were present in both reservoirs, but the nitrate-treated reservoir had the least diverse SRB community. Isolation and characterisation of one of the dominant populations observed during nitrate treatment (strain STF-07) showed that heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria affiliated to Terasakiella probably contributed significantly to the inhibition of SRB. PMID:19137339

  5. Quenching of a highly superheated porous medium by injection of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichot, F.; Bachrata, A.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J.; Quintard, M.

    2012-11-01

    Understanding of two-phase flow through porous medium with intense phase change is of interest in many situations, including nuclear, chemical or geophysical applications. Intense boiling occurs when the liquid is injected into a highly superheated medium. Under such conditions, the heat flux extracted by the fluid from the porous medium is mainly governed by the nucleation of bubbles and by the evaporation of thin liquid films. Both configurations are possible, depending on local flow conditions and on the ratio of bubble size to pore size. The present study is motivated by the safety evaluation of light water nuclear reactors in case of a severe accident scenario, such as the one that happened in Fukushima Dai-ichi plant in March, 2011. If water sources are not available for a long period of time, the reactor core heats up due to the residual power and eventually becomes significantly damaged due to intense oxidation of metals and fragmentation of fuel rods resulting in the formation of a porous medium where the particles have a characteristic length-scale of 1 to 5 mm. The coolability of the porous medium will depend on the water flow rate which can enter the medium under the available driving head and on the geometrical features of the porous matrix (average pore size, porosity). Therefore, it is of high interest to evaluate the conditions for which the injection of water in such porous medium is likely to stop the progression of the accident. The present paper addresses the issue of modelling two-phase flow and heat transfers in a porous medium initially dry, where water is injected. The medium is initially at a temperature well above the saturation temperature of water. In a first part, a summary of existing knowledge is provided, showing the scarcity of models and experimental data. In a second part, new experimental results obtained in an IRSN facility are analysed. The experiment consists in a bed of steel particles that are heated up to 700°Cbefore injecting water. The facility is briefly described. The velocity of the "quench front" (location where particles are quickly cooled down) and the total pressure drop across the medium are estimated. The dependencies of those quantities with respect to the inlet water flow rate, the initial temperature of the medium and the diameter of particles are obtained. In a third part, a model is proposed, based on a previously developed model which is improved in order to take into account intense boiling regimes (in particular nucleate boiling). The model includes a function that takes into account the contact area between water and the particles which depends on the temperature of particles and on the void fraction. That function affects the local intensity of phase change. The model involves a few parameters which cannot be evaluated analytically. Those parameters are bounded, following the analysis of experimental data. Finally, the model is assessed by comparison of calculations with those new experimental data. The satisfactory agreement shows that the model is almost predictive in the range of parameters studied. The experimental results also show that the quench front becomes unstable under certain conditions. This is also analysed and compared with the predictions of the model.

  6. ICPP injection well alternative project, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) portion of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been obtaining water needed for its operations from the Snake River aquifer, which occupies the entire region underlying the site. Most of this water has been used for cooling operating equipment, while a small portion has found various process uses. After passing through the ICPP process area, these waters are then returned to the aquifer. A small portion (about 1%) of the returned stream contains measurable amounts of radioactivity derived from the miscellaneous process users. This report and the recommendations contained herein are based upon stream flows projected for 1985 as supplied by DOE for the ICPP. 26 different alternatives for handling cooling water, chemical, and low level radioactive water disposal are examined. These cases are considered from technical, environmental, safety, and economic points of view. The level of detail is sufficient to eliminate non-viable cases, and to identify those which offer improvements over present practice. The Environmental/Safety Risk Factors were evaluated on a qualitative comparison basis only. Before a recommended improvement is incorporated into the waste disposal system, a conceptual design study should be made which would evaluate all those secondary effects and environmental factors that, by the very nature of the screening process, this study has not provided. Certain synergistic combinations have been noted and are discussed. This report does note whether the operations considered are in regulatory compliance, or are likely to be capable of providing lasting improvement to the waste water system. Qualitative comparisons were made between the various alternatives to confirm their relationship with applicable standards.

  7. A numerical study of water injection on transonic compressor rotor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Istvan

    In this study, numerical simulations of two-phase flow in a transonic compressor rotor (NASA rotor 37) were performed. Both flow and droplets' governing equations were formulated and solved in the reference frame of the rotating blades. An Eulerian-Lagrangian approach was used for the continuous and discrete phases with a two-way interaction model to simulate the mass-, momentum- and energy exchange between the different phases. Water particles were injected at the inlet with uniform particle mass flux, fully evaporating inside the rotating blade row. The phase change was most intense in areas adjacent to shock waves, where the slip velocity of the droplets was the highest. Results show decreased circumferentially averaged total temperature ratio of the air-vapor mixture across the span, which is the direct result of inter-phase energy coupling. An entropy based approach to calculate the isentropic efficiency of a wet compression process in a transonic compressor rotor was also presented. Under the proposed method, the viscous dissipation function was calculated everywhere in the domain in the post-processing phase of the numerical simulation and integrated to the wall, with special treatment in the nearwall regions where high rates of entropy generation occur. For a water to air mass flow ratio of 1% results show increased entropy production across the span, resulting in a 5% drop in compressor isentropic efficiency. Analytical integration of wall functions and numerical integration of the viscous dissipation function allows for reasonable results even with relatively coarse grids and can also be applied for single-phase flows. A parametric study of the effect of initial particle parameters on the wet compression process was also performed. Several speedlines have been computed with different amounts of water, especially near the tip. Results show that numerical stall can be delayed with injection of water near the tip, due to the increase of the axial momentum of the fluid in the endwall region, which is the direct result of phase change.

  8. A Sustainable Waste Water Management Project: MEDAWARE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filiz Dilek; Celal F Gökçay

    The MEDAWARE Project was initiated by the collaboration of 7 Med countries in 2003. The main aim of the project was to develop tools and guidelines for the promotion of the urban wastewater treatment and reuse in the agricultural production in the Mediterranean countries for a sustainable environment and resources. Within this scope METU team undertook an inventory of the

  9. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    emissions, you must install, calibrate, maintain and operate a continuous monitoring system to monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine when burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection for...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    emissions, you must install, calibrate, maintain and operate a continuous monitoring system to monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine when burning a fuel that requires water or steam injection for...

  11. INL Bettis Water Treatment Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Bechtel Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory (Bettis), West Mifflin, PA, requested that the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) (Battelle Energy Alliance) perform tests using water simulants and three specified media to determine if those ion-exchange (IX) resins will be effective at removing the plutonium contamination from water. This report details the testing and results of the tests to determine the suitability of the media to treat plutonium contaminated water at near nuetral pH.

  12. Impact of rural water projects on hygienic behaviour in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana

    In Swaziland, access to safe water supply and sanitation has improved significantly and was expected to result in improved health and, in particular, reduced infant mortality rates. On the contrary, mortality rates in the under 5 years age group are high and have doubled from 60 in 1996, to 120 deaths per 1000 in 2006. The main objective of the study was to assess whether the water projects permit, and are accompanied by, changes in hygienic behaviour to prevent transmission of diseases. The study area was Phonjwane, located in the dry Lowveld of Swaziland, where water projects play a significant role in meeting domestic water demands. Hygienic behaviour and sanitation facilities were analysed and compared before and after project. The results of the study show that domestic water supply projects have significantly reduced distances travelled and time taken to collect water, and that increased quantities of water are collected and used. While the majority of respondents (95.6%) used the domestic water project source, the quantities allowed per household (125 l which translates to an average of 20.8 l per person) were insufficient and therefore were supplemented with harvested rainwater (57.8%), water from a polluted river (17.8%), and water from a dam (2.2%). Increased water quantities have permitted more baths and washing of clothes and hands, but significant proportions of the population still skip hygienic practices such as keeping water for washing hands inside or near toilet facilities (40%) and washing hands (20%). The study concludes that the water supply project has permitted and improved hygienic practices but not sufficiently. The health benefits of safe domestic water supplies are hampered by insufficient quantities of water availed through the projects, possible contamination of the water in the house, poor hygienic behaviours and lack of appropriate sanitation measures by some households. There is a need to provide sufficient quantities of safe water to meet all domestic demands. Domestic water supply must be accompanied by appropriate sanitation and hygienic education.

  13. Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    Handbook on the Economic Analysis of Water Supply Projects was written for non-economists working in the planning, implementation, and management of water supplies. Created by the Asian Development Bank, the handbook is a resource guide to help staff of government agencies, financing institutions, and water utilities understand the principles of economic analysis of water supply projects. Written in easy-to-understand language, the handbook consists of nine chapters, each with separate tables of contents, with titles such as "Least Cost Analysis," "Demand Analysis and Forecasting," and "Sensitivity and Risk Analysis." Each chapter is available only in .pdf format and must be downloaded separately. Also included are an appendix and glossary.

  14. Comparing strategies: State funding of capital projects versus water conservation

    E-print Network

    Finch, Dr. Calvin

    2013-01-01

    10 tx H2O Winter 2013 Column by Dr. Calvin Finch, Water Conservation and Technology Center director COMPARING STRATEGIES State funding of capital projects versus water conservation The Texas Legislature seems intent on helping local water... ?new water? is also just as permanent as a reservoir because the old, ine#16;cient plumbing is no longer available. Unless familiar with the billions of gallons of water produced by San Antonio?s or El Paso?s water conservation e orts, one might...

  15. A novel injectable water-soluble amphotericin B-arabinogalactan conjugate.

    PubMed

    Falk, R; Domb, A J; Polacheck, I

    1999-08-01

    New, stable, highly water-soluble, nontoxic polysaccharide conjugates of amphotericin B (AmB) are described. AmB was conjugated by a Schiff-base reaction with oxidized arabinogalactan (AG). AG is a highly branched natural polysaccharide with unusual water solubility (70% in water). A high yield of active AmB was obtained with the conjugates which were similarly highly water soluble and which could be appropriately formulated for injection. They showed comparable MICs for Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (MICs, 0.1 to 0.2 microg/ml). The reduced AmB conjugate, which was synthesized at pH 11 for 48 h at 37 degrees C, was nonhemolytic and was much safer than conventional micellar AmB-deoxycholate. It was the least toxic AmB-AG conjugate among those tested with mice (maximal tolerated dose, 50 mg/kg of body weight), and histopathology indicated no damage to the liver or kidneys. This conjugate, similarly to the liposomal formulation (AmBisome), was more effective than AmB-deoxycholate in prolonging survival. It was more effective than both the liposomal and the deoxycholate formulations in eradicating yeast cells from target organs. The overall results suggest that after further development of the AmB-AG conjugate, it may be a potent agent in the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:10428922

  16. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site.

  17. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

    1986-01-01

    Information is presented on the 43 projects funded by the United States Geological Survey 's Water Resources Grant Program in fiscal year 1986. The report gives the grant number; project title; performing organization; principal investigator(s); dates; and a project description which includes (1) identification of the water related problems and problem-solution approach, (2) contribution to problem solution, (3) objectives, (4) approach, and (5) result users. The 43 projects include 14 in the area of groundwater management, 6 in surface-water management, 2 in systems-operating/planning, 3 in irrigation management, 8 in desalination/reuse, 6 in economic/institutional studies, and 4 in climate variability. The reports contain tables showing (1) funding according to research topic, (2) projects funded to type of submitting organization, (3) proposals received, research topic, and funding levels, and (4) submitting organization. A comparison is given to fiscal year 1985 in each case. (USGS)

  18. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including...

  19. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including...

  20. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including...

  1. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including...

  2. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve valid water rights used for: (a) Maintenance of wetlands and fish and wildlife including...

  3. 68 FR 16258 - Lingle-Ft. Laramie Water Quality Project, Goshen County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-04-03

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources...Lingle-Ft. Laramie Water Quality Project...Department of Agriculture, gives notice that...Lingle-Ft. Laramie Water Quality Project...Lingle-Ft. Laramie Water Quality Project...Wyoming Board of Agriculture for ranking...

  4. 68 FR 7763 - Lingle-Ft. Laramie Water Quality Project, Goshen County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-02-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources...Lingle-Ft. Laramie Water Quality Project...Department of Agriculture, gives notice that...Lingle-Ft. Laramie Water Quality Project...Lingle-Ft. Laramie Water Quality Project...Wyoming Board of Agriculture for ranking...

  5. Dynamic visualization of cavity-filling process in fluid-assisted injection molding-gas versus water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shih-Jung Liu; Yi-Chuan Wu

    2007-01-01

    Fluid-assisted injection molding technology, including gas-assisted molding and water-assisted molding, has been widely used to manufacture plastic parts in recent years, due to its light weight, relatively low resin cost per part and faster cycle time. This report is devoted to studying the filling phenomena of fluid-assisted injection moldings by using a dynamic visualization technique. Experiments were carried out on

  6. Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project. Phase I status report, April 1981April 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Younker; J. Hanson; E. Didwall; P. Kasameyer; A. Smith; J. Hearst; W. Daily; N. Crow; J. Younker; W. Murray

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using remote geophysical techniques to monitor the movement of injected brine has been evaluated. It was established that no single approach is likely to be identified that can be used to accurately monitor the precise location of the injected fluid. Several approaches have been considered in parallel because they add new dimensions to the existing monitoring capabilities,

  7. Single-dose Toxicity of Water-soluble Ginseng Pharmacopuncture Injected Intramuscularly in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junsang; Sun, Seungho; Lee, Kwangho; Kwon, Kirok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Radix Ginseng has been traditionally used as an adaptogen that acts on the adrenal cortex and stimulates or relaxes the nervous system to restore emotional and physical balance and to improve well-being in cases of degenerative disease and/or old age. Radix Ginseng has been used for a long time, but the safety of ginseng pharmacopuncture needs testing. This study was done to analyze the single-dose toxicity of water-soluble ginseng pharmacopuncture (GP) intramuscular injections in rats. Methods: All experiments were performed at Biotoxtech, an institution authorized to perform non clinical studies under the regulations of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP). Each group contained 10 Sprague-Dawley rats, 5 males and 5 females. GP was prepared in a sterile room at the Korean Pharmacopuncture Institute under regulations of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). GP dosages were 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mL for the experimental groups; normal saline was administered to the control group. The animals general condition was examined daily for 14 days, and the rats were weighed on the starting day and at 3, 7 and 14 days after administration of the pharmacopuncture. Hematological and biochemistry tests and autopsies were done to test the toxicological effect of GP after 14 days. This study was performed with approval from the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of Biotextech. Results: No deaths were found in this single-dose toxicity test of intramuscular injections of GP, and no significant changes in the general conditions, body weights, hematological and biochemistry tests, and autopsies were observed. The local injection site showed no changes. Based on these results, the lethal dose was assumed to be over 1.0 mL/animal in both sexes. Conclusion: These results suggest that GP is relatively safe. Further studies, including a repeated toxicity test, are needed to provide more concrete evidence for the safety of GP. PMID:26120491

  8. Lessons Learned from a Third World Water and Sanitation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-McLean, Terri

    1991-01-01

    The seven-step project cycle used in a water sanitation project in Belize from 1986-89 is described. The direct involvement of community organizations, village councils, family gatherings, parent-teacher organizations, political groups, Village Health Committees, and volunteer organizations is emphasized. (CW)

  9. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. I. Pennington; J. E. Dyer; J. D. Lomax; M. D. Deo

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter

  10. Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines for Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Gus

    This manual is the second volume in a series of publications on community development programs. Guidelines are suggested for small-scale water projects that would benefit segments of the world's urban or rural poor. Strategies in project planning, implementation and evaluation are presented that emphasize environmental conservation and promote…

  11. A study on chemical interactions between waste fluid, formation water, and host rock during deep well injection

    SciTech Connect

    Spycher, Nicolas; Larkin, Randy

    2004-05-14

    A new disposal well was drilled in the vicinity of an injection well that had been in operation for 12 years. The drilling activities provided an opportunity to assess the fate and transport of waste products injected in the nearby well, and the impact, if any, on the host geologic formation. The origin of the fluid collected while drilling the new well and the interaction between injected waste and the formation were investigated using analyses of formation waters, waste, and formation minerals, by applying traditional graphical methods and sophisticated numerical models. This approach can be used to solve a wide range of geochemical problems related to deep well injection of waste. Trilinear Piper diagrams, Stiff diagrams, and correlation plots show that the chemical characteristics of recovered fluid at the new well are similar to those of formation water. The concentrations of most major constituents in the fluid appear diluted when compared to formation water sampled at other locations. This could be explained by mixing with waste, which is less saline than formation water. However, the waste injected near the new well consists primarily of ammonia and sulfate, and these waste constituents are not found at concentrations elevated enough to suggest that significant mixing of formation water with waste has occurred. To determine whether chemical interactions between injected waste and formation could explain the chemistry of fluid recovered from the new well, we simulated the chemical reaction between waste, formation water, and the formation rock by numerical modeling. Initial modeling calculations were done using a multicomponent geochemical reaction-path model to simulate fresh waste reacting with the formation. A more complex simulation coupling flow, transport, and reaction was then run using a multicomponent geochemical reactive transport model. These numerical simulations were carried out to calculate porosity changes and evaluate chemical processes resulting in mineral precipitation and dissolution. The simulations indicate that the waste injected in the vicinity of the new well is mildly reactive with the formation, and that there is a small porosity increase upon injection (approximately one to two percent) in the near-wellbore region. The simulations predict the precipitation of anhydrite, ammonium clay, and ammonium feldspar minerals. However, the precipitation of these minerals is not sufficient to account for the lower-than-expected sulfate and ammonia concentrations away from the injection well. This modeling work is preliminary in nature, and provides an example of the application of sophisticated modeling tools to problems involving deep-well injection of waste.

  12. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  13. BELTWAY 8 WETLAND WATER QUALITY PROJECT: CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR STORM WATER POLISHING AND WETLAND MITIGATION BANKING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Knight; Robert Adams; C OBRIEN; Eduardo Davis

    1998-01-01

    The Harris County Flood Control District is implementing a wetland mitigation bank project that includes highway runoff as a significant water source. Part of this project is being implemented in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation through funding from the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act for water quality improvement. This collaborative effort includes treatment and final polishing of storm

  14. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based technology for prediction of soil erosion by water at hillslope profile, field, and small watershed scales. In particular, WEPP utilizes observed or generated daily climate inputs to drive the surface hydrology processes (infiltrat...

  15. WATER SYSTEM OPERATOR TRAINING FOR THE CENTRAL ARIZONA PROJECT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) is designed to bring about 1.5 million acre-feet of Colorado River water per year to Maricopa, Pima, and Pinal counties in Arizona. CAP carries water from Lake Havasu down to Tucson. The CAP canal system is a 336-mile long system of aqueducts, tunnels, pumping pla...

  16. Paso del Norte Watershed Council Coordinated Water Resources Database Project

    E-print Network

    Brown, Christopher; Sheng, Zhuping; Rich, Matt

    cooperative database project that would provide streamlined access to a range of water resource data in the Paso del Norte region. In August of 2002, the El Paso Water Utilities provided initial funding to the Paso del Norte Watershed Council to develop a...

  17. Rapid 90Sr/90Y determination in water samples using a sequential injection method

    PubMed

    Mateos; Gomez; Garcias; Casas; Cerda

    2000-07-01

    We have developed a semiautomatic procedure based on a sequential injection method for 90Sr/90Y determination that allows their radiochemical separation in about 30 min. The method has been tested using 90Sr/90Y solutions with activities lower than 12 Bq. The source is eluted in a pH = 6.5 medium through a MnO2-impregnated cotton filter, where 9OY is preconcentrated in preference by adsorption. 90Y is extracted from the column with hydroxylamine, some 90Sr in the leached solution has also been found. After the radiochemical separation, the total beta-activity of the leached solution has been determined using a low background alpha-beta proportional counter and, assuming the presence of 90Sr and 90Y at t = 0, the solution of the Bateman equations allows the initial concentration of both isotopes to be obtained. We have verified that the addition of some ions usually found in water samples (Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+) does not interfere with the yield of the radiochemical process, (90 +/- 10)%. The method has been applied to 90Sr/90Y determination in mineral waters, and even in thermal waters, where the salt concentration can be about 3500 mg/l, the radiochemical yield remains greater than 80%. PMID:10879852

  18. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water and surface water sampling at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Union Carbide (UC) and North Continent (NC) processing sites and the proposed Burro Canyon disposal site near Slick Rock, Colorado for the upcoming year. It identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies. The WSAP bridges water quality characterization and data collection objectives for the surface remediation program (Subpart A) and the ground water compliance program (Subpart B) identified in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994).

  19. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  20. Native Waters: An American Indian Water Resource Education Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    This community education initiative supports the efforts of Native American tribal leaders, educators, and students to develop contemporary, scientifically accurate, and culturally sensitive water education resources, programs, and networking opportunities. A traveling exhibit provides a Native American point of view on protection and conservation of water resources. A teachers' guide is provided to accompany the exhibit. Other materials include learning opportunities for students and educators, news articles, publications, scholarship information, and links to related information.

  1. TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor Decommissioning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, M.E. (ed.); Montoya, G.M.

    1991-06-01

    This final report addresses the Phase 2 decommissioning of the Water Boiler Reactor, biological shield, other components within the biological shield, and piping pits in the floor of the reactor building. External structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Water Boiler Reactor were removed in 1985--1986 as Phase 1 of reactor decommissioning. The cost of Phase 2 was approximately $623K. The decommissioning operation produced 173 m{sup 3} of low-level solid radioactive waste and 35 m{sup 3} of mixed waste. 15 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Characterizing near-surface CO2 conditions before injection - Perspectives from a CCS project in the Illinois Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, R.A., II; Krapac, I.G.; Lewicki, J.L.; Curtis-Robinson, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is conducting a large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) project in Decatur, Illinois, USA to demonstrate the ability of a deep saline formation to store one million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) from an ethanol facility. Beginning in early 2011, CO2 will be injected at a rate of 1,000 tonnes/day for three years into the Mount Simon Sandstone at a depth of approximately 2,100 meters. An extensive Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) program has been undertaken for the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) and is focused on the 0.65 km2 project site. Goals include establishing baseline conditions to evaluate potential impacts from CO2 injection, demonstrating that project activities are protective of human health and the environment, and providing an accurate accounting of stored CO2. MVA efforts are being conducted pre-, during, and post- CO2 injection. Soil and net CO2 flux monitoring has been conducted for more than one year to characterize near-surface CO2 conditions. More than 2,200 soil CO2 flux measurements have been manually collected from a network of 118 soil rings since June 2009. Three ring types have been evaluated to determine which type may be the most effective in detecting potential CO 2 leakage. Bare soil, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm into the ground and were prepared to minimize surface vegetation in and near the rings. Bare soil, deep-depth rings were prepared similarly, but were driven 46 cm. Natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings were driven 8 cm and are most representative of typical vegetation conditions. Bare-soil, shallow-depth rings had the smallest observed mean flux (1.78 ??mol m-2 s-1) versus natural-vegetation, shallow-depth rings (3.38 ??mol m-2 s-1). Current data suggest bare ring types would be more sensitive to small CO2 leak signatures than natural ring types because of higher signal to noise ratios. An eddy covariance (EC) system has been in use since June 2009. Baseline data from EC monitoring is being used to characterize pre-injection conditions, and may then be used to detect changes in net exchange CO2 fluxes (Fc) that could be the result of CO2 leakage into the near-surface environment during or following injection. When injection at IBDP begins, soil and net CO2 monitoring efforts will have established a baseline of near-surface conditions that will be important to help demonstrate the effectiveness of storage activities. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The recovery of oil from carbonate reservoirs by fluid injection 

    E-print Network

    Coleman, Dwayne Marvin

    1954-01-01

    respectively. The productivity index calculated from the permeability of the cores was 1. 0 'barrels per day per psi. The water injeotion project, in Field B consists of seven oil wells and six water injection wells as shown in Figure 3. Pr oduotion is from... 1954. Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering TABLE OF CONTENTS I. SUMMARY? II. INTRODUCTION III. DATA ON WELL PRODUCTIVITY IV. DATA ON INJECTION PROJECTS Vo DISCUSSION OF RESULTS Well Productivity Water In)ection Pro]cote VI. CONCLUSIONS VII...

  4. Water deprivation activates a glutamatergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the rostral ventrolateral medulla.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Sean D; Simmons, Johnny R; Stornetta, Ruth L; Toney, Glenn M; Guyenet, Patrice G

    2006-02-01

    Elevated sympathetic outflow contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure in water-deprived rats. The neural circuitry underlying this response may involve activation of a pathway from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We sought to determine whether the PVH-RVLM projection activated by water deprivation is glutamatergic and/or contains vasopressin- or oxytocin-neurophysins. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the majority of PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB; 85% on average, with regional differences). Very few RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were immunoreactive for oxytocin- or vasopressin-associated neurophysin. Injection of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the PVH produced clusters of BDA-positive nerve terminals within the ipsilateral RVLM that were immunoreactive (ir) for the VGLUT2 protein. Some of these terminals made close appositions with tyrosine-hydroxylase-ir dendrites (presumptive C1 cells). In water-deprived rats (n=4), numerous VGLUT2 mRNA-positive PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with CTB were c-Fos-ir (16-40%, depending on PVH region). In marked contrast, few glutamatergic, RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were c-Fos-ir in control rats (n=3; 0-3%, depending on PVH region). Most (94% +/- 4%) RVLM-projecting PVH neurons activated by water deprivation contained VGLUT2 mRNA. In summary, most PVH neurons that innervate the RVLM are glutamatergic, and this population includes the neurons that are activated by water deprivation. One mechanism by which water deprivation may increase the sympathetic outflow is activation of a glutamatergic pathway from the PVH to the RVLM. PMID:16374796

  5. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  6. Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia

    E-print Network

    Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

    2003-01-01

    ) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

  7. Water alternating enriched gas injection to enhance oil production and recovery from San Francisco Field, Colombia 

    E-print Network

    Rueda Silva, Carlos Fernando

    2003-01-01

    ) using Kulin oil (21 'API oil Irom Indonesia). ' The same effect of production acceleration was observed in these experiments and steam injectivity was improved with the addition of propane to the steam. Rivero and Mamora (2002) conducted several steam... studies of steam-propane and enriched gas injection for the Minas light crude oil. ' With steam-propane injection no improvement on production and oil recovery was obtained. Enriched gas injection increase the oil recovery in 13'/o, (74'/o OOIP with 5...

  8. Blue water transfer versus virtual water transfer in China, with a focus on the South-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Junguo

    2015-04-01

    Alongside its astonishing economic growth during the past decades, there has been increasing water stress in many areas in China. Water diversion has been one of the measures in dealing with the problem. The South-North Water Transfer Project is the largest project as such in the world, which aims to transfer water from the Yangtze River to primarily the North China Plain to alleviate the water stress in the region. Water diversion projects play an important role in supporting the continuous economic growth and safeguarding food production in the country. However, they also bring about many negative impacts concerning the environmental and ecosystem sustainability, as well as socio-economic development, both in the source and destination regions of diversions. One question arising is whether a virtual water transfer, primarily in the form of agricultural products, would be one of the tools economically and environmentally advantageous over transferring massive amounts of water to water deficit regions. This study presents an overview of China's water and land endowments and uses across regions, and the spatial distribution of food production. Based on this, the extent to which the virtual water strategy may be useful in dealing with the water stress in northern China as well as its limitations will be discussed. The focus will be on the South-North Water Transfer Project.

  9. A simulation study to verify Stone's simultaneous water and gas injection performance in a 5-spot pattern 

    E-print Network

    Barnawi, Mazen Taher

    2008-10-10

    phases segregate with gravity. After complete segregation is reached, two distinct flow zones are formed. Only gas flows near the top of the formation and only water flows at the bottom. ____________ This thesis follows the style of SPE Reservoir... contact of the injected gas with formation oil before the gas migrates upward and finds its way to the producer. In other words, extend the zone of mixed water and gas flow in the formation before gravity segregates them. The design calls...

  10. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  11. Field test of a cross-injection scheme for stimulating in situ denitrification near a municipal water supply well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierczak, R.; Devlin, J. F.; Rudolph, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    A pilot-scale test of an in situ denitrification scheme was undertaken to assess an adaptation of the nutrient injection wall (NIW) technology for treating a deep (30-40 m) nitrate contamination problem (N-NO 3- ˜ 10-12 mg/L). The adaptation is called the Cross-Injection Scheme (CIS). It duplicates the NIW method without a wall; wells are installed and operated directly in the aquifer and high-flux zones of the aquifer are preferentially targeted for treatment. The test was conducted on the site of a municipal water supply well field, with the supply well pumping between 15-80 m 3/h. Acetate was periodically injected into the aquifer between an injection-extraction well pair positioned across the normal direction of flow. The injected pulses were then permitted to move with the water toward the municipal wells, providing a carbon supply to drive the desired denitrification. The fate of nitrate, nitrite, acetate and sulphate were monitored at multilevel wells located between the injection location and the municipal wells. The acetate pulsing interval was approximately weekly (9 h injections), so that the system was operating passively 95% of the time. Previous work on the site has established that the highest solute fluxes were associated with a 1-3 m thick zone about 35 m below surface. This zone was found to respond to the acetate additions as a function of the municipal pumping rate and the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (i.e., determined by the injected acetate concentration). Initially, acetate was injected just below the theoretical stoichiometric requirement for complete denitrification and nitrate disappearance was accompanied by nitrite production. Increasing the C:N ratio (doubling the acetate injection concentration) increased the removal of nitrate and diminished the occurrence of nitrite. Slowing the municipal pumping rate, with a C:N ratio of 1.2-1.6, resulted in complete nitrate attenuation with no nitrite production and no sulfate reduction. The experiment demonstrated that the CIS injection scheme is a viable option for the treatment of nitrate contamination in situ near high-capacity wells.

  12. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters.

  13. Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project. Phase I status report, April 1981-April 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Younker, L.; Hanson, J.; Didwall, E.; Kasameyer, P.; Smith, A.; Hearst, J.; Daily, W.; Crow, N.; Younker, J.; Murray, W.

    1982-08-13

    The feasibility of using remote geophysical techniques to monitor the movement of injected brine has been evaluated. It was established that no single approach is likely to be identified that can be used to accurately monitor the precise location of the injected fluid. Several approaches have been considered in parallel because they add new dimensions to the existing monitoring capabilities, and are likely to cover a range of applications at a variety of geothermal sites. These include: microseismicity - a seismic net is used to record small magnitude events associated with injection; streaming potential - self potential anomalies produced by a moving fluid identify fluid flow direction; cross borehole geotomography - two-dimensional image of flow pathways is constructed using electromagnetic waves; and well pressure response to solid earth tide - changes in pore pressures are used to discriminate fracture/pore porosity and estimate fracture orientations.

  14. CO2FieldLab project. Near-surface downhole electrical resistivity monitoring for CO2 shallow injection at the Svelvik ridge (Norway).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denchik, N.; Pezard, P.; Paris, J.; Geeraert, M.; Henry, G.; Baqué, L.; Barry, S.; Neyens, D.

    2012-04-01

    The CO2FieldLab shallow injection experiment is a collaborative effort aimed at developing, verifying, and evaluating near-surface monitoring techniques for geological sequestration of CO2. The objective is to create a downhole leakage of CO2 in order to demonstrate whether existing monitoring techniques have the ability to detect and quantify the CO2 loss. The CO2FieldLab project associates collaboration from several research groups and organizations (SINTEF, NGI, BRGM, BGS, CNRS, imaGeau and Schlumberger). For this, the field Laboratory for monitoring CO2 migration and leakage was established in Holocene deposits of the Svelvik ridge, located in the Drammensfjord 50 km south of Oslo (Norway). It is a glaciofluvial-glaciomarine terminal deposit formed during the last deglaciation. The depth to the bedrock is located between 300 and 400 m. The central part of the ridge is aerially exposed up to 70 m above sea level, constituting a phreatic aquifer. The characterization phase and associated modelling suggest that the site is suitable for studying both gas migration and leakage at shallow depths. The shallow aquifer (down to 50 m) consists in a relatively homogeneous sand body with a depositional dip of about 10° to the North. The shallow injection experiment took place in September of 2011 and consisted in an injection of CO2 at a depth of 20 m from a 45° inclined well. The purpose of this phase was to simulate a point source leakage, which could possibly occur due to failure of a deep well completion. A total mass of 1.67 ton of CO2 was injected over a period of 6 days. The water table was located at 60 cm depth during the experiment and a transition from fresh to salt pore water was found below 12 m depth. An integrated set of surface and downhole strategies was deployed across a 64 m2 square monitoring area: cross-hole radar, water and gas phases physico-chemical parameters (BRGM); multi-hole electrical ALERT system (BGS), CO2 concentration in soils and gas flux measurements (BGS); WestBay completion for pressure monitoring and fluid sampling (Schlumberger); permanent downhole electrical resistivity observatory (imaGeau); time-lapse downhole induction and sonic logging (CNRS) All monitoring holes were drilled and equipped down to 20 m depth. The data recorded by CNRS and imaGeau are presented here. Downhole electrical resistivity monitoring identified a couple of conductive clouds due to CO2 dissolving into pore water. A first one appeared few hours after injection below 9 m, and a second one appeared later at about 6 m suggesting progressive upward migration of the injected CO2. Near the base of the monitoring hole and to the opposite, an increase in resistivity was obtained over time from repeated induction logging. This gradual conductivity decrease is coherent with progressive CO2 dissolution within the pore fluid in a zone of transition to sea water found from 12 m depth. The formation fluid sampling is next to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: Results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project

    E-print Network

    Aylott, Benjamin; Boggs, William D; Boyle, Michael; Brady, Patrick R; Brown, Duncan A; Brügmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T; Buonanno, Alessandra; Cadonati, Laura; Camp, Jordan; Campanelli, Manuela; Centrella, Joan; Chatterji, Shourov; Christensen, Nelson; Chu, Tony; Diener, Peter; Dorband, Nils; Etienne, Zachariah B; Faber, Joshua; Fairhurst, Stephen; Farr, Benjamin; Fischetti, Sebastian; Guidi, Gianluca; Goggin, Lisa M; Hannam, Mark; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Kalogera, Vicky; Keppel, Drew; Kidder, Lawrence E; Kelly, Bernard J; Krishnan, Badri; Laguna, Pablo; Lousto, Carlos O; Mandel, Ilya; Marronetti, Pedro; Matzner, Richard; McWilliams, Sean T; Matthews, Keith D; Mercer, R Adam; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R P; Mroué, Abdul H; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ochsner, Evan; Pan, Yi; Pekowsky, Larne; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Pollney, Denis; Pretorius, Frans; Raymond, Vivien; Reisswig, Christian; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rinne, Oliver; Robinson, Craig; Röver, Christian; Santamaría, Lucía; Sathyaprakash, Bangalore; Scheel, Mark A; Schnetter, Erik; Seiler, Jennifer; Shapiro, Stuart L; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Sperhake, Ulrich; Stroeer, Alexander; Sturani, Riccardo; Tichy, Wolfgang; Liu, Yuk Tung; van der Sluys, Marc; van Meter, James R; Vaulin, Ruslan; Vecchio, Alberto; Veitch, John; Viceré, Andrea; Whelan, John T; Zlochower, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA analysis which focused on gravitational waveforms from binary black hole coalescence. Ten numerical relativity groups contributed numerical data which were used to generate a set of gravitational-wave signals. These signals were injected into a simulated data set, designed to mimic the response of the Initial LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Nine groups analysed this data using search and parameter-estimation pipelines. Matched filter algorithms, un-modelled-burst searches and Bayesian parameter-estimation and model-selection algorithms were applied to the da...

  16. The Cedar Project: historical trauma, sexual abuse and HIV risk among young Aboriginal people who use injection and non-injection drugs in two Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Cedar Project Partnership; Pearce, Margo E; Christian, Wayne M; Patterson, Katharina; Norris, Kat; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Craib, Kevin J P; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2008-06-01

    Recent Indigenist scholarship has situated high rates of traumatic life experiences, including sexual abuse, among Indigenous peoples of North America within the larger context of their status as colonized peoples. Sexual abuse has been linked to many negative health outcomes including mental, sexual and drug-related vulnerabilities. There is a paucity of research in Canada addressing the relationship between antecedent sexual abuse and negative health outcomes among Aboriginal people including elevated risk of HIV infection. The primary objectives of this study were to determine factors associated with sexual abuse among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort of young Aboriginal people between the ages of 14 and 30 years who use injection and non-injection drugs in two urban centres in British Columbia, Canada; and to locate findings through a lens of historical and intergenerational trauma. We utilized post-colonial perspectives in research design, problem formulation and the interpretation of results. Multivariate modeling was used to determine the extent to which a history of sexual abuse was predictive of negative health outcomes and vulnerability to HIV infection. Of the 543 eligible participants, 48% reported ever having experienced sexual abuse; 69% of sexually abused participants were female. The median age of first sexual abuse was 6 years for both female and male participants. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables and factors of historical trauma, sexually abused participants were more likely to have ever been on the streets for more than three nights, to have ever self-harmed, to have suicide ideation, to have attempted suicide, to have a diagnosis of mental illness, to have been in the emergency department within the previous 6 months, to have had over 20 lifetime sexual partners, to have ever been paid for sex and to have ever overdosed. The prevalence and consequences of sexual abuse among Cedar Project participants are of grave concern. Sexual trauma will continue to impact individuals, families and communities until unresolved historical trauma is meaningfully addressed in client-driven, culturally safe programming. PMID:18455054

  17. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project. Quarterly report No. 3, April--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    LIFAC combines upper-furnace limestone injection followed by post-furnace humidification in an activation reactor located between the air preheater and the ESP. The process produces a dry and stable waste product that is partially removed from the bottom of the activation reactor and partially removed at the ESP.

  18. THE INJECTION SYSTEM OF THE INFN-SUPERB FACTORY PROJECT PRELIMINARY DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER. The beam lifetime of the SuperB factory rings will be about 4÷5 minutes. With 978 bunches/ring and a e+ bunch population of 5. 1010 , the particles lost per second per ring are about 1.8. 1011 . With 5

  19. Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasser, Philip W

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

  20. The effect on recovery of the injection of alternating slugs of gas and water at pressures above the bubble point 

    E-print Network

    Givens, James Wilson

    1961-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS, 24 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. 7. APPE NDIX. 8. REFERENCES. 25 32 337530 LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES FIGURES 1. Core Saturating and Flooding Apparatus Page 2. Physical Characteristics of Refined Oil and East Texas Crude Oil at 77'F. 3. Refined... Oil Recovery vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Gas Slug. 13 4, Refined Oil Recovery vs Pore Volumes of Injected Fluid for an Initial Water Slug. 14 5. The Effect of Slug Length on Recovery of Refined Oil. 15 6. Recovery of East...

  1. Gas exsolution and flow during supersaturated water injection in porous media: I. Pore network modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weishu; Ioannidis, Marios A.

    2011-01-01

    Degassing and in situ development of a mobile gas saturation take place when an aqueous phase saturated with gas at a pressure higher than the subsurface pressure is injected in water-saturated porous media. In the first part of this work, a pore network model is used to study the key physical aspects of this novel and hitherto unexplored way of introducing a gas phase in the subsurface. Following heterogeneous nucleation, growth of gas phase clusters driven by convective diffusion of solute from the bulk aqueous phase, is shown to result in a ramified pattern of gas-occupied pores, which is controlled by capillary and buoyancy forces. The interplay between mass transfer and immiscible displacement processes, namely gas cluster coalescence, mobilization under the action of buoyancy forces and fragmentation resulting from capillary instabilities, is seen to favour the propagation of a stable gas saturation front. Pore network model predictions of the macroscopic mass transfer rate coefficient are in fair agreement with a recently published empirical correlation.

  2. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters.

  3. Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project number S61268-583

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project number S61268-583 McGill University Caribbean, 2011 #12;List of acronyms AUCC ­ Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada CAFRA ­ Caribbean Institute for Feminist Research and Action CARDI ­ Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute

  4. Water Resources Research Grant Program project descriptions, fiscal year 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Branch of Research Grants and Contracts

    1985-01-01

    Information on each of the 24 projects funded by the U.S. Geological Survey in FY 1985 under section 105 of Public Law 93-242 (the Water Resources Research Act of 1984) is presented, including the grant number, organization, the period of performance, and a brief description of the work to be carried out. (Lantz-PTT)

  5. Geospatial application of the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the hillslope profile and/or field scale, a simple Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is available to easily specify the slope, soil, and management inputs for application of the USDA Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Likewise, basic small watershed configurations of a few hillsl...

  6. WATER TREATMENT PROJECT: OBSERVATIONS ON USE OF GAC IN PRACTICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine if granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption beds applied in water treatment practice slough-off organic materials during the spring warm-up and (2) to evaluate the feasibility of the dilute or low-level COD procedure for the...

  7. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  8. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data from wells near the Hueco Bolson Recharge Project area, El Paso, Texas, 1990 and 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, Robert D.; Buszka, Paul M.; Godsy, Edward M.

    1994-01-01

    Tertiary-treated wastewater currently (1991) is being injected into the Hueco bolson aquifer at a site in northeastern El Paso, Texas, to supplement the quantity of available freshwater. Hydrologic data were compiled and water-quality and bacterial data were collected from existing wells near the Hueco Bolson Recharge Project (HBRP) in August and September 1990 and 1991. Borehole tracer tests indicated upward ground-water flow in nearly all tested intervals of several observation wells. The cumulative volume of injected water was less than the volume produced from wells adjacent to the HBRP area. Water levels in three production wells, located more than 1.5 miles from the injection wells, declined at rates comparable to those observed before injection operations. Water levels in wells located within 0.75 mile of the injection-well pipeline declined at a slower rate after HBRP injection operations had begun. Between 1985 and 1991, water levels in observation wells located within 700 feet of an injection well either did not appreciably decline, or declined at smaller rates than water levels in more distant production wells. Trihalomethane compounds were detected in water from 8 of the 16 observation and production wells sampled in 1990 and in 10 of the 17 wells sampled in 1991. Concentrations trihalomethane compounds in these samples ranged from 0.05 to 1.9 ug/L (microgram per liter) in 1990 and from 0.05 to 1.4 ug/L in 1991. Concentrations of trihalomethane compounds in samples of injected water from two wells were 27.8 and 34.6 ug/L respectively, in 1991. Dibromomethane and dichloromethane were detected in water from injection wells and from observation wells within about 700 feet of the injection wells. Aerobic bacteria were determined to be the only bacteria type present in ground water except for samples from two wells, which also contained denitrifying bacteria. The populations of aerobic bacteria determined in ground water ranged from 80 to more than 160,000 most probable number of organisms per milliliter of sample.

  9. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships’ ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  10. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  11. Trace analysis of isothiazolinones in water samples by large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Speksnijder, P; van Ravestijn, J; de Voogt, P

    2010-08-01

    Isothiazolinones are used as preservatives, biocides and disinfectants in a variety of industrial and domestic applications. Some of the isothiazolinones are difficult to isolate from water due their high polarity. A sensitive and selective analytical method was developed and optimized for the determination of sub-microg/L levels of three isothiazolinones in water samples. Three isothiazolinones are described in this paper: 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone, 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone and 4,5-dichloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone. The analytical method involves a robust large-volume direct on-column loop injection of 2 mL on an Aqua ODS HPLC column and tandem MS detection (HPLC-MS/MS). After filtration, samples are directly injected without further pretreatment. Detection limits of the individual target compounds were between 0.03 and 0.1 microg/L employing Multi-Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry. Based on the constant ratio of two selected product-ions together with the retention time, the identification is very selective and quantification is reliable. The method was successfully applied to real samples of membrane flushings, drinking water, surface waters and waste water. Additional investigations showed the instability of the isothiazolinones in river- and waste water. Preservation of river water and waste water samples with sodium azide (NaN(3)) promotes the stability of the isothiazolines in solution. In membrane flushings, waste water, surface waters and drinking water, levels of the three isothiazolinones were all below the limit of detection. In effluents of households containing washings from normal shampoo use, isothiazolinones could be detected. PMID:20591438

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Ground Water Project: Project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The scope of the Project is to develop and implement a ground water compliance strategy for all 24 UMTRA Project processing sites. The compliance strategy for the processing sites must satisfy the proposed EPA ground water cleanup standards in 40 CFR Part 192, Subparts B and C (1987). This scope of work will entail the following activities on a site-specific basis: Develop a compliance strategy based on modification of the UMTRA Surface Project RAPs or develop Ground Water Project RAPs with NRC concurrence on the RAP and full participation of the affected states and tribes. Implement the RAP to include institutional controls, where appropriate, as an interim measure until compliance with the standards is achieved. Institute long-term verification monitoring for transfer to a separate long-term surveillance program on or before the Project end date. Prepare certification or confirmation reports and modify the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP), where needed, on those sites completed prior to the Project end date.

  13. Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being con-

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of Tucson's share of Central Arizona Project (CAP) water is being for RO Treatment of CAP Water PROJECT TEAM This Arizona Water Institute PROJECT FACT SHEET is part improve- ments in both are needed to make RO treatment of CAP water truly cost-effective. The results

  14. Denver Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project: comprehensive chronic rat study.

    PubMed

    Condie, L W; Lauer, W C; Wolfe, G W; Czeh, E T; Burns, J M

    1994-11-01

    The health effects testing program for the Denver Water Department's Potable Water Reuse Demonstration Project was designed to evaluate the relative health effects of highly treated reclaimed water derived from secondary wastewater in comparison with Denver's present high-quality drinking water. The 1 x 10(6) gal/day treatment plant provided 500-fold concentrates of water that had been treated by multiple processes to remove microbial and chemical contaminants. Fischer 344 rats were exposed to the complex mixture solutions for up to 2 yr to evaluate chronic toxicity and oncogenicity effects. The following parameters were evaluated: clinical observations, survival rate, growth, food and water consumption, haematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, gross autopsy and histopathological examination of all lesions, major tissues and organs. Clinical pathology, gross pathology, and microscopic pathology conducted at wk 26 and 65 and at the end of the study did not reveal any findings that could be considered to be treatment related. Administration of drinking water concentrates at up to 500 times the original concentration in the original water samples to F344 rats for up to 104 wk did not result in any overt toxicological or carcinogenic effects. PMID:7959456

  15. Flow injection analysis of trace chromium (VI) in drinking water with a liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Byrne, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an acknowledged hazardous material in drinking waters. As such, effective monitoring and assessment of the risks posed by Cr(VI) are important analytical objectives for both human health and environmental science. However, because of the lack of highly sensitive, rapid, and simple procedures, a relatively limited number of studies have been carried out in this field. Here we report a simple and sensitive analytical procedure of flow injection analysis (FIA) for sub-nanomolar Cr(VI) in drinking water samples with a liquid core waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The procedure is based on a highly selective reaction between 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide and Cr(VI) under acidic conditions. The optimized experimental parameters included reagent concentrations, injection volume, length of mixing coil, and flow rate. Measurements at 540 nm, and a 650-nm reference wavelength, produced a 0.12-nM detection limit. Relative standard deviations for 1, 2, and 10 nM samples were 5.6, 3.6, and 0.72 % (n?=?9), and the analysis time was <2 min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions, especially Fe(III), were evaluated. Using the FIA-LWCC method, different sources of bottled waters and tap waters were examined. The Cr(VI) concentrations of the bottled waters ranged from the detection limit to ?20 nM, and tap waters collected from the same community supply had Cr(VI) concentration around 14 nM. PMID:23943244

  16. Effects of temperature and water content on impact properties of injection-molded glass nylon-6 composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Takeda; D. Y. Song; K. Nakata

    1996-01-01

    Instrumented drop-weight impact tests were conducted for injection-molded short glass fiber reinforced nylon-6 thermoplastic composites. The effects of fiber surface treatments, specimen temperatures and water contents on the impact fracture properties were studied. The first peak load P, or the corresponding absorbed energy E1 was found an appropriate parameter to evaluate the first cracking on specimen surfaces and also to

  17. Combustion and emission characteristics of ethanol–biodiesel–water micro-emulsions used in a direct injection compression ignition engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Qi; H. Chen; R. D. Matthews; Y. Z. H. Bian

    2010-01-01

    This work aims on the efficient use of ethanol–biodiesel–water micro-emulsions in a diesel engine. A single cylinder direct injection diesel engine is tested using neat biodiesel and the micro-emulsions as fuels under variable operating conditions. The results indicate that, compared with biodiesel, the peak cylinder pressure of the micro-emulsions is almost identical, and the peak pressure rise rate and peak

  18. Synchronized droplet size measurements for Coal-Water-Slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. D. Kihm; D. P. Terracina; S. E. Payne; J. A. Caton

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique

  19. Characterization of coal water slurry sprays from a positive displacement fuel injection system

    E-print Network

    Kumar Seshadri, Ajoy

    1991-01-01

    system of a diesel engine. The injection system includes an injection jerk pump driven by an electric motor, a specially designed diaphragm to separate the abrasive coal from the pump, and a single hole fuel nozzle. The sprays were injected into a.... 6 msec. Break-up time increased with increasing nozzle orifice size and with decreasing chamber density. The break-up time was not a function of coal loading. Cone angles of the sprays were dependant on time, fluid and position, For diesel fuel...

  20. Effects of concentrated drinking water injection on glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes in liver of Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Elia, Antonia Concetta; Fanetti, Alessia; Dörr, Ambrosius Josef Martin; Taticchi, Maria I

    2008-06-01

    Two drinking water production plants located in North Italy, collecting water from the River Po (Plants 1 and 2) were chosen for this study. Water samples were collected before and after the disinfection process and at two points along the piping system. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system and injected intraperitoneally into specimens of Cyprinus carpio. The concentration of water samples was 3 l/equiv. In order to assess the effects of the water samples on carp liver, total glutathione and glutathione-dependent enzymes, such as glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glyoxalase I, were measured following this treatment for 6 days at two experimental times (3 and 6 days). Both water plant-treated carp showed a general increase of the enzymatic activities of glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase which might be employed as potential biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by disinfected river water. Plant 1-treated carp showed higher glyoxalase I and glutathione levels and lower glutathione peroxidase activity. A depleted level of total glutathione and of glyoxalase I for specimens of water plant 2 (for both experimental times), without correlation with the distances in the pipeline, suggests that river plant water can also lead to potentially adverse effects on selected biochemical parameters in C. carpio. PMID:18457861

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Reservoir Response to Stimulation by Water Injection

    E-print Network

    Ge, Jun

    2011-02-22

    geothermal reservoir. During the operations, the pore pressure will increase with fluid injection into the fracture and leak off to surround the formation. The pore pressure increase will induce the stress variations around the fracture surface. This can...

  2. Characterization of coal water slurry sprays from a positive displacement fuel injection system 

    E-print Network

    Kumar Seshadri, Ajoy

    1991-01-01

    of Rack Positions 72 84 SUMMARY . 89 CONCLUSIONS. 94 RECOMMENDATIONS. 96 REFERENCES. 98 APPENDIX A: NOMENCLATURE LIST 102 APPENDIX B: TABLES OF TEST CASES. . 104 APPENDIX C: CWS PENETRATION RESULTS BASED ON PRESSURES. 107 APPENDIX D: DIESEL... 11 Figure 12a Back Lighting Schematic Coal Slurry by Mass as a Function of Heating Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Movie Frames of a CWS Injection for 24 26 Test 27 32 Figure 12b Movie Frames of a CWS Injection for Test...

  3. Application of Enhanced Large Volume Injection; an Approach to the Analysis of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dellavedova; M. Vitelli; V. Ferraro; M. Di Toro; M. Santoro

    2006-01-01

    A novel method for total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis in drinking and groundwater by capillary gas chromatography has been\\u000a developed by means of a technique called Enhanced Large Volume Injection, based on an accessory and an auxiliary gas supply\\u000a using programmed temperature split\\/splitless injection with solvent venting. A detailed description of the instrumental configuration\\u000a and method optimisation is given. The system

  4. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this concept has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy while not resulting in a decrease in power density.

  5. Injection process and injection apparatus for solidifying a ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kayahara

    1980-01-01

    An injection process for solidifying a soft ground by injecting a blend of water-glass-type grout is described. A nonalkaline aqueous solution of silicic acid is obtained by mixing water glass into an aqueous solution of acidic reactant so as to remove alkali from the water glass. An injection apparatus for practicing the injection process comprises a mixing container for preparing

  6. Unit Operation Optimization for the Manufacturing of Botanical Injections Using a Design Space Approach: A Case Study of Water Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38–0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7–4.9 g/g, and SS of 280–350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability. PMID:25101624

  7. Selecting downscaled climate projections for water resource impacts and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    Increasingly large ensembles of global and regional climate projections are being produced and delivered to the climate impact community. However, such an enormous amount of information can hardly been dealt with by some impact models due to computational constraints. Strategies for transparently selecting climate projections are therefore urgently needed for informing small-scale impact and adaptation studies and preventing potential pitfalls in interpreting ensemble results from impact models. This work proposes results from a selection approach implemented for an integrated water resource impact and adaptation study in the Durance river basin (Southern French Alps). A large ensemble of 3000 daily transient gridded climate projections was made available for this study. It was built from different runs of 4 ENSEMBLES Stream2 GCMs, statistically downscaled by 3 probabilistic methods based on the K-nearest neighbours resampling approach (Lafaysse et al., 2014). The selection approach considered here exemplifies one of the multiple possible approaches described in a framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies proposed by Vidal & Hingray (2014). It was chosen based on the specificities of both the study objectives and the characteristics of the projection dataset. This selection approach aims at propagating as far as possible the relative contributions of the four different sources of uncertainties considered, namely GCM structure, large-scale natural variability, structure of the downscaling method, and catchment-scale natural variability. Moreover, it took the form of a hierarchical structure to deal with the specific constraints of several types of impact models (hydrological models, irrigation demand models and reservoir management models). The implemented 3-layer selection approach is therefore mainly based on conditioned Latin Hypercube sampling (Christierson et al., 2012). The choice of conditioning variables - climate change signal in temporally and spatially integrated variables - has been carefully made with respect their relevance for water resource management. This work proposes a twofold assessment of this selection approach. First, a climate validation allows checking the selection response of more extreme climate variables critical for hydrological impacts as well as spatially distributed ones. Second, a hydrological validation allows checking the selection response of streamflow variables relevant for water resource management. Findings highlight that such validations may critically help preventing misinterpretations and misuses of impact model ensemble outputs for integrated adaptation purposes. This work is part of the GICC R2D2-2050 project (Risk, water Resources and sustainable Development of the Durance catchment in 2050) and the EU FP7 COMPLEX project (Knowledge Based Climate Mitigation Systems for a Low Carbon Economy). Christierson, B. v., Vidal, J.-P., & Wade, S. D. (2012) Using UKCP09 probabilistic climate information for UK water resource planning}. J. Hydrol., {424-425}, 48-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.12.020} Lafaysse, M.; Hingray, B.; Terray, L.; Mezghani, A. & Gailhard, J. (2014) Internal variability and model uncertainty components in future hydrometeorological projections: The Alpine Durance basin. Water Resour. Res., {50}, 3317-3341. doi: 10.1002/2013WR014897 Vidal, J.-P. & Hingray, B. (2014) A framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies. EGU2014-7851

  8. Science in an Integrated Primary School Project on Water: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1984-01-01

    Describes water-related activities in an elementary school science project. These activities focus on electric generators, rainfall, erosion, floating, water conservation, and other areas. Brief comments on developing such a project are included. (JN)

  9. 71 FR 20072 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-04-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation...Service Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke...U.S. Department of Agriculture gives notice that an...for the Clarke County Water Supply Project,...

  10. The Effects of Droplet Size and Injection Orientation on Water Mist Suppression of Low and High Boiling Point Liquid Pool Fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHUKA C. NDUBIZU; RAMAGOPAL ANANTH; PATRICIA A. TATEM

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental parametric study of water mist suppression of large-scale liquid pool fires. The experiments were conducted with 50cm diameter pan heptane and JP8 pool fires. Mist was injected into the fire from the base at 90 and 45 and from the top at 90. The results show that base injection of droplets enhanced

  11. Testing gravitational-wave searches with numerical relativity waveforms: Results from the first Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project

    E-print Network

    Benjamin Aylott; John G. Baker; William D. Boggs; Michael Boyle; Patrick R. Brady; Duncan A. Brown; Bernd Brügmann; Luisa T. Buchman; Alessandra Buonanno; Laura Cadonati; Jordan Camp; Manuela Campanelli; Joan Centrella; Shourov Chatterji; Nelson Christensen; Tony Chu; Peter Diener; Nils Dorband; Zachariah B. Etienne; Joshua Faber; Stephen Fairhurst; Benjamin Farr; Sebastian Fischetti; Gianluca Guidi; Lisa M. Goggin; Mark Hannam; Frank Herrmann; Ian Hinder; Sascha Husa; Vicky Kalogera; Drew Keppel; Lawrence E. Kidder; Bernard J. Kelly; Badri Krishnan; Pablo Laguna; Carlos O. Lousto; Ilya Mandel; Pedro Marronetti; Richard Matzner; Sean T. McWilliams; Keith D. Matthews; R. Adam Mercer; Satyanarayan R. P. Mohapatra; Abdul H. Mroué; Hiroyuki Nakano; Evan Ochsner; Yi Pan; Larne Pekowsky; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Denis Pollney; Frans Pretorius; Vivien Raymond; Christian Reisswig; Luciano Rezzolla; Oliver Rinne; Craig Robinson; Christian Röver; Lucía Santamaría; Bangalore Sathyaprakash; Mark A. Scheel; Erik Schnetter; Jennifer Seiler; Stuart L. Shapiro; Deirdre Shoemaker; Ulrich Sperhake; Alexander Stroeer; Riccardo Sturani; Wolfgang Tichy; Yuk Tung Liu; Marc van der Sluys; James R. van Meter; Ruslan Vaulin; Alberto Vecchio; John Veitch; Andrea Viceré; John T. Whelan; Yosef Zlochower

    2009-07-09

    The Numerical INJection Analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical relativity and gravitational-wave data analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical relativity and data analysis communities. We describe the results of the first NINJA analysis which focused on gravitational waveforms from binary black hole coalescence. Ten numerical relativity groups contributed numerical data which were used to generate a set of gravitational-wave signals. These signals were injected into a simulated data set, designed to mimic the response of the Initial LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors. Nine groups analysed this data using search and parameter-estimation pipelines. Matched filter algorithms, un-modelled-burst searches and Bayesian parameter-estimation and model-selection algorithms were applied to the data. We report the efficiency of these search methods in detecting the numerical waveforms and measuring their parameters. We describe preliminary comparisons between the different search methods and suggest improvements for future NINJA analyses.

  12. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs. PMID:22502598

  13. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-04-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  14. Effects of EGR, water/N2/CO2 injection and oxygen enrichment on the availability destroyed due to combustion for a range of conditions and fuels 

    E-print Network

    Sivadas, Hari Shanker

    2009-06-02

    This study was directed at examining the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), water/N2/CO2 injections and oxygen enrichment on availability destroyed because of combustion in simple systems like those of constant pressure and constant volume...

  15. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  16. Flow injection analysis of water. Part 1: Automatic preconcentration determination of sulphate, ammonia and iron(II)/iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Cosano, J. S.; de Castro, M. D. Luque; Valcárcel, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a simple flow-injection (FI) manifold for the determination of a variety of species in industrial water. The chemical systems involved in the determination of ammonia (formation of Indophenol Blue), sulfate (precipitation with Ba(II)), and iron (complexation with 1,10-phenanthroline with the help of a prior redox reaction for speciation) were selected so that a common manifold could be used for the sequential determination of batches of each analyte. A microcolumn of a suitable ion exchange material was used for on-line preconcentration of each analyte prior to injection; linear ranges for the determination of the analytes at the ng/ml levels were obtained with good reproducibility. The manifold and methods are ready for full automation. PMID:18924969

  17. Deformation, seismicity, and fluids: Results of the 2004/2005 water injection experiment at the KTB/Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, T.; Jentzsch, G.; Gebauer, A.; Lau, T.

    2008-11-01

    During the past decades, the research into fluid-controlled geodynamic processes in the upper crust of the Earth is put foreward regarding the stress accumulation, deformation, and seismicity. In a large-scale injection experiment at the deep borehole site KTB (Kontinentale Tiefbohrung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland) in Germany, more than 84.000 m3 fresh water was injected in 4000 m depth over 10 months, and a lot of geoscientific investigations were connected to this injection test. The pore-pressure change of more than 10 MPa yielded an induced deformation, which was detected by a tiltmeter array. The used five borehole tiltmeters of the ASKANIA type with a resolution of better than 1 nrad belong to the most sensitive tiltmeters worldwide. The poro-elastic finite-element modeling used for the interpretation of the observed tilts revealed an uplift of 3.1 mm above the injection point. Furthermore, it was shown that the induced stress and deformation fields depend mainly on the fluids inside the fault zones, particularly the SE2-reflector which is the Franconian fault zone, and the local Nottersdorf fault: While the maximum pore pressure is concentrated close to the injection point at the SE2 zone, the maximum deformation of about 3 cm is located at the intersection line of both faults in 4 km depth. The area of the modeled maximum deformation is highly correlated with the region of the observed induced seismicity, thus linking seismicity and deformation. The connection of tilt observation and modeling provides a useful tool for the investigation of fluid coupled geoprocesses.

  18. Ground-water resources of Riverton irrigation project area, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, Donald Arthur; Hackett, O.M.; Vanlier, K.E.; Moulder, E.A.; Durum, W.H.

    1959-01-01

    The Riverton irrigation project area is in the northwestern part of the Wind River basin in west-central Wyoming. Because the annual precipitation is only about 9 inches, agriculture, which is the principal occupation in the area, is dependent upon irrigation. Irrigation by surface-water diversion was begum is 1906; water is now supplied to 77,716 acres and irrigation has been proposed for an additional 31,344 acres. This study of the geology and ground-water resources of the Riverton irrigation project, of adjacent irrigated land, and of nearby land proposed for irrigation was begun during the summer of 1948 and was completed in 1951. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the ground-water resources of the area and to study the factors that should be considered in the solution of drainage and erosional problems within the area. The Riverton irrigation project area is characterized by flat to gently sloping stream terraces, which are flanked by a combination of badlands, pediment slopes, and broad valleys. These features were formed by long-continued erosion in an arid climate of the essentially horizontal, poorly consolidated beds of the Wind River formation. The principal streams of the area flow south-eastward. Wind River and Fivemile Creek are perennial streams and the others are intermittent. Ground-water discharge and irrigation return flow have created a major problem in erosion control along Fivemile Creek. Similar conditions might develop along Muddy and lower Cottonwood Creeks when land in their drainage basins is irrigated. The bedrock exposed in the area ranges in age from Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary (middle Eocene). The Wind River formation of early and middle Eocene age forms the uppermost bedrock formation in the greater part of the area. Unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age, which consist of terrace gravel, colluvium, eolian sand and silt. and alluvium, mantle the Wind River formation in much of the area. In the irrigated parts of the project, water from domestic use is obtained chiefly from the sandstone beds of the Wind River formation although some is obtained from the alluvium underlying the bottom land and from the unconsolidated deposits underlying the lower terraces along the Wind River. Although adequate quantities if water for domestic use are available from the Wind River formation, there quantities are not considered to be large enough to warrant pumping of ground water for irrigation. Only a few wells are in the nonirrigated part of the area. When this new land is irrigated, a body of ground water will gradually form in the terrace deposits and the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits. Eventually, the terrace deposits may yield adequate quantities of water for domestic and stock use, but only locally are the alluvial and colluvial-alluvial deposits likely to become suitable aquifers. In the Riverton irrigation project area, ground water occurs under water-table conditions near the surface and under artesian conditions in certain strata at both shallow and greater depths. Irrigation is the principal source of recharge to the shallow aquifers; the water level in wells that tap these aquifers fluctuates with irrigation. The depth to water in the shallow wells ranges from less than 1 foot to about 30 feet below the land surface, depending on the season of the year and on the length of time the land has been irrigated. The water level in the wells that tap the deep confined aquifers , which receive recharge indirectly from surface sources, fluctuates only slightly because the recharge and discharge are more constant. In most places the depth to water in wells penetrating the deep confined aquifers is mush greater than that in shallow wells. but in certain low areas water from the deep aquifers flows at the surface from wells. Ground water moves from the area of recharge in the direction of the hydraulic gradient and is discharges either by evapotranspiration; by inflow into streams, drains, or lakes; by pumping or flow of wells; or by flow of springs. Waterlogging and the a

  19. Pharmacological Interventions Including Medical Injections for Neck Pain: An Overview as Part of the ICON§ Project

    PubMed Central

    Peloso, Paul M; Khan, Mahweesh; Gross, Anita R; Carlesso, Lisa; Santaguida, Lina; Lowcock, Janet; MacDermid, Joy C; Walton, Dave; Goldsmith, Charlie H; Langevin, Pierre; Shi, Qiyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an overview (review-of-reviews) on pharmacological interventions for neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched from 2006 to 2012. Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) in adults with acute to chronic neck pain reporting effects of pharmacological interventions including injections on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality of life and patient satisfaction. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias and extracted data The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel provided critical review. Main Results: We found 26 reviews reporting on 47 RCTs. Most pharmacological interventions had low to very low quality methodologic evidence with three exceptions. For chronic neck pain, there was evidence of: a small immediate benefit for eperison hydrochloride (moderate GRADE, 1 trial, 157 participants);no short-term pain relieving benefit for botulinum toxin-A compared to saline (strong GRADE; 5 trial meta-analysis, 258 participants) nor for subacute/chronic whiplash (moderate GRADE; 4 trial meta-analysis, 183 participants) including reduced pain, disability or global perceived effect; andno long-term benefit for medial branch block of facet joints with steroids (moderate GRADE; 1 trial, 120 participants) over placebo to reduce pain or disability; Reviewers' Conclusions: While in general there is a lack of evidence for most pharmacological interventions, current evidence is against botulinum toxin-A for chronic neck pain or subacute/chronic whiplash; against medial branch block with steroids for chronic facet joint pain; but in favour of the muscle relaxant eperison hydrochloride for chronic neck pain. PMID:24155805

  20. Biological treatments and uses of geothermal water as alternatives to injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. Breckenridge; L. S. Cahn; T. L. Thurow

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using geothermal fluids to support various biological systems prior to, or as an alternative to, direct injection at the DOE's Raft River goethermal site is discussed. Researchers at the Raft River site studied the feasibility of using geothermal fluid for establishign methods and for irrigating trees and agricultural crops. The emphasis of these studies has been on

  1. Assessment of Nitrification Potential in Ground Water Using Short Term, Single-Well Injection Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the am...

  2. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  3. An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

  4. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  5. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  6. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  7. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  8. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements...Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN...

  9. Florida River Project: Measuring discharge, sediment, and water chemistry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kim Hannula

    This is the data collection portion of a semester-long project. Before this lab, students will have graphed discharge data for one previous water year, graphed similar data collected by classes during a previous year, written one-page explanations of the techniques that they will be using, and speculated about the results they expect to get. After this lab, their data will be shared with other lab sections, which will have collected similar data at other sites along the same river. Each research group will present their preliminary data to the class during a later lab meeting, and the class will discuss how the different types of data relate to one another. The project culminates in a final paper (one per research group).

  10. Injection of Contaminants into a Simulated Water Distribution System Equipped with Continuous Multi-Parameter Water Monitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA?s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Multi-parameter water monitors for distributions systems have been evaluated as such a water security techn...

  11. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  12. Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

    1991-09-01

    Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that the analysis is partially complete, since there if no Assessment of the impact on nonagricultural income and employment, or secondary impacts such as demand for irrigation equipment, services for processing, manufacture and transport services, or investment of new agricultural surpluses. Few empirical studies have been done and the estimates apply only to individual project areas. The results show that inequality is greatest with major (gravity) irrigation, followed by STW, DTW and LLP, FCD (medium to shallow), FCD (deep to shallow), and the most equitable MOSTI. Changes in the absolute income accruing to the rural poor would lead to the rank of major gravity irrigation as raising more above the poverty line, followed by MOSTI, minor irritation (STW, DTW, and LLP), and FCD schemes. PMID:12317341

  13. Hydraulic Communication Between Coalbeds and Overlying Sands in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Implications for Re-injection of Coalbed Methane Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, H. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) production in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is associated with the production of large volumes of CBM water. CBM water from the PRB has high saline and sodium contents, making it unsuitable for agriculture and environmentally damaging. One option for the disposal of CBM water is re-injection into aquifers, but for injection to be feasible the porosity and permeability of the sands needs to be high, the pore pressure needs to be low, and the aquifer cannot be in hydraulic communication with the coalbeds. In order to determine if pore pressures in the aquifers are low enough to allow for significant CBM water re-injection and to determine whether the coals and sands are in hydraulic communication with each other we have calculated pore pressures in 220 wells that monitor water levels in coalbeds and adjacent sands within the PRB. All 220 wells have pore pressures below hydrostatic pressure, implying that re-injection of CBM water should be feasible. However, by analyzing pore pressure changes with time for both the coals and their overlying sands, we find that sands less than 100 ft from coal appear to be in communication with the coalbed. Therefore, re- injection of CBM water should be carried out in sands further than 100 ft from adjacent coalbeds. It also follows that CO2 sequestration in PRB coalbeds should not be carried out in areas where sands and coals are hydraulically connected, as potential leakage pathways for CO2 maybe present.

  14. Water-soluble binder with high flexural modulus for powder injection molding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minseok Song; Min Soo Park; Jin Kon Kim; Il Bum Cho; Kyung Ho Kim; Hwan Jin Sung; Sangho Ahn

    2005-01-01

    A new binder system, containing ternary polymer blends of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), was introduced for the powder injection molding of stainless steel powders. The weight fraction of PEG in the binder was maintained to be 0.65. When the weight fraction of PMMA in the binder was 0.1–0.25 (thus the weight fraction of

  15. On the origins of self-potential (SP) anomalies induced by water injections into geothermal reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Darnet; Alexis Maineult; Guy Marquis

    2004-01-01

    Stimulated fluid flow in geothermal reservoirs can produce surface Self-Potential (SP) anomalies of several mV. A commonly accepted interpretation involves the activation of electrokinetic processes. However we can not rule out electrochemical or electrothermal processes generated by the differences in chemical composition and temperature between the in-situ and injected fluids. We analyzed the relative contribution of electrokinetic, electrochemical and electrothermal

  16. Green River Formation water flood demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, B.I.; Dyer, J.E.; Lomax, J.D. [Inland Resources, Inc. (United States); [Lomax Exploration Co., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Deo, M.D. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Fuels Engineering

    1996-11-01

    The objectives of the project were to understand the oil production mechanisms in the Monument Butte unit via reservoir characterization and reservoir simulations and to transfer the water flooding technology to similar units in the vicinity, particularly the Travis and the Boundary units. The reservoir characterization activity in the project basically consisted of extraction and analysis of a full diameter core, Formation Micro Imaging (FMI) logs from several wells and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) logs from two wells. In addition, several side-wall cores were drilled and analyzed, oil samples from a number of wells were physically and chemically characterized (using high-temperature gas chromatography), oil-water relative permeabilities were measured and pour points and cloud points of a few oil samples were determined. The reservoir modeling activity comprised of reservoir simulation of all the three units at different scales and near well-bore modeling of the wax precipitation effects. The reservoir simulation activities established the extent of pressurization of the sections of the reservoirs in the immediate vicinity of the Monument Butte unit. This resulted in a major expansion of the unit and the production from this expanded unit increased from about 300 barrels per day to about 2,000 barrels per day.

  17. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-01-01

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  18. Soil Management Plan For The Potable Water System Upgrades Project

    SciTech Connect

    Field, S. M.

    2007-04-01

    This plan describes and applies to the handling and management of soils excavated in support of the Y-12 Potable Water Systems Upgrades (PWSU) Project. The plan is specific to the PWSU Project and is intended as a working document that provides guidance consistent with the 'Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex' (Y/SUB/92-28B99923C-Y05) and the 'Record of Decision for Phase II Interim Remedial Actions for Contaminated Soils and Scrapyard in Upper East Fork Popular Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee' (DOE/OR/01-2229&D2). The purpose of this plan is to prevent and/or limit the spread of contamination when moving soil within the Y-12 complex. The major feature of the soil management plan is the decision tree. The intent of the decision tree is to provide step-by-step guidance for the handling and management of soil from excavation of soil through final disposition. The decision tree provides a framework of decisions and actions to facilitate Y-12 or subcontractor decisions on the reuse of excavated soil on site and whether excavated soil can be reused on site or managed as waste. Soil characterization results from soil sampling in support of the project are also presented.

  19. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect

    McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

    2010-06-25

    X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

  20. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  1. Large volume injection for the direct analysis of ionophores and avermectins in surface water by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Thompson; D. K. Noot; F. Forrest; J. P. van den Heever; J. Kendall; J. Keenliside

    2009-01-01

    A simple method for the direct determination of residues of ionophore antibiotics and avermectin antiparasitics in surface water is reported. Using a large volume injector, a mixture of methanol and surface water is injected into an analytical liquid chromatography (LC) column and subsequently screened for residues of these veterinary pharmaceuticals using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. On-line sample enrichment and

  2. Give Water a Hand. School Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  3. Give Water a Hand. Home Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  4. Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  5. Flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection for rapid identification of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides in water.

    PubMed

    Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-02-01

    Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments. PMID:24499878

  6. Effect of nitrate injection on the bacterial community in a water-oil tank system analyzed by PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; von der Weid, Irene; Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-04-01

    Sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a major concern for the petroleum industry since it is toxic and corrosive, and causes plugging due to the formation of insoluble iron sulfides (reservoir souring). In this study, PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) using two sets of primers based on the 16S rRNA gene and on the aps gene (adenosine-5-phosphosulfate reductase) was used to track changes in the total bacterial and SRB communities, respectively, present in the water-oil tank system on an offshore platform in Brazil in which nitrate treatment was applied for 2 months (15 nitrate injections). PCR-DGGE analysis of the total bacterial community showed the existence of a dominant population in the water-oil tank, and that the appearance and/or the increase of intensity of some bands in the gels were not permanently affected by the introduction of nitrate. On the other hand, the SRB community was stimulated following nitrate treatment. Moreover, sulfide production did not exceed the permissible exposure limit in the water-oil separation tank studied treated with nitrate. Therefore, controlling sulfide production by treating the produced water tank with nitrate could reduce the quantity of chemical biocides required to control microbial activities. PMID:18180965

  7. Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water

    PubMed Central

    Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments. PMID:24499878

  8. The determination of trace lead in drinking water by flow injection spectrophotometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shijun Dai; Xinshen Zhang; Lingyun Yu; Yujie Yang

    2010-01-01

    Lead is the non-essential trace element in the human body, and it has been confirmed that drinking water is one of the sources of lead in human body. In the research, based on the sensitive colour reaction of lead with I?–EV+–PVA, a simple, sensitive, accurate and portable method for the determination of trace lead in drinking waters was proposed. Chemicals

  9. Mobilization of Waterflood Residual Oil by Gas Injection for Water-Wet Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Oren; Joel Billiotte; W. V. Pinczewski

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that mechanisms by which waterflood residual oil is mobilized and recovered during tertiary gasflooding at quasistatic rates and strongly water-wet conditions were investigated with 2D glass micromodels. Two three-phase oil\\/water\\/gas systems were used in the displacement experiments. One system had a positive spreading coefficient, the other a negative coefficient. Results for the two systems were compared to

  10. Large volume injection of water in gas chromatography–mass spectrometry using the Through Oven Transfer Adsorption Desorption interface: Application to multiresidue analysis of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Rosa M; Cortés, Jose M; Andini, Juan C; Villén, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana

    2010-07-01

    In the present work, the potential of the Through Oven Transfer Adsorption Desorption (TOTAD) interface for the large volume injection (LVI) of aqueous samples in gas chromatography (GC) using a mass spectrometry (MS) detector is demonstrated. To this end, a new method for the determination of pesticides in water is presented, being the first developed method in which injection of large amounts of polar solvents using the TOTAD interface and an MS detector are combined, is applied to the determination of pesticides in water. Water samples, as large as 5 ml, were directly injected into a capillary GC. No sample pre-treatment step other than simple filtration was needed. The TOTAD interface allows the introduction of several millilitres of water, while maintaining good chromatographic characteristics. The water is almost entirely eliminated, so that LVI of aqueous samples and an MS detector can be used without problems. Organophosphorus, organochlorine, and triazine pesticides were determined in one run. Calibration curves were linear in the range tested and the sensitivity achieved injecting 5 ml of water sample was sufficient for most of the target pesticides but not for all of them. Sensitivity of the analysis can be improved by increasing the sample volume. No variability was observed in the retention times and relative standard deviations from absolute peak areas were good, considering that they corresponded to the overall analysis. The method was applied to the analysis of pesticide residues in real water samples. PMID:20605155

  11. Hot flue gas filtration: Laboratory tests and projected cost of a combined sorbent injection/filtration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Shemwell, B.E.; Atal, A.

    2000-07-01

    This manuscript provides an update on the technology of flue gas filtration at high temperatures. In this technology the synergistic effects of sorbent injection and filtration are exploited. Calcium-based (or sodium-based) sorbents are sprayed in the post-flame zone of a furnace. The sorbent reacts with sulfur and chlorine in the furnace effluent to form stable salts of calcium. The partially-reacted sorbent is then collected in the filter, which is placed downstream of the sorbent injection point. The sorbent continues to react in the filter for a prolonged period of time. The primary advantage of this technique is that both the likelihood of contact and the period of contact between the solid sorbent particles and the gaseous pollutants (such as SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, HCl, etc.) increase, since reaction takes place in the furnace upstream of the filter as well as inside the filter itself. Hence, the sorbent utilization (i.e., the conversion of sorbent CaO to CaSO{sub 4}, CaSO{sub 3}, CaCl{sub 2}, etc.) increases significantly. The filter is cleaned with periodic aerodynamic regeneration (backpulsing). Using this technique, most of the pollutants, such as SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, HCl and particulate (soot, ash and tar) can be removed from the effluent. Any unburned carbon in the ash may be completely oxidized in the filter. Formation of dioxins in the effluent at lower temperatures should be minimized, since their precursors are captured by the filter. Results show That the sorbent/filter method appears to be less expensive than current technologies, on both capital cost ($/kW) and levelized coat ($/ton pollutant removed) bases, if a limestone/coal mixture is used as the sorbent for the fossil fuel plants. Capital costs for the filter/sorbent combination should be under $63/kW for a new plant, while those for a state of the art compounded wet limestone FGD/SCR/fabric filter at $250--400/kW. Since the existing technologies are designed for removing one pollutant at a time both their cost and space requirement are much higher than those of the technique discussed herein. Moreover, the levelized costs are projected to be as low as $103/ton of combined pollutant SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} and particulates removed.

  12. The immunostimulatory effects of hot-water extract of Gelidium amansii via immersion, injection and dietary administrations on white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Win Fu; Wen-Ying Hou; Su-Tuen Yeh; Chiu-Hsia Li; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2007-01-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, and respiratory burst were examined when white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were immersed in seawater (34‰) containing hot-water extract of red alga Gelidium amansii at 200, 400 and 600mgl?1, injected with hot-water extract at 4 and 6?gg?1 shrimp, and fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0gkg?1. These parameters increased significantly

  13. Safe storage of Co 2 together with improved oil recovery by Co 2-enriched water injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehran Sohrabi; Nor Idah Kechut; Masoud Riazi; Mahmoud Jamiolahmady; Shaun Ireland; Graeme Robertson

    2011-01-01

    The 2007 IEA's World Energy Outlook report predicts that the world's energy needs will grow by 55% between 2005 and 2030, with fossil fuels accounting for 84% of this massive projected increase in energy demand. An undesired side effect of burning fossil fuels is carbon dioxide (CO2) emission which is now widely believed to be responsible for the problem of

  14. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  15. Norway's historical and projected water balance in TWh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Holmqvist, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Hydroelectric power production is closely linked to the water cycle, and variations in power production numbers reflect variations in weather. The expected climate changes will influence electricity supply through changes in annual and seasonal inflow of water to hydropower reservoirs. In Norway, more than 95 percent of the electricity production is from hydroelectric plants, and industry linked to hydropower has been an important part of the society for more than a century. Reliable information on historical and future available water resources is hence of crucial importance both for short and long-term planning and adaptation purposes in the hydropower sector. Traditionally, the Multi-area Power-market Simulator (EMPS) is used for modelling hydropower production in Norway. However, due to the models' high level of details and computational demand, this model is only used for historical analyses and a limited number of climate projections. A method has been developed that transfers water fluxes (mm day-1) and states (mm) into energy units (GWh mm-1), based on hydrological modelling of a limited number of catchments representing reservoir inflow to more than 700 hydropower plants in Norway. The advantages of using the conversion factor method, compared to EMPS, are its simplicity and low computational requirements. The main disadvantages are that it does not take into account flood losses and the time lag between inflow and power production. The method is used operationally for weekly and seasonal energy forecasts, and has proven successful at the range of results obtained for reproducing historical hydropower production numbers. In hydropower energy units, mean annual precipitation for the period 1981-2010 is estimated at 154 TWh year-1. On average, 24 TWh year-1 is lost through evapotranspiration, meaning runoff equals 130 TWh year-1. There are large interannual variations, and runoff available for power production ranges from 91 to 165 TWh year-1. The snow pack on average peaks in the middle of April at 54 TWh, ranging from 33 to 84 TWh. Given its simplicity, the method of using conversion factors is a time and computational efficient way of producing projections of hydropower production potential from an ensemble of climate model simulations. Regional climate model (RCM) projections are obtained from Euro-Cordex, and precipitation and temperature are bias corrected to observation based datasets at 1 km2. Preliminary results, based on an ensemble consisting of 16 members (8 RCMs, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) and transient hydrological simulations for the period 1981-2100, indicate an increase in hydroelectric power production of up to 10 percent by the end of the century, given the effect of climate change alone. The expected increase in temperature causes a negative trend for the energy potential stored in the annual maximum snow pack. At the end of the century (2071-2100), the maximum snow pack holds 43 TWh and 30 TWh for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively, compared to 54 TWh in 1981-2010. The substantial decrease in the peak snow pack is reflected in the seasonally more even inflow to reservoirs expected in the next decades.

  16. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Alexoff, David (Westhampton, NY)

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  17. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  18. 67 FR 48869 - Little Red River Water Management Project; White County, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-07-26

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation...Service Little Red River Water Management Project...U.S. Department of Agriculture, gives notice that an...for the creation of a water management plan to...

  19. 64 FR 9304 - Mill and Deer Creeks Water Exchange Projects; Determination of Primary Purpose of Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-02-25

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation...Mill and Deer Creeks Water Exchange Projects...if the Secretary of Agriculture determines that payments...conserving soil and water resources, protecting...The Secretary of Agriculture evaluates these...

  20. 62 FR 33392 - City of Albany, KY, Cagle Water Expansion Project; Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-06-19

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service...Albany, KY, Cagle Water Expansion Project...required by the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan, which...implemented. Each new agriculture operation would...

  1. 62 FR 19099 - City of Albany, Kentucky, Cagle Water Expansion Project; Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-04-18

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service...Albany, Kentucky, Cagle Water Expansion Project...required by the Kentucky Agriculture Water Quality Plan, which...implemented. Each new agriculture operation would...

  2. 67 FR 44421 - South Logan/Scott Counties Water Supply Project; Logan and Scott Counties, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-07-02

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation...Logan/Scott Counties Water Supply Project; Logan...U.S. Department of Agriculture, gives notice that an...municipal and industrial water supply for the...

  3. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies...51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the...

  4. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more...

  5. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more...

  6. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies...proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the...

  7. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies...proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the...

  8. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more...

  9. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404...agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more...

  10. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies...proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the...

  11. Sequential-injection procedure for determination of iodide in pharmaceutical and drinking water samples by catalytic reaction with spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Erustes, J A; Forteza, R; Cerdà, V

    2001-01-01

    A novel sequential-injection system was developed for determination of iodide at very low concentrations by using a kinetic method. The method is based on the catalytic effect of iodide on the redox reaction between Ce4+ and As3+ first described by Sandell and Kolthoff. The calibration curve is constructed by measuring the decrease of Ce4+ absorbance versus iodide concentration with a delay time of 30 s. The detection limit is 1.5 microg/L, the working temperature is 45 degrees C, and the working range is 0.002-0.5 mg/L. Reasonable agreement was obtained when the method was applied to pharmaceutical and drinking water samples. The method has a sample throughput of approximately 15/h. PMID:11324595

  12. The effect of seasonal changes on the selection of biocide inhibitors for Arabian Gulf seawater for water injection purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hashem, A.; Salman, M.; Al-Muhanna, K.; Al-Bazzaz, W. [Kuwait Inst. for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    1997-08-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the most effective biocide inhibitor for Northern Arabian Gulf Seawater. This seawater will be used for water injection purposes for some oil fields in Kuwait. Arabian Gulf Seawater is known to be very saline during the summer months and less saline during the rainy season of spring. The biocide inhibitors were tested in a rig with six side streams biofouling monitoring tubes (SBMT). Bacterial nutrients were added to the system and carbon steel studs were placed along the tubes of the biocide evaluation test rig (BETR). After a month, a thin, slimy, and black deposit was formed on the carbon steel studs. The deposit contained 107 general aerobic bacteria (GAB), 107 general anaerobic bacteria (GAnB) and 105 sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The most effective biocide inhibitor was found to be a fatty amine aryl quaternary inhibitor at 50% dosage.

  13. Theoretical and experimental study of particle movement and deposition in porous media during water injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Moghadasi; H. Müller-Steinhagen; M. Jamialahmadi; A. Sharif

    2004-01-01

    The flow of particulate suspensions and brines in porous media is encountered in a wide range of industrial situations such as oil production, soil erosion, and ground water pollution and in the operation of filter beds. Three major classes of such problems are addressed in this paper, namely particle movement, deposition and filtration. Particle movement and deposition are known to

  14. Peace and Prospects for International Water Projects in the Jordan-Yarmouk River Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Just; John K. Horowitz; Sinaia Netanyahu

    \\u000a Water scarcity has become acute in many regions because of economic and population growth and resource degradation. Most economically\\u000a feasible but yet undeveloped water projects involve multiple jurisdictions so cooperation is required. This chapter examines\\u000a international cooperation in water sharing, with an application to two potential international water projects between Israel\\u000a and Jordan. The first requires bilateral cooperation between Israel

  15. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Del Puerto Water District. Chowchilla Water District. Orange Cove Irrigation District. James Irrigation District. Tranquility Irrigation District. Kaweah Delta Water Conservation District. To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 (CVPIA) and......

  16. Scenarios of Global Municipal Water-Use Demand Projections over the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Davies, Evan; Eom, Jiyong

    2013-03-06

    This paper establishes three future projections of global municipal water use to the end of the 21st century: A reference business-as usual (BAU) scenario, a High Technological Improvement (High Tech) scenario and a Low Technological Improvement (Low Tech) scenario. A global municipal water demand model is constructed using global water use statistics at the country-scale, calibrated to the base year of 2005, and simulated to the end of the 21st century. Since the constructed water demand model hinges on socioeconomic variables (population, income), water price, and end-use technology and efficiency improvement rates, projections of those input variables are adopted to characterize the uncertainty in future water demand estimates. The water demand model is linked to the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a global change integrated assessment model. Under the reference scenario, the global total water withdrawal increases from 466 km3/year in 2005 to 941 km3/year in 2100,while withdrawals in the high and low tech scenarios are 321 km3/ year and 2000 km3/ year, respectively. This wide range (321-2000 km3/ year) indicates the level of uncertainty associated with such projections. The simulated global municipal demand projections are most sensitive to population and income projections, then to end-use technology and efficiency projections, and finally to water price. Thus, using water price alone as a policy measure to reduce municipal water use may substantiate the share of municipal water price of people’s annual incomes.

  17. The immunostimulatory effects of hot-water extract of Gelidium amansii via immersion, injection and dietary administrations on white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu-Win; Hou, Wen-Ying; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chiu-Hsia; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2007-06-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, and respiratory burst were examined when white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were immersed in seawater (34 per thousand) containing hot-water extract of red alga Gelidium amansii at 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1), injected with hot-water extract at 4 and 6 microg g(-1) shrimp, and fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1). These parameters increased significantly when shrimp were immersed in seawater containing hot-water extract at 400 and 600 mg l(-1) after 1h, when shrimp were injected with hot-water extract at 6 microg g(-1) shrimp after one day, and when shrimp were fed diets containing hot-water extract at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) after 14 days. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly higher for the shrimp that were fed diets containing hot-water extract at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) than those of shrimp that were fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0 and 0.5 g kg(-1) after 14 and 28 days. In a separate experiment, L. vannamei which had received hot-water extract via injection, or fed diets containing hot-water extract, were challenged after 3h or 28 days with V. alginolyticus at 2 x 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and 1 x 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1), respectively, and then placed in seawater. The survival of shrimp that were injected with hot-water extract at 6 microg g(-1) was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 1 day, and the survival of shrimp fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) increased significantly after 3 days as well as at the end of the experiment (6 days after the challenge), respectively. It was concluded that L. vannamei that were immersed in hot-water extract at 400 mg l(-1), injected with hot-water extract at 6 microg g(-1) shrimp, and fed hot-water extract of G. amansii at 2.0 g kg(-1) or less showed increased immune ability as well as resistance to V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:17194604

  18. Project Water Science. General Science High School Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Education Foundation, Sacramento, CA.

    This teacher's guide presents 12 hands-on laboratory activities for high school science classes that cover the environmental issue of water resources in California. The activities are separated into three sections. Five activities in the section on water quality address the topics of groundwater, water hardness, bottled water, water purity, and…

  19. Optimal Operation of Variable Speed Pumping System in China's Eastern Route Project of S-to-N Water Diversion Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jilin Cheng; Lihua Zhang; Rentian Zhang; Yi Gong; Honggeng Zhu; Dongsheng Deng; Xuesong Feng; Jinxian Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic planning model for optimizing operation of variable speed pumping system, aiming at minimum power consumption, was proposed to achieve economic operation. The No. 4 Jiangdu Pumping Station, a source pumping station in China's Eastern Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project, is taken as a study case. Since the sump water level of Jiangdu Pumping Station is affected by

  20. Benchmarking of municipal waste water treatment plants (an Austrian project).

    PubMed

    Lindtner, S; Kroiss, H; Nowak, O

    2004-01-01

    An Austrian research project focused on the development of process indicators for treatment plants with different process and operation modes. The whole treatment scheme was subdivided into four processes, i.e. mechanical pretreatment (Process 1), mechanical-biological waste water treatment (Process 2), sludge thickening and stabilisation (Process 3) and further sludge treatment and disposal (Process 4). In order to get comparable process indicators it was necessary to subdivide the sample of 76 individual treatment plants all over Austria into five groups according to their mean organic load (COD) in the influent. The specific total yearly costs, the yearly operating costs and the yearly capital costs of the four processes have been related to the yearly average of the measured organic load expressed in COD (110 g COD/pe/d). The specific investment costs for the whole treatment plant and for Process 2 have been related to a calculated standard design capacity of the mechanical-biological part of the treatment plant expressed in COD. The capital costs of processes 1, 3 and 4 have been related to the design capacity of the treatment plant. For each group (related to the size of the plant) a benchmark band has been defined for the total yearly costs, the total yearly operational costs and the total yearly capital costs. For the operational costs of the Processes 1 to 4 one benchmark ([see symbol in text] per pe/year) has been defined for each group. In addition a theoretical cost reduction potential has been calculated. The cost efficiency in regard to water protection and some special sub-processes such as aeration and sludge dewatering has been analysed. PMID:15553485

  1. Projected Regime Shift in Arctic Cloud and Water Vapor Feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yonghua; Miller, James R.; Francis, Jennifer; Russel, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The Arctic climate is changing faster than any other large-scale region on Earth. A variety of positive feedback mechanisms are responsible for the amplification, most of which are linked with changes in snow and ice cover, surface temperature (T(sub s)), atmospheric water vapor (WV), and cloud properties. As greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, air temperature and water vapor content also increase, leading to a warmer surface and ice loss, which further enhance evaporation and WV. Many details of these interrelated feedbacks are poorly understood, yet are essential for understanding the pace and regional variations in future Arctic change. We use a global climate model (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere-Ocean Model) to examine several components of these feedbacks, how they vary by season, and how they are projected to change through the 21st century. One positive feedback begins with an increase in T(sub s) that produces an increase in WV, which in turn increases the downward longwave flux (DLF) and T(sub s), leading to further evaporation. Another associates the expected increases in cloud cover and optical thickness with increasing DLF and T(sub s). We examine the sensitivities between DLF and other climate variables in these feedbacks and find that they are strongest in the non-summer seasons, leading to the largest amplification in Ts during these months. Later in the 21st century, however, DLF becomes less sensitive to changes in WV and cloud optical thickness, as they cause the atmosphere to emit longwave radiation more nearly as a black body. This regime shift in sensitivity implies that the amplified pace of Arctic change relative to the northern hemisphere could relax in the future.

  2. [Determination of nitrite in water samples by sequential injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection on chip flow cell].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Fan, Shi-hua

    2005-02-01

    A sequential injection chemiluminescence's system using a chip flow cell was described for the determination of trace amount of nitrite in water samples. Nitride reacted with hydrogen peroxide to form peroxynitrous acid in sulfuric acid medium, which was an unstable in acid medium and subsequently was quenched into peroxynitrite in basic solution. During the composition of peroxynitrite the chemiluminescence intensity was enhanced with the presence of uranin and ethyldimethylcetylammonium bromide. The reaction coil (flow cell) and holding coil was combined for tracking the emission signal. The experimental parameters including physical and chemical parameter were optimized. The interference of cations in water samples was eliminated by passing previously the sample solution through a cation-exchange column. The linear range of the calibration graph was obtained from 1 x 10(-6) to 1 x 10(-4) mol x L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The detection limit at 95% confidence was 6.8 x 10(-7) mol x L(-1). The relative standard deviation at 1 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) nitrite level was 2.7%, and the recovery of 90%-99% and the sampling frequency of 80 h(-1) were obtained. PMID:15852851

  3. Seismic risk analysis for California State Water Project Reach C, 22

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Shah; M. Movassate; T. C. Zsutty

    1976-01-01

    A seismic hazard map for the region described as Reach C for the California Water Project is developed in this report. Reach C is defined as that portion of the California Water Project from Tehachapi afterbay up to and including the Perris Dam and Lake. The key facilities within this reach include Tehachapi afterbay, Cottonwood power plant site, Pearblossom pumping

  4. Enhanced source-water monitoring for New York City: historical framework, political context, and project design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Blaine; Bernard W. Sweeney; David B. Arscott

    2006-01-01

    An enhanced water-quality monitoring project was established in 2000 for streams providing drinking water to New York City (NYC). The project's design considered the history of the NYC source watersheds, and some of the broader issues facing freshwater supply systems in general. NYC's relationship with its watershed has historically been acrimonious and filled with mistrust, a situation that became critical

  5. Comparison of field-enhanced and pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection techniques for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins using CZE.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingqing; Liu, Yaling; Guan, Yu; Jia, Li

    2009-04-01

    A new online concentration method, namely pressure-assisted field-enhanced sample injection (PA-FESI), was developed and compared with FESI for the analysis of water-soluble vitamins by CZE with UV detection. In PA-FESI, negative voltage and positive pressure were simultaneously applied to initialize PA-FESI. PA-FESI uses the hydrodynamic flow generated by the positive pressure to counterbalance the reverse EOF in the capillary column during electrokinetic sample injection, which allowed a longer injection time than usual FESI mode without compromising the separation efficiency. Using the PA-FESI method, the LODs of the vitamins were at ng/mL level based on the S/N of 3 and the RSDs of migration time and peak area for each vitamin (1 microg/mL) were less than 5.1%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of water-soluble vitamins in corns. PMID:19224630

  6. Bioavailability of diazepam after intramuscular injection of its water-soluble prodrug alone or with atropine–pralidoxime in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Abbara, C; Rousseau, JM; Turcant, A; Lallement, G; Comets, E; Bardot, I; Clair, P; Diquet, B

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the relative bioavailability of diazepam after administration of diazepam itself or as a water-soluble prodrug, avizafone, in humans. Experimental approach: The study was conducted in an open, randomized, single-dose, three-way, cross-over design. Each subject received intramuscular injections of avizafone (20 mg), diazepam (11.3 mg) or avizafone (20 mg) combined with atropine (2 mg) and pralidoxime (350 mg) using a bi-compartmental auto-injector (AIBC). Plasma concentrations of diazepam were quantified using a validated LC/MS–MS assay, and were analysed by both a non-compartmental approach and by compartmental modelling. Key results: The maximum concentration (Cmax) of diazepam after avizafone injection was higher than that obtained after injection of diazepam itself (231 vs. 148 ng·mL?1), while area under the curve (AUC) values were equal. Diazepam concentrations reached their maximal value faster after injection of avizafone. Injection of avizafone with atropine–pralidoxime (AIBC) had no effect on diazepam Cmax and AUC, but the time to Cmax was increased, relative to avizafone injected alone. According to the Akaike criterion, the pharmacokinetics of diazepam after injection as a prodrug was best described as a two-compartment with zero-order absorption model. When atropine and pralidoxime were injected with avizafone, the best pharmacokinetic model was a two-compartment with a first-order absorption model. Conclusion and implications: Diazepam had a faster entry to the general circulation and achieved higher Cmax after injection of prodrug than after the parent drug. Administration of avizafone in combination with atropine and pralidoxime by AIBC had no significant effect on diazepam AUC and Cmax. PMID:19681868

  7. Flow Injection Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for Determination of Arsenic in Water and Biological Samples from Arsenic-Affected Districts of West Bengal, India, and Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gautam Samanta; Tarit Roy Chowdhury; Badal K. Mandal; Bhajan K. Biswas; Uttam K. Chowdhury; Gautam K. Basu; Chitta R. Chanda; Dilip Lodh; Dipankar Chakraborti

    1999-01-01

    The increasing concern over human exposure to arsenic in West Bengal and Bangladesh has necessitated the development of a rapid method for determination of trace levels of arsenic in water and biological samples. We have developed a simple indigenous flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) system for the determination of arsenic in parts-per-billion levels in water and biological

  8. Experimental evaluation of in situ CO2-water-rock reactions during CO2 injection in basaltic rocks: Implications for geological CO2 sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juerg M. Matter; Taro Takahashi; David Goldberg

    2007-01-01

    Deep aquifers are potential long-term storage sites for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The retention time and environmental safety of the injected CO2 depend on geologic and physical factors and on the chemical reactions between the CO2, the aquifer water, and the host rocks. The pH buffer capacity of the aquifer water and the acid neutralization potential of the host rocks are

  9. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Johansen

    2011-09-01

    Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

  10. An automated sequential injection analysis system for the determination of trace endotoxin levels in water.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Gautam; Zhang, Shuming; Dasgupta, Purnendu

    2003-01-01

    A new automated instrument based on the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-chromogenic substrate kinetic assay for the determination of bacterial endotoxins is reported. A computer controlled syringe pump-multiport valve combination was used to aspirate the sample and other reagents into a holding coil. The syringe was always filled with air; liquid did not enter the syringe. The valve could address up to four individual radial paths, fully referenced optical fiber LED-based absorbance detectors that were housed collectively in a single, small (20 x 20 x 30 mm) metal block with a heater and temperature sensor, and maintained at 37 degrees C. Assay mixtures containing sample or standards were delivered to the individual detector cells for the simultaneous collection of the time based absorbance data. The automated system determined endotoxins with good accuracy and reproducibility in the range of 0.005-0.5 endotoxin units (EU)/mL (r2 > or = 0.99). Based on three times the standard deviation of the blank and the slope of the calibration curve, the lower limit of detection was < or = 0.003 EU/mL. The variability of the assay method is less than 5% (n = 10). Analysis time required for a 0.005 EU/mL standard was <100 min. Appropriately diluted tap water samples were simultaneously analyzed by the present system and a manually loaded commercial microplate reader based instrument; the data were statistically indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level. PMID:12643503

  11. FP7 project MyWater - Merging hydrologic models and EO data for reliable information on Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Antonio; Chambel, Pedro; Silva, Adélio; Velickov, Slavco; van Andel, Schalk; Toth, Gergely; Almeida, Waldenio; Mako, Andras; Alexandridis, Thomas; Cugala, Domigos

    2013-04-01

    21st century reality already sees 2.5 billion people without adequate access to water, whilst climate changes lead to dramatically changing water resources availability and needs. These changes will influence all citizens, and authorities will need more reliable information to adapt to the new situation. The MyWater project responds to these challenges, implementing a new information platform which integrates data from three scientific research areas - earth observation, catchment modelling and meteorology - to better access hydrological processes. This platform will allow a quasi-automatic service chains which output user tailored results like: drinking water needs (quantity and quality), agriculture water needs, water health related indicators, flood scenarios, etc. Overall, MyWater will provide reliable information on water quantity, quality and usage for appropriate water management, improving knowledge and creating the forecasting capabilities necessary to catchment managers, and at the same time optimizing the ratio cost/benefit of water resources monitoring. The work presented regards to the FP7-EU project "Merging hydrological models and Earth observation data for reliable information on water - MyWater".

  12. Theoretical analysis of injecting the compressed air through a defensive well into aquifer aimed to separate between polluted and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, M.; Ravina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Injecting a compressed air, through a well, located between the sea or a polluted lake and fresh ground water, creates a "hydraulic barrier" that prevents their mixing. Steady influx of air to a saturated soil produces a pressure gradient from the well and replacement of water by air, hence the interface between air and water increases. After the compression process is stopped, the soil pores are filled with air, so that saturated soil becomes unsaturated with a decreased conductivity. Creating such a barrier, first by the air pressure and second by blocking of the pores, is welcomed at the interface sea-fresh water area, for example. It prevents the loss of fresh water to the sea and it decreases sea water movement into the aquifer. Another positive effect of the air injection is the air flow through unsaturated zone, above the ground water, that decreases polluted water down-seepage from the surface thus defending the fresh ground water against pollution. The regular water well or special drilled one will be used as defensive well. The radius of defensive well can be smaller than the one of the water well. The explanation of the defensive well exploitation in the field for one and multi layer aquifers is presented. Analytical evaluations of the pressure loss and shape of the air-water interfaces in saturated soil are presented for: (a) steady air flow for a one layer aquifer and for a three layer one (leaky aquifer case), (b) transient air flow for a one layer aquifer. It is shown that the shape of air-water interfaces is generally an inverted cone, where the decrease of air pressure in the aquifer with the distance from the well is approximately logarithmic. The necessary pressure to create the effective air flow in the aquifer is only about tens percent higher than static water pressure in the well.

  13. Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) –Development History, Model Capabilities and Future Enhancements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) was initiated in August 1985 to develop new generation water erosion prediction technology for use by federal agencies involved in soil and water conservation and environmental planning and assessment. Developed by USDA-ARS as a replacement for empirically...

  14. 59 FR- Bear Butte Water Users Association Pipeline Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Soil Conservation Service Bear Butte Water Users Association Pipeline...U.S. Department of Agriculture, gives notice that an Environmental...prepared for the Bear Butte Water Users Association...

  15. Bureau of Reclamation Historic Dams and Water Projects: Managing Water in the West

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Those who have traveled through the western United States can attest to the scale of the massive earth-moving projects that dominate aspects of the landscape. Massive dams and expansive irrigation systems are part of the work of the Bureau of Reclamation, the nation's largest supplier of water and second largest producer of hydroelectric power. This remarkable tour of some of these sites is part of an initiative started by the National Park Service. Visitors will find six areas to explore on the site, including Essays, List of Sites, Maps, and an Introduction. The Essays area offers some nice meditations on the work of the Bureau and its many achievements, while the List of Sites includes information about dozens of locales, including Shasta Dam, Hoover Dam, and the Hungry Horse Dam in Montana. Finally, the Maps area is a great way to figure out your own plan for exploring these magnificent structures.

  16. Seymour Aquifer Water Quality Improvement Project Final Report 

    E-print Network

    Sij, J.; Morgan, C.; Belew, M.; Jones, D.; Wagner, K.

    2008-01-01

    , Wilbarger, and Fisher counties exceeded the federal safe drinking water standard (10 mg/L NO3-N). This high concentration is a concern because although 90% of the water pumped from the aquifer is used for irrigation, it is also used as a municipal water...

  17. Water contamination in fallout areas. Project No. 7806

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Robeck; R. L. Woodward; W. K. Muschler

    1958-01-01

    An evaluation of the potential radiological hazard to Air Force personnel from drinking water contaminated with fission products is presented. Ground water supplies should be safe from fallout contamination and only surface supplies may need special treatment. Even in untreated water, the radioactivity in surface supplies is not likely to reduce significantly the military effectiveness of personnel using it except

  18. Building New Water Resources Projects or Managing Existing Systems?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Buras

    2000-01-01

    The planning of regional water resources systems and their subsequent management has to rest firmly on three foundations: availability of water of adequate quality, demand for water expressed quantitatively for specific periods of time, and direct, indirect, and externality costs. Mathematical models of hydrosystems represent only a segment of the real world. The basic science of hydrology is an empirical

  19. The Project The Southern Region Water Quality Regional Coordination Project is designed to promote regional collaboration,

    E-print Network

    issues: · Drinking Water and Human Health · Environmental Restoration · Waste Management · Nutrient to protect and restore water resources. Effective approaches for watershed management, pollution prevention and Pesticide Management · Pollution Assessment and Prevention · Watershed Management · Water Quantity

  20. Analysis of thiabendazole, 4-tert-octylphenol and chlorpyrifos in waste and sewage water by direct injection – micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cano, Ricard; Kassuha, Diego; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Roca-Genovés, Pasqual; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2015-03-01

    A micellar liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of the pesticides thiabendazole and chlorpyrifos, as well as an alkylphenol, which is included in pesticide formulations, i.e., 4-tert-octylphenol, in water. A sample was filtered and directly injected, avoiding large extraction steps using toxic solvents, thus expediting the experimental procedure. The contaminants were eluted without interferences in <17 min, using a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate – 6% 1-pentanol buffered at pH 3, running through a C18 column at 1 mL min(-1) under the isocratic mode. This optimal mobile phase was selected using a statistical approach, which considers the retention factor, efficiency and peak shape of the analytes measured in only a few mobile phases. The detection was carried out by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in terms of specificity, calibration range (0.5-10 mg L(-1)), linearity (r(2) > 0.994), limit of detection and quantification (0.2-0.3; and 0.5-0.8 mg L(-1), respectively), intra- and interday accuracy (95.2-102.9%), precision (<8.3%), and ruggedness (<9.3%). The stability in storage conditions (at least 14 days) was studied. The method was safe, inexpensive, produced little pollutant and has a short analysis time, thus it is useful for the routine analysis of samples. Finally, the method was applied to analyse wastewater from the fruit-processing industry, wastewater treatment plants, and in sewage water belonging to the Castelló area (Spain). The results were similar to those obtained by an already reliable method. PMID:25604004

  1. Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

  2. Ultrasensitive determination of diphacinone by flow injection chemiluminescence: application to quantification in biofluids and photodegradation monitoring in water samples.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua; Chen, Donghua; Lv, Airu

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasensitive, quick, and simple approach for the determination of pg levels of diphacinone (DPN) by flow injection chemiluminescence (CL) analysis is proposed for the first time. It is based on the quenching effect of DPN on the CL intensity from a luminol-bovine serum albumin (BSA) CL system, for which the CL intensity decrease was linearly proportional to the logarithm of DPN concentration in the range of 5.0 to 5000 pg/mL. The LOD for DPN determination was as low as 2.0 pg/mL (3? a), and the RSD values were less than 5.0%. One determination cycle that included sampling and washing could be performed in 0.5 min with a sample throughput of 120/h under the optimum experimental conditions. This proposed method was successfully applied to determining DPN in human gastric juice and serum samples with recoveries from 91.8 to 114.3%, and to continuous monitoring of the degradation of DPN in water samples exposed to sunlight during 43 h with a variation ratio of 99.99%. The possible interaction behavior of BSA-DPN is briefly discussed. PMID:25632450

  3. 43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous...

  4. Apparent Km of mitochondria for oxygen computed from Vmax measured in permeabilized muscle fibers is lower in water enriched in oxygen by electrolysis than injection

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Joffrey; Bouitbir, Jamal; Sirvent, Pascal; Klein, Alexis; Charton, Antoine; Jimenez, Liliana; Péronnet, François R; Geny, Bernard; Richard, Ruddy

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that oxygen (O2) diffusion could be favored in water enriched in O2 by a new electrolytic process because of O2 trapping in water superstructures (clathrates), which could reduce the local pressure/content relationships for O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along PO2 gradients. Materials and methods Mitochondrial respiration was compared in situ in saponin-skinned fibers isolated from the soleus muscles of Wistar rats, in solution enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process 1) at an O2 concentration decreasing from 240 µmol/L to 10 µmol/L (132 mmHg to 5 mmHg), with glutamate–malate or N, N, N?, N?-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD)–ascorbate (with antimycin A) as substrates; and 2) at increasing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentration with glutamate–malate as substrate. Results As expected, maximal respiration decreased with O2 concentration and, when compared to glutamate–malate, the apparent Km O2 of mitochondria for O2 was significantly lower with TMPD–ascorbate with both waters. However, when compared to the water enriched in O2 by injection, the Km O2 was significantly lower with both electron donors in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. This was not associated with any increase in the sensitivity of mitochondria to ADP; no significant difference was observed for the Km ADP between the two waters. Conclusion In this experiment, a higher affinity of the mitochondria for O2 was observed in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis than by injection. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that O2 diffusion can be facilitated in water enriched in O2 by the electrolytic process.

  5. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology Program: Blast furnace granulated coal injection system demonstration project: A project proposed by: Bethlehem Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC), of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, has requested financial assistance from DOE for the design, construction, and operation of a 2800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for each of two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. BFGCI technology involves injecting coal directly into an iron-making blast furnace and subsequently reduces the need for coke on approximately a pound of coke for pound of coal basis. BFGCI also increases blast furnace production. Coke will be replaced with direct coal injection at a rate of up to 400 pounds per NTHM. The reducing environment of the blast furnace enables all of the sulfur in the coal to be captured by the slag and hot metal. The gases exiting the blast furnace are cleaned by cyclones and then wet scrubbing to remove particulates. The cleaned blast furnace gas is then used as a fuel in plant processes. There is no measurable sulfur in the off gas. The primary environmental benefits derived from blast furnace coal injection result from the reduction of coke requirements for iron making. Reduced coke production will result in reduced releases of environmental contaminants from coking operations. 5 figs.

  6. Optimizations of packed sorbent and inlet temperature for large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography to determine high boiling volatile organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bofan; Song, Yonghui; Han, Lu; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongliang

    2014-08-22

    For the expanded application area, fast trace analysis of certain high boiling point (i.e., 150-250 °C) volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in water, a large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography (LV-DAI-GC) method was optimized for the following parameters: packed sorbent for sample on-line pretreatment, inlet temperature and detectors configuration. Using the composite packed sorbent self-prepared with lithium chloride and a type of diatomite, the method enabled safe injection of an approximately 50-100 ?L sample at an inlet temperature of 150 °C in the splitless mode and separated HVOCs from water matrix in 2 min. Coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), an electron capture detector (ECD) and a flame photometric detector (FPD), the method could simultaneously quantify 27 HVOCs that belong to seven subclasses (i.e., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzenes, anilines, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulfides) in 26 min. Injecting a 50 ?L sample without any enrichment step, such as cryotrap focusing, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 27 HVOCs was 0.01-3 ?g/L. Replicate analyses of the 27 HVOCs spiked source and river water samples exhibited good precision (relative standard deviations ? 11.3%) and accuracy (relative errors ? 17.6%). The optimized LV-DAI-GC was robust and applicable for fast determination and automated continuous monitoring of HVOCs in surface water. PMID:24997514

  7. Erosion Control Progress in the HUA IDAHO SNAKE-PAYETTE RIVERS --HUA WATER QUALITY PROJECT FINAL REPORT

    E-print Network

    O'Laughlin, Jay

    Erosion Control Progress in the HUA IDAHO SNAKE-PAYETTE RIVERS -- HUA WATER QUALITY PROJECT FINAL water quality within the HUA used in #12;2 -- Erosion Control IDAHO SNAKE-PAYETTE RIVERS -- HUA WATER QUALITY PROJECT FINAL REPORT this 8-year project was improved erosion control methods. Erosion control

  8. 77 FR 76512 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Water Delivery for the Operation of Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...Water Delivery for the Operation of Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs...owns, operates, and maintains 15 irrigation projects that provide a service to the...information in its regulations governing its irrigation projects (25 CFR part 171)....

  9. Self-help in a rural water project.

    PubMed

    Narayan-Parker, D

    1990-01-01

    Measures taken to improve water supplies in four Indonesian villages are described. Women played a leading part and both they and their children, as bearers of water, benefited significantly when the scheme came to fruition. Increased vegetable production and better health were among other gains accruing to the communities. PMID:2291801

  10. Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Petersen; J. Ali-Adeeb; T. Cerling; M. Chan; D. Chapman; L. Cohen; M. Davis; D. Chapmandearing; S. Hill; S. Hynek; L. Millward; S. O'Grady; L. Richards; K. Solomon; S. Sampson; J. Schafer; L. Zanno; E. Zipser

    2004-01-01

    Project WEST (Water, the Environment, Science, and Teaching) is a graduate student fellowship program funded by a GK-12 grant from the National Science Foundation. WEST links the University of Utah, the Utah Museum of Natural History, and the Salt Lake City school district in enhancing inquiry based science teaching in grades 4, 8, and 9 and the interdisciplinary training of

  11. NEWS Climatology Project: The State of the Water Cycle at Continental to Global Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodell, Matthew; LEcuyer, Tristan; Beaudoing, Hiroko Kato; Olson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Energy and Water Cycle Study (NEWS) program fosters collaborative research towards improved quantification and prediction of water and energy cycle consequences of climate change. In order to measure change, it is first necessary to describe current conditions. The goal of the NEWS Water and Energy Cycle Climatology project is to develop "state of the global water cycle" and "state of the global energy cycle" assessments based on data from modern ground and space based observing systems and data integrating models. The project is a multiinstitutional collaboration with more than 20 active contributors. This presentation will describe results of the first stage of the water budget analysis, whose goal was to characterize the current state of the water cycle on mean monthly, continental scales. We examine our success in closing the water budget within the expected uncertainty range and the effects of forcing budget closure as a method for refining individual flux estimates.

  12. Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, Judy I.

    2007-01-01

    The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

  13. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Annual progress report for 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, S.H.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes progress during 1987 of five Hanford Site ground water monitoring projects. Four of these projects are being conducted according to regulations based on the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the state Hazardous Waste Management Act. The fifth project is being conducted according to regulations based on the state Solid Waste Management Act. The five projects discussed herein are: 300 Area Process Trenches; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins; 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds; Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill; Solid Waste Landfill. For each of the projects, there are included, as applicable, discussions of monitoring well installations, water-table measurements, background and/or downgradient water quality and results of chemical analysis, and extent and rate of movement of contaminant plumes. 14 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. 43 CFR 404.54 - Who will hold title to a rural water project that is constructed following the completion of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Who will hold title to a rural water project that is constructed...404.54 Who will hold title to a rural water project that is constructed...under this program? Title to any rural water project planned, designed...

  15. Cultural changes and water-asset realignment to support water-reuse projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G Mann

    2003-01-01

    Although product and energy integration is cornerstones in the design and operation of large, integrated chemical plants, generally the effective use of water is not. Water is regarded as cheap, non-hazardous and readily available. The awareness of environmental impacts and the ‘true’ cost of water have made water-systems optimization (WSO) an important topic. The optimization of water use at large,

  16. Income-based projections of water footprint of food consumption in Uzbekistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djanibekov, Nodir; Frohberg, Klaus; Djanibekov, Utkur

    2013-11-01

    Assessing future water requirements for feeding the growing population of Central Asia can improve understanding of the projected water supply scenarios in the region. Future water requirements will be partially determined by the dietary habits of the populations, and are thus responsive to significant variation of income levels. Using Uzbekistan as an example, this study projects the water footprints of income driven changes on the population's diet in Central Asia. To reveal the influence of large income changes on dietary habits a Normalized Quadratic-Quadratic Expenditure System was calibrated and applied to data from 2009. The national water footprints of food consumption in Uzbekistan were projected until 2034 by applying the parameterized demand system to estimate the respective water footprint values. The results showed that for Uzbekistan the projected increase in the food consumption water footprint would be primarily linked to income growth rather than population growth. Due to the high water footprint of common food products, the composition of the population's diet, and responsiveness to income, economic growth is expected to put greater pressure on water resources in Uzbekistan unless proper measures are undertaken.

  17. Sustainable Hydro Assessment and Groundwater Recharge Projects (SHARP) in Germany - Water Balance Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemand, C.; Kuhn, K.; Schwarze, R.

    2010-12-01

    SHARP is a European INTERREG IVc Program. It focuses on the exchange of innovative technologies to protect groundwater resources for future generations by considering the climate change and the different geological and geographical conditions. Regions involved are Austria, United Kingdom, Poland, Italy, Macedonia, Malta, Greece and Germany. They will exchange practical know-how and also determine know-how demands concerning SHARP’s key contents: general groundwater management tools, artificial groundwater recharge technologies, groundwater monitoring systems, strategic use of groundwater resources for drinking water, irrigation and industry, techniques to save water quality and quantity, drinking water safety plans, risk management tools and water balance models. SHARP Outputs & results will influence the regional policy in the frame of sustainable groundwater management to save and improve the quality and quantity of groundwater reservoirs for future generations. The main focus of the Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Landscape in this project is the enhancement and purposive use of water balance models. Already since 1992 scientists compare different existing water balance models on different scales and coupled with groundwater models. For example in the KLIWEP (Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for the Catchment of River Parthe in Saxony) project the coupled model WaSiM-ETH - PCGEOFIM® has been used to study the impact of climate change on water balance and water supplies. The project KliWES (Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change Projections on Water and Matter Balance for Catchment Areas in Saxony) still running, comprises studies of fundamental effects of climate change on catchments in Saxony. Project objective is to assess Saxon catchments according to the vulnerability of their water resources towards climate change projections in order to derive region-specific recommendations for management actions. The model comparisons within reference areas showed significant differences in outcome. The values of water balance components calculated with different models partially fluctuate by a multiple of their value. The SHARP project was prepared in several previous projects that were testing suitable water balance models and is now able to assist the knowledge transfer.

  18. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Durango, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the routine monitoring stations at the site. The ground water data are used to characterize the site ground water compliance strategies and to monitor contaminants of potential concern identified in the baseline risk assessment (DOE, 1995a). Regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

  19. The effects of cold water injection and two-phase flow on skin factor and permeability estimates from pressure falloff analysis 

    E-print Network

    Linge, Frode

    1984-01-01

    to two-phase flow effect. This has signif1cant implicat1ons on operational decis1ons concerning stimulation or water inject1vity improvements. The permeability estimated from Horner analysis using falloff data reflecting the effect of the undisturbed... OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY Wellbore Heat Transport Pressure Falloff Analysis WELLBORE HEAT TRANSPORT MODEL NON-ISOTHERMAL TWO-PHASE FLOW MODEL Governing Equations Solution Technique Verification SIMULATION RUNS...

  20. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  1. Projecting Continental U.S. Water Stress Based on Global Datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Kodra, Evan [Northeastern University; Steinhaeuser, Karsten [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [Northeastern University

    2012-01-01

    Human populations may be adversely impacted by water stress, a situation which is commonly defined as a per capita water availability of less than 1700 cubic meters of freshwater per person per year. Water stress may result from either overuse of available freshwater resources or a reduction in the amount of available water due to decreases in rainfall and stored water supplies. Analyzing the interrelationship between human populations and water availability is complicated by the uncertainties associated with climate change projections and population projections. We have developed a simple methodology to integrate disparate climate and population data sources and develop first-order per capita water availability projections at the global scale. Simulations from the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) forced with a range of hypothetical greenhouse gas emissions scenarios have been used to project grid-based changes in precipitation minus evapotranspiration as proxies for changes in runoff, or fresh water supply. Population growth changes, according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) storylines, have been used as proxies for changes in fresh water demand by 2025, 2050 and 2100. These freshwater supply and demand projections have then been combined to yield estimates of per capita water availability aggregated by U.S. watershed. Results suggest that important insights might be extracted from the use of the process developed here, including the identification of potentially vulnerable areas in need of more detailed analysis. This high-level analysis also illustrates the relative importance of population growth versus climate change in in altering future freshwater supplies. However, these are only exemplary insights and, as such, could be considered hypotheses that should be rigorously tested with multiple climate models, multiple observational climate datasets, and more comprehensive population growth projections.

  2. Development of Chengdu and sustainable utilization of the ancient Dujiangyan Water-Conservancy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; You, J.; Yang, P.; Chai, X.

    2015-05-01

    The Dujiangyan Water-Conservancy Project is a great water irrigation works in Chinese cultural history, which led the Min River water to the vast Chengdu Plain, and created fertile and pretty "land of abundance". Now Chengdu is facing increased water demand stress due mainly to rapid urbanization. This paper first analyses the available water resources of Chengdu based on historical hydrological data from 1964 to 2008. The results show that the average annual water resources were 8.9 billion m3 in 1986 and 7.9 billion m3 in 2008 under various environmental conditions. The future tendency of water demand in city development planning is predicted by the Policy Dialogue Model (PODIUM). Finally, the strategies for water resources exploitation accompanying the sustainable development pattern are studied. The result illustrates that rational and careful management are required to balance the gap between water supply and demand

  3. El Dorado County Water Systems Energy Generation Project

    E-print Network

    .energy.ca.gov/research/renewable/ May 2011 The Issue The water supply, conveyance, treatment, and hydroelectricity generation industry #12;CEC-500-2012-FS-014 · Analyzing the recommendations from a recent El Dorado County Hydroelectric

  4. 2-D Numerical Simulation of Flooding Effects Caused by South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-po SUN; Hai XUE; Peng-tao WANG; Rui-li LU; Xiao-long LIAO

    2008-01-01

    Since the General Channel designed for the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China has to cross many rivers and streams flowing from west to east, there are potentially serious effects additional flooding on the western side of the project alignment. Therefore, a 2-D numerical model for forecasting basin flood disasters was established and verified using historical flood data. The model

  5. Determination of Potassium, Sodium, and Total Alkalies in Portland Cement, Fly Ash, Admixtures, and Water of Concrete by a Simple Flow Injection Flame Photometric System

    PubMed Central

    Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-01-01

    A simple flow injection with flame photometric detection has been developed for determination of sodium, potassium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete. A liquid sample or a digest of solid sample was injected into a water carrier stream which flowed to a flame photometer. A change in emission intensity at a selected wavelength was recorded as a peak. An amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the flame photometer. Calibration graphs in the range of 0.05–1.0?mg?L?1 and 1.0–20.0?mg?L?1 were obtained with a detection limit of 0.02?mg?L?1, for both potassium and sodium determination. Relative standard deviations for 11 replicates of injecting of 10?mg?L?1 potassium and sodium solutions were 1.69 and 1.79%, respectively. Sample throughput of 120?h?1 was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water samples validated by the ASTM standard method and certified reference materials of portland cement. PMID:21747733

  6. Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

    2006-06-01

    A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

  7. Solar hot water demonstration project at Red Star Industrial Laundry, Fresno, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The performance of a Solar Hot Water System at a laundry in Fresno, California is described. The system features an integrated wastewater heat recovery subsystem and a solar preheating system designed to supply a part of the hot water requirements. Performance data for a six month period are projected to an annual savings of $18,703.

  8. Implementation of Channel-Routing Routines in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based, continuous-simulation, watershed hydrology and erosion model. It is an important tool for water erosion simulation owing to its unique functionality in representing diverse landuse and management conditions. Its applicability is l...

  9. Project plan for the decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory Experimental Boiling Water Reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boing

    1989-01-01

    In 1956, the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) Facility was first operated at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as a test reactor to demonstrate the feasibility of operating an integrated power plant using a direct cycle boiling water reactor as a heat source. In 1967, ANL permanently shut down the EBWR and placed it in dry lay-up. This project plan presents

  10. PROJECTED GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON WATER TEMPERATURE IN FIVE NORTH CENTRAL U.S. STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of projected global climate change due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 on water temperatures in five streams in Minnesota was estimated using a deterministic heat transport model. he model calculates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the water and is driven by ...

  11. Experimental investigation of water injection in subsonic diffuser of a conical inlet operation at free-stream Mach number of 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beke, Andrew

    1957-01-01

    A spike-type nose inlet with sharp-lip cowl was investigated at a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 with water injection in its 16-inch diameter, 11-foot-long subsonic diffuser section. Inlet total temperature of exit with liquid-air ratios of about 0.04 with no apparent change in the critical pressure recovery. The observed temperature drops were less than the theoretically predicted values, and the amount of water evaporated was 35 to 50 percent less than that theoretically possible.

  12. Gas-Water-Rock Interactions in Saline Aquifers Following CO2 Injection: Results From Frio Formation, Texas, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. K. Kharaka; D. R. Cole; W. D. Gunter; J. J. Thordsen; E. Kakouros

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, ~16 million kg of CO2 were injected at ~1,500-m depth into a 24-m sandstone section of the Frio Formation - a regional brine and oil reservoir in the U. S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before, during and post CO2

  13. Improved On-Column Injection System and Large Volume Needle Trap Device Used in Water Headspace Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Tölgyessy; Ján Hriv?ák; Eva Král’ovi?ová; Danica Barloková

    2010-01-01

    An improvement of the on-column injection system for the use of large diameter inside needle capillary adsorption trap devices\\u000a is presented. A modified glass liner in combination with a gas tight glass fitting, used in the conventional split\\/splitless\\u000a gas chromatographic inlet, enables to keep impurities desorbing from the outside of the needle trap and septum from being\\u000a injected into the

  14. Surface Water and Ocean Topography Mission (SWOT) Project

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    not be relied on for official purposes. The current version is in PDMS at: https://pdms.jpl JPL D-61923 #12;Initial Release JPL D-61923 04/10/2014 SWOT Science Requirements Document ii Prepared and Issued by SWOT NASA/JPL Project Document Custodian: _______________________ Ernesto Rodríguez

  15. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent C. Tidwell; Barbara D. Moreland; Katie M. Zemlick; Barry L. Roberts; Howard D. Passell; Daniel Jensen; Christopher Forsgren; Gerald Sehlke; Margaret A. Cook; Carey W. King

    2014-06-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  16. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  17. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  18. Preventing diarrhoea with household ceramic water filters: Assessment of a pilot project in Bolivia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Clasen; Joseph Brown; Simon M. Collin

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent diarrhoea in a rural community in central Bolivia, an international non-governmental organization implemented a pilot project to improve drinking water quality using gravity-fed, household-based, ceramic water filters. We assessed the performance of the filters by conducting a five-month randomized controlled trial among all 60 households in the pilot community. Water filters eliminated thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms

  19. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on the Performance of Major Water Projects over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Q.; Liu, X.; Yin, Y. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The terrestrial water cycle has been largely altered by water projects in China. Since 1950, half of the world's large dams over 15 m height have been built in China. The installed hydropower capacity in China was 249 GW in 2012, accounting for about one-fifth of the total installed hydropower capacity of the world. China has also pursued an ambitious effort, the South-North Water Diversion Project, to transfer 44.8 billion m3 of freshwater annually from southern China to the drier north. Climate change is expected to result in changes in land surface hydrology, thus pose a huge challenge to water management. The potential impacts of climate change on the performance of the major water projects are yet to be assessed. We used a land surface hydrological model together with a simple treatment of reservoir operation to assess the impact of hydrological change on the functions of the major water projects under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) climate and socio-economic scenarios. The bias-corrected climate data from global climate models under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were used to drive the hydrological model. The operation of 474 major reservoirs was considered with an operating rule to generate maximum possible hydroelectricity and to fulfill water diversion demands. The future socioeconomic conditions, the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), were used to estimate the water requirement and leverage the water diversion. The modeling results suggest that climate change would have negative impacts on hydropower production and water supply reliability in China. This research highlights the need to evaluate the performance change of existing water infrastructures and to develop adaptation strategy in sustainable water management in a changing environment.

  20. Impact analysis of government investment on water projects in the arid Gansu Province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhan; Deng, Xiangzheng; Li, Xiubin; Zhou, Qing; Yan, Haiming

    In this paper, we introduced three-nested Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) production function into a static Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) Model. Through four levels of factor productivity, we constructed three nested production function of land use productivity in the conceptual modeling frameworks. The first level of factor productivity is generated by the basic value-added land. On the second level, factor productivity in each sector is generated by human activities that presents human intervention to the first level of factor productivity. On the third level of factor productivity, water allocation reshapes the non-linear structure of transaction among first and second levels. From the perspective of resource utilization, we examined the economic efficiency of water allocation. The scenario-based empirical analysis results show that the three-nested CES production function within CGE model is well-behaved to present the economy system of the case study area. Firstly, water scarcity harmed economic production. Government investment on water projects in Gansu thereby had impacts on economic outcomes. Secondly, huge governmental financing on water projects bring depreciation of present value of social welfare. Moreover, water use for environment adaptation pressures on water supply. The theoretical water price can be sharply increased due to the increasing costs of factor inputs. Thirdly, water use efficiency can be improved by water projects, typically can be benefited from the expansion of water-saving irrigation areas even in those expanding dry area in Gansu. Therefore, increasing governmental financing on water projects can depreciate present value of social welfare but benefit economic efficiency for future generation.

  1. Implications of the Projected Future Climate on Water Resources in the Indian Sub-continent Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, H. L.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability of water resources is vital for agricultural and socio-economic development in India. In the recent few decades, India has been witnessing erratic nature of the Indian summer monsoon, which accounts for about 80% of the total annual rainfall. While there is a large uncertainty in the precipitation projections during the summer monsoon from the regional and global climate models, we need to understand sensitivity of water resources in the Indian sub-continental river basins under the projected future climate. This is particularly important as the Indian sub-continent is one of the most populated regions of the world. We evaluated changes in water budget in the 18 Indian sub-continental basins under the projected future climate using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The VIC model was calibrated and evaluated using the observed streamflow as well as satellite derived evapotranspiration and soil moisture. After the successful calibration and evaluation, we performed a sensitivity analysis for the water balance variables. Finally, we used downscaled and bias corrected climate forcings to develop scenarios of changes in water balance under the future climate. Despite the intermodal variation, Indian basins are projected to experience wetter and warmer climate in future. Results indicate positive changes in evapotranspiration and runoff under the projected future climate; however, increases in total runoff are projected to be significant in most of the basins in the sub-continent.

  2. Laboratory Seismic Monitoring and X-ray CT imaging of Supercritical CO2 Injection in Reservoir Sand: WESTCAB King Island Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, S.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Harper, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Central Valley of California contains promising locations for on-shore geologic CO2 storage. DOE's WESTCARB (West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership) project drilled and cored a borehole (Citizen Green Well) at King Island (near Stockton, CA) to study the CO2 storage capability of saline and gas-bearing formations in the southwestern Sacramento Basin. Potential reservoirs encountered in the borehole include Domengine, Mokelumne River (primary target), and Top Starkey formations. In anticipation of geophysical monitoring of possible CO2 injection into this particular borehole and of the long-term migration of the CO2, we conducted small-scale CO2 injection experiments on three core samples retrieved from the well (Mokelumne River sand A and B) and from a mine outcrop (Domengine sandstone). During the experiment, a jacketed core sample (diameter 1.5 inches, length 4.0-6.0 inches) saturated with brine- (1% NaCl aq.) was confined within a pressure vessel via compressed nitrogen to 3,500-4,000psi, and supercritical CO2 was injected into the core at 2,000-2,500psi and 45-60 degrees C. The CO2 pressure and temperature were adjusted so that the bulk elastic modulus of the CO2 was close to the expected in-situ modulus--which affects the seismic properties most--while keeping the confining stress within our experimental capabilities. After the CO2 broke through the core, fresh brine was re-injected to remove the CO2 by both displacement and dissolution. Throughout the experiment, seismic velocity and attenuation of the core sample were measured using the Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar method (Nakagawa, 2012, Rev. Sci. Instr.) at near 1 kHz (500Hz--1.5 kHz), and the CO2 distribution determined via x-ray CT imaging. In contrast to relatively isotropic Mokelumne sand A, Domengine sandstone and Mokelumne sand B cores exhibited CO2 distributions strongly controlled by the bedding planes. During the CO2 injection, P-wave velocity and attenuation of the layered samples changed irregularly, roughly corresponding to the sequential invasion of the compliant fluid in the sedimentary layers revealed by the CT images. The overall behavior the seismic waves and the final CO2 saturation of the cores, however, were similar for all three cores used in this experiment.

  3. URANIUM PROJECT WATER-SOLUBLE SUBSTANCES IN KVANEFJELD LUJAVRITE

    E-print Network

    a column, 2 m high and 0,63 m in diameter. The content was 1000 kg. The column was filled with water, which was circulated for some days until the density of the solution remained constant. After the extract was drained and the two first washings NaF amounted to 2,28% indicating a saturation under these circumstances. Sodium

  4. PILOT PLANT PROJECT FOR REMOVING ORGANIC SUBSTANCES FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research on the European practice of preozonation of water to modify naturally occurring organics, followed by bacteria activated carbon (BAC) adsorption to remove trihalomethane precursors. A 100-gal/min pilot plant was designed, constructed and operated to...

  5. Water. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Toulouse & Edgar Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toulouse, Dick; Edgar, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on water is designed for seventh-grade science classes. Included are 13 lessons. Each lesson usually includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed, notes to the teacher, procedure, and evaluation activities. In addition, there…

  6. Water. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, McGrath Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Jo Ellen

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on water is designed for primary grades. Included are ten lessons. Each lesson includes the concepts of the lesson, materials needed, time for the activity, procedure, evaluative activities, and follow-up activities. Included are…

  7. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    SciTech Connect

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  8. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.

    1986-07-01

    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  9. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had ... the flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not improved when treated with other medications, ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... adalimumab injection to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  12. Docetaxel Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Docetaxel injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain types of breast, lung, prostate, stomach, and head and neck cancers. Docetaxel injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Hydromorphone injection is used to relieve pain. Hydromorphone injection is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. It works by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond ...

  14. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Methotrexate injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat gestational trophoblastic tumors (a ... in bones) after surgery to remove the tumor. Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis ( ...

  15. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  16. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your treatment. These tests may include an electrocardiogram (ECG; test that records the electrical activity of the ... your doctor immediately. Mitoxantrone injection may harm the fetus. If you are using mitoxantrone injection to treat ...

  17. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  18. Investigation of parameter estimation and impact of injection rate on relative permeability measurements for supercritical CO2 and water by unsteady-state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2014-12-01

    CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) is a promising option for mitigating climate changes. To predict the behavior of injected CO2 in a deep reservoir, relative permeability of supercritical CO2 and water of the reservoir rock is one of the most fundamental and influential properties. For determining the relative permeability, we employed the unsteady state method, in which the relative permeability is determined based on history matching of transient monitoring data with a multi-phase flow model. The unsteady-state method is relatively simple and short, but obviously its accuracy strongly depends on the flow model assumed in the history matching. In this study, we conducted relative permeability measurements of supercritical CO2-water system for Berea sandstone with the unsteady-state method under a reservoir condition at a 1km depth (P= 9.5MPa, T = 44?C). Automatic history matching was performed with an inversion simulator iTOUGH2/ECO2N for multi-phase flow system of supercritical CO2, NaCl, and water. A sensitivity analysis of relative permeability parameters for CO2 and water was carried out to better understand the uniqueness and the uncertainty of the optimum solution estimated by the history matching. Among the parameters of the Corey-type curve employed in this study, while the end-point permeability could be optimized in a limited range, the other parameters were correlated and their combinations were not unique. However it was found that any combination of these parameters results in nearly identical shapes of the curve in the range of CO2 saturation in this study (0 to 60%). The optimally estimated curve from the unsteady-method was well comparable with those from the steady-state method acquired in the previous studies. Our experiment also focuses on the impact of injection rate on the estimates of relative permeability, as it is known that the injection rate could have a significant effect on fluid distribution such as viscous fingering with changes in the ratio of the viscous to the capillary forces (i.e., capillary number). It was found that the higher the injection rate, the more likely the increase of the relative permeability, suggesting that careful considerations should be given to the impact in injection rate on the estimates of relative permeability.

  19. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1, Version 6

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes the planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the Grand Junction US DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site (GRJ-01) in Grand Junction, Colorado, and at the Cheney Disposal Site (GRJ-03) near Grand Junction. The plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for the routine monitoring stations at the sites. Regulatory basis is in the US EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and EPA ground water quality standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). This plan summarizes results of past water sampling activities, details water sampling activities planned for the next 2 years, and projects sampling activities for the next 5 years.

  20. UPCD Tier 2 project work plan Project Number

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    Title Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project Title Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project Title Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project Title Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project Title Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project Title Caribbean Water Initiative (CARIWIN) Project

  1. Influence of the South–North Water Diversion Project and the mitigation projects on the water quality of Han River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. P. Zhu; H. P. Zhang; L. Chen; J. F. Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Situated in the central part of China, the Han River Basin is undergoing rapid social and economic development with some human interventions to be made soon which will profoundly influence the water environment of the basin. The integrated MIKE 11 model system comprising of a rainfall-runoff model (NAM), a non-point load evaluation model (LOAD), a hydrodynamic model (MIKE 11 HD)

  2. Modeling of carbon cycling and biogeochemical changes during injection and recovery of reclaimed water at Bolivar, South Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janek Greskowiak; Henning Prommer; Joanne Vanderzalm; Paul Pavelic; Peter Dillon

    2005-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge is an increasingly popular technique to secure and enhance water supplies. Among a range of recharging techniques, single-well aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is becoming a common option to either augment drinking water supplies or facilitate reuse of reclaimed water. For the present study a conceptual biogeochemical model for reclaimed water ASR was developed and incorporated into

  3. Giving an insulin injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin bottle label. Make sure it is the right insulin. Make ... in the syringe before injecting it. Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ...

  4. Overview of the Environmental and Water Resources Institute's "Guidelines For Integrated Water Resources Management" Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Sehlke

    2005-03-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management is a systematic approach to optimizing our understanding, control and management of water resources within a basin to meet multiple objectives. Recognition of the need for integrating water resources within basins is not unique to the Environmental and Water Resources Institute’s Integrated Water Resources Management Task Committee. Many individuals, governments and other organizations have attempted to develop holistic water resources management programs. In some cases, the results have been very effective and in other cases, valiant attempts have fallen far short of their initial goals. The intent of this Task Committee is to provide a set of guidelines that discusses the concepts, methods and tools necessary for integrating and optimizing the management of the physical resources and to optimize and integrate programs, organizations, infrastructure, and socioeconomic institutions into comprehensive water resources management programs.

  5. Microseismic Monitoring of CO2 Injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery Pilot Project, Canada: Implications for Detection of Wellbore Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bohnhoff, Marco; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Zambrano-Narváez, Gonzalo; Chalaturnyk, Rick

    2013-01-01

    A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection. PMID:24002229

  6. Microseismic monitoring of CO2 injection at the Penn West Enhanced Oil Recovery pilot project, Canada: implications for detection of wellbore leakage.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Bohnhoff, Marco; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Zambrano-Narváez, Gonzalo; Chalaturnyk, Rick

    2013-01-01

    A passive seismic monitoring campaign was carried out in the frame of a CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) pilot project in Alberta, Canada. Our analysis focuses on a two-week period during which prominent downhole pressure fluctuations in the reservoir were accompanied by a leakage of CO2 and CH4 along the monitoring well equipped with an array of short-period borehole geophones. We applied state of the art seismological processing schemes to the continuous seismic waveform recordings. During the analyzed time period we did not find evidence of induced micro-seismicity associated with CO2 injection. Instead, we identified signals related to the leakage of CO2 and CH4, in that seven out of the eight geophones show a clearly elevated noise level framing the onset time of leakage along the monitoring well. Our results confirm that micro-seismic monitoring of reservoir treatment can contribute towards improved reservoir monitoring and leakage detection. PMID:24002229

  7. A Stiff Injectable Biodegradable Elastomer

    E-print Network

    Mizrahi, Boaz

    Injectable materials often have shortcomings in mechanical and drug-eluting properties that are attributable to their high water contents. A water-free, liquid four-armed PEG modified with dopamine end groups is described ...

  8. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Riverton, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    Surface remediation was completed at the former uranium mill site in Riverton, Wyoming, in 1990. Residual radioactive materials (contaminated soil and debris) were removed and disposed of at Union Carbide Corporation`s (Umetco) nearby Gas Hills Title 2 facility. Ground water in the surficial and semiconfined aquifers (known collectively as the `uppermost aquifer`) below the former mill and tailings site has been contaminated. No contamination has been detected in the deeper, confined sandstone aquifer. The contaminant plume extends off site to the south and east. The plume is constrained by surface wetlands and small streams to the east and west of the site and by the Little Wind River to the south. Fifteen monitor wells installed in 1993 were sampled to better define the contaminant plume and to provide additional water quality data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples also were collected from domestic wells in response to a request by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in January 1994. No contamination attributable to the former uranium milling operations have ever been detected in any of the domestic wells used for potable supplies.

  9. A Multitracer Approach to Detecting Wastewater Plumes from Municipal Injection Wells in Nearshore Marine Waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D., Jr.; Rosa, Sarah N.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal wastewater plumes discharging from aquifer to ocean were detected by nearshore wading surveys at Kihei and Lahaina, on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Developed in cooperation with the Hawaii State Department of Health, the survey methodology included instrument trolling to detect submarine groundwater discharge, followed by analysis of water and macroalgae for a suite of chemical and isotopic constituents that constitute a 'multitracer' approach. Surveys were conducted May 6-28, 2008, during fair-weather conditions and included: (1) wading and kayak trolling with a multiparameter water-quality sonde, (2) marine water-column sampling, and (3) collection of benthic algae samples. Instrument trolling helped guide the water sampling strategy by providing dense, continuous transects of water properties on which groundwater discharge zones could be identified. Water and algae samples for costly chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses were last to be collected but were highly diagnostic of wastewater presence and nutrient origin because of low detection levels and confirmation across multiple tracers. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples at both locales and showed evidence of modifying processes such as denitrification and mixing of effluent with surrounding groundwater and seawater. Carbamazepine was the most diagnostic pharmaceutical, detected in several marine water-column samples and effluent at both Kihei and Lahaina. Heavy nitrogen-isotope compositions in water and algae were highly diagnostic of effluent, particularly where enriched to even heavier values than effluent source compositions by denitrification. Algae provided an added advantage of time-integrating their nitrogen source during growth. The measured Kihei plume coincided almost exactly with prior model predictions, but the Lahaina plume was detected well south of the expected direct path from injection wells to shore and may be guided by a buried valley fill from an ancestral course of Honokowai Stream. Nutrient concentrations in upland wells at Lahaina were comparable to concentrations in wastewater but originate instead from agricultural fertilizers. A key factor in detecting and mapping the wastewater plumes was sampling very close to shore (mostly within 20 m or so) and in very shallow water (mostly 0.5 to 2 m depth). Effluent probably discharges somewhat offshore as well, although prior attempts to detect an injected fluorescent tracer at Lahaina in the 1990s were inconclusive, having focused farther offshore in water mostly 10-30 m deep. Sampling of benthic porewater and algae would offer the best chances for further effluent detection and mapping offshore, and sampling of onland monitor wells could provide additional understanding of geochemical processes that take place in the effluent plumes and bring about some degree of natural attenuation of nutrients.

  10. Decommissioning a nuclear reactor. [Water Boiler Reactor Project

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The process of decommissioning a facility such as a nuclear reactor or reprocessing plant presents many waste management options and concerns. Waste minimization is a primary consideration, along with protecting a personnel and the environment. Waste management is complicated in that both radioactive and chemical hazardous wastes must be dealt with. This paper presents the general decommissioning approach of a recent project at Los Alamos. Included are the following technical objectives: site characterization work that provided a thorough physical, chemical, and radiological assessment of the contamination at the site; demonstration of the safe and cost-effective dismantlement of a highly contaminated and activated nuclear-fuelded reactor; and techniques used in minimizing radioactive and hazardous waste. 12 figs.

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities for calendar year 1995 to 1997 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Naturita, Colorado, are described in this water sampling and analysis plan. The following plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, sampling frequency, and specific rationale for each routine monitoring station at the site. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192. Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site.

  12. Water pollution risk simulation and prediction in the main canal of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Caihong; Yi, Yujun; Yang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Xi

    2014-11-01

    The middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MRP) will divert water to Beijing Tuancheng Lake from Taocha in the Danjiangkou reservoir located in the Hubei province of China. The MRP is composed of a long canal and complex hydraulic structures and will transfer water in open channel areas to provide drinking water for Beijing, Shijiazhuang and other cities under extremely strict water quality requirements. A large number of vehicular accidents, occurred on the many highway bridges across the main canal would cause significant water pollution in the main canal. To ensure that water quality is maintained during the diversion process, the effects of pollutants on water quality due to sudden pollution accidents were simulated and analyzed in this paper. The MIKE11 HD module was used to calculate the hydraulic characteristics of the 42-km Xishi-to-Beijuma River channel of the MRP. Six types of hydraulic structures, including inverted siphons, gates, highway bridges, culverts and tunnels, were included in this model. Based on the hydrodynamic model, the MIKE11 AD module, which is one-dimensional advection dispersion model, was built for TP, NH3-N, CODMn and F. The validated results showed that the computed values agreed well with the measured values. In accordance with transportation data across the Dianbei Highway Bridge, the effects of traffic accidents on the bridge on water quality were analyzed. Based on simulated scenarios with three discharge rates (ranged from 12 m3/s to 17 m3/s, 40 m3/s, and 60 m3/s) and three pollution loading concentration levels (5 t, 10 t and 20 t) when trucks spill their contents (i.e., phosphate fertilizer, cyanide, oil and chromium solution) into the channel, emergency measures were proposed. Reasonable solutions to ensure the water quality with regard to the various types of pollutants were proposed, including treating polluted water, maintaining materials, and personnel reserves.

  13. Pre-Test CFD for the Design and Execution of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Axdahl, Erik L.; Cabell, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing costs of physics experiments and simultaneous increase in availability and maturity of computational tools it is not surprising that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is playing an increasingly important role, not only in post-test investigations, but also in the early stages of experimental planning. This paper describes a CFD-based effort executed in close collaboration between computational fluid dynamicists and experimentalists to develop a virtual experiment during the early planning stages of the Enhanced Injection and Mixing project at NASA Langley Research Center. This projects aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics, improve the understanding of underlying physical processes, and develop enhancement strategies and functional relationships relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The purpose of the virtual experiment was to provide flow field data to aid in the design of the experimental apparatus and the in-stream rake probes, to verify the nonintrusive measurements based on NO-PLIF, and to perform pre-test analysis of quantities obtainable from the experiment and CFD. The approach also allowed for the joint team to develop common data processing and analysis tools, and to test research ideas. The virtual experiment consisted of a series of Reynolds-averaged simulations (RAS). These simulations included the facility nozzle, the experimental apparatus with a baseline strut injector, and the test cabin. Pure helium and helium-air mixtures were used to determine the efficacy of different inert gases to model hydrogen injection. The results of the simulations were analyzed by computing mixing efficiency, total pressure recovery, and stream thrust potential. As the experimental effort progresses, the simulation results will be compared with the experimental data to calibrate the modeling constants present in the CFD and validate simulation fidelity. CFD will also be used to investigate different injector concepts, improve understanding of the flow structure and flow physics, and develop functional relationships. Both RAS and large eddy simulations (LES) are planned for post-test analysis of the experimental data.

  14. Speciation and preconcentration of inorganic antimony in waters by Duolite GT-73 microcolumn and determination by segmented flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (SFI-HGAAS).

    PubMed

    Erdem, Asl?; Ero?lu, Ahmet E

    2005-11-15

    A selective matrix removal/separation/enrichment method, utilizing a microcolumn of a chelating resin with SH functional groups (Duolite GT-73), was proposed for the determination of Sb(III) in waters by segmented flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (SFI-HGAAS). The resin was selective to Sb(III) at almost all pH and acidity values employed, whereas Sb(V) was not retained at all and could be determined after a pre-reduction step with l-cysteine. Spike recoveries were tested at various concentration levels in different water types and were found to vary between 85 and 118%. Accuracy of the proposed methodology was checked by analyzing a standard reference material and a good correlation was found between the determined (13.3+/-1.1mugl(-1)) and the certified value (13.79+/-0.42mugl(-1)). The method was applied to several bottled drinking water samples for antimony determination with and without preconcentration and none of the samples were found to contain antimony above the permissible level (5mugl(-1)). The characteristic concentration (the concentration of the analyte corresponding to an absorbance of 0.0044) was 0.55mugl(-1) and the 3s limit of detection (LOD) based on five times preconcentration was 0.06mugl(-1). The applicability of the microcolumn separation/preconcentration/matrix removal method for flow injection systems was also demonstrated. PMID:18970289

  15. Determination of As, Sb, Bi and Hg in water samples by flow-injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an in-situ nebulizer/hydride generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Shyue; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen

    1996-12-01

    A simple and very inexpensive in-situ nebulizer/hydride generator was used with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the determination of As, Sb, Bi and Hg in water samples. The application of hydride generation ICP-MS alleviated the sensitivity problem of As, Sb, Bi and Hg determinations encountered when the conventional pneumatic nebulizer was used for sample introduction. The sample was introduced by flow injection to minimize the deposition of solids on the sampling orifice. The elements in the sample were reduced to the lower oxidation states with L-cysteine before being injected into the hydride generation system. This method has a detection limit of 0.003, 0.003, 0.017 and 0.17 ng ml -1 for As, Bi, Sb and Hg, respectively. This method was applied to determine As, Sb, Bi and Hg in a CASS-3 nearshore seawater reference sample, a SLRS-2 riverine water reference sample and a tap water collected from National Sun Yat-Sen University. The concentrations of the elements were determined by standard addition method. The precision was better than 20% for most of the determinations.

  16. Direct aqueous injection LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of water for 11 chloro- and thiomethyltriazines and metolachlor and its ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sung-Ben; Mayer, Thomas J; Yokley, Robert A

    2008-04-23

    A multianalyte method is reported for the determination of atrazine, simazine, propazine, and their respective dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites; ametryn and prometryn and their respective dealkylated thiomethyltriazine metabolites; and S-metolachlor and its ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates in deionized, ground, surface, and finished drinking water. Water samples are analyzed using direct aqueous injection (DAI) liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). No preanalysis sample manipulation is required other than transfer of a small portion of sample to an injection vial. The lower limit of the method validation is 0.050 microg/L (ppb) for all analytes except 2,4-diamino-6-chloro- s-triazine (didealkylatrazine, DDA, or G-28273). For this compound the LLMV is 0.50 microg/L (ppb). The overall mean procedural recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) for all water types for all analytes ranged from 95 to 101% (4.5-11%). The method validation was conducted under U.S. EPA FIFRA Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines 40 CFR 160. PMID:18373350

  17. Students as Water Monitoring Experts--New Forms of Environmental Learning in the 'Schools for a Living River Elbe' Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosler, Ulrich; Lehmann, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    Describes the cross-national educational network, Schools for a Living River Elbe. The project is thought to be the largest educational water-quality project in the world. The establishment of the project and the results of an initial survey show that the project is in a position to develop instructional and ecologically stimulating activities.…

  18. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    Yes. The Administration will review all projects proposed for funding under the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to determine whether the project is consistent with the policies and programs of the...

  19. Digital-model study of ground-water hydrology, Columbia Basin Irrigation Project Area, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, H.H.; Hansen, A.J., Jr.; Skrivan, J.A.

    1974-01-01

    Since 1952 water diverted from the Columbia River at Grand Coulee Dam has been used to irrigate parts of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project area in eastern Washington, and as a result ground-water levels generally have risen in the area. The rapid increases in ground-water inflow, outflow, and storage from irrigation have created a need for a better understanding of the ground-water system before and after the start of irrigation to establish guidelines necessary for management of the area's ground-water resource. Data and information from previous geologic and hydrologic studies were used as a basis for quantitative analyses of ground-water inflow and outflow by means of digital computer models representing three major areas--Quincy Basin, Pasco Basin, and Royal Slope.

  20. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation.

  1. Projected Economic Returns from Alternative Water Conservation Techniques -- Southern High Plains of Texas. (Abstract)

    E-print Network

    Young, Kenneth B.; Kuehler, Anthony

    1975-01-01

    9 THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION1 J. E. Miller, Director1 Texas A&M university/ BULLETIN College Station, Texas w B-1153 (Abstr.) June 1975 PROJECTED ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM ALTERNATIVE WATER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES- SOUTHERN HIGH... extensively. Declining groundwater supplies will cause irrigated crop production to decrease until it is replaced by dryland crop production. This changeover will affect area farmers and the regional economy. However, methods of water conservation...

  2. SOLERAS - Solar-Powered Water Desalination Project at Yanbu: Indirect freeze desalination system performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Zimmerman; N. Al-Abbadi

    1987-01-01

    The desalination subsystem of the solar-powered desalination pilot project located at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, was operated successfully for two years. Water production rates of 180 m³\\/day can be obtained for a period of 24 hours. In addition, once the proper procedures are followed, water production can continue for long periods of time at rates of 135 m³\\/day. Electrical energy costs

  3. Projected Economic Returns from Alternative Water Conservation Techniques -- Southern High Plains of Texas. (Abstract) 

    E-print Network

    Young, Kenneth B.; Kuehler, Anthony

    1975-01-01

    9 THE TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION1 J. E. Miller, Director1 Texas A&M university/ BULLETIN College Station, Texas w B-1153 (Abstr.) June 1975 PROJECTED ECONOMIC RETURNS FROM ALTERNATIVE WATER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES- SOUTHERN HIGH... PLAINS OF TEXAS Kenneth B. Young and Anthony Kuehler * ABSTRACT Amounts of water available from the Ogallala aquifer are being diminished since discharge flows exceed recharge flows in the High Plains of Texas where groundwaters have been developed...

  4. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  5. Contemporary Variability and Projected Changes in the North Eurasian Water Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, A. I.; Lammers, R. B.; Shiklomanov, I. A.; Proussevitch, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Water Systems Analysis Group at the University of New Hampshire, USA in close collaboration with international partners has recently developed a new regional monitoring and analysis system for northern Eurasia to facilitate integration between water related projects involved in North Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). The system, along with new data from the State Hydrological Institute, Russia, were used to analyze historical and contemporary changes in major water cycle components across northern Eurasia. Significant changes in various components of the hydrological regime were found over the last few decades in different regions. Specifically, the hydroclimatic conditions of the dry and warm summer of 2010 in European Russia were analyzed along with historical characteristics to demonstrate unique and anomalous nature of this summer. To evaluate potential future patterns of change in the northern Eurasian water cycle we used projections of climate change simulated by eight coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models. Future simulations of hydrological regime from the UNH Water Balance and Water Transport Models (WBM/WTM), incorporating irrigation and reservoir effects, were analyzed to assess potential effects of climate and water management on various hydrological characteristics. All data can be found at the Northern Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative Water Center website (http://NEESPI.sr.unh.edu).

  6. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  7. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-12-16

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  8. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  9. Water resources. Issues concerning expanded irrigation in the Columbia Basin project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation of the Department of the Interior in a 1984 report on the project estimated that this expansion could cost $1.9 billion and that the project's benefits outweighed its costs. We reviewed studies and reports on possible expansion of the project issued in 1984 and 1985 by the Bureau, faculty members of Washington State University and the University of Idaho, and a consulting firm for the Washington State Department of Ecology. We found that the Bureau's 1984 benefit/cost analysis did not conform to the Water Resources Council's Principles and Guidelines for preparing such analyses. As a result, the costs were understated and the benefits overstated.

  10. 43 CFR 404.54 - Who will hold title to a rural water project that is constructed following the completion of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Who will hold title to a rural water project that is constructed following...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.54 Who will hold title to a rural water project that is constructed...

  11. 43 CFR 404.54 - Who will hold title to a rural water project that is constructed following the completion of an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Who will hold title to a rural water project that is constructed following...THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.54 Who will hold title to a rural water project that is constructed...

  12. Determination of sulphate in water and biodiesel samples by a sequential injection analysis—Multivariate curve resolution method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa del Río; M. Soledad Larrechi; M. Pilar Callao

    2010-01-01

    A spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis (SIA-DAD) method linked to multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) has been developed for sulphate determination. This method involves the reaction, inside the tubes of the SIA system, of sulphate with barium-dimethylsulphonazo (III) complex, Ba-DMSA (III), displacing Ba2+ from the complex and forming DMSA (III). When the reaction products reach the detector a data matrix

  13. Give Water a Hand. Farm and Ranch Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation on a farm or ranch, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  14. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site in support of DOE`s environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE`s General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

  15. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    SciTech Connect

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives.

  16. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. Semiannual water sampling is scheduled for the spring and fall. Water quality sampling is conducted at the processing site (1) to ensure protection of human health and the environment, (2) for ground water compliance monitoring during remedial action construction, and (3) to define the extent of contamination. At the processing site, the frequency and duration of sampling will be dependent upon the nature and extent of residual contamination and the compliance strategy chosen. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation.

  17. Development of a sequential injection-square wave voltammetry method for determination of paraquat in water samples employing the hanging mercury drop electrode.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Luciana B O; Infante, Carlos M C; Masini, Jorge C

    2010-03-01

    This work describes the development and optimization of a sequential injection method to automate the determination of paraquat by square-wave voltammetry employing a hanging mercury drop electrode. Automation by sequential injection enhanced the sampling throughput, improving the sensitivity and precision of the measurements as a consequence of the highly reproducible and efficient conditions of mass transport of the analyte toward the electrode surface. For instance, 212 analyses can be made per hour if the sample/standard solution is prepared off-line and the sequential injection system is used just to inject the solution towards the flow cell. In-line sample conditioning reduces the sampling frequency to 44 h(-1). Experiments were performed in 0.10 M NaCl, which was the carrier solution, using a frequency of 200 Hz, a pulse height of 25 mV, a potential step of 2 mV, and a flow rate of 100?µL s(-1). For a concentration range between 0.010 and 0.25 mg L(-1), the current (i(p), µA) read at the potential corresponding to the peak maximum fitted the following linear equation with the paraquat concentration (mg L(-1)): i(p) = (-20.5?±?0.3)C (paraquat) - (0.02?±?0.03). The limits of detection and quantification were 2.0 and 7.0?µg L(-1), respectively. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by recovery studies using spiked water samples that were also analyzed by molecular absorption spectrophotometry after reduction of paraquat with sodium dithionite in an alkaline medium. No evidence of statistically significant differences between the two methods was observed at the 95% confidence level. PMID:20084371

  18. Comparisons of Simulated Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Projected Demands in 2046, Pueblo Reservoir, Southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.; Galloway, Joel M.; Miller, Lisa D.; Mau, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Pueblo Reservoir is one of southeastern Colorado's most valuable water resources. The reservoir provides irrigation, municipal, and industrial water to various entities throughout the region. The reservoir also provides flood control, recreational activities, sport fishing, and wildlife enhancement to the region. The Bureau of Reclamation is working to meet its goal to issue a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the Southern Delivery System project (SDS). SDS is a regional water-delivery project that has been proposed to provide a safe, reliable, and sustainable water supply through the foreseeable future (2046) for Colorado Springs, Fountain, Security, and Pueblo West. Discussions with the Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Geological Survey led to a cooperative agreement to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality of Pueblo Reservoir. This work has been completed and described in a previously published report, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2008-5056. Additionally, there was a need to make comparisons of simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands associated with the various EIS alternatives and plans by Pueblo West to discharge treated water into the reservoir. Plans by Pueblo West are fully independent of the SDS project. This report compares simulated hydrodynamics and water quality for projected demands in Pueblo Reservoir resulting from changes in inflow and water quality entering the reservoir, and from changes to withdrawals from the reservoir as projected for the year 2046. Four of the seven EIS alternatives were selected for scenario simulations. The four U.S. Geological Survey simulation scenarios were the No Action scenario (EIS Alternative 1), the Downstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 2), the Upstream Return-Flow scenario (EIS Alternative 4), and the Upstream Diversion scenario (EIS Alternative 7). Additionally, the results of an Existing Conditions scenario (water years 2000 through 2002) were compared to the No Action scenario (projected demands in 2046) to assess changes in water quality over time. All scenario modeling used an external nutrient-decay model to simulate degradation and assimilation of nutrients along the riverine reach upstream from Pueblo Reservoir. Reservoir modeling was conducted using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CE-QUAL-W2 two-dimensional water-quality model. Lake hydrodynamics, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, dissolved ammonia, dissolved nitrate, total phosphorus, algal biomass, and total iron were simulated. Two reservoir site locations were selected for comparison. Results of simulations at site 3B were characteristic of a riverine environment in the reservoir while results at site 7B (near the dam) were characteristic of the main body of the reservoir. Simulation results for the epilimnion and hypolimnion at these two sites also were evaluated and compared. The simulation results in the hypolimnion at site 7B were indicative of the water quality leaving the reservoir. Comparisons of the different scenario results were conducted to assess if substantial differences were observed between selected scenarios. Each of the scenarios was simulated for three contiguous years representing a wet, average, and dry annual hydrologic cycle (water years 2000 through 2002). Additionally, each selected simulation scenario was evaluated for differences in direct- and cumulative-effects on a particular scenario. Direct effects are intended to isolate the future effects of the scenarios. Cumulative effects are intended to evaluate the effects of the scenarios in conjunction with all reasonably foreseeable future activities in the study area. Comparisons between the direct- and cumulative-effects analyses indicated that there were not large differences in the results between most of the simulation scenarios and, as such, the focus of this report was on results for the direct-effects analysis. Addi

  19. ENVIR 202: EARTH, AIR, WATER PERSPECTIVES ON EXPERIMENTAL PROJECTS for Water (W)

    E-print Network

    with the basic questions from the first hand-out (25 Feb 2003..on the class web-page), please pose some of your-water' and `deep-water' waves. This shallow and deep is measured in comparison to the wavelength. The wavespeed that the fastest gravity waves in the deep ocean can move at (9.8 x 4000) or 200 m/sec (450 m.p.h.). When

  20. Great Lakes Beach Recreational Water-Quality Decisionmaking Nearshore Health and Watershed Protection Projects

    E-print Network

    Great Lakes Beach Recreational Water-Quality Decisionmaking Nearshore Health and Watershed Protection Projects for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Research by USGS scientists has been of the 500 beaches along 11,000 miles of coastline in the Great Lakes. As they broaden the understanding

  1. The effects of hydraulic projects and their management on water quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GRAS R; Electricité de France

    Various types of hydraulic project are reviewed in order to examine the extent to which altering flow characteristics or other associated quantitative factors can effect water quality and more generally aquatic life. Particular attention is paid to the canalization of streams or rivers and to the construction of dams for navigation or electricity generation; a section covers reservoirs and pump

  2. WATER EROSION PREDICTION PROJECT (WEPP) TECHNOLOGY FOR ASSESSMENT OF RUNOFF, SOIL LOSS AND SEDIMENT YIELD POTENTIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model is a process-based, distributed parameter, continuous simulation computer program for estimation of runoff, soil loss and sediment yield from fields and small watersheds. In addition to having large databases for application to a multitude of U.S. s...

  3. 75 FR 26709 - Clarke County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...County Water Supply Project, Clarke County, IA AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation...Walnut Street, Room 693, Des Moines, IA 50309-2180, telephone: 515-284- 4769...the Iowa NRCS Web site at http://www.ia.nrcs.usda.gov. A map of the...

  4. Ground-Water Sampling Guidelines for Superfund and RCRA Project Managers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas Yeskis; Bernard Zavala

    BACKGROUND The Ground Water, Federal Facilities and Engineering Forums were established by professionals from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the ten Regional Offices. The Forums are committed to the identification and resolution of scientific, technical, and engineering issues impacting the remediation of Superfund and RCRA sites. The Forums are supported by and advise OSWER's Technical Support Project,

  5. Ecoefficiency evaluation of the water conservancy and hydropower project based on emergy analysis theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenglong He; A. Emergy

    2011-01-01

    The positive and negative effects of the water conservancy and hydropower projects are analyzed based on the emergy analysis theory. The indexes content of emergy yield ratio (EYR) and environment load ratio (ELR) are redefined. In order to analyze the ecological effects quantitatively, hydraulic eco- efficiency index (HEI) is proposed to reflect its sustainable development performance. Case study shows that

  6. SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maximo Peviani; Julio Alterach; Andrea Danelli

    2010-01-01

    The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but

  7. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES, A GUIDE FOR 4-H CLUB LEADERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOSTER, ALBERT B.; FOX, ADRIAN C.

    THIS PUBLICATION WAS PREPARED BY THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE FOR USE WITH YOUTH GROUPS. VARIOUS ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP CONCEPTS ABOUT SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION. IN ORDER TO SIMPLIFY THE PROCESS OF DEMONSTRATING THESE ACTIVITIES, MANY OF THE CONCEPTS ARE PICTORIALLY ILLUSTRATED. THE ACTIVITIES…

  8. An archaeological survey of the Olney Water Line Project in Archer County, Texas

    E-print Network

    Moore, William

    2015-06-04

    An archaeological survey was conducted along a 17 mile proposed water line with a 20 foot right-of-way for the City of Olney, Texas. Fieldwork required four days and was conducted on June 16-17 and 23-24, 1992. This project was performed by Brazos...

  9. Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste Management Topic

    E-print Network

    Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste with the Symposium on the State of the Science: Animal Manure and Waste Management Attended by: M. Risse (UGA), T. Doug Hamilton agreed to organize the workshop on "Management of Lagoons and liquid waste storage

  10. Soil & Water Lab: Ecohydrology Group Projects 2013-2014+ September December March SeptemberJune

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    = paper = research task = grant writing Microbiology W = Web Tool P P = Done = Draft = conceptual stage WSMore Project Summary Pages, Papers Data Base, Upkeep Courses BEE 4730: Watershed Engr (Todd) BEE 4270: Water, Todd, Cathles) BEE 4740/6720 (Larry) Finish Undergrad. Document (Todd) Develop Undergraduate Curriculum

  11. Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning through an Environmental Water Quality Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorie Juhl; Kaye Yearsley; Andrew J. Silva

    1997-01-01

    An interdisciplinary environmental water quality study was designed and conducted to enhance training and employability of chemical and environmental technician students in associate degree programs. Four project objectives were identified as a means to enhance the educational experience and employability of our students: provide experience on analytical instrumentation for organic compounds (gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry, GC\\/MS), require interdisciplinary group interactions and

  12. Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A., Jr.; Meyer, Frederick W.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

  13. Pore-scale interfacial dynamics during gas-supersaturated water injection in porous media - on nucleation, growth and advection of disconnected fluid phases (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, D.; Ioannidis, M.

    2010-12-01

    Degassing and in situ development of a mobile gas bubbles occur when injecting supersaturated aqueous phase into water-saturated porous media. Supersaturated water injection (SWI) has potentially significant applications in remediation of soils contaminated by non-aqueous phase liquids and in enhanced oil recovery. Pore network simulations indicate the formation of a region near the injection boundary where gas phase nuclei are activated and grow by mass transfer from the flowing supersaturated aqueous phase. Ramified clusters of gas-filled pores develop which, owing to the low prevailing Bond number, grow laterally to a significant extent prior to the onset of mobilization, and are thus likely to coalesce. Gas cluster mobilization invariably results in fragmentation and stranding, such that a macroscopic region containing few tenuously connected large gas clusters is established. Beyond this region, gas phase nucleation and mass transfer from the aqueous phase are limited by diminishing supply of dissolved gas. New insights into SWI dynamics are obtained using rapid micro-visualization in transparent glass micromodels. Using high-speed imaging, we observe the nucleation, initial growth and subsequent fate (mobilization, fragmentation, collision, coalescence and stranding) of CO2 bubbles and clusters of gas-filled pores and analyze cluster population statistics. We find significant support for the development of invasion-percolation-like patterns, but also report on hitherto unaccounted for gas bubble behavior. Additionally, we report for the first time on the acoustic emission signature of SWI in porous media and relate it to the dynamics of bubble nucleation and growth. Finally, we identify the pore-scale mechanisms associated with the mobilization and subsequent recovery of a residual non-aqueous phase liquid due to gas bubble dynamics during SWI.

  14. Simultaneous enhancement of electron injection and air stability in N-type organic field-effect transistors by water-soluble polyfluorene interlayers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihong; Khim, Dongyoon; Kang, Rira; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kang, Minji; Noh, Yong-Young; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-06-11

    Here, we report the simultaneous attainment of efficient electron injection and enhanced stability under ambient conditions for top-gate/bottom-contact (TG/BC), n-type, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using water-soluble polyfluorene derivatives (WPFs). When inserting the WPF interlayers between a semiconductor and the BC Au electrodes, initially the ambipolar (6,6)-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) OFETs were fully converted to unipolar charge transport characteristics that were exclusively n-type with significantly increased electron mobilities as high as 0.12 cm(2)/(V s) and a decreased threshold voltage. These improvements were mostly attributed to the interfacial dipoles of WPF layers that aligned to form a favorable energy band structure for efficient electron injection and to effectively block counter charge carriers. These were confirmed when values for the reduced work function of metal electrodes with WPFs and their correlated contact resistance were measured via the ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and the transmission-line method, respectively. Moreover, the WPF interlayers played an important role in air stability of PCBM OFETs that exhibited higher and appreciably enhanced by increasing the ethylene-oxide side chain lengths of WPFs, which presumably was due to the water/oxygen/ion capturing effects in the hydrophilic interlayers. PMID:24840007

  15. Meeting the challenge of policy-relevant science: lessons from a water resource project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Berton L.

    1986-01-01

    Water resource scientists face complex tasks in evaluating aspects of water projects, but relatively few assessment procedures have been applied and accepted as standard applications. Decision-makers often rely on environmental assessments to evaluate the value and operation of projects. There is often confusion about scientists' role in policy decisions. The scientist can affect policy-making as an expert withess, an advocate or a surrogate. By understanding the policy process, scientists can make their work more “policy relevant.” Using the Terror Lake hydro project in Alaska as a guide, three lessons are discussed: (1) not all problems are able to be solved with technology; (2) policy-relevant technology is rarely imposed on a problem; and (3) the scientist need not just react to the policy process, but can have an impact on how that process unfolds.

  16. Quantifying Ground-Water Savings Achieved by Salt-Cedar Control Measures: A Demonstration Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. J.; Kluitenberg, G. J.; Whittemore, D. O.; Healey, J. M.; Zhan, X.

    2005-05-01

    Consumption of ground water by phreatophytes in riparian corridors is thought to be one factor responsible for stream-flow reductions in western Kansas and elsewhere. Extensive phreatophyte-control measures, primarily focusing on invasive species such as salt cedar and Russian olive, are being considered in response to concerns about the impact of phreatophytes on surface-and ground-water resources. At present, there is no generally accepted means of quantifying the ground-water savings that might be gained through these control measures. Micrometeorological methods are often not appropriate for this application because their fetch requirements are too large for narrow riparian corridors. Recently, an approach based on diurnal fluctuations in the water table has been shown to have potential for quantifying ground-water consumption by phreatophytes. A demonstration project is underway to examine the utility of this method for assessing ground-water savings achieved through phreatophyte-control measures. This project is being carried out at a research site in a region of salt-cedar infestation along the Cimarron River in southwestern Kansas. The site has been subdivided into four areas of approximately four hectares each in which different salt-cedar control measures will be applied. Control measures will not be used in one area so that data unaffected by those measures can be obtained throughout the project. Wells equipped with submersible pressure sensors have been installed to monitor water-table responses in the vicinity of the most common phreatophyte communities at the site. A neutron access tube has been emplaced adjacent to each well so that water content in the vadose zone can also be monitored. Changes in water-content profiles will be used to estimate specific yield, a critical parameter in the proposed methodology. A weather station has also been installed on site to monitor meteorological conditions and provide reference ET estimates. Water-level data collected prior to any control activities clearly indicate that the magnitude of the water-table fluctuations is highly dependent on the apparent vitality of the phreatophyte community in the vicinity of each well. After the control measures have been applied, water-level data from the treated areas will be compared to data from the untreated area. That comparison should enable quantification of reductions in ground-water consumption produced by those measures.

  17. FREEWAT: an HORIZON 2020 project to build open source tools for water management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Borsi, Iacopo; Foglia, Laura

    2015-04-01

    FREEWAT is an HORIZON 2020 project financed by the EU Commission under the call WATER INNOVATION: BOOSTING ITS VALUE FOR EUROPE. FREEWAT main result will be an open source and public domain GIS integrated modelling environment for the simulation of water quantity and quality in surface water and groundwater with an integrated water management and planning module. FREEWAT aims at promoting water resource management by simplifying the application of the Water Framework Directive and other EU water related Directives. Specific objectives of the FREEWAT project are: to coordinate previous EU and national funded research to integrate existing software modules for water management in a single environment into the GIS based FREEWAT and to support the FREEWAT application in an innovative participatory approach gathering technical staff and relevant stakeholders (in primis policy and decision makers) in designing scenarios for the proper application of water policies. The open source characteristics of the platform allow to consider this an initiative "ad includendum" (looking for inclusion of other entities), as further research institutions, private developers etc. may contribute to the platform development. The core of the FREEWAT platform will be the SID&GRID framework in its version ported to the QGIS desktop. SID&GRID (GIS integrated physically-based distributed numerical hydrological model based on a modified version of MODFLOW 2005; Rossetto et al. 2013) is an open source and public domain modelling platform firstly developed within the EU-POR FSE 2007-2013 Regione Toscana - Italy and then ported to the QGIS desktop through a dedicated fund by Regione Toscana. SID&GRID will be complemented by June 2015 with solute transport (also density dependent) capabilities in aquifers within the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII project. Activities will be mainly carried out on two branches: (i) integration of modules, so that the software will fit the end-users requirements, including tools for better producing feasibility and management plans; (ii) a set of activities devoted to fix bugs and to provide a well-integrated interface for the different tools implemented. Further capabilities to be integrated are: - a dedicated module for water management and planning that will help to manage and aggregate all the distributed data coming from the simulation scenarios; - a whole module for calibration, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis; - a module for solute transport in the unsaturated zone; - a module for crop growth and water requirements in agriculture; - tools for dealing with groundwater quality issues; - tools for the analysis, interpretation and visualization of hydrogeological data. Through creating a common environment among water research/professionals, policy makers and implementers, FREEWAT main impact will be on enhancing science- and participatory approach and evidence-based decision making in water resource management, hence producing relevant and appropriate outcomes for policy implementation. The Consortium is constituted by partners from various water sectors from 10 EU countries, plus Turkey and Ukraine. Synergies with the UNESCO HOPE initiative on free and open source software in water management greatly boost the value of the project. Large stakeholders involvement is thought to guarantee results dissemination and exploitation. Acknowledgements This paper is presented within the framework of the project FREEWAT, which has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under Grant Agreement n. 642224. References MARSOL (2014). Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought www.marsol.eu [accessed 4 January 2015] Rossetto, R., Borsi, I., Schifani, C., Bonari, E., Mogorovich P. & Primicerio M. (2013) - SID&GRID: integrating hydrological modeling in GIS environment hydroinformatics system for the management of the water resource. Rendiconti Online Societa Geologica Italiana Volume 24, 282-283

  18. Refining the Resolution of Future Energy-Water Projection through High Performance Computing (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, S.; Naz, B.; Ashfaq, M.; Mei, R.

    2013-12-01

    With the advance of high performance computing and more abundant historic observation, the resolution and accuracy of hydro-climate projection can now be efficiently improved. Based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections, a series of hydro-climatic models and datasets, including Regional Climate Models, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model, historic runoff-generation relationships and a national hydropower dataset, are jointly utilized to project the future hydropower production at various U.S. regions. To refine spatial resolution and reduce modeling uncertainty, particular efforts were focused on calibrating the VIC hydrologic model at 4-Km spatial resolution. Driven by 1980-2008 DAYMET meteorological observation (biased adjusted by PRISM dataset), the simulated VIC total runoff (baseflow + surface runoff) was calibrated to U.S. Geological Survey WaterWatch monthly runoff observation at 2107 hydrologic Subbasins (HUC8s) in the Conterminous U.S. Each HUC8 was subdivided into 16, 32, or 48 computation units for parallel computing. The simulation was conducted using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Titan supercomputer, a Cray XK7 system with 18,688 computational nodes, each equipped with four quad-core CPUs and two GPU cards. To date, ~2.5 million CPU-hours (i.e., the number of CPUs multiplied by the average hours used by each CPU) have been used to improve the modeling performance for most of the HUC8s. Using the calibrated model, hydro-climate projections will be produced for various dynamically-downscaled CMIP5 simulations, and will be utilized to project seasonal and monthly hydropower production for various U.S. regions. It is expected that with reduced modeling uncertainty, the regional water budget can be more accurately estimated and it will eventually lead to better simulation and allocation of limited water resources under climate, energy, and water nexus.

  19. A portable battery-powered flow injection monitor for the in situ analysis of nitrate in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, N. J.; Hopkins, A.; Worsfold, P. J.; Casey, H.

    1993-01-01

    The design and performance of a portable, automated flow injection (FI)-based photometric monitor are described. The system is controlled by an in-house microcomputer system that enables the monitor (including a solid state detector) to operate from a 12 V battery supply. The monitor uses the cadmium reduction/diazotization method to analyse for nitrate with a linear range of 0 to 12 mg l-1 and a limit of detection of 0.05 mg l-1 (NO3-N). The hardware and software design, monitor performance and results obtained during unattended operation are presented. PMID:18924971

  20. Performance of J33-A-27 Turbojet-Engine Compressor. III; Over-All Performance Characteristics of Modified Compressor with Water Injection at Design Equivalent Speed of 11,800 RPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withee, Joseph R., Jr.; Beede, William L.; Ginsburg, Ambrose

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of water injection on the over-all performance of a modified J33-A-27 turbojet-engine compressor at the design equivalent speed of 11,800 rpm. The water-air ratio by weight was 0.05. With water injection the peak pressure ratio increased 9.0 per- cent, the maximum efficiency decreased 15 percent (actual numerical difference 0.12), and. the maximum total weight flow increased 9.3 percent.

  1. Solid-phase extraction and field-amplified sample injection-capillary zone electrophoresis for the analysis of benzophenone UV filters in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Purrà, Miquel; Cinca, Roser; Legaz, Jessica; Núñez, Oscar

    2014-10-01

    A field-amplified sample injection-capillary zone electrophoresis (FASI-CZE) method for the analysis of benzophenone (BP) UV filters in environmental water samples was developed, allowing the separation of all compounds in less than 8 min. A 9- to 25-fold sensitivity enhancement was obtained with FASI-CZE, achieving limits of detection down to 21-59 ?g/L for most of the analyzed BPs, with acceptable run-to-run and day-to-day precisions (relative standard deviations lower than 17%). In order to remove water sample salinity and to enhance FASI sensitivity, an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using a Strata X polymeric reversed-phase sorbent was used and afforded recoveries up to 72-90% for most BPs. With the combination of off-line SPE and FASI-CZE, limits of detection in the range 0.06-0.6 ?g/L in a river water matrix, representing a 2,400- to 6,500-fold enhancement, were obtained. Method performance was evaluated by quantifying a blank river water sample spiked at 1 ?g/L. For a 95% confidence level, no statistical differences were observed between found concentrations and spiked concentrations (probability at the confidence level, p value, of 0.60), showing that the proposed off-line SPE-FASI-CZE method is suitable for the analysis of BP UV filters in environmental water samples at low microgram per liter levels. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of BPs in river water samples collected up- and downstream of industrialized and urban areas, and in some drinking water samples. PMID:25146354

  2. Appraisal of potential for injection-well recharge of the Hueco bolson with treated sewage effluent : preliminary study at the northeast El Paso area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio; Weeks, Edwin P.; White, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources, made a preliminary study of specific factors related to recharging the Hueco bolson in the northeast El Paso area with treated sewage effluent. The city is interested in the location and spacing of injection wells relative to (1) maintaining the injected effluent in the aquifer for a predetermined amount of time (residence time) before it is pumped out, (2) recovery by pumping of as much of the injected effluent as possible, and (3) the long-term effects of injection on water-level declines. A two-dimensional digital-computer model was developed to project short-term hydraulic gradients under various conditions of pumping and injections. A corresponding range of interstitial velocities (294-773 feet per year) was estimated by assuming idealized piston-type flow. These velocities may be used to plan the location and spacing of production and injection wells under assumed time factors related to the required residence time for the injected water. The injection sites were selected near a proposed sewage-treatment facility in an area that will allow flexibility in the locations of the production and injection wells. Maximum 20-year declines of about 35 feet were projected for areas several miles west and southwest of the facility under anticipated injection and pumping rates. The proposed injection water will require strict water-quality controls, which may involve chlorination and the removal of suspended solids. Mixing of the proposed injection water with the native groundwater probably will not clog the aquifer by mineral precipitation. The relatively large concentrations of sodium in the injection water may reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the clay layers in the aquifer, but the permeable sands should not be seriously affected. Plans for an artificial-recharge program need to include an experimental installation to evaluate the system under field conditions. (USGS)

  3. Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation potential in the presence of excess chlorine was measured. The role of mixing between injection water and ground water and the conservative or non-conservative behavior of trihalomethanes was studied by adding a conservative tracer, sulfur hexafluoride, to the injection water and monitoring its concentration in the extraction water. The potential for biodegradation of trihalomethanes by aquifer bacteria was assessed in laboratory experiments: Microcosms containing ground water or extraction water and sediment or concentrated bacteria were spiked with trihalomethanes, and the amount of trihalomethanes was monitored during an incubation period. The potential for sorption of trihalomethanes to aquifer sediments was assessed in laboratory experiments: Mixtures of sediment and water were spiked with trihalomethanes, and then the trihalomethane concentrations were measured after an equilibration period.

  4. Development of a Continental Scale Water Balance Model and its Application in Projecting Water Supply Stress in the Conterminous U.S. Under Future Climate Scenarios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Caldwell; G. Sun; S. McNulty; E. Cohen; J. Moore Meyers; A. Noormets; J. Domec

    2010-01-01

    Climate model projections indicate that there will be considerable variability in temperature and precipitation across both temporal and spatial domains in the next 100 years. These changes in climate will likely have a significant effect on anthropogenic water supply. It is critical that tools such as water balance models be developed to identify areas of potential future water stress so

  5. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-01-01

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice. PMID:21775962

  6. Phase I Water Rental Pilot Project : Snake River Resident Fish and Wildlife Resources and Management Recommendations.

    SciTech Connect

    Riggin, Stacey H.; Hansen, H. Jerome

    1992-10-01

    The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project was implemented as a part of the Non-Treaty Storage Fish and Wildlife Agreement (NTSA) between Bonneville Power Administration and the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority. The goal of the project is to improve juvenile and adult salmon and steelhead passage in the lower Snake River with the use of rented water for flow augmentation. The primary purpose of this project is to summarize existing resource information and provide recommendations to protect or enhance resident fish and wildlife resources in Idaho with actions achieving flow augmentation for anadromous fish. Potential impacts of an annual flow augmentation program on Idaho reservoirs and streams are modeled. Potential sources of water for flow augmentation and operational or institutional constraints to the use of that water are identified. This report does not advocate flow augmentation as the preferred long-term recovery action for salmon. The state of Idaho strongly believes that annual drawdown of the four lower Snake reservoirs is critical to the long-term enhancement and recovery of salmon (Andrus 1990). Existing water level management includes balancing the needs of hydropower production, irrigated agriculture, municipalities and industries with fish, wildlife and recreation. Reservoir minimum pool maintenance, water quality and instream flows are issues of public concern that will be directly affected by the timing and quantity of water rental releases for salmon flow augmentation, The potential of renting water from Idaho rental pools for salmon flow augmentation is complicated by institutional impediments, competition from other water users, and dry year shortages. Water rental will contribute to a reduction in carryover storage in a series of dry years when salmon flow augmentation is most critical. Such a reduction in carryover can have negative impacts on reservoir fisheries by eliminating shoreline spawning beds, reducing available fish habitat, and exacerbating adverse water quality conditions. A reduction in carry over can lead to seasonal reductions in instream flows, which may also negatively affect fish, wildlife, and recreation in Idaho. The Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project does provide opportunities to protect and enhance resident fish and wildlife habitat by improving water quality and instream flows. Control of point sources, such as sewage and industrial discharges, alone will not achieve water quality goals in Idaho reservoirs and streams. Slow, continuous releases of rented water can increase and stabilize instream flows, increase available fish and wildlife habitat, decrease fish displacement, and improve water quality. Island integrity, requisite for waterfowl protection from mainland predators, can be maintained with improved timing of water releases. Rebuilding Snake River salmon and steelhead runs requires a cooperative commitment and increased flexibility in system operations to increase flow velocities for fish passage and migration. Idaho's resident fish and wildlife resources require judicious management and a willingness by all parties to liberate water supplies equitably.

  7. Teaching Sustainable Water Resources and Low Impact Development: A Project Centered Course for First-Year Undergraduates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Cianfrani

    2009-01-01

    Teaching Sustainable Water Resources and Low Impact Development: A Project Centered Course for First-Year Undergraduates Christina M. Cianfrani Assistant Professor, School of Natural Science, Hampshire College, 893 West Avenue, Amherst, MA 01002 Sustainable water resources and low impact development principles are taught to first-year undergraduate students using an applied design project sited on campus. All students at Hampshire College are

  8. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunovi?, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  9. WATER INFILTRATION CONTROL TO ACHIEVE MINE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL: THE DENTS RUN WATERSHED DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of surface mined land reclamation measures in establishing surface water infiltratin control to prevent or reduce pollution from acid mine drainage. The Dents Run watershed, located in Monongalia County, West Virgin...

  10. Determination of cadmium, lead and copper in water samples by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry with preconcentration by flow-injection on-line sorbent extraction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z; Guo, T; Welz, B

    1991-06-01

    Cadmium, lead and copper were determined in synthetic sea-water, drinking water and the NBS 1643b Trace Elements in Water standard reference material at mug/l. levels by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry after on-line preconcentration by sorbent extraction with a flow-injection system. Bonded silica with octadecyl functional groups packed in a micro column of 100 mul capacity was used to collect diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate complexes of the heavy metals in the aqueous samples. The sample loading time was 20 sec at a flow-rate of 3.3 ml/min. Ethanol or methanol was used to elute the adsorbed analytes into the spectrometer. The sample loading rate, elution rate and pH were optimized. Enrichment factors of 19-25 for Cd, Pb and Cu were achieved at sampling frequencies of 120/hr with precisions of 1.4, 1.0 and 1.3% rsd (n = 11), respectively. The detection limits (3sigma) for Cd, Pb and Cu were 0.3, 3 and 0.2 mug/l., respectively. Determination of Cd, Pb and Cu in NBS SRM 1643b showed good agreement with the certified values. Recoveries of Cd and Pb added to sea-water were 95 and 102%, respectively. PMID:18965193

  11. Mapping cropland parameters - Results from the Central Asian Water (CAWa) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Christopher; Löw, Fabian; Unger-Shayesteh, Katy

    2014-05-01

    The CAWa (Central Asian Water) project aims at providing a sound scientific basis for trans-national water resources management in Central Asia (see www.cawa-project.net). The planned activities involve a network of scientific institutions all over Central Asia. They produce joint scientific results as well as pass down up-to-date scientific methods and approaches. The German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam (GFZ) has taken over the project coordination. The Department of Remote Sensing, Würzburg University, associated with the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) is one of the project partners. Its major research activities focus on analysing information on land use and agricultural production and their changes in space and time from remote sensing data, focusing on the irrigated land in Central Asia. Some of the research topics include cropland mapping (e.g. crop classification and creation of agricultural field cadastre), crop production monitoring (yield), drought monitoring, and mapping and monitoring of spatial cropland extent. Detection of marginal land or agricultural land abandonment, a widespread phenomenon in this region that has strong socio-economic and ecological consequences, is another research focus. The methods and results demonstrate the value of remote sensing technologies to supporting regional decision makers and planners for an improved and sustainable land and water resource management.

  12. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  13. Water quality management and sustainability: the experience of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project (LVEMP)??Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machiwa, Praxeda K.

    Human health and development are threatened in many parts of the world either from lack of water or poor water quality. Human development has partially contributed to water quality deterioration. In Tanzania, for instance, rapid population growth that caused expansion of agricultural activities, livestock keeping, deforestation, biomass burning and human settlement have exerted pressures within the Lake Victoria Basin. These developments have led to land degradation and increased levels of pollution mainly from non-point sources. The Governments of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda initiated the program of Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project, (LVEMP), in 1994 to rehabilitate the Lake Ecosystem through restoration and conservation of biodiversity in the lake as well as within the catchment. This paper presents the five years (1997-2002) experience of LVEMP in Tanzania on the issues of water quality; focusing on water pollution, water quality monitoring and LVEMP strategies to accomplish water quality management in the Lake Zone (Kagera, Mara and Mwanza regions). The findings show that non-point source pollution from agricultural practices; as well as unplanned urban settlements contribute more to siltation and eutrophication of the of Lake Victoria than that from point source pollution. Recommendations for water quality management and sustainability are presented.

  14. Water, water everywhere - and not a drop to spare. [HUD-sponsored conservation project at NBS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heyman

    1980-01-01

    Researchers at the National Bureau of Standards Center for Building Technology (NBC\\/CBT) are conducting a water-conservation research program under the sponsorship of the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). In the words of Dr. Lawrence Galowin, a senior mechanical engineer at NBS\\/CBT, the program aims to develop test data and provide engineering-design methods and laboratory-based evaluation criteria which can

  15. CONTINUOUS SUBSURFACE INJECTION OF LIQUID DAIRY MANURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research has involved the development and evaluation of an efficient, economical, continuous subsurface injection machine. The application site was instrumented so the quality of water percolating beneath the injection zone could be measured. Wells located around the sites we...

  16. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Kragas, T.

    1997-04-08

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class I Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The concept is being field tested in low pressure (350 to 800 pounds per square inch (psi)) reservoirs on the north flank of the field and high pressure reservoirs (2500 to 3300 psi) on the west flank of the field.

  17. Cluster analysis and quality assessment of logged water at an irrigation project, eastern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mahbub; Ahmed, Syed Munaf; Abderrahman, Walid

    2008-01-01

    A multivariate statistical technique, cluster analysis, was used to assess the logged surface water quality at an irrigation project at Al-Fadhley, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. The principal idea behind using the technique was to utilize all available hydrochemical variables in the quality assessment including trace elements and other ions which are not considered in conventional techniques for water quality assessments like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Furthermore, the area belongs to an irrigation project where water contamination associated with the use of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides is expected. This quality assessment study was carried out on a total of 34 surface/logged water samples. To gain a greater insight in terms of the seasonal variation of water quality, 17 samples were collected from both summer and winter seasons. The collected samples were analyzed for a total of 23 water quality parameters including pH, TDS, conductivity, alkalinity, sulfate, chloride, bicarbonate, nitrate, phosphate, bromide, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, arsenic, boron, copper, cobalt, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, mercury and zinc. Cluster analysis in both Q and R modes was used. Q-mode analysis resulted in three distinct water types for both the summer and winter seasons. Q-mode analysis also showed the spatial as well as temporal variation in water quality. R-mode cluster analysis led to the conclusion that there are two major sources of contamination for the surface/shallow groundwater in the area: fertilizers, micronutrients, pesticides, and insecticides used in agricultural activities, and non-point natural sources. PMID:17590259

  18. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  19. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  20. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  1. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  2. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  3. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  4. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  5. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injection is used to treat constipation caused by opioid (narcotic) pain medications in patients with advanced illnesses ... a class of medications called peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists. It works by protecting the bowel ...

  6. Butorphanol Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prevent pain and decrease awareness before or during surgery. Butorphanol is in a class of medications called ... butorphanol injection is used to relieve pain during surgery, it may be given 60 to 90 minutes ...

  7. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... skin, and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria. Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work against ...

  8. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  9. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  10. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  11. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin injection is also used to prevent or ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for ...

  12. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  13. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lining of the heart). The schedule for your treatment depends on your condition and on how you respond to thiotepa.When used for bladder cancer, thiotepa is infused (injected slowly) into your bladder ...

  14. Infliximab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for 2 hours afterward. A doctor or ... the following symptoms during or shortly after your infusion: hives; rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, ...

  15. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  16. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive tositumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  17. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become ...

  18. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the monthly injections are no longer needed.Your child's health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure ... length of treatment will be determined by your child's health care provider.

  19. Enfuvirtide Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a class of medications called HIV entry and fusion inhibitors. It works by decreasing the amount of ... mole, a burn site, or has had a reaction to a previous injection of enfuvirtide.Never reuse ...

  20. Injection System

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.E.

    1998-06-15

    Felton Medical identified a market need for a handheld portable single shot needleless injection system. This market need was being driven by a global need to eliminate the hazards of medical needle disposal by providing an alternative injection method. Felton Medical brought to this partnership individuals experienced in the research, development, design, assembly, marketing, and servicing of precision animal health medical devices. AlliedSignal provided manufacturing understanding and a facility proficient in product development for small precision mechanical parts and assemblies.